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Sample records for neurocognitive test scores

  1. Neurocognitive deficits or stress overload: Why do individuals with schizophrenia show poor performance in neurocognitive tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krkovic, Katarina; Moritz, Steffen; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-05-01

    Poor performance in neurocognitive tasks is consistently found across studies in all stages of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and is interpreted as an underlying, brain function-related, neurocognitive deficit. However, neurocognitive test performance in schizophrenia might be compromised by patients' increased stress level. We investigated group-differences in neurocognitive performance while accounting for psychophysiological (salivary cortisol, heart rate, skin conductance level) and self-reported stress. We included 35 patients with schizophrenia, 29 participants with attenuated psychotic symptoms, 26 first-degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia and 28 healthy controls. Participants completed a neurocognitive test battery that assessed processing speed, task switching, attention, working memory, verbal episodic memory, and verbal comprehension. Multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) were calculated to test for main effects of group on neurocognitive performance thereby not accounting versus accounting for confounding effects of stress. As expected, patients with schizophrenia scored lower than the other groups in all neurocognitive domains. Participants with attenuated psychotic symptoms, first-degree relatives and healthy individuals did not differ from each other in their performance. After accounting for heart rate and self-reported stress, the multivariate effect of group on neurocognition remained significant, but was rendered non-significant for specific domains - working memory capacity, episodic memory, and long-term memory. The findings imply that stress is relevant to neurocognitive performance and this should be taken into account when interpreting the origin of performance deficits in schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The causal relationships between neurocognition, social cognition and functional outcome over time in schizophrenia: a latent difference score approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoe, M; Nakagami, E; Green, M F; Brekke, J S

    2012-11-01

    Social cognition has been identified as a significant construct for schizophrenia research with relevance to diagnosis, assessment, treatment and functional outcome. However, social cognition has not been clearly understood in terms of its relationships with neurocognition and functional outcomes. The present study sought to examine the empirical independence of social cognition and neurocognition; to investigate the possible causal structure among social cognition, neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. The sample consists of 130 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. All participants were recruited as they were admitted to four community-based psychosocial rehabilitation programs. Social cognition, neurocognition and psychosocial functioning were measured at baseline and 12 months. The empirical independence of social cognition and neurocognition was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and the possible causal structure among social cognition, neurocognition and psychosocial functioning was investigated using latent difference score (LDS) analysis. A two-factor model of social cognition and neurocognition fit the data very well, indicating the empirical independence of social cognition, whereas the longitudinal CFA results show that the empirical independence of neurocognition and social cognition is maintained over time. The results of the LDS analysis support a causal model that indicates that neurocognition underlies and is causally primary to social cognition, and that neurocognition and social cognition are causally primary to functional outcome. Social cognition and neurocognition could have independent and distinct upward causal effects on functional outcome. It is also suggested that the approaches for remediation of neurocognition and social cognition might need to be distinct.

  3. Relationship between HIV stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score at a Kenyan sub-county hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael N. Kinuthia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is associated with cognitive impairment which affects psychomotor speed. Psychomotor slowing is a predictor of dementia and death in people living with HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between HIV disease stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score which will add to the body of knowledge required to manage patients with HIV and AIDS. Objective: To determine the relationship between psychomotor speed neurocognitive score and the HIV disease stage in adults at initiation of care. Setting: This study was conducted at Kangundo Sub-county hospital comprehensive care centre. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All HIV seropositive patients aged 18 to 50 years recently initiated into care were studied. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data. The World Health Organization (WHO stage was used during data collection to classify study participants into asymptomatic and symptomatic groups. The grooved pegboard test was used to obtain psychomotor speed neurocognitive scores. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise data. Mann–Whitney U test, Spearman’s rho and multiple linear regression were employed in the analysis; p-value of 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The WHO stage did not have a significant effect on the psychomotor speed neurocognitive score (p ≥ 0.05. The CD4 count had a significant effect on psychomotor speed neurocognitive score (p = 0.001. Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between CD4 counts and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score. Efforts should be made to ensure that the CD4 counts of people living with HIV and AIDS do not continue to fall after initiation into care in order to preserve psychomotor function.

  4. Do Neurocognitive SCAT3 Baseline Test Scores Differ Between Footballers (Soccer) Living With and Without Disability? A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Richard; van Mechelen, Willem; Fuller, Colin; Ahmed, Osman Hassan; Verhagen, Evert

    2018-01-01

    To determine if baseline Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, third Edition (SCAT3) scores differ between athletes with and without disability. Cross-sectional comparison of preseason baseline SCAT3 scores for a range of England international footballers. Team doctors and physiotherapists supporting England football teams recorded players' SCAT 3 baseline tests from August 1, 2013 to July 31, 2014. A convenience sample of 249 England footballers, of whom 185 were players without disability (male: 119; female: 66) and 64 were players with disability (male learning disability: 17; male cerebral palsy: 28; male blind: 10; female deaf: 9). Between-group comparisons of median SCAT3 total and section scores were made using nonparametric Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon ranked-sum test. All footballers with disability scored higher symptom severity scores compared with male players without disability. Male footballers with learning disability demonstrated no significant difference in the total number of symptoms, but recorded significantly lower scores on immediate memory and delayed recall compared with male players without disability. Male blind footballers' scored significantly higher for total concentration and delayed recall, and male footballers with cerebral palsy scored significantly higher on balance testing and immediate memory, when compared with male players without disability. Female footballers with deafness scored significantly higher for total concentration and balance testing than female footballers without disability. This study suggests that significant differences exist between SCAT3 baseline section scores for footballers with and without disability. Concussion consensus guidelines should recognize these differences and produce guidelines that are specific for the growing number of athletes living with disability.

  5. Intrinsic motivation, neurocognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia: testing mediator and moderator effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Eri; Xie, Bin; Hoe, Maanse; Brekke, John S

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the nature of the relationships among neurocognition, intrinsic motivation, and psychosocial functioning for persons with schizophrenia. Hypotheses concerning both mediator and moderator mechanisms were tested. 120 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were recruited as they entered outpatient psychosocial rehabilitation programs. Measures of psychosocial functioning and intrinsic motivation were administered at baseline. Measures of neurocognition were administered at baseline by testers blind to scores on other study variables. Data were analyzed using latent construct modeling to test for mediator and moderator effects. There were strong bivariate relationships between neurocognition, intrinsic motivation, and psychosocial functioning. The results demonstrated that intrinsic motivation strongly mediated the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. This mediation was evidenced by: (i) the direct path from neurocognition to functional outcome no longer being statistically significant after the introduction of motivation into the model, (ii) the statistical significance of the indirect path from neurocognition through motivation to functional outcome. There was no support for the two moderation hypotheses: the level of neurocognition did not influence the relationship between intrinsic motivation and psychosocial functioning, nor did the level of intrinsic motivation influence the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. Neurocognition influences psychosocial functioning through its relationship with intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is a critical mechanism for explaining the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. Implications for the theoretical understanding and psychosocial treatment of intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia are discussed.

  6. Debating the utility of computerised neurocognitive testing in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article was to contribute to an argument regarding the utility of computerised baseline and follow-up neurocognitive testing within the sports concussion arena. Heated debate around this issue via a number of contributions has appeared recently in the journal Current Sports Medicine Reports, with its use ...

  7. Baseline neurocognitive testing in sports-related concussions: the importance of a prior night's sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, D Jake; Zuckerman, Scott L; Kutscher, Scott J; Gregory, Andrew J; Solomon, Gary S

    2014-02-01

    The management of sports-related concussions (SRCs) utilizes serial neurocognitive assessments and self-reported symptom inventories to assess recovery and safety for return to play (RTP). Because postconcussive RTP goals include symptom resolution and a return to neurocognitive baseline levels, clinical decisions rest in part on understanding modifiers of this baseline. Several studies have reported age and sex to influence baseline neurocognitive performance, but few have assessed the potential effect of sleep. We chose to investigate the effect of reported sleep duration on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) performance and the number of patient-reported symptoms. We hypothesized that athletes receiving less sleep before baseline testing would perform worse on neurocognitive metrics and report more symptoms. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. We retrospectively reviewed 3686 nonconcussed athletes (2371 male, 1315 female; 3305 high school, 381 college) with baseline symptom and ImPACT neurocognitive scores. Patients were stratified into 3 groups based on self-reported sleep duration the night before testing: (1) short, MANCOVA) with an α level of .05 was used to assess the influence of sleep duration on baseline ImPACT performance. A univariate ANCOVA was performed to investigate the influence of sleep on total self-reported symptoms. When controlling for age and sex as covariates, the MANCOVA revealed significant group differences on ImPACT reaction time, verbal memory, and visual memory scores but not visual-motor (processing) speed scores. An ANCOVA also revealed significant group differences in total reported symptoms. For baseline symptoms and ImPACT scores, subsequent pairwise comparisons revealed these associations to be most significant when comparing the short and intermediate sleep groups. Our results indicate that athletes sleeping fewer than 7 hours before baseline testing perform worse on 3 of 4 Im

  8. Score test variable screening

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Sihai Dave; Li, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Variable screening has emerged as a crucial first step in the analysis of high-throughput data, but existing procedures can be computationally cumbersome, difficult to justify theoretically, or inapplicable to certain types of analyses. Motivated by a high-dimensional censored quantile regression problem in multiple myeloma genomics, this paper makes three contributions. First, we establish a score test-based screening framework, which is widely applicable, extremely computationally efficient...

  9. Score test variable screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sihai Dave; Li, Yi

    2014-12-01

    Variable screening has emerged as a crucial first step in the analysis of high-throughput data, but existing procedures can be computationally cumbersome, difficult to justify theoretically, or inapplicable to certain types of analyses. Motivated by a high-dimensional censored quantile regression problem in multiple myeloma genomics, this article makes three contributions. First, we establish a score test-based screening framework, which is widely applicable, extremely computationally efficient, and relatively simple to justify. Secondly, we propose a resampling-based procedure for selecting the number of variables to retain after screening according to the principle of reproducibility. Finally, we propose a new iterative score test screening method which is closely related to sparse regression. In simulations we apply our methods to four different regression models and show that they can outperform existing procedures. We also apply score test screening to an analysis of gene expression data from multiple myeloma patients using a censored quantile regression model to identify high-risk genes. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  10. Sensitivity and specificity of subacute computerized neurocognitive testing and symptom evaluation in predicting outcomes after sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Brian C; Collins, Michael W; Lovell, Mark R

    2011-06-01

    Concussions affect an estimated 136 000 high school athletes yearly. Computerized neurocognitive testing has been shown to be appropriately sensitive and specific in diagnosing concussions, but no studies have assessed its utility to predict length of recovery. Determining prognosis during subacute recovery after sports concussion will help clinicians more confidently address return-to-play and academic decisions. To quantify the prognostic ability of computerized neurocognitive testing in combination with symptoms during the subacute recovery phase from sports-related concussion. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. In sum, 108 male high school football athletes completed a computer-based neurocognitive test battery within 2.23 days of injury and were followed until returned to play as set by international guidelines. Athletes were grouped into protracted recovery (>14 days; n = 50) or short-recovery (≤14 days; n = 58). Separate discriminant function analyses were performed using total symptom score on Post-Concussion Symptom Scale, symptom clusters (migraine, cognitive, sleep, neuropsychiatric), and Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing neurocognitive scores (verbal memory, visual memory, reaction time, processing speed). Multiple discriminant function analyses revealed that the combination of 4 symptom clusters and 4 neurocognitive composite scores had the highest sensitivity (65.22%), specificity (80.36%), positive predictive value (73.17%), and negative predictive value (73.80%) in predicting protracted recovery. Discriminant function analyses of total symptoms on the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale alone had a sensitivity of 40.81%; specificity, 79.31%; positive predictive value, 62.50%; and negative predictive value, 61.33%. The 4 symptom clusters alone discriminant function analyses had a sensitivity of 46.94%; specificity, 77.20%; positive predictive value, 63.90%; and negative predictive value, 62.86%. Discriminant function

  11. Normative scores for a brief neuropsychological battery for the detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND among South Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to more accurately diagnose HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND in Africa. Rapid screening tests for HIV-associated dementia are of limited utility due to variable sensitivity and specificity. The use of selected neuropsychological tests is more appropriate, but norms for HIV seronegative people are not readily available for sub-Saharan African populations. We sought to derive normative scores for two commonly used neuropsychological tests that generate four test scores -- namely the Trail-Making Test (Parts A and B and the Digit Span Test [Forward (DSF and Backward (DSB]. To assess memory and recall, we used the memory item of the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS. Findings One hundred and ten HIV seronegative participants were assessed at McCord Hospital, Durban, South Africa between March 3rd and October 31st, 2008. We excluded people with major depressive disorder, substance use abuse and dependence and head injuries (with or without loss of consciousness. All the participants in this study were African and predominantly female with an average age of 28.5 years and 10 years of education. Age and gender influenced neuropsychological functioning, with older people performing worse. The effect of gender was not uniform across all the tests. Conclusion These two neuropsychological tests can be administered with the IHDS in busy antiretroviral clinics. Their performance can be measured against these norms to more accurately diagnose the spectrum and progression of HAND.

  12. Supervision and computerized neurocognitive baseline test performance in high school athletes: an initial investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Andrew Warren; Solomon, Gary S

    2014-01-01

    Computerized neuropsychological testing batteries have provided a time-efficient and cost-efficient way to assess and manage the neurocognitive aspects of patients with sport-related concussion. These tests are straightforward and mostly self-guided, reducing the degree of clinician involvement required by traditional clinical neuropsychological paper-and-pencil tests. To determine if self-reported supervision status affected computerized neurocognitive baseline test performance in high school athletes. Retrospective cohort study. Supervised testing took place in high school computer libraries or sports medicine clinics. Unsupervised testing took place at the participant's home or another location with computer access. From 2007 to 2012, high school athletes across middle Tennessee (n = 3771) completed computerized neurocognitive baseline testing (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing [ImPACT]). They reported taking the test either supervised by a sports medicine professional or unsupervised. These athletes (n = 2140) were subjected to inclusion and exclusion criteria and then matched based on age, sex, and number of prior concussions. We extracted demographic and performance-based data from each de-identified baseline testing record. Paired t tests were performed between the self-reported supervised and unsupervised groups, comparing the following ImPACT baseline composite scores: verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor (processing) speed, reaction time, impulse control, and total symptom score. For differences that reached P < .05, the Cohen d was calculated to measure the effect size. Lastly, a χ(2) analysis was conducted to compare the rate of invalid baseline testing between the groups. All statistical tests were performed at the 95% confidence interval level. Self-reported supervised athletes demonstrated better visual motor (processing) speed (P = .004; 95% confidence interval [0.28, 1.52]; d = 0.12) and faster reaction time (P

  13. Do Test Scores Buy Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Neal

    2017-01-01

    Since at least the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002, standardized test scores have served as the primary measures of public school effectiveness. Yet, such scores fail to measure the ultimate goal of education: maximizing happiness. This exploratory analysis assesses nation level associations between test scores and happiness, controlling…

  14. The "value added" of neurocognitive testing after sports-related concussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kampen, Derk A.; Lovell, Mark R.; Pardini, Jamie E.; Collins, Michael W.; Fu, Freddie H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Neurocognitive testing has been endorsed as a "cornerstone" of concussion management by recent Vienna and Prague meetings of the Concussion in Sport Group. Neurocognitive testing is important given the potential unreliability of athlete self-report after injury. Relying only on athletes'

  15. Reliability of a Computerized Neurocognitive Test in Baseline Concussion Testing of High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James; Duerson, Drew

    2015-07-01

    Baseline assessments using computerized neurocognitive tests are frequently used in the management of sport-related concussions. Such testing is often done on an annual basis in a community setting. Reliability is a fundamental test characteristic that should be established for such tests. Our study examined the test-retest reliability of a computerized neurocognitive test in high school athletes over 1 year. Repeated measures design. Two American high schools. High school athletes (N = 117) participating in American football or soccer during the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 academic years. All study participants completed 2 baseline computerized neurocognitive tests taken 1 year apart at their respective schools. The test measures performance on 4 cognitive tasks: identification speed (Attention), detection speed (Processing Speed), one card learning accuracy (Learning), and one back speed (Working Memory). Reliability was assessed by measuring the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the repeated measures of the 4 cognitive tasks. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated as a secondary outcome measure. The measure for identification speed performed best (ICC = 0.672; 95% confidence interval, 0.559-0.760) and the measure for one card learning accuracy performed worst (ICC = 0.401; 95% confidence interval, 0.237-0.542). All tests had marginal or low reliability. In a population of high school athletes, computerized neurocognitive testing performed in a community setting demonstrated low to marginal test-retest reliability on baseline assessments 1 year apart. Further investigation should focus on (1) improving the reliability of individual tasks tested, (2) controlling for external factors that might affect test performance, and (3) identifying the ideal time interval to repeat baseline testing in high school athletes. Computerized neurocognitive tests are used frequently in high school athletes, often within a model of baseline testing

  16. Predicting occupational personality test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A; Drakeley, R

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between students' actual test scores and their self-estimated scores on the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI; R. Hogan & J. Hogan, 1992), an omnibus personality questionnaire, was examined. Despite being given descriptive statistics and explanations of each of the dimensions measured, the students tended to overestimate their scores; yet all correlations between actual and estimated scores were positive and significant. Correlations between self-estimates and actual test scores were highest for sociability, ambition, and adjustment (r = .62 to r = .67). The results are discussed in terms of employers' use and abuse of personality assessment for job recruitment.

  17. Does True Neurocognitive Dysfunction Contribute to Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2nd Edition-Restructured Form Cognitive Validity Scale Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Phillip K; Schroeder, Ryan W; Heinrichs, Robin J; Baade, Lyle E

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated RBS and FBS-r to identify non-credible reporters of cognitive symptoms, but the extent that these scales might be influenced by true neurocognitive dysfunction has not been previously studied. The present study examined the relationship between these cognitive validity scales and neurocognitive performance across seven domains of cognitive functioning, both before and after controlling for PVT status in 120 individuals referred for neuropsychological evaluations. Variance in RBS, but not FBS-r, was significantly accounted for by neurocognitive test performance across most cognitive domains. After controlling for PVT status, however, relationships between neurocognitive test performance and validity scales were no longer significant for RBS, and remained non-significant for FBS-r. Additionally, PVT failure accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in both RBS and FBS-r. Results support both the convergent and discriminant validity of RBS and FBS-r. As neither scale was impacted by true neurocognitive dysfunction, these findings provide further support for the use of RBS and FBS-r in neuropsychological evaluations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Post-exertion neurocognitive test failure among student-athletes following concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Neal; Dinn, Wayne M; Collins, Michael W; Lovell, Mark R; Elbin, R J; Kontos, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine post-exertion (PE) neurocognitive performance among student-athletes following concussion who were asymptomatic and returned to baseline normal neurocognitive test levels at rest. This study examined the neurocognitive performance of a sub-set of student-athletes who 'failed' to perform at baseline levels of neurocognitive function, i.e. exhibited downward reliable change index (RCI) alterations following a moderate exertional protocol during recovery from concussion. A retrospective records review was carried out of Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) and neuropsychological consultation data among athletes with sports-related concussion from a network of 22 schools and one junior hockey programme. Fifty-four student-athletes met inclusion criteria and participated in the study. A total of 27.7% of concussed student-athletes who were symptom-free and returned to baseline on ImPACT at rest (i.e. no longer demonstrated performance deficits on neurocognitive tests) exhibited cognitive decline following moderate physical exertion. The PE cognitive changes were not simply general performance effects, but significant changes in memory ability in the presence of intact processing speed functions. The PE-Pass and PE-Fail groups did not, however, differ on post-concussive symptoms or concussion history. Clinicians' return-to-play evaluation protocols should include post-exertional computerized neurocognitive testing.

  19. Developing and scoring essay tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oermann, M

    1999-01-01

    The need to prepare nursing students for the licensing examination has resulted in a predominance of multiple-choice testing in nursing courses. But what about evaluating students' ability to present ideas in their own words and develop creative responses to questions posed by the teacher? Essay items provide an effective means of assessing higher levels of learning and ability to organize and present ideas in writing. The author describes how to develop essay items and score responses.

  20. Computerized neurocognitive testing in the management of sport-related concussion: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Jacob E; McCrea, Michael A; Cullum, C Munro

    2013-12-01

    Since the late nineties, computerized neurocognitive testing has become a central component of sport-related concussion (SRC) management at all levels of sport. In 2005, a review of the available evidence on the psychometric properties of four computerized neuropsychological test batteries concluded that the tests did not possess the necessary criteria to warrant clinical application. Since the publication of that review, several more computerized neurocognitive tests have entered the market place. The purpose of this review is to summarize the body of published studies on psychometric properties and clinical utility of computerized neurocognitive tests available for use in the assessment of SRC. A review of the literature from 2005 to 2013 was conducted to gather evidence of test-retest reliability and clinical validity of these instruments. Reviewed articles included both prospective and retrospective studies of primarily sport-based adult and pediatric samples. Summaries are provided regarding the available evidence of reliability and validity for the most commonly used computerized neurocognitive tests in sports settings.

  1. Factor structure of the neurocognitive tests: an application of the confirmative factor analysis in stabilized schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jihae; Kim, Ji-Hae; Hong, Kyung Sue; Kim, Nara; Nam, Hee Jung; Lee, Dongsoo; Yoon, Se Chang

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the factor structure of neurocognitive tests used on schizophrenia patients by using the confirmative factor analysis, and to assess the factor score differences of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Comprehensive neurocognitive tests were administered to stabilized schizophrenia patients (N=114) and healthy controls (N=120). In the results of factor analyses on patients, the multifactorial-6-factor model, which included the speed of processing, working memory, verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, attention/vigilance, and reasoning/problem solving as suggested by the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS), showed the better goodness of fit than any of the other models tested. And assessing the group differences of factor scores, we found the patients performed worse than the controls in all factors, but the result showed meaningful variations of impairments across the cognitive factors. Our study identifies the six major domains with multifactorial structure of cognitive abilities in schizophrenia patients and confirms the distinctive impairment patterns of each cognitive domain. These results may have utility in better understanding the pathology of schizophrenia as well as in genetic studies.

  2. The Influence of Education and Age on Neurocognitive Test Performance in Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DenBesten, Nicholas P.

    2009-01-01

    This research involves an examination of the relationship between education and age on a wide array of neuropsychological test measures among patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of education as an attenuating factor to neurocognitive decline in dementia. Although numerous…

  3. Neurocognitive performance and symptom profiles of Spanish-speaking Hispanic athletes on the ImPACT test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Summer; Schatz, Philip; Solomon, Gary; Ryan, Joseph J

    2014-03-01

    This study documented baseline neurocognitive performance of 23,815 athletes on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test. Specifically, 9,733 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the ImPACT test in English and 2,087 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the test in Spanish were compared with 11,955 English-speaking athletes who completed the test in English. Athletes were assigned to age groups (13-15, 16-18). Results revealed a significant effect of language group (p speaking athletes completing the test in Spanish scored more poorly than Spanish-speaking and English-speaking athletes completing the test in English, on all Composite scores and Total Symptom scores. Spanish-speaking athletes completing the test in English also performed more poorly than English-speaking athletes completing the test in English on three Composite scores. These differences in performance and reported symptoms highlight the need for caution in interpreting ImPACT test data for Hispanic Americans.

  4. [Dexmedetomidine for neurocognitive testing in awake craniotomy: case report.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marcelo Cursino Pinto Dos; Vinagre, Ronaldo Contreras Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Tumor resections in the speech areas of the brain are more safely done using cognitive tests to determine their exact location. Patients must be awake, comfortable, and cooperative for the precise identification of the areas to be preserved. The objective of this report is to present a surgical procedure done with the patient awake, without endotracheal intubation, using sevofluorane initially, followed by dexmedetomidine. This technique allowed the realization of motor and speech evaluation tests. Twenty-seven years old male patient, physical status ASA I, with a brain tumor. In the operating room, without pre-anesthetic medication, midazolam (1 mg) was administered, and general anesthesia was induced with propofol (80 mg). Maintenance was done with O2, N2O, and sevofluorane, with a mask, for catheterization of the right radial artery, introduction of a vesical catheter, and infiltration of the surgical site. This phase lasted around 20 minutes, and the infusion of dexmedetomidine was initiated in the last 10 minutes to maintain a level of sedation Ramsay score 2. Cortical mapping followed (75 minutes). Afterwards, tumor resection was done while the patient remained sedated with higher doses of dexmedetomidine. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters remained stable, and the procedure was performed without complications, lasting a total of five hours. After the surgical procedure the patient was transferred to the ICU. He did not develop any neurological changes, being discharged to a regular ward the following day. Awake craniotomy with the proper mapping of speech and motor cortical areas was successfully done with the continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine. Both the patient and the surgical team were pleased with the technique.

  5. Pathological gambling: an impulse control disorder? Measurement of impulsivity using neurocognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Shoenfeld, Netta; Rosenberg, Oded; Kertzman, Semion; Kotler, Moshe

    2010-04-01

    Pathological gambling is classified in the DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) and in the ICD-10 (International Classification of Disease) as an impulse control disorder. The association between impulsivity and pathological gambling remains a matter of debate: some researchers find high levels of impulsivity within pathological gamblers, others report no difference compared to controls, and yet others even suggest that it is lower. In this review we examine the relationship between pathological gambling and impulsivity assessed by various neurocognitive tests. These tests--the Stroop task, the Stop Signal Task, the Matching Familiar Figures Task, the Iowa Gambling Task, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Tower of London test, and the Continuous Performance Test--demonstrated less impulsivity in gambling behavior. The differences in performance between pathological gamblers and healthy controls on the neurocognitive tasks could be due to addictive behavior features rather than impulsive behavior.

  6. The Relationship between Tests of Neurocognition and Performance on a Laparoscopic Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Kuzbari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate if there is a relationship between the results of tests of neurocognition and performance on a laparoscopic surgery simulator. Methods and Materials. Twenty participants with no prior laparoscopic experience had baseline cognitive tests administered (Trail Making Test, Part A and B (TMT-A and TMT-B, Grooved Peg Board Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Symbol Digit Recall Test, and Stroop Interference Test, completed a demographic questionnaire, and then performed laparoscopy using a simulator. We correlated the results of cognitive tests with laparoscopic surgical performance. Results. One cognitive test sensitive to frontal lobe function, TMT-A, significantly correlated with laparoscopic surgical performance on the simulator (correlation coefficient of 0.534 with P<.05. However, the correlation between performance and other cognitive tests (TMT-B, Grooved Peg Board Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Symbol Digit Recall Test, and Stroop Interference Test was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Laparoscopic performance may be related to measures of frontal lobe function. Neurocognitive tests may predict motor skills abilities and performance on laparoscopic simulator.

  7. Mild test anxiety influences neurocognitive performance among African Americans and European Americans: Identifying interfering and facilitating sources

    OpenAIRE

    Thames, AD; Panos, SE; Arentoft, A; Byrd, DA; Hinkin, CH; Arbid, N

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 American Psychological Association. The current study examined ethnic/racial differences in test-related anxiety and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in a community sample of African American (n = 40) and European American (n = 36) adults. The authors hypothesized the following: (a) Test-anxiety related to negative performance evaluation would be associated with lower neurocognitive performance, whereas anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation would be associated with hig...

  8. What do educational test scores really measure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    measure of pure cognitive ability. We find that variables which are not closely associated with traditional notions of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture, attitudes......, and possible incentive problems make it more difficult to elicit true values of what the tests measure....

  9. Debating the utility of computerised neurocognitive testing in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including the state- ment that 'to advocate for the addition of baseline neuropsychological testing for athletes at this time is scientifically unfounded, financially irresponsible and should be roundly condemned for confusing and raising false expectations in the athletes that are subjected to it as well as adding additional ...

  10. Effects of Sleep Loss on Subjective Complaints and Objective Neurocognitive Performance as Measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Ryan P J; Khan, Hassen; Henry, Luke; Germain, Anne

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the effects of total and partial sleep deprivation on subjective symptoms and objective neurocognitive performance, as measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) in a sample of healthy adults. One-hundred and two, right-handed, healthy participants (between ages 18 and 30 years old) completed three consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory with concurrent continuous polysomnography monitoring. Night 1 served as a baseline night. Prior to Night 2, they were randomly assigned to one of three sleep conditions: undisrupted normal sleep (N = 34), sleep restriction (50% of habitual sleep, N = 37), or total sleep deprivation (N = 31). Participants slept undisturbed on Night 3. ImPACT was administered on three separate occasions. Sleep loss was associated with increased severity of subjectively reported affective, cognitive, physical, and sleep symptoms. Although objective neurocognitive task scores derived from the ImPACT battery did not corroborate subjective complaints, sleep loss was associated with significant differences on tasks of visual memory, reaction time, and visual motor speed over time. While self-report measures suggested marked impairments following sleep loss, deficits in neurocognitive performance were observed only on three domains measured with ImPACT. ImPACT may capture subtle changes in neurocognitive performance following sleep loss; however, independent and larger validation studies are needed to determine its sensitivity to acute sleep loss and recovery sleep. Neurocognitive screening batteries may be useful for detecting the effects of more severe or chronic sleep loss under high-stress conditions that mimic high-risk occupations.

  11. Neurocognitive performance profile postparathyroidectomy: a pilot study of computerized assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Caitlin F; Warrick, Mathew M; Gallagher, Kathleen C; Baregamian, Naira

    2017-11-10

    Neurocognitive symptoms attributable to primary hyperparathyroidism are important diagnostic criteria, yet the basic characterization and assessment of neurocognitive deficits in primary hyperparathyroidism are not defined fully. In this prospective pilot study, patients with unequivocal biochemical diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism were evaluated for neurocognitive performance preoperatively and postparathyroidectomy (2 weeks, 6 months) using a battery of computerized modular tests designed by LUMOSITY. The individual test scores and aggregate scores representing a subject's total neurocognitive performance profile were calculated. Statistical comparisons between groups were performed using univariate analysis and repeated measures of analysis of variance. In the study, 34 participants were assessed preoperatively; 18 completed all 3 assessments, 2 completed pretest and 6-month assessments, and 30 completed preoperative and 2-week postparathyroidectomy assessments. Primary hyperparathyroidism patients demonstrated significant deficits in memory, attention, mental flexibility, and speed of processing when compared with controls. Total neurocognitive performance profile score was significantly lower at the preoperative (P = .0001) and 2-week postparathyroidectomy (P = .0004) time points when compared with controls; this difference was bridged by 6 months postparathyroidectomy. Computerized neurocognitive performance profile assessment validated the neurocognitive benefits of parathyroidectomy. Additional study is needed to determine if this novel method provides long-term, objective, quantifiable, and accessible neurocognitive performance profile assessment in primary hyperparathyroidism patients and can serve as a valuable diagnostic and prognostic tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of Baseline Computerized Neurocognitive Testing Results among 5–11-Year-Old Male and Female Children Playing Sports in Recreational Leagues in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen D. Liller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data related to sports injuries, concussions, and computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT among very young athletes playing sports in recreational settings. The purpose of this study was to report baseline CNT results among male and female children, ages 5–11, playing sports in Hillsborough County, Florida using ImPACT Pediatric, which is specifically designed for this population. Data were collected from 2016 to 2017. The results show that 657 baseline tests were conducted and t-tests and linear regression were used to assess mean significant differences in composite scores with sex and age. Results showed that females scored better on visual memory and in general as age increased, baseline scores improved. The results can be used to build further studies on the use of CNT in recreational settings and their role in concussion treatment, management, and interventions.

  13. Aerobic Fitness and Neurocognitive Function Scores in Young Faroese Adults and Potential Modification by Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Debes, Frodi; Vestergaard, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to methylmercury was shown to decrease neural stem cell populations, whereas aerobic fitness has beneficial effects on the adult brain that relies on improved neurogenesis in the hippocampus. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between aerobic fitness and neurocognitive o...

  14. Factors associated with neurocognitive test performance at baseline: a substudy of the INSIGHT Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, E J; Grund, B; Cysique, L A; Robertson, K R; Brew, B J; Collins, G; Shlay, J C; Winston, A; Read, T R H; Price, R W

    2015-04-01

    We describe neuropsychological test performance (NP) in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve HIV-positive individuals with CD4 cell counts above 500 cells/μL. In a neurology substudy of the International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials (INSIGHT) Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study, eight neurocognitive tests were administered. The primary measure of NP was the quantitative NP z-score (QNPZ-8), the average of the z-scores for the eight tests. Associations of baseline factors with QNPZ-8 scores were assessed by multiple regression. Mild neurocognitive impairment (NCI) was defined as z-scores Argentina/Chile. This is the largest study of NP in ART-naïve HIV-positive adults with CD4 counts > 500 cells/μL. Demographic factors and diabetes were most strongly associated with NP. Unmeasured educational/sociocultural factors may explain geographical differences. Poorer NP was independently associated with longer time since HIV diagnosis, suggesting that untreated HIV infection might deleteriously affect NP, but the effect was small. © 2015 British HIV Association.

  15. Identification of an abbreviated test battery for detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment in an early-managed HIV-infected cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Moore

    Full Text Available HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND remain prevalent despite improved antiretroviral treatment (ART, and it is essential to have a sensitive and specific HAND screening tool.Participants were 200 HIV-infected US military beneficiaries, managed early in the course of HIV infection, had few comorbidities, and had open access to ART. Participants completed a comprehensive, seven-domain (16-test, neuropsychological battery (∼120 min; neurocognitive impairment (NCI was determined using a standardized score derived from demographically adjusted T-scores (global deficit score ≥0.5. Restricting the estimated administration time of the screening battery to < = 20 minutes, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of detecting NCI for all possible combinations of 2-, 3-, and 4- tests from the comprehensive battery.Participants were relatively healthy (median CD4 count: 546 cells/mm(3 with 64% receiving ART. Prevalence of NCI was low (19%. The best 2-test screener included the Stroop Color Test and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (11 min; sensitivity = 73%; specificity = 83%; the best 3-test screener included the above measures plus the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT; 16 min; sensitivity = 86%; specificity = 75%. The addition of Action Fluency to the above three tests improved specificity (18 min; sensitivity = 86%; specificity = 87%.Combinations of widely accepted neuropsychological tests with brief implementation time demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity compared to a time intensive neuropsychological test battery. Tests of verbal learning, attention/working memory, and processing speed are particularly useful in detecting NCI. Utilizing validated, easy to administer, traditional neuropsychological tests with established normative data may represent an excellent approach to screening for NCI in HIV.

  16. Is it time to rethink how neuropsychological tests are used to diagnose mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders? Impact of false-positive rates on prevalence and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ana-Claire L; Boscardin, W John; Kwasa, Judith K; Price, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Between 0 and 48% of normal HIV-uninfected individuals score below threshold neuropsychological test scores for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) or are false positives. There has been little effort to understand the effect of varied interpretations of research criteria for HAND on false-positive frequencies, prevalence and analytic estimates. The proportion of normal individuals scoring below Z score thresholds drawn from research criteria for HAND, or false-positive frequencies, was estimated in a normal Kenyan population and a simulated normal population using varied interpretations of research criteria for HAND. We calculated the impact of false-positive frequencies on prevalence estimates and statistical power. False-positive frequencies of 2-74% were observed for asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment/mild neurocognitive disorder and 0-8% for HIV-associated dementia. False-positive frequencies depended on the definition of an abnormal cognitive domain, Z score thresholds and neuropsychological battery size. Misclassification led to clinically important overestimation of prevalence and dramatic decreases in power. Minimizing false-positive frequencies is critical to decrease bias in prevalence estimates and minimize reductions in power in studies of association, particularly for mild forms of HAND. We recommend changing the Z score threshold to ≤-1.5 for mild impairment, limiting analysis to 3-5 cognitive domains and using the average Z score to define an abnormal domain. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Gender, Stereotype Threat and Mathematics Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Tsui; Xu, Xiao Y.; Edmond Venator

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Stereotype threat has repeatedly been shown to depress womens scores on difficult math tests. An attempt to replicate these findings in China found no support for the stereotype threat hypothesis. Our math test was characterized as being personally important for the student participants, an atypical condition in most stereotype threat laboratory research. Approach: To evaluate the effects of this personal demand, we conducted three experiments. Results: ...

  18. Normative adductor squeeze tests scores in rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Lisa; Hignett, Tom; Edwards, Kim

    2015-05-01

    Groin pain is a common problem. Adductor squeeze tests are used to diagnose, monitor and prophylactically determine the risk of developing groin pain. This study defines normative adductor squeeze scores in professional rugby that will facilitate strength monitoring during screening. Using a sphygnamometer, squeeze scores were collected, at one professional rugby club as part of the pre-season screening for two seasons. Scores were collected in four positions. For all positions mean strength and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Data were collected for 81 athletes. Mean strength for adduction at 60° was 220.1 (212.2-228.1); 0° 211.1 (201.7-220.5); 90°90° 198.8 (190.0-207.7); 90°90° supported 224.9 (214.9-234.9). Backs had lower squeeze scores than forwards for 0°, 90°:90° and 90°:90° supported (p > 0.05 for all four tests); older players had lower scores, as did shorter and lighter players (p > 0.05 except for height with test 60° p = 0.048 and test 90°:90° supported p = 0.035). This study establishes references ranges for adductor squeeze tests for normative pre-season data in non-injured rugby players. This information will enable evaluation and inform return to play judgements following adductor related injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Test–Retest Reliability of Computerized Neurocognitive Testing in Youth Ice Hockey Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, Melissa N.; Reynolds, Erin; Schatz, Philip; Shah, Kishan M.; Kontos, Anthony P.

    2016-01-01

    Computerized neurocognitive tests are frequently used to assess pediatric sport-related concussions; however, only 1 study has focused on the test–retest reliability of the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) in high school athletes and age influences have largely been ignored. Therefore, the purpose was to investigate the test–retest reliability of ImPACT and underlying age influences in a pediatric population. Two hundred (169 men and 31 women) youth ice hockey players completed ImPACT before/after a 6-month season. Reliability was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and regression-based methods (RBz). ICCs for the sample ranged from .48 to .75 (single)/.65 to .86 (average). In general, the older athletes (15–18: Single/Average ICCs = .35–.75/.52–.86) demonstrated greater reliability across composites than the younger athletes (11–14: Single/Average ICCs = .54–.63/.70–.77). Although there was variation in athletes' performance across two test administrations, RBz revealed that only a small percentage of athletes performed beyond 80%, 90%, and 95% confidence intervals. Statistical metrics demonstrated reliability coefficients for ImPACT composites in a pediatric sample similar to previous studies, and also revealed important age-related influences. PMID:27084734

  20. Baseline Neurocognitive Test Results In Non-concussed Athletes: Does Sleep Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, D. Jake; Scott L. Zuckerman; Kutscher, Scott J; Gregory, Andrew; Solomon, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: When managing sport-related concussions (SRC), sports medicine physicians utilize serial neurocognitive assessments and self-reported symptom inventories when evaluating athlete recovery and safety for returning to play (RTP). Since post-concussive RTP goals include symptom resolution and return to neurocognitive baseline, clinical decisions rest on an understanding of modifiers of baseline performance. Several studies have reported the influence of age, gender and sport on baseli...

  1. ITC Guidelines on Quality Control in Scoring, Test Analysis, and Reporting of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allalouf, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing…

  2. What Do Test Scores Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; McIntosh, James

    2014-01-01

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyze a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-55, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scor...

  3. Neurocognitive test profiles of extremely low birth weight five-year-old children differ according to neuromotor status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, Marit; Mikkola, Kaija; Ritari, Niina; Tommiska, Viena; Salokorpi, Teija; Haataja, Leena; Tammela, Outi; Pääkkönen, Leena; Olsén, Päivi; Fellman, Vineta

    2008-01-01

    The neurocognitive outcome of children born with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) is highly variable due to the complexity of morbidity. So far, no study has compared comprehensive neuropsychological test profiles in groups with different neuromotor status. In a national cohort of ELBW children neuropsychological test profiles were assessed in 4 groups defined according to a neurological examination at 5 years of age: normal neuromotor status (N = 56), motor coordination problems (N = 32), multiple subtle neuromotor signs including both motor coordination problems and deviant reflexes (N = 20), and spastic diplegia (N = 12). The neurocognitive assessment included a test of intelligence, the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) and 14 subtests of attention and executive functions, verbal functions, manual motor functions, visuoconstructional functions and verbal learning (NEPSY). The children with normal neuromotor status performed within the average range; children with motor coordination problems had widespread impairment; and children with spastic diplegia and children with multiple minor neuromotor signs had uneven test profiles with stronger verbal results but weaknesses in attention and executive functions, and in manual motor and visuoconstructional tasks. In conclusion, very preterm children with neuromotor signs, including motor coordination problems, are at risk for neurocognitive impairment, in spite of average intelligence. More impaired children have more irregular test profiles. Follow-up and neuropsychological assessment of very preterm children with minor neuromotor signs are therefore indicated.

  4. Integrated Test Scoring, Performance Rating and Assessment Records Keeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Gerald J.; And Others

    The Objective Test Scoring and Performance Rating (OTS-PR) system is a fully integrated set of 70 modular FORTRAN programs run on a VAX-8530 computer. Even with no knowledge of computers, the user can implement OTS-PR to score multiple-choice tests, include scores from external sources such as hand-scored essays or scores from nationally…

  5. The Relationship between Testing Condition and Student Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Ronald L.; Aagaard, Lola

    2004-01-01

    Active student engagement with course materials, such as note-taking and cooperative learning, is associated with greater performance. This study investigated the relationship between scores achieved by students in an undergraduate course and active engagement during testing, whether using a cheat sheet or engaging in a form of cooperative…

  6. Facilitating the Interpretation of English Language Proficiency Scores: Combining Scale Anchoring and Test Score Mapping Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald; Schedl, Mary; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, for the benefit of both test takers and test score users, enhanced "TOEFL ITP"® test score reports that go beyond the simple numerical scores that are currently reported. To do so, we applied traditional scale anchoring (proficiency scaling) to item difficulty data in order to develop performance…

  7. Testing Intelligently Includes Double-Checking Wechsler IQ Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuentzel, Jeffrey G.; Hetterscheidt, Lesley A.; Barnett, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The rigors of standardized testing make for numerous opportunities for examiner error, including simple computational mistakes in scoring. Although experts recommend that test scoring be double-checked, the extent to which independent double-checking would reduce scoring errors is not known. A double-checking procedure was established at a…

  8. A Comparison of Four Computerized Neurocognitive Assessment Tools to a Traditional Neuropsychological Test Battery in Service Members with and without Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Wesley R; Arrieux, Jacques P; Ivins, Brian J; Schwab, Karen A; Qashu, Felicia M

    2018-02-01

    Computerized neurocognitive assessment tools (NCATS) are often used as a screening tool to identify cognitive deficits after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, differing methodology across studies renders it difficult to identify a consensus regarding the validity of NCATs. Thus, studies where multiple NCATs are administered in the same sample using the same methodology are warranted. We investigated the validity of four NCATs: the ANAM4, CNS-VS, CogState, and ImPACT. Two NCATs were randomly assigned and a battery of traditional neuropsychological (NP) tests administered to healthy control active duty service members (n = 272) and to service members within 7 days of an mTBI (n = 231). Analyses included correlations between NCAT and the NP test scores to investigate convergent and discriminant validity, and regression analyses to identify the unique variance in NCAT and NP scores attributed to group status. Effect sizes (Cohen's f2) were calculated to guide interpretation of data. Only 37 (0.6%) of the 5,655 correlations calculated between NCATs and NP tests are large (i.e. r ≥ 0.50). The majority of correlations are small (i.e. 0.30 > r ≥ 0.10), with no clear patterns suggestive of convergent or discriminant validity between the NCATs and NP tests. Though there are statistically significant group differences across most NCAT and NP test scores, the unique variance accounted for by group status is minimal (i.e. semipartial R2 ≤ 0.033, 0.024, 0.062, and 0.011 for ANAM4, CNS-VS, CogState, and ImPACT, respectively), with effect sizes indicating small to no meaningful effect. Though the results are not overly promising for the validity of the four NCATs we investigated, traditional methods of investigating psychometric properties may not be appropriate for computerized tests. We offer several conceptual and methodological considerations for future studies regarding the validity of NCATs.

  9. Brain activation during neurocognitive testing using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in patients following concussion compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, A P; Huppert, T J; Beluk, N H; Elbin, R J; Henry, L C; French, J; Dakan, S M; Collins, M W

    2014-12-01

    There is no accepted clinical imaging modality for concussion, and current imaging modalities including fMRI, DTI, and PET are expensive and inaccessible to most clinics/patients. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive, portable, and low-cost imaging modality that can measure brain activity. The purpose of this study was to compare brain activity as measured by fNIRS in concussed and age-matched controls during the performance of cognitive tasks from a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Participants included nine currently symptomatic patients aged 18-45 years with a recent (15-45 days) sport-related concussion and five age-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a computerized neurocognitive test battery while wearing the fNIRS unit. Our results demonstrated reduced brain activation in the concussed subject group during word memory, (spatial) design memory, digit-symbol substitution (symbol match), and working memory (X's and O's) tasks. Behavioral performance (percent-correct and reaction time respectively) was lower for concussed participants on the word memory, design memory, and symbol match tasks than controls. The results of this preliminary study suggest that fNIRS could be a useful, portable assessment tool to assess reduced brain activation and augment current approaches to assessment and management of patients following concussion.

  10. Brain activation during neurocognitive testing using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in patients following concussion compared to healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, T. J.; Beluk, N. H.; Elbin, R. J.; Henry, L. C.; French, J.; Dakan, S. M.; Collins, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    There is no accepted clinical imaging modality for concussion, and current imaging modalities including fMRI, DTI, and PET are expensive and inaccessible to most clinics/ patients. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive, portable, and low-cost imaging modality that can measure brain activity. The purpose of this study was to compare brain activity as measured by fNIRS in concussed and age-matched controls during the performance of cognitive tasks from a computerized neurocognitive test battery. Participants included nine currently symptomatic patients aged 18–45 years with a recent (15–45 days) sport-related concussion and five age-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a computerized neurocognitive test battery while wearing the fNIRS unit. Our results demonstrated reduced brain activation in the concussed subject group during word memory, (spatial) design memory, digit-symbol substitution (symbol match), and working memory (X’s and O’s) tasks. Behavioral performance (percent-correct and reaction time respectively) was lower for concussed participants on the word memory, design memory, and symbol match tasks than controls. The results of this preliminary study suggest that fNIRS could be a useful, portable assessment tool to assess reduced brain activation and augment current approaches to assessment and management of patients following concussion. PMID:24477579

  11. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, 3rd, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    ...% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals...

  12. Comparison of Neurocognitive Testing and the Measurement of Marinobufagenin in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of concussed athletes, including testing to determine if and when they may return to play, has become an important task of athletic trainers and team physicians. Currently, concussion protocols are in place, which depend largely upon assessments based upon neurocognitive testing (NCT. The authors have evaluated the use of a biomarker of brain trauma, marinobufagenin (MBG, and compared its application in concussed athletes with the performance of NTC. We found a disparity between these two testing procedures. In this communication, the findings of these comparative data are presented. We noted that athletes whose NCT evaluations had returned to baseline and who were allowed to again participate in play then showed a recurrence of elevated urinary MBG excretion. These observations raise concern as to the processes currently in effect with regard to the decision as to returning athletes to the full activity. They suggest a need for further evaluation.

  13. Test anxiety and United States Medical Licensing Examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael; Angoff, Nancy; Encandela, John

    2016-04-01

    Many medical students experience test anxiety, which may impair their performance in examinations. We examined the relationship between test anxiety and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step-1 scores and determined the effect of a test-taking course on anxiety and USMLE scores. We randomly chose second-year students to take a test-taking strategies course (cases) from among volunteers. The remainder of the class served as controls. We measured test anxiety with the Westside Test Anxiety Scale (with possible scores of 1-5). The cases completed the Westside Test Anxiety scale at baseline, after completing the course (4 weeks) and again after taking the USLME step 1 (10 weeks). The controls completed the instrument at baseline and after taking the USMLE step 1 (10 weeks). Ninety-three of 101 (92%) students participated in the study. The baseline test anxiety score for all students was 2.48 (SD 0.63). Test anxiety was inversely correlated with USMLE step 1 (β = -0.24, p = 0.01), adjusting for Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores. The test anxiety score of the participants decreased from 2.79 to 2.61 after the course (p = 0.09), and decreased further to 2.53 after the USMLE (p = 0.02), whereas the scores of the controls increased. The mean USMLE step-1 score was 234 for the cases and 243 for the controls (p = 0.03). Many medical students experience test anxiety, which may impair their performance in examinations Test anxiety is modestly inversely correlated with USMLE step-1 scores. A test-taking strategy course modestly reduced anxiety, but did not improve USMLE scores. More robust interventions that achieve greater reductions in text anxiety may improve test scores. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. An Independent, Prospective, Head to Head Study of the Reliability and Validity of Neurocognitive Test Batteries for the Assessment of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    traumatic brain injury; concussion ; neurocognitive assessment 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...Sports Concussion Arm, preseason baseline testing was conducted prior to the fall and winter sports seasons for soccer (men/women), field hockey ... hockey , field hockey , rugby, wrestling), football will provide the large quantity of both baseline testing participants and concussed athletes. 6

  15. A Human Capital Model of Educational Test Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    measure of pure cognitive ability. We find that variables which are not closely associated with traditional notions of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture, attitudes......, and possible incentive problems make it more difficult to elicit true values of what the tests measure....

  16. Adaptive testing with equated number-correct scoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained CAT algorithm is presented that automatically equates the number-correct scores on adaptive tests. The algorithm can be used to equate number-correct scores across different administrations of the same adaptive test as well as to an external reference test. The constraints are derived

  17. The Trait Structure of Cloze Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.

    1982-01-01

    Presents study designed to examine trait structure of a cloze test using confirmatory factor analysis. Results suggest that a modified cloze passage, using rational deletions, is capable of measuring syntactic- and discourse-level relationships in a text, and this advantage may outweigh considerations of reduced redundancy which underlie random…

  18. Improving Scores on the IELTS Speaking Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issitt, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This article presents three strategies for teaching students who are taking the IELTS speaking test. The first strategy is aimed at improving confidence and uses a variety of self-help materials from the field of popular psychology. The second encourages students to think critically and invokes a range of academic perspectives. The third strategy…

  19. Accountability Is More than a Test Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, Stephan; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The number one quality business leaders look for in employees is creativity and yet the U.S. education system undermines the development of the higher-order skills that promote creativity by its dogged focus on multiple-choice tests. Stephan Turnipseed and Linda DarlingHammond discuss the kind of rich accountability system that will help students…

  20. Neurocognition as a predictor of outcome in schizophrenia in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Juola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to study neurocognitive performance as a predictor of outcomes in midlife schizophrenia. There is a lack of studies with unselected samples and a long follow-up. The study is based on the prospective, unselected population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. The study includes 43 individuals with schizophrenia and 73 controls, whose neurocognitive performance was assessed twice, at 34 and 43 years. At both time points we used identical neurocognitive tests to assess verbal and visual memory and executive functions. Our main aim was to analyse neurocognitive performance at 34 years as a predictor of clinical, vocational and global outcomes at 43 years. Additionally, the analysis addressed cross-sectional associations between cognitive performance and clinical, vocational and global measures at 43 years. The assessment of outcomes was performed in the schizophrenia group only. In the longitudinal analysis poorer visual memory predicted poorer vocational outcome and poorer long-term verbal memory predicted poorer global outcome. In the cross-sectional analysis poorer visual memory and lower composite score of neurocognition were associated with poorer global outcome. No individual neurocognitive test or the composite score of these predicted remission. These data indicate that neurocognition, especially memory function, is an important determinant of long-term functional outcome in midlife schizophrenia.

  1. Association between the MMPI-2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF) and malingered neurocognitive dysfunction among non-head injury disability claimants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Wygant, Dustin B; Gervais, Roger O; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the over-reporting Validity Scales of the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) in relation to the Slick, Sherman, and Iverson (1999) criteria for the diagnosis of Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction in a sample of 916 consecutive non-head injury disability claimants. The classification of Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction was based on scores from several cognitive symptom validity tests and response bias indicators built into traditional neuropsychological tests. Higher scores on MMPI-2-RF Validity Scales, particularly the Response Bias Scale (Gervais, Ben-Porath, Wygant, & Green, 2007), were associated with probable and definite Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction. The MMPI-2-RF's Validity Scales classification accuracy of Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction improved when multiple scales were interpreted. Additionally, higher scores on MMPI-2-RF substantive scales measuring distress, internalizing dysfunction, thought dysfunction, and social avoidance were associated with probable and definite Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction. Implications for clinical practice and future directions are noted.

  2. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Washington's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) decreased in grade 4 reading. In grade 4 math, the percentage scoring proficient on the state test decreased…

  3. Improving personality facet scores with multidimensional computer adaptive testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A W

    2013-01-01

    personality tests contain many highly correlated facets. This article investigates the possibility of increasing the precision of the NEO PI-R facet scores by scoring items with multidimensional item response theory and by efficiently administering and scoring items with multidimensional computer adaptive...... testing (MCAT). The increase in the precision of personality facet scores is obtained from exploiting the correlations between the facets. Results indicate that the NEO PI-R could be substantially shorter without attenuating precision when the MCAT methodology is used. Furthermore, the study shows...

  4. Scoring systems for the Clock Drawing Test: A historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Spenciere

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Clock Drawing Test (CDT is a simple neuropsychological screening instrument that is well accepted by patients and has solid psychometric properties. Several different CDT scoring methods have been developed, but no consensus has been reached regarding which scoring method is the most accurate. This article reviews the literature on these scoring systems and the changes they have undergone over the years. Historically, different types of scoring systems emerged. Initially, the focus was on screening for dementia, and the methods were both quantitative and semi-quantitative. Later, the need for an early diagnosis called for a scoring system that can detect subtle errors, especially those related to executive function. Therefore, qualitative analyses began to be used for both differential and early diagnoses of dementia. A widely used qualitative method was proposed by Rouleau et al. (1992. Tracing the historical path of these scoring methods is important for developing additional scoring systems and furthering dementia prevention research.

  5. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Talento-Miller, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    Admissions data and first-year grade point average (GPA) data from 11 graduate management schools were analyzed to evaluate the predictive validity of Graduate Management Admission Test[R] (GMAT[R]) scores and the extent to which predictive validity held across sex and race/ethnicity. The results indicated GMAT verbal and quantitative scores had…

  6. Testing the applicability of the SASS5 scoring procedure for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken between 29th January and 17th February 2004 to test the applicability of the South African Scoring System Version 5 (SASS5) scoring and calculation procedure in nutrient-enriched palustrine wetlands in the midlands of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Four reference wetlands and three dairy-effluent ...

  7. Machine-Scored Testing, Part II: Creativity and Item Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuba, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    Explains how multiple choice test items can be devised to measure higher-order learning, including engineering problem solving. Discusses the value and information provided in item analysis procedures with machine-scored tests. Suggests elements to consider in test design. (ML)

  8. Prediction of true test scores from observed item scores and ancillary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J; Yao, Lili; Sinharay, Sandip

    2015-05-01

    In many educational tests which involve constructed responses, a traditional test score is obtained by adding together item scores obtained through holistic scoring by trained human raters. For example, this practice was used until 2008 in the case of GRE(®) General Analytical Writing and until 2009 in the case of TOEFL(®) iBT Writing. With use of natural language processing, it is possible to obtain additional information concerning item responses from computer programs such as e-rater(®). In addition, available information relevant to examinee performance may include scores on related tests. We suggest application of standard results from classical test theory to the available data to obtain best linear predictors of true traditional test scores. In performing such analysis, we require estimation of variances and covariances of measurement errors, a task which can be quite difficult in the case of tests with limited numbers of items and with multiple measurements per item. As a consequence, a new estimation method is suggested based on samples of examinees who have taken an assessment more than once. Such samples are typically not random samples of the general population of examinees, so that we apply statistical adjustment methods to obtain the needed estimated variances and covariances of measurement errors. To examine practical implications of the suggested methods of analysis, applications are made to GRE General Analytical Writing and TOEFL iBT Writing. Results obtained indicate that substantial improvements are possible both in terms of reliability of scoring and in terms of assessment reliability. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  9. General score tests for regression models incorporating 'robust' variance estimates

    OpenAIRE

    David Clayton; Joanna Howson

    2002-01-01

    Stata incorporates commands for carrying out two of the three general approaches to asymptotic significance testing in regression models, namely likelihood ratio (lrtest) and Wald tests (testparms). However, the third approach, using "score" tests, has no such general implementation. This omission is particularly serious when dealing with "clustered" data using the Huber-White approach. Here the likelihood ratio test is lost, leaving only the Wald test. This has relatively poor asymptotic pro...

  10. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Koretz; Carol Yu; Preeya P. Mbekeani; Meredith Langi; Tasmin Dhaliwal; David Braslow

    2016-01-01

    The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA) from high school GPA an...

  11. Neurocognitive Function in Children with Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Marc B; Batisky, Donald L; Kupferman, Juan C; Samuels, Joshua; Hooper, Stephen R; Falkner, Bonita; Waldstein, Shari R; Szilagyi, Peter G; Wang, Hongyue; Staskiewicz, Jennifer; Adams, Heather R

    2017-01-01

    To compare neurocognitive test performance of children with primary hypertension with that of normotensive controls. Seventy-five children (10-18 years of age) with newly diagnosed, untreated hypertension and 75 frequency-matched normotensive controls had baseline neurocognitive testing as part of a prospective multicenter study of cognition in primary hypertension. Subjects completed tests of general intelligence, attention, memory, executive function, and processing speed. Parents completed rating scales of executive function and the Sleep-Related Breathing Disorder scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ-SRBD). Hypertension and control groups did not differ significantly in age, sex, maternal education, income, race, ethnicity, obesity, anxiety, depression, cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein. Subjects with hypertension had greater PSQ-SRBD scores (P = .04) and triglycerides (P = .037). Multivariate analyses showed that hypertension was independently associated with worse performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (List A Trial 1, P = .034; List A Total, P = .009; Short delay recall, P = .013), CogState Groton Maze Learning Test delayed recall (P = .002), Grooved Pegboard dominant hand (P = .045), and Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence Vocabulary (P = .016). Results indicated a significant interaction between disordered sleep (PSQ-SRBD score) and hypertension on ratings of executive function (P = .04), such that hypertension heightened the association between increased disordered sleep and worse executive function. Youth with primary hypertension demonstrated significantly lower performance on neurocognitive testing compared with normotensive controls, in particular, on measures of memory, attention, and executive functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    Arm exercise stress testing may be an equivalent or better predictor of mortality outcome than pharmacological stress imaging for the ≥50% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals. In this retrospective observational cohort study, arm exercise ECG stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans aged 64.1 (11.1) years. (mean (SD)) between 1997 and 2002. From multivariate Cox models, arm exercise scores were developed for prediction of 5-year and 12-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and 5-year cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction (MI). Arm exercise capacity in resting metabolic equivalents (METs), 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR) and ST segment depression ≥1 mm were the stress test variables independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by step-wise Cox analysis (all pArm exercise scores for the other outcome end points yielded C-statistic values of 0.77-0.79 before and 0.82-0.86 after adjustment for significant covariates versus 0.64-0.72 for best fit pharmacological myocardial perfusion imaging models in a cohort of 1730 veterans who were evaluated over the same time period. Arm exercise scores, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, have good power for prediction of mortality or MI in patients who cannot perform leg exercise.

  13. Motivating High School Students to Score Proficient on State Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah Lee

    2015-01-01

    The researcher interviewed two groups of eleventh grade students, in a rural Appalachian setting, who tended to score low on the state mandated high stakes/low stakes test to discover their efforts on the test, specifically in reading, and to obtain their opinions concerning the effects of a specific incentive or consequence. Before the eleventh…

  14. A Turner syndrome neurocognitive phenotype maps to Xp22.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Frederick F

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Turner syndrome (TS is associated with a neurocognitive phenotype that includes selective nonverbal deficits, e.g., impaired visual-spatial abilities. We previously reported evidence that this phenotype results from haploinsufficiency of one or more genes on distal Xp. This inference was based on genotype/phenotype comparisons of individual girls and women with partial Xp deletions, with the neurocognitive phenotype considered a dichotomous trait. We sought to confirm our findings in a large cohort (n = 47 of adult women with partial deletions of Xp or Xq, enriched for subjects with distal Xp deletions. Methods Subjects were recruited from North American genetics and endocrinology clinics. Phenotype assessment included measures of stature, ovarian function, and detailed neurocognitive testing. The neurocognitive phenotype was measured as a quantitative trait, the Turner Syndrome Cognitive Summary (TSCS score, derived from discriminant function analysis. Genetic analysis included karyotyping, X inactivation studies, fluorescent in situ hybridization, microsatellite marker genotyping, and array comparative genomic hybridization. Results We report statistical evidence that deletion of Xp22.3, an interval containing 31 annotated genes, is sufficient to cause the neurocognitive phenotype described by the TSCS score. Two other cardinal TS features, ovarian failure and short stature, as well as X chromosome inactivation pattern and subject's age, were unrelated to the TSCS score. Conclusion Detailed mapping suggests that haploinsufficiency of one or more genes in Xp22.3, the distal 8.3 megabases (Mb of the X chromosome, is responsible for a TS neurocognitive phenotype. This interval includes the 2.6 Mb Xp-Yp pseudoautosomal region (PAR1. Haploinsufficiency of the short stature gene SHOX in PAR1 probably does not cause this TS neurocognitive phenotype. Two genes proximal to PAR1 within the 8.3 Mb critical region, STS and NLGN4X, are

  15. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Koretz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA from high school GPA and both college admissions and high school tests in mathematics and English. In both systems, the choice of tests had only trivial effects on the aggregate prediction of FGPA. Adding either test to an equation that included the other had only trivial effects on prediction. Although the findings suggest that the choice of test might advantage or disadvantage different students, it had no substantial effect on the over- and underprediction of FGPA for students classified by race-ethnicity or poverty.

  16. Test-retest nasalance score variability in hypernasal speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Thomas; Lewis, Kerry E

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate test-retest nasalance score variability in subjects with hypernasal resonance. Two groups of subjects with hypernasal speech recited both the Turtle Passage and the Mouse Passage two times each. For one group, the Nasometer headgear was not changed between repetitions of each stimulus (NCHG; n = 17); and for the other group, the headgear was changed between repetitions (CHG; n = 18). Three subjects in the CHG group would not recite the Mouse Passage two times. The subjects were 35 patients with hypernasal speech followed by a cleft palate team. The outcome measures were the four nasalance scores obtained for each subject. There was no significant difference between first and second repetitions for either stimulus in either the NCHG group or in the CHG group. Cumulative frequency tables showed that for the Turtle Passage-NCHG condition, 15 of the 17 (88%) repeated nasalance scores were within 5 nasalance points of each other. For the CHG condition, however, only 9 of 18 (50%) repeated nasalance scores were within 5 points. For the Mouse Passage-NCHG condition, 15 of the 17 (88%) repeated nasalance scores were within 5 points. For the CHG condition, however, only 11 of 15 (73%) repeated scores were within 5 points. Test-retest variability was greater in a population of hypernasal patients than that reported in other studies for normal speakers, and headgear change increased test-retest variability.

  17. Which Test? Whose Scores? Comparing Standardized Critical Thinking Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, after describing one approach for teaching critical thinking (CT) that was in place at Baker University from 1990 to 2008, the author describes their experience assessing CT using three standardized exams and shows why the choice of a standardized CT test can be problematic and the results misleading. These results can be…

  18. What Can Go Wrong With the Score Test?

    OpenAIRE

    Verbeke, Geert; Molenberghs, Geert

    2007-01-01

    The score test presents a number of issues. There are four dimensions of concern: (1) Is the parameter space constrained? (2) Is observed information used, or some form of expected information? (3) Are size and power computed under the null hypothesis, a correctly specified alternative, or a misspecified alternative? (4) Are computations asymptotic or small sample? boundary condition; constrained parameter; expected information; likelihood ratio test; observed information; one-sided test; ...

  19. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Texas' test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in reading at grades 4 and 8 and in math at grade 8. In grade 4 math, however, the percentage scoring…

  20. America's Mediocre Test Scores: Education Crisis or Poverty Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Michael J.; Wright, Brandon L.

    2016-01-01

    At a time when the national conversation is focused on lagging upward mobility, it is no surprise that many educators point to poverty as the explanation for mediocre test scores among U.S. students compared to those of students in other countries. If American teachers in struggling U.S. schools taught in Finland, says Finnish educator Pasi…

  1. Source Country Differences in Test Score Gaps: Evidence from Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2010-01-01

    We combine data from three studies for Denmark in the PISA 2000 framework to investigate differences in the native-immigrant test score gap by country of origin. In addition to the controls available from PISA data sources, we use student-level data on home background and individual migration histories linked from administrative registers. We find…

  2. A Latent Class Approach to Estimating Test-Score Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ark, L. Andries; van der Palm, Daniel W.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a general framework for single-administration reliability methods, such as Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, and method MS. This general framework was used to derive a new approach to estimating test-score reliability by means of the unrestricted latent class model. This new approach is the latent class reliability…

  3. Student Laptop Use and Scores on Standardized Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kposowa, Augustine J.; Valdez, Amanda D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between ubiquitous laptop use and academic achievement. It was hypothesized that students with ubiquitous laptops would score on average higher on standardized tests than those without such computers. Methods: Data were obtained from two sources. First, demographic…

  4. Racial Differences in Mathematics Test Scores for Advanced Mathematics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Elizabeth Covay

    2016-01-01

    Research on achievement gaps has found that achievement gaps are larger for students who take advanced mathematics courses compared to students who do not. Focusing on the advanced mathematics student achievement gap, this study found that African American advanced mathematics students have significantly lower test scores and are less likely to be…

  5. Neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eVaskinn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data suggests that individuals with schizophrenia (SZ and superior intelligence can present without specific neurocognitive deficits. However, neurocognitive decrements, defined as worse cognition than expected, have been reported in practically all schizophrenia cases. This study investigated if neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ by comparing the neuropsychological profile of SZ cases with IQ-matched healthy controls (HC across intellectual level. Participants with SZ and HCs were stratified into three IQ-groups; intellectually low (IQ 80-95; SZ n = 65 & HC n = 13, intellectually normal (IQ = 100-115; SZ n = 111 & HC n = 115 and intellectually superior (IQ > 120; SZ n = 20 & HC n = 50. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of co-variance compared performance on eight selected neuropsychological tests across IQ-strata and diagnostic group. Differences in clinical characteristics and social functioning in SZ across IQ-strata were investigated with multivariate and univariate analyses of variance. Intellectually superior SZ participants scored within normal limits, but had neurocognitive decrements compared to superior HCs. Decrements were of the same magnitude as in the low and normal IQ-strata. Levels of functional impairments and clinical characteristics in participants with SZ did not differ significantly across IQ-strata. Results indicate that neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ to the same extent as in intellectually low and intellectually normal SZ, supporting the notion that SZ is a neurocognitive disorder. Similar levels of social functional deficits and clinical symptoms suggest similar disease processes in SZ across intellectual level.

  6. Relationships among obstructive sleep apnea, anthropometric measures, and neurocognitive functioning in adolescents with severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Tamara S; Rofey, Dana L; Ryan, Christopher M; Clapper, Denise A; Chakravorty, Sangeeta; Arslanian, Silva A

    2012-05-01

    To explore associations between measures of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and sleep quality, anthropometrics, and neurocognitive functioning in severely obese adolescents. This was a cross-sectional pilot study performed at an academic medical center in 37 severely obese (body mass index [BMI] >97th percentile) adolescents. Study evaluations included polysomnography, BMI, waist circumference, and standardized neurocognitive tests to assess memory, executive functioning, psychomotor efficiency, academic achievement, and an approximation of full-scale IQ. Outcome data were evaluated categorically, based on clinical criteria for the diagnosis of OSA, and continuously to quantify associations between sleep parameters, anthropometrics, and neurocognitive test results. Sleep fragmentation and poorer sleep quality were associated with reduced psychomotor efficiency, poorer memory recall, and lower scores on standardized academic tests. Having evidence of OSA was associated with lower math scores, but not with other neurocognitive measures. BMI and waist circumference were negatively associated with oxygen saturation. Our pilot study findings suggest that sleep fragmentation and poorer sleep quality have implications for neurocognitive functioning in obese adolescents. The epidemic of childhood obesity has dire implications, not only for increasing cardiometabolic pathology, but also for possibly promoting less readily apparent neurologic alterations associated with poor sleep quality. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurocognitive Function and Health-Related Quality of Life in Pediatric Korean Survivors of Medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hee Jung; Kim, Hyery; Park, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Dong Seok; Ra, Young Shin; Shin, Hee Young

    2016-11-01

    The neurocognitive function and quality of life of 58 Korean survivors of childhood medulloblastoma were assessed after surgery, cranial radiation and chemotherapy. All patients were evaluated with a battery of neurocognitive function tests and the Pediatric Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain Tumor Survivors, which consists of self-report questionnaires on quality of life. The mean full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), verbal IQ, and performance IQ scores were 90.2, 97.1, and 84.16, respectively. The mean memory quotient (MQ) score was 86.78, which was within 1 standard deviation of the average score of 100. Processing speed, attention, and executive function showed mild to moderate deficits. Intelligence, memory, executive function, visuospatial function, and simple motor function were significantly lower in the patients diagnosed before 8 years of age compared with those diagnosed after 8. The cognitive deficits in the patients diagnosed at younger ages might be related to earlier exposure to craniospinal irradiation and chemotherapy. The patient and parent proxy evaluations of attention, fine motor function, and quality of life did not differ. We found significant neurocognitive changes in a wide range of neurocognitive functional domains in Korean survivors of childhood medulloblastoma. Long-term follow-up studies of survivors of childhood medulloblastoma beginning at the time of their first diagnosis are required to better understand the deficits exhibited by survivors of childhood medulloblastoma, so that intervention strategies and treatment refinements that reduce the long-term neurocognitive decline can be developed.

  8. Sleep Duration and Neurocognitive Function in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alberto R; Tarraf, Wassim; Daviglus, Martha; Davis, Sonia; Gallo, Linda C; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Penedo, Frank J; Redline, Susan; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Wright, Clinton B; Zee, Phyllis C; González, Hector M

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the association between sleep duration and neurocognitive function in a representative sample of middle-aged to older Hispanic/Latino adults in the US. We tested the hypothesis that sleep duration has a nonlinear, inverted U-shaped association with neurocognitive function. We performed a cross-sectional analysis from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) participants ages 45-74 years (n = 8,676). HCHS/SOL is a community-based cohort from four US urban areas sampled using a probability design from 2008-2011. Self-reported sleep duration was calculated as a weighted average of the difference between habitual wake and bedtimes assessed by separate questions for weekdays and weekends. Neurocognitive function was measured with standardized scores for Word (Phonemic) Fluency (WF), Brief-Spanish English Verbal learning test (B-SEVLT), and Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) tests. The mean age was 56.5 years; 55% were women; and 40.4% had less than high school education. Average sleep duration was 7.8 ± 1.7 hours. There was an inverted U-shaped association with sleep duration and WF, B-SEVLT sum, and the DSS, with no association with B-SEVLT delayed-recall. Participants with intermediate sleep duration had the best neurocognitive function, while long sleepers had worse neurocognitive function adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and medical factors, daytime sleepiness, and use of sleep medications. Sleep duration had curvilinear inverted U-shaped associations with neurocognitive function, with worse scores among participants with longer sleep duration. These findings may provide a framework to further examine sleep duration in the prevention and treatment of neurocognitive disorders.

  9. The validity of self-reported physical fitness test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah B; Knapik, Joseph J; Sharp, Marilyn A; Darakjy, Salima; Jones, Bruce H

    2007-02-01

    Epidemiological studies often have to rely on a participant's self-reporting of information. The validity of the self-report instrument is an important consideration in any study. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the validity of self-reported Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores. The APFT is administered to all soldiers in the U.S. Army twice a year and consists of the maximum number of push-ups completed in 2 minutes, the maximum number of sit-ups completed in 2 minutes, and a 2-mile run for time. Army mechanics responded to a questionnaire in March and June 2004 asking them to report the exact scores of each event on their most recent APFT. Actual APFT scores were obtained from the soldier's military unit. The mean +/- standard deviation (SD) of actual and self-reported numbers of push-ups was 61 +/- 14 and 65 +/- 13, respectively. The mean +/- SD of actual and self-reported numbers of sit-ups were 66 +/- 10 and 68 +/- 10, respectively. The mean +/- SD of actual and self-reported run times (minutes) were 14.8 +/- 1.4 and 14.6 +/- 1.4, respectively. Correlations between actual and self-reported push-ups, sit-ups, and run were 0.83, 0.71, and 0.85, respectively. On average, soldiers tended to slightly over-report performance on all APFT events and individual self-reported scores could vary widely from actual scores based on Bland-Altman plots. Despite this, the close correlations between the actual and self-reported scores suggest that self-reported values are adequate for most epidemiological military studies involving larger sample sizes.

  10. Champion lineman scores unprecedented 100 on written test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-01-15

    The 27th annual international lineman's rodeo saw a lineman from Duke Energy Distribution named World Champion Apprentice. He was also the first competitor to score 100 % in the written test and finished first in the apprentice category in the investor owned utility (IOU) division. The apprentice division is made up of linemen within their first four years of trade. Events include a hurt man rescue, pole climb, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), mystery event and a written test. The rodeo began in 1984, and this year more than 650 men competed.

  11. Score-based tests of measurement invariance: Use in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting eWang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a family of recently-proposed measurement invariance tests that are based on the scores of a fitted model. This family can be used to test for measurement invariance w.r.t. a continuous auxiliary variable, without pre-specification of subgroups. Moreover, the family can be used when one wishes to test for measurement invariance w.r.t. an ordinal auxiliary variable, yielding test statistics that are sensitive to violations that are monotonically related to the ordinal variable (and less sensitive to non-monotonic violations. The paper is specifically aimed at potential users of the tests who may wish to know (i how the tests can be employed for their data, and (ii whether the tests can accurately identify specific models parameters that violate measurement invariance (possibly in the presence of model misspecification. After providing an overview of the tests, we illustrate their general use via the R packages lavaan and strucchange. We then describe two novel simulations that provide evidence of the tests' practical abilities. As a whole, the paper provides researchers with the tools and knowledge needed to apply these tests to general measurement invariance scenarios.

  12. Biering-Sorensen test scores in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Y.; Ortancil, O.; Ankarali, H.; Basaran, A.; Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    Biering-Sorensen test is an isometric back endurance test. Biering-Sorensen test scores have varied in different cultural and occupational groups. The aims of this study were to collect normative data on Biering-Sorensen holding times, to determine the discriminative ability of the Biering-Sorensen test in Turkish coal miners, and to examine the association between Biering-Sorensen test result and functional disability. One hundred and fifty male coal miners participated in this study. Trunk extensor muscle strength was measured using the Biering-Sorensen test. Oswestry disability index was used to measure the functional disability level of low back pain. The mean Biering-Sorensen holding time for the total subject group was 107.3 {+-} 22.5 s. The mean time of Biering-Sorensen test of the subjects with and without low back pain were 99.9 {+-} 19.8 and 128.6 {+-} 15.2 s, respectively. The difference between the subjects with and without low back pain was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between Oswestry functional disability score and Biering-Sorensen holding time (R = -0.824, p < 0.001). Turkish coal miners have low mean back extensor endurance holding times. Biering-Sorensen test had a good discriminative ability in our study group. Trunk muscle strength has a significant effect on the disability level of low back pain. Thus trunk muscle endurance training exercise therapy may be effective for the reduction of disability in patients with low back pain.

  13. Developing a nanoparticle test for prostate cancer scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huo Qun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over-diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer has been a major problem in prostate cancer care and management. Currently the most relevant prognostic factor to predict a patient's risk of death due to prostate cancer is the Gleason score of the biopsied tissue samples. However, pathological analysis is subjective, and the Gleason score is only a qualitative estimate of the cancer malignancy. Molecular biomarkers and diagnostic tests that can accurately predict prostate tumor aggressiveness are rather limited. Method We report here for the first time the development of a nanoparticle test that not only can distinguish prostate cancer from normal and benign conditions, but also has the potential to predict the aggressiveness of prostate cancer quantitatively. To conduct the test, a prostate tissue lysate sample is spiked into a blood serum or human IgG solution and the spiked sample is incubated with a citrate-protected gold nanoparticle solution. IgG is known to adsorb to citrate-protected gold nanoparticles to form a "protein corona" on the nanoparticle surface. From this study, we discovered that certain tumor-specific molecules can interact with IgG and change the adsorption behavior of IgG to the gold nanoparticles. This change is reflected in the nanoparticle size of the assay solution and detected by a dynamic light scattering technique. Assay data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA for multiple variant analysis, and using the Student t-test or nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-tests for pairwise analyses. Results An inverse, quantitative correlation of the average nanoparticle size of the assay solution with tumor status and histological diagnostic grading was observed from the nanoparticle test. IgG solutions spiked with prostate tumor tissue exhibit significantly smaller nanoparticle size than the solutions spiked with normal and benign tissues. The higher grade the tumor is, the smaller the nanoparticle size is. The test

  14. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Johnson, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand potential sources of group differences in the heritability of intelligence test scores. On the basis of a basic item response model we argue that heritabilities which are based on dichotomous item scores normally do not generalize from one sample to the next. If groups differ in mean ability, the functioning of items at different ability levels may result in group differences in the heritability of items, even when these items function equivalently across groups and the heritability of the underlying ability is equal across groups. We illustrate this graphically, by computer simulation, and by focusing on several problems associated with a recent study by Rushton et al. who argued that the heritability estimates of items of Raven's Progressive Matrices test in North-American twin samples generalized to other population groups, and hence that the population group differences on this test of general mental ability (or intelligence) had a substantial genetic component. Our results show that item heritabilities are strongly dependent on the group on which the heritabilities were based. Rushton et al.'s results were artefactual and do not speak to the nature of population group differences in intelligence test performance. PMID:19403538

  15. When Is a Test Score Fair for the Individual Who Is Being Tested? Effects of Different Scoring Procedures across Multiple Attempts When Testing a Motor Skill Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arve Vorland Pedersen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tests or test batteries used for assessing motor skills, either in research studies or in clinical settings, apply a variety of procedures for scoring performances, including everything from one to ten attempts, of which the best is scored or an average is computed. The rationale behind scoring procedures is rarely stated, and it seems that the number of attempts allowed is decided without much qualification from research. It is uncertain whether procedures fairly capture an individual’s skill level. Thus, the validity of the tests may be compromised. The present study tested 24 young female soccer players on the juggling of a soccer ball. They were given 10 attempts, and trials were scored according to nine different procedures including the ‘best of’ or ‘mean of’ either one, two, three, five, or ten attempts. Individual raw scores differed widely across trials, but no general effect of trials was found. The mean (SD percentage difference between the lowest and highest scores was 27.7(9.9%, with 17 players (71% demonstrating a significant change from lowest to highest score. Correlations between raw scores were low across trials, while they were generally higher across scoring procedures. The first trial was significantly different from the remaining both as a raw score and as scoring procedure. The mean percentage difference between best-of-two and best-of-ten scores was 95%, with 50 % of the players demonstrating a significant difference between the two scoring procedures. No significant differences were found across mean-of-rule scorings. Best-of-rule and mean-of-rule scorings were significantly different except for the best-of-two vs. mean-of-two. The mean difference between highest and lowest rank across players was 6.7 (3.6, with individual rankings within the group varying 33% on average across procedures. One player moved from 3rd to 23rd place because of procedural differences. Therefore, it is concluded that scoring

  16. Generation of GHS Scores from TEST and online sources ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternatives assessment frameworks such as DfE (Design for the Environment) evaluate chemical alternatives in terms of human health effects, ecotoxicity, and fate. T.E.S.T. (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool) can be utilized to evaluate human health in terms of acute oral rat toxicity, developmental toxicity, endocrine activity, and mutagenicity. It can be used to evaluate ecotoxicity (in terms of acute fathead minnow toxicity) and fate (in terms of bioconcentration factor). It also be used to estimate a variety of key physicochemical properties such as melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure, water solubility, and bioconcentration factor. A web-based version of T.E.S.T. is currently being developed to allow predictions to be made from other web tools. Online data sources such as from NCCT’s Chemistry Dashboard, REACH dossiers, or from ChemHat.org can also be utilized to obtain GHS (Global Harmonization System) scores for comparing alternatives. The purpose of this talk is to show how GHS (Global Harmonization Score) data can be obtained from literature sources and from T.E.S.T. (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool). This data will be used to compare chemical alternatives in the alternatives assessment dashboard (a 2018 CSS product).

  17. The Test Score Decline: A Review and Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Camp 1 4 1’Camiprtenens~ve Tists it 169681973 24 200.000 INaticisal C mrp -0 1 103 Basic Skils ýCrS; 5 3 Comv 12 9 10 Camp -3.3 I iwa T4 its ot 1965...competency testing as a cure for falling SAT scores. They alh. point out that "there is no evidence of widespread lack of basic literacy tor !high school upper...classmten)." They emphasize that the NAEP results support this point.of-view in the areas of basic literacy skills and practical verbal tasks. They

  18. Neurocognitive Deficits of Concussed Adolescent Athletes at Self-reported Symptom Resolution in the Zurich Guidelines Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriz, Peter K; Mannix, Rebekah; Taylor, Alex M; Ruggieri, Danielle; Meehan, William P

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have evaluated high school and collegiate athletes in the pre-Zurich guidelines era; whether adolescent athletes demonstrate similar neurocognitive decrements in the current concussion management era remains unclear. To assess for the presence of neurocognitive deficits in adolescents with a sport-related concussion at the time of self-reported symptom resolution. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 32 patients, aged 13 to 18 years, who sustained concussions during ice hockey and who were referred to 3 sports medicine clinics between September 1, 2012, and March 31, 2015. Demographic, anthropometric, and injury data were collected at the time of the initial postconcussion evaluation. To document symptoms, patients completed the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) at initial and follow-up visits. Baseline and postinjury neurocognitive function were assessed using computerized neurocognitive testing (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test [ImPACT]), and a reliable change index was used to determine significant changes in composite scores. Statistical comparisons were conducted using the Student t test and Mann-Whitney U test. A total of 9 of 32 athletes (28.1%; 95% CI, 14.8%-46.9%) demonstrated continued neurocognitive impairment on ≥1 composite score when no longer reporting concussion-related symptoms, while only 2 of 32 athletes (6.3%; 95% CI, 1.4%-23.2%) demonstrated continued neurocognitive impairment on ≥2 composite scores. Neurocognitive deficits persist in adolescent athletes who no longer report concussion-related symptoms, at rates similar to those of collegiate athletes but at longer time intervals. This finding provides further evidence that adolescent athletes with a sport-related concussion demonstrate a protracted recovery and resolution of neurocognitive deficits compared with collegiate and professional athletes. Computer-based neurocognitive testing as part of

  19. Computerized Scoring Algorithms for the Autobiographical Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Keisuke; Gutenbrunner, Charlotte; Martens, Kris; Salmon, Karen; Raes, Filip

    2017-04-03

    Reduced specificity of autobiographical memories is a hallmark of depressive cognition. Autobiographical memory (AM) specificity is typically measured by the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), in which respondents are asked to describe personal memories in response to emotional cue words. Due to this free descriptive responding format, the AMT relies on experts' hand scoring for subsequent statistical analyses. This manual coding potentially impedes research activities in big data analytics such as large epidemiological studies. Here, we propose computerized algorithms to automatically score AM specificity for the Dutch (adult participants) and English (youth participants) versions of the AMT by using natural language processing and machine learning techniques. The algorithms showed reliable performances in discriminating specific and nonspecific (e.g., overgeneralized) autobiographical memories in independent testing data sets (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve > .90). Furthermore, outcome values of the algorithms (i.e., decision values of support vector machines) showed a gradient across similar (e.g., specific and extended memories) and different (e.g., specific memory and semantic associates) categories of AMT responses, suggesting that, for both adults and youth, the algorithms well capture the extent to which a memory has features of specific memories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Correlation of neurocognitive processing subtypes with language performance in young children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanet, Patricia Gates; Carson, Christine M; Mellon, Nancy K; Niparko, John K; Ouellette, Meredith

    2014-07-01

    Test data were used to explore the neurocognitive processing of a group of children with cochlear implants (CIs) whose language development is below expectations. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between neurocognitive processing, as assessed by the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition, and verbal language standard scores, assessed using either the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language or the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals in 22 school-age children with CIs. Processing scores of CI recipients with language scores below expectations were compared to those of children meeting or exceeding language expectations. Multiple linear regression estimated the associations of simultaneous and sequential processing with language scores. Though simultaneous processing scores between the two groups were similar, the mean sequential processing score (91.2) in the below expectations group (n = 13) was significantly lower (P = 0.002) than that of children (n = 9) meeting expectations (110.8). After adjusting for age at implantation, a 10-point higher sequential processing score was associated with a 7.4 higher language score (P = 0.027). Simultaneous processing capacity was at least within the average range of cognitive performance, and was not associated with language performance in children with CIs. Conversely, reduced sequential processing capacity was significantly associated with lower language scores. Neurocognitive skills, specifically cognitive sequencing, serial ordering, and auditory-verbal memory may be targets for therapeutic intervention. Intensive cognitive and educational habilitation and in milieu intervention may improve language learning in children with CIs.

  1. Andersen-Tawil syndrome: definition of a neurocognitive phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, G; Quitania, L; Kramer, J H; Fu, Y H; Miller, B L; Ptácek, L J

    2006-06-13

    The Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) is a potassium ion channelopathy caused by mutations in the KCNJ2 gene. It is characterized by periodic paralysis, cardiac arrhythmias, and distinctive features; the effect of KCNJ2 mutations on the CNS has never been studied. To define a potential CNS phenotype in ATS using standardized methods. Ten subjects with KCNJ2 mutations and their unaffected siblings were evaluated at the University of California San Francisco General Clinical Research Center. A comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests was administered to ATS subjects and their unaffected siblings, followed by pairwise analysis of the resultant differences in scores. An EEG was obtained for all ATS subjects. There was no EEG evidence of subclinical seizure activity in any subject. ATS subjects universally had more school difficulties than their siblings, despite similar IQ between the two groups. On formal neurocognitive testing, there was no difference between ATS subjects and their siblings on tests of verbal and visual memory. Assessment of executive functioning revealed ATS subjects scored 1.93 points lower than their siblings on tests of Design Fluency (95% CI -3.46, 0.01; p = 0.052) and made 1.9 more errors (95% CI 0.46, 2.54; p = 0.005). Subjects with ATS scored an average of 5 points lower than their siblings on tests of matrix reasoning (95% CI -8.67, -1.33; p = 0.008). On tests of general ability, ATS subjects achieved much lower scores than their siblings, with an average difference of 9.13 points for reading (95% CI -12.46, 3.21; p = 0.056) and 23.4 points for mathematics (95% CI -42.53, -4.22; p = 0.017). Mutations in KCNJ2 are associated with a distinct neurocognitive phenotype, characterized by deficits in executive function and abstract reasoning.

  2. ANOVA Analysis of Student Daily Test Scores in Multi-Day Test Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Matthew L.; Davis, Jefferson T.; Jones, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Instructors are often concerned when giving multiple-day tests because students taking the test later in the exam period may have an advantage over students taking the test early in the exam period due to information leakage. However, exam scores seemed to decline as students took the same test later in a multi-day exam period (Mouritsen and…

  3. Affective temperaments and neurocognitive functioning in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Manuela; Mahon, Katie; Shanahan, Megan; Ramjas, Elizabeth; Solon, Carly; Braga, Raphael J; Burdick, Katherine E

    2014-12-01

    There is evidence that patients with bipolar disorder (BD) score higher on affective temperament ratings compared to healthy controls (HCs). Moreover, unaffected relatives demonstrate similar patterns as BD patients suggesting that such temperaments are related to the genetic risk for BD and may serve as endophenotypes for the disorder. It is unknown whether affective temperaments are associated with other core features of BD, such as impairments in neurocognition. This study examined the relationship between affective temperaments and neurocognition in patients with BD and in HCs. Temperaments were evaluated using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego, Auto-questionnaire version (TEMPS-A) in 64 patients with BD and 109 HCs. Neurocognitive functioning was evaluated using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Correlational analyses between temperaments and cognition were conducted in BD and HC subjects. Data suggest that affective temperaments and neurocognition are correlated. In BD higher ratings of cyclothymia and irritability were associated with better processing speed, working memory, reasoning and problem-solving. In the HC group, increased irritability was related to worse performance on measures of attention and social cognition. Lack of functional outcome measures to evaluate the impact of temperaments and cognition on psychosocial functioning. It would be useful to test these findings on unaffected relatives of BD patients. Cyclothymic and irritable temperaments are correlated with specific aspects of neurocognition in BD. This study is among the few exploring the dimensional relationship between temperaments and cognition in BD, and provides preliminary evidence for future studies investigating the neural and genetic mechanisms underlying the association between these variables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Obesity and neurocognitive recovery after sports-related concussion in athletes: a matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young M; Wu, Adela; Zuckerman, Scott L; Stanko, Kevin M; LaChaud, Gregory Y; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K

    2016-09-01

    Sports-related concussions (SRCs) are a significant public health concern in athletes. Data exist suggesting a link between obesity and decreased neurocognitive function, yet the effect of body mass index (BMI) on neurocognitive function and recovery after a SRC is unknown. The goal of our study was to discern the effect of BMI on recovery after SRC. This study was a retrospective observational cohort study. Between 2013 and 2014, 7,606 athletes between the ages of 13-20 years valid baseline neurocognitive testing performed at multiple regional concussion centers sustained a concussion. Out of these athletes, 711 normal weight athletes and 711 obese athletes were matched by age, gender, number of previous concussions, and sport. The proportions of athletes returning to baseline within two weeks between the groups were defined by using 80% confidence reliable change index (RCI) criteria and were compared using Fisher's Exact Test. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis with log-rank test was used to compare the median time to neurocognitive recovery between groups. Fewer obese athletes returned to baseline within 2 weeks on measures of verbal memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, postconcussion symptom scale (PCSS), and overall recovery compared to normal weight athletes. Obese athletes also had greater median time of return to baseline with respect to reaction time, PCSS, and overall recovery. Using RCI methodology, there exists an association between obesity and increased time to return to neurocognitive and symptom baseline after SRC in athletes, specifically reaction time, symptom scores, and overall recovery.

  5. Advanced paternal age is associated with impaired neurocognitive outcomes during infancy and childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Saha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced paternal age (APA is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, as well as with dyslexia and reduced intelligence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between paternal age and performance on neurocognitive measures during infancy and childhood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A sample of singleton children (n = 33,437 was drawn from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project. The outcome measures were assessed at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test. The main analyses examined the relationship between neurocognitive measures and paternal or maternal age when adjusted for potential confounding factors. Advanced paternal age showed significant associations with poorer scores on all of the neurocognitive measures apart from the Bayley Motor score. The findings were broadly consistent in direction and effect size at all three ages. In contrast, advanced maternal age was generally associated with better scores on these same measures. CONCLUSIONS: The offspring of older fathers show subtle impairments on tests of neurocognitive ability during infancy and childhood. In light of secular trends related to delayed fatherhood, the clinical implications and the mechanisms underlying these findings warrant closer scrutiny.

  6. Advanced paternal age is associated with impaired neurocognitive outcomes during infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sukanta; Barnett, Adrian G; Foldi, Claire; Burne, Thomas H; Eyles, Darryl W; Buka, Stephen L; McGrath, John J

    2009-03-10

    Advanced paternal age (APA) is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, as well as with dyslexia and reduced intelligence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between paternal age and performance on neurocognitive measures during infancy and childhood. A sample of singleton children (n = 33,437) was drawn from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project. The outcome measures were assessed at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test). The main analyses examined the relationship between neurocognitive measures and paternal or maternal age when adjusted for potential confounding factors. Advanced paternal age showed significant associations with poorer scores on all of the neurocognitive measures apart from the Bayley Motor score. The findings were broadly consistent in direction and effect size at all three ages. In contrast, advanced maternal age was generally associated with better scores on these same measures. The offspring of older fathers show subtle impairments on tests of neurocognitive ability during infancy and childhood. In light of secular trends related to delayed fatherhood, the clinical implications and the mechanisms underlying these findings warrant closer scrutiny.

  7. Visually impaired children and haptic intelligence test scores: intelligence test for visually impaired children (ITVIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, R

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports the results of verbal and haptic intelligence tests for the whole population of the visually impaired, braille-educated Dutch children and Dutch-speaking children in Belgium. The scores of children with and without usable vision generally confirmed expectations. Children with usable vision had higher spatial test scores. Those without usable vision did better on verbal memory tests and school-achievement tests for writing accuracy and technical reading. Children in regular or integrated education scored higher on verbal, reasoning and school-achievement tests. Evaluation of the effect of systematically varied task factors in four spatial tests indicated that, for two of the tests, having usable vision interacted with the task factors.

  8. PCSK9 Variants, LDL-Cholesterol, and Neurocognitive Impairment: The REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefford, Matthew T; Rosenson, Robert S; Cushman, Mary; Farkouh, Michael E; McClure, Leslie A; Wadley, Virginia G; Irvin, Marguerite R; Bittner, Vera A; Safford, Monika M; Somaratne, Ransi; Monda, Keri L; Muntner, Paul; Levitan, Emily B

    2017-11-16

    Background -Despite concerns about adverse neurocognitive events raised by prior trials, pharmacologic PCSK9 inhibition was not associated with neurocognitive effects in a recent phase 3 randomized trial. PCSK9 loss-of-function (LOF) variants that result in life-long exposure to low LDL-C can provide information on the potential long-term effects of low LDL-C on neurocognitive impairment and decline. Methods -We investigated the association between PCSK9 LOF variants and neurocognitive impairment and decline among African-American REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study participants with (n=241) and without (n=10,454) C697X or Y142X LOF variants. Neurocognitive tests included Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) battery (Word List Learning, Delayed Recall, Animal Fluency) and Six Item Screener (SIS) assessments, administered longitudinally during follow-up. Neurocognitive impairment was defined as a score ≥ 1.5 standard deviations (SD) below age, sex, and education-based stratum-specific means on 2 or 3 CERAD assessments, or, separately, a score impairment at any assessment was 6.3% by CERAD and 15.4% by SIS definitions. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for neurocognitive impairment for participants with versus without PCSK9 LOF variants were 1.11 (95% CI 0.58, 2.13) using the CERAD battery and 0.89 (95% CI 0.61, 1.30) using the SIS assessment. Standardized average differences in individual neurocognitive assessment scores over the 5.6 year (range 0.1, 9.1) study period ranged between 0.07 (95% CI -0.06, 0.20) and -0.07 (95% CI -0.18, 0.05) among participants with versus without PCSK9 LOF variants. Patterns of neurocognitive decline were similar between participants with and without PCSK9 LOF variants (all p > 0.10). ORs for neurocognitive impairment per 20 mg/dL LDL-C decrements were 1.02 (95% CI 0.96, 1.08) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.95, 1.02) for the CERAD and SIS definitions of impairment, respectively

  9. International Neurocognitive Normative Study: Neurocognitive Comparison Data in Diverse Resource Limited Settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5271

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K; Jiang, H; Evans, SR; Marra, CM; Berzins, B; Hakim, J; Sacktor, N; Silva, M Tulius; Campbell, TB; Nair, A; Schouten, J; Kumwenda, J; Supparatpinyo, K; Tripathy, S.; Kumarasamy, N; La Rosa, A; Montano, S; Mwafongo, A; Firnhaber, C; Sanne, I; Naini, L.; Amod, F; Walawander, A

    2016-01-01

    Summary ACTG A5271 collected neurocognitive normative comparison test data in 2400 at-risk HIV seronegative participants from Brazil, India, Malawi, Peru, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe. The participants were enrolled in strata by site (10 levels), age (2 levels), education (2 levels), and gender (2 levels). These data provide necessary normative data infrastructure for future clinical research and care in these diverse resource limited settings. Infrastructure for conducting neurological research in resource limited settings (RLS) is limited. The lack of neurological and neuropsychological (NP) assessment, and normative data needed for clinical interpretation impede research and clinical care. Here we report on ACTG 5271, which provided neurological training of clinical site personnel, and collected neurocognitive normative comparison data in diverse settings. At 10 sites in seven RLS countries, we provided training for NP assessments. We collected normative comparison data on HIV- participants from Brazil (n=240), India (n=480), Malawi (n=481), Peru (n=239), South Africa (480), Thailand (n=240) and Zimbabwe (n=240). Participants had a negative HIV test within 30 days before standardized NP exams were administered at baseline, and 770 at six-months. Participants were enrolled in 8 strata, gender (female and male), education (<10 years and ≥ 10 years), and age (<35 years and ≥35 years). Of 2400 enrolled, 770 completed the six-month follow up. As expected, significant between-country differences were evident in all the neurocognitive test scores (p<.0001). There was variation between the age, gender and education strata on the neurocognitive tests. Age and education were important variables for all tests; older participants had poorer performance and those with higher education had better performance. Women had better performance on verbal learning/memory and speed of processing tests, while men performed better on motor tests. This study provides the

  10. Validation of a brief telephone battery for neurocognitive assessment of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palevsky Harold I

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of pulmonary arterial hypertension on brain function are not understood, despite patients' frequent complaints of cognitive difficulties. Using clinical instruments normally administered during standard in-person assessment of neurocognitive function in adults, we assembled a battery of tests designed for administration over the telephone. The purpose was to improve patient participation, facilitate repeated test administration, and reduce the cost of research on the neuropsychological consequences of acute and chronic cardiorespiratory diseases. We undertook this study to validate telephone administration of the tests. Methods 23 adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension underwent neurocognitive assessment using both standard in-person and telephone test administration, and the results of the two methods compared using interclass correlations. Results For most of the tests in the battery, scores from the telephone assessment correlated strongly with those obtained by in-person administration of the same tests. Interclass correlations between 0.5 and 0.8 were observed for tests that assessed attention, memory, concentration/working memory, reasoning, and language/crystallized intelligence (p ≤ 0.05 for each. Interclass correlations for the Hayling Sentence Completion test of executive function approached significance (p = 0.09. All telephone tests were completed within one hour. Conclusion Administration of this neurocognitive test battery by telephone should facilitate assessment of neuropsychological deficits among patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension living across broad geographical areas, and may be useful for monitoring changes in neurocognitive function in response to PAH-specific therapy or disease progression.

  11. Your move: The effect of chess on mathematics test scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rosholm

    Full Text Available We analyse the effect of substituting a weekly mathematics lesson in primary school grades 1-3 with a lesson in mathematics based on chess instruction. We use data from the City of Aarhus in Denmark, combining test score data with a comprehensive data set obtained from administrative registers. We use two different methodological approaches to identify and estimate treatment effects and we tend to find positive effects, indicating that knowledge acquired through chess play can be transferred to the domain of mathematics. We also find larger impacts for unhappy children and children who are bored in school, perhaps because chess instruction facilitates learning by providing an alternative approach to mathematics for these children. The results are encouraging and suggest that chess may be an important and effective tool for improving mathematical capacity in young students.

  12. Your move: The effect of chess on mathematics test scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Gumede, Kamilla Trille

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the effect of substituting a weekly mathematics lesson in primary school grades 1–3 with a lesson in mathematics based on chess instruction. We use data from the City of Aarhus in Denmark, combining test score data with a comprehensive data set obtained from administrative registers. We...... use two different methodological approaches to identify and estimate treatment effects and we tend to find positive effects, indicating that knowledge acquired through chess play can be transferred to the domain of mathematics. We also find larger impacts for unhappy children and children who...... are bored in school, perhaps because chess instruction facilitates learning by providing an alternative approach to mathematics for these children. The results are encouraging and suggest that chess may be an important and effective tool for improving mathematical capacity in young students....

  13. Your move: The effect of chess on mathematics test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosholm, Michael; Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Gumede, Kamilla

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the effect of substituting a weekly mathematics lesson in primary school grades 1-3 with a lesson in mathematics based on chess instruction. We use data from the City of Aarhus in Denmark, combining test score data with a comprehensive data set obtained from administrative registers. We use two different methodological approaches to identify and estimate treatment effects and we tend to find positive effects, indicating that knowledge acquired through chess play can be transferred to the domain of mathematics. We also find larger impacts for unhappy children and children who are bored in school, perhaps because chess instruction facilitates learning by providing an alternative approach to mathematics for these children. The results are encouraging and suggest that chess may be an important and effective tool for improving mathematical capacity in young students.

  14. Pilot study of light therapy and neurocognitive performance of attention and memory in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Giuseppe; Marconi, Daniela; Limpido, Lucilla; Tarolla, Emanuele; Caroti, Eleonora

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether light therapy improves healthy subjects' neurocognitive performance of attention, memory, and language. Ten subjects were treated with white bright light for 5 days and a control group of 10 with no treatment were assessed with a battery of neurocognitive tests which included the Stroop Colour Word Interference Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, the Story Recall Test, and the Word Pairs Recall Test. Analysis showed improvements in cognitive scores in both groups, although on all the cognitive tests the mean difference scores between baseline and endpoint were significantly larger in the light-treated group. These preliminary results suggest that short-term bright light may exert beneficial effects on cognitive functions.

  15. The Graduate Management Admission Test: Technical Report on Test Development and Score Interpretation for GMAT Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, William B.

    This report provides information on test development, test administration, and score interpretation for the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT). The GMAT, first administered in 1954, provides objective measures of an applicant's abilities for use in admissions decisions by graduate management schools. It is currently composed of five…

  16. Score Gains on g-loaded Tests: No g

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Nijenhuis, J.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; van der Flier, H.

    2007-01-01

    IQ scores provide the best general predictor of success in education, job training, and work. However, there are many ways in which IQ scores can be increased, for instance by means of retesting or participation in learning potential training programs. What is the nature of these score gains? Jensen

  17. Social attribution test--multiple choice (SAT-MC) in schizophrenia: comparison with community sample and relationship to neurocognitive, social cognitive and symptom measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris D; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Greig, Tamasine C; Wexler, Bruce E

    2010-09-01

    This is the first report on the use of the Social Attribution Task - Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) to assess social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The SAT-MC was originally developed for autism research, and consists of a 64-second animation showing geometric figures enacting a social drama, with 19 multiple choice questions about the interactions. Responses from 85 community-dwelling participants and 66 participants with SCID confirmed schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (Scz) revealed highly significant group differences. When the two samples were combined, SAT-MC scores were significantly correlated with other social cognitive measures, including measures of affect recognition, theory of mind, self-report of egocentricity and the Social Cognition Index from the MATRICS battery. Using a cut-off score, 53% of Scz were significantly impaired on SAT-MC compared with 9% of the community sample. Most Scz participants with impairment on SAT-MC also had impairment on affect recognition. Significant correlations were also found with neurocognitive measures but with less dependence on verbal processes than other social cognitive measures. Logistic regression using SAT-MC scores correctly classified 75% of both samples. Results suggest that this measure may have promise, but alternative versions will be needed before it can be used in pre-post or longitudinal designs. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations between Symptom Validity Test failure and scores on the MMPI-2-RF validity and substantive scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Roger O; Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between Symptom Validity Test (SVT) failure and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008), in the Forensic Disability Claimant samples described in the MMPI-2-RF Technical Manual (Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008 a, 2008b). SVTs used included the Word Memory Test (Green, 2003), the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias (Allen, Conder, Green, & Cox, 1997), the Medical Symptom Validity Test (Green, 2004), and the Test of Memory Malingering (Tombaugh, 1996). SVT failure was associated with significant elevations throughout the MMPI-2-RF overreporting validity scales and substantive scales. Pairwise contrasts between groups failing 0 and 3 SVTs revealed predominantly large effect sizes for the overreporting validity scales (d = 0.78-1.11), and many of the substantive scales, including the Cognitive Complaints (COG) scale. Results of this study demonstrate an association between SVT performance and elevated scores on the MMPI-2-RF. These results suggest that exaggeration of cognitive symptoms as demonstrated by SVT failure is also associated with overreported emotional, somatic, and neurocognitive complaints on the MMPI-2-RF.

  19. The effects of desvenlafaxine on neurocognitive and work functioning in employed outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Raymond W; Iverson, Grant L; Evans, Vanessa C; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Stewart, Kurtis; Tam, Edwin M; Axler, Auby; Woo, Cindy

    2016-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with staggering personal and economic costs, a major proportion of which stem from impaired psychosocial and occupational functioning. Few studies have examined the impact of depression-related cognitive dysfunction on work functioning. We examined the association between neurocognitive and work functioning in employed patients with MDD. Employed adult outpatients (n=36) with MDD of at least moderate severity (≥23 on the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS) and subjective cognitive complaints completed neurocognitive tests (CNS Vital Signs computerized battery) and validated self-reports of their work functioning (LEAPS, HPQ) before and after 8 weeks of open-label treatment with flexibly-dosed desvenlafaxine 50-100mg/day. Relationships between neurocognitive tests and functional measures were examined using bivariate correlational and multiple regression analyses, as appropriate. An ANCOVA model examined whether significant change in neurocognitive performance, defined as improvement of ≥1SD in the Neurocognition Index (NCI) from baseline to post-treatment, was associated with improved outcomes. Patients showed significant improvements in depressive symptom, neurocognitive, and work functioning measures following treatment with desvenlafaxine (e.g., MADRS response=77% and MADRS remission=49%). There were no significant correlations between changes in NCI or cognitive domain subscales and changes in MADRS, LEAPS, or HPQ scores. However, patients demonstrating significant improvement in NCI scores (n=11, 29%) had significantly greater improvement in clinical and work functioning outcomes compared to those without NCI improvement. The limitations of this study include small sample size, lack of a placebo control group, and lack of a healthy comparison group. Our sample also had more years of education and higher premorbid intelligence than the general population. There were no significant correlations

  20. Rates and Predictors of Invalid Baseline Test Performance in High School and Collegiate Athletes for 3 Computerized Neurocognitive Tests: ANAM, Axon Sports, and ImPACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lindsay D; Pfaller, Adam Y; Rein, Lisa E; McCrea, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Preseason baseline testing using computerized neurocognitive tests (CNTs) is increasingly performed on athletes. Adequate effort is critical to establish valid estimates of ability, but many users do not evaluate performance validity, and the conditions that affect validity are not well understood across the available CNTs. To examine the rates and predictors of invalid baseline performance for 3 popular CNTs: Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM), Axon Sports, and Immediate Post-Concussion and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). Controlled laboratory study. High school and collegiate athletes (N = 2063) completed 2 of 3 CNTs each during preseason evaluations. All possible pairings were present across the sample, and the order of administration was randomized. Examiners provided 1-on-1, scripted pretest instructions, emphasizing the importance of good effort. Profile validity was determined by the manufacturers' standard criteria. The overall percentage of tests flagged as of questionable validity was lowest for ImPACT (2.7%) and higher for ANAM and Axon (10.7% and 11.3%, respectively). The majority of invalid baseline profiles were flagged as such because of failure on only 1 validity criterion. Several athlete and testing factors (eg, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], estimated general intellectual ability, administration order) predicted validity status for 1 or more CNTs. Considering only first CNT administrations and participants without ADHD and/or a learning disability (n = 1835) brought the rates of invalid baseline performances to 2.1%, 8.8%, and 7.0% for ImPACT, ANAM, and Axon, respectively. Invalid profiles on the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) were rare (1.8% of participants) and demonstrated poor correspondence to CNT validity outcomes. The validity criteria for these CNTs may not identify the same causes of invalidity or be equally sensitive to effort. The validity indicators may not be equally appropriate for some

  1. Tolvaptan and Neurocognitive Function in Mild to Moderate Chronic Hyponatremia: A Randomized Trial (INSIGHT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbalis, Joseph G; Ellison, Howard; Hobart, Mary; Krasa, Holly; Ouyang, John; Czerwiec, Frank S

    2016-06-01

    This trial assessed the effect of tolvaptan on cognition, gait, and postural stability in adult patients with mild to moderate asymptomatic hyponatremia. Phase 3b, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group pilot study. 57 men and women 50 years or older with chronic asymptomatic euvolemic or hypervolemic hyponatremia (serum sodium concentration >120-tolvaptan or matching placebo beginning at a dose of 15mg/d, with titration to 30 or 60mg/d based on change in serum sodium concentration and tolerance. Primary: change from baseline in the neurocognitive composite score of speed domains. Secondary: changes from baseline in individual neurocognitive domain scores, overall neurocognitive composite score, gait and postural stability test results, and serum sodium concentrations. Mean serum sodium concentration increased from 129 to 136 mEq/L in the tolvaptan group and from 130 to 132 mEq/L in the placebo group (Ptolvaptan (treatment effect, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.04-0.51; P=0.03). There were some imbalances between treatment groups in baseline neurocognitive function scores and some baseline test results were near normal, leaving little opportunity for improvement. Formal sample size calculations were not performed because this was a pilot study. The study population was small (n=57) and treatment was of short duration (3 weeks). The primary end point of the study was not significant; thus, subgroup analyses are subject to errors of multiplicity and should be regarded as hypothesis generating. Tolvaptan was effective in reversing chronic hyponatremia, and this correlated with improvements in results of a variety of neurocognition tests, particularly rapid motor movements, which tended to reverse following return to a low baseline serum sodium concentration after treatment withdrawal. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurocognitive function in acromegaly after surgical resection of GH-secreting adenoma versus naïve acromegaly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Martín-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Patients with active untreated acromegaly show mild to moderate neurocognitive disorders that are associated to chronic exposure to growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I hypersecretion. However, it is unknown whether these disorders improve after controlling GH/IGF-I hypersecretion. The aim of this study was to compare neurocognitive functions of patients who successfully underwent GH-secreting adenoma transsphenoidal surgery (cured patients with patients with naive acromegaly. In addition, we wanted to determine the impact of different clinical and biochemical variables on neurocognitive status in patients with active disease and after long-term cure. A battery of six standardized neuropsychological tests assessed attention, memory and executive functioning. In addition, a quantitative electroencephalography with Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA solution was performed to obtain information about the neurophysiological state of the patients. Neurocognitive data was compared to that of a healthy control group. Multiple linear regression analysis was also conducted using clinical and hormonal parameters to obtain a set of independent predictors of neurocognitive state before and after cure. Both groups of patients scored significantly poorer than the healthy controls on memory tests, especially those assessing visual and verbal recall. Patients with cured acromegaly did not obtain better cognitive measures than naïve patients. Furthermore memory deficits were associated with decreased beta activity in left medial temporal cortex in both groups of patients. Regression analysis showed longer duration of untreated acromegaly was associated with more severe neurocognitive complications, regardless of the diagnostic group, whereas GH levels at the time of assessment was related to neurocognitive outcome only in naïve patients. Longer duration of post-operative biochemical remission of acromegaly was associated with

  3. Insight and neurocognitive functioning in bipolar subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shad, Mujeeb U; Prasad, Konasale; Forman, Steven D; Haas, Gretchen L; Walker, Jon D; Pisarov, Liubomir A; Goldstein, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Insight concerning having a mental illness has been found to influence outcome and effectiveness of treatment. It has been studied mainly in the area of schizophrenia with few studies addressing other disorders. This study evaluates insight in individuals with bipolar disorder using the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), a comprehensive interview for evaluation of awareness of illness and attribution of symptoms. The hypothesis was that in bipolar disorder level of awareness may be associated with numerous factors including neurocognitive function, structural changes in the frontal lobes and hippocampus evaluated by MRI, neurocognitive status, severity of mania and other psychiatric symptoms and comorbid alcoholism. In order to evaluate this hypothesis 33 individuals with DSM-IV diagnosed bipolar disorder, some with and some without comorbid alcoholism, were administered the SUMD and a number of other procedures including a quantitative MRI measuring volume of the frontal lobes and hippocampus, a brief battery of neurocognitive tests, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and the Young Mania Rating Scale. The data were analyzed by comparing participants with and without alcoholism on these procedures using t tests and by linear multiple regression, with SUMD ratings of awareness and attribution as the dependent variables and variable sets from the other procedures administered as multivariate independent variables. The median score obtained from the SUMD for current awareness was in a range between full awareness and uncertainty concerning presence of a mental disorder. For attribution, the median score indicated that attribution was usually made to the illness itself. None of the differences between participants with and without comorbid alcoholism were significant for the SUMD awareness and attribution scores, neurocognitive or MRI variables. The multiple regression analyses only showed a significant degree of association between the SUMD

  4. Correlations between physical activity and neurocognitive domain functions in patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurebayashi, Yusuke; Otaki, Junichi

    2017-01-05

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a critical target symptom of schizophrenia treatment. A positive correlation between physical activity level and neurocognitive function has been reported in healthy individuals, but it is unclear whether such a correlation exists in patients with schizophrenia and whether the relationship is different according to inpatients or outpatients. This study aimed to examine the differences in the correlations between physical activity and multiple neurocognitive domains in inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia and obtain suggestions for further study to facilitate this field. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia were examined (16 inpatients and 13 outpatients, 56.0 ± 11.4 years of age). Current symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and neurocognitive functions using Cognitrax, which yields a composite neurocognitive index (NCI) and 11 domain scores. After testing, participants wore an HJA-750C accelerometer for one week to measure physical activity levels and durations. Partial correlation analyses were performed between exercise and cognitive parameters. In the outpatient group, higher physical activity was associated with faster Motor and Psychomotor Speeds in outpatients. However, higher physical activity was associated with lower overall NCI, Attention score, and Memory scores in inpatients. Although higher physical activity was associated with better neurocognitive functions of outpatients, in inpatients with non-remitted schizophrenia, higher physical activity was associated with worsening of several cognitive domains. In a future study examining the relationship between physical activity and neurocognitive function for facilitating this research field, separation between inpatients and outpatients are needed because the relationship is different between inpatients and outpatients.

  5. Audiovisual emotional processing and neurocognitive functioning in patients with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eDoose-Grünefeld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the processing of emotional stimuli (e.g. facial expressions, prosody, music have repeatedly been reported in patients with major depression. Such impairments may result from the likewise prevalent executive deficits in these patients. However, studies investigating this relationship are rare. Moreover, most studies to date have only assessed impairments in unimodal emotional processing, whereas in real life, emotions are primarily conveyed through more than just one sensory channel. The current study therefore aimed at investigating multi-modal emotional processing in patients with depression and to assess the relationship between emotional and neurocognitive impairments. 41 patients suffering from major depression and 41 never-depressed healthy controls participated in an audiovisual (faces-sounds emotional integration paradigm as well as a neurocognitive test battery. Our results showed that depressed patients were specifically impaired in the processing of positive auditory stimuli as they rated faces significantly more fearful when presented with happy than with neutral sounds. Such an effect was absent in controls. Findings in emotional processing in patients did not correlate with BDI-scores. Furthermore, neurocognitive findings revealed significant group differences for two of the tests. The effects found in audiovisual emotional processing, however, did not correlate with performance in the neurocognitive tests.In summary, our results underline the diversity of impairments going along with depression and indicate that deficits found for unimodal emotional processing cannot trivially be generalized to deficits in a multi-modal setting. The mechanisms of impairments therefore might be far more complex than previously thought. Our findings furthermore contradict the assumption that emotional processing deficits in major depression are associated with impaired attention or inhibitory functioning.

  6. Vocational Relevance and Estimated and Measured Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Milton E.; James, Leonard E.

    1969-01-01

    Study of accuracy in estimating scores on the Kuder, Edwards Personal Preference Schedule, and the Strong Vocational Interest Blank when scales were, and were not, categorized by levels of vocational relevance, indicates that relationships between scores increase as a function of vocational relevance. Discusses implications in terms of outcome…

  7. Neurocognitive Deficits in Borderline Personality Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne Skovgaard; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluates the severity of neurocognitive deficits and assesses their relations with self-reported childhood trauma and dimensions of personality psychopathology in 45 outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) matched to 56 non-psychiatric controls. Participants...... completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed....... Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an elevated childhood history of physical trauma were each accompanied by more severe neurocognitive deficits. There were no statistically significant associations between neurocognitive function and dimensions of personality psychopathology. These results...

  8. The Apgar score has survived the test of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Mieczyslaw; Wood, Margaret

    2005-04-01

    In 1953, Virginia Apgar, M.D. published her proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant. The avowed purpose of this paper was to establish a simple and clear classification of newborn infants which can be used to compare the results of obstetric practices, types of maternal pain relief and the results of resuscitation. Having considered several objective signs pertaining to the condition of the infant at birth she selected five that could be evaluated and taught to the delivery room personnel without difficulty. These signs were heart rate, respiratory effort, reflex irritability, muscle tone and color. Sixty seconds after the complete birth of the baby a rating of zero, one or two was given to each sign, depending on whether it was absent or present. Virginia Apgar reviewed anesthesia records of 1025 infants born alive at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center during the period of this report. All had been rated by her method. Infants in poor condition scored 0-2, infants in fair condition scored 3-7, while scores 8-10 were achieved by infants in good condition. The most favorable score 1 min after birth was obtained by infants delivered vaginally with the occiput the presenting part (average 8.4). Newborns delivered by version and breech extraction had the lowest score (average 6.3). Infants delivered by cesarean section were more vigorous (average score 8.0) when spinal was the method of anesthesia versus an average score of 5.0 when general anesthesia was used. Correlating the 60 s score with neonatal mortality, Virginia found that mature infants receiving 0, 1 or 2 scores had a neonatal death rate of 14%; those scoring 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 had a death rate of 1.1%; and those in the 8-10 score group had a death rate of 0.13%. She concluded that the prognosis of an infant is excellent if he receives one of the upper three scores, and poor if one of the lowest three scores.

  9. The Relationship of Scores on Elizur's Hostility System on the Rorschach to the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between Elizur's Hostility Scoring on the Rorschach Test and the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test was examined. Correlations between the two measures (using several scoring procedures) ranged from .40 to .64. (JKS)

  10. ISSUE PAPER: What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    ...) about possible unintended consequences of these programs. We conducted several analyses to examine the issue of whether TAAS scores can be trusted to provide an accurate index of student skills and abilities...

  11. Neurocognitive predictors of performance-based functional capacity in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel N; Bello, Danielle T; Thaler, Nicholas S

    2015-09-01

    Neurocognitive impairment can predict functional capacity in individuals with bipolar disorder, though little research has examined whether different neurocognitive domains impact specific types of tasks. This study examined the relationship between several neurocognitive variables and the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA; Patterson et al., 2011) to identify the domains and tests that best predict the performance across the subscales. Forty-seven euthymic participants who were diagnosed with either Bipolar I or Bipolar II were recruited and assessed on a battery of neuropsychological measures and the UPSA. Correlational and regression analyses were run to identify neurocognitive predictors of UPSA subscales. Per the literature, verbal learning and memory and executive function composites were first examined. Verbal learning and memory predicted the Communication subscale and Total score variables above and beyond the estimated FSIQ and symptom rating scales. In a secondary exploratory analysis, the Benton Judgment of Line Orientation subtest predicted the Finance subscale while the California Verbal Learning Test predicted the UPSA total score. Verbal learning and memory emerged as the strongest predictor of functional capacity, suggesting that this domain should be investigated in future mediational and longitudinal studies with the UPSA. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Altered structural brain changes and neurocognitive performance in pediatric HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K. Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric HIV patients often suffer with neurodevelopmental delay and subsequently cognitive impairment. While tissue injury in cortical and subcortical regions in the brain of adult HIV patients has been well reported there is sparse knowledge about these changes in perinatally HIV infected pediatric patients. We analyzed cortical thickness, subcortical volume, structural connectivity, and neurocognitive functions in pediatric HIV patients and compared with those of pediatric healthy controls. With informed consent, 34 perinatally infected pediatric HIV patients and 32 age and gender matched pediatric healthy controls underwent neurocognitive assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI on a 3 T clinical scanner. Altered cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, and abnormal neuropsychological test scores were observed in pediatric HIV patients. The structural network connectivity analysis depicted lower connection strengths, lower clustering coefficients, and higher path length in pediatric HIV patients than healthy controls. The network betweenness and network hubs in cortico-limbic regions were distorted in pediatric HIV patients. The findings suggest that altered cortical and subcortical structures and regional brain connectivity in pediatric HIV patients may contribute to deficits in their neurocognitive functions. Further, longitudinal studies are required for better understanding of the effect of HIV pathogenesis on brain structural changes throughout the brain development process under standard ART treatment.

  13. Effects of white noise on Callsign Acquisition Test and Modified Rhyme Test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue-Terry, Misty; Letowski, Tomasz

    2011-02-01

    The Callsign Acquisition Test (CAT) is a speech intelligibility test developed by the US Army Research Laboratory. The test has been used to evaluate speech transmission through various communication systems but has not been yet sufficiently standardised and validated. The aim of this study was to compare CAT and Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) performance in the presence of white noise across a range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). A group of 16 normal-hearing listeners participated in the study. The speech items were presented at 65 dB(A) in the background of white noise at SNRs of -18, -15, -12, -9 and -6 dB. The results showed a strong positive association (75.14%) between the two tests, but significant differences between the CAT and MRT absolute scores in the range of investigated SNRs. Based on the data, a function to predict CAT scores based on existing MRT scores and vice versa was formulated. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work compares performance data of a common speech intelligibility test (MRT) with a new test (CAT) in the presence of white noise. The results here can be used as a part of the standardisation procedures and provide insights to the predictive capabilities of the CAT to quantify speech intelligibility communication in high-noise military environments.

  14. The Effect of Test Instructions and Attitude toward School on Scores of an Intelligence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Joseph R.; Bauer, David H.

    Two hundred-sixteen fifth- and sixth-graders were dichotomized on attitude toward school (positive or negative) and randomly assigned to three conditions in which they were instructed that they were about to take either an Intelligence, Achievement, or a Routine test. Results of analysis of variance on Kuhlmann-Anderson scores revealed significant…

  15. The effect of pulmonary tuberculosis on neurocognitive function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To examine group differences in neurocognitive status, we used Wilcoxon ranked sum tests to compare the performance between groups on neuropsychological test battery. Results: Out of 324, only 244 were studied. Results indicated significant neurocognitive impairment in PTB+/HIV+ group than PTB-/HIV+ in the GDS, ...

  16. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents' Adherence to Dietary Recommendations-Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-07-29

    Assessment of adolescents' dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents' adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen's Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14-15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines.

  17. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents’ Adherence to Dietary Recommendations—Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents’ dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents’ adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen’s Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14–15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  18. Perinatal cortical growth and childhood neurocognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbone, R; Counsell, S J; Kapellou, O; Dyet, L; Kennea, N; Hajnal, J; Allsop, J M; Cowan, F; Edwards, A D

    2011-10-18

    This observational cohort study addressed the hypothesis that after preterm delivery brain growth between 24 and 44 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) is related to global neurocognitive ability in later childhood. Growth rates for cerebral volume and cortical surface area were estimated in 82 infants without focal brain lesions born before 30 weeks PMA by using 217 magnetic resonance images obtained between 24 and 44 weeks PMA. Abilities were assessed at 2 years using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale and at 6 years using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R), the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY), and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Analysis was by generalized least-squares regression. Mean test scores approximated population averages. Cortical growth was directly related to the Griffiths Developmental Quotient (DQ), the WPPSI-R full-scale IQ, and a NEPSY summary score but not the MABC score and in exploration of subtests to attention, planning, memory, language, and numeric and conceptual abilities but not motor skills. The mean (95% confidence interval) estimated reduction in cortical surface area at term corrected age associated with a 1 SD fall in test score was as follows: DQ 7.0 (5.8-8.5); IQ 6.0 (4.9-7.3); and NEPSY 9.1 (7.5-11.0) % · SD(-1). Total brain volume growth was not correlated with any test score. The rate of cerebral cortical growth between 24 and 44 weeks PMA predicts global ability in later childhood, particularly complex cognitive functions but not motor functions.

  19. Testing the applicability of the SASS5 scoring procedure for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are a number of possible reasons for the low SASS5 scores: the lack of biotopes present in wetlands compared to rivers (most notably the absence of the stones-in-current biotope), lower levels of dissolved oxygen present compared to rivers, limited habitat availability due to low rainfall during the sampling season, ...

  20. Neurocognitive profiles in treatment-resistant bipolar I and bipolar II disorder depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ute; Schoeyen, Helle K; Andreassen, Ole A; Eide, Geir E; Hammar, Åsa; Malt, Ulrik F; Oedegaard, Ketil J; Morken, Gunnar; Sundet, Kjetil; Vaaler, Arne E

    2013-04-04

    The literature on the neuropsychological profiles in Bipolar disorder (BD) depression is sparse. The aims of the study were to assess the neurocognitive profiles in treatment-resistant, acutely admitted BD depression inpatients, to compare the neurocognitive functioning in patients with BD I and II, and to identify the demographic and clinical illness characteristics associated with cognitive functioning. Acutely admitted BD I (n = 19) and BD II (n = 32) inpatients who fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria for a major depressive episode were tested with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, the National Adult Reading Test, and a battery of clinical measures. Neurocognitive impairments were evident in the BD I and BD II depression inpatients within all MCCB domains. The numerical scores on all MCCB-measures were lower in the BD I group than in the BD II group, with a significant difference on one of the measures, category fluency. 68.4% of the BD I patients had clinically significant impairment (>1.5 SD below normal mean) in two or more domains compared to 37.5% of the BD II patients (p = 0.045). A significant reduction in IQ from the premorbid to the current level was seen in BD I but not BD II patients. Higher age was associated with greater neurocognitive deficits compared to age-adjusted published norms. A high proportion of patients with therapy-resistant BD I or II depression exhibited global neurocognitive impairments with clinically significant severity. The cognitive impairments were more common in BD I compared to BD II patients, particularly processing speed. These findings suggest that clinicians should be aware of the severe neurocognitive dysfunction in treatment-resistant bipolar depression, particularly in BD I. NCT00664976.

  1. Factors Affecting the Baseline and Post-Treatment Scores on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Japanese Version before and after Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotake Saito

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our objectives were to (1 investigate the feasibility of the use of the Japanese version of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R; (2 identify the clinical factors influencing the HVLT-R scores of patients undergoing whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT; and (3 compare the neurocognitive function (NCF after WBRT in different dose fractionation schedules. We administered the HVLT-R (Japanese version before (baseline and at four and eight months after WBRT in 45 patients who received either therapeutic (35Gy-in-14, n = 16; 30Gy-in-10, n = 18 or prophylactic (25Gy-in-10, n = 11 WBRT. Sixteen patients dropped out before the eight-month examination, due mostly to death from cancer. The Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS 80–100 group had significantly higher baseline total recall (TR scores (p = 0.0053, delayed recall (DR scores (p = 0.012, and delayed recognition (DRecog scores (p = 0.0078. The patients aged ≤65 years also had significantly higher TR scores (p = 0.030 and DRecog scores (p = 0.031. The patients who underwent two examinations (worse-prognosis group had significantly decreased DR scores four months after WBRT compared to the baseline (p = 0.0073, and they were significantly more likely to have declined individual TR scores (p = 0.0017 and DR scores (p = 0.035 at four months. The eight-month HVLT-R scores did not significantly decline regardless of the WBRT dose fractionation. The baseline NCF was determined by age and KPS, and the early decline in NCF is characteristic of the worse-prognosis group.

  2. The Effect of Mock Tests on Iranian EFL learners’ Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khodabakhshzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of using tests in test preparation courses has been subject to debate. While some scholars such as Yang and Badger (2015 believe it is a cause of positive washback effect, others argue that this issue is tentative and context-bound (Green, 2007. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of using Mock tests in International English Language Testing System (IELTS preparation courses on students’ overall IELTS scores. Fifty one IELTS students were selected non-randomly through the quota sampling approach out of 76 students at Mahan Language Institute in Birjand, Iran.  These participants were distributed into Group 1 (n=25 and Group 2 (n=26. A complete IELTS test was administered to ensure that the Groups were homogeneous and to serve as pretest. After 10 sessions of intervention, a different IELTS test was administered as posttest. The results of between subject analysis through independent samples t-test revealed that using Mock tests in the IELTS preparation courses can positively affect the participants scores on IELTS exam. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  3. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahir Vally

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection is associated with disturbances in brain function referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. This literature review outlines the recently revised diagnostic criteria for the range of HAND from the earliest to the more advanced stages: (i asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment; (ii mild neurocognitive disorder; and (iii HIV-associated dementia. Relevant literature is also reviewed regarding the differential impact upon component cognitive domains known to be affected in HAND, which in turn should ideally be targeted during clinical and neuropsychological assessments: psychomotor and information processing speed, learning and memory, attention and working memory, speech and language, executive functioning and visuospatial functioning. A discussion outlining the neuropsychological tools used in the diagnostic screening of HAND is also included. The central mechanisms of HAND appear to revolve primarily around psychomotor slowing and cognitive control over mental operations, possibly reflecting the influence of disrupted fronto-striatal circuits on distributed neural networks critical to cognitive functions. The accurate assessment and diagnosis of HAND depends on meeting the need for statistically sound neuropsychological assessment techniques that may be used confidently in assessing South African populations, as well as the development of relevant norms for comparison of test performance data.

  4. Comparison of baseline and post-concussion ImPACT test scores in young athletes with stimulant-treated and untreated ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ryan M; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron; Bonfield, Christopher M; Solomon, Gary S

    2017-02-01

    Baseline and post-concussion neurocognitive testing is useful in managing concussed athletes. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and stimulant medications are recognized as potential modifiers of performance on neurocognitive testing by the Concussion in Sport Group. Our goal was to assess whether individuals with ADHD perform differently on post-concussion testing and if this difference is related to the use of stimulants. Retrospective case-control study in which 4373 athletes underwent baseline and post-concussion testing using the ImPACT battery. 277 athletes self-reported a history of ADHD, of which, 206 reported no stimulant treatment and 69 reported stimulant treatment. Each group was matched with participants reporting no history of ADHD or stimulant use on several biopsychosocial characteristics. Non-parametric tests were used to assess ImPACT composite score differences between groups. Participants with ADHD had worse verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor speed, and reaction time scores than matched controls at baseline and post-concussion, all with p ≤ .001 and |r|≥ 0.100. Athletes without stimulant treatment had lower verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor speed, and reaction time scores than controls at baseline (p ≤ 0.01, |r|≥ 0.100 [except verbal memory, r = -0.088]) and post-concussion (p = 0.000, |r|> 0.100). Athletes with stimulant treatment had lower verbal memory (Baseline: p = 0.047, r = -0.108; Post-concussion: p = 0.023, r = -0.124) and visual memory scores (Baseline: p = 0.013, r = -0.134; Post-concussion: p = 0.003, r = -0.162) but equivalent visual motor speed and reaction time scores versus controls at baseline and post-concussion. ADHD-specific baseline and post-concussion neuropsychological profiles, as well as stimulant medication status, may need to be considered when interpreting ImPACT test results. Further investigation into the effects of ADHD and stimulant use on recovery from

  5. The Weighted Airman Promotion System: Standardizing Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Imagery Analysis 1N2X1 Communications Signals Intelligence 1N3X0 Cryptologic Linguist (Superintendent) 1N3X1 Germanic Cryptologic Linguist 1N3X2 Romance ...different scoring method would also need to be developed. Such a plan would have to consider the psychological and perceived sensi- tivities to changing... Psychological Association, 1997. Shore, C. Wayne, and R. Bruce Gould, Revalidation of WAPS and SNCOPP, Volume I: Background, Procedure, and Statistical

  6. The definition of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: are we overestimating the real prevalence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisslén Magnus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial prevalence of mild neurocognitive disorders has been reported in HIV, also in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. This includes a new disorder that has been termed asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI. Discussion ANI is identified by performance on formal neuropsychological testing that is at least 1 SD below the mean of normative scores in at least two cognitive domains out of at least five examined in patients without associated symptoms or evident functional impairment in daily living. While two tests are recommended to assess each domain, only one is required to fulfill this diagnostic criterion. Unfortunately, this definition necessitates that about 20% of the cognitively normal HIV-infected population is classified as suffering ANI. This liberal definition raises important ethical concerns and has as well diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Since neither its biological substrate, prognostic significance nor therapeutic implications are clearly established, we recommend that this diagnosis be modified or applied cautiously. Summary The diagnoses of less severe forms of neurocognitive disorders in HIV relies on the outcomes of neuropsychological testing, and a high proportion of HIV-infected patients with effective cART may be classified as neurocognitively abnormal using the current criteria. The definition of ANI is not stringent, and results in approximately 20% of the population being classified as abnormal. To us this seems an unacceptable false-positive rate.

  7. Improving Test Score Reporting: Perspectives from the ETS Score Reporting Conference. Research Report. ETS RR-11-45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Rivera, Diego, Ed.; Zwick, Rebecca, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This volume includes 3 papers based on presentations at a workshop on communicating assessment information to particular audiences, held at Educational Testing Service (ETS) on November 4th, 2010, to explore some issues that influence score reports and new advances that contribute to the effectiveness of these reports. Jessica Hullman, Rebecca…

  8. Neurocognitive Trajectory of Boys Who Received a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant at an Early Stage of Childhood Cerebral Adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpont, Elizabeth I; Eisengart, Julie B; Shanley, Ryan; Nascene, David; Raymond, Gerald V; Shapiro, Elsa G; Ziegler, Rich S; Orchard, Paul J; Miller, Weston P

    2017-06-01

    Untreated childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (cALD) is a fatal disease associated with progressive cerebral demyelination and rapid, devastating neurologic decline. The standard of care to enhance long-term survival and stabilize cerebral disease is a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Neurologic outcomes are better when HSCT occurs at an earlier stage of cALD, yet there is limited understanding of the neurocognitive trajectory of patients who undergo HSCT. To characterize neurocognitive outcomes of boys with cALD and early-stage cerebral disease who were treated with an allogeneic HSCT and to identify disease- and treatment-related factors associated with long-term functioning. Baseline and follow-up neurocognitive test performance was analyzed for all boys with cALD who received an HSCT at the University of Minnesota between January 1, 1991, and October 20, 2014, and who had a pretransplant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) severity score of less than 10 (scale range, 0-34; higher scores indicate greater severity). Longitudinal neurocognitive test performance in 4 domains (verbal comprehension, perceptual [visual] reasoning, working memory, and processing speed) were the primary outcome measures. Secondary analysis at the most recent evaluation also included measures of sustained attention, verbal memory, visual-motor integration, and fine motor function. Among the 62 boys in this study (mean [SD] age at transplant, 8.37 [2.80] years; range, 4-16 years), there was a significant association of pretransplant MRI severity and baseline verbal comprehension (r = -0.340; P = .008), perceptual reasoning (r = -0.419; P = .001), and processing speed (r = -0.285; P = .03) scores. Higher pretransplant MRI severity scores were also associated with a steeper decline in neurocognitive functioning during the 5-year follow-up period. Twenty-two of 33 patients (67%) with available long-term follow-up neurocognitive testing had severe impairment

  9. Norm Scores of the Box and Block Test for Children Ages 3-10 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new norm scores for the Box and Block Test for gross manual dexterity in children ages 3-10 yr. Two hundred fifteen Dutch children performed the Box and Block Test separately with each hand. We found an age effect for the scores; older children obtained higher scores than younger

  10. Norm scores of the box and block test for children ages 3-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new norm scores for the Box and Block Test for gross manual dexterity in children ages 3-10 yr. Two hundred fifteen Dutch children performed the Box and Block Test separately with each hand. We found an age effect for the scores; older children obtained higher scores than younger

  11. Using Heteroskedastic Ordered Probit Models to Recover Moments of Continuous Test Score Distributions from Coarsened Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.; Shear, Benjamin R.; Castellano, Katherine E.; Ho, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Test score distributions of schools or demographic groups are often summarized by frequencies of students scoring in a small number of ordered proficiency categories. We show that heteroskedastic ordered probit (HETOP) models can be used to estimate means and standard deviations of multiple groups' test score distributions from such data. Because…

  12. A "Rearrangement Procedure" for Scoring Adaptive Tests with Review Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Elena C.; Reckase, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    Because of the increased popularity of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), many admissions tests, as well as certification and licensure examinations, have been transformed from their paper-and-pencil versions to computerized adaptive versions. A major difference between paper-and-pencil tests and CAT from an examinee's point of view is that in…

  13. Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms.

  14. Life's Simple 7's Cardiovascular Health Metrics are Associated with Hispanic/Latino Neurocognitive Function: HCHS/SOL Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Hector M; Tarraf, Wassim; Gouskova, Natalia; Rodríguez, Carlos J; Rundek, Tatjana; Grober, Ellen; Pirzada, Amber; González, Patricia; Lutsey, Pamela L; Camacho, Alvaro; Daviglus, Martha L; Wright, Clinton; Mosley, Thomas H

    2016-06-18

    Hispanics/Latinos are purportedly at increased risk for neurocognitive decline and dementias. Without dementia cures, low-cost, well-tolerated public health means for mitigating neurocognitive decline are needed. We examined associations between neurocognition and cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics (Life's Simple 7; LS7) among diverse Hispanics/Latinos. We hypothesized that higher LS7 would be associated with healthier brain function (neurocognitive performance). We used baseline (2008-2011) Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL; N = 9,623; ages 45-74 years) to examine neurocognition in relation to CVH LS7 scores. In age and sex adjusted models, a one unit LS7 score increase (range = 0-14) was associated with higher neurocognitive function on the B-SEVLT sum (0.23 [p < 0.01]; range = 3-42), B-SEVLT recall (0.12 [p < 0.01]; range = 0-15), Word Fluency (phonemic; 0.46 (p < 0.01); range = 0-49), and Digit Symbol Substitution (0.49 (p < 0.01); range = 0-83) tests, respectively. Stated differently, a change from the minimum LS7 (0) to maximum LS7 (14) score corresponded to higher scores on verbal learning (4.62) and memory (2.24), verbal fluency (7.0), and psychomotor processing speed (12). In fully adjusted models the associations were attenuated, but remained statistically significant. Incremental adjustments indicated that Latino background and, to a lesser extent, education were primary contributors to the evinced attenuations. We found that higher neurocognitive function was associated with better LS7 CVH metrics among middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos. Associations between neurocognitive function and LS7 were strongest among two at-risk groups for neurocognitive decline and dementia, women and Hispanics/Latinos with lower education. Public health efforts to reduce cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality may have additional neurocognitive benefits among at-risk Hispanics/Latinos.

  15. Life’s Simple 7’s Cardiovascular Health Metrics are Associated with Hispanic/Latino Neurocognitive Function: HCHS/SOL Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Hector M.; Tarraf, Wassim; Gouskova, Natalia; Rodríguez, Carlos J.; Rundek, Tatjana; Grober, Ellen; Pirzada, Amber; González, Patricia; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Camacho, Alvaro; Daviglus, Martha L.; Wright, Clinton; Mosley, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Hispanics/Latinos are purportedly at increased risk for neurocognitive decline and dementias. Without dementia cures, low-cost, well-tolerated public health means for mitigating neurocognitive decline are needed. Objective We examined associations between neurocognition and cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics (Life’s Simple 7; LS7) among diverse Hispanics/Latinos. We hypothesized that higher LS7 would be associated with healthier brain function (neurocognitive performance). Methods We used baseline (2008–2011) Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL; N = 9,623; ages 45–74 years) to examine neurocognition in relation to CVH LS7 scores. Results In age and sex adjusted models, a one unit LS7 score increase (range = 0–14) was associated with higher neurocognitive function on the B-SEVLT sum (0.23 [p <0.01]; range = 3–42), B-SEVLT recall (0.12 [p <0.01]; range = 0–15), Word Fluency (phonemic; 0.46 (p < 0.01); range = 0–49), and Digit Symbol Substitution (0.49 (p < 0.01); range = 0–83) tests, respectively. Stated differently, a change from the minimum LS7 (0) to maximum LS7 (14) score corresponded to higher scores on verbal learning (4.62) and memory (2.24), verbal fluency (7.0), and psychomotor processing speed (12). In fully adjusted models the associations were attenuated, but remained statistically significant. Incremental adjustments indicated that Latino background and, to a lesser extent, education were primary contributors to the evinced attenuations. Conclusions We found that higher neurocognitive function was associated with better LS7 CVH metrics among middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos. Associations between neurocognitive function and LS7 were strongest among two at-risk groups for neurocognitive decline and dementia, women and Hispanics/Latinos with lower education. Public health efforts to reduce cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality may have additional neurocognitive benefits among at

  16. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study-Neurocognitive Questionnaire (CCSS-NCQ) Revised: Item Response Analysis and Concurrent Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzik, Kelly M.; Huang, I-Chan; Brinkman, Tara M.; Baughman, Brandon; Ness, Kirsten K.; Shenkman, Elizabeth A.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for neurocognitive impairment related to cancer diagnosis or treatment. This study refined and further validated the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study Neurocognitive Questionnaire (CCSS-NCQ), a scale developed to screen for impairment in long-term survivors of childhood cancer. Method Items related to task efficiency, memory, organization and emotional regulation domains were examined using item response theory (IRT). Data were collected from 833 adult survivors of childhood cancer in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study who completed self-report and direct neurocognitive testing. The revision process included: 1) content validity mapping of items to domains, 2) constructing a revised CCSS-NCQ, 3) selecting items within specific domains using IRT, and 4) evaluating concordance between the revised CCSS-NCQ and direct neurocognitive assessment. Results Using content and measurement properties, 32 items were retained (8 items in 4 domains). Items captured low to middle levels of neurocognitive concerns. The latent domain scores demonstrated poor convergent/divergent validity with the direct assessments. Adjusted effect sizes (Cohen's d) for agreement between self-reported memory and direct memory assessment were moderate for total recall (ES=0.66), long-term memory (ES=0.63), and short-term memory (ES=0.55). Effect sizes between self-rated task efficiency and direct assessment of attention were moderate for focused attention (ES=0.70) and attention span (ES=0.50), but small for sustained attention (ES=0.36). Cranial radiation therapy and female gender were associated with lower self-reported neurocognitive function. Conclusion The revised CCSS-NCQ demonstrates adequate measurement properties for assessing day-to-day neurocognitive concerns in childhood cancer survivors, and adds useful information to direct assessment. PMID:24933482

  17. Nutritional and Immunological Correlates of Memory and Neurocognitive Development Among HIV-Infected Children Living in Kayunga, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiseñor-Escudero, Horacio; Familiar-Lopez, Itziar; Sikorskii, Alla; Jambulingam, Nikita; Nakasujja, Noelline; Opoka, Robert; Bass, Judith; Boivin, Michael

    2016-04-15

    To identify the nutritional and immunological correlates of memory and neurocognitive development as measured by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) and by the Color Object Association Test (COAT) among children in Uganda. This analysis uses baseline data collected between 2008 and 2010 from 119 HIV-infected children aged 1-6 years, participating in a randomized controlled trial of an interventional parenting program in Kayunga, Uganda. Peripheral blood draws were performed to determine immunological biomarkers. Unadjusted and adjusted linear regression models were used to relate MSEL and COAT scores to sociodemographic characteristics, weight-for-age Z scores (WAZs), antiretroviral therapy status, and immunological biomarkers. In the final analysis, 111 children were included. Lower levels of CD4 CD38 T cells (P = 0.04) were associated to higher immediate and total recall scores (P = 0.04). Higher levels of CD8 HLA-DR T cells were associated with higher total recall score (P = 0.04) of the COAT. Higher CD4 CD38 HLA-DR T cells levels were associated with higher gross motor scores of the MSEL (P = 0.02). WAZ was positively correlated to visual reception, fine motor, expressive language, and composite score of the MSEL. Overall, WAZ was a stronger predictor of neurocognitive outcomes assessed by the MSEL. CD4 CD38 T cells were more specifically associated with memory-related outcomes. Future research should include immunological markers and standardized neurocognitive tests to further understand this relationship.

  18. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: The Longitudinal Value of Local Cut Scores Using State Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M.; Van Norman, Ethan R.; VanDerHeyden, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    We used existing reading (n = 1,498) and math (n = 2,260) data to evaluate state test scores for screening middle school students. In Phase 1, state test data were used to create a research-derived cut score that was optimal for predicting state test performance the following year. In Phase 2, those cut scores were applied with future cohorts.…

  19. Stability of scores for the Slosson Full-Range Intelligence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas O; Eaves, Ronald C; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Mariano, Gina

    2007-08-01

    The test-retest stability of the Slosson Full-Range Intelligence Test by Algozzine, Eaves, Mann, and Vance was investigated with test scores from a sample of 103 students. With a mean interval of 13.7 mo. and different examiners for each of the two test administrations, the test-retest reliability coefficients for the Full-Range IQ, Verbal Reasoning, Abstract Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, and Memory were .93, .85, .80, .80, and .83, respectively. Mean differences from the test-retest scores were not statistically significantly different for any of the scales. Results suggest that Slosson scores are stable over time even when different examiners administer the test.

  20. Comparison of a Class of Rank-Score Tests in Two-Factor Designs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The empirical Type I error rate and power of these test statistics on the rank scores were determined using Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the robustness of the tests. The results show that there are problems of inflation in the Type I error rate using asymptotic ƒÓ2 test for all the rank score functions, especially for small ...

  1. Are Score Comparisons across Language Proficiency Test Batteries Justified?: An IELTS-TOEFL Comparability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geranpayeh, Ardeshir

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted to determine if comparisons between scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing Service (IELTS) are justifiable. The test scores of 216 Iranian graduate students who took the TOEFL and IELTS, as well as the Iranian Ministry of Culture and Higher…

  2. Allometric Scaling of Wingate Anaerobic Power Test Scores in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzler, Ronald K.; Stickley, Christopher D.; Kimura, Iris F.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we developed allometric exponents for scaling Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) power data that are reflective in controlling for body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) and established a normative WAnT data set for college-age women. One hundred women completed a standard WAnT. Allometric exponents and percentile ranks for peak (PP)…

  3. Examining the Effect of Proctoring on Online Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, Helaine M.; Malay, Nancy; Maurer, Karsten; Bailer, A. John; Rubin, Beth

    2017-01-01

    Online education continues to grow, bringing opportunities and challenges for students and instructors. One challenge is the perception that academic integrity associated with online tests is compromised due to undetected cheating that yields artificially higher grades. To address these concerns, proctoring software has been developed to address…

  4. Concussion symptoms and neurocognitive performance of high school and college athletes who incur multiple concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Moran, Ryan; Wilhelm, Kristyn

    2013-12-01

    Multiple concussions have been associated with prolonged symptoms, recovery time, and risk for future concussions. However, very few studies have examined the effect of multiple concussions on neurocognitive performance and the recently revised symptom clusters using a large database. To examine concussed athletes with a history of 0, 1, 2, or ≥3 concussions on neurocognitive performance and the recently revised symptom clusters. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. The independent variables were concussion group (0, 1, 2, and ≥3 concussions) and time (baseline, 3 days, and 8 days). The dependent variables were neurocognitive test scores as measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neurocognitive test battery (verbal and visual memory, processing speed, and reaction time) and 4 concussion symptom clusters (migraine-cognitive-fatigue, affective, somatic, and sleep). All concussed athletes (n = 596) were administered the ImPACT test at a mean 2.67 ± 1.98 and 7.95 ± 4.46 days after injury. A series of 4 (concussion group) × 3 (time) repeated-measures analyses of covariance (age = covariate) were performed on ImPACT composite scores and symptom clusters. Concussed athletes with ≥3 concussions were still impaired 8 days after a concussion compared with baseline scores on verbal memory (P Concussed athletes with a history of ≥3 concussions take longer to recover than athletes with 1 or no previous concussion. Future research should concentrate on validating the new symptom clusters on multiple concussed athletes, examining longer recovery times (ie, >8 days) among athletes with multiple concussions.

  5. Comparing Graphical and Verbal Representations of Measurement Error in Test Score Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Rebecca; Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Hegarty, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that many educators do not understand the terminology or displays used in test score reports and that measurement error is a particularly challenging concept. We investigated graphical and verbal methods of representing measurement error associated with individual student scores. We created four alternative score reports, each…

  6. Effects of Test Media on Different EFL Test-Takers in Writing Scores and in the Cognitive Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    The effects of computer and paper test media on EFL test-takers with different computer familiarity in writing scores and in the cognitive writing process have been comprehensively explored from the learners' aspect as well as on the basis of related theories and practice. The results indicate significant differences in test scores among the…

  7. Brain-based teaching : behavioral and neuro-cognitive evidence for the power of test-enhanced learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola

    2014-01-01

    A primary goal of education is the acquisition of durable knowledge which challenges the use of efficient pedagogical methods of how to best facilitate learning. Research in cognitive psychology has demonstrated that repeated testing during the learning phase improves performance on later retention tests compared to restudy of material. This empirical phenomenon is called the testing effect. The testing effect has shown to be robust across different kinds of material and when compared to diff...

  8. Neurocognitive function of pediatric heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavisto, Anu; Korkman, Marit; Jalanko, Hannu; Holmberg, Christer; Qvist, Erik

    2010-07-01

    Pediatric heart transplant recipients exhibit cognitive delays, as evident in assessments of their general intelligence. Less is known about their specific neurocognitive impairments. All 19 children in Finland aged 6 to 16 years who had undergone heart transplantation (HTx) participated. Of these, 12 (63%) had cardiomyopathy (CM) and 7 (37%) had congenital heart disease (CHD). They were assessed on average 5.5 (SD, 3.6) years post-operatively at a mean age of 12.0 (SD, 3.1) years. A standardized test of intelligence (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children [WISC]-III), a neuropsychological test battery (NEPSY-II), and a parental developmental questionnaire (FTF) were administered. The neuropsychological test profile of the HTx group was compared with that of a matched control group. HTx children had a lower mean Performance Intelligence Quotient (PIQ; 82.2, p = 0.001) and Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ; 85.6, p = 0.004) compared with population norms. HTx children scored generally lower than the control group on the neuropsychological tests (p = 0.002). Seven patients with pre-HTx neurologic sequelae (n = 6) or extreme prematurity (n = 1) had lower mean FSIQ (72.1) than did children without major pre-HTx risk factors (93.5, p = 0.012). The latter group scored below average on only 1 of 6 WISC-III sub-tests and 2 of 10 NEPSY-II sub-tests, all measuring visuoconstructional performance. Children without major neurologic risk factors pre-HTx may have normal general intelligence after HTx but deficits in the visuoconstructional domain.

  9. Clinical Importance of the Heel Drop Test and a New Clinical Score for Adult Appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Shin; Lee, Hyeji; Choi, Wookjin; Ahn, Ryeok; Hong, Jung-Suk; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Seo, Dong Woo; Lee, Yoon-Seon; Lim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective We tried to evaluate the accuracy of the heel drop test in patients with suspected appendicitis and tried to develop a new clinical score, which incorporates the heel drop test and other parameters, for the diagnosis of this condition. Methods We performed a prospective observational study on adult patients with suspected appendicitis at two academic urban emergency departments between January and August 2015. The predictive characteristics of each parameter, along with heel drop test results were calculated. A composite score was generated by logistic regression analysis. The performance of the generated score was compared to that of the Alvarado score. Results Of the 292 enrolled patients, 165 (56.5%) had acute appendicitis. The heel drop test had a higher predictive value than rebound tenderness. Variables and their points included in the new (MESH) score were pain migration (2), elevated white blood cell (WBC) >10,000/μL (3), shift to left (2), and positive heel drop test (3). The MESH score had a higher AUC than the Alvarado score (0.805 vs. 0.701). Scores of 5 and 11 were chosen as cut-off values; a MESH score ≥5 compared to an Alvarado score ≥5, and a MESH score ≥8 compared to an Alvarado score ≥7 showed better performance in diagnosing appendicitis. Conclusion MESH (migration, elevated WBC, shift to left, and heel drop test) is a simple clinical scoring system for assessing patients with suspected appendicitis and is more accurate than the Alvarado score. Further validation studies are needed. PMID:27723842

  10. Are Increasing Test Scores in Texas Really a Myth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Toenjes

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Pass rates by Texas tenth-graders on the high school exit exam improved from 52 percent in 1994 to 72 percent in 1998. In his article "The Myth of the Texas Miracle in Education" (EPAA, August 2000 Professor Walt Haney argued that some part of this increased pass rate was, as he put it, an illusion. Haney contended that the combined effects of students dropping out of school prior to taking the 10th grade TAAS and special education exemptions accounted for much of the increase in TAAS pass rates. Relying on the same methodology and data that Haney used, we demonstrate that his conclusion is incorrect. None of the 20 percent improvement in the TAAS exit test pass rate between 1994 and 1998 is explained by combined increases in dropout rates or special education exemptions.

  11. Enhanced neurocognitive functioning and positive temperament in twins discordant for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higier, Rachel G; Jimenez, Amy M; Hultman, Christina M; Borg, Jacqueline; Roman, Cristina; Kizling, Isabelle; Larsson, Henrik; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2014-11-01

    Based on evidence linking creativity and bipolar disorder, a model has been proposed whereby factors influencing liability to bipolar disorder confer certain traits with positive effects on reproductive fitness. The authors tested this model by examining key traits known to be associated with evolutionary fitness, namely, temperament and neurocognition, in individuals carrying liability for bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia probands and their co-twins were included as psychiatric controls. Twin pairs discordant for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and control pairs were identified through the Swedish Twin Registry. The authors administered a neuropsychological test battery and temperament questionnaires to samples of bipolar probands, bipolar co-twins, schizophrenia probands, schizophrenia co-twins, and controls. Multivariate mixed-model analyses of variance were conducted to compare groups on temperament and neurocognitive scores. Bipolar co-twins showed elevated scores on a "positivity" temperament scale compared with controls and bipolar probands, while bipolar probands scored higher on a "negativity" scale compared with their co-twins and controls, who did not differ. Additionally, bipolar co-twins showed superior performance compared with controls on tests of verbal learning and fluency, while bipolar probands showed performance decrements across all neurocognitive domains. In contrast, schizophrenia co-twins showed attenuated impairments in positivity and overall neurocognitive functioning relative to their ill proband counterparts. These findings suggest that supra-normal levels of sociability and verbal functioning may be associated with liability for bipolar disorder. These effects were specific to liability for bipolar disorder and did not apply to schizophrenia. Such benefits may provide a partial explanation for the persistence of bipolar illness in the population.

  12. Correlation of neurocognitive function and brain parenchyma volumes in children surviving cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddick, Wilburn E.; White, Holly A.; Glass, John O.; Mulhern, Raymond K.

    2002-04-01

    This research builds on our hypothesis that white matter damage and associated neurocognitive symptoms, in children treated for cancer with cranial spinal irradiation, spans a continuum of severity that can be reliably probed using non-invasive MR technology. Quantitative volumetric assessments of MR imaging and psychological assessments were obtained in 40 long-term survivors of malignant brain tumors treated with cranial irradiation. Neurocognitive assessments included a test of intellect (Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), attention (Conner's Continuous Performance Test), and memory (California Verbal Learning Test). One-sample t-tests were conducted to evaluate test performance of survivors against age-adjusted scores from the test norms; these analyses revealed significant impairments in all apriori selected measures of intelligence, attention, and memory. Partial correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationships between brain tissues volumes (normal appearing white matter (NAWM), gray matter, and CSF) and neurocognitive function. Global intelligence (r = 0.32, p = 0.05) and global attentional (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) were significantly positively correlated with NAWM volumes, whereas global memory was significantly positively correlated with overall brain parenchyma (r = 0.38, p = 0.04). We conclude that quantitative assessment of MR examinations in survivors of childhood cancer treated with cranial irradiation reveal that loss of NAWM is associated with decreased intellectual and attentional deficits, whereas overall parenchyma loss, as reflected by increased CSF and decreased white matter, is associated with memory-related deficits.

  13. Individual Part Score Profiles of Children with Intellectual Disability: A Descriptive Analysis across Three Intelligence Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Renee; Floyd, Randy G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the group- and individual-level part score profiles of children with intellectual disability (ID) who participated in clinical validity studies supporting three individually administered intelligence tests. Across tests, children with ID produced group-level profiles comprising mean part scores that fell in the Low to Very Low…

  14. AP Trends: Tests Soar, Scores Slip--Gaps between Groups Spur Equity Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    More students are taking Advanced Placement tests, but the proportion of tests receiving what is deemed a passing score has dipped, and the mean score is down for the fourth year in a row. Data released here this week by the New York City-based nonprofit organization that owns the AP brand shows that a greater-than-ever proportion of students…

  15. Beyond Correlations: Usefulness of High School GPA and Test Scores in Making College Admissions Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Correlational evidence suggests that high school GPA is better than admission test scores in predicting first-year college GPA, although test scores have incremental predictive validity. The usefulness of a selection variable in making admission decisions depends in part on its predictive validity, but also on institutions' selectivity and…

  16. The Implications of Family Size and Birth Order for Test Scores and Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silles, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    This article, using longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study, presents new evidence on the effects of family size and birth order on test scores and behavioral development at age 7, 11 and 16. Sibling size is shown to have an adverse causal effect on test scores and behavioral development. For any given family size, first-borns…

  17. Comparing the Effects of Elementary Music and Visual Arts Lessons on Standardized Mathematics Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Molly Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to compare the effect elementary music and visual arts lessons had on third through sixth grade standardized mathematics test scores. Inferential statistics were used to compare the differences between test scores of students who took in-school, elementary, music instruction during the…

  18. Using Raters from India to Score a Large-Scale Speaking Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…

  19. The Dynamics of the Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kitae

    2012-01-01

    We apply a quantile version of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to estimate the counterfactual distribution of the test scores of Black students. In the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), we find that the gap initially appears only at the top of the distribution of test scores. As children age, however,…

  20. Does IQ = IQ? Comparability of Intelligence Test Scores in Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander

    2016-08-05

    Numerous intelligence tests are available to psychological diagnosticians to assess children's intelligence, but whether they yield comparable test results has been little studied. We examined test scores of 206 typically developing children aged 6 to 11 years on five German intelligence tests (Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales; Snijders Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test; Intelligence and Development Scales; Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition; Culture Fair Intelligence Test Scale 2), which were individually administered. On a sample level, the test scores showed strong correlation and little or no mean difference. These results indicate that the tests measure a similar underlying construct, which is interpreted as general intelligence. On an individual level, however, test scores significantly differed across tests for 12% to 38% of the children. Differences did not depend on which test was used but rather on unexplained error. Implications for the application of intelligence assessment in psychological practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. The Relationship between Scores on the Graduate Management Admission Test and the Test of English as a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald E.

    In addition to scores on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), which are required of applicants to a substantial number of graduate management schools, foreign candidates may also be required to submit scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) as an indication of English language proficiency. The present study provides…

  2. Long-term neurocognitive outcome and quality of life in pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppiej, Agnese; Cainelli, Elisa; Casara, Giulia; Cappellari, Ambra; Nosadini, Margherita; Sartori, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an inflammatory-demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system usually with a monophasic course and a favorable neurological outcome. Long-term neurocognitive sequelae and quality of life have not yet been fully investigated. To examine neurocognitive outcome and quality of life in pediatric monophasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Of the 36 patients diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis at our institution, six were lost to follow-up and eight relapsed (two with multiphasic forms and six with multiple sclerosis). The outcome of the 22 remaining patients was evaluated using four subscales of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for estimation of IQ, a battery of neuropsychological tests, and semistructured and PedsQL questionnaires for quality of life. The effect of age at onset, neuroradiological recovery, and time elapsed from the acute event on outcome was also investigated. Estimated IQ, neuropsychological mean group scores, and quality of life at follow-up were within the normal range, but 23% of the patients had pathological scores in various neuropsychological functions, among which attention was the most clearly affected. The neuroradiological recovery was not correlated with the result of the neuropsychological tests. Age at onset correlated with linguistic skills, whereas the time elapsed from the acute event had a significant effect on attention tasks: scores were worse in the group of patients with a follow-up shorter than 7 years. Our results suggest that pediatric monophasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis has a favorable neurocognitive outcome. Patients with longer follow-up had a better outcome, suggesting a neurocognitive course that is different from that of multiple sclerosis and a potential for long-term recovery of affected functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Pattern of Perseveration in Cocaine Addiction May Reveal Neurocognitive Processes Implicit in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woicik, Patricia A.; Urban, Catherine; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Henry, Ashley; Maloney, Thomas; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to adapt behavior in a changing environment is necessary for humans to achieve their goals and can be measured in the lab with tests of rule-based switching. Disease models, such as cocaine addiction, have revealed that alterations in dopamine interfere with adaptive set switching, culminating in perseveration. We explore perseverative…

  4. Effects of Targeted Test Preparation on Scores of Two Tests of Oral English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of targeted test preparation, or coaching, on oral English as a second language test scores. The tests in question were the Basic English Skills Test Plus (BEST Plus), a scripted oral interview published by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the Versant English Test (VET), a computer-administered and…

  5. Comparing Test Scores Using Information From Criterion-Related Validity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaujean, A Alexander; McGlaughlin, Sean M

    2016-01-01

    There is frequently a need to compare a client's test scores from different instruments. If the scores come from instruments that use the same scale, it is tempting to compare the scores directly. Unfortunately, this method can lead clinicians to believe that there is a large difference between scores when the difference is minimal. As an alternative, we outline a method for score comparison that uses information from criterion-related validity studies. Using three examples, we show why this method is more psychometrically sound, produces more accurate comparison scores, and requires little extra work for clinicians than the direct comparison approach. To make the score comparison process easy for clinicians to use, we include an appendix that demonstrates how to implement this method in Microsoft Excel and the free R program.

  6. Using Microcomputer Software to Score Placement Tests--An Example from the University of California, Irvine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Judith S.; And Others

    This article describes the placement testing program, the use of microcomputer software for scoring and analyzing test results, and the integration of the computerized test results into a comprehensive microcomputer-based student information system at the University of California, Irvine (UCI). UCI offers placement tests in five academic fields:…

  7. Loanwords and Vocabulary Size Test Scores: A Case of Different Estimates for Different L1 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Batia; McLean, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The article investigated how the inclusion of loanwords in vocabulary size tests affected the test scores of two L1 groups of EFL learners: Hebrew and Japanese. New BNC- and COCA-based vocabulary size tests were constructed in three modalities: word form recall, word form recognition, and word meaning recall. Depending on the test modality, the…

  8. The Effect of Test Speededness on the Validity of Reading Comprehension Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, S. J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study examined irregularities in reading comprehension (RC) test results at both the individual and aggregate levels, focusing on the effect of test speededness on test scores. Data were taken from results of the Stanford Achievement Test--Seventh Edition (SAT/7), administered during April of 1983 to about 50,000 Palm Beach County (Florida)…

  9. Factor Analysis of an Expanded Halstead-Reitan Battery and the Structure of Neurocognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Virginie M; Brown, Gregory G; Thomas, Michael L; Roesch, Scott C; Taylor, Michael J; Heaton, Robert K

    2017-05-13

    The structure of neurocognition is explored by examining the neurocognitive domains underlying comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of cognitively healthy individuals. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the adult normative dataset of an expanded Halstead-Reitan Battery (eHRB), comprising Caucasian and African American participants. The factor structure contributions of the original HRB, eHRB expansion, and Wechsler intelligence scales were compared. Demographic effects were examined on composite factor scores calculated using confirmatory factor analysis. The full eHRB had an eight-factor structure, with latent constructs including: 'working memory', 'fluency', 'verbal episodic memory', 'visuospatial cognition' (visuospatial memory and problem solving), 'perceptual-motor speed' (speed for processing visual/tactile material and hand-motor execution), 'perceptual attention' (attention to sensory-perceptual information), 'semantic knowledge' (knowledge acquired through education and culturally-based experiences), and 'phonological decoding' (grapheme-phoneme processing essential for sounding-out words). 'Perceptual-motor speed' and 'perceptual attention' were most negatively associated with age, whereas 'semantic knowledge' and 'phonological decoding' were most resistant to aging. 'Semantic knowledge' showed the greatest dependence on demographic background, including education and ethnicity. Gender differences in cognitive performances were negligible across all domains except 'phonological decoding' with women slightly outperforming men. The original HRB contributed four neurocognitive domains, the eHRB expansion three domains, and the Wechsler scales one additional domain but with restructuring of verbal factors. Eight neurocognitive domains underlie performance of healthy cognitive individuals during comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. These domains serve as framework for understanding the constructs measured by commonly

  10. Correlation Between Students' Dental Admission Test Scores and Performance on a Dental School's Competency Exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Alexander M; Schuster, Gregory M

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was a statistically significant positive correlation between dental students' Dental Admission Test (DAT) scores, particularly on the Perceptual Ability Test (PAT), and their performance on a dental school's competency exam. Scores from the written and clinical competency exam administered in the fall quarter of the fourth year of the curriculum at Midwestern University College of Dental Medicine-Arizona were compared to DAT scores of all 216 members of the graduating classes of 2012 and 2013. It was hypothesized that students who performed highly on one or more sections of the DAT would perform highly on the competency exam. Backward stepwise regression analyses were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the PAT scores were most strongly correlated with the competency exam scores and were a positive predictor for all three clinical sections of the exam (operative dentistry, periodontics, and endodontics). Positive predictors for the written portion of the exam were total DAT score for patient assessment and treatment planning and the DAT reading comprehension score for prosthodontics; there were no predictors for periodontics. The total variance explained by the results ranged from 4% to 15%. While statistically significant relationships were found between the students' PAT scores and clinical performance, DAT scores explained relatively little variance in the competency exam scores. According to these findings, neither the PAT nor any of the DAT components contributed to predicting these students' clinical performance.

  11. Neurocognitive functioning in compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Katherine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2014-02-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) is a fairly common behavioral problem estimated to affect 5.8% of the population. Although previous research has examined the clinical characteristics of CB, little research has examined whether people with CB manifest cognitive deficits. Twenty-three non-treatment-seeking compulsive buyers (mean age, 22.3±3.5; 60.9% female) and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (mean age, 21.1±3.4, 60.9% female) underwent neurocognitive assessment. We predicted that the following cognitive domains would be impaired in CB: spatial working memory (Spatial Working Memory test), response inhibition (Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift task), and decision making (Cambridge Gambling Task). Compared with controls, individuals with CB exhibited significant impairments in response inhibition (P=.043), risk adjustment during decision making (P=.010), and spatial working memory (P=.041 total errors; P=.044 strategy scores). Deficits were of large effect size (Cohen's d, 0.6 to 1.05). These pilot data suggest that individuals with CB experience problems in several distinct cognitive domains, supporting a likely neurobiological overlap between CB and other putative behavioral and substance addictions. These findings may have implications for shared treatment approaches as well as how we currently classify and understand CB.

  12. Estimating the Relationship between Use of Test-Preparation Methods and Scores on the Graduate Management Admission Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Linda F.; Wightman, Lawrence E.

    This study sought to examine the relationship between five methods of test preparation and test performance as measured by Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) Verbal, Quantitative and Total scores. Data on method of test preparation were obtained through voluntary examinee response to five questions which appeared on the answer sheets. One…

  13. Exercise Modality Is Differentially Associated with Neurocognition in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effects of exercise modality and type of fitness index on cognitive function in the older adults as assessed via behavioral and neuroelectrical approaches. Sixty older adults were assigned to an aerobic exercise, a coordination exercise, or a control group based on their previous exercise experience. The participants completed congruent and incongruent trials of a modified Stroop Test, during which, event-related potentials were recorded. The participants also completed multiple physical tests that assessed health- and skill-related fitness. Our findings suggest that, in general, both aerobic and coordination exercise, as well as higher scores on health- and skill-related fitness indices, are positively associated with better performance of various cognitive functions in the elderly population. The mechanisms underlying these relationships may be differentially related to specific neuroelectrical processes involved in neurocognitive control.

  14. Use of Standardized Test Scores to Predict Success in a Computer Applications Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert V.; King, Stephanie B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if a relationship existed between American College Testing (ACT) scores (i.e., English, reading, mathematics, science reasoning, and composite) and student success in a computer applications course at a Mississippi community college. The study showed that while the ACT scores were excellent predictors of…

  15. See It, Be It, Write It: Using Performing Arts to Improve Writing Skills and Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher-Sass, Hope Sara; Moffitt, Maryellen

    2010-01-01

    Improve students' writing skills and boost their assessment scores while adding arts education, creativity, and fun to your writing curriculum. With this vibrant resource, improving writing skills goes hand-in-hand with improving test scores. Students learn how to use acting and visualization as prewriting activities to help them connect writing…

  16. TOEFL iBT Speaking Test Scores as Indicators of Oral Communicative Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Brent; Powers, Donald; Stone, Elizabeth; Mollaun, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Scores assigned by trained raters and by an automated scoring system (SpeechRater[TM]) on the speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] were validated against a communicative competence criterion. Specifically, a sample of 555 undergraduate students listened to speech samples from 184 examinees who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language…

  17. The Impact of the 2004 Hurricanes on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Ferretti, Larissa K.

    2008-01-01

    What is the impact of natural disasters on students' statewide assessment scores? To answer this question, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) scores of 55,881 students in grades 4 through 10 were analyzed to determine if there were significant decreases after the 2004 hurricanes. Results reveal that there was statistical but no practical…

  18. Affective symptoms in schizophrenia are strongly associated with neurocognitive deficits indicating disorders in executive functions, visual memory, attention and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Thika, Supaksorn; Anderson, George; Galecki, Piotr; Maes, Michael

    2018-01-03

    The aim of this study was to assess the neurocognitive correlates of affective symptoms in schizophrenia. Towards this end, 40 healthy controls and 80 schizophrenia patients were investigated with six tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), assessing spatial working memory, paired-association learning, one touch stocking, rapid visual information (RVP), emotional recognition test and intra/extradimensional set shifting. The Hamilton Depression (HDRS) and Anxiety (HAMA) Rating Scales and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) as well as the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were also used. There were highly significant associations between all 6 CANTAB tests and HDRS, HAMA and CDSS (except RVP) scores. The most significant items associating with neurocognitive impairments in schizophrenia were self-depreciation (CDSS), fatigue, psychomotor retardation and agitation, psychic and somatic anxiety (HDRS), fears, cognitive symptoms, somatic-muscular, genito-urinary and autonomic symptoms and anxious behavior (HAMA). The selected HDRS and HAMA symptoms indicate fatigue, fears, anxiety, agitation, retardation, somatization and subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) and are therefore labeled "FAARS". Up to 28.8% of the variance in the 6 CANTAB measurements was explained by FAARS, which are better predictors of neurocognitive impairments than the PANSS negative subscale score. Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia are best predicted by FAARS combined with difficulties in abstract thinking. In conclusion, depression and anxiety symptoms accompanying the negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with neurocognitive deficits indicating disorders in executive functions, attention, visual memory, and social cognition. Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia reflect difficulties in abstract thinking and FAARS, including subjective cognitive complaints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Relationships between spatial activities and scores on the mental rotation test as a function of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Sheryl R; Pickens, Stefanie J

    2005-06-01

    Previous results suggested that female college students' scores on the Mental Rotations Test might be related to their prior experience with spatial tasks. For example, women who played video games scored better on the test than their non-game-playing peers, whereas playing video games was not related to men's scores. The present study examined whether participation in different types of spatial activities would be related to women's performance on the Mental Rotations Test. 31 men and 59 women enrolled at a small, private church-affiliated university and majoring in art or music as well as students who participated in intercollegiate athletics completed the Mental Rotations Test. Women's scores on the Mental Rotations Test benefitted from experience with spatial activities; the more types of experience the women had, the better their scores. Thus women who were athletes, musicians, or artists scored better than those women who had no experience with these activities. The opposite results were found for the men. Efforts are currently underway to assess how length of experience and which types of experience are related to scores.

  20. A Maturing Global Testing Regime Meets the World Economy: Test Scores and Economic Growth, 1960-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamens, David H.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the growth of the international testing regime. It discusses sources of growth and empirically examines two related sets of issues: (1) the stability of countries' achievement scores, and (2) the influence of those national scores on subsequent economic development over different time lags. The article suggests that…

  1. Scoring Divergent Thinking Tests by Computer With a Semantics-Based Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenes Beketayev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Divergent thinking (DT tests are useful for the assessment of creative potentials. This article reports the semantics-based algorithmic (SBA method for assessing DT. This algorithm is fully automated: Examinees receive DT questions on a computer or mobile device and their ideas are immediately compared with norms and semantic networks. This investigation compared the scores generated by the SBA method with the traditional methods of scoring DT (i.e., fluency, originality, and flexibility. Data were collected from 250 examinees using the “Many Uses Test” of DT. The most important finding involved the flexibility scores from both scoring methods. This was critical because semantic networks are based on conceptual structures, and thus a high SBA score should be highly correlated with the traditional flexibility score from DT tests. Results confirmed this correlation (r = .74. This supports the use of algorithmic scoring of DT. The nearly-immediate computation time required by SBA method may make it the method of choice, especially when it comes to moderate- and large-scale DT assessment investigations. Correlations between SBA scores and GPA were insignificant, providing evidence of the discriminant and construct validity of SBA scores. Limitations of the present study and directions for future research are offered.

  2. Neurocognition, health-related reading literacy, and numeracy in medication management for HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Jones, Deborah Lynne; Gould, Felicia; Kumar, Mahendra; Ownby, Raymond L

    2010-08-01

    Successful medication management is an essential ingredient for effective treatment for HIV. Risk factors for poor medication adherence, including neurocognitive impairment and low health literacy, are common in HIV patients. To better understand the most salient risks for poor management of HIV medications, we tested the interrelation of neurocognitive functioning, reading literacy for health related information, and numeracy and their effect on self-management of a simulated HIV medication regimen. Cross-sectional data on 191 HIV-positive men and women recruited from HIV outpatient clinics in South Florida were collected. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted with literacy, numeracy, and neurocognitive scores and suggested that four factors were present representing executive skill, verbal memory, planning, and motor speed. Both the literacy and numeracy scores loaded on the executive factor. Adjusted analyses showed that executive and planning skills were significantly related to medication management. Findings suggest that patients must rely on higher order cognitive skills to successfully navigate medication self-management, and that efforts to simplify health information that merely lowers readability are likely to meet with limited success.

  3. The Prospective Relationships Among Intrinsic Motivation, Neurocognition, and Psychosocial Functioning in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Eri; Hoe, Maanse; Brekke, John S.

    2010-01-01

    To address significant gaps in our understanding about how neurocognition, intrinsic motivation (IM), and psychosocial functioning are interrelated in schizophrenia, this study investigated the following questions: Is IM stable or dynamic over time? Does neurocognition predict change in IM over time? What is the association between change in neurocognition, change in IM, and change in psychosocial functioning? Finally, what is the causal structure of the relationships among neurocognition, IM, and psychosocial functioning over time? One hundred and thirty individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were recruited from 4 community-based psychosocial rehabilitation programs in urban Los Angeles. Measures of neurocognition were taken at baseline and 12 months. Measures of IM, psychosocial functioning, and symptoms were taken at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Results of latent growth curve modeling analyses demonstrated that IM is dynamic over time. Baseline neurocognition was associated with the initial level of IM but did not predict the rate of change in motivation. However, baseline levels of IM predicted rates of subsequent improvement in neurocognition. Change in IM was strongly associated with change in psychosocial functioning, and change in neurocognition was associated with change in psychosocial functioning, but change in IM was not associated with change in neurocognition. Latent difference score analyses revealed that neurocognition caused changes in psychosocial functioning, and psychosocial functioning caused changes in IM. These findings improve our fundamental understanding of the relationships among these variables and contribute to intervention development for improving outcomes in schizophrenia. PMID:20462998

  4. Sleep disturbance and neurocognitive function during the recovery from a sport-related concussion in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyun, Regina O; Milewski, Matthew D; Hafeez, Imran

    2015-03-01

    Sleep disturbances are a hallmark sign after a sport-related concussion (SRC). Poor sleep has been shown to adversely affect baseline neurocognitive test scores, but it is not comprehensively understood how neurocognitive function is affected by disrupted sleep during recovery from a concussion. To identify the correlation between adolescent athletes' neurocognitive function and their self-reported sleep quantity and sleep disturbance symptoms during recovery from SRC. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognition Testing (ImPACT) data were retrospectively collected for 545 adolescent athletes treated for SRC at a sports medicine concussion clinic. Patients were stratified into groups based on 2 criteria: self-reported sleep duration and self-reported sleep disturbance symptoms during postinjury ImPACT testing. Sleep duration was classified as short (9 hours). Sleep disturbance symptoms were self-reported as part of the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) as either sleeping less than normal, sleeping more than normal, or having trouble falling asleep. One-way analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effects that sleep duration as well as self-reported sleep disturbance symptoms had on composite scores. A total of 1067 ImPACT tests were analyzed: test 1, 545; test 2, 380; and test 3, 142. Sleeping fewer than 7 hours the night before testing correlated with higher PCSS scores (P sleeping longer than 9 hours correlated with worse visual memory (P = .01), visual motor speed (P sleep disturbance symptoms, patients demonstrated worse composite scores during ImPACT testing when they self-reported sleeping more than normal (ImPACT test 1: verbal memory, P memory, P memory, P sleep had been disrupted. Adolescent patients who perceive that their sleep is somehow disrupted after SRC may report a greater number of concussion symptoms during their recovery. In addition, the study results suggest that sleeping more

  5. Online pre-race education improves test scores for volunteers at a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Shane; Renier, Colleen; Sikka, Robby; Widstrom, Luke; Paulson, William; Christensen, Trent; Olson, David; Nelson, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    This study examined whether an online course would lead to increased knowledge about the medical issues volunteers encounter during a marathon. Health care professionals who volunteered to provide medical coverage for an annual marathon were eligible for the study. Demographic information about medical volunteers including profession, specialty, education level and number of marathons they had volunteered for was collected. A 15-question test about the most commonly encountered medical issues was created by the authors and administered before and after the volunteers took the online educational course and compared to a pilot study the previous year. Seventy-four subjects completed the pre-test. Those who participated in the pilot study last year (N = 15) had pre-test scores that were an average of 2.4 points higher than those who did not (mean ranks: pilot study = 51.6 vs. non-pilot = 33.9, p = 0.004). Of the 74 subjects who completed the pre-test, 54 also completed the post-test. The overall post-pre mean score difference was 3.8 ± 2.7 (t = 10.5 df = 53 p test scores. Testing also continued to show short-term improvement in post-course test scores, compared to pre-course test scores. In general, marathon medical volunteers who had no volunteer experience demonstrated greater improvement than those who had prior volunteer experience.

  6. Fast-food consumption and educational test scores in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, K J

    2013-01-01

      Children in the USA are experiencing obesity and overweight at epidemic rates. Schools have started to make policy decisions based on a popularly presumed connection between nutrition and academic achievement. This study aimed to determine whether such a relationship exists, and if so, its nature.   Data from the Food Consumption Questionnaire administered to approximately 12 000 fifth graders as part of the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort was analysed using regression analysis. The analysis used propensity score matching to examine the relationship between students' reported fast-food consumption and their test scores in reading and mathematics. Propensity score matching attempts to control for a host of background characteristics that might be correlated with both fast-food consumption and test scores.   Standard ordinary least squares regression showed that test scores decreased as reported fast-food consumption increased. In the propensity-score-matched analysis, which controlled for 25 student background characteristics, higher-than-average fast-food consumption ('four to six times in the last 7 days' or more) was associated with significantly lower test scores in both reading (-11.15 points or 0.48 SD) and math (-11.13 points or 0.52 SD), even when teacher experience, school poverty level and school urbanicity were also included in the model.   Although this study is preliminary, its results indicate that the relationship between poor nutrition and test scores may in fact be quite negative, strengthening the impetus for schools to consider policies that support students' healthy eating. In order to strengthen these findings and investigate possible mechanisms through which poor nutrition might affect test scores, there is a need for further research. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Association between the Medical College Admission Test scores and Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honors Society membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauer, Jacqueline L; Jackson, J Brooks

    2017-01-01

    Medical schools worldwide are faced with the challenge of selecting from among many qualified applicants. One factor that might help admissions committees identify future exceptional medical students is scores on standardized entrance exams. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between scores on the most commonly used standardized medical school entrance exam in the USA, the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), and election to the US medical honors society, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA). MCAT scores and AOA membership data were analyzed for all the students pursuing Doctor of Medicine degrees at the University of Minnesota Medical School and who graduated between 2012-2016 (n=1,309). An independent-samples t-test found a significant difference (t=6.132, pmedical school was significantly associated with higher MCAT scores. Admissions committees should carefully consider the role of standardized entrance exam scores, in the context of a holistic review, when selecting for exceptional medical students.

  8. Commentary: Student Cognition, the Situated Learning Context, and Test Score Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Paul M.

    2006-01-01

    Although it is assumed that student cognition contributes to student performance on achievement tests, it may be that current testing models lack the degree of specification necessary to warrant such inferences. With test score interpretations as the referent, the authors in this special issue address the role of student cognition in learning and…

  9. Relation between subjective and objective scores on the active straight leg raising test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Mens, Jan M A; Beekmans, RE; Tijhuis, MT

    2010-01-01

    DESIGN: Cross sectional. OBJECTIVE: To fill a gap in the validation of the active straight leg raising (ASLR) test concerning the relation between a patient's subjective score on the ASLR test and the objective measured force. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The ASLR test is used to classify patients

  10. A Modification to Angoff and Bookmarking Cut Scores to Account for the Imperfect Reliability of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that the Angoff and bookmarking cut scores are examples of true score equating that in the real world must be applied to observed scores. In the context of defining minimal competency, the percentage "failed" by such methods is a function of the length of the measuring instrument. It is argued that this length is largely…

  11. Sleep and neurocognitive functioning in children with eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfferman, Danny; Kennedy, J Declan; Gold, Michael; Simpson, Carol; Lushington, Kurt

    2013-08-01

    Sleep disruption in childhood is associated with clearly defined deficits in neurocognition and behaviour. Childhood eczema is also a potent cause of sleep disruption though it is unknown whether it too results in neurocognitive deficits. To test this hypothesis, neurocognitive (WISC-IV), parental-reported sleep quality (Sleep Disturbance Scale of Children (SDSC)) and overnight polysomnographic (PSG) data were collected in 21 children with eczema and 20 healthy controls (age range 6-16 years). Children with eczema had worse sleep quality on both PSG (notably increased nocturnal wakefulness, a higher number of stage shifts and a longer latency to REM onset) and parental report. In addition, they demonstrated significant neurocognitive deficits (especially verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning and to a lesser extent working memory) with a composite Full Scale IQ 16 points lower than controls. Parental reported sleep problems but not PSG parameters were correlated with reduced neurocognitive performance. However, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that eczema status was predictive while sleep fragmentation (parental or PSG) was not predictive of neurocognitive performance. As this is the first study to systematically examine neurocognitive functioning in children with eczema and given the finding of significant deficits it merits replication especially given the prevalence of the condition. The unanswered question is whether these cognitive deficits normalise with effective eczema treatment and if this is mediated by improvements in sleep architecture. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Association Between a Single General Anesthesia Exposure Before Age 36 Months and Neurocognitive Outcomes in Later Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lena S.; Li, Guohua; Miller, Tonya L. K.; Salorio, Cynthia; Byrne, Mary W.; Bellinger, David C.; Ing, Caleb; Park, Raymond; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Hays, Stephen R.; DiMaggio, Charles J.; Cooper, Timothy J.; Rauh, Virginia; Maxwell, Lynne G.; Youn, Ahrim; McGowan, Francis X.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Exposure of young animals to commonly used anesthetics causes neurotoxicity including impaired neurocognitive function and abnormal behavior. The potential neurocognitive and behavioral effects of anesthesia exposure in young children are thus important to understand. OBJECTIVE To examine if a single anesthesia exposure in otherwise healthy young children was associated with impaired neurocognitive development and abnormal behavior in later childhood. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Sibling-matched cohort study conducted between May 2009 and April 2015 at 4 university-based US pediatric tertiary care hospitals. The study cohort included sibling pairs within 36 months in age and currently 8 to 15 years old. The exposed siblings were healthy at surgery/anesthesia. Neurocognitive and behavior outcomes were prospectively assessed with retrospectively documented anesthesia exposure data. EXPOSURES A single exposure to general anesthesia during inguinal hernia surgery in the exposed sibling and no anesthesia exposure in the unexposed sibling, before age 36 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was global cognitive function (IQ). Secondary outcomes included domain-specific neurocognitive functions and behavior. A detailed neuropsychological battery assessed IQ and domain-specific neurocognitive functions. Parents completed validated, standardized reports of behavior. RESULTS Among the 105 sibling pairs, the exposed siblings (mean age, 17.3 months at surgery/anesthesia; 9.5% female) and the unexposed siblings (44% female) had IQ testing at mean ages of 10.6 and 10.9 years, respectively. All exposed children received inhaled anesthetic agents, and anesthesia duration ranged from 20 to 240 minutes, with a median duration of 80 minutes. Mean IQ scores between exposed siblings (scores: full scale = 111; performance = 108; verbal = 111) and unexposed siblings (scores: full scale = 111; performance = 107; verbal = 111) were not statistically

  13. Mild traumatic brain injuries in early adolescent rugby players: Long-term neurocognitive and academic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D G; Shuttleworth-Edwards, A B; Kidd, M; Malcolm, C M

    2015-01-01

    Information is scant concerning enduring brain injury effects of participation in the contact sport of Rugby Union (hereafter rugby) on early adolescents. The objective was prospectively to investigate differences between young adolescent male rugby players and non-contact sports controls on neurocognitive test performance over 3 years and academic achievement over 6 years. A sample of boys from the same school and grade was divided into three groups: rugby with seasonal concussions (n = 45), rugby no seasonal concussions (n = 21) and non-contact sports controls (n = 30). Baseline neurocognitive testing was conducted pre-season in Grade 7 and post-season in Grades 8 and 9. Year-end academic grades were documented for Grades 6-9 and 12 (pre-high school to year of school leaving). A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to investigate comparative neurocognitive and academic outcomes between the three sub-groups. Compared with controls, both rugby groups were significantly lower on the WISC-III Coding Immediate Recall sub-test. There was a significant interaction effect on the academic measure, with improved scores over time for controls, that was not in evidence for either rugby group. Tentatively, the outcome suggests cognitive vulnerability in association with school level participation in rugby.

  14. Generalization of the Lord-Wingersky Algorithm to Computing the Distribution of Summed Test Scores Based on Real-Number Item Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghoon

    2013-01-01

    With known item response theory (IRT) item parameters, Lord and Wingersky provided a recursive algorithm for computing the conditional frequency distribution of number-correct test scores, given proficiency. This article presents a generalized algorithm for computing the conditional distribution of summed test scores involving real-number item…

  15. Improvement in intelligence test scores from 6 to 10 years in children of teenage mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; De Genna, Natacha M; Richardson, Gale A; Leech, Sharon L; Day, Richard

    2010-06-01

    This study investigates change in IQ scores among 290 children born to teenage mothers and identifies social, economic, and environmental variables that may be associated with change in intelligence test performance. The children of 290 teenage mothers (72% African-American and 28% European American) were assessed with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale-4th Edition at ages 6 and 10. The mean composite score at age 6 was 84.8 and 91.2 at age 10, an improvement of 6.4 points. Significant cross-sectional predictors at both ages 6 and 10 of higher Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale scores were maternal cognitive ability, school grade, white ethnicity, and caregiver education. Having more children in the household significantly predicted lower Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale scores at age 6. Higher satisfaction with maternal social support predicted higher Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale scores at age 10. Change in IQ scores was not related to maternal socioeconomic status, social support, home environment, ethnicity, or family interactions. Custodial stability was associated with an improvement in IQ scores, whereas increase in caregiver depression was related to decline in IQ scores. Our findings suggest that improvement in IQ scores of offspring of teenage mothers may be related to stability of maternal custody. More research is needed to determine the impact of the maturation of adolescent mothers' parenting and the role of early education on improvement in cognitive abilities.

  16. The reciprocal internal/external frame of reference model using grades and test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Jens; Zimmermann, Friederike; Köller, Olaf

    2014-12-01

    The reciprocal I/E model (RI/EM) combines the internal/external frame of reference model (I/EM) with the reciprocal effects model (REM). The RI/EM extends the I/EM longitudinally and the REM across domains. The model predicts that, within domains, mathematics and verbal achievement (VACH) and academic self-concept have positive effects on subsequent mathematics and VACH and academic self-concept within domains but have negative effects across domains. The main purpose is to validate the RI/EM and extend it using objective achievement indicators and grades. Two waves of data collection from grade 5 to grade 9 with N = 1,045 secondary school students were used. Test scores, grades, and self-concept data were obtained. The main analyses were conducted using hierarchical linear modelling. The positive longitudinal effects of grades and test scores on subsequent grades, test scores and academic self-concept within domains and the negative effects of grades and test scores on subsequent academic self-concept across domains supported the RI/EM. The effects of academic self-concept on subsequent grades and test scores across domains were near zero when prior achievement indicators were controlled for. Overall, the results using school grades as achievement measures were replicated using standardized achievement test scores. The results serve to highlight the importance of the combination of common theories, which are mostly investigated individually, to enhance our understanding of the complexity of within- and across-domain relations between academic self-concepts and achievement using grades as well as test scores. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and the Oral Proficiency Interview: A Comparison of Test Scores and Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, John F.; Schweckendiek, Jurgen

    1986-01-01

    Investigates what correlations might exist between an individual's score on the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and on the Oral Proficiency Interview. The tests themselves are briefly described. Results indicate that the two tests appear to correlate well in their evaluation of speaking skills. (SED)

  18. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Test Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimy, Ramin; Shams, Kiana

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of vocabulary learning strategies on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary test score. To achieve this aim, fifty Intermediate level students from Kish English Institute were randomly selected from among fifteen classes after administering the Oxford Placement Test (OPT). Then, an intermediate level…

  19. Investigation and Treatment of Missing Item Scores in Test and Questionnaire Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Klaas; van der Ark, L. Andries

    2003-01-01

    This article first discusses a statistical test for investigating whether or not the pattern of missing scores in a respondent-by-item data matrix is random. Since this is an asymptotic test, we investigate whether it is useful in small but realistic sample sizes. Then, we discuss two known simple imputation methods, person mean (PM) and two-way…

  20. From Test Scores to Language Use: Emergent Bilinguals Using English to Accomplish Academic Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mojica, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Prominent discourses about emergent bilinguals' academic abilities tend to focus on performance as measured by test scores and perpetuate the message that emergent bilinguals trail far behind their peers. When we remove the constraints of formal testing situations, what can emergent bilinguals do in English as they engage in naturally occurring…

  1. The Disaggregation of Value-Added Test Scores to Assess Learning Outcomes in Economics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Wagner, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This study disaggregates posttest, pretest, and value-added or difference scores in economics into four types of economic learning: positive, retained, negative, and zero. The types are derived from patterns of student responses to individual items on a multiple-choice test. The micro and macro data from the "Test of Understanding in College…

  2. Stochastic Processes as True-Score Models for Highly Speeded Mental Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William E.

    The previous theoretical development of the Poisson process as a strong model for the true-score theory of mental tests is discussed, and additional theoretical properties of the model from the standpoint of individual examinees are developed. The paper introduces the Erlang process as a family of test theory models and shows in the context of…

  3. Setting Specific Criteria for Scoring Word Problems in Mathematics: Effects on Test Validity and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Milagros D.

    1983-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of specific criteria for marking a test on its reliability and validity. Eight algebra word problems were administered to grade 10 students. The objectivity of scoring criteria improved the reliability of the test, but did not affect its validity. (MNS)

  4. Investigating Score Dependability in English/Chinese Interpreter Certification Performance Testing: A Generalizability Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao

    2016-01-01

    As a property of test scores, reliability/dependability constitutes an important psychometric consideration, and it underpins the validity of measurement results. A review of interpreter certification performance tests (ICPTs) reveals that (a) although reliability/dependability checking has been recognized as an important concern, its theoretical…

  5. Are Raw Scores on Memory Tests Better than Age- and Education- Adjusted Scores for Predicting Progression from Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer Disease ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Davide; Gainotti, Guido; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Lacidogna, Giordano; Scaricamazza, Eugenia; Piccininni, Chiara; Marra, Camillo

    2016-01-01

    In this prospective longitudinal study, conducted in a large sample of amnestic MCI patients over a three-year period, we investigated the recently advanced proposal that unadjusted test scores obtained at baseline on long-term memory tests are more reliable than age- and education-corrected scores in predicting progression from aMCI to AD. Our experimental sample consisted of 270 aMCI patients who underwent extensive neurological and neuropsychological examinations both at baseline and at the follow-up, conducted at least 3 years later. At the follow-up 80 patients had converted to overt dementia. The predictive capacity of raw, age-corrected, education-corrected and fully corrected scores on RAVLT immediate and delayed recall was compared by examining the area under the ROC curves (AUCs) of all of these scores to assess which (raw or corrected) scores achieves the better reliability in predicting conversion to dementia. The condition (aMCI stable vs converted) was analyzed to assess the odds ratios resulting from a logistic regression on the corrected and uncorrected scores of RAVLT immediate and delayed recall. Even if both in immediate and in delayed recall the ROCs of 'raw scores' were generally higher than the other ROCs on corrected scores, these differences did not reach the level of statistical significance, failing to support the claim that unadjusted test scores are superior to age- and education-corrected scores in predicting progression from aMCI to AD.

  6. Correlation of Simulation Examination to Written Test Scores for Advanced Cardiac Life Support Testing: Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne L. Strom

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditional Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS courses are evaluated using written multiple-choice tests. High-fidelity simulation is a widely used adjunct to didactic content, and has been used in many specialties as a training resource as well as an evaluative tool. There are no data to our knowledge that compare simulation examination scores with written test scores for ACLS courses. Objective: To compare and correlate a novel high-fidelity simulation-based evaluation with traditional written testing for senior medical students in an ACLS course. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study to determine the correlation between simulationbased evaluation and traditional written testing in a medical school simulation center. Students were tested on a standard acute coronary syndrome/ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest scenario. Our primary outcome measure was correlation of exam results for 19 volunteer fourth-year medical students after a 32-hour ACLS-based Resuscitation Boot Camp course. Our secondary outcome was comparison of simulation-based vs. written outcome scores. Results: The composite average score on the written evaluation was substantially higher (93.6% than the simulation performance score (81.3%, absolute difference 12.3%, 95% CI [10.6-14.0%], p<0.00005. We found a statistically significant moderate correlation between simulation scenario test performance and traditional written testing (Pearson r=0.48, p=0.04, validating the new evaluation method. Conclusion: Simulation-based ACLS evaluation methods correlate with traditional written testing and demonstrate resuscitation knowledge and skills. Simulation may be a more discriminating and challenging testing method, as students scored higher on written evaluation methods compared to simulation.

  7. Deriving utility scores for co-morbid conditions: a test of the multiplicative model for combining individual condition scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Petit Christel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The co-morbidity of health conditions is becoming a significant health issue, particularly as populations age, and presents important methodological challenges for population health research. For example, the calculation of summary measures of population health (SMPH can be compromised if co-morbidity is not taken into account. One popular co-morbidity adjustment used in SMPH computations relies on a straightforward multiplicative combination of the severity weights for the individual conditions involved. While the convenience and simplicity of the multiplicative model are attractive, its appropriateness has yet to be formally tested. The primary objective of the current study was therefore to examine the empirical evidence in support of this approach. Methods The present study drew on information on the prevalence of chronic conditions and a utility-based measure of health-related quality of life (HRQoL, namely the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3, available from Cycle 1.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS; 2000–01. Average HUI3 scores were computed for both single and co-morbid conditions, and were also purified by statistically removing the loss of functional health due to health problems other than the chronic conditions reported. The co-morbidity rule was specified as a multiplicative combination of the purified average observed HUI3 utility scores for the individual conditions involved, with the addition of a synergy coefficient s for capturing any interaction between the conditions not explained by the product of their utilities. The fit of the model to the purified average observed utilities for the co-morbid conditions was optimized using ordinary least squares regression to estimate s. Replicability of the results was assessed by applying the method to triple co-morbidities from the CCHS cycle 1.1 database, as well as to double and triple co-morbidities from cycle 2.1 of the CCHS (2003–04. Results

  8. Blood test values and Community Periodontal Index scores in medical checkup recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Yuko; Nakagaki, Haruo; Morita, Ichizo; Tsuboi, Shinji; Takami, Shuji; Suzuki, Noriko; Niwa, Hisae; Ogura, Yukio

    2003-12-01

    We examined the blood test values of people who received general medical checkups and their Community Periodontal Index (CPI) score. A total of 7,452 persons (5,742 males and 1,710 females), who had general medical and dental checkups, were the subjects of the study. Many were people who worked for companies in and around Nagoya and their family members, ranging in age from 16 to 80 years. The blood test in our study consisted of 37 items used in general blood tests. Partial-mouth recordings were used to measure CPI scores. The highest CPI score for each subject was used for analysis. Odds ratios and confidence interval values were obtained using the Mantel-Haenszel method to analyze the results. CPI scores of 3 and 4 were related to the test values of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, serum iron, white blood cell count, fasting blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin A1, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, and C-reactive protein. Blood test values tended to show correlations with CPI scores, more clearly seen in males than in females.

  9. Semi-quantitative scoring of an immunochromatographic test for circulating filarial antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, Cédric B; Missamou, François; Pion, Sébastien D S; Bopda, Jean; Louya, Frédéric; Majewski, Andrew C; Weil, Gary J; Boussinesq, Michel

    2013-11-01

    Abstract. The value of a semi-quantitative scoring of the filarial antigen test (Binax Now Filariasis card test, ICT) results was evaluated during a field survey in the Republic of Congo. One hundred and thirty-four (134) of 774 tests (17.3%) were clearly positive and were scored 1, 2, or 3; and 11 (1.4%) had questionable results. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae (mf) were detected in 41 of those 133 individuals with an ICT test score ≥ 1 who also had a night blood smear; none of the 11 individuals with questionable ICT results harbored night mf. Cuzick's test showed a significant trend for higher microfilarial densities in groups with higher ICT scores (P < 0.001). The ICT scores were also significantly correlated with blood mf counts. Because filarial antigen levels provide an indication of adult worm infection intensity, our results suggest that semi-quantitative reading of the ICT may be useful for grading the intensity of filarial infections in individuals and populations.

  10. The Impact of Correction for Guessing Formula on MC and Yes/No Vocabulary Tests' Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdollah baradaran

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A standard correction for random guessing (cfg formula on multiple-choice and Yes/Noexaminations was examined retrospectively in the scores of the intermediate female EFL learners in an English language school. The correctionwas a weighting formula for points awarded for correct answers,incorrect answers, and unanswered questions so that the expectedvalue of the increase in test score due to guessing was zero. The researcher compared uncorrected and corrected scores on examinationsusing multiple-choice and Yes/No formats. These short-answer formats eliminatedor at least greatly reduced the potential for guessing the correctanswer. The expectation for students to improve their grade by guessingon multiple-choice and Yes/No format examinations is well known. The researcher examined a method for correcting for random guessing (cfg " no knowledge" on multiple- choice and Yes/No vocabulary examinations by comparing application and non-application of correction for guessing (cfg formula on scores on these examinations. It was done to determine whether the test takers really knew the correct answer, or they had resorted to a kind of guessing. This study represented a unique opportunity to compare scores from multiple-choice and Yes/No examinations in a settingin which students were given the same number of questions ineach of the two format types testing their knowledge over thesame subject matter. The results of this study indicated that the significant differences were highlighted between the subjects' scores when cfg formula was applied and when it was not.

  11. Validation of new prognostic and predictive scores by sequential testing approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, Carsten [Radiation Oncology Unit, Nordland Hospital, Bodo (Norway); Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tromso (Norway); Haukland, Ellinor; Pawinski, Adam; Dalhaug, Astrid [Radiation Oncology Unit, Nordland Hospital, Bodo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    Background and Purpose: For practitioners, the question arises how their own patient population differs from that used in large-scale analyses resulting in new scores and nomograms and whether such tools actually are valid at a local level and thus can be implemented. A recent article proposed an easy-to-use method for the in-clinic validation of new prediction tools with a limited number of patients, a so-called sequential testing approach. The present study evaluates this approach in scores related to radiation oncology. Material and Methods: Three different scores were used, each predicting short overall survival after palliative radiotherapy (bone metastases, brain metastases, metastatic spinal cord compression). For each scenario, a limited number of consecutive patients entered the sequential testing approach. The positive predictive value (PPV) was used for validation of the respective score and it was required that the PPV exceeded 80%. Results: For two scores, validity in the own local patient population could be confirmed after entering 13 and 17 patients, respectively. For the third score, no decision could be reached even after increasing the sample size to 30. Conclusion: In-clinic validation of new predictive tools with sequential testing approach should be preferred over uncritical adoption of tools which provide no significant benefit to local patient populations. Often the necessary number of patients can be reached within reasonable time frames even in small oncology practices. In addition, validation is performed continuously as the data are collected. (orig.)

  12. Neurocognitive deficits and neuroimaging abnormalities are prevalent in children with lupus: clinical and research experiences at a US pediatric institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscal, E; Bloom, D R; Hunter, J V; Myones, B L

    2010-03-01

    Neurocognitive impairments and neuroimaging abnormalities are frequently observed in adults with systemic lupus erythematosus. There is a paucity of similar data in childhood-onset disease. We hypothesized that neurocognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities would be prevalent in children undergoing neuropsychological evaluations. We reviewed patient neurocognitive evaluations performed at a large United States pediatric institution during the period 2001 to 2008. Records were retrieved from 24 children referred to neuropsychology due to clinical indications. Data from 15 children enrolled in a prospective structure-function association study were also analyzed. Subjects were predominantly African-American and Hispanic adolescent girls of average intelligence. aPL positivity and aspirin use was prevalent. Neurocognitive impairment was designated in 70.8% of retrospective, and 46.7% of prospective cohort patients. Deficits were seen at times of wellness, without previous neuropsychiatric lupus, and early in disease courses. Scores >1.5 standard deviations below published age-matched norms were common in tests of executive functioning, visual memory and visual-spatial planning. Features of depression were seen in 33.3% of the children in the retrospective cohort (clinical referrals). Cerebral and cerebellar volume loss was observed in a majority of blinded prospective cohort research magnetic resonance images (73.3% and 67.7% respectively). White matter hyperintensities were observed in retrospective and prospective cohort magnetic resonance images (36.6% and 46.7% respectively). Larger prospective studies that elucidate structure-function associations in children with systemic lupus erythematosus are planned.

  13. Examining alternative scoring rubrics on a statewide test: The impact of different scoring methods on science and social studies performance assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Susan Dabney

    There is no consensus regarding the most reliable and valid scoring methods for the assessment of higher order thinking skills. Most of the research on alternative formats has focused on the scoring of writing ability. This study examined the value of different types of performance assessment scoring guides on state mandated science and social studies tests. A proportional stratified sample of raters were randomly assigned to one of four scoring groups: checklist, analytic rubric, holistic rubric, and generic rubrics. A fifth method, the weighted analytic rubric, was included by applying an algorithmic formula to the scores assigned by raters using the analytic rubric. A comparison of the mean scores for the five scoring groups suggests that there may be a difference in the way raters applied the rubric for each group. Although the literature suggests that it is possible to achieve high levels of inter-rater reliability, across forms of scoring, phi coefficients of moderate strength were obtained for three of the four constructed-response items. Results for each scoring group were compared indicating that item complexity may impact the level of inter-rate, reliability and the selection of the most reliable rubric for each discipline. Analytic rubrics appear to achieve more reliable results with less complex items. A multitrait-multimethod approach was utilized to investigate the external validity of the social studies and science tasks. As expected, there tended to be a stronger association between the PACT science constructed-response scores with scores based on science multiple-choice scores than between the science constructed-response scores and the writing ability subtest scores. A similar pattern was seen with social studies items. These results provide some evidence for the validity of the performance assessments. A post study survey completed by raters provided qualitative information regarding their thought processes and their primary focus during the

  14. The Effect of School Poverty on Racial Gaps in Tests Scores: The Case of the Minnesota Basic Standards Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel L.; Kim, Hyeoneui; Mandala, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    A data from 1996,1998 and 1999 Minnesota comprehensive statewide testing on eight graders is used to analyze whether African American students perform worse than the white students who attend the poverty schools. The analyses conclude that African American-White test score gap is attributed more to the racial discriminations and racial treatments…

  15. Do We Really Become Smarter When Our Fluid-Intelligence Test Scores Improve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Taylor R; Petrov, Alexander A; Sederberg, Per B

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports of training-induced gains on fluid intelligence tests have fueled an explosion of interest in cognitive training-now a billion-dollar industry. The interpretation of these results is questionable because score gains can be dominated by factors that play marginal roles in the scores themselves, and because intelligence gain is not the only possible explanation for the observed control-adjusted far transfer across tasks. Here we present novel evidence that the test score gains used to measure the efficacy of cognitive training may reflect strategy refinement instead of intelligence gains. A novel scanpath analysis of eye movement data from 35 participants solving Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices on two separate sessions indicated that one-third of the variance of score gains could be attributed to test-taking strategy alone, as revealed by characteristic changes in eye-fixation patterns. When the strategic contaminant was partialled out, the residual score gains were no longer significant. These results are compatible with established theories of skill acquisition suggesting that procedural knowledge tacitly acquired during training can later be utilized at posttest. Our novel method and result both underline a reason to be wary of purported intelligence gains, but also provide a way forward for testing for them in the future.

  16. Opportunity to learn: Investigating possible predictors for pre-course Test Of Astronomy STandards TOAST scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Katie J.

    As astronomy education researchers become more interested in experimentally testing innovative teaching strategies to enhance learning in introductory astronomy survey courses ("ASTRO 101"), scholars are placing increased attention toward better understanding factors impacting student gain scores on the widely used Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST). Usually used in a pre-test and post-test research design, one might naturally assume that the pre-course differences observed between high- and low-scoring college students might be due in large part to their pre-existing motivation, interest, experience in science, and attitudes about astronomy. To explore this notion, 11 non-science majoring undergraduates taking ASTRO 101 at west coast community colleges were interviewed in the first few weeks of the course to better understand students' pre-existing affect toward learning astronomy with an eye toward predicting student success. In answering this question, we hope to contribute to our understanding of the incoming knowledge of students taking undergraduate introductory astronomy classes, but also gain insight into how faculty can best meet those students' needs and assist them in achieving success. Perhaps surprisingly, there was only weak correlation between students' motivation toward learning astronomy and their pre-test scores. Instead, the most fruitful predictor of TOAST pre-test scores was the quantity of pre-existing, informal, self-directed astronomy learning experiences.

  17. Neurocognitive function in HIV-infected patients: comparison of two methods to define impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Arenas-Pinto

    Full Text Available To compare two definitions of neurocognitive impairment (NCI in a large clinical trial of effectively-treated HIV-infected adults at baseline.Hopkins Verbal Learning test-Revised (HVLT-R, Colour Trail (CTT and Grooved Pegboard (GPT tests were applied exploring five cognitive domains. Raw scores were transformed into Z-scores and NCI defined as summary NPZ-5 score one standard deviation below the mean of the normative dataset (i.e. <-1SD or Z-scores <-1SD in at least two individual domains (categorical scale. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed to explore the contribution of individual tests to the total variance.Mean NPZ-5 score was -0.72 (SD 0.98 and 178/548 (32% participants had NPZ-5 scores <-1SD. When impairment was defined as <-1SD in at least two individual tests, 283 (52% patients were impaired. Strong correlations between the two components of the HVLT-R test (learning/recall (r = 0.73, and the CTT and (attention/executive functioning (r = 0.66 were observed. PCA showed a clustering with three components accounting for 88% of the total variance. When patients who scored <-1SD only in two correlated tests were considered as not impaired, prevalence of NCI was 43%. When correlated test scores were averaged, 36% of participants had NPZ-3 scores <-1SD and 32% underperformed in at least two individual tests.Controlling for differential contribution of individual test-scores on the overall performance and the level of correlation between components of the test battery used appear to be important when testing cognitive function. These two factors are likely to affect both summary scores and categorical scales in defining cognitive impairment.EUDRACT: 2007-006448-23 and ISRCTN04857074.

  18. A Comparison of Standardized Achievement Test Scores on Right and Left Brain Dominant Fourth-Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michael L.; Roubinek, Darrell L.

    1989-01-01

    Compares fourth-graders' subtest scores on the Stanford Achievement Test (SAT), the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS), and the Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT). Finds right-brain dominant students scored better on four SAT subtests, and left-brain dominant students scored better on four ITBS subtests and two MAT subtests. (NH)

  19. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiprakash, Heethal; Min, Aung Ko Ko; Ghosh, Sarmishtha

    2016-03-01

    This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL) course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group's tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group's tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors' performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors' scores in group 1 was 0.099 (ptraining reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.

  20. Sleep, stress, neurocognitive profile and healthrelated quality of life in adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Molina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to measure levels of sleep, stress, and depression, as well as health-related quality of life, and to assess the neurocognitive profiles in a sample of adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain. METHODS: Nineteen adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain and 20 age-matched healthy control subjects were evaluated regarding their levels of sleep and stress, as well as quality of life, and underwent neurocognitive testing. RESULTS: The sample groups consisted predominantly of females (84%, and the socioeconomic status did not differ between the two groups. In addition, the occurrence of depressive symptoms was similar between the two groups; specifically, 26% of the idiopathic musculoskeletal pain patients and 30% of the control subjects had scores indicative of depression. Teenagers in the group with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain reported poorer quality of life and sleep scores than those in the control group. Regarding stress, patients had worse scores than the control group; whereas 79% of the adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain met the criteria for a diagnosis of stress, only 35% of the adolescents in the control group met the criteria. In both groups, we observed scores that classified adolescents as being in the resistance phase (intermediate and exhaustion phase (pathological of distress. However, the idiopathic musculoskeletal pain group more frequently reported symptomatic complaints of physical and emotional distress. The neurocognitive assessment showed no significant impairments in either group. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain did not exhibit cognitive impairments. However, adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain did experience intermediate to advanced psychological distress and lower health-related quality of life, which may increase their risk of cognitive dysfunction in the future.

  1. Neurocognitive Outcomes at 10 Years of Age in Extremely Preterm Newborns with Late-Onset Bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, H Reeve; Babata, Kikelomo; Allred, Elizabeth N; Erdei, Carmina; Kuban, Karl C K; Joseph, Robert M; O'Shea, T Michael; Leviton, Alan; Dammann, Olaf

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the difference in 10-year neurocognitive outcomes between extremely low gestational age newborns without bacteremia and those with suspected or confirmed late-onset bacteremia. Neurocognitive function was evaluated at 10 years of age in 889 children born at <28 weeks of gestation and followed from birth. Definite (culture-positive) late-onset bacteremia during postnatal weeks 2-4 was identified in 223 children, and 129 children had suspected bacteremia. Infants with the lowest gestational age and birth weight z-score had the highest prevalence of definite and suspected late-onset bacteremia. Compared with peers with no or suspected bacteremia, infants with definite bacteremia performed worse on tests of general cognitive ability, language, academic achievement, and executive function, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Adjustment for low IQ attenuated the associations between bacteremia and all dysfunctions at age 10 years. Children with suspected bacteremia did not differ appreciably from those with no evidence of bacteremia. The motor domain was unaffected. Extremely low gestational age newborns who had definite late bacteremia during postnatal weeks 2-4 are at heightened risk of neurocognitive limitations at age 10 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The FCE Speaking Test: Using rater Reports To Help Interpret Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Reports research using oral examiner verbal reports that attempts to gain insights into the rating process in the Cambridge First Certificate in English Speaking Test. Raters' verbal reports of the decision-making process were analyzed and heeded aspects of the test performances were identified, with a view to better understanding how test scores…

  3. The Relationships between Social Class, Listening Test Anxiety and Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaabadi, Omid Talebi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the social anxiety, social class and listening-test anxiety of students learning English as a foreign language. The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between listening-test anxiety and listening-test performance. The data were collected using an adapted Foreign Language Listening…

  4. Integrating GIS in the Middle School Curriculum: Impacts on Diverse Students' Standardized Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student…

  5. Development and Validation of Scores from an Instrument Measuring Student Test-Taking Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklof, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    Using the expectancy-value model of achievement motivation as a basis, this study's purpose is to develop, apply, and validate scores from a self-report instrument measuring student test-taking motivation. Sampled evidence of construct validity for the present sample indicates that a number of the items in the instrument could be used as an…

  6. The Sinonasal Outcome Test 22 score in persons without chronic rhinosinusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Bibi; Thilsing, T; Baelum, J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the Sino Nasal Outcome Test 22 (SNOT 22) score in persons without chronic rhinosinusitis. DESIGN AND SETTING: As part of a trans-European study selected respondents to a survey questionnaire were invited for a clinical visit. Subjective symptoms and rhinoscopy were used f...

  7. Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…

  8. Methods for Improving Test Scores: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB 2001) has the faculties of every public and charter school scrambling to drive test scores of seven identified groups of children (African-American children, Anglo-White children, children with disabilities, Hispanic children, children of poverty, children with English language limitations, and Native-American…

  9. Multiple Imputation of Item Scores in Test and Questionnaire Data, and Influence on Psychometric Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, Joost R.; van der Ark, L. Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2007-01-01

    The performance of five simple multiple imputation methods for dealing with missing data were compared. In addition, random imputation and multivariate normal imputation were used as lower and upper benchmark, respectively. Test data were simulated and item scores were deleted such that they were either missing completely at random, missing at…

  10. Classroom Organizational Structure in Fifth Grade Math Classrooms and the Effect on Standardized Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Dallas Marie

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the classroom organizational structure and MCT2 test scores of fifth-grade math students. The researcher gained insight regarding which structure teachers believe is most beneficial to them and students, and whether or not their belief of classroom organizational…

  11. Comparison of a Class of Rank-Score Tests in Two-Factor Designs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Mathematics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto ... The empirical Type I error rate and power of these test statistics on the rank scores were ... INTRODUCTION. When analyzing data from a two-factor design, usually a linear model is assumed and the hypotheses are formulated by the parameters of this ...

  12. International Test Score Comparisons and Educational Policy: A Review of the Critiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Stanford education professor Martin Carnoy examines four main critiques of how international test results are used in policymaking. Of particular interest are critiques of the policy analyses published by the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Using average PISA scores as a comparative measure of student achievement is misleading…

  13. Contributions of biological tests and the 4 Ts score in the diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an adverse drug reaction caused by antibodies to the heparin/platelet factor 4 (PF4) complexes. HIT diagnosis is challenging and depends on clinical presentation and laboratory tests. We investigated the interest of the combined use of 4 Ts score and the functional ...

  14. Test Score Gaps between Private and Government Sector Students at School Entry Age in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhijeet

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have noted that students enrolled in private schools in India perform better on average than students in government schools. In this paper, I show that large gaps in the test scores of children in private and public sector education are evident even at the point of initial enrollment in formal schooling and are associated with…

  15. Using Automated Essay Scores as an Anchor When Equating Constructed Response Writing Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments consisting of only a few extended constructed response items (essays) are not typically equated using anchor test designs as there are typically too few essay prompts in each form to allow for meaningful equating. This article explores the idea that output from an automated scoring program designed to measure writing fluency (a common…

  16. Virginia tech freshman class becoming more competitive; Rise in grades and test scores noted

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Tech News

    2004-01-01

    Admission to Virginia Tech continues to become more competitive as applicants report higher grade point averages and test scores than previous years. The incoming class of 4,975 students has an average grade point average (GPA) of 3.68 and SAT 1203, up from 3.60 GPA and 1197 SAT in 2003.

  17. Selected Demographic Variables, School Music Participation, and Achievement Test Scores of Urban Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Daryl W.

    2008-01-01

    Nontransient 6th- and 8th-grade urban middle school students' achievement test scores were examined before (4th grade) and during (6th or 8th grade) enrollment in a performing ensemble. Ensemble participation (band, choir, none) and subject variables of socioeconomic status (SES) and home environment were considered. Fourth- and 6th-grade…

  18. Using College Admission Test Scores to Clarify High School Placement. Leading Indicator Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flug, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    In "Beyond Test Scores: Leading Indicators for Education," Foley and colleagues (2008) define leading indicators as those that "provide early signals of progress toward academic achievement" (p. 1) and stress that educators "need leading indicators to help them see the direction their efforts are going in and to take…

  19. The Fight's Not Always Fixed: Using Literary Response to Transcend Standardized Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, JuliAnna

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) concluded that "literature reading is fading as a meaningful activity, especially among younger people." How can educators continue to teach students about the power of literary response when the priority is for them to achieve proficiency on standardized tests, whose scores can only be narrowly…

  20. Testing Vegetation Flammability: The Problem of Extremely Low Ignition Frequency and Overall Flammability Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Kauf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades changes in fire regimes led to higher vulnerability of fire prone ecosystems, with vegetation being the only component influencing fire regime which can be managed in order to reduce probability of extreme fire events. For these management practices to be effective reliable information on the vegetation flammability is being crucial. Epiradiator based testing methods are one of the methods commonly used to investigate vegetation flammability and decrease in ignition frequency is always interpreted as a decrease in flammability. Furthermore, gathered information is often combined into a single flammability score. Here we present results of leaf litter testing which, together with previously conducted research on similar materials, show that material with very low ignition frequency under certain testing conditions can be extremely flammable if testing conditions are slightly changed. Additionally, our results indicate that combining measured information into one single flammability score, even though sometimes useful, is not always meaningful and should be performed with caution.

  1. CK-MM Polymorphism is Associated With Physical Fitness Test Scores in Military Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Courtney; Tosi, Laura L; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Abdel-Ghani, Mai S; Panchapakesan, Karuna; Niederberger, Brenda; Devaney, Joseph M; Kelly, Karen R

    2015-09-01

    Muscle-specific creatine kinase is thought to play an integral role in maintaining energy homeostasis by providing a supply of creatine phosphate. The genetic variant, rs8111989, contributes to individual differences in physical performance, and thus the purpose of this study was to determine if rs8111989 variant is predictive of Physical Fitness Test (PFT) scores in male, military infantry recruits. DNA was extracted from whole blood, and genotyping was performed in 176 Marines. Relationships between PFT measures (run, sit-ups, and pull-ups) and genotype were determined. Participants with 2 copies of the T allele for rs8111989 variant had higher PFT scores for run time, pull-ups, and total PFT score. Specifically, participants with 2 copies of the TT allele (variant) (n = 97) demonstrated an overall higher total PFT score as compared with those with one copy of the C allele (n = 79) (TT: 250 ± 31 vs. 238 ± 31; p = 0.02), run score (TT: 82 ± 10 vs. 78 ± 11; p = 0.04) and pull-up score (TT: 78 ± 11 vs. 65 ± 21; p = 0.04) or those with the CC/CT genotype. These results demonstrate an association between physical performance measures and genetic variation in the muscle-specific creatine kinase gene (rs8111989). Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. Verbal fluency tests: Developing a new model of administration and scoring for Spanish language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarrieta-Landa, Laiene; Torre, Esther Landa; López-Mugartza, Juan Carlos; Bialystok, Ellen; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    To conduct a literature review of the administration and scoring criteria used in normative studies of verbal fluency tests (VFT), and to propose a new model for the administration and scoring of phonological, semantic, and action VFT for use in Spanish-speakers. A literature search was performed using four databases Dialnet, ProQuest (PsycINFO, PsycArticles), Science Direct (Elsevier), and PubMed and 47 articles met the following criteria: 1) articles which contained normative data of phonological, semantic, or action VFT, 2) published between 2000 and 2015, 3) published in English or Spanish, 4) used healthy population. Of 2087 citations retrieved, 47 eligible studies were reviewed. The majority of the studies have been conducted in the USA, and with English and Spanish speakers. Only 12 studies provided the instruction, and 23 clearly describe the scoring guidelines. Moreover, among the studies that provided these information important discrepancies were found. Therefore, a new administration and scoring guidelines are presented, which may resolve this problem and be utilized in Spanish speaking countries. This review showed that still there is no consensus regarding the administration and scoring of VFT. A new method of administration and scoring is presented that can be use with Spanish-speakers.

  3. THE FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREEN (FMS™) IN ELITE YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS BETWEEN 14 AND 20 YEARS: COMPOSITE SCORE, INDIVIDUAL-TEST SCORES AND ASYMMETRIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Vanessa Bernardes; Medeiros, Thales Menezes; de Souza Stigger, Felipe; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

    2017-11-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) is a widely used seven-test battery used by practitioners working in sport medicine. The FMS™ composite score (sum of seven tests) in soccer athletes from different competitive levels has been well explored in literature, but the specific movement deficits presented by young high competitive level players remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to provide a detailed description of the performance of elite young soccer players (age 14-20 years) on the FMS™ testing battery. Cross-sectional observational study. One-hundred and three young soccer players (14-20 years) from a premier league club were assessed by two experienced raters using the FMS™ testing battery. FMS™ composite score, individual-test scores and asymmetries were considered for analysis, and comparisons between age categories were performed. FMS™ composite scores ranged from 9 to 16 points (median=13 points). 82% of the athletes had a composite score ≤14 points, and 91% were classified into the "Fail" group (score 0 or 1 in at least one test). Almost half of athletes (48%) had poor performance (i.e., individual score functional deficits, especially in tasks involving deep squat and trunk stability, as well as high prevalence of asymmetry between right and left body side. 3a.

  4. The reliability and validity of qualitative scores for the Controlled Oral Word Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Thomas P; Calhoun, Emily; Cox, Tara; Wenner, Carolyn; Kono, Whitney; Pleasant, Morgan

    2007-05-01

    The reliability and validity of two qualitative scoring systems for the Controlled Oral Word Association Test [Benton, A. L., Hamsher, de S. K., & Sivan, A. B. (1983). Multilingual aplasia examination (2nd ed.). Iowa City, IA: AJA Associates] were examined in 108 healthy young adults. The scoring systems developed by Troyer et al. [Troyer, A. K., Moscovich, M., & Winocur, G. (1997). Clustering and switching as two components of verbal fluency: Evidence from younger and older healthy adults. Neuropsychology, 11, 138-146] and by Abwender et al. [Abwender, D. A., Swan, J. G., Bowerman, J. T., & Connolly, S. W. (2001a). Qualitative analysis of verbal fluency output: Review and comparison of several scoring methods. Assessment, 8, 323-336] each demonstrated excellent interrater reliability (all indices at or above r(icc)=.9). Consistent with previous research [e.g., Ross, T. P. (2003). The reliability of cluster and switch scores for the COWAT. Archives of Clinical Psychology, 18, 153-164), test-retest reliability coefficients (N=53; M interval 44.6 days) for the qualitative scores were modest to poor (r(icc)=.6 to .4 range). Correlations among COWAT scores, measures of executive functioning, verbal learning, working memory, and vocabulary were examined. The idea that qualitative scores represent distinct executive functions such as cognitive flexibility or strategy utilization was not supported. We offer the interpretation that COWAT performance may require the ability to retrieve words in a non-routine manner while suppressing habitual responses and associated processing interference, presumably due to a spread of activation across semantic or lexical networks. This interpretation, though speculative at present, implies that clustering and switching on the COWAT may not be entirely deliberate, but rather an artifact of a passive (i.e., state-dependent) process. Ideas for future research, most noticeably experimental studies using cognitive methods (e.g., priming), are

  5. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test scores can be predicted from whole brain MRI in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Elaheh; Hallikainen, Ilona; Hänninen, Tuomo; Tohka, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a powerful neuropsychological tool for testing episodic memory, which is widely used for the cognitive assessment in dementia and pre-dementia conditions. Several studies have shown that an impairment in RAVLT scores reflect well the underlying pathology caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus making RAVLT an effective early marker to detect AD in persons with memory complaints. We investigated the association between RAVLT scores (RAVLT Immediate and RAVLT Percent Forgetting) and the structural brain atrophy caused by AD. The aim was to comprehensively study to what extent the RAVLT scores are predictable based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using machine learning approaches as well as to find the most important brain regions for the estimation of RAVLT scores. For this, we built a predictive model to estimate RAVLT scores from gray matter density via elastic net penalized linear regression model. The proposed approach provided highly significant cross-validated correlation between the estimated and observed RAVLT Immediate (R = 0.50) and RAVLT Percent Forgetting (R = 0.43) in a dataset consisting of 806 AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or healthy subjects. In addition, the selected machine learning method provided more accurate estimates of RAVLT scores than the relevance vector regression used earlier for the estimation of RAVLT based on MRI data. The top predictors were medial temporal lobe structures and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Immediate and angular gyrus, hippocampus and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Percent Forgetting. Further, the conversion of MCI subjects to AD in 3-years could be predicted based on either observed or estimated RAVLT scores with an accuracy comparable to MRI-based biomarkers.

  6. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test scores can be predicted from whole brain MRI in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT is a powerful neuropsychological tool for testing episodic memory, which is widely used for the cognitive assessment in dementia and pre-dementia conditions. Several studies have shown that an impairment in RAVLT scores reflect well the underlying pathology caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD, thus making RAVLT an effective early marker to detect AD in persons with memory complaints. We investigated the association between RAVLT scores (RAVLT Immediate and RAVLT Percent Forgetting and the structural brain atrophy caused by AD. The aim was to comprehensively study to what extent the RAVLT scores are predictable based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data using machine learning approaches as well as to find the most important brain regions for the estimation of RAVLT scores. For this, we built a predictive model to estimate RAVLT scores from gray matter density via elastic net penalized linear regression model. The proposed approach provided highly significant cross-validated correlation between the estimated and observed RAVLT Immediate (R = 0.50 and RAVLT Percent Forgetting (R = 0.43 in a dataset consisting of 806 AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI or healthy subjects. In addition, the selected machine learning method provided more accurate estimates of RAVLT scores than the relevance vector regression used earlier for the estimation of RAVLT based on MRI data. The top predictors were medial temporal lobe structures and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Immediate and angular gyrus, hippocampus and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Percent Forgetting. Further, the conversion of MCI subjects to AD in 3-years could be predicted based on either observed or estimated RAVLT scores with an accuracy comparable to MRI-based biomarkers.

  7. Effects of correcting for prematurity on cognitive test scores in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Ching, Michelle; Pascoe, Leona; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-03-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that test scores should be corrected for prematurity up to 3 years of age, but this practice varies greatly in both clinical and research settings. The aim of this study was to contrast the effects of using chronological age and those of using corrected age on measures of cognitive outcome across childhood. A theoretical model was constructed using norms from the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition; the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition Australian; and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, Fourth Edition Australian. Baseline scores representing different levels of functioning (70, below average; 85, borderline; and 100, average) were recalculated using the normative data for ages 6 months to 16 years to account for 1, 2, 3 and 4 months of prematurity. The model created depicted the difference in standardised scores between chronological and corrected age. Compared with scores corrected for prematurity, the absolute reduction in scores using chronological age was greater for increasing degree of prematurity, younger ages at assessment and higher baseline scores and was substantial even beyond 3 years of age. However, the pattern was erratic, with considerable fluctuation evident across different ages and baseline scores. Chronological age results in a lowering of scores at all ages for preterm-born subjects that is greater in the first few years and in those born at earlier gestational ages. Whether or not to correct for prematurity depends upon the context of the assessment. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Identifying genetic marker sets associated with phenotypes via an efficient adaptive score test

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, T.

    2012-06-25

    In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene-expression profiling have generated a large number of valuable datasets for assessing how genetic variations are related to disease outcomes. With such datasets, it is often of interest to assess the overall effect of a set of genetic markers, assembled based on biological knowledge. Genetic marker-set analyses have been advocated as more reliable and powerful approaches compared with the traditional marginal approaches (Curtis and others, 2005. Pathways to the analysis of microarray data. TRENDS in Biotechnology 23, 429-435; Efroni and others, 2007. Identification of key processes underlying cancer phenotypes using biologic pathway analysis. PLoS One 2, 425). Procedures for testing the overall effect of a marker-set have been actively studied in recent years. For example, score tests derived under an Empirical Bayes (EB) framework (Liu and others, 2007. Semiparametric regression of multidimensional genetic pathway data: least-squares kernel machines and linear mixed models. Biometrics 63, 1079-1088; Liu and others, 2008. Estimation and testing for the effect of a genetic pathway on a disease outcome using logistic kernel machine regression via logistic mixed models. BMC bioinformatics 9, 292-2; Wu and others, 2010. Powerful SNP-set analysis for case-control genome-wide association studies. American Journal of Human Genetics 86, 929) have been proposed as powerful alternatives to the standard Rao score test (Rao, 1948. Large sample tests of statistical hypotheses concerning several parameters with applications to problems of estimation. Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 44, 50-57). The advantages of these EB-based tests are most apparent when the markers are correlated, due to the reduction in the degrees of freedom. In this paper, we propose an adaptive score test which up- or down-weights the contributions from each member of the marker-set based on the Z-scores of

  9. The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST): Test-Retest Reliability in a High Scoring Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Carrie; Williams, Jo; Scott, Fiona; Stott, Carol; Bolton, Patrick; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a 37-item parental self-completion questionnaire designed to screen for high-functioning autism spectrum conditions in epidemiological research. The CAST has previously demonstrated good accuracy for use as a screening test, with high sensitivity in studies with primary school aged children in…

  10. Neurocognitive characteristics of DUI recidivists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Brown, Thomas G; Nadeau, Louise; Lepage, Martin; Pelletier, Marc; Couture, Sophie; Tremblay, Jacques; Legault, Lucie; Dongier, Maurice; Gianoulakis, Christina; Ng Ying Kin, N M K

    2007-07-01

    Individuals who drive under the influence (DUI) of alcohol may be at greater risk for neurocognitive impairment because of their exposure to multiple sources of neurological risk. This could contribute to the persistence of DUI behaviour and influence the effectiveness of remedial interventions. The objectives of this study were to clarify the neurocognitive characteristics of DUI recidivists and the nature of potential impairments, and to explore relationships between these characteristics and the frequency of past DUI convictions. One hundred male recidivists were evaluated for visuospatial constructional abilities and visual memory, verbal fluency, attention skills, cognitive flexibility, spatial planning, and verbal and movement inhibition. Results indicated that a majority of recidivists showed signs of neurocognitive impairment on several dimensions. Impairment was most marked on visuospatial constructional abilities and visual memory. In contrast to previous studies, no participants were found to have impulse control problems. Measures of memory and cognitive efficiency were significantly associated with the frequency of past convictions. Finally, exploratory analyses of two potential sources of impairment, alcohol exposure and head trauma, suggested the role of excessive alcohol use as the most obvious associated factor. Overall, the findings indicate that neurocognitive impairments are a common feature in recidivists and may contribute to DUI persistence. Development of a DUI-specific neurocognitive assessment and greater understanding of how neurocognitive status influences DUI risk could lead to remediation strategies better adapted to the individual characteristics of recidivists.

  11. Standardised test protocol (Constant Score) for evaluation of functionality in patients with shoulder disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders; Christiansen, David Høyrup; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Kristensen, Morten Tange

    2013-04-01

    The Constant Score (CS), developed as a scoring system to evaluate overall functionality of patients with shoulder disorders, is widely used but has been criticised for relying on an imprecise terminology and for lack of a standardised methodology. A modified guideline was therefore published in 2008 with several new recommendations, but a standardised test protocol was not included. Also, this new version has not been translated into Danish. The aims of the present study were to develop a standardised English test protocol for the newly modified CS, and to translate and cross-culturally adapt this version into Danish. An English test protocol was developed and translated into Danish at two independent centres according to international recommendations. Consensus on a preliminary version was achieved. The subjective part was tested on six patients, while two physiotherapists gave feedback on the objective part. Relevant items were culturally adapted and rephrased, and a simple standardised test protocol was developed. Only minor inconsistencies in the translations were found. A few questions and words had to be rephrased due to cultural and linguistic differences. One of the authors of the modified CS approved both the English and the Danish test protocol. A simple test protocol of the modified CS was developed in both English and Danish. With precise terminology and definitions, the test protocol is the first of its kind. We suggest its use internationally for standardised assessment of the CS. Testing of validity, reliability and responsiveness of both versions needs to be done in future research. not relevant. not relevant.

  12. Scoring method of a Situational Judgment Test: influence on internal consistency reliability, adverse impact and correlation with personality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E. de Leng (Wendy); K.M. Stegers-Jager (Karen); Husbands, A.; Dowell, J.S.; M.Ph. Born (Marise); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSituational Judgment Tests (SJTs) are increasingly used for medical school selection. Scoring an SJT is more complicated than scoring a knowledge test, because there are no objectively correct answers. The scoring method of an SJT may influence the construct and concurrent validity and

  13. Scoring Method of a Situational Judgment Test: Influence on Internal Consistency Reliability, Adverse Impact and Correlation with Personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leng, W. E.; Stegers-Jager, K. M.; Husbands, A.; Dowell, J. S.; Born, M. Ph.; Themmen, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Situational Judgment Tests (SJTs) are increasingly used for medical school selection. Scoring an SJT is more complicated than scoring a knowledge test, because there are no objectively correct answers. The scoring method of an SJT may influence the construct and concurrent validity and the adverse impact with respect to non-traditional students.…

  14. [Standardised environmental conditions for neurocognitive laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros-Tuma, M; Alvarez-González, M

    The exploration of neurocognition in neurology departments has gone a long way from the traditional psychometric tests to the present day use of high technology methods in cognitive neurophysiology, as is the case of event related potentials. Given the increased sensitivity of these procedures, it has become absolutely essential to control the influence of environmental variables that may exert non controlled effects on the patient s response. Many neurocognitive laboratories have been set up in premises in which the spatial layout and the environmental characteristics have been determined beforehand and consequently technical staff has had to prepare these rooms in an empirical way. This gives rise to two types of drawbacks: interferences in the patient s concentration and low reproducibility of the results in other laboratories. In this paper we present a proposed set of standardised conditions for a neurocognitive laboratory from an architectural perspective, and more specifically with regard to interior design. We outline the functional design of the premises, the conditions for workplaces where VDU computers (Video Display Units) are used and where psychometric evaluation is carried out. We also discuss the criteria to be followed when placing the laboratory within a hospital, lighting parameters, air conditioning and suggestions about psychological input. Although we do not seek to establish a rigid set of norms, these conditions will raise the quality of evaluations and facilitate the comparison of results because of the reduced variability from the environment.

  15. The relationship between the ability to identify evaluation criteria and integrity test scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIUS J. KÖNIG

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that applicants who have the ability to identify what kind of behavior is evaluated positively in a personnel selection situation can use this information to adapt their behavior accordingly. Although this idea has been tested for assessment centers and structured interviews, it has not been studied with regard to integrity tests (or other personality tests. Therefore, this study tested whether candidates’ ability to identify evaluation criteria (ATIC correlates with their integrity test scores. Candidates were tested in an application training setting (N = 92. The results supported the idea that ATIC also plays an important role for integrity tests. New directions for future research are suggested based on this finding.

  16. Feasibility of cognitive functional assessment in cardiac arrest survivors using an abbreviated laptop-based neurocognitive battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannacone, Stephen; Leary, Marion; Esposito, Emily C; Ruparel, Kosha; Savitt, Adam; Mott, Allison; Richard, Jan A; Gur, Ruben C; Abella, Benjamin S

    2014-09-01

    Cardiac arrest survivors exhibit varying degrees of neurological recovery even in the setting of targeted temperature management (TTM) use, ranging from severe impairments to making a seemingly full return to neurologic baseline function. We sought to explore the feasibility of utilizing a laptop-based neurocognitive battery to identify more subtle cognitive deficits in this population. In a convenience sample of cardiac arrest survivors discharged with a cerebral performance category (CPC) of 1, we evaluated the use of a computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) in this group compared to a healthy control normative population. The CNB was designed to test 11 specific neurocognitive domains, including such areas as working memory and spatial processing. Testing was scored for both accuracy and speed. In a feasibility convenience sample of 29 cardiac arrest survivors, the mean age was 52.9±16.7 years; 12 patients received postarrest TTM and 17 did not receive TTM. Patients tolerated the battery well and performed at normative levels for both accuracy and speed on most of the 11 domains, but showed reduced accuracy of working memory and speed of spatial memory with large magnitudes (>1 SD), even among those receiving TTM. Across all domains, including those using speed and accuracy, 7 of the 29 subjects (24%) achieved statistically significant scores lower from the normative population in two or more domains. In this population of CPC 1 cardiac arrest survivors, a sensitive neurocognitive battery was feasible and suggests that specific cognitive deficits can be detected compared to a normative population, despite CPC 1 designation. Such testing might allow improved measurement of outcomes following TTM interventions in future trials.

  17. Long-term changes in neurocognition and behavior following treatment of sleep disordered breathing in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Sarah N; Vlahandonis, Anna; Anderson, Vicki; Bourke, Robert; Nixon, Gillian M; Davey, Margot J; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children is associated with detrimental neurocognitive and behavioral consequences. The long term impact of treatment on these outcomes is unknown. This study examined the long-term effect of treatment of SDB on neurocognition, academic ability, and behavior in a cohort of school-aged children. Four-year longitudinal study. Children originally diagnosed with SDB and healthy non-snoring controls underwent repeat polysomnography and age-standardized neurocognitive and behavioral assessment 4y following initial testing. Melbourne Children's Sleep Centre, Melbourne, Australia. Children 12-16 years of age, originally assessed at 7-12 years, were categorized into Treated (N = 12), Untreated (N = 26), and Control (N = 18) groups. Adenotonsillectomy, Tonsillectomy, Nasal Steroids. Decision to treat was independent of this study. Changes in sleep and respiratory parameters over time were assessed. A decrease in obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI) from Time 1 to Time 2 was seen in 63% and 100% of the Untreated and Treated groups, respectively. The predictive relationship between change in OAHI and standardized neurocognitive, academic, and behavioral scores over time was examined. Improvements in OAHI were predictive of improvements in Performance IQ, but not Verbal IQ or academic measures. Initial group differences in behavioral assessment on the Child Behavior Checklist did not change over time. Children with SDB at baseline continued to exhibit significantly poorer behavior than Controls at follow-up, irrespective of treatment. After four years, improvements in SDB are concomitant with improvements in some areas of neurocognition, but not academic ability or behavior in school-aged children.

  18. Standardised test protocol (Constant Score) for evaluation of functionality in patients with shoulder disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders; Christiansen, David Høyrup

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Constant Score (CS), developed as a scoring system to evaluate overall functionality of patients with shoulder disorders, is widely used but has been criticised for relying on an imprecise terminology and for lack of a standardised methodology. A modified guideline was therefore......-culturally adapt this version into Danish. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An English test protocol was developed and translated into Danish at two independent centres according to international recommendations. Consensus on a preliminary version was achieved. The subjective part was tested on six patients, while two...... physiotherapists gave feedback on the objective part. Relevant items were culturally adapted and rephrased, and a simple standardised test protocol was developed. RESULTS: Only minor inconsistencies in the translations were found. A few questions and words had to be rephrased due to cultural and linguistic...

  19. Poor sleep and neurocognitive function in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuula, Liisa; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Martikainen, Silja; Kajantie, Eero; Lahti, Jari; Strandberg, Timo; Tuovinen, Soile; Heinonen, Kati; Pyhälä, Riikka; Lahti, Marius; Räikkönen, Katri

    2015-10-01

    Evidence regarding the associations between sleep duration and quality, and neurocognitive function in adolescents remains scanty. This study examined the associations in early adolescence between: sleep duration; efficiency; fragmentation; wake-after-sleep-onset (WASO); catch-up sleep; intelligence; memory; and executive function, including attention. This study included 354 girls and boys with a mean age 12.3 years (SD = 0.5) from a birth cohort born in 1998. Sleep was measured with accelerometers for an average of eight nights. Cognitive function was evaluated with subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III), the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment 2 (NEPSY-2), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), Conners' Continuous Performance Task (CPT), and the Trail Making Test (TMT). In girls, a higher WASO and fragmentation index were associated with poorer executive functioning (higher number of perseverative errors in the WCST), and longer catch-up sleep was associated with longer reaction times and better performance in one verbal intelligence test (Similarities subtest of the WISC-III). In boys, shorter sleep duration, lower efficiency, higher WASO, higher sleep fragmentation and shorter catch-up sleep were associated with lower executive functioning (more commission errors, shorter reaction times, and had lower D Prime scores in CPT). In adolescent girls, poorer sleep quality was only weakly associated with poorer executive functioning, while in boys, poorer sleep quantity and quality were associated with an inattentive pattern of executive functioning. The amount of catch-up sleep during weekends showed mixed patterns in relation to neurocognitive function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mental health matters in elementary school: first-grade screening predicts fourth grade achievement test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Maria Paz; Jellinek, Michael; George, Myriam; Hartley, Marcela; Squicciarini, Ana Maria; Canenguez, Katia M; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Yucel, Recai; White, Gwyne W; Guzman, Javier; Murphy, J Michael

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether mental health problems identified through screens administered in first grade are related to poorer academic achievement test scores in the fourth grade. The government of Chile uses brief teacher- and parent-completed measures [Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Revised (TOCA-RR) and Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-Cl)] to screen for mental health problems in about one-fifth of the country's elementary schools. In fourth grade, students take the national achievement tests (SIMCE) of language, mathematics and science. This study examined whether mental health problems identified through either or both screens predicted achievement test scores after controlling for student and family risk factors. A total of 17,252 students had complete first grade teacher forms and these were matched with fourth grade SIMCE data for 11,185 students, 7,903 of whom also had complete parent form data from the first grade. Students at risk on either the TOCA-RR or the PSC-Cl or both performed significantly worse on all SIMCE subtests. Even after controlling for covariates and adjusting for missing data, students with mental health problems on one screen in first grade had fourth grade achievement scores that were 14-18 points (~1/3 SD) lower than students screened as not at risk. Students at risk on both screens had scores that were on average 33 points lower than students at risk on either screen. Mental health problems in first grade were one of the strongest predictors of lower achievement test scores 3 years later, supporting the premise that for children mental health matters in the real world.

  1. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4 Graders: Evidence from TIMSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2008-02-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,.

  2. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4th Graders: Evidence from TIMSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,. PMID:21442008

  3. Can high central nervous system penetrating antiretroviral regimens protect against the onset of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Matteo; Durant, Jacques; Biscay, Virginie; Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Dunais, Brigitte; Laffon, Muriel; Harvey-Langton, Alexandra; Cottalorda, Jacqueline; Ticchioni, Michel; Carsenti, Helene; Pradier, Christian; Dellamonica, Pierre

    2014-02-20

    To assess changes over time in neuropsychological test results (NPr) and risk factors among a regularly followed HIV-infected patient population. Prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients randomly selected to undergo neuropsychological follow-up. Test score was adjusted for age, sex and education. Patients were divided into five groups: normal tests, neuropsychological deficit (one impaired cognitive domain), asymptomatic neurocognitive disorders (ANIs), mild neurocognitive disorders (MNDs) and HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Demographic and background parameters including CSF drug concentration penetration effectiveness (CPE) score 2010 were recorded. Changes in NPr and associated risk factors were analyzed. Two hundred and fifty-six patients underwent neuropsychological tests and 96 accepted follow-up approximately 2 years later. The groups were comparable. Upon neuropsychological retesting, six patients improved, 31 worsened and 59 were stable. The proportion of patients with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) rose from 26 to 45%, with ANIs and MNDs still mostly represented. Most patients initially diagnosed with HANDs remained stable, five of 25 showed clinical improvement and three of 25 deteriorated. Of 33 patients with normal tests, four deteriorated, whereas 24 of 38 with initial neuropsychological deficit had poorer NPr, and contributed most of the new HAND cases. Patients with clinical deterioration had a lower CPE score both at inclusion (6.9 vs. 8.1; P = 0.005) and at the end of follow-up (7.2 vs. 7.8; P = 0.08) than those with improved or stable performance. This was confirmed by multivariate analysis. Patients with higher CPE scores upon inclusion and at the end of follow-up were at lower risk of clinical worsening, suggesting that combination antiretroviral therapy with better CSF penetration could protect against cognitive deterioration.

  4. What's in a Teacher Test? Assessing the Relationship between Teacher Test Scores and Student Secondary STEM Achievement. CEDR Working Paper. WP #2016-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Gratz, Trevor; Theobald, Roddy

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the predictive validity of teacher credential test scores for student performance in secondary STEM classrooms in Washington state. After replicating earlier findings that teacher basic skills licensure test scores are a modest and statistically significant predictor of student math test score gains in elementary grades, we focus on…

  5. Testing statistical significance scores of sequence comparison methods with structure similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leunissen Jack AM

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past years the Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm has gained popularity due to improved implementations and rapidly increasing computing power. However, the quality and sensitivity of a database search is not only determined by the algorithm but also by the statistical significance testing for an alignment. The e-value is the most commonly used statistical validation method for sequence database searching. The CluSTr database and the Protein World database have been created using an alternative statistical significance test: a Z-score based on Monte-Carlo statistics. Several papers have described the superiority of the Z-score as compared to the e-value, using simulated data. We were interested if this could be validated when applied to existing, evolutionary related protein sequences. Results All experiments are performed on the ASTRAL SCOP database. The Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm with both e-value and Z-score statistics is evaluated, using ROC, CVE and AP measures. The BLAST and FASTA algorithms are used as reference. We find that two out of three Smith-Waterman implementations with e-value are better at predicting structural similarities between proteins than the Smith-Waterman implementation with Z-score. SSEARCH especially has very high scores. Conclusion The compute intensive Z-score does not have a clear advantage over the e-value. The Smith-Waterman implementations give generally better results than their heuristic counterparts. We recommend using the SSEARCH algorithm combined with e-values for pairwise sequence comparisons.

  6. A comparison of six clock-drawing test scoring methods in a nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhui; Xu, Shanhu; Jin, Xiaoqing; Lu, Xingjiao; Liu, Lu; Lou, Yue; Wang, Yanwen; Li, Yaguo; Jin, Yu

    2017-10-11

    Clock-drawing test (CDT) is widely used but lack of a suitable scoring method. To compare the validity of six common CDT scoring methods and to find out the best one. The drawing CDT was administered in a Chinese nursing-home inhabitants living on the mainland including 110 dementia, 118 MCI (mild cognitive impairment), and 133 random normal. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of six scoring methods and applied the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve statistic, including determining the area under the curve (AUC). (1) All six CDT scoring methods had a value of sensitivity higher than 80% and a specificity of 60% except Jouk and Tuokko. Freund got the highest sensitivity (92.73%) of that five for the testing of dementia and high sensitivity (82.20%) for MCI with an acceptable specificity (70.68%). (2) The AUC (area under the ROC curve) of all six CDT methods was over 0.8 for dementia, and for MCI, only Jouk and Tuokko were lower than 0.8. Mendez had the largest AUC of 0.872 for MCI, which closely followed by Freund with 0.859. (3) Freund predicted dementia best but had no significant difference (p > 0.05); it only had significant difference with Jouk and Tuokko (p < 0.001) and the method in MoCA (p < 0.05) for both MCI and cognitive impairment. Our study suggests that Freund scoring method could be the best one among the six evaluated scoring methods within our setting.

  7. The Relationship between Academic Averages of Primary School Science and Technology Class and Test Sub-Test Scores of Placement Test of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzeller, Cem Oktay

    2012-01-01

    In this research, the relationship between written exam scores of science and technology class of 6th, 7th, and 8th grades, project, participation in class activities and performance work, year-end academic success point averages and sub-test raw scores of LDT science of 6th, 7th and 8th grades. Academic success point averages were used as…

  8. Neurocognitive and Fine Motor Deficits in Asymptomatic Adolescents during the Subacute Period after Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servatius, Richard J; Spiegler, Kevin M; Handy, Justin D; Pang, Kevin C H; Tsao, Jack W; Mazzola, Catherine A

    2018-02-09

    Adolescents are at high risk for sustaining concussions. There is considerable controversy regarding the sensitivity of neurocognitive tests to detect and track dysfunction in the aftermath of concussion. Two neurocognitive test batteries were compared during the subacute phase of recovery from concussion to determine sensitivity to concussion. Adolescents (ages 11-17 years) with a concussion diagnosis (eight males, seven females, 9-69 days after injury) were recruited through a concussion clinic and compared with community nonconcussed volunteers (11 males, three females). Adolescents completed the online version of the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) on a desktop computer and the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA) on a handheld device, as well as the Grooved Pegboard Test, which assessed manual dexterity and motor speed. There were no differences in self-reported symptoms on the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale comparing concussed and nonconcussed adolescents. No significant between-groups differences were observed in ImPACT performance. Performance deficits were apparent for the DANA assessment, reflecting lower throughput scores for simple reaction time and response inhibition parameters in those with concussion. Concussed adolescents also had slower Grooved Pegboard Test performance when using the nondominant hand. Both the DANA test battery and the Grooved Pegboard Test appear to have promise as tools to detect persistent cognitive and motor dysfunction in the subacute period after concussion.

  9. The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, P. E.

    Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

  10. A knowledge-based theory of rising scores on "culture-free" tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mark C; Mitchum, Ainsley L

    2013-08-01

    Secular gains in intelligence test scores have perplexed researchers since they were documented by Flynn (1984, 1987). Gains are most pronounced on abstract, so-called culture-free tests, prompting Flynn (2007) to attribute them to problem-solving skills availed by scientifically advanced cultures. We propose that recent-born individuals have adopted an approach to analogy that enables them to infer higher level relations requiring roles that are not intrinsic to the objects that constitute initial representations of items. This proposal is translated into item-specific predictions about differences between cohorts in pass rates and item-response patterns on the Raven's Matrices (Flynn, 1987), a seemingly culture-free test that registers the largest Flynn effect. Consistent with predictions, archival data reveal that individuals born around 1940 are less able to map objects at higher levels of relational abstraction than individuals born around 1990. Polytomous Rasch models verify predicted violations of measurement invariance, as raw scores are found to underestimate the number of analogical rules inferred by members of the earlier cohort relative to members of the later cohort who achieve the same overall score. The work provides a plausible cognitive account of the Flynn effect, furthers understanding of the cognition of matrix reasoning, and underscores the need to consider how test-takers select item responses. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Predicting First-Quarter Test Scores from the New Medical College Admission Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Thomas J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The predictive validity of the new Medical College Admission Test as it relates to end-of-quarter examinations in anatomy, histology, physiology, biochemistry, and "ages of man" is presented. Results indicate that the Science Knowledge assessment areas of chemistry and physics and the Science Problems subtest were most useful in…

  12. Adults with poor reading skills: How lexical knowledge interacts with scores on standardized reading comprehension tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model's estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Maternal educational status at birth, maternal educational advancement, and neurocognitive outcomes at age 10 years among children born extremely preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Robert M; O'Shea, Thomas M; Allred, Elizabeth N; Heeren, Tim; Kuban, Karl K

    2017-11-22

    BackgroundTo determine if a key marker of socioeconomic status, maternal education, is associated with later neurocognitive and academic outcomes among children born extremely preterm (EP).MethodEight hundred and seventy-three children born at 23 to 27 weeks of gestation were assessed for cognitive and academic ability at age 10 years. With adjustments for gestational age (GA) and potential confounders, outcomes of children whose mothers had fewer years of education at the time of delivery and children whose mother advanced in education between birth and 10 years were examined.ResultsChildren of mothers in the lowest education stratum at birth were significantly more likely to score ≥2 SDs below normative expectation on 17 of 18 tests administered. Children of mothers who advanced in education (n=199) were at reduced risk for scoring ≥2 SDs on 15 of 18 measures, but this reduction was statistically significant on only 2 of 18 measures.ConclusionAmong EP children, socioeconomic disadvantage at birth, indexed by maternal education, is associated with significantly poorer neurocognitive and academic outcomes at 10 years of age, independently of GA. Maternal educational advancement during the child's first 10 years of life is associated with modestly improved neurocognitive outcomes.Pediatric Research advance online publication, 22 November 2017; doi:10.1038/pr.2017.267.

  14. Psychometrics of Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannick, Michael T; Wahi, Monika M; Goldin, Steven B

    2011-08-01

    A sample of 183 medical students completed the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT V2.0). Scores on the test were examined for evidence of reliability and factorial validity. Although Cronbach's alpha for the total scores was adequate (.79), many of the scales had low internal consistency (scale alphas ranged from .34 to .77; median = .48). Previous factor analyses of the MSCEIT are critiqued and the rationale for the current analysis is presented. Both confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the MSCEIT item parcels are reported. Pictures and faces items formed separate factors rather than loading on a Perception factor. Emotional Management appeared as a factor, but items from Blends and Facilitation failed to load consistently on any factor, rendering factors for Emotional Understanding and Emotional Facilitation problematic.

  15. Multiple imputation for item scores when test data are factorially complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, Joost R; van der Ark, L Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2007-11-01

    Multiple imputation under a two-way model with error is a simple and effective method that has been used to handle missing item scores in unidimensional test and questionnaire data. Extensions of this method to multidimensional data are proposed. A simulation study is used to investigate whether these extensions produce biased estimates of important statistics in multidimensional data, and to compare them with lower benchmark listwise deletion, two-way with error and multivariate normal imputation. The new methods produce smaller bias in several psychometrically interesting statistics than the existing methods of two-way with error and multivariate normal imputation. One of these new methods clearly is preferable for handling missing item scores in multidimensional test data.

  16. Are students' impressions of improved learning through active learning methods reflected by improved test scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, Marcee C

    2013-02-01

    To report the transformation from lecture to more active learning methods in a maternity nursing course and to evaluate whether student perception of improved learning through active-learning methods is supported by improved test scores. The process of transforming a course into an active-learning model of teaching is described. A voluntary mid-semester survey for student acceptance of the new teaching method was conducted. Course examination results, from both a standardized exam and a cumulative final exam, among students who received lecture in the classroom and students who had active learning activities in the classroom were compared. Active learning activities were very acceptable to students. The majority of students reported learning more from having active-learning activities in the classroom rather than lecture-only and this belief was supported by improved test scores. Students who had active learning activities in the classroom scored significantly higher on a standardized assessment test than students who received lecture only. The findings support the use of student reflection to evaluate the effectiveness of active-learning methods and help validate the use of student reflection of improved learning in other research projects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in Neurocognitive Functioning After 6 Months of Mentalization-Based Treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne Skovgaard; Ruocco, Anthony C; Uliaszek, Amanda A

    2017-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have deficits in neurocognitive function that could affect their ability to engage in psychotherapy and may be ameliorated by improvements in symptom severity. In the current study, 18 patients with BPD completed neurocognitive tests prior...

  18. The relationship between interview-based schizotypal personality dimension scores and the continuous performance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Jeffrey S; Kamath, Vidyulata; Compton, Michael T

    2009-03-01

    The existing research that has examined cognitive performance in samples with subclinical schizotypal personality features has been largely limited to psychometric self-report questionnaires, which may be biased by distorted self-awareness of symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between performance on a degraded-AX continuous performance test (CPT) and continuous dimension scores created from a structured clinical interview for schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), which reflected both the breadth and severity of schizotypal personality symptoms, in 52 undergraduate students. Only one participant met full diagnostic criteria for SPD. The overall dimension score from the SPD clinical interview showed a positive correlation with both omission (r(s)=.47) and false alarm (r(s)=.41) errors on the CPT. Interpersonal symptoms were positively correlated with omission errors (r(s)=.47), while Disorganized symptoms were positively correlated with false alarm errors (r(s)=.40). Results suggest that higher SPD interview-based dimension scores are associated with lower levels of performance on the CPT, even when examining a relatively subclinical sample of young adults. In contrast, scores from the psychometric Abbreviated Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in the same sample did not correlate with accuracy measures on the CPT, suggesting that the interview-based measure of schizotypal personality may have a stronger relationship with CPT accuracy. Findings also add to a growing literature suggesting that Interpersonal SPD symptoms are primarily related to omission errors, while Disorganized SPD symptoms are primarily related to false alarm errors.

  19. Generalizing Terwilliger's likelihood approach: a new score statistic to test for genetic association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Li

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: In this paper, we propose a one degree of freedom test for association between a candidate gene and a binary trait. This method is a generalization of Terwilliger's likelihood ratio statistic and is especially powerful for the situation of one associated haplotype. As an alternative to the likelihood ratio statistic, we derive a score statistic, which has a tractable expression. For haplotype analysis, we assume that phase is known. Results: By means of a simulation study, we compare the performance of the score statistic to Pearson's chi-square statistic and the likelihood ratio statistic proposed by Terwilliger. We illustrate the method on three candidate genes studied in the Leiden Thrombophilia Study. Conclusion: We conclude that the statistic follows a chi square distribution under the null hypothesis and that the score statistic is more powerful than Terwilliger's likelihood ratio statistic when the associated haplotype has frequency between 0.1 and 0.4 and has a small impact on the studied disorder. With regard to Pearson's chi-square statistic, the score statistic has more power when the associated haplotype has frequency above 0.2 and the number of variants is above five.

  20. Validation, test-retest reliability and norm scores for the Dutch Catquest-9SF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Martijn S; Dieleman, Myrthe; Klijn, Stijn; Timman, Reinier; Lundström, Mats; Busschbach, Jan J V; Reus, Nicolaas J

    2017-05-01

    The Catquest-9SF questionnaire is a unidimensional, reliable, valid and short patient-reported outcome measure for quantifying benefits in visual functioning from cataract surgery. Our aim was to develop a formal Dutch translation, calculate norm scores, assess its validity and test-retest reliability and provide an easy way for use in clinical practice. Translation of the questionnaire was performed according to guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. Catquest-9SF was obtained in 657 patients pre- and postcataract surgery. We applied Rasch and classical analyses to determine the questionnaire performance with characteristics such as unidimensionality, reliability, separation and differential item functioning. Test-retest reliability was assessed in another group of 145 patients. A cut-off value to discriminate between people with and without cataract, norm scores and a reliable change index (RCI) were calculated using data from a sample of 916 'healthy' persons from the normal population. The Dutch Catquest-9SF was unidimensional, and both person and item reliability were high; 0.87 and 0.99, respectively. Cronbach's alpha was 0.94, test-retest reliability was 0.85 and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93. Catquest-9SF showed to be responsive to the effect of cataract surgery (effect size = 1.27; p reliability of the Dutch Catquest-9SF as well as norm scores and a new tool to facilitate the clinical interpretation of patient scores. This makes Catquest-9SF suitable for routine use in clinical practice. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Pulmonary Embolism is Enigmatic Problem in Emergency Service: Performance of Wells Score, Geneva Score and Other Test for PE

    OpenAIRE

    Tatlı, Mehmet; Altintop, Ismail; Yurtseven, Aynur

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundPulmonaryembolism which is an mysterious and difficult disease to diagnose is the thirdmost common cause of death from cardiovascular disease. Despite recent clinicalstudies and technological development, pulmonary embolism diagnosing is hardand complicated. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism starts with physcianssuspicion. Firstly, assessment of clinical pre-test probability is important. Clinicalpre-test probability is based on assessment of whether symptoms and signs aretypical for ...

  2. The effect of preinjury sleep difficulties on neurocognitive impairment and symptoms after sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrinko, Alicia; Pearce, Kelly; Elbin, R J; Covassin, Tracey; Johnson, Eric; Collins, Michael; Kontos, Anthony P

    2015-04-01

    Researchers have reported that sleep duration is positively related to baseline neurocognitive performance. However, researchers have yet to examine the effect of preinjury sleep difficulties on postconcussion impairments. To compare neurocognitive impairment and symptoms of athletes with preinjury sleep difficulties to those without after a sport-related concussion (SRC). Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The sample included 348 adolescent and adult athletes (age, mean ± SD, 17.43 ± 2.34 years) with a diagnosed SRC. The sample was divided into 2 groups: (1) 34 (10%) participants with preinjury sleep difficulties (sleeping less as well as having trouble falling asleep; SLEEP SX) and (2) 231 (66%) participants without preinjury sleep difficulties (CONTROL). The remaining 84 (24%) participants with minimal sleep difficulties (1 symptom) were excluded. Participants completed the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) and Postconcussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) at baseline and 3 postinjury intervals (2, 5-7, and 10-14 days after injury). A series of repeated-measures analyses of covariance with Bonferroni correction, controlling for baseline non-sleep-related symptoms, were conducted to compare postinjury neurocognitive performance between groups. Follow-up exploratory t tests examined between-group differences at each time interval. A series of analyses of variance were used to examine total PCSS score, sleep-related, and non-sleep-related symptoms across time intervals between groups. Groups differed significantly in PCSS scores across postinjury intervals for reaction time (P SLEEP SX group performing worse than controls at 5-7 days (mean ± SD, 0.70 ± 0.32 [SLEEP SX], 0.60 ± 0.14 [CONTROL]) and 10-14 days (0.61 ± 0.17 [SLEEP SX]; 0.57 ± 0.10 [CONTROL]) after injury. Groups also differed significantly on verbal memory performance (P = .04), with the SLEEP SX (68.21 ± 18.64) group performing worse than the CONTROL group (76.76 ± 14

  3. Priming competence diminishes the link between cognitive test anxiety and test performance. Implications for the interpretation of test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jonas W B; Lang, Jessica

    2010-06-01

    Researchers disagree whether the correlation between cognitive test anxiety and test performance is causal or explainable by skill deficits, which lead to both cognitive test anxiety and lower test performance. Most causal theories of test anxiety assume that individual differences in cognitive test anxiety originate from differences in self-perceived competence. Accordingly, in the present research, we sought to temporarily heighten perceptions of competence using a priming intervention. Two studies with secondary- and vocational-school students (Ns = 219 and 232, respectively) contrasted this intervention with a no-priming control condition. Priming competence diminished the association between cognitive test anxiety and test performance by heightening the performance of cognitively test-anxious students and by lowering the performance of students with low levels of cognitive test anxiety. The findings suggest that cognitively test-anxious persons have greater abilities than they commonly show. Competency priming may offer a way to improve the situation of people with cognitive test anxiety.

  4. Neurocognitive effects of alcohol hangover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Gemma; Adan, Ana; Pérez-Pàmies, Montserrat; Sànchez-Turet, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol hangover is characterized by adverse physical and mental effects that occur the next morning after the intake of toxic doses of alcohol. One of the more relevant functional consequences of hangover is the cognitive and subjective impairment, which could be related to the high socioeconomic costs of alcohol consumption. Nevertheless, few studies have addressed the study of neurocognitive and subjective effects of hangover. The systematic and exhaustive study of neurocognitive and subjective effects has not been done. In the present work we briefly review the hangover impact, not only in the objective execution of attention, psychomotricity and memory tasks, but in the subjective state of the subjects as well. Moreover, we also highlight the methodology difficulties to study neurocognitive effects of hangover and suggest several aspects to take into account in future investigations.

  5. Selective Neurocognitive Impairments in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Georges; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Jepsen, Susie; Ballard, Kristin; Nelson, Megan; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Cullen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether major depression in adolescence is characterized by neurocognitive deficits in attention, affective decision making, and cognitive control of emotion processing. Neuropsychological tests including the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs, the Attention Network…

  6. The National Early Warning Score: Translation, testing and prediction in a Swedish setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spångfors, Martin; Arvidsson, Lisa; Karlsson, Victoria; Samuelson, Karin

    2016-12-01

    The National Early Warning Score - NEWS is a "track and trigger" scale designed to assess in-hospital patients' vital signs and detect clinical deterioration. In this study the NEWS was translated into Swedish and its association with the need of intensive care was investigated. A total of 868 patient charts, recorded by the medical emergency team at a university hospital, containing the parameters needed to calculate the NEWS were audited. The NEWS was translated into Swedish and tested for inter-rater reliability with a perfect agreement (weighted κ=1.0) among the raters. The median score for patients admitted to the ICU were higher than for those who were not (10 vs. 8, pscores for the parameters oxygen saturation and level of consciousness in the NEWS may predict admission to the ICU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Can the external masculinization score predict the success of genetic testing in 46,XY DSD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruthie Su

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic testing is judiciously applied to individuals with Disorders of Sex Development (DSD and so it is necessary to identify those most likely to benefit from such testing. We hypothesized that the external masculinization score (EMS is inversely associated with the likelihood of finding a pathogenic genetic variant. Patients with 46,XY DSD from a single institution evaluated from 1994-2014 were included. Results of advanced cytogenetic and gene sequencing tests were recorded. An EMS score (range 0-12 was assigned to each patient according to the team's initial external genitalia physical examination. During 1994-2011, 44 (40% patients with 46,XY DSD were evaluated and underwent genetic testing beyond initial karyotype; 23% (10/44 had a genetic diagnosis made by gene sequencing or array. The median EMS score of those with an identified pathogenic variant was significantly different from those in whom no confirmed genetic cause was identified [median 3 (95% CI, 2-6 versus 6 (95% CI, 5-7, respectively (p = 0.02], but limited to diagnoses of complete or partial androgen insensitivity (8/10 or 5-reductase deficiency (2/10. In the modern cohort (2012-2014, the difference in median EMS in whom a genetic cause was or was not identified approached significance (p = 0.05, median 3 (95% CI, 0-7 versus 7 (95% CI, 6-9, respectively. When all patients from 1994-2014 are pooled, the EMS is significantly different amongst those with compared to those without a genetic cause (median EMS 3 vs. 6, p < 0.02. We conclude that an EMS of 3 or less may indicate a higher likelihood of identifying a genetic cause of 46,XY DSD and justify genetic screening, especially when androgen insensitivity is suspected.

  8. A robust method using propensity score stratification for correcting verification bias for binary tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hua; McDermott, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Sensitivity and specificity are common measures of the accuracy of a diagnostic test. The usual estimators of these quantities are unbiased if data on the diagnostic test result and the true disease status are obtained from all subjects in an appropriately selected sample. In some studies, verification of the true disease status is performed only for a subset of subjects, possibly depending on the result of the diagnostic test and other characteristics of the subjects. Estimators of sensitivity and specificity based on this subset of subjects are typically biased; this is known as verification bias. Methods have been proposed to correct verification bias under the assumption that the missing data on disease status are missing at random (MAR), that is, the probability of missingness depends on the true (missing) disease status only through the test result and observed covariate information. When some of the covariates are continuous, or the number of covariates is relatively large, the existing methods require parametric models for the probability of disease or the probability of verification (given the test result and covariates), and hence are subject to model misspecification. We propose a new method for correcting verification bias based on the propensity score, defined as the predicted probability of verification given the test result and observed covariates. This is estimated separately for those with positive and negative test results. The new method classifies the verified sample into several subsamples that have homogeneous propensity scores and allows correction for verification bias. Simulation studies demonstrate that the new estimators are more robust to model misspecification than existing methods, but still perform well when the models for the probability of disease and probability of verification are correctly specified.

  9. A decreasing CD4/CD8 ratio over time and lower CSF-penetrating antiretroviral regimens are associated with a higher risk of neurocognitive deterioration, independently of viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Matteo; Fabre, R; Durant, J; Lebrun-Frenay, C; Joly, H; Ticchioni, M; DeSalvador, F; Harvey-Langton, A; Dunais, B; Laffon, M; Cottalorda, J; Dellamonica, P; Pradier, C

    2017-04-01

    Persistent immune activation is one of the suspected causes of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in cART era. The CD4/CD8 ratio has been recently showed as a marker of immune activation and HAND. Our aim was to analyze if a decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio over time could have an impact on neurocognitive deterioration. Randomly selected HIV-infected patients were followed for neuropsychological (NP) testing during a period of almost 2 years. Tests were adjusted for age, gender, and education. Patients were divided into 5 groups: normal tests (NT), neuropsychological deficit (ND, one impaired cognitive domain), asymptomatic neurocognitive disorders (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorders (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Risk factors for neurocognitive deterioration were analyzed. Two hundred fifty-six patients underwent NP tests and 94 participated in the follow-up. The groups were comparable. Upon neuropsychological re-testing, six patients showed clinical improvement, 30 had worsened, and 58 were stable, resulting in 42 patients presenting with HAND (45 %). The majority of HAND cases consisted of ANI (26 %) and MND (16 %). In patients whose NP performance worsened, CPE 2010 score was lower at inclusion (7.13 vs 8.00, p = 0.003) and CD4/CD8 decrease more frequent (60 vs 31 %, p = 0.008) than in those who were stable or improved. Multivariate analysis confirmed these results. A decreasing CD4/CD8 ratio during a longitudinal follow-up of randomly selected HIV-infected patients and lower CSF-penetrating regimens were independently associated with cognitive decline. Monitoring trends in CD4/CD8 ratio could contribute to identifying patients at higher risk of neurocognitive deterioration.

  10. Linking Composite Scores: Effects of Anchor Test Length and Content Representativeness. Research Report. ETS RR-16-36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peng; Dorans, Neil; Weeks, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design is frequently used in test score equating or linking. One important assumption of the NEAT design is that the anchor test is a miniversion of the 2 tests to be equated/linked. When the content of the 2 tests is different, it is not possible for the anchor test to be adequately representative…

  11. Comorbid anxiety and neurocognitive dysfunctions in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemsma, J Monique; Boer, Frits; Arnold, Renée; Banaschewski, Tobias; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Sergeant, Joseph A; Rommelse, Nanda; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2013-04-01

    Previous research established that children with ADHD and comorbid anxiety have a later age of ADHD onset, show less off-task and hyperactive behavior, and have more school problems than children with ADHD alone. Comorbid anxiety appears to ameliorate behavioral inhibition deficits, worsen working memory problems, and lengthen reaction times in ADHD. This study investigated the effect of comorbid anxiety on a broad range of neurocognitive functions and includes child-, parent- and teacher reports of anxiety. The sample consisted of 509 children in the age range 5-19 years, including 238 children with a diagnosis of ADHD combined subtype and 271 normal control children. Children were tested on a broad battery of neurocognitive tasks that proved highly sensitive to ADHD in previous work. Linear Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to estimate the effect of comorbid anxiety on the neurocognitive functions. Child reported anxiety was associated with slower motor speed and response speed and better behavioral inhibition. Teacher reported anxiety was related to worse time production. Parent reported anxiety was not significantly associated with any of the neurocognitive functions. Compared to parent and teacher reports of anxiety, child reported comorbid anxiety shows foremost the largest associations with the neurocognitive dysfunctions observed in children with ADHD. This stresses the importance of including child self-reported anxiety assessments in clinical and research practice.

  12. Aging, neurocognition, and medication adherence in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettenhofer, Mark L; Hinkin, Charles H; Castellon, Steven A; Durvasula, Ramani; Ullman, Jodi; Lam, Mona; Myers, Hector; Wright, Matthew J; Foley, Jessica

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) would be more strongly related to cognitive impairment among older than among younger HIV-seropositive adults. A volunteer sample of 431 HIV-infected adult patients prescribed self-administered HAART was recruited from community agencies and university-affiliated infectious disease clinics in the Los Angeles area. Neurocognitive measures included tests of attention, information processing speed, learning/memory, verbal fluency, motor functioning, and executive functioning. Medication adherence was measured using microchip-embedded pill bottle caps (Medication Event Monitoring System) and self-report. Latent/structural analysis techniques were used to evaluate factor models of cognition and adherence. Mean adherence rates were higher among older (>or=50 years) than younger (<50 years) HIV-positive adults. However, latent/structural modeling demonstrated that neurocognitive impairment was associated with poorer medication adherence among older participants only. When cognitive subdomains were examined individually, executive functioning, motor functioning, and processing speed were most strongly related to adherence in this age group. CD4 count and drug problems were also more strongly associated with adherence among older than younger adults. Older HIV-positive individuals with neurocognitive impairment or drug problems are at increased risk of suboptimal adherence to medication. Likewise, older adults may be especially vulnerable to immunological and neurocognitive dysfunction under conditions of suboptimal HAART adherence. These findings highlight the importance of optimizing medication adherence rates and evaluating neurocognition in the growing population of older HIV-infected patients.

  13. A brief and feasible paper-based method to screen for neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected patients: the NEU screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Moreno, Jose A; Prats, Anna; Pérez-Álvarez, Núria; Fumaz, Carmina R; Garolera, Maite; Doval, Eduardo; Negredo, Eugènia; Ferrer, Maria J; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2013-08-15

    Practical screening methods are necessary to detect neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in HIV-infected patients. We aimed to find a brief and feasible paper-based tool to facilitate the diagnosis of an HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder. A total of 106 HIV-infected outpatients with variable clinical characteristics were recruited in a multicenter investigation. NCI was diagnosed using a standardized neuropsychological tests battery (7 areas, 21 measures, ∼2 hours). Multiple score combinations were compared to find a paper-based method that took ≤10 minutes to apply. The presence of NCI was considered the gold standard for comparisons, and the sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Subjects were mostly middle-aged (median, 44 years) men (87%) on antiretroviral treatment. NCI was detected in 51 individuals (48%) and was associated with lower nadir CD4 count (P Trail Making Test, part B of Trail Making Test, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test scores). A broader paper-based selection of measures covering 7 areas indicated a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 96.3% (7 measures, ∼35 minutes). The combination of the 3 measures presented in this study seems to be a rapid and feasible screening mean for NCI in HIV-infected patients. This approach, combined with screening for potential comorbidities and daily functioning interference, could help in the initial stages of a HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder diagnosis and in settings with limited access to neuropsychological resources.

  14. Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL[R] Internet-Based and Paper-Based Tests. January 2008-December 2008 Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Testing Service, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM], better known as TOEFL[R], is designed to measure the English-language proficiency of people whose native language is not English. TOEFL scores are accepted by more than 6,000 colleges, universities, and licensing agencies in 130 countries. The test is also used by governments, and scholarship and…

  15. Guided-Inquiry Lessons Raise Scores on the Sixth Grade Georgia Science Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Purlie M.

    At the local level, G Middle School has the highest district-wide percentage of 6th grade science students who are not meeting standards. It is imperative that G middle school take corrective action to reduce the number of students failing to meet state science standards. Dewey's theory of conceptual framework, which involves knowledge constructed on a person's personal experience and mind activity through active forms of learning, guided this study. The goal of the study was to determine whether inquiry-based science modules produce greater 6th grade science achievement, as measured by an equivalent instrument of the science section of the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test, when compared to traditional instruction among eastern Georgia 6th graders. The sample consisted of 230 students in the nonintervention group and 119 students in the intervention group. All students were from intact classes. At the end of the intervention, an independent t test was conducted to analyze the scores. According to the study t test, (t = 12.33, df = 304.56, p project's potential impact on social change includes increasing student motivation towards, comprehension of, and interest in science concepts. At the local level, these inquiry lessons can be shared with science teachers across grade levels and within the district to improve county-wide science scores. An increase in student interest and comprehension of science concepts could ultimately lead to the United States producing more students in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education.

  16. Army Physical Fitness Test scores predict coronary heart disease risk in Army National Guard soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Laura A; Weinstein, Ali A; Fleg, Jerome L

    2009-03-01

    An increased rate of cardiac symptoms at combat theater hospitals brings concerns about the predeployment health of Army National Guard (ARNG) soldiers on the basis of older age, lower fitness level, and sedentary lifestyle than active duty troops. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of physical fitness, reported physical activity (PA), and coronary risk factors to calculated 10-year hard coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in 136 ARNG soldiers, aged 18-53 years, who failed the 2-mile run of the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). The APFT score, derived from a composite of 2-mile run time, sit-ups, and push-ups, related inversely to 10-year CHD risk (r = -0.23, p APFT scores were positively associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and inversely with triglycerides, total cholesterol:HDL ratio, diastolic blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI). No relationship existed between PA and any of the CHD risk factors. We conclude that a higher APFT score is associated with a healthier CHD risk factor profile and is a predictor of better predeployment cardiovascular health.

  17. A toxicity scoring system for the 10-day whole sediment test with Corophium insidiosum (Crawford).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Ermelinda; Biandolino, Francesca; Libralato, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    This study developed a tool able to evaluate the potential contamination of marine sediments detecting the presence or absence of toxicity supporting environmental decision-making processes. When the sample is toxic, it is important to classify its level of toxicity to understand its subsequent effects and management practices. Corophium insidiosum is a widespread and frequently recorded species along the Mediterranean Sea, North Sea and western Baltic Sea with records also in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. This amphipod is found in high abundance in shallow brackish inshore areas and estuaries also with high turbidity. At Italian level, C. insidiosum is more frequently collectable than Corophium orientale, making routine toxicity tests easier to be performed. Moreover, according to the international scientific literature, C. insidiosum is more sensitive than C. orientale. Whole sediment toxicity data (10 days) with C. insidiosum were organised in a species-specific toxicity score on the basis of the minimum significance difference (MSD) approach. Thresholds to rank samples as non-toxic and toxic were based on sediment samples (n=84) from the Gulf of Taranto (Italy). A five-class toxicity score (absent, low, medium, high and very high toxicity) was developed, considering the distribution of the 90th percentile of the MSD normalised to the effects on the negative controls (samples from reference sites). This toxicity score could be useful for interpreting sediment potential impacts and providing quick responsive management information.

  18. Adherence and neurocognitive screening in Romanian HIV patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Arbune

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adherence is critical for the effectiveness of antiretroviral HIV therapy (ART, accordingly decreasing the opportunistic diseases and increasing the quality of life. Neurocognitive disorders (NCD are still frequent in ART era and could impair the adherence, but how ethical is to refer ART in patients with NCD? Objective: To assess the relation between NCD and adherence in HIV Romanian patients. Material and methods: Cross-sectional screening study on 151 patients under ART, no drug users, from HIV Clinic - Galati, assessed by HIV-Associated Dementia Scale (HDS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS [1], ART CNS-effectiveness Letendre scores [2] and adherence assessment questionnaire CNLAS- Romania. Normal values: HDS >10; anxiety/ depression <8. Statistical analysis performed: Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney test, with 5% significance level. Results: Characteristics of the patients: median age 22 [20; 56] years old; sex ratio F/M 1.17; median educational level 8 [0; >12] years; HBV co-infection 27.8%; AIDS stage 85.3%; current median CD4 526/mm3 [8; 1605] and 65% undetectable HIV-RNA levels. 49.6% (75/151 patients attain HDS scores <10 and imply probable NCD. Scores below 8 for anxiety are more frequent than for depression: 24% vs 13%. The median ART CNS penetration score is 8 [5; 12]. Adherence is considered for 66% patients and is correlating with CD4 number (p=0.001, educational level >4 years (p=0.001; OR=4.2, HDS >10 (p=0.01; OR=2.4 and ART-CNS penetration score >7 (p=0.023; OR=2.4. Low HDS are influenced by old age (p=0.003, depression (p=0.02 and ART-CNS penetration scores <7 (p=0.01. Anxiety is related neither with adherence nor with NCD by HDS, but females are obvious anxious than males (p<0.001. Conclusions: Basic educational level is sufficient for developing ART adherence. High scores of HDS screening should be predictors for ART adherence. Referring ART as well to patients with low HDS scores is rational and

  19. Scoring in genetically modified organism proficiency tests based on log-transformed results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Ellison, Stephen L R; Owen, Linda; Mathieson, Kenneth; Powell, Joanne; Key, Pauline; Wood, Roger; Damant, Andrew P

    2006-01-01

    The study considers data from 2 UK-based proficiency schemes and includes data from a total of 29 rounds and 43 test materials over a period of 3 years. The results from the 2 schemes are similar and reinforce each other. The amplification process used in quantitative polymerase chain reaction determinations predicts a mixture of normal, binomial, and lognormal distributions dominated by the latter 2. As predicted, the study results consistently follow a positively skewed distribution. Log-transformation prior to calculating z-scores is effective in establishing near-symmetric distributions that are sufficiently close to normal to justify interpretation on the basis of the normal distribution.

  20. The Quantitative LOD Score: Test Statistic and Sample Size for Exclusion and Linkage of Quantitative Traits in Human Sibships

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Grier P.; Amos, Christopher I.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    1998-01-01

    We present a test statistic, the quantitative LOD (QLOD) score, for the testing of both linkage and exclusion of quantitative-trait loci in randomly selected human sibships. As with the traditional LOD score, the boundary values of 3, for linkage, and -2, for exclusion, can be used for the QLOD score. We investigated the sample sizes required for inferring exclusion and linkage, for various combinations of linked genetic variance, total heritability, recombination distance, and sibship size, ...

  1. Clock Drawing Test and the diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment: can more detailed scoring systems do the work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubínová, Eva; Nikolai, Tomáš; Marková, Hana; Siffelová, Kamila; Laczó, Jan; Hort, Jakub; Vyhnálek, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Clock Drawing Test is a frequently used cognitive screening test with several scoring systems in elderly populations. We compare simple and complex scoring systems and evaluate the usefulness of the combination of the Clock Drawing Test with the Mini-Mental State Examination to detect patients with mild cognitive impairment. Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 48) and age- and education-matched controls (n = 48) underwent neuropsychological examinations, including the Clock Drawing Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Clock drawings were scored by three blinded raters using one simple (6-point scale) and two complex (17- and 18-point scales) systems. The sensitivity and specificity of these scoring systems used alone and in combination with the Mini-Mental State Examination were determined. Complex scoring systems, but not the simple scoring system, were significant predictors of the amnestic mild cognitive impairment diagnosis in logistic regression analysis. At equal levels of sensitivity (87.5%), the Mini-Mental State Examination showed higher specificity (31.3%, compared with 12.5% for the 17-point Clock Drawing Test scoring scale). The combination of Clock Drawing Test and Mini-Mental State Examination scores increased the area under the curve (0.72; p Drawing Test did not differentiate between healthy elderly and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment in our sample. Complex scoring systems were slightly more efficient, yet still were characterized by high rates of false-positive results. We found psychometric improvement using combined scores from the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing Test when complex scoring systems were used. The results of this study support the benefit of using combined scores from simple methods.

  2. Select neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected women: associations with HIV viral load, hepatitis C virus, and depression, but not leukocyte telomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle J Giesbrecht

    Full Text Available Through implementation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART remarkable gains have been achieved in the management of HIV infection; nonetheless, the neurocognitive consequences of infection remain a pivotal concern in the cART era. Research has often employed norm-referenced neuropsychological scores, derived from healthy populations (excluding many seronegative individuals at high risk for HIV infection, to characterize impairments in predominately male HIV-infected populations.Using matched-group methodology, we assessed 81 HIV-seropositive (HIV+ women with established neuropsychological measures validated for detection of HIV-related impairments, as well as additional detailed tests of executive function and decision-making from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB.On validated tests, the HIV+ women exhibited impairments that were limited to significantly slower information processing speed when compared with 45 HIV-seronegative (HIV- women with very similar demographic backgrounds and illness comorbidities. Additionally, select executive impairments in shifting attention (i.e., reversal learning and in decision-making quality were revealed in HIV+ participants. Modifiers of neurocognition in HIV-infected women included detectable HIV plasma viral load, active hepatitis C virus co-infection, and self-reported depression symptoms. In contrast, leukocyte telomere length (LTL, a marker of cellular aging, did not significantly differ between HIV+ and HIV- women, nor was LTL associated with overall neurocognition in the HIV+ group.The findings suggest that well-managed HIV infection may entail a more circumscribed neurocognitive deficit pattern than that reported in many norm-referenced studies, and that common comorbidities make a secondary contribution to HIV-related neurocognitive impairments.

  3. Social cognition and neurocognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliksted, Vibeke Fuglsang; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Weed, Ethan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown a significant impact of social cognitive domains on real world functioning and prognosis in schizophrenia. However, the correlations between specific aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, IQ and clinical symptoms remain unclear in first......-episode schizophrenia. Researchers have speculated about social cognitive subgroups since patients with schizophrenia appear to be a very heterogeneous group. METHODS: Patients with a recent diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia were tested regarding theory of mind, social perception, neurocognition, IQ......, and clinical symptoms. RESULTS: Data from 36 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 36 one to one matched healthy controls were analysed. Principal component analysis in the patient group was used to examine the variance contributed by different aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, and clinical...

  4. Interpreting the "g" Loadings of Intelligence Test Composite Scores in Light of Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The linear loadings of intelligence test composite scores on a general factor ("g") have been investigated recently in factor analytic studies. Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR), however, implies that the "g" loadings of test scores likely decrease in magnitude as g increases, or they are nonlinear. The purpose of…

  5. Neurocognitive correlates of processing food-related stimuli in a Go/No-go paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Todd D; Garvey, Katherine T

    2013-12-01

    We examined the neurocognitive correlates of processing food-related stimuli in healthy young adults. Event-related potential (ERP) data were collected while 48 participants completed a computerized Go/No-go task consisting of food and nonfood images. Separately, we assessed participants' self-reported levels of external, restrained, and emotional eating behaviors as well as trait impulsivity, behavioral activation/inhibition, and performance on the Stroop Color-Word Test. We found that across participants, food images elicited significantly enhanced P3(00) and slow-wave ERP components. The difference in slow-wave components elicited by food and nonfood images was correlated with Stroop interference scores. Food images also elicited significantly enhanced N2(00) components, but only in female participants. The difference between N2 components elicited by food and nonfood images was related to body mass index and scores of external eating in females. Overall, these data suggest that processing food-related stimuli recruits distinct patterns of cortical activity, that the magnitude of these effects is related to behavioral and cognitive variables, and that the neurocognitive correlates of processing food-cues may be at least partly dissociable between males and females. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A score test for determining sample size in matched case-control studies with categorical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Samiran; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2006-02-01

    The paper considers the problem of determining the number of matched sets in 1 : M matched case-control studies with a categorical exposure having k + 1 categories, k > or = 1. The basic interest lies in constructing a test statistic to test whether the exposure is associated with the disease. Estimates of the k odds ratios for 1 : M matched case-control studies with dichotomous exposure and for 1 : 1 matched case-control studies with exposure at several levels are presented in Breslow and Day (1980), but results holding in full generality were not available so far. We propose a score test for testing the hypothesis of no association between disease and the polychotomous exposure. We exploit the power function of this test statistic to calculate the required number of matched sets to detect specific departures from the null hypothesis of no association. We also consider the situation when there is a natural ordering among the levels of the exposure variable. For ordinal exposure variables, we propose a test for detecting trend in disease risk with increasing levels of the exposure variable. Our methods are illustrated with two datasets, one is a real dataset on colorectal cancer in rats and the other a simulated dataset for studying disease-gene association.

  7. Neurocognition and Duration of Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Evensen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of schizophrenia-spectrum patients exhibit a cognitive impairment at illness onset. However, the long-term course of neurocognition and a possible neurotoxic effect of time spent in active psychosis, is a topic of controversy. Furthermore, it is of importance to find out...

  8. What's in a Teacher Test? Assessing the Relationship between Teacher Licensure Test Scores and Student STEM Achievement and Course-Taking. Working Paper 158

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Gratz, Trevor; Theobald, Roddy

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between teacher licensure test scores and student test achievement and high school course-taking. We focus on three subject/grade combinations--middle school math, ninth-grade algebra and geometry, and ninth-grade biology--and find evidence that a teacher's basic skills test scores are modestly predictive of student…

  9. What's in a Teacher Test? Assessing the Relationship between Teacher Licensure Test Scores and Student STEM Achievement and Course-Taking. CEDR Working Paper. WP #2016-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Gratz, Trevor; Theobald, Roddy

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between teacher licensure test scores and student test achievement and high school course-taking. We focus on three subject/grade combinations-- middle school math, ninth-grade algebra and geometry, and ninth-grade biology--and find evidence that a teacher's basic skills test scores are modestly predictive of…

  10. A Comparison of the Approaches of Generalizability Theory and Item Response Theory in Estimating the Reliability of Test Scores for Testlet-Composed Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guemin; Park, In-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Previous assessments of the reliability of test scores for testlet-composed tests have indicated that item-based estimation methods overestimate reliability. This study was designed to address issues related to the extent to which item-based estimation methods overestimate the reliability of test scores composed of testlets and to compare several…

  11. The Bender Gestalt Test with the Human Figure Drawing Test for Young School Children. A Manual for Use with the Koppitz Scoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppitz, Elizabeth Munsterberg

    Presented is a manual for scoring the Bender Gestalt Test and the Human Figure Drawing Test for screening and diagnostic uses with emotionally disturbed, brain damaged, or perceptually handicapped 5- to 11-year-old children. Given are suggestions for administering and scoring the Bender test which examines distortion of shape, rotation,…

  12. REPRODUCIBILITY OF THE MODIFIED STAR EXCURSION BALANCE TEST COMPOSITE AND SPECIFIC REACH DIRECTION SCORES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Remko; Reijneveld, Elja A E; van den Berg, Sandra M; Haerkens, Gijs M; Koenders, Niek H; de Leeuw, Arina J; van Oorsouw, Roel G; Paap, Davy; Scheffer, Else; Weterings, Stijn; Stukstette, Mirelle J

    2016-06-01

    The mSEBT is a screening tool used to evaluate dynamic balance. Most research investigating measurement properties focused on intrarater reliability and was done in small samples. To know whether the mSEBT is useful to discriminate dynamic balance between persons and to evaluate changes in dynamic balance, more research into intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change (synonymous with minimal detectable change) is needed. To estimate intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change of the mSEBT in adults at risk for ankle sprain. Cross-sectional, test-retest design. Fifty-five healthy young adults participating in sports at risk for ankle sprain participated (mean ± SD age, 24.0 ± 2.9 years). Each participant performed three test sessions within one hour and was rated by two physical therapists (session 1, rater 1; session 2, rater 2; session 3, rater 1). Participants and raters were blinded for previous measurements. Normalized composite and reach direction scores for the right and left leg were collected. Analysis of variance was used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficient values for intra- and interrater reliability. Smallest detectable change values were calculated based on the standard error of measurement. Intra- and interrater reliability for both legs was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.87 to 0.94). The intrarater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 7.2% and for the left 6.2%. The interrater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 6.9% and for the left 5.0%. The mSEBT is a reliable measurement instrument to discriminate dynamic balance between persons. Most smallest detectable change values of the mSEBT appear to be large. More research is needed to investigate if the mSEBT is usable for evaluative purposes. Level 2.

  13. The relationship between selected standardized test scores and performance in advanced placement math and science exams: Analyzing the differential effectiveness of scores for course identification and placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Josue N.

    There is a national need to increase the STEM-related workforce. Among factors leading towards STEM careers include the number of advanced high school mathematics and science courses students complete. Florida's enrollment patterns in STEM-related Advanced Placement (AP) courses, however, reveal that only a small percentage of students enroll into these classes. Therefore, screening tools are needed to find more students for these courses, who are academically ready, yet have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which scores from a national standardized test, Preliminary Scholastic Assessment Test/ National Merit Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT), in conjunction with and compared to a state-mandated standardized test, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), are related to selected AP exam performance in Seminole County Public Schools. An ex post facto correlational study was conducted using 6,189 student records from the 2010 - 2012 academic years. Multiple regression analyses using simultaneous Full Model testing showed differential moderate to strong relationships between scores in eight of the nine AP courses (i.e., Biology, Environmental Science, Chemistry, Physics B, Physics C Electrical, Physics C Mechanical, Statistics, Calculus AB and BC) examined. For example, the significant unique contribution to overall variance in AP scores was a linear combination of PSAT Math (M), Critical Reading (CR) and FCAT Reading (R) for Biology and Environmental Science. Moderate relationships for Chemistry included a linear combination of PSAT M, W (Writing) and FCAT M; a combination of FCAT M and PSAT M was most significantly associated with Calculus AB performance. These findings have implications for both research and practice. FCAT scores, in conjunction with PSAT scores, can potentially be used for specific STEM-related AP courses, as part of a systematic approach towards AP course identification and placement. For courses with

  14. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heethal Jaiprakash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group’s tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group’s tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors’ performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors’ scores in group 1 was 0.099 (p<0.001 and for group 2 was 0.305 (p<0.001. The higher correlation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.

  15. Manual muscle test score and force comparisons after cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham-Shropshire, B M; Klose, K J; Tucker, M E; Thomas, C K

    1997-07-01

    Manual muscle test scores (MMTS) and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force measurements were made from triceps brachii muscles of 70 individuals with chronic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Both MMTS and strength assessments showed that asymmetrical motor deficits were common. Muscles with MMTS of 3 generated an average of nine percent MVC force produced by control muscles. In this SCI population, little residual voluntary force is apparently needed for triceps brachii to work against gravity. Only 24 percent of muscles tested had this strength, however, indicating the need to develop strategies to alleviate this muscle weakness. MMTS and force were related positively but each MMTS was not associated with a unique force range. MVC force generating capacity is therefore only one factor that determines whether or not a muscle can work with or against gravity and against resistance.

  16. Reliability and validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale scores: a group intelligence test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yota Uno

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. METHODS: The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQ<70 was performed. In addition, stratum-specific likelihood ratios for detection of intellectual disability were calculated. RESULTS: The Cronbach's alpha for the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale IQ (BIQ was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96. In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≤65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9-48.9, and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≥76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03-0.4. Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. CONCLUSION: The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult.

  17. Reliability and validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale scores: a group intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yota; Mizukami, Hitomi; Ando, Masahiko; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Iwasaki, Yoko; Ozaki, Norio

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years) residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQIntelligence Scale IQ (BIQ) was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96). In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≤65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9-48.9), and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≥76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03-0.4). Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult.

  18. The Role of Physical Fitness in the Neurocognitive Performance of Task Switching in Older Persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pai, Ming-Chyi; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcová, Barbara

    2016-04-23

    Although elderly people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) have been found to show impaired behavioral performance in task switching, no research has yet explored the electrophysiological mechanisms and the potential correlation between physical fitness and neurocognitive (i.e., behavioral and electrophysiological) performance in aMCI. The present study was thus aimed to examine whether there are differences in electrophysiological (i.e., event-related potential) performance between aMCI participants and controls when performing a task-switching paradigm, and to investigate the role of physical fitness in the relationship between neurocognitive performance and aMCI. Sixty participants were classified into aMCI (n = 30) and control (n = 30) groups, and performed a task-switching paradigm with concomitant electrophysiological recording, as well as underwent senior functional physical fitness tests. The aMCI group showed comparable scores on most parts of the physical fitness tests, but reduced lower body flexibility and VO2max as compared to the control group. When performing the task-switching paradigm, the aMCI group showed slower reaction times in the heterogeneous condition and larger global switching costs, although no significant difference was observed in accuracy rates between the two groups. In addition, the aMCI group showed significantly prolonged P3 latencies in the homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions, and a smaller P3 amplitude only in the heterogeneous condition. The level of cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly correlated with P3 amplitude in the aMCI group, particularly in the heterogeneous condition of the task-switching paradigm. These results show that the aMCI group exhibited abnormalities in their neurocognitive performance when performing the task-switching paradigm and such a deficit was likely associated with reduced cardiorespiratory fitness, which was shown to be the important predictor of neurocognitive

  19. Pathways between neurocognition, social cognition and emotion regulation in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rheenen, T E; Meyer, D; Rossell, S L

    2014-11-01

    Converging evidence suggests that in bipolar disorder (BD), social cognition and emotion regulation are affected by the capacity for effective neurocognitive function. Adaptive emotion regulation may also rely on intact social cognition, and it is possible that social cognition acts as a mediator in its relationship with neurocognition. We aimed to address this hypothesis by explicitly examining interrelationships among neurocognition, social cognition and emotion regulation in an out-patient sample meeting criteria for a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of BD compared with controls. Fifty-one BD patients and 52 healthy controls completed a battery of tests assessing neurocognition, social cognition (emotion perception and theory of mind) and emotion regulation. Path analysis revealed that in BD, neurocognition was associated with social cognition, but social cognition was not associated with emotion regulation as expected. In contrast, a component of social cognition was found to mediate the relationship between neurocognition and emotion regulation in healthy controls. These findings highlight differences in the pattern of associations between neurocognition, social cognition and emotion regulation across BD patients and controls. In the present data, these results appear to indicate that neurocognitive and social cognitive abilities generally operate in isolation from emotion regulation in BD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Effectiveness of Neurocognitive Rehabilitation On the Math Performance and Working Memory of Students with Dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bazzaz Monsef

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cognitive functions are one of the most important effective factors in students with dyscalculia. The present research aims to investigate the effectiveness of neurocognitive rehabilitation program on math performance and working memory of students with dyscalculia. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest design. Thirty elementary students with dyscalculia were selected using convenience sampling, and then the experimental and control groups (each 15 individuals, were matched in terms of age, gender, intelligence, and school grade. The subjects of the experimental group received twenty 45-minute sessions of neurocognitive rehabilitation. To collect the data, Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WISC-R test, Iran Key Math Diagnostic test, Digit Span test, Counting Span task, and Corsi Blocks task, were used. Results: In this study, the results of covariance analysis showed that the scores of the experimental group in working memory (digit span, counting span posttest and in Key-Math posttest, were higher than the control group. Conclusion: The results of this study is indicative of the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation in working memory (phonological loop, central executive and math performance (operation and applications in students with dyscalculia.

  1. Multiple tests for wind turbine fault detection and score fusion using two- level multidimensional scaling (MDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiang; Gao, Weihua; Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2010-04-01

    Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed curve, pitch angle curve of individual turbine. In each test, multiple states are defined to distinguish different working conditions, including complete shut-downs, under-performing states, abnormally frequent default states, as well as normal working states. These three tests are combined to reach a final conclusion, which is more effective than any single test. Through extensive data mining of historical data and verification from farm operators, some state combinations are discovered to be strong indicators of spindle failures, lightning strikes, anemometer faults, etc, for fault detection. In each individual test, and in the score fusion of these tests, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to reduce the high dimensional feature space into a 3-dimensional visualization, from which it is easier to discover turbine working information. This approach gains a qualitative understanding of turbine performance status to detect faults, and also provides explanations on what has happened for detailed diagnostics. The state-of-the-art SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system in industry can only answer the question whether there are abnormal working states, and our evaluation of multiple states in multiple tests is also promising for diagnostics. In the future, these tests can be readily incorporated in a Bayesian network for intelligent analysis and decision support.

  2. A Subgroup Analysis of the Impact of Self-testing Frequency on Examination Scores in a Pathophysiology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panus, Peter C; Stewart, David W; Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Thigpen, Jim C; Brooks, Lauren

    2014-11-15

    To determine if the frequency of self-testing of course material prior to actual examination improves examination scores, regardless of the actual scores on the self-testing. Practice quizzes were randomly generated from a total of 1342 multiple-choice questions in pathophysiology and made available online for student self-testing. Intercorrelations, 2-way repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc tests, and 2-group comparisons following rank ordering, were conducted. During each of 4 testing blocks, more than 85% of students took advantage of the self-testing process for a total of 7042 attempts. A consistent significant correlation (p≤0.05) existed between the number of practice quiz attempts and the subsequent examination scores. No difference in the number of quiz attempts was demonstrated compared to the first testing block. Exam scores for the first and second testing blocks were both higher than those for third and fourth blocks. Although self-testing strategies increase retrieval and retention, they are uncommon in pharmacy education. The results suggested that the number of self-testing attempts alone improved subsequent examination scores, regardless of the score for self-tests.

  3. The relationship between premorbid IQ and neurocognitive functioning in individuals with cocaine use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, James J; Kalechstein, Ari D; De Marco, Anthony P; Newton, Thomas F; De La Garza, Richard

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether premorbid IQ mediates performance on neurocognitive tests in individuals diagnosed with cocaine use disorder (CUD). Recently abstinent cocaine users (N = 113) completed measures sensitive to the effects of cocaine on cognition: Conners' Continuous Performance Task-II (CPT-II), n-back working memory test, and Hopkins Verbal Learning Task-Revised (HVLT-R). Premorbid IQ was calculated using the Oklahoma Premorbid Intelligence Estimate, which integrates scores from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and demographic variables. Participants were grouped according to their premorbid IQ using commonly accepted classifications of ability level (above average [>110], average [90-109], and below average [<90]) and comparisons in neurocognitive performance were performed using one-way analysis of variance. Significant differences were detected between groups on the HVLT-R including Trial 1 (p = .002), total word recall across the 3 list-learning trials (p < .001), and recall following a delay (p < .001). Significant differences were also detected on the N-back, including auditory and visual accuracy (p = .022 and p < .001, respectively) and mean and maximum block length (p < .001). Although significant differences were observed between the above average and average groups (mean effect size = .418 [Cohen's d]), the magnitude of group differences was greatest between the average and below average groups (mean effect size = .716). These results raise questions as to whether the neurocognitive impairment observed in individuals diagnosed with CUD predated the onset of cocaine use or whether the impairments were caused by cocaine use. Because these impairments are potential risk factors for poor treatment outcomes, it is important to consider the need to modify treatment programs to account for lower premorbid IQ. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Neurocognitive outcome in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: experience at a tertiary care hospital in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Joon; Park, Min Hyun; Lee, Jae Wook; Chung, Nak Gyun; Cho, Bin; Lee, In Goo; Chung, Seung Yun

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate long-term neurocognitive outcomes and to determine associated risk factors in a cohort of Korean survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Forty-two survivors of ALL were compared with 42 healthy controls on measures of a neurocognitive test battery. We analysed potential risk factors (cranial irradiation, sex, age at diagnosis, elapsed time from diagnosis, and ALL risk group) on neurocognitive outcomes. ALL patients had lower, but non-significant full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ, 107.2±12.2 vs. 111.7±10.2), verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ, 107.7±13.6 vs. 112.2±11.4), and performance intelligence quotient (PIQ, 106.3±14.2 vs. 110.1±10.7) scores than healthy controls. However, patients treated with cranial irradiation performed significantly lower on FSIQ (102.2±8.1), VIQ (103.3±11.7), and PIQ (101.4±13.2) compared to non-irradiated patients and healthy controls. ALL patients also had poor attention, concentration, and executive functions. Among ALL survivors, cranial irradiation was a risk factor for poor FSIQ, being male was a risk factor for poor PIQ, and younger age was a risk factor for poor attention. Therefore, the delayed cognitive effects of ALL treatment and its impact on quality of life require continuing monitoring and management.

  5. Obesity and gambling: neurocognitive and clinical associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J E; Derbyshire, K; Leppink, E; Chamberlain, S R

    2015-05-01

    Research on health correlates in gamblers has found an association between gambling and obesity. The neurocognitive underpinnings of impulsivity may be useful targets for understanding and ultimately treating individuals with both gambling and obesity problems. 207 non-treatment seeking young adults (18-29 years) with subsyndromal gambling disorder were recruited from the community. Subjects were grouped according to weight ('normal weight' BMIgambling behaviour and objective computerized neurocognitive measures were collected. Of the 207 subjects, 22 (10.6%) were obese and 49 (23.7%) were overweight. The obese gamblers consumed more nicotine (packs per day equivalent) and reported losing more money per week to gambling. Obese gamblers exhibited significant impairments in terms of reaction times for go trials on the stop-signal test (SST), quality of decision making and risk adjustment on the Cambridge Gamble Test (CGT), and sustained attention on the rapid visual information processing task (RVP). Obesity was associated with decision making and sustained attention impairments in gamblers, along with greater monetary loss due to gambling. Future work should use longitudinal designs to examine the temporal relationship between these deficits, weight, other impulsive behaviour, and functional impairment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Information Concerning Mean Test Scores for the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), Graduate Record Examinations (GRE), Law School Admission Test (LSAT), Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT), and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) for the National Commission on Excellence in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Robert J.

    Data are provided to the National Commission on Excellence in Education on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), Graduate Record Examinations (GRE), Law School Admission Test (LSAT), Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT), and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Statistics are provided on the following: yearly GMAT mean scores 1965-1966…

  7. Test-Retest Reliability of a Computerized Concussion Test: CNS Vital Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Ashley C; Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Neurocognitive testing is an important concussion evaluation tool, but for neurocognitive tests to be useful, their psychometric properties must be well established. Test-retest reliability of computerized neurocognitive tests can influence their clinical utility. The reliability for a commonly used computerized neurocognitive test, CNS Vital Signs, is not well established. The purpose of this study was to examine test-retest reliability and reliable change indices for CNS Vital Signs in a healthy, physically active college population. CNS Vital Signs yields acceptable test-retest reliability, with greater reliability between the second and third test administration compared with between the first and second administration. Cohort study. Level 3. Forty healthy, active volunteers (16 men, 24 women; mean age, 21.05 ± 2.17 years) reported to a clinical laboratory for 3 sessions, 1 week apart. At each session, participants were administered CNS Vital Signs. Outcomes included standard scores for the following CNS Vital Signs domains: verbal memory, visual memory, psychomotor speed, cognitive flexibility, complex attention, processing speed, reaction time, executive functioning, and reasoning. Participants performed significantly better on the second session and/or third session than they did on the first testing session on 6 of 9 neurocognitive domains. Pearson r test-retest correlations between sessions ranged from 0.11 to 0.87. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.10 to 0.86. Clinicians should consider using reliable change indices to account for practice effects, identify meaningful score changes due to pathology, and inform clinical decisions. This study highlights the importance of clinicians understanding the psychometric properties of computerized neurocognitive tests when using them in the management of sport-related concussion. If CNS Vital Signs is administered twice within a small time frame (such as 1 week), athletes should be expected to

  8. The Mediating Effect of Listening Metacognitive Awareness between Test-Taking Motivation and Listening Test Score: An Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated test-taking motivation in L2 listening testing context by applying Expectancy-Value Theory as the framework. Specifically, this study was intended to examine the complex relationships among expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, listening metacognitive awareness, and listening test score using data from a large-scale and high-stakes language test among Chinese first-year undergraduates. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating effect of listening metacognitive awareness on the relationship between expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score. According to the results, test takers’ listening scores can be predicted by expectancy, interest, and listening anxiety significantly. The relationship between expectancy, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score was mediated by listening metacognitive awareness. The findings have implications for test takers to improve their test taking motivation and listening metacognitive awareness, as well as for L2 teachers to intervene in L2 listening classrooms.

  9. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Aziz, Nazrina; Ahmad, Yuhaniz; Azwan, Zairul; Raduan, Farhana; Sagap, Ismail

    2014-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

  10. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zain, Zakiyah, E-mail: zac@uum.edu.my; Ahmad, Yuhaniz, E-mail: yuhaniz@uum.edu.my [School of Quantitative Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, UUM Sintok 06010, Kedah (Malaysia); Azwan, Zairul, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com; Raduan, Farhana, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com; Sagap, Ismail, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com [Surgery Department, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, 56000 Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Aziz, Nazrina, E-mail: nazrina@uum.edu.my

    2014-12-04

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

  11. A Brief Look at: Test Scores and the Standard Error of Measurement. E&R Report No. 10.13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdzkom, David; Sumner, Brian; McMillen, Brad

    2010-01-01

    In the context of standardized testing, the standard error of measurement (SEM) is a measure of the factors other than the student's actual knowledge of the tested material that may affect the student's test score. Such factors may include distractions in the testing environment, fatigue, hunger, or even luck. This means that a student's observed…

  12. The relation between neurocognition and symptomatology in people with schizophrenia: social cognition as the mediator

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, TMC; Raine, A; Lam, YH

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between neurocognition and symptomatology in people with schizophrenia has been established. The present study examined whether social cognition could mediate this relationship. METHODS: There were 119 participants (58 people with paranoid schizophrenia and 61 healthy controls) participated in this study. Neurocognition was assessed by Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, the Judgment of Line Orientation Test, and the Tower of London Test. Psychiatric symptoms in pe...

  13. Applying cognitive acuity theory to the development and scoring of situational judgment tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, J Peter

    2017-11-09

    The theory of cognitive acuity (TCA) treats the response options within items as signals to be detected and uses psychophysical methods to estimate the respondents' sensitivity to these signals. Such a framework offers new methods to construct and score situational judgment tests (SJT). Leeds (2012) defined cognitive acuity as the capacity to discern correctness and distinguish between correctness differences among simultaneously presented situation-specific response options. In this study, SJT response options were paired in order to offer the respondent a two-option choice. The contrast in correctness valence between the two options determined the magnitude of signal emission, with larger signals portending a higher probability of detection. A logarithmic relation was found between correctness valence contrast (signal stimulus) and its detectability (sensation response). Respondent sensitivity to such signals was measured and found to be related to the criterion variables. The linkage between psychophysics and elemental psychometrics may offer new directions for measurement theory.

  14. Educational test scores among adolescents in three-generational households in 20 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Olavi Tanskanen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grandparental presence is often found to associate with improved grandchild wellbeing. However, studies have shown that the effect is not always positive. This could be explained by the fact that in some circumstances grandparents compete with grandchildren over parental time resources. We studied the assumption using data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA from 20 Western countries (n=73,346 children at age 15. According to the results grandparental presence was associated with lower levels of parental involvement and decreased educational test scores among adolescents. Moreover, the results indicate that when the parental involvement is lower at the first place the grandparental presence tends to be associated with even weaker child outcomes. Finally, we found support that grandparental co-residence is a mediator of the association between parental involvement and child outcomes. These results are discussed with reference to the local resource competition model.

  15. The achievement impact of the inclusion model on the standardized test scores of general education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Rainey, Syrena

    The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.

  16. Examination of Substance Use, Risk Factors, and Protective Factors on Student Academic Test Score Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Michael W; Brown, Eric C; Briney, John S; Hawkins, J David; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F; Becker, Linda; Langer, Michael; Mueller, Martin T

    2015-08-01

    School administrators and teachers face difficult decisions about how best to use school resources to meet academic achievement goals. Many are hesitant to adopt prevention curricula that are not focused directly on academic achievement. Yet, some have hypothesized that prevention curricula can remove barriers to learning and, thus, promote achievement. We examined relationships among school levels of student substance use and risk and protective factors that predict adolescent problem behaviors and achievement test performance. Hierarchical generalized linear models were used to predict associations involving school-averaged levels of substance use and risk and protective factors and students' likelihood of meeting achievement test standards on the Washington Assessment of Student Learning, statistically controlling for demographic and economic factors known to be associated with achievement. Levels of substance use and risk/protective factors predicted the academic test score performance of students. Many of these effects remained significant even after controlling for model covariates. Implementing prevention programs that target empirically identified risk and protective factors has the potential to have a favorable effect on students' academic achievement. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  17. Neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes in Latino childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sunita K; Lo, Tracy T Y; Dennis, Jessica M; Bhatia, Smita

    2013-10-01

    Children with brain tumors and leukemia are at risk for neurocognitive and behavioral late effects due to central nervous system-directed therapies. Few studies have examined these outcomes in ethnic minority samples, despite speculation that socio-demographic factors may increase vulnerability for adverse neurobehavioral outcomes. We evaluated the neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes and their impact on the health-related quality of life in survivors of childhood cancer drawn from Latino families in the Los Angeles region. Using culturally-relevant recruitment strategies, 73 predominantly Spanish-speaking parents of pediatric brain tumor or leukemia survivors completed standardized questionnaires, including the Conners parent-report and the Bidimensional Acculturation Scales. Clinical and socio-demographic factors influencing the development of neurocognitive and behavioral dysfunction were examined. Approximately 50% of the children placed at or above the "elevated" level for difficulties with attention, school-based learning, and peer relations. Younger age at diagnosis significantly predicted dysfunction in inattention, learning problems, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Children whose parents were less adherent to the non-Hispanic white culture were more likely to have problems with peer relations and executive functioning. HRQL was significantly lower in survivors with neurocognitive and behavioral dysfunction relative to those with normal range scores on the Conners scale. In addition to the child's age at diagnosis, acculturation appears to predict select neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes in this socio-demographically homogeneous sample of Latino families. Further research is needed to understand the interaction of ethnic and cultural factors with therapeutic exposures in determining the adverse neurobehavioral outcomes, so as to optimally design interventions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Neurocognitive Predictors of Academic Outcomes Among Childhood Leukemia Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ida M Ki; Lupo, Philip J; Insel, Kathleen; Harris, Lynnette L; Pasvogel, Alice; Koerner, Kari M; Adkins, Kristin B; Taylor, Olga A; Hockenberry, Marilyn J

    2016-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common pediatric cancer, and survival approaches 90%. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors are more likely than healthy peers or siblings to experience academic underachievement, yet little is known about neurocognitive predictors of academic outcomes. Objectives were to compare neurocognitive abilities to age-adjusted standardized norms, examine change over time in neurocognitive abilities, and establish neurocognitive predictors of academic outcomes. Seventy-one children were followed over the course of therapy. Cognitive abilities were assessed during induction when the child was in remission (baseline) and annually for 3 years (years 1, 2, and 3). Reading and mathematics abilities were assessed at year 3. Fine motor dexterity was significantly below age-adjusted norms at all data points but showed improvement over time. Baseline visual-motor integration was within the reference range but significantly declined by year 3, and mean scores at years 2 and 3 were significantly below age-adjusted norms. Verbal short-term memory was significantly below age-adjusted norms at all assessments. Visual-motor integration predicted reading and mathematics abilities. Verbal short-term memory predicted reading abilities, and visual short-term memory predicted mathematics abilities. Central nervous system-directed therapy is associated with specific neurocognitive problems. Visual-spatial skills and verbal and visual short-term memory predict academic outcomes. Early assessment of visual-spatial perception and short-term memory can identify children at risk of academic problems. Children who are at risk of academic problems could benefit from a school-based individual educational program and/or educational intervention.

  19. Global risk scores and exercise testing for predicting all-cause mortality in a preventive medicine program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Mehmet K; Ozduran, Volkan; Pothier, Claire E; Lang, Richard; Lauer, Michael S

    2004-09-22

    The usefulness of exercise stress test results and global cardiovascular risk systems for predicting all-cause mortality in asymptomatic individuals seen in clinical settings is unclear. To determine the validity for prediction of all-cause mortality of the Framingham Risk Score and of a recently described European global scoring system Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) for cardiovascular mortality among asymptomatic individuals evaluated in a clinical setting and to determine the potential prognostic value of exercise stress testing once these baseline risks are known. Prospective cohort study of 3554 asymptomatic adults between the ages of 50 and 75 years who underwent exercise stress testing as part of an executive health program between October 1990 and December 2002; participants were followed up for a mean of 8 years. Global risk based on the Framingham Risk Score and the European SCORE. Prospectively recorded exercise stress test result abnormalities included impaired physical fitness, abnormal heart rate recovery, ventricular ectopy, and ST-segment abnormalities. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. There were 114 deaths. The c-index, which corresponds to receiver operating characteristic curve values, and the Akaike Information Criteria found that the European SCORE was superior to the Framingham Risk Score in estimating global mortality risk. In a multivariable model, independent predictors of death were a higher SCORE (for 1% predicted increase in absolute risk, relative risk [RR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.09; Pmortality. Among patients in the highest tertile from the SCORE, an abnormal exercise stress test result, defined as either impaired functional capacity or an abnormal heart rate recovery, identified a mortality risk of more than 1% per year. Exercise stress testing when combined with the European global risk SCORE may be useful for stratifying risk in asymptomatic individuals in a comprehensive executive

  20. Exploring Validity of Computer-Based Test Scores with Examinees' Response Behaviors and Response Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Füsun

    2017-01-01

    Examining the testing processes, as well as the scores, is needed for a complete understanding of validity and fairness of computer-based assessments. Examinees' rapid-guessing and insufficient familiarity with computers have been found to be major issues that weaken the validity arguments of scores. This study has three goals: (a) improving…

  1. Improving Personality Facet Scores with Multidimensional Computer Adaptive Testing: An Illustration with the Neo Pi-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when personality tests contain many highly correlated…

  2. An Investigation of Possible Test Floor Effects By Comparing Score Distributions for Students Tested With Two Different Levels of a Test Battery at Four Different Times Over a Two-Year Interval. Iowa Testing Programs Occasional Papers. Number 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Scott A.

    When a program evaluation is conducted on the basis of gains made in standardized achievement test scores between a pretest and a posttest, serious bias can result where a floor effect exists on one or both of the test levels. Based upon the expanded standard scores on the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills from three successive regular spring…

  3. Classification Models for Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV Infection Based on Demographic and Clinical Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Moreno, Jose A.; Pérez-Álvarez, Núria; Muñoz-Murillo, Amalia; Prats, Anna; Garolera, Maite; Jurado, M. Àngels; Fumaz, Carmina R.; Negredo, Eugènia; Ferrer, Maria J.; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2014-01-01

    Objective We used demographic and clinical data to design practical classification models for prediction of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in people with HIV infection. Methods The study population comprised 331 HIV-infected patients with available demographic, clinical, and neurocognitive data collected using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Classification and regression trees (CART) were developed to obtain detailed and reliable models to predict NCI. Following a practical clinical approach, NCI was considered the main variable for study outcomes, and analyses were performed separately in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients. Results The study sample comprised 52 treatment-naïve and 279 experienced patients. In the first group, the variables identified as better predictors of NCI were CD4 cell count and age (correct classification [CC]: 79.6%, 3 final nodes). In treatment-experienced patients, the variables most closely related to NCI were years of education, nadir CD4 cell count, central nervous system penetration-effectiveness score, age, employment status, and confounding comorbidities (CC: 82.1%, 7 final nodes). In patients with an undetectable viral load and no comorbidities, we obtained a fairly accurate model in which the main variables were nadir CD4 cell count, current CD4 cell count, time on current treatment, and past highest viral load (CC: 88%, 6 final nodes). Conclusion Practical classification models to predict NCI in HIV infection can be obtained using demographic and clinical variables. An approach based on CART analyses may facilitate screening for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and complement clinical information about risk and protective factors for NCI in HIV-infected patients. PMID:25237895

  4. Recovery of neurocognitive functions following sustained abstinence after substance dependence and implications for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, M.H.J.; Cousijn, J.; den Uyl, T.E.; Goudriaan, A.E.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Schilt, T.; Wiers, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) have been associated with impaired neurocognitive functioning, which may (partly) improve with sustained abstinence. New treatments are emerging, aimed at improving cognitive functions, and being tested. However, no integrated review is available regarding

  5. Recovery of neurocognitive functions following sustained abstinence after substance dependence and implications for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, Mieke H. J.; Cousijn, Janna; den Uyl, Tess E.; Goudriaan, Anna E.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Schilt, Thelma; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2014-01-01

    Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) have been associated with impaired neurocognitive functioning, which may (partly) improve with sustained abstinence. New treatments are emerging, aimed at improving cognitive functions, and being tested. However, no integrated review is available regarding

  6. Recovery of neurocognitive functions following sustained abstinence after substance dependence and implications for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, Mieke H J; Cousijn, Janna; den Uyl, Tess E; Goudriaan, Anna E; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Schilt, Thelma; Wiers, Reinout W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) have been associated with impaired neurocognitive functioning, which may (partly) improve with sustained abstinence. New treatments are emerging, aimed at improving cognitive functions, and being tested. However, no integrated review is available regarding

  7. The use of test scores from large-scale assessment surveys: psychometric and statistical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Braun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economists are making increasing use of measures of student achievement obtained through large-scale survey assessments such as NAEP, TIMSS, and PISA. The construction of these measures, employing plausible value (PV methodology, is quite different from that of the more familiar test scores associated with assessments such as the SAT or ACT. These differences have important implications both for utilization and interpretation. Although much has been written about PVs, it appears that there are still misconceptions about whether and how to employ them in secondary analyses. Methods We address a range of technical issues, including those raised in a recent article that was written to inform economists using these databases. First, an extensive review of the relevant literature was conducted, with particular attention to key publications that describe the derivation and psychometric characteristics of such achievement measures. Second, a simulation study was carried out to compare the statistical properties of estimates based on the use of PVs with those based on other, commonly used methods. Results It is shown, through both theoretical analysis and simulation, that under fairly general conditions appropriate use of PV yields approximately unbiased estimates of model parameters in regression analyses of large scale survey data. The superiority of the PV methodology is particularly evident when measures of student achievement are employed as explanatory variables. Conclusions The PV methodology used to report student test performance in large scale surveys remains the state-of-the-art for secondary analyses of these databases.

  8. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond CK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. Methods One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. Results No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. Conclusions The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: a structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond C K; Xu, Ting; Li, Hui-jie; Zhao, Qing; Liu, Han-hui; Wang, Yi; Yan, Chao; Cao, Xiao-yan; Wang, Yu-na; Shi, Yan-fang; Dazzan, Paola

    2011-08-10

    Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Association testing for next-generation sequencing data using score statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotte, Line; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2012-07-01

    The advances in sequencing technology have made large-scale sequencing studies for large cohorts feasible. Often, the primary goal for large-scale studies is to identify genetic variants associated with a disease or other phenotypes. Even when deep sequencing is performed, there will be many sites where there is not enough data to call genotypes accurately. Ignoring the genotype classification uncertainty by basing subsequent analyses on called genotypes leads to a loss in power. Additionally, using called genotypes can lead to spurious association signals. Some methods taking the uncertainty of genotype calls into account have been proposed; most require numerical optimization which for large-scale data is not always computationally feasible. We show that using a score statistic for the joint likelihood of observed phenotypes and observed sequencing data provides an attractive approach to association testing for next-generation sequencing data. The joint model accounts for the genotype classification uncertainty via the posterior probabilities of the genotypes given the observed sequencing data, which gives the approach higher power than methods based on called genotypes. This strategy remains computationally feasible due to the use of score statistics. As part of the joint likelihood, we model the distribution of the phenotypes using a generalized linear model framework, which works for both quantitative and discrete phenotypes. Thus, the method presented here is applicable to case-control studies as well as mapping of quantitative traits. The model allows additional covariates that enable correction for confounding factors such as population stratification or cohort effects. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The TSCA interagency testing committee`s approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups: 1977-1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper describes the TSCA interagency testing committee`s (ITC) approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups between 1977 and 1983. During this time the ITC conducted five scoring exercises to select chemicals and chemical groups for detailed review and to determine which of these chemicals and chemical groups should be added to the TSCA Section 4(e) Priority Testing List. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. Neurocognitive and Behavioral Predictors of Math Performance in Children With and Without ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Tanya N; Kingery, Kathleen M; Narad, Megan E; Langberg, Joshua M; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2016-02-01

    This study examined neurocognitive and behavioral predictors of math performance in children with and without ADHD. Neurocognitive and behavioral variables were examined as predictors of (a) standardized mathematics achievement scores, (b) productivity on an analog math task, and (c) accuracy on an analog math task. Children with ADHD had lower achievement scores but did not significantly differ from controls on math productivity or accuracy. N-back accuracy and parent-rated attention predicted math achievement. N-back accuracy and observed attention predicted math productivity. Alerting scores on the attentional network task predicted math accuracy. Mediation analyses indicated that n-back accuracy significantly mediated the relationship between diagnostic group and math achievement. Neurocognition, rather than behavior, may account for the deficits in math achievement exhibited by many children with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  14. Development of new risk score for pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease based on coronary CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideya; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Tarutani, Yasuhiro; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Urabe, Yoji; Konno, Kumiko; Nishizaki, Yuji; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Kihara, Yasuki; Daida, Hiroyuki; Isshiki, Takaaki; Takase, Shinichi

    2015-09-01

    Existing methods to calculate pre-test probability of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) have been established using selected high-risk patients who were referred to conventional coronary angiography. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate our new method for pre-test probability of obstructive CAD using patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA), which could be applicable to a wider range of patient population. Using consecutive 4137 patients with suspected CAD who underwent coronary CTA at our institution, a multivariate logistic regression model including clinical factors as covariates calculated the pre-test probability (K-score) of obstructive CAD determined by coronary CTA. The K-score was compared with the Duke clinical score using the area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver-operating characteristic curve. External validation was performed by an independent sample of 319 patients. The final model included eight significant predictors: age, gender, coronary risk factor (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking), history of cerebral infarction, and chest symptom. The AUC of the K-score was significantly greater than that of the Duke clinical score for both derivation (0.736 vs. 0.699) and validation (0.714 vs. 0.688) data sets. Among patients who underwent coronary CTA, newly developed K-score had better pre-test prediction ability of obstructive CAD compared to Duke clinical score in Japanese population.

  15. Simple shoulder test and Oxford Shoulder Score: Persian translation and cross-cultural validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Soofia; Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Rustaie, Nilufar; Akbari, Mohammad; Ebadi, Safoora; Senobari, Maryam; Hasson, Scott

    2015-12-01

    To translate, culturally adapt, and validate the simple shoulder test (SST) and Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) into Persian language using a cross-sectional and prospective cohort design. A standard forward and backward translation was followed to culturally adapt the SST and the OSS into Persian language. Psychometric properties of floor and ceiling effects, construct convergent validity, discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, standard error of the measurement (SEM), smallest detectable change (SDC), and factor structure were determined. One hundred patients with shoulder disorders and 50 healthy subjects participated in the study. The PSST and the POSS showed no missing responses. No floor or ceiling effects were observed. Both the PSST and POSS detected differences between patients and healthy subjects supporting their discriminant validity. Construct convergent validity was confirmed by a very good correlation between the PSST and POSS (r = 0.68). There was high internal consistency for both the PSST (α = 0.73) and the POSS (α = 0.91 and 0.92). Test-retest reliability with 1-week interval was excellent (ICCagreement = 0.94 for PSST and 0.90 for POSS). Factor analyses demonstrated a three-factor solution for the PSST (49.7 % of variance) and a two-factor solution for the POSS (61.6 % of variance). The SEM/SDC was satisfactory for PSST (5.5/15.3) and POSS (6.8/18.8). The PSST and POSS are valid and reliable outcome measures for assessing functional limitations in Persian-speaking patients with shoulder disorders.

  16. The Effect of Computer-Based Self-Access Learning on Weekly Vocabulary Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Dreyer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to clarify the effectiveness of using an online vocabulary study tool, Quizlet, in an urban high school language arts class. Previous similar studies have mostly dealt with English Language Learners in college settings (Chui, 2013, and were therefore not directed at the issue self-efficacy that is at the heart of the problem of urban high school students in America entering remedial writing programs (Rose, 1989. The study involves 95 students over the course of 14 weeks. Students were tested weekly and were asked to use the Quizlet program in their own free time. The result of this optional involvement was that many students did not participate in the treatment and therefore acted as an elective control group. The resultant data collected shows a strong correlation between the use of an online vocabulary review program and short-term vocabulary retention. The study also showed that students who paced themselves and spread out their study sessions outperformed those students who used the program only for last minute “cram sessions.” The implications of the study are that students who take advantage of tools outside of the classroom are able to out perform their peers. The results are also in line with the call to include technology in the Basic Writing classroom not simply as a tool, but as a “form of discourse” (Jonaitis, 2012. Weekly vocabulary tests, combined with the daily online activity as reported by Quizlet, show that: 1 utilizing the review software improved the scores of most students, 2 those students who used Quizlet to review more than a single time (i.e., several days before the test outperformed those who only used the product once, and 3 students who professed proficiency with the “notebook” system of vocabulary learning appeared not to need the treatment.

  17. Apgar Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Apgar Scores Page Content Article Body As soon as ... baby's general condition at birth. What Does the Apgar Test Measure? The test measures your baby's: Heart ...

  18. Working memory and intraindividual variability as neurocognitive indicators in ADHD: examining competing model predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Michael J; Alderson, R Matt; Raiker, Joseph S; Bolden, Jennifer; Sarver, Dustin E; Rapport, Mark D

    2014-05-01

    The current study examined competing predictions of the default mode, cognitive neuroenergetic, and functional working memory models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) regarding the relation between neurocognitive impairments in working memory and intraindividual variability. Twenty-two children with ADHD and 15 typically developing children were assessed on multiple tasks measuring intraindividual reaction time (RT) variability (ex-Gaussian: tau, sigma) and central executive (CE) working memory. Latent factor scores based on multiple, counterbalanced tasks were created for each construct of interest (CE, tau, sigma) to reflect reliable variance associated with each construct and remove task-specific, test-retest, and random error. Bias-corrected, bootstrapped mediation analyses revealed that CE working memory accounted for 88% to 100% of ADHD-related RT variability across models, and between-group differences in RT variability were no longer detectable after accounting for the mediating role of CE working memory. In contrast, RT variability accounted for 10% to 29% of between-group differences in CE working memory, and large magnitude CE working memory deficits remained after accounting for this partial mediation. Statistical comparison of effect size estimates across models suggests directionality of effects, such that the mediation effects of CE working memory on RT variability were significantly greater than the mediation effects of RT variability on CE working memory. The current findings question the role of RT variability as a primary neurocognitive indicator in ADHD and suggest that ADHD-related RT variability may be secondary to underlying deficits in CE working memory.

  19. Social cognition and neurocognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliksted, Vibeke; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Weed, Ethan; Frith, Chris; Videbech, Poul

    2014-03-01

    Recent research has shown a significant impact of social cognitive domains on real world functioning and prognosis in schizophrenia. However, the correlations between specific aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, IQ and clinical symptoms remain unclear in first-episode schizophrenia. Researchers have speculated about social cognitive subgroups since patients with schizophrenia appear to be a very heterogeneous group. Patients with a recent diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia were tested regarding theory of mind, social perception, neurocognition, IQ, and clinical symptoms. Data from 36 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 36 one to one matched healthy controls were analysed. Principal component analysis in the patient group was used to examine the variance contributed by different aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, and clinical symptoms. Complex aspects of social cognition explained 24% of the variance in the patient group. The other principal components consisted mainly of aspects of simple perception of theory of mind. Neurocognition and clinical symptoms only explained a minor proportion of the variance in the patient group. The results imply that social cognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia come in two distinct versions where one is a complex, cognitive demanding form linked with IQ. The other version is related to simpler forms of social cognition and independent of IQ. These two forms are comparable to the implicit and explicit mentalising discussed in the developmental literature. The two forms of social cognitive deficits are likely to require quite different social cognitive interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurocognitive Effects of Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    investigates the effect of radiotherapy using serial MRI imaging and a series of neuropsychological measurements on two groups of patients; (1) those with...demonstrated a significant change over time in the RT- treated group, although a comprehensive neuropsychological battery of repeatable measures...woman of child -bearing potential, a negative pregnancy test (urine) will be required before participation in this study. ABNORMAL FINDINGS

  1. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version Score of Schizophrenic Patients in a Japanese Clinical Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Koide

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia strongly relates to social outcome and is a good candidate for endophenotypes. When we accurately measure drug efficacy or effects of genes or variants relevant to schizophrenia on cognitive impairment, clinical factors that can affect scores on cognitive tests, such as age and severity of symptoms, should be considered. To elucidate the effect of clinical factors, we conducted multiple regression analysis using scores of the Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version (CPT-IP, which is often used to measure attention/vigilance in schizophrenia. Methods. We conducted the CPT-IP (4-4 digit and examined clinical information (sex, age, education years, onset age, duration of illness, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS scores in 126 schizophrenia patients in Japanese population. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of clinical factors. Results. Age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and PANSS-negative symptom score were associated with mean d′ score in patients. These three clinical factors explained about 28% of the variance in mean d′ score. Conclusions. As conclusion, CPT-IP score in schizophrenia patients is influenced by age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose and PANSS negative symptom score.

  2. Using the EZ-Diffusion Model to Score a Single-Category Implicit Association Test of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, Amanda L; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E

    2015-03-01

    The Single-Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) has been used as a method for assessing automatic evaluations of physical activity, but measurement artifact or consciously-held attitudes could be confounding the outcome scores of these measures. The objective of these two studies was to address these measurement concerns by testing the validity of a novel SC-IAT scoring technique. Study 1 was a cross-sectional study, and study 2 was a prospective study. In study 1, undergraduate students (N = 104) completed SC-IATs for physical activity, flowers, and sedentary behavior. In study 2, undergraduate students (N = 91) completed a SC-IAT for physical activity, self-reported affective and instrumental attitudes toward physical activity, physical activity intentions, and wore an accelerometer for two weeks. The EZ-diffusion model was used to decompose the SC-IAT into three process component scores including the information processing efficiency score. In study 1, a series of structural equation model comparisons revealed that the information processing score did not share variability across distinct SC-IATs, suggesting it does not represent systematic measurement artifact. In study 2, the information processing efficiency score was shown to be unrelated to self-reported affective and instrumental attitudes toward physical activity, and positively related to physical activity behavior, above and beyond the traditional D-score of the SC-IAT. The information processing efficiency score is a valid measure of automatic evaluations of physical activity.

  3. Neurocognitive Performance in Unmedicated Patients with Hoarding Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer M.; Noack, Carolyn G.; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Maddox, W. Todd; Saxena, Sanjaya

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hoarding disorder (HD) is an often incapacitating psychiatric illness associated with a wide range of neurocognitive abnormalities. Some prior neuropsychological studies have found executive dysfunction in HD, but no clear pattern has emerged. One potential reason for discrepant results in previous studies might be the inclusion of patients on psychotropic and other medications that can affect neurocognitive performance. Therefore, we examined neurocognitive functioning in medication-free HD patients. We also added a novel investigation of implicit learning, which has been found to be abnormal in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related disorders. Method 26 participants meeting DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for HD and 23 normal controls were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests and symptom rating scales. All participants were free of psychotropic medications for at least six weeks prior to the study. Results HD participants showed no significant differences from normal controls on measures of verbal memory, attention, or executive functioning, including response inhibition, planning, organization, and decision-making. However, HD participants demonstrated a trend toward less implicit learning and greater use of explicit learning strategies during perceptual categorization, compared to normal controls. HD participants who used an implicit strategy performed significantly worse than controls who used an implicit strategy. Hoarding symptom severity was not associated with neurocognitive performance. Conclusions HD patients may have a tendency to use explicit rather than implicit learning strategies for perceptual categorization but perform as well as normal controls on many other neurocognitive measures. Future studies should assess unmedicated participants and examine test strategies, not just outcomes. PMID:26301774

  4. Exploration of analysis methods for diagnostic imaging tests: problems with ROC AUC and confidence scores in CT colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Susan; Halligan, Steve; Collins, Gary S; Altman, Doug G

    2014-01-01

    Different methods of evaluating diagnostic performance when comparing diagnostic tests may lead to different results. We compared two such approaches, sensitivity and specificity with area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC AUC) for the evaluation of CT colonography for the detection of polyps, either with or without computer assisted detection. In a multireader multicase study of 10 readers and 107 cases we compared sensitivity and specificity, using radiological reporting of the presence or absence of polyps, to ROC AUC calculated from confidence scores concerning the presence of polyps. Both methods were assessed against a reference standard. Here we focus on five readers, selected to illustrate issues in design and analysis. We compared diagnostic measures within readers, showing that differences in results are due to statistical methods. Reader performance varied widely depending on whether sensitivity and specificity or ROC AUC was used. There were problems using confidence scores; in assigning scores to all cases; in use of zero scores when no polyps were identified; the bimodal non-normal distribution of scores; fitting ROC curves due to extrapolation beyond the study data; and the undue influence of a few false positive results. Variation due to use of different ROC methods exceeded differences between test results for ROC AUC. The confidence scores recorded in our study violated many assumptions of ROC AUC methods, rendering these methods inappropriate. The problems we identified will apply to other detection studies using confidence scores. We found sensitivity and specificity were a more reliable and clinically appropriate method to compare diagnostic tests.

  5. Genetic parameters for test day somatic cell score in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C N; Santos, G G; Cobuci, J A; Thompson, G; Carvalheira, J G V

    2015-12-29

    Selection for lower somatic cell count has been included in the breeding objectives of several countries in order to increase resistance to mastitis. Genetic parameters of somatic cell scores (SCS) were estimated from the first lactation test day records of Brazilian Holstein cows using random-regression models with Legendre polynomials (LP) of the order 3-5. Data consisted of 87,711 TD produced by 10,084 cows, sired by 619 bulls calved from 1993 to 2007. Heritability estimates varied from 0.06 to 0.14 and decreased from the beginning of the lactation up to 60 days in milk (DIM) and increased thereafter to the end of lactation. Genetic correlations between adjacent DIM were very high (>0.83) but decreased to negative values, obtained with LP of order four, between DIM in the extremes of lactation. Despite the favorable trend, genetic changes in SCS were not significant and did not differ among LP. There was little benefit of fitting an LP of an order >3 to model animal genetic and permanent environment effects for SCS. Estimates of variance components found in this study may be used for breeding value estimation for SCS and selection for mastitis resistance in Holstein cattle in Brazil.

  6. Reconstructing, Investigating the Reliability and Validity and Scoring the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Saleh Sedghpour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to reconstruct determining validity, and score The Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test fourth edition (SDRT4 in the sixth grade students. Methods: The population of the study was all sixth grades of the 19 educational districts from Tehran, 571 students (255 boys and 316 girls were selected by using a random multi-cluster sampling. The data were analyzed. The techniques were item analysis (difficulty index, discriminative index, and loop techniques. Validity, translation validity, content validity, and construct validity (factorial analysis, and reliability (Kuder-Richardson. Results: The exploratory factor analysis determined five factors: declarative knowledge, inferential knowledge, procedural knowledge and visualization knowledge. The reliability of the Stanford diagnostic Reading Test’s subtests by computing the Kuder-Richardson coefficient were 0.778, 0.732 and 0.748 for comprehension subtest, vocabulary subtest and scanning subtest in order. Discussion: By considering the results of present study, SDRT4 has good reliability and validity and can appropriately diagnose the reading disabled students in the sixth grade.

  7. Conceptual disorganization weakens links in cognitive pathways: Disentangling neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kyle S; Marggraf, Matthew P; Davis, Beshaun J; Luther, Lauren; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Lysaker, Paul H

    2015-12-01

    Disentangling links between neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition offers the potential to improve interventions for these cognitive processes. Disorganized symptoms have shown promise for explaining the limiting relationship that neurocognition holds with both social cognition and metacognition. In this study, primary aims included: 1) testing whether conceptual disorganization, a specific disorganized symptom, moderated relationships between cognitive processes, and 2) examining the level of conceptual disorganization necessary for links between cognitive processes to break down. To accomplish these aims, comprehensive assessments of conceptual disorganization, neurocognition, social cognition, and metacognition were administered to 67 people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. We found that conceptual disorganization significantly moderated the relationship between neurocognition and metacognition, with links between cognitive processes weakening when conceptual disorganization is present even at minimal levels of severity. There was no evidence that conceptual disorganization-or any other specific disorganized symptom-drove the limiting relationship of neurocognition on social cognition. Based on our findings, conceptual disorganization appears to be a critical piece of the puzzle when disentangling the relationship between neurocognition and metacognition. Roles of specific disorganized symptoms in the neurocognition - social cognition relationship were less clear. Findings from this study suggest that disorganized symptoms are an important treatment consideration when aiming to improve cognitive impairments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Influence of hearing aids on monosyllabic test score and subjective everyday hearing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thümmler, R; Liebscher, T; Hoppe, U

    2016-08-01

    Pure tone and speech audiometry are essential methods for examining the indication for hearing aids, as well as for hearing aid evaluation. Additionally, the subjective benefit of hearing aids has to be evaluated with appropriate questionnaires. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between speech audiometry data and the results of a simple and user-friendly questionnaire, as well as to provide normative data for subjective benefit. Data from 136 hearing aid users with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss were analyzed retrospectively. Pure tone thresholds and Freiburg monosyllabic speech perception in the binaural situation were measured at 65 dB in quiet and in noise (signal-to-noise ratio, SNR = +5 dB), with and without hearing aids. Additionally, subjective hearing in everyday life was recorded using the 12-item Oldenburg Inventory. Improvement of speech perception with hearing aids for the Freiburg monosyllabic test in quiet was 32.0 percentage points on average; in noise, there was an average improvement of 16.4 percentage points. There was a strong correlation between the results of pure tone and speech audiometry. With hearing aids, patients scored their everyday hearing using the Oldenburg Inventory on average 1.4 scale points better than without hearing aids. Results of the Oldenburg Inventory correlate with both pure tone and speech audiometry. Hearing aid evaluation should include both speech audiometry and systematic measurement of the subjective benefit using a suitable questionnaire. In combination, the Freiburg monosyllabic test and the Oldenburg Inventory allow for quick and comprehensive evaluation.

  9. Effects of biscuit-type feeding supplementation on the neurocognitive outcomes of HIV-affected school-age children: a randomized, double-blind, controlled intervention trial in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kek Khee Loo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine if meat or soy protein dietary supplementation will enhance the neurocognitive performance of HIV-affected children at-risk of malnutrition and food insecurity. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, controlled intervention trial evaluated the effect of nutritional supplementation on the neurocognitive outcomes of 49 HIV-affected school-age children in western Kenya. The intervention consisted in providing the mother, target child, and siblings with one of three isocaloric biscuit-type supplements – soy, wheat, or beef – on 5 days per week for 18 months. Neurocognitive outcomes of the target children were assessed by a battery of eight measures and followed up longitudinally for up to 24 months. Results: Mixed effects modeling demonstrated significant differences in the rates of increase over time among all three groups (F test degrees of freedom of 2, P<0.05 for Raven’s progressive matrices performance, but not for verbal meaning, arithmetic, digit span backward, forward, and total, embedded figure test, and Beery visual–motor integration scores. Conclusion: HIV-affected school-age children provided with soy protein supplementation showed greater improvement in nonverbal cognitive (fluid intelligence performance compared with peers who received isocaloric beef or wheat biscuits. Soy nutrients may have an enhancing effect on neurocognitive skills in HIV-affected school-age children.

  10. Standardised test protocol (Constant Score) for evaluation of functionality in patients with shoulder disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders; Christiansen, David Høyrup

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Constant Score (CS), developed as a scoring system to evaluate overall functionality of patients with shoulder disorders, is widely used but has been criticised for relying on an imprecise terminology and for lack of a standardised methodology. A modified guideline was therefore...

  11. Classroom Attributes and Achievement Test Scores for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Judith

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of data from approximately 58,000 deaf and hard of hearing students (ages 6 through 21) analyzed relationships among reading comprehension and mathematics computation achievement scores, classroom attributes, and demographic factors associated with achievement. Adjustment of scores for demographic factors suggested higher performance for…

  12. The Effect of Fatigue on Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test Scores in Recreational Weightlifters: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Trenton D; Chaconas, Eric

    2017-04-01

    A paucity of research currently exists for upper extremity return to sport testing. The Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-UQ) is a clinical test of closed kinetic chain performance with demonstrated reliability. Prior investigations of the YBT-UQ were conducted with individuals in a resting state and no comparison to performance in a fatigued state has been conducted. To examine the effect of upper extremity fatigue on the performance of the YBT-UQ in recreational weightlifters. Randomized controlled trial. 24 participants who participated in recreational weight training three days per week were randomly allocated to a control or experimental group. Individuals in the control group were tested using the YBT-UQ and re-tested after a 20-minute rest period. Participants in the experimental group were tested with the YBT-UQ, performed an upper extremity exercise fatigue protocol, and immediately re-tested. Examiners were blinded to participant allocation. Differences from pre- to post-fatigue YBT-UQ testing revealed score reductions between 2.04cm - 12.16cm for both composite scores and individual reach directions. The repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences when comparing the pre- and post-testing results between the fatigue and non-fatigue groups for all individual directions (p ≤ .006) and composite scores both limbs (p<.035). The performance of an upper body fatigue protocol significantly reduces YBT-UQ scores in recreational weightlifters. 1b.

  13. Neurocognitive Pattern Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    103 TION OF I NO 60I g5 OLT Unc lass ified SECUITY CLASIFICATION OP THIS PASSG (111440R1114 BOW I. OVERVIEW... A. Senior Scientific Personnel of the...below). Four practiced, right-handed adults performed from 355 to 1000 trials of this design (total 2151 trials). The cue-to-stimulus interval for P’s...between-task spatiotempo- tics were the same. trodes (Fig. IB). and t-tests and analyses ral patterns. Nine right-handed, healthy adults of variance

  14. SEX DIFFERENCES IN SCORES on THE DRAW-A-PERSON TEST ACROSS CHILDHOOD: DO THEY RELATE TO GRAPHIC FLUENCY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Delphine

    2015-02-01

    Girls are said to outperform boys in the human figure drawing, but some disagreement exists among studies regarding such sex differences, and the reasons for these sex differences are unclear. The study examined how sex, age, and graphic fluency affect scores at the human figure drawing in large sample of children aged five to 12 years. To that end, the Draw-a-Person Test was administered to 336 boys and girls from kindergarten to Grade 6, using Goodenough's scoring method. Graphic fluency was measured using Torrance's Parallel Lines Test. Results showed a sex by age interaction on scores at the Draw-a-Person test, with girls outperforming boys at Grades 3 and 6. Split-sample regression analyses indicated that for boys both age and graphic fluency were relevant predictors for scores on the Draw-a-Person test; by contrast, for girls age, but not fluency, predicted the drawing scores. It was concluded that graphic fluency differently affected boys' and girls' scores.

  15. An active lifestyle is associated with better neurocognitive functioning in adults living with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pariya L; Woods, Steven Paul; Heaton, Robert K; Umlauf, Anya; Gouaux, Ben; Rosario, Debra; Moore, Raeanne C; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J

    2014-06-01

    Studies of healthy adults show that engagement in physical, social, and mental activities is associated with better cognitive outcomes, suggesting that these activities may increase cognitive reserve. Given the prevalence and real-world impact of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), the present study examined the association between neurocognitive outcomes and self-reported proxies for physical exercise, social activity, and mental activity (employment was used as a proxy for mental activity) among 139 HIV-infected adults (M age = 48.7; 48 % age 50+). Participants completed a neuromedical and neuropsychological battery and were classified based on the number of self-reported active lifestyle factors (ALFs; 0 to 3), including physical exercise, social activity, and current employment. The association between ALFs and both demographically adjusted average neuropsychological T-scores and HAND diagnoses was examined. Results revealed that an increased number of ALFs were associated with better global neurocognitive performance as well as a lower prevalence of HAND. These cross-sectional findings suggest that an active engagement in life may bolster neurocognitive functioning, perhaps by enhancing cognitive and/or brain reserve. However, an alternative explanation might be that persons with better neurocognitive functioning are more inclined and able to engage in these life activities. Future studies should utilize neuroimaging methodology, longitudinal data, and interventional approaches to establish cause-effect relationships and uncover the neural mechanisms whereby physical, social, and mental stimulation may protect neurocognition via cognitive reserve among those living with HIV.

  16. Near Point of Convergence After a Sport-Related Concussion: Measurement Reliability and Relationship to Neurocognitive Impairment and Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Kelly L; Sufrinko, Alicia; Lau, Brian C; Henry, Luke; Collins, Michael W; Kontos, Anthony P

    2015-12-01

    Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a common binocular vision deficit after a sport-related concussion (SRC). CI may result in visual discomfort and vision-mediated functional difficulties such as slowed reading and compromised attention, leading to impaired academic, work, and sport performance. To test the reliability of repeated near point of convergence (NPC) measurements in a sample of athletes after an SRC; compare the symptoms and cognitive impairment of athletes with normal NPC to those with CI after an SRC; and explore the relationship among age, sex, learning disability, migraine history, and CI. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 78 athletes (mean age, 14.31 ± 2.77 years) who were seen a mean 5.79 ± 5.63 days after an SRC were administered 3 trials of an NPC assessment, along with neurocognitive (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing [ImPACT]) and symptom assessments. Patients were divided into normal NPC (NPC ≤ 5 cm; n = 45) and CI (NPC >5 cm; n = 33) groups. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) assessed the consistency of NPC across the 3 trials. The ANOVAs were employed to examine differences on neurocognitive composites and symptoms between the normal NPC and CI groups. Stepwise regressions (controlling for age and symptom scores on the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale [PCSS]) were conducted to evaluate the predictive utility of the NPC distance for neurocognitive impairment. Groups did not differ on demographic or injury characteristics. NPC differed between trial 1 and trials 2 (P = .02) and 3 (P = .01) for the CI group but not the normal NPC group. Internal consistency was high across NPC measurements (ICC range, 0.95-0.98). Patients with CI performed worse on verbal memory (P = .02), visual motor speed (P = .02), and reaction time (P = .001, η(2) = .13) and had greater total symptom scores (P = .02) after the injury. Results of hierarchical

  17. Negative symptoms mediate the relationship between neurocognition and function in individuals at ultrahigh risk for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, L B; Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    and social skills act as mediators between neurocognition and functional outcome in UHR individuals. METHODS: Ultrahigh risk participants (N = 84) underwent neurocognitive testing using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia. Social skills and negative symptoms were assessed using the High......OBJECTIVE: Neurocognition is known to impact functioning in individuals at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis, but studies investigating potential mediators of this relationship are scarce. Building on evidence from schizophrenia spectrum disorders, the study tested whether negative symptoms......-Risk Social Challenge task and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms respectively. Four instruments were used to assess overall functioning, and one instrument assessed quality of life encompassing social functioning. RESULTS: The cross-sectional analyses revealed that neurocognition was related...

  18. Visual-Constructional Ability in Individuals with Severe Obesity: Rey Complex Figure Test Accuracy and the Q-Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargénius, Hanna L; Bylsma, Frederick W; Lydersen, Stian; Hestad, Knut

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate visual-construction and organizational strategy among individuals with severe obesity, as measured by the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT), and to examine the validity of the Q-score as a measure for the quality of performance on the RCFT. Ninety-six non-demented morbidly obese (MO) patients and 100 healthy controls (HC) completed the RCFT. Their performance was calculated by applying the standard scoring criteria. The quality of the copying process was evaluated per the directions of the Q-score scoring system. Results revealed that the MO did not perform significantly lower than the HC on Copy accuracy (mean difference -0.302, CI -1.374 to 0.769, p = 0.579). In contrast, the groups did statistically differ from each other, with MO performing poorer than the HC on the Q-score (mean -1.784, CI -3.237 to -0.331, p = 0.016) and the Unit points (mean -1.409, CI -2.291 to -0.528, p = 0.002), but not on the Order points score (mean -0.351, CI -0.994 to 0.293, p = 0.284). Differences on the Unit score and the Q-score were slightly reduced when adjusting for gender, age, and education. This study presents evidence supporting the presence of inefficiency in visuospatial constructional ability among MO patients. We believe we have found an indication that the Q-score captures a wider range of cognitive processes that are not described by traditional scoring methods. Rather than considering accuracy and placement of the different elements only, the Q-score focuses more on how the subject has approached the task.

  19. Visual-Constructional Ability in Individuals with Severe Obesity: Rey Complex Figure Test Accuracy and the Q-Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna L. Sargénius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate visual-construction and organizational strategy among individuals with severe obesity, as measured by the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT, and to examine the validity of the Q-score as a measure for the quality of performance on the RCFT. Ninety-six non-demented morbidly obese (MO patients and 100 healthy controls (HC completed the RCFT. Their performance was calculated by applying the standard scoring criteria. The quality of the copying process was evaluated per the directions of the Q-score scoring system. Results revealed that the MO did not perform significantly lower than the HC on Copy accuracy (mean difference −0.302, CI −1.374 to 0.769, p = 0.579. In contrast, the groups did statistically differ from each other, with MO performing poorer than the HC on the Q-score (mean −1.784, CI −3.237 to −0.331, p = 0.016 and the Unit points (mean −1.409, CI −2.291 to −0.528, p = 0.002, but not on the Order points score (mean −0.351, CI −0.994 to 0.293, p = 0.284. Differences on the Unit score and the Q-score were slightly reduced when adjusting for gender, age, and education. This study presents evidence supporting the presence of inefficiency in visuospatial constructional ability among MO patients. We believe we have found an indication that the Q-score captures a wider range of cognitive processes that are not described by traditional scoring methods. Rather than considering accuracy and placement of the different elements only, the Q-score focuses more on how the subject has approached the task.

  20. The Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores: A Summary of Studies Conducted from 1997 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento-Miller, Eileen; Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2008-01-01

    The validity of Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) scores is examined by summarizing 273 studies conducted between 1997 and 2004. Each of the studies was conducted through the Validity Study Service of the test sponsor and contained identical variables and statistical methods. Validity coefficients from each of the studies were corrected…

  1. A Review of Methods for Evaluating the Fit of Item Score Patterns on a Test. Research Report 99-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Rob R.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    Methods are discussed that can be used to investigate the fit of an item score pattern to a test model. Model-based tests and personality inventories are administered to more than 100 million people a year and, as a result, individual fit is of great concern. Item Response Theory (IRT) modeling and person-fit statistics that are formulated in the…

  2. Language Learner Strategies and Linguistic Competence as Factors Affecting Achievement Test Scores in English for Specific Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkovic, Violeta

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the effect of two factors on achievement test scores in English as a foreign language for specific purposes in higher education: preexisting linguistic competence and frequency of use of language learner strategies. The rationale for the analysis of language learner strategies as a factor affecting achievement test outcomes is…

  3. Prevalence of Two-Syllable Digits Affecting Forward Digit Span Test Score: A Potential Reliability Factor in Digit Span Tests and New Light to the Word Length Effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egner, Lars E; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lugo, Ricardo G

    2016-01-01

    .... The study examined the effect of amount of syllables on Norwegian digit span test scores by altering the prevalence of two-syllable digits using three conditions in a repeated measures design (N = 54...

  4. Neurocognitive dysfunction in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Melle, Ingrid; Friis, Svein

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship of neurocognitive function with duration of untreated psychosis, premorbid illness factors, and clinical symptoms to determine whether long duration of untreated psychosis independently compromises cognitive function.......The authors examined the relationship of neurocognitive function with duration of untreated psychosis, premorbid illness factors, and clinical symptoms to determine whether long duration of untreated psychosis independently compromises cognitive function....

  5. A general equation to obtain multiple cut-off scores on a test from multinomial logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersabé, Rosa; Rivas, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    The authors derive a general equation to compute multiple cut-offs on a total test score in order to classify individuals into more than two ordinal categories. The equation is derived from the multinomial logistic regression (MLR) model, which is an extension of the binary logistic regression (BLR) model to accommodate polytomous outcome variables. From this analytical procedure, cut-off scores are established at the test score (the predictor variable) at which an individual is as likely to be in category j as in category j+1 of an ordinal outcome variable. The application of the complete procedure is illustrated by an example with data from an actual study on eating disorders. In this example, two cut-off scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) scores are obtained in order to classify individuals into three ordinal categories: asymptomatic, symptomatic and eating disorder. Diagnoses were made from the responses to a self-report (Q-EDD) that operationalises DSM-IV criteria for eating disorders. Alternatives to the MLR model to set multiple cut-off scores are discussed.

  6. Child Abuse: Its Relationship to Birthweight, Apgar Score, and Developmental Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldson, Edward; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The relationship of child abuse to birthweight, five-minute Apgar score, and performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development was studied in 75 low socioeconomic infants (ages 2-30 months). Journal availability: see EC 111 042. (Author)

  7. Lead exposure and the 2010 achievement test scores of children in New York counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strayhorn Jillian C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead is toxic to cognitive and behavioral functioning in children even at levels well below those producing physical symptoms. Continuing efforts in the U.S. since about the 1970s to reduce lead exposure in children have dramatically reduced the incidence of elevated blood lead levels (with elevated levels defined by the current U.S. Centers for Disease Control threshold of 10 μg/dl. The current study examines how much lead toxicity continues to impair the academic achievement of children of New York State, using 2010 test data. Methods This study relies on three sets of data published for the 57 New York counties outside New York City: school achievement data from the New York State Department of Education, data on incidence of elevated blood lead levels from the New York State Department of Health, and data on income from the U.S. Census Bureau. We studied third grade and eighth grade test scores in English Language Arts and mathematics. Using the county as the unit of analysis, we computed bivariate correlations and regression coefficients, with percent of children achieving at the lowest reported level as the dependent variable and the percent of preschoolers in the county with elevated blood lead levels as the independent variable. Then we repeated those analyses using partial correlations to control for possible confounding effects of family income, and using multiple regressions with income included. Results The bivariate correlations between incidence of elevated lead and number of children in the lowest achievement group ranged between 0.38 and 0.47. The partial correlations ranged from 0.29 to 0.40. The regression coefficients, both bivariate and partial (both estimating the increase in percent of children in the lowest achievement group for every percent increase in the children with elevated blood lead levels, ranged from 0.52 to 1.31. All regression coefficients, when rounded to the nearest integer, were

  8. Longitudinal analysis of standardized test scores of students in the Science Writing Heuristic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanlen, Niphon

    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal impacts of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach on student science achievement measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS). A number of studies have reported positive impact of an inquiry-based instruction on student achievement, critical thinking skills, reasoning skills, attitude toward science, etc. So far, studies have focused on exploring how an intervention affects student achievement using teacher/researcher-generated measurement. Only a few studies have attempted to explore the long-term impacts of an intervention on student science achievement measured by standardized tests. The students' science and reading ITBS data was collected from 2000 to 2011 from a school district which had adopted the SWH approach as the main approach in science classrooms since 2002. The data consisted of 12,350 data points from 3,039 students. The multilevel model for change with discontinuity in elevation and slope technique was used to analyze changes in student science achievement growth trajectories prior and after adopting the SWH approach. The results showed that the SWH approach positively impacted students by initially raising science achievement scores. The initial impact was maintained and gradually increased when students were continuously exposed to the SWH approach. Disadvantaged students who were at risk of having low science achievement had bigger benefits from experience with the SWH approach. As a result, existing problematic achievement gaps were narrowed down. Moreover, students who started experience with the SWH approach as early as elementary school seemed to have better science achievement growth compared to students who started experiencing with the SWH approach only in high school. The results found in this study not only confirmed the positive impacts of the SWH approach on student achievement, but also demonstrated additive impacts found when students had longitudinal experiences

  9. Effort, symptom validity testing, performance validity testing and traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Bigler, Erin D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: To understand the neurocognitive effects of brain injury, valid neuropsychological test findings are paramount. Review: This review examines the research on what has been referred to a symptom validity testing (SVT). Above a designated cut-score signifies a ?passing? SVT performance which is likely the best indicator of valid neuropsychological test findings. Likewise, substantially below cut-point performance that nears chance or is at chance signifies invalid test perfo...

  10. Life Orientation Test- Revised (LOT-R) Versus Academic Score in Various First Year Health Professional Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, Puja; Vedi, Neeraj; Gandotra, Achleshwar

    2016-10-01

    Health field per se requires mental, physical and psychological steadiness and wellbeing. In modern times decline in psychological and physical health has been observed in student after admission in health education program. Factors like perfectionism, self-esteem, personal and professional consequence have affected their academic score directly or indirectly. Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) instrument measures optimism in relation to self-esteem of individual. A better score will show more confidence level of the student. To find an association of LOT-R with the academic score of health professional students and assess gender variation. A total of 350 students enrolled for academic year 2015-16 in health professional program of medicine, dental and physiotherapy institutes of Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University were considered. Non-randomized and purposive study was done by providing LOT-R questionnaire to students. Average academic score of Anatomy and Physiology course was used for analysis excluding the biochemistry due to non-availability of tangible data at the time of study. Data was collected, analysed statistically using independent t-test, ANOVA with post-hoc and correlation analysis. Statistical significant for one-way ANOVA was assessed for academic score between the group of health professional students. While no statistical correlation of significance was observed for LOT-R score with that of academic score. As per gender distribution there was no statistical significant observation for LOT-R score within the groups. The present study highlighted the need of student's counseling for their approach towards health education; as their career. Psychological self-reliance and optimism improves the academic score. A study needs to be compared with the socio-economic status of the student to have a better understanding of the LOT-R.

  11. Influence of anxiety symptoms on improvement of neurocognitive functions in patients with major depressive disorder: A 12-week, multicenter, randomized trial of tianeptine versus escitalopram, the CAMPION study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ikki; Woo, Jong-Min; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I; Kim, Eui-Joong; Chung, Seockhoon; Ha, Jee Hyun; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has reported evidence that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) show anxiety symptoms and neurocognitive impairments. However, the influence of anxiety on neurocognitive function in MDD patients during antidepressant treatment is unclear. MDD patients (n=164) completed a 12-week, multicenter, randomized trial assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either tianeptine or escitalopram. Changes of anxiety symptoms were assessed by the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), self-rated subjective cognitive impairment on memory and concentration, the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Verbal Learning Test (VLT), and Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) were assessed every 4 weeks. During 12 weeks of treatment, decrease in the HAM-A score was significantly associated with improvement of subjective cognitive impairments on memory (panxiety. Improvement of anxiety symptoms was significantly associated with improvement in subjective and objective neurocognitive functions such as delayed memory and reasoning ability in elderly MDD patients during antidepressant treatment, but not significantly associated with improvement of immediate memory and commission error. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01309776. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Handedness, heritability, neurocognition and brain asymmetry in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep-Soboslay, Amy; Hyde, Thomas M.; Callicott, Joseph P.; Lener, Marc S.; Verchinski, Beth A.; Apud, José A.; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    Higher rates of non-right-handedness (i.e. left- and mixed-handedness) have been reported in schizophrenia and have been a centrepiece for theories of anomalous lateralization in this disorder. We investigated whether non-right-handedness is (i) more prevalent in patients as compared with unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants; (ii) familial; (iii) associated with disproportionately poorer neurocognition; and (iv) associated with grey matter volume asymmetries. We examined 1445 participants (375 patients with schizophrenia, 502 unaffected siblings and 568 unrelated controls) using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, a battery of neuropsychological tasks and structural magnetic resonance imaging data. Patients displayed a leftward shift in Edinburgh Handedness Inventory laterality quotient scores as compared with both their unaffected siblings and unrelated controls, but this finding disappeared when sex was added to the model. Moreover, there was no evidence of increased familial risk for non-right-handedness. Non-right-handedness was not associated with disproportionate neurocognitive disadvantage or with grey matter volume asymmetries in the frontal pole, lateral occipital pole or temporal pole. Non-right-handedness was associated with a significant reduction in left asymmetry in the superior temporal gyrus in both patients and controls. Our data neither provide strong support for ‘atypical’ handedness as a schizophrenia risk-associated heritable phenotype nor that it is associated with poorer neurocognition or anomalous cerebral asymmetries. PMID:20639549

  13. Clinical and neurocognitive features of the post Lyme syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, D I; Weinstein, A; Dornbush, R L

    1996-08-01

    To evaluate neurocognitive impairment in patients with persistent arthralgia, fatigue, and subjective memory loss in patients after Lyme disease (post-Lyme syndrome, PLS). We compared the clinical, neurocognitive, and psychological features of 23 patients with PLS to 23 age, sex, and education matched recovered patients (REC). All met Centers for Disease Control criteria for Lyme disease, were ELISA positive at onset of Lyme disease and were previously treated with standard antibiotic regimens. Of the patients with PLS, 7 (30%) had fibromyalgia (FM), 3 (13%) had chronic fatigue syndrome, and 10 (43%) had similar but milder symptoms but did not meet the criteria for either. 22 of 23 patients with PLS complained of decreased memory or concentration problems. Patients with PLS had significantly lower scores on the attention/concentration scale (p = 0.012) of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), indicating lowered attention/concentration. 52% of patients with PLS and 35% in the REC group had significantly lower (p treatment, a sequelae of Lyme disease may be a PLS characterized by persistent arthralgia, fatigue, and neurocognitive impairment that is probably induced by Lyme disease.

  14. Handedness, heritability, neurocognition and brain asymmetry in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep-Soboslay, Amy; Hyde, Thomas M; Callicott, Joseph P; Lener, Marc S; Verchinski, Beth A; Apud, José A; Weinberger, Daniel R; Elvevåg, Brita

    2010-10-01

    Higher rates of non-right-handedness (i.e. left- and mixed-handedness) have been reported in schizophrenia and have been a centrepiece for theories of anomalous lateralization in this disorder. We investigated whether non-right-handedness is (i) more prevalent in patients as compared with unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants; (ii) familial; (iii) associated with disproportionately poorer neurocognition; and (iv) associated with grey matter volume asymmetries. We examined 1445 participants (375 patients with schizophrenia, 502 unaffected siblings and 568 unrelated controls) using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, a battery of neuropsychological tasks and structural magnetic resonance imaging data. Patients displayed a leftward shift in Edinburgh Handedness Inventory laterality quotient scores as compared with both their unaffected siblings and unrelated controls, but this finding disappeared when sex was added to the model. Moreover, there was no evidence of increased familial risk for non-right-handedness. Non-right-handedness was not associated with disproportionate neurocognitive disadvantage or with grey matter volume asymmetries in the frontal pole, lateral occipital pole or temporal pole. Non-right-handedness was associated with a significant reduction in left asymmetry in the superior temporal gyrus in both patients and controls. Our data neither provide strong support for 'atypical' handedness as a schizophrenia risk-associated heritable phenotype nor that it is associated with poorer neurocognition or anomalous cerebral asymmetries.

  15. A physical function test for use in the intensive care unit: validity, responsiveness, and predictive utility of the physical function ICU test (scored).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, Linda; de Morton, Natalie A; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Edbrooke, Lara; Haines, Kimberley; Warrillow, Stephen; Berney, Sue

    2013-12-01

    Several tests have recently been developed to measure changes in patient strength and functional outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU). The original Physical Function ICU Test (PFIT) demonstrates reliability and sensitivity. The aims of this study were to further develop the original PFIT, to derive an interval score (the PFIT-s), and to test the clinimetric properties of the PFIT-s. A nested cohort study was conducted. One hundred forty-four and 116 participants performed the PFIT at ICU admission and discharge, respectively. Original test components were modified using principal component analysis. Rasch analysis examined the unidimensionality of the PFIT, and an interval score was derived. Correlations tested validity, and multiple regression analyses investigated predictive ability. Responsiveness was assessed using the effect size index (ESI), and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was calculated. The shoulder lift component was removed. Unidimensionality of combined admission and discharge PFIT-s scores was confirmed. The PFIT-s displayed moderate convergent validity with the Timed "Up & Go" Test (r=-.60), the Six-Minute Walk Test (r=.41), and the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score (rho=.49). The ESI of the PFIT-s was 0.82, and the MCID was 1.5 points (interval scale range=0-10). A higher admission PFIT-s score was predictive of: an MRC score of ≥48, increased likelihood of discharge home, reduced likelihood of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation, and reduced acute care hospital length of stay. Scoring of sit-to-stand assistance required is subjective, and cadence cutpoints used may not be generalizable. The PFIT-s is a safe and inexpensive test of physical function with high clinical utility. It is valid, responsive to change, and predictive of key outcomes. It is recommended that the PFIT-s be adopted to test physical function in the ICU.

  16. WiiFit™ Plus balance test scores for the assessment of balance and mobility in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Reed-Jones, Rebecca J.; Dorgo, Sandor; Hitchings, Maija K; Bader, Julia O.

    2012-01-01

    The Nintendo Wii™ is becoming an increasingly popular technology for the training and assessment of balance in older adults. Recent studies have shown promising results for its use in fall prevention. However, it is not clear how scores on the WiiFit™ balance games relate to current standardized tests of balance and mobility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between WiiFit™ Plus balance tests, and standardized tests of older adult fitness, balance, mobility, self-rep...

  17. Validation of undergraduate medical student script concordance test (SCT) scores on the clinical assessment of the acute abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goos, Matthias; Schubach, Fabian; Seifert, Gabriel; Boeker, Martin

    2016-08-17

    Health professionals often manage medical problems in critical situations under time pressure and on the basis of vague information. In recent years, dual process theory has provided a framework of cognitive processes to assist students in developing clinical reasoning skills critical especially in surgery due to the high workload and the elevated stress levels. However, clinical reasoning skills can be observed only indirectly and the corresponding constructs are difficult to measure in order to assess student performance. The script concordance test has been established in this field. A number of studies suggest that the test delivers a valid assessment of clinical reasoning. However, different scoring methods have been suggested. They reflect different interpretations of the underlying construct. In this work we want to shed light on the theoretical framework of script theory and give an idea of script concordance testing. We constructed a script concordance test in the clinical context of "acute abdomen" and compared previously proposed scores with regard to their validity. A test comprising 52 items in 18 clinical scenarios was developed, revised along the guidelines and administered to 56 4(th) and 5(th) year medical students at the end of a blended-learning seminar. We scored the answers using five different scoring methods (distance (2×), aggregate (2×), single best answer) and compared the scoring keys, the resulting final scores and Cronbach's α after normalization of the raw scores. All scores except the single best answers calculation achieved acceptable reliability scores (>= 0.75), as measured by Cronbach's α. Students were clearly distinguishable from the experts, whose results were set to a mean of 80 and SD of 5 by the normalization process. With the two aggregate scoring methods, the students' means values were between 62.5 (AGGPEN) and 63.9 (AGG) equivalent to about three expert SD below the experts' mean value (Cronbach's α : 0.76 (AGGPEN

  18. Neurocognitive impact of substance use in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Desiree A; Fellows, Robert P; Morgello, Susan; Franklin, Donald; Heaton, Robert K; Deutsch, Reena; Atkinson, J Hampton; Clifford, David B; Collier, Ann C; Marra, Christina M; Gelman, Benjamin; McCutchan, J Allen; Duarte, Nichole A; Simpson, David M; McArthur, Justin; Grant, Igor

    2011-10-01

    : To determine how serious a confound substance use (SU) might be in studies on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), we examined the relationship of SU history to neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in participants enrolled in the Central Nervous System HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research study. : After excluding cases with behavioral evidence of acute intoxication and histories of factors that independently could account for NCI (eg, stroke), baseline demographic, medical, SU, and neurocognitive data were analyzed from 399 participants. Potential SU risk for NCI was determined by the following criteria: lifetime SU Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis, self-report of marked lifetime SU, or positive urine toxicology. Participants were divided into 3 groups as follows: no SU (n = 134), nonsyndromic SU (n = 131), syndromic SU (n = 134) and matched on literacy level, nadir CD4, and depressive symptoms. : Although approximately 50% of the participants were diagnosed with HAND, a multivariate analysis of covariance of neurocogntive summary scores, covarying for urine toxicology, revealed no significant effect of SU status. Correlational analyses indicated weak associations between lifetime heroin dosage and poor recall and working memory and between cannabis and cocaine use and better verbal fluency. : These data indicate that HIV neurocognitive effects are seen at about the same frequency in those with and without historic substance abuse in cases that are equated on other factors that might contribute to NCI. Therefore, studies on neuroAIDS and its treatment need not exclude such cases. However, the effects of acute SU and current SU disorders on HAND require further study.

  19. Likelihood ratio and score tests to test the non-inferiority (or equivalence) of the odds ratio in a crossover study with binary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaochun; Li, Huilin; Jin, Man; D Goldberg, Judith

    2016-09-10

    We consider the non-inferiority (or equivalence) test of the odds ratio (OR) in a crossover study with binary outcomes to evaluate the treatment effects of two drugs. To solve this problem, Lui and Chang (2011) proposed both an asymptotic method and a conditional method based on a random effects logit model. Kenward and Jones (1987) proposed a likelihood ratio test (LRTM ) based on a log linear model. These existing methods are all subject to model misspecification. In this paper, we propose a likelihood ratio test (LRT) and a score test that are independent of model specification. Monte Carlo simulation studies show that, in scenarios considered in this paper, both the LRT and the score test have higher power than the asymptotic and conditional methods for the non-inferiority test; the LRT, score, and asymptotic methods have similar power, and they all have higher power than the conditional method for the equivalence test. When data can be well described by a log linear model, the LRTM has the highest power among all the five methods (LRTM , LRT, score, asymptotic, and conditional) for both non-inferiority and equivalence tests. However, in scenarios for which a log linear model does not describe the data well, the LRTM has the lowest power for the non-inferiority test and has inflated type I error rates for the equivalence test. We provide an example from a clinical trial that illustrates our methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Neurocognitive Performance After Cerebral Revascularization in Adult Moyamoya Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeifert, Penelope D; Karzmark, Peter; Bell-Stephens, Teresa E; Steinberg, Gary K; Dorfman, Leslie J

    2017-06-01

    Cerebral revascularization using EC-IC bypass is widely used to treat moyamoya disease, but the effects of surgery on cognition are unknown. We compared performance on formal neurocognitive testing in adults with moyamoya disease before and after undergoing direct EC-IC bypass. We performed a structured battery of 13 neurocognitive tests on 84 adults with moyamoya disease before and 6 months after EC-IC bypass. The results were analyzed using reliable change indices for each test, to minimize test-retest variability and practice effects. Twelve patients (14%) showed significant decline postoperatively, 9 patients (11%) improved, and 63 patients (75%) were unchanged. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was confined to those who underwent unilateral (33) or bilateral (51) revascularization. The majority of patients showed neither significant decline nor improvement in neurocognitive performance after EC-IC bypass surgery. Uncomplicated EC-IC bypass seems not to be a risk factor for cognitive decline in this patient population. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Lower Cognitive Reserve Among Individuals with Syndromic HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Erin E.; Woods, Steven Paul; Smith, Christine; Weber, Erica; Scott, J. Cobb; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    HIV-seropositive individuals with low cognitive reserve are at high risk for developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The present study evaluated the hypothesis that cognitive reserve would also play a unique role in the expression of everyday functioning complications among those with HAND (i.e., syndromic versus subsyndromic impairment). Eighty-six individuals with HIV infection were evaluated; 53 individuals evidenced normal neurocognitive performance, 16 had subsyndromic HAND (i.e., Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment), and 17 were diagnosed with a syndromic HAND based on a comprehensive neurobehavioral evaluation. Cognitive reserve represented a combined score including years of education, estimated verbal IQ, and highest occupational attainment. The groups were comparable (e.g. demographics), and the HAND groups had similar rates of global neurocognitive impairment. The Syndromic HAND group evidenced lower reserve scores relative to both other groups, suggesting that HIV-infected individuals with high cognitive reserve more effectively counteract their neurocognitive impairment to maintain independence in daily living activities. PMID:22677976

  2. Classifying and scoring of molecules with the NGN: new datasets, significance tests, and generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Christopher JF

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper demonstrates how a Neural Grammar Network learns to classify and score molecules for a variety of tasks in chemistry and toxicology. In addition to a more detailed analysis on datasets previously studied, we introduce three new datasets (BBB, FXa, and toxicology to show the generality of the approach. A new experimental methodology is developed and applied to both the new datasets as well as previously studied datasets. This methodology is rigorous and statistically grounded, and ultimately culminates in a Wilcoxon significance test that proves the effectiveness of the system. We further include a complete generalization of the specific technique to arbitrary grammars and datasets using a mathematical abstraction that allows researchers in different domains to apply the method to their own work. Background Our work can be viewed as an alternative to existing methods to solve the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR problem. To this end, we review a number approaches both from a methodological and also a performance perspective. In addition to these approaches, we also examined a number of chemical properties that can be used by generic classifier systems, such as feed-forward artificial neural networks. In studying these approaches, we identified a set of interesting benchmark problem sets to which many of the above approaches had been applied. These included: ACE, AChE, AR, BBB, BZR, Cox2, DHFR, ER, FXa, GPB, Therm, and Thr. Finally, we developed our own benchmark set by collecting data on toxicology. Results Our results show that our system performs better than, or comparatively to, the existing methods over a broad range of problem types. Our method does not require the expert knowledge that is necessary to apply the other methods to novel problems. Conclusions We conclude that our success is due to the ability of our system to: 1 encode molecules losslessly before presentation to the learning system, and 2

  3. [Correlation between ICIQ-UI-SF score and personality testing results over a urinary incontinent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, L; De Mol, J; Mélot, C; Falez, F

    2016-03-01

    We found out the personality pattern of an incontinent population and proceeded to a correlation between the personality inventory and the ICIQ-UI-SF (International Consultation Incontinence Questionnaire Urinary Incontinence Short Form) to demonstrate reliability and sincerity of the answers and to establish that a personality disturbance may impact the physiopathology of micturition. We performed an observational prospective study. It included patient's answers to a computed questionnaire combining a double ICIQ-UI-SF questionnaire and the 71 questions of the Minimult questionnaire. Forty-seven patients were asked to participate. Over 37 patients included, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney non parametric test confirmed agreement of the two ICIQ-UI-SF questionnaires with P=0.1792. Twenty-three patients were validated to the Minimult inventory with F scalevalidity scale using ROC analysis. We observed an AUC of 0.559 with sensitivity 78.6% and specificity 43.5%. No L score was above 70 demonstrating absence of lie. No personality disturbance was found in 9 cases. We observed six cases with a high hypochondric value, five with a high depressive value, and four with a high hysteric value. This neurotic triad was found in two cases. We noticed five cases with psychopathic deviance relative to antisocial behaviour while values of paranoia and hypomania were high in one case without any association of these personality aspects, which demonstrated absence of behavioural problem. Psychotic profile associating schizophrenia, paranoia, depression and hypomania was not found. We outlined in half of the valid population a significant high psycho-asthenic pattern. We conclude that a correlation between the personality inventory and the ICIQ-UI-SF is feasible. The comparative study demonstrate reliability of answers. Sincerity is established by the Minimult L scale. We confirm and precise literature information over clinical personality pattern of this population and observe relevant

  4. Testing measurement invariance of the schizotypal personality questionnaire-brief scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ortuño-Sierra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizotypy is a complex construct intimately related to psychosis. Empirical evidence indicates that participants with high scores on schizotypal self-report are at a heightened risk for the later development of psychotic disorders. Schizotypal experiences represent the behavioural expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Previous factorial studies have shown that schizotypy is a multidimensional construct similar to that found in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B, the three-dimensional model has been widely replicated. However, there has been no in-depth investigation of whether the dimensional structure underlying the SPQ-B scores is invariant across countries. METHODS: The main goal of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the SPQ-B scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents. The final sample was made up of 261 Spanish participants (51.7% men; M = 16.04 years and 241 Swiss participants (52.3% men; M = 15.94 years. RESULTS: The results indicated that Raine et al.'s three-factor model presented adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Moreover, the results supported the measurement invariance (configural and partial strong invariance of the SPQ-B scores across the two samples. Spanish participants scored higher on Interpersonal dimension than Swiss when latent means were compared. DISCUSSION: The study of measurement equivalence across countries provides preliminary evidence for the Raine et al.'s three-factor model and of the cross-cultural validity of the SPQ-B scores in adolescent population. Future studies should continue to examine the measurement invariance of the schizotypy and psychosis-risk syndromes across cultures.

  5. Course of COPD Assessment Test (CAT) Scores During Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treated in Outpatient Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minov, Jordan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Vasilevska, Kristin; Stoleski, Saso; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is an 8-items questionnaire for assessment of health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To evaluate the course of CAT scores during bacterial exacerbations of COPD treated in outpatient setting. We performed an observational, prospective study including 81 outpatients (57 males and 24 females, aged 43 to 74 years) with bacterial exacerbation of COPD. All participants completed CAT at initial visit (i.e. at the time of diagnosis of exacerbation and beginning of its treatment), 10 and 30 days after initial visit. Mean scores of each item, as well as the overall mean score, at these time points were compared. The mean scores for each CAT question at initial visit varied from 2.6 to 3.5, whereas the mean scores for each CAT question 10 days after initial visit varied from 1.7 to 2.6. We registered significant reduction of the mean overall CAT score 10 days after initial visit as compared to its value at initial visit of 6.9 ± 2.7 points (16.8 vs 23.7; P CAT question 30 days after initial visit varied from 1.3 to 2.4. We registered reduction of mean overall CAT score 30 days after initial visit as compared to its score 10 days after initial visit of 2.9 ± 1.2 points (13.9 vs 16.8; P CAT score 30 days after initial visit was reduced for 9.8 ± 4.5 points as compared to its value at initial visit (13.9 vs 23.7; P CAT as an effective tool to measure health status in patients with COPD.

  6. Relationship Between Broiler Body Weights, Eimeria maxima Gross Lesion Scores, and Microscores in Three Anticoccidial Sensitivity Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Miguel A; Da Costa, Manuel; Kimminau, Emily; Fuller, Lorraine; Clark, Steven; Pesti, Gene; Beckstead, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Anticoccidial sensitivity tests (ASTs) serve to determine the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs against Eimeria field isolates in a controlled laboratory setting. The most commonly measured parameters are body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gross intestinal lesion scores, and mortality. Due to the difficulty in reliably scoring gross lesion scores of Eimeria maxima , microscopic analysis of intestinal scrapings (microscores) can be used in the field to indicate the presence of this particular Eimeria. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between E. maxima microscores and broiler body weights and gross E. maxima lesion scores in three ASTs. Day-old broiler chicks were raised for 12 days on a standard corn-soy diet. On Day 12, chicks were placed in Petersime batteries and treatment diets were provided. There were six birds per pen, four pens per treatment, and 12 treatments, for a total of 288 chicks per AST. The treatments were as follows: 1) nonmedicated, noninfected; 2) nonmedicated, infected; 3) lasalocid, infected; 4) salinomycin, infected; 5) diclazuril, infected; 6) monensin, infected; 7) decoquinate, infected; 8) narasin + nicarbazin, infected; 9) narasin, infected; 10) nicarbazin, infected; 11) robenidine, infected; and 12) zoalene, infected. On Day 14, chicks were challenged with an Eimeria field isolate by oral gavage. On Day 20, broilers were weighed, and gross lesion scores and microscores were classified from 0 to 4 depending on the severity of the gross lesion scores and E. maxima microscores. Data from three trials using different field isolates were statistically analyzed using a logarithmic regression model. There was no relationship (P = 0.1224) between microscores and body weight gain. There was a positive relationship between microscores and gross lesion scores (P = 0.004). However, there was also an interaction between isolate and treatment (P lesion scores (P = 0.0041) demonstrates that the significance of the

  7. The Health Professions Admission Test (HPAT) score and leaving certificate results can independently predict academic performance in medical school: do we need both tests?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, D

    2010-11-01

    A recent study raised concerns regarding the ability of the health professions admission test (HPAT) Ireland to improve the selection process in Irish medical schools. We aimed to establish whether performance in a mock HPAT correlated with academic success in medicine. A modified HPAT examination and a questionnaire were administered to a group of doctors and medical students. There was a significant correlation between HPAT score and college results (r2: 0.314, P = 0.018, Spearman Rank) and between leaving cert score and college results (r2: 0.306, P = 0.049, Spearman Rank). There was no correlation between leaving cert points score and HPAT score. There was no difference in HPAT score across a number of other variables including gender, age and medical speciality. Our results suggest that both the HPAT Ireland and the leaving certificate examination could act as independent predictors of academic achievement in medicine.

  8. Quality Control for Scoring Tests Administered in Continuous Mode: An NCME Instructional Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allalouf, Avi; Gutentag, Tony; Baumer, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Quality control (QC) in testing is paramount. QC procedures for tests can be divided into two types. The first type, one that has been well researched, is QC for tests administered to large population groups on few administration dates using a small set of test forms (e.g., large-scale assessment). The second type is QC for tests, usually…

  9. Exploration of analysis methods for diagnostic imaging tests: problems with ROC AUC and confidence scores in CT colonography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Mallett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different methods of evaluating diagnostic performance when comparing diagnostic tests may lead to different results. We compared two such approaches, sensitivity and specificity with area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC AUC for the evaluation of CT colonography for the detection of polyps, either with or without computer assisted detection. METHODS: In a multireader multicase study of 10 readers and 107 cases we compared sensitivity and specificity, using radiological reporting of the presence or absence of polyps, to ROC AUC calculated from confidence scores concerning the presence of polyps. Both methods were assessed against a reference standard. Here we focus on five readers, selected to illustrate issues in design and analysis. We compared diagnostic measures within readers, showing that differences in results are due to statistical methods. RESULTS: Reader performance varied widely depending on whether sensitivity and specificity or ROC AUC was used. There were problems using confidence scores; in assigning scores to all cases; in use of zero scores when no polyps were identified; the bimodal non-normal distribution of scores; fitting ROC curves due to extrapolation beyond the study data; and the undue influence of a few false positive results. Variation due to use of different ROC methods exceeded differences between test results for ROC AUC. CONCLUSIONS: The confidence scores recorded in our study violated many assumptions of ROC AUC methods, rendering these methods inappropriate. The problems we identified will apply to other detection studies using confidence scores. We found sensitivity and specificity were a more reliable and clinically appropriate method to compare diagnostic tests.

  10. The Relationship between Kindergarten Students' Home Block Play and Their Spatial Ability Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tracy Anne

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly aware of the role of spatial skills in preparing children for future mathematics achievement (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008). In addition, sex differences have been consistently documented showing boys score higher than girls in assessments of spatial ability, particularly mental rotation (Linn &…

  11. Reliability and validity test of a Scoring Rubric for Information Literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.J. (Jos) van Helvoort; Frank Huysmans; Saskia Brand-Gruwel; Ellen Sjoer

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of the research was to measure reliability and validity of the Scoring Rubric for Information Literacy (Van Helvoort, 2010). Design/methodology/approach: Percentages of agreement and Intraclass Correlation were used to describe interrater reliability. For the determination

  12. Teenage Self Test: cigarette smoking. Discussion Leader's Guide. How do you score?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Smoking and Health.

    This self-scoring questionnaire on attitudes related to smoking includes norms based upon the responses of 7,000 teenagers and a discussion of the meaning of eight subscores. The subscores are: (1) effect of smoking on health; (2) non-smoker's rights; (3) positive effects of smoking; (4) manufactured reasons for smoking; (5) reasons for starting;…

  13. The Effect of Sex-Dependent Norms on Aggregated Reading and Mathematics Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramenz, Gary W.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Differences between school reading and mathematics means, rank orderings, and change scores obtained from total-group and sex-dependent norms were examined for students in grades 2 through 9 in a Florida school district. A preliminary study investigated sex-related differences between verbal and quantitative performance of boys and girls on seven…

  14. Comparative testing of reliability and audit utility of ordinal objective calculus complexity scores. Can we make an informed choice yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaipuria, Jiten; Suryavanshi, Manav; Sen, Tridib K

    2016-12-01

    To assess the reliability of the Guy's Stone Score, the Seoul National University Renal Stone Complexity (S-ReSC) score and the S.T.O.N.E. scores in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and assess their utility in discriminating outcomes [stone free rate (SFR), complications, need for multiple PCNL sessions, and auxiliary procedures] valid across parameters of experience of surgeon, independence from surgical approach, and variations in institution-specific instrumentation. A prospectively maintained database of two tertiary institutions was analysed (606 cases). Institutes differed in instrumentation, while the overall surgical team comprised: two trainees (experience 1000 cases). Scores were assigned and re-assigned after 4 months by one trainee and an expert surgeon. Inter-rater and test-retest agreement were analysed by Cohen's κ and intraclass correlation coefficient. Multivariate logistic regression models were created adjusting outcomes for the institution, comorbidity, Amplatz size, access tract location, the number of punctures, the experience level of the surgeon, and individual scoring system, and receiver operating curves were analysed for comparison. Despite some areas of inconsistencies, individually all scores had excellent inter-rater and test-retest concordance. On multivariable analyses, while the experience of the surgeon and surgical approach characteristics (such as access tract location, Amplatz size, and number of punctures) remained independently associated with different outcomes in varying combinations, calculus complexity scores were found consistently to be independently associated with all outcomes. The S-ReSC score had a superior association with SFR, the need for multiple PCNL sessions, and auxiliary procedures. Individually all scoring systems performed well. On cross comparison, the S-ReSC score consistently emerged to be more superiorly associated with all outcomes, signifying the importance of the distributional complexity of the

  15. A Triadic Reflective-Impulsive-Interoceptive Awareness Model of General and Impulsive Information System Use: Behavioral Tests of Neuro-Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This study examines a behavioral tripartite model developed in the field of addiction, and applies it here to understanding general and impulsive information technology use. It suggests that technology use is driven by two information-processing brain systems: reflective and impulsive, and that their effects on use are modulated by interoceptive awareness processes. The resultant reflective-impulsive-interoceptive awareness model is tested in two behavioral studies. Both studies employ SEM techniques to time-lagged self-report data from n 1 = 300 and n 2 = 369 social networking site users. Study 1 demonstrated that temptations augment the effect of habit on technology use, and reduce the effect of satisfaction on use. Study 2 showed that temptations strengthen the effect of habit on impulsive technology use, and weaken the effect of behavioral expectations on impulsive technology use. Hence, the results consistently support the notion that information technology users' behaviors are influenced by reflective and impulsive information processing systems; and that the equilibrium of these systems is determined, at least in part, by one's temptations. These results can serve as a basis for understanding the etiology of modern day addictions.

  16. Neurocognitive functions and social functioning in young females with recent-onset anorexia nervosa and recovered individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Mette; Jepsen, Jens Richardt Moellegaard; Kjaersdam Telléus, Gry

    2017-01-01

    neurocognitive functions relevant to social functioning: set-shifting, local processing, processing speed, working memory, sustained attention, verbal memory, and verbal abstraction. Further, we tested the association between neurocognitive function and social function, measured by Autism Diagnostic Observation...... Schedule (ADOS), with an ordinal logistic regression model. RESULTS: First, participants did not differ on any neurocognitive function across groups. Second, only the neurocognitive function "verbal memory" was significantly associated with social function. Higher performance in verbal memory...... was associated with lower odds of impaired social function. Diagnostic group remained a significant factor, but the absence of an interaction between group and neurocognitive performance indicated that the association between verbal memory and social function was independent of group membership. CONCLUSION...

  17. A Comparison of Random Normal Scores Test under the F and Chi-Square Distributions to the 2x2x2 ANOVA Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawilowsky, Shlomo

    1985-01-01

    The Random Normal Scores Test (RNST) has been suggested as a powerful alternative to the use of the parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) test when the underlying population is non-normally distributed. The major support for this suggestion rests on asymptotic theory. An empirical analysis of the RNST performed under the F and Chi-square…

  18. Neurocognitive enhancement in older adults: comparison of three cognitive training tasks to test a hypothesis of training transfer in brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenziok, Maren; Parasuraman, Raja; Clarke, Ellen; Cisler, Dean S; Thompson, James C; Greenwood, Pamela M

    2014-01-15

    The ultimate goal of cognitive enhancement as an intervention for age-related cognitive decline is transfer to everyday cognitive functioning. Development of training methods that transfer broadly to untrained cognitive tasks (far transfer) requires understanding of the neural bases of training and far transfer effects. We used cognitive training to test the hypothesis that far transfer is associated with altered attentional control demands mediated by the dorsal attention network and trained sensory cortex. In an exploratory study, we randomly assigned 42 healthy older adults to six weeks of training on Brain Fitness (BF-auditory perception), Space Fortress (SF-visuomotor/working memory), or Rise of Nations (RON-strategic reasoning). Before and after training, cognitive performance, diffusion-derived white matter integrity, and functional connectivity of the superior parietal cortex (SPC) were assessed. We found the strongest effects from BF training, which transferred to everyday problem solving and reasoning and selectively changed integrity of occipito-temporal white matter associated with improvement on untrained everyday problem solving. These results show that cognitive gain from auditory perception training depends on heightened white matter integrity in the ventral attention network. In BF and SF (which also transferred positively), a decrease in functional connectivity between SPC and inferior temporal lobe (ITL) was observed compared to RON-which did not transfer to untrained cognitive function. These findings highlight the importance for cognitive training of top-down control of sensory processing by the dorsal attention network. Altered brain connectivity - observed in the two training tasks that showed far transfer effects - may be a marker for training success. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Setting Cut Scores on an EFL Placement Test Using the Prototype Group Method: A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to standard setting that combines the prototype group method (PGM; Eckes, 2012) with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The combined PGM-ROC approach is applied to setting cut scores on a placement test of English as a foreign language (EFL). To implement the PGM, experts first named learners whom…

  20. Predicting Pre-Service Classroom Teachers' Civil Servant Recruitment Examination's Educational Sciences Test Scores Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Metin

    2015-01-01

    This study predicts the number of correct answers given by pre-service classroom teachers in Civil Servant Recruitment Examination's (CSRE) educational sciences test based on their high school grade point averages, university entrance scores, and grades (mid-term and final exams) from their undergraduate educational courses. This study was…

  1. Differential Predictive Validity of High School GPA and College Entrance Test Scores for University Students in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hattami, Abdulghani Ali Dawod

    2012-01-01

    High school grade point average and college entrance test scores are two admission criteria that are currently used by most colleges in Yemen to select their prospective students. Given their widespread use, it is important to investigate their predictive validity to ensure the accuracy of the admission decisions in these institutions. This study…

  2. Assessing the Effect of School Days and Absences on Test Score Performance. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1302

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucejo, Esteban M.; Romano, Teresa Foy

    2014-01-01

    While instructional time is viewed as crucial to learning, little is known about the effectiveness of reducing absences relative to increasing the number of school days. In this regard, this paper jointly estimates the effect of absences and length of the school calendar on test score performance. Using administrative data from North Carolina…

  3. The Score Reliability of Draw-a-Person Intellectual Ability Test (DAP: IQ) for Rural Malawi Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasu, Denis S.; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, the reliability of scores for the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults (DAP: IQ; Reynolds & Hickman, 2004) was examined through several analyses with a sample of 147 children from rural Malawi, Africa using a Chichewa translation of instructions. Cronbach alpha coefficients for…

  4. The Effects of Different Types of Anchor Tests on Observed Score Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-09-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinghua; Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul W.; Feigenbaum, Miriam; Curley, Edward

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the use of a different type of anchor, a "midi anchor", that has a smaller spread of item difficulties than the tests to be equated, and then contrasts its use with the use of a "mini anchor". The impact of different anchors on observed score equating were evaluated and compared with respect to systematic…

  5. Automated Scoring for the "TOEFL Junior"® Comprehensive Writing and Speaking Test. Research Report. ETS RR-15-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanini, Keelan; Heilman, Michael; Wang, Xinhao; Blanchard, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the initial automated scoring results that were obtained using the constructed responses from the Writing and Speaking sections of the pilot forms of the "TOEFL Junior"® Comprehensive test administered in late 2011. For all of the items except one (the edit item in the Writing section), existing automated scoring…

  6. The Franck Test for Gender Identity: Correlation with Occupation and Long-Term Stability of Score in Normal Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Roland

    1985-01-01

    A correlation was found between high (independent) occupational positions and masculine scores on the Franck Drawing Completion Test (FDCT). Acceptable individual long-term stability was also evident. The FDCT appears to be useful in assessing gender identity. (Author/ABB)

  7. Neurocognitive function in clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder: Comparisons with schizophrenia patients and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Yun; Wang, Peng-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-05-01

    This study compared the levels of the five domains of neurocognitive function-executive function, attention, memory, verbal comprehension, and perceptual organization-among clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder, individuals with long-term schizophrenia, and a group of controls. We recruited a total of 93 clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder, 94 individuals with schizophrenia, and 106 controls in this study. Their neurocognitive function was measured using a series of neurocognitive function tests: the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III), Line Cancellation Test, Visual Form Discrimination, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Continuous Performance Task, and Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition. Neurocognitive function was compared among the three groups through a multivariate analysis of variance. The results indicated that when the effect of age was controlled, clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder and those with schizophrenia demonstrated poor neurocognitive function on all tests except for the WAIS-III Similarity and Information and the Line Cancellation Test. The individuals with bipolar I disorder had similar levels of neurocognitive function compared with the schizophrenia group, but higher levels of neurocognitive function on the WAIS-III Comprehension, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition Auditory Immediate and Delayed Index and Visual Immediate and Delayed Index. The conclusions of this study suggest that compared with controls, individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have poorer neurocognitive function, even when clinically stable. Individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have similar levels of deficits in several domains of neurocognitive function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  8. Neurocognitive function in clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder: Comparisons with schizophrenia patients and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yun Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the levels of the five domains of neurocognitive function—executive function, attention, memory, verbal comprehension, and perceptual organization—among clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder, individuals with long-term schizophrenia, and a group of controls. We recruited a total of 93 clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder, 94 individuals with schizophrenia, and 106 controls in this study. Their neurocognitive function was measured using a series of neurocognitive function tests: the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Third Edition (WAIS-III, Line Cancellation Test, Visual Form Discrimination, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Continuous Performance Task, and Wechsler Memory Scale—Third Edition. Neurocognitive function was compared among the three groups through a multivariate analysis of variance. The results indicated that when the effect of age was controlled, clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder and those with schizophrenia demonstrated poor neurocognitive function on all tests except for the WAIS-III Similarity and Information and the Line Cancellation Test. The individuals with bipolar I disorder had similar levels of neurocognitive function compared with the schizophrenia group, but higher levels of neurocognitive function on the WAIS-III Comprehension, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Wechsler Memory Scale—Third Edition Auditory Immediate and Delayed Index and Visual Immediate and Delayed Index. The conclusions of this study suggest that compared with controls, individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have poorer neurocognitive function, even when clinically stable. Individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have similar levels of deficits in several domains of neurocognitive function.

  9. Relevance of lipopolysaccharide levels in HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment: the Neuradapt study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Matteo; Dunais, Brigitte; Durant, Jacques; Carsenti-Dellamonica, Helene; Harvey-Langton, Alexandra; Cottalorda, Jacqueline; Ticchioni, Michel; Laffon, Muriel; Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Dellamonica, Pierre; Pradier, Christian

    2013-08-01

    Contributory factors to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) have been shown to include age, co-morbid infections, medication toxicity, virological, genetic and vascular mechanisms, as well as microbial translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is suspected to trigger monocyte activation and increase trafficking of infected cells into the brain. In this study, our aim was to assess the degree of neurocognitive impairment in a group of randomly selected HIV-infected patients and investigate potential risk factors, including LPS plasma levels. Furthermore, we evaluated the relevance of LPS as a potential marker for screening patients with mild neurocognitive impairment. LPS plasma levels were compared among patients with HAND and those with no HAND. As LPS has also been shown to be elevated in hepatitis C co-infection, the analysis was stratified according to the presence or not of hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection. Differences between groups were evaluated using chi-square tests and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric tests. Stepwise logistic regression was performed to identify independent risk factors for HAND in the subgroups of HCV-positive and negative patients. A p value <0.05 was considered significant. Analyses were conducted using SPSS® software. From December 2007 to July 2009, 179 patients were tested (mean age 44, 73 % male, 87 % on treatment, 30 % HCV co-infected, median CD4 504/ml and 67 % with viral load below 40 copies/ml). HAND was identified in 40/179 patients (22 %), the majority displaying asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment or mild neurocognitive disorder. Univariate analysis showed that age, illicit drug use, hepatitis C co-infection, prior AIDS-defining events, CD4/CD8 ratio and LPS plasma levels were significantly associated with HAND. The median LPS level was 98.2 pg/ml in the non-HAND group versus 116.1 pg/ml in the HAND group (p < 0.014). No differences were found in LPS values between subgroups of impairment. There was a

  10. Predictive validity of the classroom strategies scale-observer form on statewide testing scores: an initial investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Dudek, Christopher M; Hsu, Louis

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the validity of a teacher observation measure, the Classroom Strategies Scale--Observer Form (CSS), as a predictor of student performance on statewide tests of mathematics and English language arts. The CSS is a teacher practice observational measure that assesses evidence-based instructional and behavioral management practices in elementary school. A series of two-level hierarchical generalized linear models were fitted to data of a sample of 662 third- through fifth-grade students to assess whether CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy and Behavioral Management Strategy scale discrepancy scores (i.e., ∑ |recommended frequency--frequency ratings|) predicted statewide mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores when percentage of minority students in schools was controlled. Results indicated that the Instructional Strategy scale discrepancy scores significantly predicted mathematics and English language arts proficiency scores: Relatively larger discrepancies on observer ratings of what teachers did versus what should have been done were associated with lower proficiency scores. Results offer initial evidence of the predictive validity of the CSS Part 2 Instructional Strategy discrepancy scores on student academic outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Print Format Effects on ASVAB (Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery) Test Score Performance: Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    have the potential to change or destroy the meaning of tea scores for miltary enlistment us. PREFACE This effot was completed as part of our...order (vertical versus horizontal grouping of answer spaces), and the shape of response alternative spaces (cirdes/ bubles versus rectangles/blocks...International Business Machines (IBM) 805 style answer sheet (horizontally ordered blocks as shown in Figure 1) and eight experimental prototypes, Miller and

  12. Is There a Relationship Between the Functional Movement Screen, Star Excursion Balance Test, and Balance Error Scoring System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshbarger, Nicole D; Anderson, Barton E; Lam, Kenneth C

    2017-07-21

    To evaluate associations between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), and Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) scores. Correlational. College athletic training facilities. Fifty-two intercollegiate athletes (men = 36 and women = 16) representing 8 sports and cleared for unrestricted sport participation. Participants completed the FMS, SEBT, and BESS, in random order, during 1 testing session. Testing order was randomized to control for fatigue and learning effects. Composite and item scores for the FMS, SEBT, and BESS. A fair, negative correlation was found between FMS asymmetry and SEBT composite (r = -0.31, P = 0.03) scores. Fair, positive correlations were reported for FMS rotary stability task and SEBT anterior (r = 0.37-0.41, P ≤ 0.007) and posteromedial (r = 0.31, P = 0.03) reaches. Fair, negative correlations were reported for FMS deep squat and BESS single-leg firm (r = -0.33, P = 0.02), double-leg foam (r = -0.34, P = 0.02) and tandem foam (r = -0.40, P = 0.003), FMS inline lunge and BESS single-leg firm (r = -0.39, P = 0.004), FMS trunk stability pushup and tandem foam (r = -0.31, P = 0.025), and FMS composite and BESS single-leg firm (r = -0.37, P = 0.007). Little-to-no correlations were reported for remaining comparisons. Results indicate that each instrument provides distinct information about function, with only small areas of overlap. Associations between the FMS asymmetry score and SEBT composite score may indicate a relationship between movement asymmetry and postural stability. Associations between the FMS deep squat and BESS foam tasks may be related to underlying neuromuscular control factors.

  13. Personality and Performance in Specific Neurocognitive Domains Among Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Benedict, Ralph H; Lin, Feng; Roy, Shumita; Federoff, Howard J; Mapstone, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Certain Big 5 personality dimensions have been repeatedly linked to global measures of cognitive function and outcome categories. We examined whether the Big 5 or their specific components showed differential evidence of associations with specific neurocognitive domains. Participants were 179 older adults (70+) from a broader study on cognitive aging. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests were used. Adjusted for age, gender, and years of education, probability values, Bayes Factors, and measures effect size from linear models suggested strong evidence for associations between better delayed recall memory and higher Conscientiousness (principally the facets of Goal-Striving and Dependability) and Openness (specifically the Intellectual Interest component). Better executive function and attention showed moderate to strong evidence of associations with lower Neuroticism (especially the Self-conscious Vulnerability facet) and higher Conscientiousness (mostly the Dependability facet). Better language functioning was linked to higher Openness (specifically, the Intellectual Interests facet). Worse visual-spatial function was strongly associated with higher Neuroticism. Different tests of neurocognitive functioning show varying degrees of evidence for associations with different personality traits. Better understanding of the patterning of neurocognitive-personality linkages may facilitate grasp of underlying mechanisms and/or refine understanding of co-occurring clinical presentation of personality traits and specific cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Neurocognitive effects following an overnight call shift on faculty anesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L C; Mahoney, J J; Raty, S R; Ortiz, J; Apodaca, S; De La Garza, R

    2013-09-01

    The impact of sleep deprivation on neurocognitive performance is a significant concern to both the health of patients and to the physicians caring for them, as demonstrated by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education enforced resident work hours. This study examined the effects of an overnight call at a level 1 trauma hospital on neurocognitive performance of faculty anesthesiologists. Eleven faculty anesthesiologists completed a series of computerized tests that were designed to evaluate different areas of neurocognition, such as working memory, verbal learning, and concentration. The anesthesiologists completed the tests following an overnight call in the morning at 6:30 and again following a normal night's rest at 6:30 on a different date. Within-subjects, repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference on post-call vs. control performance on measures of learning and memory (P = 0.04). However, there were no significant differences on performance on measures of working memory or sustained attention and vigilance. Pre-call vs. control performances were also evaluated, but no significant differences were detected. Following a night call shift, performance on learning and memory was significantly reduced. Other areas were not significantly affected, which may have been due to certain possibilities, such as practice effect or variability in the call shifts. The real-world relevance of the decline in performance on these measures remains unclear. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Diagnosis and immunotherapy of mould allergy. III. Diagnosis of Cladosporium allergy by means of symptom score, bronchial provocation test, skin prick test, RAST, CRIE and histamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malling, H J; Dreborg, S; Weeke, B

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-three adult asthmatic patients suspected of mould allergy were investigated by in vivo and in vitro tests in order to establish a specific diagnosis of asthma caused by the mould species Cladosporium. The patients were evaluated by daily symptom scores in the peak Cladosporium season, bronchial provocation test (BPT), skin prick test (SPT), RAST, histamine release from basophil granulocytes (HIST), and crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE), and the results were scored as negative (score 0), equivocal (score 1) or positive (score 2). Based on daily symptom scores and the result of BPT the patients were classified as being manifest allergic (asthma) to Cladosporium (positive allergy), inconclusive or negative. Positive allergy was defined as asthma symptoms oscillating with the spore concentration and a BPT score 2 (positive at allergen concentration less than 10,000 BU). Negative allergy was defined as no asthma symptoms and a negative BPT (score 0) and inconclusive in the case of symptoms and BPT sum of score 1-3. According to the classification a final diagnosis (positive or negative) could be established in 85% of the patients. "False positive" tests were found: for BPT in 27%, SPT 18%, RAST 0%, HIST 18%, and CRIE 0%. The corresponding figures for "false negative" were: BPT 0%, SPT 0%, RAST 27%, HIST 18%, and CRIE 23%. The relative risk of being allergic in spite of a negative test result was 0% for BPT and SPT, and 25-30% with RAST, HIST, and CRIE. In the case of positive test the risk was 90-100%. Excluding BPT, SPT was found to be the optimal single test to predict/rule out clinical allergy. A stepwise combination of positive SPT and positive RAST was found exclusively in patients clinically evaluated as positive, and does not call for an additional BPT. Using a potent allergenic extract a negative SPT excluded clinically important allergy. The primary conclusion of the study, however, is that the final diagnosis of Cladosporium asthma could not be

  16. Comparison of Physical Therapy Anatomy Performance and Anxiety Scores in Timed and Untimed Practical Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sarah M.; Evans, Cathy; Agur, Anne M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Students in health care professional programs face many stressful tests that determine successful completion of their program. Test anxiety during these high stakes examinations can affect working memory and lead to poor outcomes. Methods of decreasing test anxiety include lengthening the time available to complete examinations or evaluating…

  17. Measuring English Language Workplace Proficiency across Subgroups: Using CFA Models to Validate Test Score Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hanwook; Manna, Venessa F.

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the factor structure of the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC®) Listening and Reading test, and its invariance across subgroups of test-takers. The subgroups were defined by (a) gender, (b) age, (c) employment status, (d) time spent studying English, and (e) having lived in a country where English is the…

  18. Number Right Scores as a Function of Item Arrangement, Knowledge of Arrangement, and Test Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    Effects of item arrangement (easy-hard, uniform, and random), test anxiety, and sex on a 48-item multiple-choice mathematics test assembled from items of the American College Testing Program and taken by motivated upper level undergraduates and beginning graduate students were investigated. Four measures of anxiety were used: the Achievement Test…

  19. GMAT and GRE Aptitude Test Performance in Relation to Primary Language and Scores on TOEFL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kenneth M.

    This study was designed to describe and analyze (1) the performance of foreign candidates taking the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) or the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) Aptitude Test in relation to self-reported primary language (English vs. other), and (2) relationships between performance on the respective admissions tests and…

  20. 76 FR 16350 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... evaluation of the patient), may lead to a high frequency of unnecessary further testing and surgery due to... the most current (2009) Implicit Price Deflator for the Gross Domestic Product. FDA does not expect... the use of test results without consideration of other diagnostic testing and clinical assessment...

  1. Timed up & go test score in patients with hip fracture is related to the type of walking aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten T; Bandholm, Thomas; Holm, Bente

    2009-01-01

    Kristensen MT, Bandholm T, Holm B, Ekdahl C, Kehlet H. Timed Up & Go test score in patients with hip fracture is related to the type of walking aid. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between Timed Up & Go (TUG) test scores and type of walking aid used during the test, and to determine...... the feasibility of using the rollator as a standardized walking aid during the TUG in patients with hip fracture who were allowed full weight-bearing (FWB). DESIGN: Prospective methodological study. SETTING: An acute orthopedic hip fracture unit at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=126; 90 women......, 36 men) with hip fracture with a mean age +/- SD of 74.8+/-12.7 years performed the TUG the day before discharge from the orthopedic ward. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The TUG was performed with the walking aid the patient was to be discharged with: a walker (n=88) or elbow...

  2. Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion influences Lateral Step Down Test scores in individuals with chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindstaff, Terry L; Dolan, Nadyne; Morton, Sam K

    2017-01-01

    To determine differences in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) between three groups of individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) based on Lateral Step Down Test quality of movement. The secondary purpose was to quantify the relationship between ankle dorsiflexion ROM and Lateral Step Down Test scores. Descriptive laboratory study. University research laboratory. Fifty-nine participants with CAI. Differences in ankle dorsiflexion ROM between three Lateral Step Down Test movement quality groups (good, moderate, poor) was determined using an analysis of variance. The relationship between outcome variables was determined using a Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Significantly less ankle dorsiflexion ROM was observed in individuals with poor movement quality (36.0 ± 6.6°) compared to good (42.3 ± 6.4°). Individuals with moderate movement quality did not have ankle dorsiflexion ROM (39.1 ± 6.2°) that was significantly different from either group. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.39) between ankle dorsiflexion ROM and Lateral Step Down Test scores. Participants in the poor movement quality group had 6° less ankle dorsiflexion ROM than participants in the good movement quality group. While ankle dorsiflexion ROM is associated with Lateral Step Down Test scores additional factors likely contribute to movement dysfunction in individuals with CAI. This trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01438905). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prospective cohort study of the relationship between neuro-cognition, social cognition and violence in forensic patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Ken; Donohoe, Gary; Coyle, Ciaran; O'Sullivan, Danny; Rowe, Arann; Losty, Mairead; McDonagh, Tracey; McGuinness, Lasairiona; Ennis, Yvette; Watts, Elizabeth; Brennan, Louise; Owens, Elizabeth; Davoren, Mary; Mullaney, Ronan; Abidin, Zareena; Kennedy, Harry G

    2015-07-10

    There is a broad literature suggesting that cognitive difficulties are associated with violence across a variety of groups. Although neurocognitive and social cognitive deficits are core features of schizophrenia, evidence of a relationship between cognitive impairments and violence within this patient population has been mixed. We prospectively examined whether neurocognition and social cognition predicted inpatient violence amongst patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (n = 89; 10 violent) over a 12 month period. Neurocognition and social cognition were assessed using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Using multivariate analysis neurocognition and social cognition variables could account for 34 % of the variance in violent incidents after controlling for age and gender. Scores on a social cognitive reasoning task (MSCEIT) were significantly lower for the violent compared to nonviolent group and produced the largest effect size. Mediation analysis showed that the relationship between neurocognition and violence was completely mediated by each of the following variables independently: social cognition (MSCEIT), symptoms (PANSS Total Score), social functioning (SOFAS) and violence proneness (HCR-20 Total Score). There was no evidence of a serial pathway between neurocognition and multiple mediators and violence, and only social cognition and violence proneness operated in parallel as significant mediators accounting for 46 % of the variance in violent incidents. There was also no evidence that neurocogniton mediated the relationship between any of these variables and violence. Of all the predictors examined, neurocognition was the only variable whose effects on violence consistently showed evidence of mediation. Neurocognition operates as a distal risk factor mediated through more proximal factors. Social cognition in contrast has a direct effect on violence independent of neurocognition, violence proneness and symptom severity. The

  4. Neurocognitive development of children 4 years after critical illness and treatment with tight glucose control: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesotten, Dieter; Gielen, Marijke; Sterken, Caroline; Claessens, Kirsten; Hermans, Greet; Vlasselaers, Dirk; Lemiere, Jurgen; Lagae, Lieven; Gewillig, Marc; Eyskens, Benedicte; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Wouters, Pieter J; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2012-10-24

    A large randomized controlled trial revealed that tight glucose control (TGC) to age-adjusted normoglycemia (50-80 mg/dL at age blinded for treatment allocation, in-hospital (83%) or at home/school (17%). For comparison, 216 healthy siblings and unrelated children were tested. Intelligence (full-scale intelligence quotient [IQ]), as assessed with age-adjusted tests (Wechsler IQ scales). Further neurodevelopmental testing encompassed tests for visual-motor integration (Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration); attention, motor coordination, and executive functions (Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks); memory (Children's Memory Scale); and behavior (Child Behavior Checklist). Sixteen percent of patients declined participation or could not be reached (n = 113), resulting in 569 patients being alive and testable at follow-up. At a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 3.9 (3.8-4.1) years after randomization, TGC in the ICU did not affect full-scale IQ score (median [IQR], 88.0 [74.0-100.0] vs 88.5 [74.3-99.0] for UC; P = .73) and had not increased incidence of poor outcomes (death or severe disability precluding neurocognitive testing: 19% [68/349] vs 18% [63/351] with UC; risk-adjusted odds ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.60-1.46; P = .72). Other scores for intelligence, visual-motor integration, and memory also did not differ between groups. Tight glucose control improved motor coordination (9% [95% CI, 0%-18%] to 20% [95% CI, 5%-35%] better, all P ≤ .03) and cognitive flexibility (19% [95% CI, 5%-33%] better, P = .02). Brief hypoglycemia evoked by TGC was not associated with worse neurocognitive outcome. At follow-up, children who had been treated with TGC during an ICU admission did not have a worse measure of intelligence than those who had received UC. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT00214916.

  5. Infant feeding effects on early neurocognitive development in Asian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shirong; Pang, Wei Wei; Low, Yen Ling; Sim, Lit Wee; Sam, Suet Chian; Bruntraeger, Michaela Bianka; Wong, Eric Qinlong; Fok, Doris; Broekman, Birit F P; Singh, Leher; Richmond, Jenny; Agarwal, Pratibha; Qiu, Anqi; Saw, Seang Mei; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap-Seng; Meaney, Michael J; Kramer, Michael S; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Breastfeeding has been shown to enhance global measures of intelligence in children. However, few studies have examined associations between breastfeeding and specific cognitive task performance in the first 2 y of life, particularly in an Asian population. We assessed associations between early infant feeding and detailed measures of cognitive development in the first 2 y of life in healthy Asian children born at term. In a prospective cohort study, neurocognitive testing was performed in 408 healthy children (aged 6, 18, and 24 mo) from uncomplicated pregnancies (i.e., birth weight >2500 and <4000 g, gestational age ≥37 wk, and 5-min Apgar score ≥9). Tests included memory (deferred imitation, relational binding, habituation) and attention tasks (visual expectation, auditory oddball) as well as the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSID-III). Children were stratified into 3 groups (low, intermediate, and high) on the basis of breastfeeding duration and exclusivity. After potential confounding variables were controlled for, significant associations and dose-response relations were observed for 4 of the 15 tests. Higher breastfeeding exposure was associated with better memory at 6 mo, demonstrated by greater preferential looking toward correctly matched items during early portions of a relational memory task (i.e., relational binding task: P-trend = 0.015 and 0.050 for the first two 1000-ms time bins, respectively). No effects of breastfeeding were observed at 18 mo. At 24 mo, breastfed children were more likely to display sequential memory during a deferred imitation memory task (P-trend = 0.048), and toddlers with more exposure to breastfeeding scored higher in receptive language [+0.93 (0.23, 1.63) and +1.08 (0.10, 2.07) for intermediate- and high-breastfeeding groups, respectively, compared with the low-breastfeeding group], as well as expressive language [+0.58 (-0.06, 1.23) and +1.22 (0.32, 2.12) for intermediate- and high

  6. The Standard Error of a Proportion for Different Scores and Test Length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Walker

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Smith's (2003 proposed standard error of a proportion index..associated with the idea of reliability as sufficiency of information. A detailed table..indexing all of the standard error values affiliated with assessments that range from 5 to..100 items, where students scored as low as 50% correct and 50% incorrect to as high as..95% correct and 5% incorrect, calculated in increments of 1 percentage point, is..presented, along with distributional qualities. Examples using this measure for classroom..teachers and higher education instructors of assessment are provided.

  7. Interpreting the g loadings of intelligence test composite scores in light of Spearman's law of diminishing returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R

    2013-03-01

    The linear loadings of intelligence test composite scores on a general factor (g) have been investigated recently in factor analytic studies. Spearman's law of diminishing returns (SLODR), however, implies that the g loadings of test scores likely decrease in magnitude as g increases, or they are nonlinear. The purpose of this study was to (a) investigate whether the g loadings of composite scores from the Differential Ability Scales (2nd ed.) (DAS-II, C. D. Elliott, 2007a, Differential Ability Scales (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Pearson) were nonlinear and (b) if they were nonlinear, to compare them with linear g loadings to demonstrate how SLODR alters the interpretation of these loadings. Linear and nonlinear confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models were used to model Nonverbal Reasoning, Verbal Ability, Visual Spatial Ability, Working Memory, and Processing Speed composite scores in four age groups (5-6, 7-8, 9-13, and 14-17) from the DAS-II norming sample. The nonlinear CFA models provided better fit to the data than did the linear models. In support of SLODR, estimates obtained from the nonlinear CFAs indicated that g loadings decreased as g level increased. The nonlinear portion for the nonverbal reasoning loading, however, was not statistically significant across the age groups. Knowledge of general ability level informs composite score interpretation because g is less likely to produce differences, or is measured less, in those scores at higher g levels. One implication is that it may be more important to examine the pattern of specific abilities at higher general ability levels. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Virological Efficacy in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Neurocognitive Status in Patients with Long-Term Monotherapy Based on Lopinavir/Ritonavir: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, José R.; Muñoz-Moreno, José A.; Moltó, José; Prats, Anna; Curran, Adrià; Domingo, Pere; Llibre, Josep M.; McClernon, Daniel R.; Bravo, Isabel; Canet, Jaume; Watson, Victoria; Back, David; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on suppression of HIV replication in the CNS and on the subsequent risk of neurocognitive impairment using monotherapy with boosted protease inhibitors are limited. Methods Ours was an exploratory cross-sectional study in patients on lopinavir/ritonavir-based monotherapy (LPV/r-MT) or standard triple therapy (LPV/r-ART) for at least 96 weeks who maintained a plasma viral load <50 copies/mL. HIV-1 RNA in CSF was determined by HIV-1 SuperLow assay (lower limit of detection, 1 copy/mL). Neurocognitive functioning was assessed using a recommended battery of neuropsychological tests covering 7 areas. Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) was determined and also a global deficit score (GDS) for study comparisons. Results Seventeen patients on LPV/r-MT and 17 on LPV/r-ART were included. Fourteen (82.4%) patients on LPV/r-MT and 16 (94.1%) on LPV/r-ART had HIV-1 RNA <1 copy/mL in CSF (p = 0.601). NCI was observed in 7 patients on LPV/r-MT and in 10 on LPV/r-ART (41% vs 59%; p = 0.494). Mean (SD) GDS was 0.22 (0.20) in patients on LPV/r-MT and 0.47 (0.34) in those on LPV/r-ART (p = 0.012). Conclusions Suppression of HIV in CSF is similar in individuals with durable plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression who are receiving LPV/r-MT or LPV/r-ART for at least 96 weeks. Findings for HIV-1 replication in CSF and neurocognitive status indicate that this strategy seems to be safe for CNS functioning. PMID:23922957

  9. The relationship between neurocognition and symptomatology in people with schizophrenia: social cognition as the mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Bess Y H; Raine, Adrian; Lee, Tatia M C

    2014-05-13

    The relationship between neurocognition and symptomatology in people with schizophrenia has been established. The present study examined whether social cognition could mediate this relationship. There were 119 participants (58 people with paranoid schizophrenia and 61 healthy controls) participated in this study. Neurocognition was assessed by Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, the Judgment of Line Orientation Test, and the Tower of London Test. Psychiatric symptoms in people with schizophrenia were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Social cognition was measured by the Faux Pas Test, the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Results were consistent with previous findings that neurocognition and social cognition were impaired in the clinical participants. A novel observation is that social cognition significantly mediated the relationship between neurocognition and symptomatology. These findings suggest that neurocognitive deficits predispose people with schizophrenia to worse psychiatric symptoms through the impairment of social cognition. Findings of the present study provide important insight into a functional model of schizophrenia that could guide the development of cost-effective interventions for people with schizophrenia.

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test scores corresponding to modified Medical Research Council grades among COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yoo, Chul-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    In assigning patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to subgroups according to the updated guidelines of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, discrepancies have been noted between the COPD assessment test (CAT) criteria and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) criteria. We investigated the determinants of symptom and risk groups and sought to identify a better CAT criterion. This retrospective study included COPD patients seen between June 20, 2012, and December 5, 2012. The CAT score that can accurately predict an mMRC grade ≥ 2 versus COPD patients, the percentages of patients classified into subgroups A, B, C, and D were 24.5%, 47.2%, 4.2%, and 24.1% based on CAT criteria and 49.3%, 22.4%, 8.9%, and 19.4% based on mMRC criteria, respectively. More than 90% of the patients who met the mMRC criteria for the 'more symptoms group' also met the CAT criteria. AUROC and CART analyses suggested that a CAT score ≥ 15 predicted an mMRC grade ≥ 2 more accurately than the current CAT score criterion. During follow-up, patients with CAT scores of 10 to 14 did not have a different risk of exacerbation versus those with CAT scores COPD patients.

  11. Neurocognitive performance and prior injury among U.S. Department of Defense military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Susan P; Nieto, Kenneth; Heaton, Kristin J; Dillon, Caitlin C; Schlegel, Robert E; Russell, Michael L; Vincent, Andrea S

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the neurocognitive performance of U.S. military personnel completing the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (version 4) TBI Military (ANAM4 TBI-MIL) battery as part of the Department of Defense Neurocognitive Functional Assessment Program. Descriptive analyses utilizing the ANAM4TBI Military Performance Database were performed. We examined ANAM Composite Score (ACS) differences between five injury subgroups (no injury, brain injury with current symptoms, brain injury without current symptoms, nonbrain injury with current symptoms, and nonbrain injury without current symptoms) using general linear mixed modeling. Almost 11% (70,472/641,285) reported brain injury in the 4 years before assessment. The ACS differed significantly by injury group (p military personnel, neurocognitive performance was significantly associated with reported injury within the past 4 years among those experiencing current symptoms. Occupational programs focusing on prospective brain health of injured population groups are warranted. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. Percentiles of the null distribution of 2 maximum lod score tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulgen, Ayse; Yoo, Yun Joo; Gordon, Derek; Finch, Stephen J; Mendell, Nancy R

    2004-01-01

    We here consider the null distribution of the maximum lod score (LOD-M) obtained upon maximizing over transmission model parameters (penetrance values, dominance, and allele frequency) as well as the recombination fraction. Also considered is the lod score maximized over a fixed choice of genetic model parameters and recombination-fraction values set prior to the analysis (MMLS) as proposed by Hodge et al. The objective is to fit parametric distributions to MMLS and LOD-M. Our results are based on 3,600 simulations of samples of n = 100 nuclear families ascertained for having one affected member and at least one other sibling available for linkage analysis. Each null distribution is approximately a mixture p(2)(0) + (1 - p)(2)(v). The values of MMLS appear to fit the mixture 0.20(2)(0) + 0.80chi(2)(1.6). The mixture distribution 0.13(2)(0) + 0.87chi(2)(2.8). appears to describe the null distribution of LOD-M. From these results we derive a simple method for obtaining critical values of LOD-M and MMLS. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Evaluation of the Discrepancy between the European Pharmacopoeia Test and an Adopted United States Pharmacopoeia Test Regarding the Weight Uniformity of Scored Tablet Halves: Is Harmonization Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Ghoush, Abeer Abu; Al-Ramahi, Rowa'; Are'r, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there exists any discrepancy between the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) and adopted United States Pharmacopeia (USP) tests concerning the weight uniformity measurements of tablet halves after splitting. The USP method does not contain provisions to evaluate split tablets, so here we adopt their whole tablet weight uniformity method. Twenty-nine different commercial scored tablets (local and imported) were divided. The split units were individually weighed and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for each product was calculated and then evaluated according to both the adopted USP and the Ph. Eur. tests of weight uniformity. Twenty out of the 29 products tested failed the USP test, while 14 of them failed the Ph. Eur. test. Nine products passed both the USP and Ph. Eur. tests. Six products passed the Ph. Eur. test but failed the USP test, with all of these products having an RSD greater than 6%. The correlation coefficient between the weight and content of split halves for three randomly selected products-corotenol 100 mg, corotenol 50 mg, and lorazepam 2.5 mg-was found to be 0.986, 0.998, and 0.72, respectively. A clear difference can be seen between outcomes obtained by the two compendial tablet splitting methods with regard to weight uniformity. Results from the USP test showed that tighter measures are needed to pass the test. Our results argue that the Ph. Eur. should revise the existing weight uniformity test on scored tablets to include the RSD parameter in it. The USP should include this adopted test as a specific test for scored tablet halves, not just whole tablets. Manufacturers in some cases will need to improve the quality of the produced scored tablets in order to pass the USP test, especially those with low therapeutic indices. Finally, harmonization between the pharmacopoeias regarding the weight uniformity testing of split tablets is warranted. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there

  14. Neurocognitive domains affected by cerebral malaria and severe malarial anemia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangirana, Paul; Opoka, Robert O; Boivin, Michael J; Idro, Richard; Hodges, James S; John, Chandy C

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the effects of cerebral malaria (CM) and severe malarial anemia (SMA) on individual neurocognitive domains. Eighty children with CM, 86 with SMA, and 61 community children (CC) were assessed for gross motor skills, fine motor skills, visual reception, receptive language, and expressive language a week after discharge (CM or SMA) or at enrolment (CC), and 6 and 12 months later. At 12-months follow-up, children with CM had significantly lower scores than CC for all outcomes. Children with SMA had significantly lower scores than CC for visual reception, receptive language, and expressive language, and scores that were lower but did not reach significance for gross and fine motor skills. Children with CM had significantly lower scores than children with SMA for fine motor skills. Children with SMA and CM have long-term impairment in multiple neurocognitive domains. Fine motor skills may be affected more profoundly in CM than SMA.

  15. Reliability and Practicality of the Core Score: Four Dynamic Core Stability Tests Performed in a Physician Office Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Jason; Brakke, Rachel; Akuthota, Venu; Sullivan, William

    2017-07-01

    Pilot study to determine the practicality and inter-rater reliability of the "Core Score," a composite measure of 4 clinical core stability tests. Repeated measures. Academic hospital physician clinic. 23 healthy volunteers with mean age of 32 years (12 females, 11 males). All subjects performed 4 core stability maneuvers under direct observation from 3 independent physicians in sequence. Inter-rater reliability and time necessary to perform examination. The Core Score scale is 0 to 12, with 12 reflecting the best core stability. The mean composite score of all 4 tests for all subjects was 9.54 (SD, 1.897; range, 4-12). The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 1,1) for inter-rater reliability for the composite Core Score and 4 individual tests were 0.68 (Core Score), 0.14 (single-leg squat), 0.40 (supine bridge), 0.69 (side bridge), and 0.46 (prone bridge). The time required for a single examiner to assess a given subject's core stability in all 4 maneuvers averaged 4 minutes (range, 2-6 minutes). Even without specialized equipment, a clinically practical and moderately reliable measure of core stability may be possible. Further research is necessary to optimize this measure for clinical application. Despite the known value of core stability to athletes and patients with low back pain, there is currently no reliable and practical means for rating core stability in a typical office-based practice. This pilot study provides a starting point for future reliability research on clinical core stability assessments.

  16. The increasing impact of socioeconomics and race on standardized academic test scores across elementary, middle, and high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gwyne W; Stepney, Cesalie T; Hatchimonji, Danielle Ryan; Moceri, Dominic C; Linsky, Arielle V; Reyes-Portillo, Jazmin A; Elias, Maurice J

    2016-01-01

    For students and schools, the current policy is to measure success via standardized testing. Yet the immutable factors of socioeconomic status (SES) and race have, consistently, been implicated in fostering an achievement gap. The current study explores, at the school-level, the impact of these factors on test scores. Percentage of students proficient for Language and Math was analyzed from 452 schools across the state of New Jersey. By high school, 52% of the variance in Language and 59% in Math test scores can be accounted for by SES and racial factors. At this level, a 1% increase in school minority population corresponds to a 0.19 decrease in percent Language proficient and 0.33 decrease for Math. These results have significant implications as they suggest that school-level interventions to improve academic achievement scores will be stymied by socioeconomic and racial factors and efforts to improve the achievement gap via testing have largely measured it. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Neurocognitive effects of clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol in patients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilder, Robert M; Goldman, Robert S; Volavka, Jan; Czobor, Pal; Hoptman, Matthew; Sheitman, Brian; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Citrome, Leslie; McEvoy, Joseph; Kunz, Michal; Chakos, Miranda; Cooper, Thomas B; Horowitz, Terri L; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2002-06-01

    Newer antipsychotic drugs have shown promise in ameliorating neurocognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia, but few studies have compared newer antipsychotic drugs with both clozapine and conventional agents, particularly in patients who have had suboptimal response to prior treatments. The authors examined the effects of clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol on 16 measures of neurocognitive functioning in a double-blind, 14-week trial involving 101 patients. A global score was computed along with scores in four neurocognitive domains: memory, attention, motor function, and general executive and perceptual organization. Global neurocognitive function improved with olanzapine and risperidone treatment, and these improvements were superior to those seen with haloperidol. Patients treated with olanzapine exhibited improvement in the general and attention domains but not more than that observed with other treatments. Patients treated with risperidone exhibited improvement in memory that was superior to that of both clozapine and haloperidol. Clozapine yielded improvement in motor function but not more than in other groups. Average effect sizes for change were in the small to medium range. More than half of the patients treated with olanzapine and risperidone experienced "clinically significant" improvement (changes in score of at least one-half standard deviation relative to baseline). These findings did not appear to be mediated by changes in symptoms, side effects, or blood levels of medications. Patients with a history of suboptimal response to conventional treatments may show cognitive benefits from newer antipsychotic drugs, and there may be differences between atypical antipsychotic drugs in their patterns of cognitive effects.

  18. Sleep extension improves neurocognitive functions in chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Eliane A; Piaggi, Paolo; Dsurney, John; de Jonge, Lilian; Zhao, Xiong-ce; Mattingly, Megan S; Ramer, Angela; Gershengorn, Janet; Csako, Gyorgy; Cizza, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deprivation and obesity, are associated with neurocognitive impairments. Effects of sleep deprivation and obesity on cognition are unknown, and the cognitive long-term effects of improvement of sleep have not been prospectively assessed in short sleeping, obese individuals. To characterize neurocognitive functions and assess its reversibility. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center. A cohort of 121 short-sleeping (Sleep extension (468±88 days) with life-style modifications. Neurocognitive functions, sleep quality and sleep duration. At baseline, 44% of the individuals had an impaired global deficit score (t-score 0-39). Impaired global deficit score was associated with worse subjective sleep quality (p = 0.02), and lower urinary dopamine levels (p = 0.001). Memory was impaired in 33%; attention in 35%; motor skills in 42%; and executive function in 51% of individuals. At the final evaluation (N = 74), subjective sleep quality improved by 24% (psleep duration increased by 11% by questionnaires (psleep quality and sleep efficiency, urinary free cortisol and dopamine and plasma total ghrelin accounted for 1/5 of the variability in global cognitive function. Drop-out rate. Chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals exhibit substantial neurocognitive deficits that are partially reversible upon improvement of sleep in a non-pharmacological way. These findings have clinical implications for large segments of the US population. www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898. NIDDK protocol 06-DK-0036.

  19. Neurocognitive profiles of learning disabled children with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladys eOrraca-Castillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1 is a genetic condition generally associated with intellectual deficiency and learning disabilities. Although there have been groundbreaking advances in the understanding of the molecular, cellular, and neural systems underlying learning deficits associated to NF1 in animal models, much remains to be learned about the spectrum of neurocognitive phenotype associated with the NF1 clinical syndrome. In the present study, 32 children with NF1 ranging from 7 to 14 years were evaluated with neurocognitive tests dedicated to assess basic capacities which are involved in reading and mathematical achievement. Deficits in lexical and phonological strategies and poor number facts retrieval were found underlying reading and arithmetic disorders, respectively. Additionally, efficiencies in lexical/phonological strategies and mental arithmetic were significant predictors of individual differences in reading attainment and math. However, deficits in core numeric capacities were not found in the sample, suggesting that it is not responsible for calculation dysfluency. The estimated prevalence of Developmental Dyscalculia was 18.8%, and the male:female ratio was 5:1. On the other hand, the prevalence of Developmental Dyslexia was almost 3 times as high (50%, and no gender differences were found (male:female ratio=1:1. This study offers new evidence to the neurocognitive phenotype of NF1 contributing to an in depth understanding of this condition, but also to possible treatments for the cognitive deficits associated with NF1.

  20. Neurocognitive profiles of learning disabled children with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orraca-Castillo, Miladys; Estévez-Pérez, Nancy; Reigosa-Crespo, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a genetic condition generally associated with intellectual deficiency and learning disabilities. Although there have been groundbreaking advances in the understanding of the molecular, cellular, and neural systems underlying learning deficits associated to NF1 in animal models, much remains to be learned about the spectrum of neurocognitive phenotype associated with the NF1 clinical syndrome. In the present study, 32 children with NF1 ranging from 7 to 14 years were evaluated with neurocognitive tests dedicated to assess basic capacities which are involved in reading and mathematical achievement. Deficits in lexical and phonological strategies and poor number facts retrieval were found underlying reading and arithmetic disorders, respectively. Additionally, efficiencies in lexical/phonological strategies and mental arithmetic were significant predictors of individual differences in reading attainment and math. However, deficits in core numeric capacities were not found in the sample, suggesting that it is not responsible for calculation dysfluency. The estimated prevalence of Developmental Dyscalculia was 18.8%, and the male:female ratio was 5:1. On the other hand, the prevalence of Developmental Dyslexia was almost 3 times as high (50%), and no gender differences were found (male: female ratio = 1:1). This study offers new evidence to the neurocognitive phenotype of NF1 contributing to an in depth understanding of this condition, but also to possible treatments for the cognitive deficits associated with NF1.

  1. Predicting Success in Graduate School Using GRE and PAEG Aptitude Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornheimer, Deane G.

    1984-01-01

    Performance of limited-English speaking graduate school applicants on the Prueba de Admision para Estudios Graduados aptitude test is compared with Graduate Record Examination results, and the validity of the two tests as predictors of academic success for bilingual doctoral students in the New York University Puerto Rico program is examined. (MSE)

  2. Learners' Perspectives of Factors Influencing Gains in Standardized English Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi-Ching

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increased level of attention devoted to the consequences of test use in recent years; however, the majority of washback studies focused on teaching. In fact, little research has addressed learners' perspectives to analyze possible determinants of test results. To address this issue, this study first compared the pre-and-post…

  3. Estimating Future Adverse Impact Using Selection Ratios and Group Differences in Test Score Means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamodt, Michael G.; And Others

    Estimating the validity of a test is only one concern for the human resources professional developing a personnel selection battery. An equally important concern is whether the test will result in adverse impact against a member of a protected class. It would be useful if the probability of adverse impact could be estimated prior to spending time…

  4. EAP Study Recommendations and Score Gains on the IELTS Academic Writing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    The IELTS test is widely accepted by university admissions offices as evidence of English language ability. The test is also used to guide decisions about the amount of language study required for students to satisfy admissions requirements. Guidelines currently published by the British Association of Lecturers in English for Academic Purposes…

  5. The Impact of Intensive Reading Interventions on Student Standardized Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Carolyn Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the impact intensive reading instruction had for 28 students with learning disabilities at the middle school level on standardized tests. National Assessment of Education Progress testing indicates that across the United States, learning disabled students literacy skills are decreasing annually, and these…

  6. Virtual Reality Stroop Task for neurocognitive assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; Courtney, Christopher G; Arizmendi, Brian; Dawson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Given the prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the fact that many mild TBIs have no external marker of injury, there is a pressing need for innovative assessment technology. The demand for assessment that goes beyond traditional paper-and-pencil testing has resulted in the use of automated cognitive testing for increased precision and efficiency; and the use of virtual environment technology for enhanced ecological validity and increased function-based assessment. To address these issues, a Virtual Reality Stroop Task (VRST) that involves the subject being immersed in a virtual Humvee as Stroop stimuli appear on the windshield was developed. This study is an initial validation of the VRST as an assessment of neurocognitive functioning. When compared to the paper-and-pencil, as well as Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics versions of the Stroop, the VRST appears to have enhanced capacity for providing an indication of a participant's reaction time and ability to inhibit a prepotent response while immersed in a military relevant simulation that presents psychophysiologically arousing high and low threat stimuli.

  7. Standardised test protocol (Constant Score) for evaluation of functionality in patients with shoulder disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders; Christiansen, David Høyrup

    2013-01-01

    physiotherapists gave feedback on the objective part. Relevant items were culturally adapted and rephrased, and a simple standardised test protocol was developed. RESULTS: Only minor inconsistencies in the translations were found. A few questions and words had to be rephrased due to cultural and linguistic...... published in 2008 with several new recommendations, but a standardised test protocol was not included. Also, this new version has not been translated into Danish. The aims of the present study were to develop a standardised English test protocol for the newly modified CS, and to translate and cross-culturally...... adapt this version into Danish. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An English test protocol was developed and translated into Danish at two independent centres according to international recommendations. Consensus on a preliminary version was achieved. The subjective part was tested on six patients, while two...

  8. Assessment of the reliability in two groups of age, using the Qualitative Scoring System for the Bender Gestalt Test - Modified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Ayax Merino Soto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is looking for evidences of reliability, for the Qualification Qua- litative System (Brannigan y Brunner, 2002 applied to the Bender Gestalt Test – Modified. The participants were 86 children, divided in two groups: pre- school and school; and three students who scored the designs in both groups. The analysis was done in the final grade and the item. The results pointed to the good levels of results of external reliability and internal consistence in the pre- school group, while these levels were scored in the school group. These differences establish the relation between these two aspects of measurement error and the emphasis in an appropriate training of measurements that require the examiner’s judgments. We discussed our results considering the potential utility of this relative version of the Bender Gestalt Test for the clinical practice and investigation as well.

  9. Standardised test protocol (Constant Score) for evaluation of functionality in patients with shoulder disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders; Christiansen, David Høyrup

    2013-01-01

    published in 2008 with several new recommendations, but a standardised test protocol was not included. Also, this new version has not been translated into Danish. The aims of the present study were to develop a standardised English test protocol for the newly modified CS, and to translate and cross...... physiotherapists gave feedback on the objective part. Relevant items were culturally adapted and rephrased, and a simple standardised test protocol was developed. RESULTS: Only minor inconsistencies in the translations were found. A few questions and words had to be rephrased due to cultural and linguistic...... internationally for standardised assessment of the CS. Testing of validity, reliability and responsiveness of both versions needs to be done in future research. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  10. Reliability and validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale scores: a group intelligence test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uno, Yota; Mizukami, Hitomi; Ando, Masahiko; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Iwasaki, Yoko; Ozaki, Norio

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time...

  11. The effect of an intervention program on functional movement screen test scores in mixed martial arts athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodden, Jamie G; Needham, Robert A; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the basic fundamental movements of mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes using the functional movement screen (FMS) assessment and determined if an intervention program was successful at improving results. Participants were placed into 1 of the 2 groups: intervention and control groups. The intervention group was required to complete a corrective exercise program 4 times per week, and all participants were asked to continue their usual MMA training routine. A mid-intervention FMS test was included to examine if successful results were noticed sooner than the 8-week period. Results highlighted differences in FMS test scores between the control group and intervention group (p = 0.006). Post hoc testing revealed a significant increase in the FMS score of the intervention group between weeks 0 and 8 (p = 0.00) and weeks 0 and 4 (p = 0.00) and no significant increase between weeks 4 and 8 (p = 1.00). A χ analysis revealed that the intervention group participants were more likely to have an FMS score >14 than participants in the control group at week 4 (χ = 7.29, p < 0.01) and week 8 (χ = 5.2, p ≤ 0.05). Finally, a greater number of participants in the intervention group were free from asymmetry at week 4 and week 8 compared with the initial test period. The results of the study suggested that a 4-week intervention program was sufficient at improving FMS scores. Most if not all, the movements covered on the FMS relate to many aspects of MMA training. The knowledge that the FMS can identify movement dysfunctions and, furthermore, the fact that the issues can be improved through a standardized intervention program could be advantageous to MMA coaches, thus, providing the opportunity to adapt and implement new additions to training programs.

  12. Back extensor muscle endurance test scores in coal miners in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.; Latimer, J.; Jamieson, M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Faculty of Health and Science, School of Physiotherapy

    2003-06-01

    Low back pain is a common complaint among those working in the Australian coal mining industry. One test that may be predictive of first-time episodes of low back pain is the Biering-Sorensen test of back extensor endurance strength. While this test has been evaluated in overseas sedentary populations, normative data and the discriminative ability of the test have not been evaluated with coal miners. Eighty-eight coal miners completed a questionnaire for known risk factors for low back pain, performed the Biering-Sorensen test, and undertook a test of aerobic fitness. Data analysis was performed to describe the groups and to determine whether any significant difference existed between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. Significantly lower than expected holding times were found in this group of coal miners (mean 113 s). This result was significantly lower than demonstrated in previous studies. When holding times for those with a past history of low back pain were compared with times for those with no history of low back pain, the difference was not statistically significant, nor was there a significant difference in fitness between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. It is concluded that coal miners in Australia have lower than normal Biering-Sorensen holding times. This lower back holding time does not differ between coal miners with a past history of low back pain and those without.

  13. On the Efficiency of Score Tests for Homogeneity in Two-Component Parametric Models for Discrete Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todem, David; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Kim, Kyung Mann

    2013-01-01

    Summary In many applications of two-component mixture models for discrete data such as zero-inflated models, it is often of interest to conduct inferences for the mixing weights. Score tests derived from the marginal model that allows for negative mixing weights have been particularly useful for this purpose. But the existing testing procedures often rely on restrictive assumptions such as the constancy of the mixing weights and typically ignore the structural constraints of the marginal model. In this article, we develop a score test of homogeneity that overcomes the limitations of existing procedures. The technique is based on a decomposition of the mixing weights into terms that have an obvious statistical interpretation. We exploit this decomposition to lay the foundation of the test. Simulation results show that the proposed covariate-adjusted test statistic can greatly improve the efficiency over test statistics based on constant mixing weights. A real-life example in dental caries research is used to illustrate the methodology. PMID:22348298

  14. Establishing the Validity of TOEIC Bridge™ Test Scores for Students in Colombia, Chile, and Ecuador. Research Report. ETS RR-08-58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip; Feng, Ying; Saldivia, Luis; Powers, Donald E.; Ginuta, Anthony; Simpson, Annabelle; Weng, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    The validity of TOEIC Bridge™ scores as a measure of English language skill was examined from the standpoint of a unified concept of test validity. In this study, more than 6,000 test takers in 3 Latin American countries (Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador) took 1 form of the TOEIC Bridge test, and their scores were compared to additional information…

  15. The Effects of Specific Reading Interventions on Elementary Students' Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jacqueline Laverne Meeks

    2016-01-01

    Many students in third, fourth and fifth grades struggle at the lowest levels of reading proficiency. In fact, fewer than 40% of fourth graders in the United States read at or above the "proficient" level on state standardized tests in 2009 (D'Ardenne, Barnes, Hightower, Lamason, Mason, Patterson, Stephens, Wilson, Smith & Erickson,…

  16. A score test for the agronomical overlap effect in a two-way classification model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquiles Darghan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In some agricultural research, a treatment applied to an experimental unit may affect the response in the neighboring experimental units. This phenomenon is known as overlap. In this article, a test to evaluate this effect in the Draper and Guttman model was developed by imposing side conditions on the parameters of a two-way classification model to obtain a re-parameterized model which can be used in different neighboring patterns of experimental units, usually plants within a crop, whenever the nearest neighbor is considered a directly affected experimental unit and the two-way model is used. Three methods, namely maximum likelihood, least squares with side conditions and generalized inverse, were used to estimate the parameters of the original model in order to calculate the value of the test statistics for the null hypothesis associated with the absence of the overlapping effect. The three alternatives were invariant with respect to the use of test. The proposed test is simple to adopt and can be implemented in agronomy since its asymptotic nature is in agreement with the large number of experimental units which generally exist in this type of research, where each plant represents the experimental unit being assessed.

  17. The Impact of Mobile Learning on Student Performance as Gauged by Standardised Test (NAPLAN) Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Steven; Bate, Frank; Macnish, Jean

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the National Assessment Program for Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) performance of Years Five, Seven and Nine students in standardised tests prior and post the implementation of a mobile learning initiative in a Western Australian school for boys. The school sees the use of ICT as important in enhancing its potential to deliver…

  18. The Relationships among Three Measures of Bilingualism and Their Relationship to Achievement Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Robert J.; Russell, Randall H.

    Before a bilingual program can be set up, students who are potential candidates for such a program must be identified. A study was made to investigate the interrelationships of three commonly used measures of "language dominance": the Language Facility Test (LFT), the Home Bilingual Usage Estimate (HBUE), and the Teacher Judgment Questionnaire…

  19. Descriptive Statistics for Modern Test Score Distributions: Skewness, Kurtosis, Discreteness, and Ceiling Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Andrew D.; Yu, Carol C.

    2015-01-01

    Many statistical analyses benefit from the assumption that unconditional or conditional distributions are continuous and normal. More than 50 years ago in this journal, Lord and Cook chronicled departures from normality in educational tests, and Micerri similarly showed that the normality assumption is met rarely in educational and psychological…

  20. Improvement in National Test Reading Scores at Key Stage 1; Grade Inflation or Better Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Sara; Herrick, David; Feiler, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the UK National Literacy Strategy is to raise standards in literacy. Strong evidence for its success has, however, been lacking: most of the available data comes from performance on tests administered in schools or from Office for Standards in Education reports and is vulnerable to suggestions of bias. An opportunistic analysis of data…