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Sample records for neurocognitive test battery

  1. Identification of an abbreviated test battery for detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment in an early-managed HIV-infected cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Moore

    Full Text Available HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND remain prevalent despite improved antiretroviral treatment (ART, and it is essential to have a sensitive and specific HAND screening tool.Participants were 200 HIV-infected US military beneficiaries, managed early in the course of HIV infection, had few comorbidities, and had open access to ART. Participants completed a comprehensive, seven-domain (16-test, neuropsychological battery (∼120 min; neurocognitive impairment (NCI was determined using a standardized score derived from demographically adjusted T-scores (global deficit score ≥0.5. Restricting the estimated administration time of the screening battery to < = 20 minutes, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of detecting NCI for all possible combinations of 2-, 3-, and 4- tests from the comprehensive battery.Participants were relatively healthy (median CD4 count: 546 cells/mm(3 with 64% receiving ART. Prevalence of NCI was low (19%. The best 2-test screener included the Stroop Color Test and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (11 min; sensitivity = 73%; specificity = 83%; the best 3-test screener included the above measures plus the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT; 16 min; sensitivity = 86%; specificity = 75%. The addition of Action Fluency to the above three tests improved specificity (18 min; sensitivity = 86%; specificity = 87%.Combinations of widely accepted neuropsychological tests with brief implementation time demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity compared to a time intensive neuropsychological test battery. Tests of verbal learning, attention/working memory, and processing speed are particularly useful in detecting NCI. Utilizing validated, easy to administer, traditional neuropsychological tests with established normative data may represent an excellent approach to screening for NCI in HIV.

  2. The importance of measurement invariance in neurocognitive ability testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Neurocognitive test batteries such as recent editions of the Wechsler’s Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III/WAIS-IV) typically use nation-level population-based norms. The question is whether these batteries function in the same manner across different subgroups based on gender, age,

  3. Effect of methylphenidate on neurocognitive test battery: an evaluation according to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Sibel; Ercan, Eyup Sabri; Ardic, Ulku Akyol; Yuce, Deniz; Ercan, Elif; Ipci, Melis

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the neuropsychological characteristics of the restrictive (R) subtype according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition and the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined (CB) type and predominantly inattentive (PI) type subtypes and to evaluate whether methylphenidate (MPH) affects neurocognitive test battery scores according to these subtypes. This study included 360 children and adolescents (277 boys, 83 girls) between 7 and 15 years of age who had been diagnosed with ADHD and compared the neuropsychological characteristics and MPH treatment responses of patients with the R subtype-which has been suggested for inclusion among the ADHD subtypes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-with those of patients with the PI and CB subtypes. They did not differ from the control subjects in the complex attention domain, which includes Continuous Performance Test, Stroop test, and Shifting Attention Test, which suggests that the R subtype displayed a lower level of deterioration in these domains compared with the PI and CB subtypes. The patients with the CB and PI subtypes did not differ from the control subjects in the Continuous Performance Test correct response domain, whereas those with the R subtype presented a poorer performance than the control subjects. The R subtype requires a more detailed evaluation because it presented similar results in the remaining neuropsychological evaluations and MPH responses.

  4. Validation of a brief telephone battery for neurocognitive assessment of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palevsky Harold I

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of pulmonary arterial hypertension on brain function are not understood, despite patients' frequent complaints of cognitive difficulties. Using clinical instruments normally administered during standard in-person assessment of neurocognitive function in adults, we assembled a battery of tests designed for administration over the telephone. The purpose was to improve patient participation, facilitate repeated test administration, and reduce the cost of research on the neuropsychological consequences of acute and chronic cardiorespiratory diseases. We undertook this study to validate telephone administration of the tests. Methods 23 adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension underwent neurocognitive assessment using both standard in-person and telephone test administration, and the results of the two methods compared using interclass correlations. Results For most of the tests in the battery, scores from the telephone assessment correlated strongly with those obtained by in-person administration of the same tests. Interclass correlations between 0.5 and 0.8 were observed for tests that assessed attention, memory, concentration/working memory, reasoning, and language/crystallized intelligence (p ≤ 0.05 for each. Interclass correlations for the Hayling Sentence Completion test of executive function approached significance (p = 0.09. All telephone tests were completed within one hour. Conclusion Administration of this neurocognitive test battery by telephone should facilitate assessment of neuropsychological deficits among patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension living across broad geographical areas, and may be useful for monitoring changes in neurocognitive function in response to PAH-specific therapy or disease progression.

  5. The Lithium Battery: assessing the neurocognitive profile of lithium in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; McAulay, Claire; Gershon, Samuel; Gessler, Danielle; Fritz, Kristina; Das, Pritha; Outhred, Tim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the neurocognitive effects of lithium in bipolar disorder to inform clinical and research approaches for further investigation. Key words pertaining to neurocognition in bipolar disorder and lithium treatment were used to search recognized databases to identify relevant literature. The authors also retrieved gray literature (e.g., book chapters) known to them and examined pertinent articles from bibliographies. A limited number of studies have examined the effects of lithium on neurocognition in bipolar disorder and, although in some domains a consistent picture emerges, in many domains the findings are mixed. Lithium administration appears to reshape key components of neurocognition - in particular, psychomotor speed, verbal memory, and verbal fluency. Notably, it has a sophisticated neurocognitive profile, such that while lithium impairs neurocognition across some domains, it seemingly preserves others - possibly those vulnerable to the effects of bipolar disorder. Furthermore, its effects are likely to be direct and indirect (via mood, for example) and cumulative with duration of treatment. Disentangling the components of neurocognition modulated by lithium in the context of a fluctuating and complex illness such as bipolar disorder is a significant challenge but one that therefore demands a stratified and systematic approach, such as that provided by the Lithium Battery. In order to delineate the effects of lithium therapy on neurocognition in bipolar disorder within both research and clinical practice, a greater understanding and measurement of the relatively stable neurocognitive components is needed to examine those that indeed change with lithium treatment. In order to achieve this, we propose a Lithium Battery-Clinical and a Lithium Battery-Research that can be applied to these respective settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Debating the utility of computerised neurocognitive testing in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    computerised neurocognitive baseline testing in the sports concus- sion context,. 1 ... testing for athletes at this time is scientifically unfounded, financially irresponsible and .... medical management in respect of the sports concussive injury. It.

  7. An Independent, Prospective, Head to Head Study of the Reliability and Validity of Neurocognitive Test Batteries for the Assessment of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    women), ice hockey, and wrestling. Baseline testing for football, lacrosse, rugby and soccer is scheduled for spring 2013. The postinjury protocol for...hockey, field hockey, rugby , wrestling), football will provide the large quantity of both baseline testing participants and concussed athletes. 6...test results to be rendered invalid for a variety of reasons (e.g., unsatisfactory test conditions, motivational factors, psychometric properties of

  8. Identification of an Abbreviated Test Battery for Detection of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Impairment in an Early-Managed HIV-Infected Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    within the fronto-striatal regions (e.g., processing speed) [5–7] than cortical dementias such as Alzheimer disease. As such, traditional cognitive...Part A, PASAT, and HVLT-R Learning avoids the requirement of having the color stimuli of the Stroop tests and replaces it with the Trail Making Test...assessment time points to avoid practice effect problems; however, this would require those who administer the tests to be trained on a wider range of

  9. Computerized neurocognitive testing in the management of sport-related concussion: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Jacob E; McCrea, Michael A; Cullum, C Munro

    2013-12-01

    Since the late nineties, computerized neurocognitive testing has become a central component of sport-related concussion (SRC) management at all levels of sport. In 2005, a review of the available evidence on the psychometric properties of four computerized neuropsychological test batteries concluded that the tests did not possess the necessary criteria to warrant clinical application. Since the publication of that review, several more computerized neurocognitive tests have entered the market place. The purpose of this review is to summarize the body of published studies on psychometric properties and clinical utility of computerized neurocognitive tests available for use in the assessment of SRC. A review of the literature from 2005 to 2013 was conducted to gather evidence of test-retest reliability and clinical validity of these instruments. Reviewed articles included both prospective and retrospective studies of primarily sport-based adult and pediatric samples. Summaries are provided regarding the available evidence of reliability and validity for the most commonly used computerized neurocognitive tests in sports settings.

  10. Debating the utility of computerised neurocognitive testing in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article was to contribute to an argument regarding the utility of computerised baseline and follow-up neurocognitive testing within the sports concussion arena. Heated debate around this issue via a number of contributions has appeared recently in the journal Current Sports Medicine Reports, with its use ...

  11. Application of a computer-based neurocognitive assessment battery in the elderly with and without hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Völter C

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Christiane Völter,1 Lisa Götze,1 Michael Falkenstein,2 Stefan Dazert,1 Jan Peter Thomas1 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Ruhr University Bochum, St Elisabeth-Hospital, Bochum, 2Institute for Work, Learning and Ageing (ALA, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund, Germany Introduction: Due to demographic changes, the number of people suffering not only from dementia illness but also from hearing impairment with the need for hearing rehabilitation have increased noticeably. Even with the association between hearing, age, and cognitive decline being well known, this issue has so far not played an important role in daily clinical Ear Nose Throat settings. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of a computer-based battery of tests of neurocognitive abilities in older patients with and without hearing loss.Patients and methods: A total of 120 patients aged 50 years and older were enrolled in this prospective clinical study: 40 patients suffered from severe bilateral hearing loss and were tested before cochlear implantation and 80 patients showed normal hearing thresholds between 500 and 4,000 Hz bilaterally. The test battery covered a wide range of cognitive abilities such as long- and short-term memory, working memory (WM, attention, inhibition, and other executive functions. Individuals with severe depression or cognitive impairment were excluded.Results: Hearing status was a significant predictor of performance on delayed recall (P=0.0082 and verbal fluency after adjusting for age (P=0.0016. Age predominantly impacted on inhibition (P=0.0039 and processing speed (P<0.0001, whereas WM measured by the Operation Span task (OSPAN and the attention were influenced by both age and hearing. The battery of tests was feasible and practical for testing older patients without prior computer skills.Conclusion: A computerized neurocognitive assessment battery may be a suitable tool

  12. Battery Post-Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Post-test diagnostics of aged batteries can provide additional information regarding the cause of performance degradation, which, previously, could be only inferred...

  13. Computer controlled testing of batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, A.C.J.; Einerhand, R.E.F.; Visscher, W.

    1989-01-01

    A computerized testing device for batteries consists of a power supply, a multiplexer circuit connected to the batteries, a protection circuit, and an IBM Data Aquisition and Control Adapter card, connected to a personal computer. The software is written in Turbo-Pascal and can be easily adapted to

  14. Intrinsic motivation, neurocognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia: testing mediator and moderator effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Eri; Xie, Bin; Hoe, Maanse; Brekke, John S

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the nature of the relationships among neurocognition, intrinsic motivation, and psychosocial functioning for persons with schizophrenia. Hypotheses concerning both mediator and moderator mechanisms were tested. 120 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were recruited as they entered outpatient psychosocial rehabilitation programs. Measures of psychosocial functioning and intrinsic motivation were administered at baseline. Measures of neurocognition were administered at baseline by testers blind to scores on other study variables. Data were analyzed using latent construct modeling to test for mediator and moderator effects. There were strong bivariate relationships between neurocognition, intrinsic motivation, and psychosocial functioning. The results demonstrated that intrinsic motivation strongly mediated the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. This mediation was evidenced by: (i) the direct path from neurocognition to functional outcome no longer being statistically significant after the introduction of motivation into the model, (ii) the statistical significance of the indirect path from neurocognition through motivation to functional outcome. There was no support for the two moderation hypotheses: the level of neurocognition did not influence the relationship between intrinsic motivation and psychosocial functioning, nor did the level of intrinsic motivation influence the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. Neurocognition influences psychosocial functioning through its relationship with intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is a critical mechanism for explaining the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. Implications for the theoretical understanding and psychosocial treatment of intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia are discussed.

  15. Neurocognitive testing in late-onset Tay-Sachs disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstein, D; Doniger, G M; Simon, E; Korn-Lubetzki, I; Navon, R; Zimran, A

    2008-08-01

    To test neurocognitive function in patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease (LOTS) using a computerized system to assess whether cognition is a clinically relevant outcome measure of possible therapeutic intervention in LOTS. Ten adults with Tay-Sachs disease were administered at least one battery of the Mindstreams Neurotrax system for evaluation of cognitive function. Six sub-scores and a Global Cognitive Score (GCS) were tabulated. A disease specific severity score was also devised with six domains. Despite identical genotypes, all patients but the two oldest had > or = 3/6 sub-scores one standard deviation below normal mean (100); verbal and executive functions were most affected. The severity score measured other functions. Because of provocative findings on re-testing in patients exposed to miglustat, and despite the very small cohort, cognitive function may be an appropriate and clinically relevant outcome measure for future therapeutic interventions in LOTS.

  16. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  17. Accelerated testing of space batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccallum, J.; Thomas, R. E.; Waite, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    An accelerated life test program for space batteries is presented that fully satisfies empirical, statistical, and physical criteria for validity. The program includes thermal and other nonmechanical stress analyses as well as mechanical stress, strain, and rate of strain measurements.

  18. Reliability of a Computerized Neurocognitive Test in Baseline Concussion Testing of High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James; Duerson, Drew

    2015-07-01

    Baseline assessments using computerized neurocognitive tests are frequently used in the management of sport-related concussions. Such testing is often done on an annual basis in a community setting. Reliability is a fundamental test characteristic that should be established for such tests. Our study examined the test-retest reliability of a computerized neurocognitive test in high school athletes over 1 year. Repeated measures design. Two American high schools. High school athletes (N = 117) participating in American football or soccer during the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 academic years. All study participants completed 2 baseline computerized neurocognitive tests taken 1 year apart at their respective schools. The test measures performance on 4 cognitive tasks: identification speed (Attention), detection speed (Processing Speed), one card learning accuracy (Learning), and one back speed (Working Memory). Reliability was assessed by measuring the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the repeated measures of the 4 cognitive tasks. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated as a secondary outcome measure. The measure for identification speed performed best (ICC = 0.672; 95% confidence interval, 0.559-0.760) and the measure for one card learning accuracy performed worst (ICC = 0.401; 95% confidence interval, 0.237-0.542). All tests had marginal or low reliability. In a population of high school athletes, computerized neurocognitive testing performed in a community setting demonstrated low to marginal test-retest reliability on baseline assessments 1 year apart. Further investigation should focus on (1) improving the reliability of individual tasks tested, (2) controlling for external factors that might affect test performance, and (3) identifying the ideal time interval to repeat baseline testing in high school athletes. Computerized neurocognitive tests are used frequently in high school athletes, often within a model of baseline testing

  19. Relationship between concussion history and neurocognitive test performance in National Football League draft picks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gary S; Kuhn, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    There are limited empirical data available regarding the relationship between concussion history and neurocognitive functioning in active National Football League (NFL) players in general and NFL draft picks in particular. Potential NFL draft picks undergo 2 neurocognitive tests at the National Invitational Camp (Scouting Combine) every year: the Wonderlic and, since 2011, the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). After conclusion of the combine and before the draft, NFL teams invite potential draft picks to their headquarters for individual visits where further assessment may occur. To examine the relationship between concussion history and neurocognitive performance (ImPACT and Wonderlic) in a sample of elite NFL draft picks. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Over 7 years, 226 potential draft picks were invited to visit a specific NFL team's headquarters after the combine. The athletes were divided into 3 groups based on self-reported concussion history: no prior concussions, 1 prior concussion, and 2 or more prior concussions. Neurocognitive measures of interest included Wonderlic scores (provided by the NFL team) and ImPACT composite scores (administered either at the combine or during a visit to the team headquarters). The relationship between concussion history and neurocognitive scores was assessed, as were the relationships among the 2 neurocognitive tests. Concussion history had no relationship to neurocognitive performance on either the Wonderlic or ImPACT. Concussion history did not affect performance on either neurocognitive test, suggesting that for this cohort, a history of concussion may not have adverse effects on neurocognitive functioning as measured by these 2 tests. This study reveals no correlation between concussion history and neurocognitive test scores (ImPACT, Wonderlic) in soon-to-be active NFL athletes.

  20. Neurocognitive testing and cochlear implantation: insights into performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosetti MK

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Maura K Cosetti,1,2 James B Pinkston,3 Jose M Flores,4 David R Friedmann,5 Callie B Jones,3 J Thomas Roland Jr,5,6 Susan B Waltzman5 1Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, 2Department of Neurosurgery, 3Department of Neurology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, 4Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MA, 5Department of Otolaryngology, 6Department of Neurosurgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Objective: The aim of this case series was to assess the impact of auditory rehabilitation with cochlear implantation on the cognitive function of elderly patients over time. Design: This is a longitudinal case series of prospective data assessing neurocognitive function and speech perception in an elderly cohort pre- and post-implantation. Setting: University cochlear implant center. Participants: The patients were post-lingually deafened elderly female (mean, 73.6 years; SD, 5.82; range, 67–81 years cochlear implant recipients (n=7. Measurements: A neurocognitive battery of 20 tests assessing intellectual function, learning, short- and long-term memory, verbal fluency, attention, mental flexibility, and processing speed was performed prior to and 2–4.1 years (mean, 3.7 after cochlear implant (CI. Speech perception testing using Consonant–Nucleus–Consonant words was performed prior to implantation and at regular intervals postoperatively. Individual and aggregate differences in cognitive function pre- and post-CI were estimated. Logistic regression with cluster adjustment was used to estimate the association (%improvement or %decline between speech understanding and years from implantation at 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years post-CI. Results: Improvements after CI were observed in 14 (70% of all subtests administered. Declines occurred in five (25% subtests. In 55 individual tests (43%, post-CI performance improved

  1. The effect of pulmonary tuberculosis on neurocognitive function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To examine group differences in neurocognitive status, we used Wilcoxon ranked sum tests to compare the performance between groups on neuropsychological test battery. Results: Out of 324, only 244 were studied. Results indicated significant neurocognitive impairment in PTB+/HIV+ group than PTB-/HIV+ in the GDS, ...

  2. Affirmative Psychological Testing and Neurocognitive Assessment with Transgender Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keo-Meier, Colton L; Fitzgerald, Kara M

    2017-03-01

    Neither consensus on best practice nor validated neuropsychological, intelligence, or personality testing batteries exist for assessment and psychological testing on the transgender population. Historically, assessment has been used in a gate-keeping fashion with transgender clients. There are no firm standards of care when considering the content and appropriateness of evaluations conducted presurgically. These evaluations are discussed in the setting of other presurgical evaluations, with a recommendation to move toward a competency to make a medical decisions model. Additional considerations are discussed, such as effects of transition on mood and how to interpret scores in a field where normative data are often gender stratified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neurocognition and Duration of Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Evensen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of schizophrenia-spectrum patients exhibit a cognitive impairment at illness onset. However, the long-term course of neurocognition and a possible neurotoxic effect of time spent in active psychosis, is a topic of controversy. Furthermore, it is of importance to find out...... assessed neuropsychologically on one or more occasions. Patients were tested after remission of psychotic symptoms and reassessed 1, 2, 5, and 10 years after inclusion. The neurocognitive battery consisted of California Verbal Learning Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Controlled Oral Word Association...

  4. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spangler, Scott Wilmer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  5. Neurocognitive Deficits in Borderline Personality Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne Skovgaard; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean

    2017-01-01

    completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed...... suggest that patients with BPD display deficits mainly in higher-order thinking abilities that may be exacerbated by PTSD and substantial early life trauma. Potential relationships between neurocognitive deficits and dimensions of personality psychopathology in BPD need further examination....

  6. Performance on a computerized neurocognitive battery in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A comparison between US and Israeli cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, James J; Weinberger, Ronnie; Moore, Tyler M; Calkins, Monica E; Guri, Yael; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Zackai, Elaine H; Emanuel, Beverly S; Gur, Raquel E; Gothelf, Doron; Gur, Ruben C

    2016-07-01

    Increasingly, the effects of copy number variation (CNV) in the genome on brain function and behaviors are recognized as means to elucidate pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Such studies require large samples and we characterized the neurocognitive profile of two cohorts of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), the most common CNV associated with schizophrenia, in an effort to harmonize phenotyping in multi-site global collaborations. The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (PCNB) was administered to individuals with 22q11DS in Philadelphia (PHL; n=155, aged 12-40) and Tel Aviv (TLV; n=59, aged 12-36). We examined effect sizes of performance differences between the cohorts and confirmed the factor structure of PCNB performance efficiency in the combined sample based on data from a large comparison community sample. The cohorts performed comparably with notable deficits in executive function, episodic memory and social cognition domains that were previously associated with abnormal neuroimaging findings in 22q11DS. In mixed model analysis, while there was a main effect for site for accuracy (number of correct response) and speed (time to correct response) independently, there were no main site effects for standardized efficiency (average of accuracy and speed). The fit of a structural model was excellent indicating that PCNB tests were related to the targeted cognitive domains. Thus, our results provide preliminary support for the use of the PCNB as an efficient tool for neurocognitive assessment in international 22q11DS collaborations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  8. Baseline neurocognitive testing in sports-related concussions: the importance of a prior night's sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, D Jake; Zuckerman, Scott L; Kutscher, Scott J; Gregory, Andrew J; Solomon, Gary S

    2014-02-01

    The management of sports-related concussions (SRCs) utilizes serial neurocognitive assessments and self-reported symptom inventories to assess recovery and safety for return to play (RTP). Because postconcussive RTP goals include symptom resolution and a return to neurocognitive baseline levels, clinical decisions rest in part on understanding modifiers of this baseline. Several studies have reported age and sex to influence baseline neurocognitive performance, but few have assessed the potential effect of sleep. We chose to investigate the effect of reported sleep duration on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) performance and the number of patient-reported symptoms. We hypothesized that athletes receiving less sleep before baseline testing would perform worse on neurocognitive metrics and report more symptoms. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. We retrospectively reviewed 3686 nonconcussed athletes (2371 male, 1315 female; 3305 high school, 381 college) with baseline symptom and ImPACT neurocognitive scores. Patients were stratified into 3 groups based on self-reported sleep duration the night before testing: (1) short, sleep duration on baseline ImPACT performance. A univariate ANCOVA was performed to investigate the influence of sleep on total self-reported symptoms. When controlling for age and sex as covariates, the MANCOVA revealed significant group differences on ImPACT reaction time, verbal memory, and visual memory scores but not visual-motor (processing) speed scores. An ANCOVA also revealed significant group differences in total reported symptoms. For baseline symptoms and ImPACT scores, subsequent pairwise comparisons revealed these associations to be most significant when comparing the short and intermediate sleep groups. Our results indicate that athletes sleeping fewer than 7 hours before baseline testing perform worse on 3 of 4 ImPACT scores and report more symptoms. Because SRC management and RTP

  9. Insight, Neurocognition, and Schizophrenia: Predictive Value of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanos, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Lack of insight in schizophrenia is a key feature of the illness and is associated with both positive and negative clinical outcomes. Previous research supports that neurocognitive dysfunction is related to lack of insight, but studies have not examined how neurocognition relates to change in insight over time. Therefore, the current study sought to understand how performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) differed between participants with varying degrees of change in insight over a 6-month period. Fifty-two patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered the WCST and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline, and the PANSS was again administered at a 6-month follow-up assessment. Results indicated that while neurocognition was related to insight at baseline, it was not related to subsequent change in insight. The implications of findings for conceptualization and assessment of insight are discussed. PMID:24303216

  10. Accelerated battery-life testing - A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccallum, J.; Thomas, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Test program, employing empirical, statistical and physical methods, determines service life and failure probabilities of electrochemical cells and batteries, and is applicable to testing mechanical, electrical, and chemical devices. Data obtained aids long-term performance prediction of battery or cell.

  11. Testing activities at the National Battery Test Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstra, F.; Deluca, W. H.; Mulcahey, T. P.

    The National Battery Test Laboratory (NBTL) is an Argonne National Laboratory facility for testing, evaluating, and studying advanced electric storage batteries. The facility tests batteries developed under Department of Energy programs and from private industry. These include batteries intended for future electric vehicle (EV) propulsion, electric utility load leveling (LL), and solar energy storage. Since becoming operational, the NBTL has evaluated well over 1400 cells (generally in the form of three- to six-cell modules, but up to 140-cell batteries) of various technologies. Performance characterization assessments are conducted under a series of charge/discharge cycles with constant current, constant power, peak power, and computer simulated dynamic load profile conditions. Flexible charging algorithms are provided to accommodate the specific needs of each battery under test. Special studies are conducted to explore and optimize charge procedures, to investigate the impact of unique load demands on battery performance, and to analyze the thermal management requirements of battery systems.

  12. Pathological gambling: an impulse control disorder? Measurement of impulsivity using neurocognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Shoenfeld, Netta; Rosenberg, Oded; Kertzman, Semion; Kotler, Moshe

    2010-04-01

    Pathological gambling is classified in the DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) and in the ICD-10 (International Classification of Disease) as an impulse control disorder. The association between impulsivity and pathological gambling remains a matter of debate: some researchers find high levels of impulsivity within pathological gamblers, others report no difference compared to controls, and yet others even suggest that it is lower. In this review we examine the relationship between pathological gambling and impulsivity assessed by various neurocognitive tests. These tests--the Stroop task, the Stop Signal Task, the Matching Familiar Figures Task, the Iowa Gambling Task, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Tower of London test, and the Continuous Performance Test--demonstrated less impulsivity in gambling behavior. The differences in performance between pathological gamblers and healthy controls on the neurocognitive tasks could be due to addictive behavior features rather than impulsive behavior.

  13. Nickel-hydrogen battery testing for Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Randy M.; Whitt, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors identify objectives and provide data from several nickel-hydrogen battery tests designed to evaluate the possibility of launching Ni-H2 batteries on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Test results from a 14-cell battery, a 12-cell battery, and a 4-cell pack are presented. Results of a thermal vacuum test to verify the battery-module/bay heat rejection capacity are reported. A 6-battery system simulation breadboard is described, and test results are presented.

  14. Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight in a Sample of Highly Educated Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tyler M; Basner, Mathias; Nasrini, Jad; Hermosillo, Emanuel; Kabadi, Sushila; Roalf, David R; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J; Ruparel, Kosha; Port, Allison M; Jackson, Chad T; Dinges, David F; Gur, Ruben C

    2017-10-01

    Neuropsychological changes that may occur due to the environmental and psychological stressors of prolonged spaceflight motivated the development of the Cognition Test Battery. The battery was designed to assess multiple domains of neurocognitive functions linked to specific brain systems. Tests included in Cognition have been validated, but not in high-performing samples comparable to astronauts, which is an essential step toward ensuring their usefulness in long-duration space missions. We administered Cognition (on laptop and iPad) and the WinSCAT, counterbalanced for order and version, in a sample of 96 subjects (50% women; ages 25-56 yr) with at least a Master's degree in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM). We assessed the associations of age, sex, and administration device with neurocognitive performance, and compared the scores on the Cognition battery with those of WinSCAT. Confirmatory factor analysis compared the structure of the iPad and laptop administration methods using Wald tests. Age was associated with longer response times (mean β = 0.12) and less accurate (mean β = -0.12) performance, women had longer response times on psychomotor (β = 0.62), emotion recognition (β = 0.30), and visuo-spatial (β = 0.48) tasks, men outperformed women on matrix reasoning (β = -0.34), and performance on an iPad was generally faster (mean β = -0.55). The WinSCAT appeared heavily loaded with tasks requiring executive control, whereas Cognition assessed a larger variety of neurocognitive domains. Overall results supported the interpretation of Cognition scores as measuring their intended constructs in high performing astronaut analog samples.Moore TM, Basner M, Nasrini J, Hermosillo E, Kabadi S, Roalf DR, McGuire S, Ecker AJ, Ruparel K, Port AM, Jackson CT, Dinges DF, Gur RC. Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for spaceflight in a sample of highly educated adults. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):937-946.

  15. The Relationship between Tests of Neurocognition and Performance on a Laparoscopic Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Kuzbari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate if there is a relationship between the results of tests of neurocognition and performance on a laparoscopic surgery simulator. Methods and Materials. Twenty participants with no prior laparoscopic experience had baseline cognitive tests administered (Trail Making Test, Part A and B (TMT-A and TMT-B, Grooved Peg Board Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Symbol Digit Recall Test, and Stroop Interference Test, completed a demographic questionnaire, and then performed laparoscopy using a simulator. We correlated the results of cognitive tests with laparoscopic surgical performance. Results. One cognitive test sensitive to frontal lobe function, TMT-A, significantly correlated with laparoscopic surgical performance on the simulator (correlation coefficient of 0.534 with P<.05. However, the correlation between performance and other cognitive tests (TMT-B, Grooved Peg Board Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Symbol Digit Recall Test, and Stroop Interference Test was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Laparoscopic performance may be related to measures of frontal lobe function. Neurocognitive tests may predict motor skills abilities and performance on laparoscopic simulator.

  16. Ten year neurocognitive trajectories in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Barder, Helene E.; Sundet, Kjetil

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neurocognitive impairment is commonly reported at onset of psychotic disorders. However, the long-term neurocognitive course remains largely uninvestigated in first episode psychosis (FEP) and the relationship to clinically significant subgroups even more so. We report 10 year...... years) were followed-up neurocognitively over five assessments spanning 10 years. The test battery was divided into four neurocognitive indices; Executive Function, Verbal Learning, Motor Speed, and Verbal Fluency. The sample was grouped into those relapsing or not within the first, second and fifth...... year. Results: The four neurocognitive indices showed overall stability over the 10 year period. Significant relapse by index interactions were found for all indices except Executive Function. Follow-up analyses identified a larger significant decrease over time for the encoding measure within Verbal...

  17. Neurocognitive mechanisms of the "testing effect" : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Gesa; Takashima, Atsuko; Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo; Nyberg, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Memory retrieval is an active process that can alter the content and accessibility of stored memories. Of potential relevance for educational practice are findings that memory retrieval fosters better retention than mere studying. This so-called testing effect has been demonstrated for different

  18. The Effect of Pretest Exercise on Baseline Computerized Neurocognitive Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlukiewicz, Alec; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Solomon, Gary

    2017-10-01

    Baseline neurocognitive assessment plays a critical role in return-to-play decision making following sport-related concussions. Prior studies have assessed the effect of a variety of modifying factors on neurocognitive baseline test scores. However, relatively little investigation has been conducted regarding the effect of pretest exercise on baseline testing. The aim of our investigation was to determine the effect of pretest exercise on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores in adolescent and young adult athletes. We hypothesized that athletes undergoing self-reported strenuous exercise within 3 hours of baseline testing would perform more poorly on neurocognitive metrics and would report a greater number of symptoms than those who had not completed such exercise. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. The ImPACT records of 18,245 adolescent and young adult athletes were retrospectively analyzed. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, participants were dichotomized into groups based on a positive (n = 664) or negative (n = 6609) self-reported history of strenuous exercise within 3 hours of the baseline test. Participants with a positive history of exercise were then randomly matched, based on age, sex, education level, concussion history, and hours of sleep prior to testing, on a 1:2 basis with individuals who had reported no pretest exercise. The baseline ImPACT composite scores of the 2 groups were then compared. Significant differences were observed for the ImPACT composite scores of verbal memory, visual memory, reaction time, and impulse control as well as for the total symptom score. No significant between-group difference was detected for the visual motor composite score. Furthermore, pretest exercise was associated with a significant increase in the overall frequency of invalid test results. Our results suggest a statistically significant difference in ImPACT composite scores between

  19. Neurocognitive disorders in sentenced male offenders: implications for rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Tiina; Korhonen, Tapio; Hämäläinen, Heikki; Temonen, Satu; Salo, Helena; Katajisto, Jouko; Lauerma, Hannu

    2014-02-01

    Neurocognitive deficits are frequent among male offenders and tend to be associated with a more serious risk of anti-social activity, but they are not systematically allowed for in rehabilitation programmes. The aim of this study was to evaluate neurocognitive performance in a sample of sentenced Finnish male prisoners and consider the implications for prison programme entry. Seventy-five sentenced male prisoners were examined using a neurocognitive test battery. Depending on the neurocognitive domain, from 5% to 49% of the men demonstrated marked neurocognitive deficits in tests of motor dexterity, visuospatial/construction skills, verbal comprehension, verbal and visual memory and attention shift. Verbal IQ was more impaired than performance IQ. There was no association between most serious offence type and neurocognitive performance, but correlations between attention deficit indices and number of previous convictions suggested that recidivists may have an attention disorder profile. Cluster analysis identified two subgroups of offenders, separated by very poor or merely poor cognitive performance. Motor dexterity, visuo-construction and verbal memory deficits were not wholly explained by lower IQ measures. Our sample was small, but the nature and extent of the neurocognitive deficits found suggest that wider use of neurocognitive assessments, which the men generally tolerated well, could help select those most likely to need offender programmes and that the effectiveness of these may be enhanced by some specific cognitive remediation before progressing to more complex social tasks. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Sex Differences in Familiality Effects on Neurocognitive Performance in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Monica E.; Ray, Amrita; Gur, Ruben C.; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Light, Gregory A.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D.; Seidman, Larry J.; Siever, Larry J.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Stone, William S.; Sugar, Catherine; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Braff, David L.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have documented that patients with schizophrenia show neurocognitive impairments, which are also heritable in schizophrenia families. In view of these findings, the current investigation tested the hypothesis that neurocognitive performance of schizophrenia probands can predict the neurocognitive performance of their unaffected family members. Methods Participants (n=1,967; schizophrenia=369; first-degree relatives=1,072; community comparison subjects=526) in the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) were administered the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB). Results Consistent with prior work, probands showed significant neurocognitive impairment, and neurocognitive ability was significantly heritable, across domains. On average, unaffected relatives did not differ from community comparison subjects in their neurocognitive performance. However, in 6 of 7 domains, probands’ score predicted the performance of their unaffected siblings. Male, but not female, probands’ performance was predictive of their unaffected relatives (siblings and mothers) performance, most consistently in face memory and spatial processing. Conclusions Using a novel approach in which individual probands are paired with their respective unaffected relatives within each family, we found that male probands’ performance predicted both sister and brother performance, an effect that was most powerfully observed for face memory and spatial processing. Results suggest that the familial transmission of sexually dimorphic neurocognitive domains, in which a particular sex tends to show a performance advantage over the other, may not itself be sex specific in schizophrenia families. PMID:23395246

  1. Sex differences in familiality effects on neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Monica E; Ray, Amrita; Gur, Ruben C; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Light, Gregory A; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Braff, David L; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Gur, Raquel E

    2013-05-15

    Numerous studies have documented that patients with schizophrenia show neurocognitive impairments, which are also heritable in schizophrenia families. In view of these findings, the current investigation tested the hypothesis that neurocognitive performance of schizophrenia probands can predict the neurocognitive performance of their unaffected family members. Participants (n=1967; schizophrenia=369; first-degree relatives=1072; community comparison subjects=526) in the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia were administered the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery. Consistent with prior work, probands showed significant neurocognitive impairment, and neurocognitive ability was significantly heritable across domains. On average, unaffected relatives did not differ from community comparison subjects in their neurocognitive performance. However, in six of seven domains, proband scores predicted the performance of their unaffected siblings. Male, but not female, proband performance was predictive of their unaffected relatives' (siblings and mothers) performance, most consistently in face memory and spatial processing. Using a novel approach in which individual probands are paired with their respective unaffected relatives within each family, we found that male proband performance predicted both sister and brother performance, an effect that was most powerfully observed for face memory and spatial processing. Results suggest that the familial transmission of sexually dimorphic neurocognitive domains, in which a particular sex tends to show a performance advantage over the other, may not itself be sex specific in schizophrenia families. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reliability of Computerized Neurocognitive Tests for Concussion Assessment: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, James L; Dargo, Lucas; Ragan, Brian G; Kang, Minsoo

    2017-09-01

      Although widely used, computerized neurocognitive tests (CNTs) have been criticized because of low reliability and poor sensitivity. A systematic review was published summarizing the reliability of Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores; however, this was limited to a single CNT. Expansion of the previous review to include additional CNTs and a meta-analysis is needed. Therefore, our purpose was to analyze reliability data for CNTs using meta-analysis and examine moderating factors that may influence reliability.   A systematic literature search (key terms: reliability, computerized neurocognitive test, concussion) of electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and SPORTDiscus) was conducted to identify relevant studies.   Studies were included if they met all of the following criteria: used a test-retest design, involved at least 1 CNT, provided sufficient statistical data to allow for effect-size calculation, and were published in English.   Two independent reviewers investigated each article to assess inclusion criteria. Eighteen studies involving 2674 participants were retained. Intraclass correlation coefficients were extracted to calculate effect sizes and determine overall reliability. The Fisher Z transformation adjusted for sampling error associated with averaging correlations. Moderator analyses were conducted to evaluate the effects of the length of the test-retest interval, intraclass correlation coefficient model selection, participant demographics, and study design on reliability. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the Cochran Q statistic.   The proportion of acceptable outcomes was greatest for the Axon Sports CogState Test (75%) and lowest for the ImPACT (25%). Moderator analyses indicated that the type of intraclass correlation coefficient model used significantly influenced effect-size estimates, accounting for 17% of the variation in reliability.   The Axon Sports CogState Test, which

  3. Convergence and divergence of neurocognitive patterns in schizophrenia and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sugai; Brown, Matthew R G; Deng, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xiaohong; Li, Mingli; Hu, Xun; Juhas, Michal; Li, Xinmin; Greiner, Russell; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Li, Tao

    2018-02-01

    Neurocognitive impairments are frequently observed in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it remains unclear whether reported neurocognitive abnormalities could objectively identify an individual as having schizophrenia or MDD. The current study included 220 first-episode patients with schizophrenia, 110 patients with MDD and 240 demographically matched healthy controls (HC). All participants performed the short version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in China; the immediate and delayed logical memory of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised in China; and seven tests from the computerized Cambridge Neurocognitive Test Automated Battery to evaluate neurocognitive performance. The three-class AdaBoost tree-based ensemble algorithm was employed to identify neurocognitive endophenotypes that may distinguish between subjects in the categories of schizophrenia, depression and HC. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to further explore the neurocognitive patterns in each group. The AdaBoost algorithm identified individual's diagnostic class with an average accuracy of 77.73% (80.81% for schizophrenia, 53.49% for depression and 86.21% for HC). The average area under ROC curve was 0.92 (0.96 in schizophrenia, 0.86 in depression and 0.92 in HC). Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed for MDD and schizophrenia, convergent altered neurocognition patterns related to shifting, sustained attention, planning, working memory and visual memory. Divergent neurocognition patterns for MDD and schizophrenia related to motor speed, general intelligence, perceptual sensitivity and reversal learning were identified. Neurocognitive abnormalities could predict whether the individual has schizophrenia, depression or neither with relatively high accuracy. Additionally, the neurocognitive features showed promise as endophenotypes for discriminating between schizophrenia and depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of Acute and Long-Term Effects of Concussion: Dual-Task Gait Balance Control Versus Computerized Neurocognitive Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David R; Osternig, Louis R; Chou, Li-Shan

    2018-02-16

    To examine the acute (within 72h of injury) and long-term (2mo postinjury) independent associations between objective dual-task gait balance and neurocognitive measurements among adolescents and young adults with a concussion and matched controls. Longitudinal case-control. Motion analysis laboratory. A total of 95 participants completed the study: 51 who sustained a concussion (mean age, 17.5±3.3y; 71% men) and 44 controls (mean age, 17.7±2.9y; 72% men). Participants who sustained a concussion underwent a dual-task gait analysis and computerized neurocognitive testing within 72 hours of injury and again 2 months later. Uninjured controls also completed the same test protocol in similar time increments. Not applicable. We compared dual-task gait balance control and computerized neurocognitive test performance between groups using independent samples t tests. Multivariable binary logistic regression models were then constructed for each testing time to determine the association between group membership (concussion vs control), dual-task gait balance control, and neurocognitive function. Medial-lateral center-of-mass displacement during dual-task gait was independently associated with group membership at the initial test (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.432; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.269-4.661) and 2-month follow-up test (aOR, 1.817; 95% CI, 1.014-3.256) tests. Visual memory composite scores were significantly associated with group membership at the initial hour postinjury time point (aOR, .953; 95% CI, .833-.998). However, the combination of computerized neurocognitive test variables did not predict dual-task gait balance control for participants with concussion, and no single neurocognitive variable was associated with dual-task gait balance control at either testing time. Dual-task assessments concurrently evaluating gait and cognitive performance may allow for the detection of persistent deficits beyond those detected by computerized neurocognitive deficits

  5. Potential use of battery packs from NCAP tested vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    Several large electric vehicle batteries available to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are candidates for use in future safety testing programs. The batteries, from vehicles subjected to NCAP crashworthiness testing, are considered potentially damaged due to the nature of testing their associated vehicles have been subjected to. Criteria for safe shipping to Sandia is discussed, as well as condition the batteries must be in to perform testing work. Also discussed are potential tests that could be performed under a variety of conditions. The ultimate value of potential testing performed on these cells will rest on the level of access available to the battery pack, i.e. external access only, access to the on board monitoring system/CAN port or internal electrical access to the battery. Greater access to the battery than external visual and temperature monitoring would likely require input from the battery manufacturer.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery testing: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt, Thomas H.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) began testing the HST Ni-H2 Six Battery Test and the 'Flight Spare Battery' Tests approximately one year before the launch of the HST. These tests are operated and reported on by the MSFC, but are managed and funded by Goddard Space Flight Center in direct support of the HST program. The HST Ni-H2 batteries are built from Eagle Picher RNH-90-3 cells. The HST EPS (electrical power system) is a direct energy transfer power system. The HST Ni-H2 Six Battery Test is a breadboard of the HST EPS. The batteries in the test are composed of test module cells and packaged into three battery modules identical to the flight modules. This test is the HST EPS testbed. The 'Flight Spare Battery' Test is a simulation of one of the six battery channels on the HST. The cells in the test are from the flight spare lot of cells, which are the same lot of cells that three of the six HST flight batteries are made from. This test is the battery life test for the HST program.

  7. Characterization testing of a 40 Ahr bipolar nickel hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gahn, Randall F.

    1989-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop NiH2 bipolar technology to a point where it can be used efficiently in space flight, testing of a second 40 Ahr, 10-cell bipolar battery has begun. This battery has undergone extensive characterization testing to determine the effects of such operating parameters as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure. The fundamental design of this actively cooled bipolar battery is the same as the first battery. Most of the individual components, however, are from different manufacturers. Different testing procedures as well as certain unique battery characteristics make it difficult to directly compare the two sets of results. In general, the performance of this battery throughout characterization produced expected results. The main differences seen between the first and second batteries occurred during the high-rate discharge portion of the test matrix. The first battery also had poor high-rate discharge results, although better than those of the second battery. Minor changes were made to the battery frame design used for the first battery in an attempt to allow better gas access to the reaction sites for the second build and hopefully improve performance. The changes, however, did not improve the performance of the second battery and could have possibly contributed to the poorer performance that was observed. There are other component differences that could have contributed to the poorer performance of the second battery. The H2 electrode in the second battery was constructed with a Goretex backing which could have limited the high-rate current flow. The gas screen in the second battery had a larger mesh which again could have limited the high-rate current flow. Small scale 2 x 2 batteries are being tested to evaluate the effects of the component variations.

  8. Neurocognitive Deficits in Borderline Personality Disorder: Associations With Childhood Trauma and Dimensions of Personality Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Marianne S; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean; Mathiesen, Birgit B; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-08-01

    The present study evaluates the severity of neurocognitive deficits and assesses their relations with self-reported childhood trauma and dimensions of personality psychopathology in 45 outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) matched to 56 non-psychiatric controls. Participants completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed. Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an elevated childhood history of physical trauma were each accompanied by more severe neurocognitive deficits. There were no statistically significant associations between neurocognitive function and dimensions of personality psychopathology. These results suggest that patients with BPD display deficits mainly in higher-order thinking abilities that may be exacerbated by PTSD and substantial early life trauma. Potential relationships between neurocognitive deficits and dimensions of personality psychopathology in BPD need further examination.

  9. Baseline Neurocognitive Test Results In Non-concussed Athletes: Does Sleep Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, D. Jake; Zuckerman, Scott L.; Kutscher, Scott J.; Gregory, Andrew; Solomon, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: When managing sport-related concussions (SRC), sports medicine physicians utilize serial neurocognitive assessments and self-reported symptom inventories when evaluating athlete recovery and safety for returning to play (RTP). Since post-concussive RTP goals include symptom resolution and return to neurocognitive baseline, clinical decisions rest on an understanding of modifiers of baseline performance. Several studies have reported the influence of age, gender and sport on baseli...

  10. Cell overcharge testing inside sodium metal halide battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutschy, Kris; Chatwin, Troy; Bull, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Testing was conducted to measure electrical performance and safety of the General Electric Durathon™ E620 battery module (600 V class 20 kWh) during cell overcharge. Data gathered from this test was consistent with SAE Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing specification J2464 [1]. After cell overcharge failure and 24 A current flow for additional 60 minutes, battery was then discharged at 7.5 KW average power to 12% state of charge (SOC) and recharged back to 100% SOC. This overcharging test was performed on two cells. No hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas was detected during front cell (B1) test, and small amount (6.2 ppm peak) was measured outside the battery after center cell (F13) overcharge. An additional overcharge test was performed per UL Standard 1973 - Batteries for Use in Light Electric Rail (LER) Applications and Stationary Applications[2]. With the battery at 11% SOC and 280 °C float temperature, an individual cell near the front (D1) was deliberately imbalanced by charging it to 62% SOC. The battery was then recharged to 100% SOC. In all three tests, the battery cell pack was stable and individual cell failure did not propagate to other cells. Battery discharge performance, charge performance, and electrical isolation were normal after all three tests.

  11. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  12. An Advanced HIL Simulation Battery Model for Battery Management System Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Fleischer, Christian; Christensen, Andreas Elkjær

    2016-01-01

    Developers and manufacturers of battery management systems (BMSs) require extensive testing of controller Hardware (HW) and Software (SW), such as analog front-end and performance of generated control code. In comparison with the tests conducted on real batteries, tests conducted on a state......-of-the-art hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulator can be more cost and time effective, easier to reproduce, and safer beyond the normal range of operation, especially at early stages in the development process or during fault insertion. In this paper, an HIL simulation battery model is developed for purposes of BMS...... testing on a commercial HIL simulator. A multicell electrothermal Li-ion battery (LIB) model is integrated in a system-level simulation. Then, the LIB system model is converted to C code and run in real time with the HIL simulator. Finally, in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the setup...

  13. Associations between cadmium exposure and neurocognitive test scores in a cross-sectional study of US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Timothy; Bellinger, David C; Schwartz, Joel; Hauser, Russ; Wright, Robert O

    2013-02-05

    Low-level environmental cadmium exposure and neurotoxicity has not been well studied in adults. Our goal was to evaluate associations between neurocognitive exam scores and a biomarker of cumulative cadmium exposure among adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). NHANES III is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the U.S. population conducted between 1988 and 1994. We analyzed data from a subset of participants, age 20-59, who participated in a computer-based neurocognitive evaluation. There were four outcome measures: the Simple Reaction Time Test (SRTT: visual motor speed), the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST: attention/perception), the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT) trials-to-criterion, and the SDLT total-error-score (SDLT-tests: learning recall/short-term memory). We fit multivariable-adjusted models to estimate associations between urinary cadmium concentrations and test scores. 5662 participants underwent neurocognitive screening, and 5572 (98%) of these had a urinary cadmium level available. Prior to multivariable-adjustment, higher urinary cadmium concentration was associated with worse performance in each of the 4 outcomes. After multivariable-adjustment most of these relationships were not significant, and age was the most influential variable in reducing the association magnitudes. However among never-smokers with no known occupational cadmium exposure the relationship between urinary cadmium and SDST score (attention/perception) was significant: a 1 μg/L increase in urinary cadmium corresponded to a 1.93% (95%CI: 0.05, 3.81) decrement in performance. These results suggest that higher cumulative cadmium exposure in adults may be related to subtly decreased performance in tasks requiring attention and perception, particularly among those adults whose cadmium exposure is primarily though diet (no smoking or work based cadmium exposure). This association was observed among exposure levels

  14. Double Trait Assessment Test Battery for Air Force Pilots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tarnowski, Adam

    1998-01-01

    Building on years of theoretical discussions as well as diagnostic experience in the Polish Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine, a battery of psychological tests was proposed for the assessment...

  15. Selected Test Results from the Encell Technology Nickel Iron Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Kamal Rhodes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Power Sources R& D; Baca, Wes Edmund [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Power Sources R& D; Avedikian, Kristan [Encell Technology, Alachua, FL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The performance of the Encell Nickel Iron (NiFe) battery was measured. Tests included capacity, capacity as a function of rate, capacity as a function of temperature, charge retention (28-day), efficiency, accelerated life projection, and water refill evaluation. The goal of this work was to evaluate the general performance of the Encell NiFe battery technology for stationary applications and demonstrate the chemistry's capabilities in extreme conditions. Test results have indicated that the Encell NiFe battery technology can provide power levels up to the 6C discharge rate, ampere-hour efficiency above 70%. In summary, the Encell batteries have met performance metrics established by the manufacturer. Long-term cycle tests are not included in this report. A cycle test at elevated temperature was run, funded by the manufacturer, which Encell uses to predict long-term cycling performance, and which passed their prescribed metrics.

  16. Hypervelocity Impact Testing of Nickel Hydrogen Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frate, David T.; Nahra, Henry K.

    1996-01-01

    Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni/H2) battery cells have been used on several satellites and are planned for use on the International Space Station. In January 1992, the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) conducted hypervelocity impact testing on Ni/H2 cells to characterize their failure modes. The cell's outer construction was a 24 mil-thick Inconel 718 pressure vessel. A sheet of 1.27 cm thick honeycomb was placed in front of the battery cells during testing to simulate the on-orbit box enclosure. Testing was conducted at the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). The hypervelocity gun used was a 7.6 mm (0.30 caliber) two-stage light gas gun. Test were performed at speeds of 3, 6, and 7 km/sec using aluminum 2017 spherical particles of either 4.8 or 6.4 mm diameter as the projectile. The battery cells were electrically charged to about 75 percent of capacity, then back-filled with hydrogen gas to 900 psi simulating the full charge condition. High speed film at 10,000 frames/sec was taken of the impacts. Impacts in the dome area (top) and the electrode area (middle) of the battery cells were investigated. Five tests on battery cells were performed. The results revealed that in all of the test conditions investigated, the battery cells simply vented their hydrogen gas and some electrolyte, but did not burst or generate any large debris fragments.

  17. Performance on naturalistic virtual reality tasks depends on global cognitive functioning as assessed via traditional neurocognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jorge; Gamito, Pedro; Alghazzawi, Daniyal M; Fardoun, Habib M; Rosa, Pedro J; Sousa, Tatiana; Picareli, Luís Felipe; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo

    2017-08-14

    This investigation sought to understand whether performance in naturalistic virtual reality tasks for cognitive assessment relates to the cognitive domains that are supposed to be measured. The Shoe Closet Test (SCT) was developed based on a simple visual search task involving attention skills, in which participants have to match each pair of shoes with the colors of the compartments in a virtual shoe closet. The interaction within the virtual environment was made using the Microsoft Kinect. The measures consisted of concurrent paper-and-pencil neurocognitive tests for global cognitive functioning, executive functions, attention, psychomotor ability, and the outcomes of the SCT. The results showed that the SCT correlated with global cognitive performance as measured with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The SCT explained one third of the total variance of this test and revealed good sensitivity and specificity in discriminating scores below one standard deviation in this screening tool. These findings suggest that performance of such functional tasks involves a broad range of cognitive processes that are associated with global cognitive functioning and that may be difficult to isolate through paper-and-pencil neurocognitive tests.

  18. Construction Of A Computerised Information-Processing Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann M. Schepers

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of the study was to construct a computerised information-processing test battery to measure choice reaction time for up to and including six bits of information, to measure discrimination reaction time with regard to colour patterns and form patterns, to measure rate of information processing with regard to perceptual stimuli and conceptual reasoning, and to develop a suitable scoring system for the respective tests. The battery of tests was applied to 58 pilots. Opsomming Die hoofdoel van die studie was om ‘n gerekenariseerde inligtingverwerkingstoets-battery te konstrueer om keusereaksietyd tot en met ses bis inligting te meet, om diskriminasie-reaksietyd ten opsigte van kleurpatrone en vormpatrone te meet, om tempo van inligtingverwerking ten opsigte van perseptuele stimuli en konseptuele redenering te meet en om ‘n gepaste nasienstelsel vir die onderskeie toetse te ontwikkel. Die battery toetse is op 58 vlieëniers toegepas

  19. Cumulative Effects of Concussion History on Baseline Computerized Neurocognitive Test Scores: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalaheen, Bara; Stockdale, Kayla; Pechumer, Dana; Giessing, Alexander; He, Xuming; Broglio, Steven P

    It is unclear whether individuals with a history of single or multiple clinically recovered concussions exhibit worse cognitive performance on baseline testing compared with individuals with no concussion history. To analyze the effects of concussion history on baseline neurocognitive performance using a computerized neurocognitive test. PubMed, CINAHL, and psycINFO were searched in November 2015. The search was supplemented by a hand search of references. Studies were included if participants completed the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) at baseline (ie, preseason) and if performance was stratified by previous history of single or multiple concussions. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Level 2. Sample size, demographic characteristics of participants, as well as performance of participants on verbal memory, visual memory, visual-motor processing speed, and reaction time were extracted from each study. A random-effects pooled meta-analysis revealed that, with the exception of worsened visual memory for those with 1 previous concussion (Hedges g = 0.10), no differences were observed between participants with 1 or multiple concussions compared with participants without previous concussions. With the exception of decreased visual memory based on history of 1 concussion, history of 1 or multiple concussions was not associated with worse baseline cognitive performance.

  20. Aging evaluation of class 1E batteries: Seismic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, J.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a seismic testing program on naturally aged class 1E batteries obtained from a nuclear plant. The testing program is a Phase 2 activity resulting from a Phase 1 aging evaluation of class 1E batteries in safety systems of nuclear power plants, performed previously as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and reported in NUREG/CR-4457. The primary purpose of the program was to evaluate the seismic ruggedness of naturally aged batteries to determine if aged batteries could have adequate electrical capacity, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Standards, and yet have inadequate seismic ruggedness to provide needed electrical power during and after a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event. A secondary purpose of the program was to evaluate selected advanced surveillance methods to determine if they were likely to be more sensitive to the aging degradation that reduces seismic ruggedness. The program used twelve batteries naturally aged to about 14 years of age in a nuclear facility and tested them at four different seismic levels representative of the levels of possible earthquakes specified for nuclear plants in the United States. Seismic testing of the batteries did not cause any loss of electrical capacity. 19 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs

  1. A test battery measuring auditory capabilities of listening panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghani, Jody; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Karin

    2005-01-01

    a battery of tests covering a larger range of auditory capabilities in order to assess individual listeners. The format of all tests is kept as 'objective' as possible by using a three-alternative forced-choice paradigm in which the subject must choose which of the sound samples is different, thus keeping...... the instruction to the subjects simple and common for all tests. Both basic (e.g. frequency discrimination) and complex (e.g. profile analysis) psychoacoustic tests are covered in the battery and a threshold of discrimination or detection is obtained for each test. Data were collected on 24 listeners who had been...... recruited for participation in an expert listening panel for evaluating the sound quality of hi-fi audio systems. The test battery data were related to the actual performance of the listeners when judging the degradation in quality produced by audio codecs....

  2. Test Report : GS Battery, EPC power HES RESCU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borneo, Daniel R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. GS Battery and EPC Power have developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the GS Battery, EPC Power HES RESCU.

  3. Improvement of bench life-tests for automotive batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, G.

    A common method for rating the endurance of automotive batteries is the bench life-test according to DIN, IEC, SAE or JIS. With an increasing number of maintenance-free batteries on the market, the application of these tests becomes more problematic. This is due to a step-by-step capacity decline during cycling if the content of autimony in the grid-alloy is decreased. The degradation in performance is caused by the phenomenon of acid stratification. Because this debilitating effect occurs only rarely in service (vehicle movement) if charging and discharging is well balanced, there is a need for a new bench life-test with conditions that are more representative of practical conditions. Research has shown that the main changes should be: (i) an accelerated (moved) battery during cycling; (ii) slightly lower charging or discharging capacity amplitude, also with a lower mean value.

  4. Neurocognitive performance and symptom profiles of Spanish-speaking Hispanic athletes on the ImPACT test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Summer; Schatz, Philip; Solomon, Gary; Ryan, Joseph J

    2014-03-01

    This study documented baseline neurocognitive performance of 23,815 athletes on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test. Specifically, 9,733 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the ImPACT test in English and 2,087 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the test in Spanish were compared with 11,955 English-speaking athletes who completed the test in English. Athletes were assigned to age groups (13-15, 16-18). Results revealed a significant effect of language group (p Spanish-speaking athletes completing the test in Spanish scored more poorly than Spanish-speaking and English-speaking athletes completing the test in English, on all Composite scores and Total Symptom scores. Spanish-speaking athletes completing the test in English also performed more poorly than English-speaking athletes completing the test in English on three Composite scores. These differences in performance and reported symptoms highlight the need for caution in interpreting ImPACT test data for Hispanic Americans.

  5. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  6. Neurocognitive predictors of remission of symptoms and social and role functioning in the early course of first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgalsbøen, Anne-Kari; Mohn, Christine; Rishovd Rund, Bjørn

    2014-04-30

    In a Norwegian ongoing longitudinal study, we investigate the neurocognitive development in first-episode schizophrenia patients, and the influence of neurocognition on remission and real life functioning. In the present study, results from the early course of illness are reported. The sample includes 28 schizophrenia spectrum patients and 28 pairwise matched healthy controls. The patients were recruited from mental health service institutions and data on psychosocial functioning, remission and neurocognition were obtained through a clinical interview, an inventory on social and role functioning, operational criteria of remission, and a standardized neurocognitive test battery, the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Large effect size differences between patients and controls were observed at baseline on every cognitive domain, as well as statistically significant improvements on overall cognitive function at follow-up for the patient group. A remission rate of 61% was found. The neurocognitive baseline measure of Attention significantly predicted remission status at follow-up, whereas Attention and Working Memory at baseline predicted levels of social and role functioning. In the early course of the illness, more than half of the group of first-episode patients were in remission, and neurocognitive functions are significantly associated with both remission of symptoms and social and role functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bidirectional converter interface for a battery energy storage test bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Thomas, Stephan; Blank, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the bidirectional converter interface for a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. The power electronic interface consists a two stage converter topology having a low voltage dc-ac grid connected converter and a new dual active bridge dc-dc converter with high transformation...

  8. Exploratory battery technology development and testing report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnani, N.J.; Diegle, R.B.; Braithwaite, J.W.; Bush, D.M.; Freese, J.M.; Akhil, A.A.; Lott, S.E.

    1990-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, has been designated as Lead Center for the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing Project, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for both mobile and stationary energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized in pursuit of the Lead Center's goals during calendar year 1989. 4 refs., 84 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Life cycle test results of a bipolar nickel hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A history is given of low Earth orbit (LEO) laboratory test data on a 6.5 ampere-hour bipolar nickel hydrogen battery designed and built at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The bipolar concept is a means of achieving the goal of producing an acceptable battery, of higher energy density, able to withstand the demands of low-Earth-orbit regimes. Over 4100 LEO cycles were established on a ten cell battery. It seems that any perturbation on normal cycling effects the cells performance. Explanations and theories of the battery's behavior are varied and widespread among those closely associated with it. Deep discharging does provide a reconditioning effect and further experimentation is planned in this area. The battery watt-hour efficiency is about 75 percent and the time averaged, discharge voltage is about 1.26 volts for all cells at both the C/4 and LEO rate. Since a significant portion of the electrode capacity has degraded, the LEO cycle discharges are approaching depths of 90 to 100 percent of the high rate capacity. Therefore, the low end-of-discharge voltages occur precipitously after the knee of the discharge curve and is more an indication of electrode capacity and is a lesser indicator of overall cell performance.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery and cell testing - An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Whitt, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    NASA's HST uses Ni-H2 batteries. NASA-Marshall has been conducting developmental tests of such batteries in both six-battery and 22-cell single battery arrays. Tests have recently been conducted on such batteries with a view to the possible need to free additional memory in the HST onboard computer; the electrical power system could contribute to this end by eliminating its software control charge mode capability, which requires significant computer memory capacity.

  11. 75 Ah and 10 boilerplate nickel-hydrogen battery designs and test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman, M. E.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Chang, R.; Cruz, E.

    1992-01-01

    The results of initial characterization testing of 75 Ah actively cooled bipolar battery designs and 10 boilerplate nickel-hydrogen battery designs are presented. The results demonstrate the extended cycle life capability of the Ah batteries and the high capacity utilizations at various discharge rates of the nickel-hydrogen batteries.

  12. Inner ear test battery in guinea pig models - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Yi-Ho

    2018-06-01

    This study reviewed the development of the inner ear test battery comprising auditory brainstem response (ABR), and caloric, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) tests in guinea pig models at our laboratory over the last 20 years. Detailed description of the methodology for testing the small animals is also included. Inner ear disorders, i.e. ototoxicity, noise exposure, or perilymph fistula were established in guinea pig models first. One to four weeks after operation, each animal underwent ABR, oVEMP, cVEMP, and caloric tests. Then, animals were sacrificed for morphological study in the temporal bones. Inner ear endorgans can be comprehensively evaluated in guinea pig models via an inner ear test battery, which provides thorough information on the cochlea, saccule, utricle, and semicircular canal function of guinea pigs. Coupled with morphological study in the temporal bones of the animals may help elucidate the mechanism of inner ear disorders in humans. The inner ear test battery in guinea pig models may encourage young researchers to perform basic study in animals and stimulate the progress of experimental otology which is in evolution.

  13. Battery Test Manual For 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Lee Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    This manual details the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium and U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program goals, test methods, and analysis techniques for a 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle system. The test methods are outlined stating with characterization tests, followed by life tests. The final section details standardized analysis techniques for 48 V systems that allow for the comparison of different programs that use this manual. An example test plan is included, along with guidance to filling in gap table numbers.

  14. Battery Test Manual For 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Lee Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This manual details the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium and U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program goals, test methods, and analysis techniques for a 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle system. The test methods are outlined stating with characterization tests, followed by life tests. The final section details standardized analysis techniques for 48 V systems that allow for the comparison of different programs that use this manual. An example test plan is included, along with guidance to filling in gap table numbers.

  15. Neurocognitive performance in unmedicated patients with hoarding disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer M; Noack, Carolyn G; Filoteo, J Vincent; Maddox, W Todd; Saxena, Sanjaya

    2016-02-01

    Hoarding disorder (HD) is an often incapacitating psychiatric illness associated with a wide range of neurocognitive abnormalities. Some prior neuropsychological studies have found executive dysfunction in HD, but no clear pattern has emerged. One potential reason for discrepant results in previous studies might be the inclusion of patients on psychotropic and other medications that can affect neurocognitive performance. Therefore, we examined neurocognitive functioning in medication-free HD patients. We also added a novel investigation of implicit learning, which has been found to be abnormal in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related disorders. Twenty-six participants meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) diagnostic criteria for HD and 23 normal controls were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests and symptom rating scales. All participants were free of psychotropic medications for at least 6 weeks prior to the study. HD participants showed no significant differences from normal controls on measures of verbal memory, attention, or executive functioning, including response inhibition, planning, organization, and decision making. However, HD participants demonstrated a trend toward less implicit learning and greater use of explicit learning strategies during perceptual categorization compared to normal controls. HD participants who used an implicit strategy performed significantly worse than controls who used an implicit strategy. Hoarding symptom severity was not associated with neurocognitive performance. HD patients may have a tendency to use explicit rather than implicit learning strategies for perceptual categorization but perform as well as normal controls on many other neurocognitive measures. Future studies should assess unmedicated participants and examine test strategies, not just outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) Battery Test Operations User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ESTA Battery Test Operations. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  17. The DiaNAH test battery for visual perceptual disorders : Validity and efficacy in rehabilitation practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, Jochem; de Vries, Stefanie; Melis, Bart; Vrijling, Anne; Tucha, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    We developed the DiaNAH test battery for the screening of mid-level and higher-order visual perceptual disorders in clinical practice. The DiaNAH battery comprises 11 different tests and can be administered in 30-60 minutes. Important feature of the DiaNAH battery is that it is administered on a 24”

  18. Development of a battery of functional tests for low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Bradley E; Martin, Scott R; Kelly, Corey B; Jones, Lisa A; Raasch, Thomas W; Bullimore, Mark A

    2009-08-01

    We describe the development and evaluation of a battery of tests of functional visual performance of everyday tasks intended to be suitable for assessment of low vision patients. The functional test battery comprises-Reading rate: reading aloud 20 unrelated words for each of four print sizes (8, 4, 2, & 1 M); Telephone book: finding a name and reading the telephone number; Medicine bottle label: reading the name and dosing; Utility bill: reading the due date and amount due; Cooking instructions: reading cooking time on a food package; Coin sorting: making a specified amount from coins placed on a table; Playing card recognition: identifying denomination and suit; and Face recognition: identifying expressions of printed, life-size faces at 1 and 3 m. All tests were timed except face and playing card recognition. Fourteen normally sighted and 24 low vision subjects were assessed with the functional test battery. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and quality of life (National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 [NEI-VFQ 25]) were measured and the functional tests repeated. Subsequently, 23 low vision patients participated in a pilot randomized clinical trial with half receiving low vision rehabilitation and half a delayed intervention. The functional tests were administered at enrollment and 3 months later. Normally sighted subjects could perform all tasks but the proportion of trials performed correctly by the low vision subjects ranged from 35% for face recognition at 3 m, to 95% for the playing card identification. On average, low vision subjects performed three times slower than the normally sighted subjects. Timed tasks with a visual search component showed poorer repeatability. In the pilot clinical trial, low vision rehabilitation produced the greatest improvement for the medicine bottle and cooking instruction tasks. Performance of patients on these functional tests has been assessed. Some appear responsive to low vision rehabilitation.

  19. Microprocessor controlled pulse charge and testing of batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerezov, A.; Gishin, S.; Ivanov, Ratcho; Savov, S.

    2002-01-01

    The principle of the developed new method for pulse charge of batteries with microprocessor control of the electrochemical processes is the use of current pulses with microprocessor control of the period and the amplitude according to the dynamically changing state of the electrochemical system. In order to realize the method described above a programmable current source was developed. It is connected with a Personal Computer via RS232 standard serial interface in order to control the electrochemical processes. The parameters to be set, the graphical presentation of the pulse current and tension, the used quantity of electricity and electrical energy for every pulse and for the process as a hole are shown on the PC display. In order to test dry-charged and wet-charged batteries a specialized current generator was developed. It is connected also with a Personal Computer via R5232 standard serial interface in order to con-trol the testing of the starting capability of the batteries according to the requirements of the Bulgarian State Standard Ell 60095-1. (Author)

  20. Parametric tests of a 40-Ah bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A series of tests were performed to characterize battery performance relating to certain operating parameters which include charge current, discharge current, temperature, and pressure. The parameters were varied to confirm battery design concepts and to determine optimal operating conditions.

  1. Parameters of Emotional Processing in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Conceptual Issues and a Battery of Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borod, Joan C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Components of emotional processing (communication channel, processing mode, and emotional valence) were examined in psychiatric and neurological populations, using an experimental affect battery. The test battery exhibited good psychometric properties and discriminated among diagnostic groups. (Author/JDD)

  2. Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Lindbergh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipment designed primarily for lithium-ion battery cell testing is presented. This equipment is intended to be used on conventional vehicles, not hybrid vehicles, as a cheaper and faster field testing method for batteries, compared to full scale HEV testing. The equipment emulates an HEV environment for the tested battery cell by using real time vehicle sensor information and the existing starter battery as load and source. In addition to the emulated battery cycling, periodical capacity and pulse testing capability are implemented as well. This paper begins with presenting some background information about hybrid electrical vehicles and describing the limitations with today’s HEV battery testing. Furthermore, the functionality of the test equipment is described in detail and, finally, results from verification of the equipment are presented and discussed.

  3. Battery of behavioral tests in mice to study postoperative delirium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mian; Zhang, Ce; Dong, Yuanlin; Zhang, Yiying; Nakazawa, Harumasa; Kaneki, Masao; Zheng, Hui; Shen, Yuan; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Xie, Zhongcong

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative delirium is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and cost. However, its neuropathogenesis remains largely unknown, partially owing to lack of animal model(s). We therefore set out to employ a battery of behavior tests, including natural and learned behavior, in mice to determine the effects of laparotomy under isoflurane anesthesia (Anesthesia/Surgery) on these behaviors. The mice were tested at 24 hours before and at 6, 9 and 24 hours after the Anesthesia/Surgery. Composite Z scores were calculated. Cyclosporine A, an inhibitor of mitochondria permeability transient pore, was used to determine potential mitochondria-associated mechanisms of these behavioral changes. Anesthesia/Surgery selectively impaired behaviors, including latency to eat food in buried food test, freezing time and time spent in the center in open field test, and entries and duration in the novel arm of Y maze test, with acute onset and various timecourse. The composite Z scores quantitatively demonstrated the Anesthesia/Surgery-induced behavior impairment in mice. Cyclosporine A selectively ameliorated the Anesthesia/Surgery-induced reduction in ATP levels, the increases in latency to eat food, and the decreases in entries in the novel arm. These findings suggest that we could use a battery of behavior tests to establish a mouse model to study postoperative delirium. PMID:27435513

  4. Galileo battery testing and the impact of test automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertuch, W. T.; Dils, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    Test complexity, changes of test specifications, and the demand for tight control of tests led to the development of automated testing used for Galileo and other projects. The use of standardized interfacing, i.e., IEEE-488, with desktop computers and test instruments, resulted in greater reliability, repeatability, and accuracy of both control and data reporting. Increased flexibility of test programming has reduced costs by permitting a wide spectrum of test requirements at one station rather than many stations.

  5. Active SAmpling Protocol (ASAP) to Optimize Individual Neurocognitive Hypothesis Testing: A BCI-Inspired Dynamic Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Gaëtan; Lecaignard, Françoise; Otman, Anatole; Maby, Emmanuel; Mattout, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    The relatively young field of Brain-Computer Interfaces has promoted the use of electrophysiology and neuroimaging in real-time. In the meantime, cognitive neuroscience studies, which make extensive use of functional exploration techniques, have evolved toward model-based experiments and fine hypothesis testing protocols. Although these two developments are mostly unrelated, we argue that, brought together, they may trigger an important shift in the way experimental paradigms are being designed, which should prove fruitful to both endeavors. This change simply consists in using real-time neuroimaging in order to optimize advanced neurocognitive hypothesis testing. We refer to this new approach as the instantiation of an Active SAmpling Protocol (ASAP). As opposed to classical (static) experimental protocols, ASAP implements online model comparison, enabling the optimization of design parameters (e.g., stimuli) during the course of data acquisition. This follows the well-known principle of sequential hypothesis testing. What is radically new, however, is our ability to perform online processing of the huge amount of complex data that brain imaging techniques provide. This is all the more relevant at a time when physiological and psychological processes are beginning to be approached using more realistic, generative models which may be difficult to tease apart empirically. Based upon Bayesian inference, ASAP proposes a generic and principled way to optimize experimental design adaptively. In this perspective paper, we summarize the main steps in ASAP. Using synthetic data we illustrate its superiority in selecting the right perceptual model compared to a classical design. Finally, we briefly discuss its future potential for basic and clinical neuroscience as well as some remaining challenges.

  6. Testing and development of electric vehicle batteries for EPRI Electric Transportation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an electric-vehicle battery testing and development program for the Electric Power Research Institute. As part of this program, eighteen battery modules previously developed by Johnson Controls, Inc. were tested. This type of battery (EV-2300 - an improved state-of-the-art lead-acid battery) was designed specifically for improved performance, range, and life in electric vehicles. In order to obtain necessary performance data, the batteries were tested under various duty cycles typical of normal service. This program, supported by the Electric Power Research Institute, consisted of three tasks: determination of the effect of cycle life vs peak power and rest period, determination of the impact of charge method on cycle life, and evaluation of the EV-2300 battery system. Two supporting studies were also carried out: one on thermal management of electric-vehicle batteries and one on enhanced utilization of active material in lead-acid batteries.

  7. Auditory tests for characterizing individual hearing deficits: The BEAR test battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez Lopez, Raul; Fereczkowski, Michal; Bianchi, Federica

    deficits can be complex. Therefore, one aim of the BEAR project is to design a hearing test battery for classification of listeners into a small number of auditory profiles. If successful, this BEAR test battery may be refined and reduced to form the basis for improved profile-based hearing-aid fitting......BACKGROUND The Better hEAring Rehabilitation (BEAR) project seeks to develop and assess new clinically feasible strategies for individualized hearing-loss diagnosis and hearing-aid fitting. The aim is to improve current clinical practice, where the fitting process relies on the pure-tone audiogram...... protocols. METHOD Based on the reanalysis of existing auditory profiling data and on criteria of their feasibility, time efficiency, and evidence from the literature, eleven potential tests for inclusion in a clinical test battery were selected. The proposed tests were divided into six categories...

  8. Asymptomatic neurocognitive disorders in patients infected by HIV: fact or fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torti Carlo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neurocognitive disorders are emerging as a possible complication in patients infected with HIV. Even if asymptomatic, neurocognitive abnormalities are frequently detected using a battery of tests. This supported the creation of asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI as a new entity. In a recent article published in BMC Infectious Diseases, Magnus Gisslén and colleagues applied a statistical approach, concluding that there is an overestimation of the actual problem. In fact, about 20% of patients are classified as neurocognitively impaired without a clear impact on daily activities. In the present commentary, we discuss the clinical implications of their findings. Although a cautious approach would indicate a stricter follow-up of patients affected by this disorder, it is premature to consider it as a proper disease. Based on a review of the data in the current literature we conclude that it is urgent to conduct more studies to estimate the overall risk of progression of the asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment. Moreover, it is important to understand whether new biomarkers or neuroimaging tools can help to identify better the most at risk population. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/11/356

  9. Neurocognitive function impairment after whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastases: actual assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tallet Agnes V

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT is an effective treatment in brain metastases and, when combined with local treatments such as surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery, gives the best brain control. Nonetheless, WBRT is often omitted after local treatment due to its potential late neurocognitive effects. Publications on radiation-induced neurotoxicity have used different assessment methods, time to assessment, and definition of impairment, thus making it difficult to accurately assess the rate and magnitude of the neurocognitive decline that can be expected. In this context, and to help therapeutic decision making, we have conducted this literature review, with the aim of providing an average incidence, magnitude and time to occurrence of radio-induced neurocognitive decline. We reviewed all English language published articles on neurocognitive effects of WBRT for newly diagnosed brain metastases or with a preventive goal in adult patients, with any methodology (MMSE, battery of neurcognitive tests with which baseline status was provided. We concluded that neurocognitive decline is predominant at 4 months, strongly dependant on brain metastases control, partially solved at later time, graded 1 on a SOMA-LENT scale (only 8% of grade 2 and more, insufficiently assessed in long-term survivors, thus justifying all efforts to reduce it through irradiation modulation.

  10. Neurocognitive function impairment after whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastases: actual assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallet, Agnes V; Azria, David; Barlesi, Fabrice; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Carpentier, Antoine F; Gonçalves, Antony; Metellus, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is an effective treatment in brain metastases and, when combined with local treatments such as surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery, gives the best brain control. Nonetheless, WBRT is often omitted after local treatment due to its potential late neurocognitive effects. Publications on radiation-induced neurotoxicity have used different assessment methods, time to assessment, and definition of impairment, thus making it difficult to accurately assess the rate and magnitude of the neurocognitive decline that can be expected. In this context, and to help therapeutic decision making, we have conducted this literature review, with the aim of providing an average incidence, magnitude and time to occurrence of radio-induced neurocognitive decline. We reviewed all English language published articles on neurocognitive effects of WBRT for newly diagnosed brain metastases or with a preventive goal in adult patients, with any methodology (MMSE, battery of neurcognitive tests) with which baseline status was provided. We concluded that neurocognitive decline is predominant at 4 months, strongly dependant on brain metastases control, partially solved at later time, graded 1 on a SOMA-LENT scale (only 8% of grade 2 and more), insufficiently assessed in long-term survivors, thus justifying all efforts to reduce it through irradiation modulation

  11. Neurocognitive and personality factors in homo- and heterosexual pedophiles and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tillmann H C; Schiffer, Boris

    2011-06-01

    Several neuropsychological studies have suggested an association between pedophilia, neurocognitive disturbances, and specific personality profiles. However, inconsistencies in the findings have not been explained sufficiently, because many studies did not control for possible confounding factors, such as age, education level, or gender orientation. Therefore, the present investigation examined neurocognitive performance and personality profiles in pedophiles in dependence of sexual gender preferences and sexual deviance, as well as with regard to age and education level. Scores on the different neurocognitive tests, personality questionnaires, and Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV (SCID) interviews. An extensive neurocognitive test battery (including a reduced version of the German Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Wisconsin card-sorting test, d2 Attention-Deficit Test, and the Corsi block-tapping test) as well as two personality questionnaires (Minnessota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI-2] and the Multiphasic Sex Inventory [MSI]) were used to examine a consecutive sample of 20 psychiatrically assessed (SCID I and II) pedophile inpatients (nine exclusively attracted to females and 11 to males) from two high security forensic hospitals and 28 healthy controls (14 heterosexual, 14 homosexual). Compared with controls, pedophiles showed neurocognitive impairments and personality specifics in the majority of tests and questionnaires, such as reduced values on the intelligence scale and weaker performances in information processing, together with high scores for psychopathy and paranoia, and signs of sexual obsessiveness and sexual dysfunction. In contrast to previous reports, some of these alterations were at least partly explained by factors other than pedophilia, such as education level or age. These alterations may be seen to be in line with the hypothesis of a perturbation of

  12. Effects of HIV and childhood trauma on brain morphometry and neurocognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Georgina; Ahmed-Leitao, Fatima; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Cherner, Mariana; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-04-01

    A wide spectrum of neurocognitive deficits characterises HIV infection in adults. HIV infection is additionally associated with morphological brain abnormalities affecting neural substrates that subserve neurocognitive function. Early life stress (ELS) also has a direct influence on brain morphology. However, the combined impact of ELS and HIV on brain structure and neurocognitive function has not been examined in an all-female sample with advanced HIV disease. The present study examined the effects of HIV and childhood trauma on brain morphometry and neurocognitive function. Structural data were acquired using a 3T Magnetom MRI scanner, and a battery of neurocognitive tests was administered to 124 women: HIV-positive with ELS (n = 32), HIV-positive without ELS (n = 30), HIV-negative with ELS (n = 31) and HIV-negative without ELS (n = 31). Results revealed significant group volumetric differences for right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral hippocampi, corpus callosum, left and right caudate and left and right putamen. Mean regional volumes were lowest in HIV-positive women with ELS compared to all other groups. Although causality cannot be inferred, findings also suggest that alterations in the left frontal lobe, right ACC, left hippocampus, corpus callosum, left and right amygdala and left caudate may be associated with poorer neurocognitive performance in the domains of processing speed, attention/working memory, abstraction/executive functions, motor skills, learning and language/fluency with these effects more pronounced in women living with both HIV and childhood trauma. This study highlights the potential contributory role of childhood trauma to brain alterations and neurocognitive decline in HIV-infected individuals.

  13. Neurocognitive function in acromegaly after surgical resection of GH-secreting adenoma versus naïve acromegaly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Martín-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Patients with active untreated acromegaly show mild to moderate neurocognitive disorders that are associated to chronic exposure to growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I hypersecretion. However, it is unknown whether these disorders improve after controlling GH/IGF-I hypersecretion. The aim of this study was to compare neurocognitive functions of patients who successfully underwent GH-secreting adenoma transsphenoidal surgery (cured patients with patients with naive acromegaly. In addition, we wanted to determine the impact of different clinical and biochemical variables on neurocognitive status in patients with active disease and after long-term cure. A battery of six standardized neuropsychological tests assessed attention, memory and executive functioning. In addition, a quantitative electroencephalography with Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA solution was performed to obtain information about the neurophysiological state of the patients. Neurocognitive data was compared to that of a healthy control group. Multiple linear regression analysis was also conducted using clinical and hormonal parameters to obtain a set of independent predictors of neurocognitive state before and after cure. Both groups of patients scored significantly poorer than the healthy controls on memory tests, especially those assessing visual and verbal recall. Patients with cured acromegaly did not obtain better cognitive measures than naïve patients. Furthermore memory deficits were associated with decreased beta activity in left medial temporal cortex in both groups of patients. Regression analysis showed longer duration of untreated acromegaly was associated with more severe neurocognitive complications, regardless of the diagnostic group, whereas GH levels at the time of assessment was related to neurocognitive outcome only in naïve patients. Longer duration of post-operative biochemical remission of acromegaly was associated with

  14. Neurocognitive Function in Acromegaly after Surgical Resection of GH-Secreting Adenoma versus Naïve Acromegaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Madrazo-Atutxa, Ainara; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Benito-López, Pedro; Gálvez, María Ángeles; Cano, David A.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Torres-Vela, Elena; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Leal-Cerro, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Patients with active untreated acromegaly show mild to moderate neurocognitive disorders that are associated to chronic exposure to growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) hypersecretion. However, it is unknown whether these disorders improve after controlling GH/IGF-I hypersecretion. The aim of this study was to compare neurocognitive functions of patients who successfully underwent GH-secreting adenoma transsphenoidal surgery (cured patients) with patients with naive acromegaly. In addition, we wanted to determine the impact of different clinical and biochemical variables on neurocognitive status in patients with active disease and after long-term cure. A battery of six standardized neuropsychological tests assessed attention, memory and executive functioning. In addition, a quantitative electroencephalography with Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) solution was performed to obtain information about the neurophysiological state of the patients. Neurocognitive data was compared to that of a healthy control group. Multiple linear regression analysis was also conducted using clinical and hormonal parameters to obtain a set of independent predictors of neurocognitive state before and after cure. Both groups of patients scored significantly poorer than the healthy controls on memory tests, especially those assessing visual and verbal recall. Patients with cured acromegaly did not obtain better cognitive measures than naïve patients. Furthermore memory deficits were associated with decreased beta activity in left medial temporal cortex in both groups of patients. Regression analysis showed longer duration of untreated acromegaly was associated with more severe neurocognitive complications, regardless of the diagnostic group, whereas GH levels at the time of assessment was related to neurocognitive outcome only in naïve patients. Longer duration of post-operative biochemical remission of acromegaly was associated with better

  15. Development and Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Savitt, Adam; Moore, Tyler M; Port, Allison M; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J; Nasrini, Jad; Mollicone, Daniel J; Mott, Christopher M; McCann, Thom; Dinges, David F; Gur, Ruben C

    2015-11-01

    Sustained high-level cognitive performance is of paramount importance for the success of space missions, which involve environmental, physiological, and psychological stressors that may affect brain functions. Despite subjective symptom reports of cognitive fluctuations in spaceflight, the nature of neurobehavioral functioning in space has not been clarified. We developed a computerized cognitive test battery (Cognition) that has sensitivity to multiple cognitive domains and was specifically designed for the high-performing astronaut population. Cognition consists of 15 unique forms of 10 neuropsychological tests that cover a range of cognitive domains, including emotion processing, spatial orientation, and risk decision making. Cognition is based on tests known to engage specific brain regions as evidenced by functional neuroimaging. Here we describe the first normative and acute total sleep deprivation data on the Cognition test battery as well as several efforts underway to establish the validity, sensitivity, feasibility, and acceptability of Cognition. Practice effects and test-retest variability differed substantially between the 10 Cognition tests, illustrating the importance of normative data that both reflect practice effects and differences in stimulus set difficulty in the population of interest. After one night without sleep, medium to large effect sizes were observed for 3 of the 10 tests addressing vigilant attention (Cohen's d = 1.00), cognitive throughput (d = 0.68), and abstract reasoning (d = 0.65). In addition to providing neuroimaging-based novel information on the effects of spaceflight on a range of cognitive functions, Cognition will facilitate comparing the effects of ground-based analogues to spaceflight, increase consistency across projects, and thus enable meta-analyses.

  16. Development and Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Savitt, Adam; Moore, Tyler M.; Port, Allison M.; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J.; Nasrini, Jad; Mollicone, Daniel J.; Mott, Christopher M.; McCann, Thom; Dinges, David F.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sustained high-level cognitive performance is of paramount importance for the success of space missions, which involve environmental, physiological and psychological stressors that may affect brain functions. Despite subjective symptom reports of cognitive fluctuations in spaceflight, the nature of neurobehavioral functioning in space has not been clarified. Methods We developed a computerized cognitive test battery (Cognition) that has sensitivity to multiple cognitive domains and was specifically designed for the high-performing astronaut population. Cognition consists of 15 unique forms of 10 neuropsychological tests that cover a range of cognitive domains including emotion processing, spatial orientation, and risk decision making. Cognition is based on tests known to engage specific brain regions as evidenced by functional neuroimaging. Here we describe the first normative and acute total sleep deprivation data on the Cognition test battery as well as several efforts underway to establish the validity, sensitivity, feasibility, and acceptability of Cognition. Results Practice effects and test-retest variability differed substantially between the 10 Cognition tests, illustrating the importance of normative data that both reflect practice effects and differences in stimulus set difficulty in the population of interest. After one night without sleep, medium to large effect sizes were observed for 3 of the 10 tests addressing vigilant attention (Cohen’s d=1.00), cognitive throughput (d=0.68), and abstract reasoning (d=0.65). Conclusions In addition to providing neuroimaging-based novel information on the effects of spaceflight on a range of cognitive functions, Cognition will facilitate comparing the effects of ground-based analogs to spaceflight, increase consistency across projects, and thus enable meta-analyses. PMID:26564759

  17. Battery algorithm verification and development using hardware-in-the-loop testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yongsheng [General Motors Global Research and Development, 30500 Mound Road, MC 480-106-252, Warren, MI 48090 (United States); Liu, Wei; Koch, Brain J. [General Motors Global Vehicle Engineering, Warren, MI 48090 (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Battery algorithms play a vital role in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), extended-range electric vehicles (EREVs), and electric vehicles (EVs). The energy management of hybrid and electric propulsion systems needs to rely on accurate information on the state of the battery in order to determine the optimal electric drive without abusing the battery. In this study, a cell-level hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system is used to verify and develop state of charge (SOC) and power capability predictions of embedded battery algorithms for various vehicle applications. Two different batteries were selected as representative examples to illustrate the battery algorithm verification and development procedure. One is a lithium-ion battery with a conventional metal oxide cathode, which is a power battery for HEV applications. The other is a lithium-ion battery with an iron phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}) cathode, which is an energy battery for applications in PHEVs, EREVs, and EVs. The battery cell HIL testing provided valuable data and critical guidance to evaluate the accuracy of the developed battery algorithms, to accelerate battery algorithm future development and improvement, and to reduce hybrid/electric vehicle system development time and costs. (author)

  18. Battery algorithm verification and development using hardware-in-the-loop testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongsheng; Liu, Wei; Koch, Brain J.

    Battery algorithms play a vital role in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), extended-range electric vehicles (EREVs), and electric vehicles (EVs). The energy management of hybrid and electric propulsion systems needs to rely on accurate information on the state of the battery in order to determine the optimal electric drive without abusing the battery. In this study, a cell-level hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system is used to verify and develop state of charge (SOC) and power capability predictions of embedded battery algorithms for various vehicle applications. Two different batteries were selected as representative examples to illustrate the battery algorithm verification and development procedure. One is a lithium-ion battery with a conventional metal oxide cathode, which is a power battery for HEV applications. The other is a lithium-ion battery with an iron phosphate (LiFePO 4) cathode, which is an energy battery for applications in PHEVs, EREVs, and EVs. The battery cell HIL testing provided valuable data and critical guidance to evaluate the accuracy of the developed battery algorithms, to accelerate battery algorithm future development and improvement, and to reduce hybrid/electric vehicle system development time and costs.

  19. Reliability and validity of neurobehavioral function on the Psychology Experimental Building Language test battery in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Brian J; Mueller, Shane T; Geerken, Alexander R; Dixon, Kyle L; Kroliczak, Gregory; Olsen, Reid H J; Miller, Jeremy K

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) software consists of over one-hundred computerized tests based on classic and novel cognitive neuropsychology and behavioral neurology measures. Although the PEBL tests are becoming more widely utilized, there is currently very limited information about the psychometric properties of these measures. Methods. Study I examined inter-relationships among nine PEBL tests including indices of motor-function (Pursuit Rotor and Dexterity), attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance and Time-Wall), working memory (Digit Span Forward), and executive-function (PEBL Trail Making Test, Berg/Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Iowa Gambling Test, and Mental Rotation) in a normative sample (N = 189, ages 18-22). Study II evaluated test-retest reliability with a two-week interest interval between administrations in a separate sample (N = 79, ages 18-22). Results. Moderate intra-test, but low inter-test, correlations were observed and ceiling/floor effects were uncommon. Sex differences were identified on the Pursuit Rotor (Cohen's d = 0.89) and Mental Rotation (d = 0.31) tests. The correlation between the test and retest was high for tests of motor learning (Pursuit Rotor time on target r = .86) and attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance response time r = .79), intermediate for memory (digit span r = .63) but lower for the executive function indices (Wisconsin/Berg Card Sorting Test perseverative errors = .45, Tower of London moves = .15). Significant practice effects were identified on several indices of executive function. Conclusions. These results are broadly supportive of the reliability and validity of individual PEBL tests in this sample. These findings indicate that the freely downloadable, open-source PEBL battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net) is a versatile research tool to study individual differences in neurocognitive performance.

  20. Reliability and validity of neurobehavioral function on the Psychology Experimental Building Language test battery in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Piper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL software consists of over one-hundred computerized tests based on classic and novel cognitive neuropsychology and behavioral neurology measures. Although the PEBL tests are becoming more widely utilized, there is currently very limited information about the psychometric properties of these measures.Methods. Study I examined inter-relationships among nine PEBL tests including indices of motor-function (Pursuit Rotor and Dexterity, attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance and Time-Wall, working memory (Digit Span Forward, and executive-function (PEBL Trail Making Test, Berg/Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Iowa Gambling Test, and Mental Rotation in a normative sample (N = 189, ages 18–22. Study II evaluated test–retest reliability with a two-week interest interval between administrations in a separate sample (N = 79, ages 18–22.Results. Moderate intra-test, but low inter-test, correlations were observed and ceiling/floor effects were uncommon. Sex differences were identified on the Pursuit Rotor (Cohen’s d = 0.89 and Mental Rotation (d = 0.31 tests. The correlation between the test and retest was high for tests of motor learning (Pursuit Rotor time on target r = .86 and attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance response time r = .79, intermediate for memory (digit span r = .63 but lower for the executive function indices (Wisconsin/Berg Card Sorting Test perseverative errors = .45, Tower of London moves = .15. Significant practice effects were identified on several indices of executive function.Conclusions. These results are broadly supportive of the reliability and validity of individual PEBL tests in this sample. These findings indicate that the freely downloadable, open-source PEBL battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net is a versatile research tool to study individual differences in neurocognitive performance.

  1. Neurocognitive Correlates of Young Drivers' Performance in a Driving Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinosso, Stephanie A; Johnson, Sara B; Schultheis, Maria T; Graefe, Anna C; Bishai, David M

    2016-04-01

    Differences in neurocognitive functioning may contribute to driving performance among young drivers. However, few studies have examined this relation. This pilot study investigated whether common neurocognitive measures were associated with driving performance among young drivers in a driving simulator. Young drivers (19.8 years (standard deviation [SD] = 1.9; N = 74)) participated in a battery of neurocognitive assessments measuring general intellectual capacity (Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient, FSIQ) and executive functioning, including the Stroop Color-Word Test (cognitive inhibition), Wisconsin Card Sort Test-64 (cognitive flexibility), and Attention Network Task (alerting, orienting, and executive attention). Participants then drove in a simulated vehicle under two conditions-a baseline and driving challenge. During the driving challenge, participants completed a verbal working memory task to increase demand on executive attention. Multiple regression models were used to evaluate the relations between the neurocognitive measures and driving performance under the two conditions. FSIQ, cognitive inhibition, and alerting were associated with better driving performance at baseline. FSIQ and cognitive inhibition were also associated with better driving performance during the verbal challenge. Measures of cognitive flexibility, orienting, and conflict executive control were not associated with driving performance under either condition. FSIQ and, to some extent, measures of executive function are associated with driving performance in a driving simulator. Further research is needed to determine if executive function is associated with more advanced driving performance under conditions that demand greater cognitive load. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Parametric and cycle tests of a 40-AH bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of a 12 V, 40 ampere-hour bipolar battery during various charge current, discharge current, temperature, and pressure operating conditions is investigated. The cell voltages, temperatures, ampere-hours, and watt-hours derived from the charge/discharge cycle tests are studied. Consideration is given to battery voltage and discharge capacity as a function of discharge current, the correlation between energy delivered on a discharge and battery temperature, battery voltage response to pulse discharges, and the voltage-temperature relationship. The data reveal that the bipolar Ni-H battery is applicable to high power systems.

  3. Associations between cadmium exposure and neurocognitive test scores in a cross-sectional study of US adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ciesielski, Timothy; Bellinger, David C.; Schwartz, Joel David; Hauser, Russ B.; Wright, Robert O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low-level environmental cadmium exposure and neurotoxicity has not been well studied in adults. Our goal was to evaluate associations between neurocognitive exam scores and a biomarker of cumulative cadmium exposure among adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Methods: NHANES III is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the U.S. population conducted between 1988 and 1994. We analyzed data from a subset of participants, ag...

  4. Decision Dependability of Subtests, Tests, and the Overall TOEFL Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean; Ross, Jacqueline A.

    This study investigates the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), in particular the relative contributions to score dependability (analogous to classical theory reliability) of various numbers of items and subtests as well as the decision dependability at different cut points. Research questions that apply to the overall TOEFL battery and…

  5. Neurocognitive functioning as an intermediary variable between psychopathology and insight in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Samuel Suk-Hyun; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

    2015-12-30

    Based on the neuropsychological deficit model of insight in schizophrenia, we constructed exploratory prediction models for insight, designating neurocognitive measures as the intermediary variables between psychopathology and insight into patients with schizophrenia. The models included the positive, negative, and autistic preoccupation symptoms as primary predictors, and activation symptoms as an intermediary variable for insight. Fifty-six Korean patients, in the acute stage of schizophrenia, completed the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, as well as a comprehensive neurocognitive battery of tests at the baseline, 8-weeks, and 1-year follow-ups. Among the neurocognitive measures, the Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (K-WAIS) picture arrangement, Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) perseverative response, and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) standard error of reaction time showed significant correlations with the symptoms and the insight. When these measures were fitted into the model as intermediaries between the symptoms and the insight, only the perseverative response was found to have a partial mediating effect - both cross-sectionally, and in the 8-week longitudinal change. Overall, the relationship between insight and neurocognitive functioning measures was found to be selective and weak. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a Test Battery to Select Navy Recruiters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Penney, Lisa M; Borman, Walter C; Bearden, Ronald M

    2007-01-01

    .... the students were administered a trial predictor battery while at the school, and performance ratings and production data were collected after participants had been assigned to recruiting duty...

  7. Battery Test Facility- Electrochemical Analysis and Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrochemical Analysis and Diagnostics Laboratory (EADL) provides battery developers with reliable, independent, and unbiased performance evaluations of their...

  8. Empirical Modeling of Lithium-ion Batteries Based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadani, Ehsan; Farhad, Siamak; Scott, William; Mastali, Mehrdad; Gimenez, Leonardo E.; Fowler, Michael; Fraser, Roydon A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two commercial Lithium-ion batteries are studied through HPPC and EIS tests. • An equivalent circuit model is developed for a range of operating conditions. • This model improves the current battery empirical models for vehicle applications • This model is proved to be efficient in terms of predicting HPPC test resistances. - ABSTRACT: An empirical model for commercial lithium-ion batteries is developed based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. An equivalent circuit is established according to EIS test observations at various battery states of charge and temperatures. A Laplace transfer time based model is developed based on the circuit which can predict the battery operating output potential difference in battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles at various operating conditions. This model demonstrates up to 6% improvement compared to simple resistance and Thevenin models and is suitable for modeling and on-board controller purposes. Results also show that this model can be used to predict the battery internal resistance obtained from hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) tests to within 20 percent, making it suitable for low to medium fidelity powertrain design purposes. In total, this simple battery model can be employed as a real-time model in electrified vehicle battery management systems

  9. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Main Battery Thermal Runaway Propagation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; North, Tim

    2017-01-01

    In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the aging Ni-H2 batteries on the primary Electric Power System (EPS). After the Boeing 787 Li-Ion battery fires, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Power Technical Discipline Team was tasked by ISS to investigate the possibility of Thermal Runaway Propagation (TRP) in all Li-Ion batteries used on the ISS. As part of that investigation, NESC funded a TRP test of an ISS EPS non-flight Li-Ion battery. The test was performed at NASA White Sands Test Facility in October 2016. This paper will discuss the work leading up to the test, the design of the test article, and the test results.

  10. Accelerated test program for sealed nickel-cadmium spacecraft batteries/cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility was examined of inducing an accelerated test on sealed Nickel-Cadmium batteries or cells as a tool for spacecraft projects and battery users to determine: (1) the prediction of life capability; (2) a method of evaluating the effect of design and component changes in cells; and (3) a means of reducing time and cost of cell testing.

  11. Age effects and normative data on a Dutch test battery for auditory processing disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, C.A.M.; Snik, A.F.M.; Priester, G.; Kordenoordt, S. van; Broek, P. van den

    2002-01-01

    A test battery compiled to diagnose auditory processing disorders (APDs) in an adult population was used on a population of 9-16-year-old children. The battery consisted of eight tests (words -in noise, filtered speech, binaural fusion, dichotic digits, frequency and duration patterns, backward

  12. Modified performance test of vented lead acid batteries for stationary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, K.W.; Fletcher, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of a modified performance test for vented lead acid batteries in stationary applications has been developed by the IEEE Battery Working Group. The modified performance test is defined as a test in the ''as found'' condition of the battery capacity and its ability to provide a high rate, short duration load (usually the highest rate of the duty cycle) that will confirm the battery's ability to meet the critical period of the load duty cycle, in addition to determining its percentage of rated capacity. This paper will begin by reviewing performance and service test requirements and concerns associated with both types of tests. The paper will then discuss the rationale for developing a modified performance test along with the benefits that can be derived from performing a modified performance test in lieu of a capacity test and/or a service test. The paper will conclude with an example on how to apply a modified performance test and test acceptance criteria

  13. Charge retention test experiences on Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Dave E.; Driscoll, J. R.; Armantrout, J. D.; Baker, R. C.; Wajsgras, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) nickel-hydrogen battery module was designed by Lockheed Missile & Space Co (LMSC) and manufactured by Eagle-Picher Ind. (EPI) for the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) for the nickel-cadmium batteries originally selected for this low earth orbit mission. The design features of the HST nickel hydrogen battery are described and the results of an extended charge retention test are summarized.

  14. On the limits of effort testing: symptom validity tests and severity of neurocognitive symptoms in nonlitigant patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merten, Thomas; Bossink, Linda; Schmand, Ben

    2007-01-01

    Modern symptom validity tests (SVTs) use empirical cutoffs for decision making. However, limits to the applicability of these cutoffs may arise when severe cognitive symptoms are present. The purpose of the studies presented here was to explore these limits of applicability. In Experiment 1, a group

  15. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sally (Xiaolei) Sun; Tyler Gray; Pattie Hovorka; Jeffrey Wishart; Donald Karner; James Francfort

    2012-08-01

    The UltraBattery Retrofit Project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched Project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are established to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). A profile, termed the “Simulated Honda Civic HEV Profile” (SHCHEVP) has been developed in Project DP1.8 in order to provide reproducible laboratory evaluations of different battery types under real-world HEV conditions. The cycle is based on the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles and simulates operation of a battery pack in a Honda Civic HEV. One pass through the SHCHEVP takes 2,140 seconds and simulates 17.7 miles of driving. A complete nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack was removed from a Honda Civic HEV and operated under SHCHEVP to validate the profile. The voltage behavior and energy balance of the battery during this operation was virtually the same as that displayed by the battery when in the Honda Civic operating on the dynamometer under the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles, thus confirming the efficacy of the simulated profile. An important objective of the project has been to benchmark the performance of the UltraBatteries manufactured by both Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd., Japan (Furakawa) and East Penn Manufacturing Co., Inc. (East Penn). Accordingly, UltraBattery packs from both Furakawa and East Penn have been characterized under a range of conditions. Resistance measurements and capacity tests at various rates show that both battery types are very similar in performance. Both technologies, as well as a standard lead-acid module (included for baseline data), were evaluated under a simple HEV screening test. Both Furakawa and East Penn UltraBattery packs operated for over 32,000 HEV cycles, with minimal loss in performance; whereas the

  16. Social attribution test--multiple choice (SAT-MC) in schizophrenia: comparison with community sample and relationship to neurocognitive, social cognitive and symptom measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris D; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Greig, Tamasine C; Wexler, Bruce E

    2010-09-01

    This is the first report on the use of the Social Attribution Task - Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) to assess social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The SAT-MC was originally developed for autism research, and consists of a 64-second animation showing geometric figures enacting a social drama, with 19 multiple choice questions about the interactions. Responses from 85 community-dwelling participants and 66 participants with SCID confirmed schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (Scz) revealed highly significant group differences. When the two samples were combined, SAT-MC scores were significantly correlated with other social cognitive measures, including measures of affect recognition, theory of mind, self-report of egocentricity and the Social Cognition Index from the MATRICS battery. Using a cut-off score, 53% of Scz were significantly impaired on SAT-MC compared with 9% of the community sample. Most Scz participants with impairment on SAT-MC also had impairment on affect recognition. Significant correlations were also found with neurocognitive measures but with less dependence on verbal processes than other social cognitive measures. Logistic regression using SAT-MC scores correctly classified 75% of both samples. Results suggest that this measure may have promise, but alternative versions will be needed before it can be used in pre-post or longitudinal designs. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of Baseline Computerized Neurocognitive Testing Results among 5–11-Year-Old Male and Female Children Playing Sports in Recreational Leagues in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen D. Liller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data related to sports injuries, concussions, and computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT among very young athletes playing sports in recreational settings. The purpose of this study was to report baseline CNT results among male and female children, ages 5–11, playing sports in Hillsborough County, Florida using ImPACT Pediatric, which is specifically designed for this population. Data were collected from 2016 to 2017. The results show that 657 baseline tests were conducted and t-tests and linear regression were used to assess mean significant differences in composite scores with sex and age. Results showed that females scored better on visual memory and in general as age increased, baseline scores improved. The results can be used to build further studies on the use of CNT in recreational settings and their role in concussion treatment, management, and interventions.

  18. The association of neurocognitive impairment with diminished expression and apathy in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann-Riemer, Matthias N; Hager, Oliver M; Kirschner, Matthias; Bischof, Martin; Kluge, Agne; Seifritz, Erich; Kaiser, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Negative symptoms can be grouped into the two dimensions of diminished expression and apathy, which have been shown to be dissociable regarding external validators, such as functional outcome. Here, we investigated whether these two dimensions differentially relate to neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia. 47 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 33 healthy control participants were subjected to a neurocognitive test battery assessing multiple cognitive domains (processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, verbal learning and memory, mental planning), which are integrated into a composite cognition score. Negative symptoms in patients were assessed using the Brief Negative Symptom Scale. We found that diminished expression significantly related to neurocognitive impairment, while severity of apathy symptoms was not directly associated with neurocognition. Other assessed clinical variables include chlorpromazine equivalents, positive symptoms, and depressive symptoms and did not influence the results. Our results are in line with a cognitive resource limitation model of diminished expression in schizophrenia and indicate that cognitive remediation therapy might be helpful to ameliorate expressive deficits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/carbon microspheres (Fe3O4/C were prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction using cellulose and ferric trichloride as precursors. The resultant composite spheres have been investigated as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, and they show high capacity and good cycle stability (830mAhg−1 at a current density of 0.1C up to 70 cycles, as well as enhanced rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the high structural stability and high rate of ionic/electronic conduction arising from the porous character and the synergetic effect of the carbon coated Fe3O4 structure and conductive carbon coating.

  20. Reference Performance Test Methodology for Degradation Assessment of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Purkayastha, Rajlakshmi

    2018-01-01

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) is an emerging battery technology receiving a growing amount of attention due to its potentially high gravimetric energy density, safety, and low production cost. However, there are still some obstacles preventing its swift commercialization. Li-S batteries are driven...... by different electrochemical processes than commonly used Lithium-ion batteries, which often results in very different behavior. Therefore, the testing and modeling of these systems have to be adjusted to reflect their unique behavior and to prevent possible bias. A methodology for a Reference Performance Test...... (RPT) for the Li-S batteries is proposed in this study to point out Li-S battery features and provide guidance to users how to deal with them and possible results into standardization. The proposed test methodology is demonstrated for 3.4 Ah Li-S cells aged under different conditions....

  1. HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND in Malawian adults and effect on adherence to combination anti-retroviral therapy: a cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Kelly

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence and burden of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND among patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART in sub-Saharan Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HAND in adult Malawians on cART and investigated the relationship between HAND and adherence to cART.HIV positive adults in Blantyre, Malawi underwent a full medical history, neurocognitive test battery, depression score, Karnofsky Performance Score and adherence assessment. The Frascati criteria were used to diagnose HAND and the Global Deficit Score (GDS was also assessed. Blood was drawn for CD4 count and plasma nevirapine and efavirenz concentrations. HIV negative adults were recruited from the HIV testing clinic to provide normative scores for the neurocognitive battery.One hundred and six HIV positive patients, with median (range age 39 (18-71 years, 73% female and median (range CD4 count 323.5 (68-1039 cells/µl were studied. Symptomatic neurocognitive impairment was present in 15% (12% mild neurocognitive disorder [MND], 3% HIV associated dementia [HAD]. A further 55% fulfilled Frascati criteria for asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI; however factors other than neurocognitive impairment could have confounded this estimate. Neither the symptomatic (MND and HAD nor asymptomatic (ANI forms of HAND were associated with subtherapeutic nevirapine/efavirenz concentrations, adjusted odds ratio 1.44 (CI. 0.234, 8.798; p = 0.696 and aOR 0.577 (CI. 0.09, 3.605; p = 0.556 respectively. All patients with subtherapeutic nevirapine/efavirenz levels had a GDS of less than 0.6, consistent with normal neurocognition.Fifteen percent of adult Malawians on cART had a diagnosis of MND or HAD. Subtherapeutic drug concentrations were found exclusively in patients with normal neurocognitive function suggesting HAND did not affect cART adherence. Further study of HAND requires more robust locally derived normative neurocognitive values and

  2. Continuous Improvement in Battery Testing at the NASA/JSC Energy System Test Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William; Cook, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas conducts development and qualification tests to fulfill Energy System Division responsibilities relevant to ASA programs and projects. EST A has historically called upon a variety of fluid, mechanical, electrical, environmental, and data system capabilities spread amongst five full-service facilities to test human and human supported spacecraft in the areas of propulsion systems, fluid systems, pyrotechnics, power generation, and power distribution and control systems. Improvements at ESTA are being made in full earnest of offering NASA project offices an option to choose a thorough test regime that is balanced with cost and schedule constraints. In order to continue testing of enabling power-related technologies utilized by the Energy System Division, an especially proactive effort has been made to increase the cost effectiveness and schedule responsiveness for battery testing. This paper describes the continuous improvement in battery testing at the Energy Systems Test Area being made through consolidation, streamlining, and standardization.

  3. Neurocognitive effects of therapeutic irradiation for base of skull tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, Christina A.; Geara, Fady; Wong Peifong; Morrison, William H.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation therapy delivered to the paranasal sinuses causes any long-term impairment in neurocognitive function as a result of incidental brain irradiation. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients who received paranasal sinus irradiation at least 20 months and up to 20 years before assessment were given a battery of neuropsychologic tests of cognitive function. Radiation was delivered by a three-field (one anteroposterior and two lateral) technique. The median radiation dose was 60 Gy (range 50-68 Gy) in fractions of 1.8 to 2 Gy. The volume of irradiated brain was calculated from planning computed tomography slices or simulation films. The results of the neuropsychologic tests were compared to normative control values. Results: Memory impairment was found in 80% of the patients, and one-third manifested difficulty with visual-motor speed, frontal lobe executive functions, and fine motor coordination. Two of the patients had frank brain necrosis with resultant dementia and blindness, and three had evidence of brain atrophy. Three of the fourteen patients without documented cerebral atrophy or necrosis were disabled from their normal activities. Three patients also developed pituitary dysfunction. Neurocognitive symptoms were related to the total dose of radiation delivered but not to the volume of brain irradiated, side of radiation boost, or chemotherapy treatment. The pattern of test findings was consistent with radiation injury to subcortical white matter. Conclusions: Radiation therapy for paranasal sinus cancer may cause delayed neurocognitive side effects. Currently, however, the development of severe adverse effects appears to be decreasing because of improvements in the techniques used to deliver radiation. Lowering the total dose and improving dose distributions should further decrease the incidence of delayed brain injury due to radiation

  4. Tolcapone-Enhanced Neurocognition in Healthy Adults: Neural Basis and Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Savita G; Light, Gregory A; Talledo, Jo A; Balvaneda, Bryan; Hughes, Erica; Alvarez, Alexis; Rana, Brinda K; Young, Jared W; Swerdlow, Neal R

    2017-12-01

    Failure of procognitive drug trials in schizophrenia may reflect the clinical heterogeneity of schizophrenia, underscoring the need to identify biomarkers of treatment sensitivity. We used an experimental medicine design to test the procognitive effects of a putative procognitive agent, tolcapone, using an electroencephalogram-based cognitive control task in healthy subjects. Healthy men and women (n=27; ages 18-35 years), homozygous for either the Met/Met or Val/Val rs4680 genotype, received placebo and tolcapone 200 mg orally across 2 test days separated by 1 week in a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, within-subject design. On each test day, neurocognitive performance was assessed using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery and an electroencephalogram-based 5 Choice-Continuous Performance Test. Tolcapone enhanced visual learning in low-baseline MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery performers (d=0.35) and had an opposite effect in high performers (d=0.5), and enhanced verbal fluency across all subjects (P=.03) but had no effect on overall MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery performance. Tolcapone reduced false alarm rate (d=0.8) and enhanced frontal P200 amplitude during correctly identified nontarget trials (d=0.6) in low-baseline 5 Choice-Continuous Performance Test performers and had opposite effects in high performers (d=0.5 and d=0.25, respectively). Tolcapone's effect on frontal P200 amplitude and false alarm rate was correlated (rs=-0.4, P=.05). All neurocognitive effects of tolcapone were independent of rs4680 genotype. Tolcapone enhanced neurocognition and engaged electroencephalogram measures relevant to cognitive processes in specific subgroups of healthy individuals. These findings support an experimental medicine model for identifying procognitive treatments and provide a strong basis for future biomarker-informed procognitive studies in schizophrenia patients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  5. Executive functioning and central coherence in anorexia nervosa: Pilot investigation of a neurocognitive endophenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melanie; Loeb, Katharine L; McGrath, Robert E; Tiersky, Lana; Zucker, Nancy; Carlin, Amanda

    2018-04-27

    A neurocognitive profile characterized by problems in set shifting, executive functioning, and central coherence may pre-date and maintain anorexia nervosa (AN). To test this pattern as a possible endophenotype for AN, 10 youth with current AN, 14 healthy youth, and their biological parents, participated in a neuropsychological battery. Youth with AN demonstrated significantly weaker central coherence, related to enhanced detail-focused processing. Youth with AN and their parents demonstrated significantly greater psychopathology relative to controls, and youth-parent scores were significantly correlated. The study, limited by a small sample size, found little evidence supporting a neuropsychological endophenotype for AN. Identifying a neurocognitive profile for children and adolescents with AN has important implications for the treatment of young patients. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. A cost effective battery bank for I2t testing and evaluation of electrical switchgear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reass, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the electrical design and mechanical construction of a 50 kA ''step switched'' battery bank. Individual fuses protect each of the forty parallel isolated strings of three series (12 V) batteries. Step current waveforms of 12.5 kA, 25 kA, 37.5 kA, and 50 kA are produced by 8 sets of pneumatically driven 20 pole step switches and current limiting stainless steel ''trombone'' resistors. Inexpensive, yet conservatively designed, Group 65 Motorcraft car batteries are used to give an I 2 t capability of better than 5 x 10 9 . The battery bank has well over 1500 shots, with testing of commercial switchgear continuing. In addition to the battery bank engineering data, results of repetitive testing of vacuum interrupters at their I 2 t limit will be provided. 8 figs

  7. Analyse Factorielle d'une Batterie de Tests de Comprehension Orale et Ecrite (Factor Analysis of a Battery of Tests of Listening and Reading Comprehension). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonchamp, F.

    This is a presentation of the results of a factor analysis of a battery of tests intended to measure listening and reading comprehension in English as a second language. The analysis sought to answer the following questions: (1) whether the factor analysis method yields results when applied to tests which are not specifically designed for this…

  8. Safety modelling and testing of lithium-ion batteries in electrified vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Bae, Chulheung; Marcicki, James; Masias, Alvaro; Miller, Theodore

    2018-04-01

    To optimize the safety of batteries, it is important to understand their behaviours when subjected to abuse conditions. Most early efforts in battery safety modelling focused on either one battery cell or a single field of interest such as mechanical or thermal failure. These efforts may not completely reflect the failure of batteries in automotive applications, where various physical processes can take place in a large number of cells simultaneously. In this Perspective, we review modelling and testing approaches for battery safety under abuse conditions. We then propose a general framework for large-scale multi-physics modelling and experimental work to address safety issues of automotive batteries in real-world applications. In particular, we consider modelling coupled mechanical, electrical, electrochemical and thermal behaviours of batteries, and explore strategies to extend simulations to the battery module and pack level. Moreover, we evaluate safety test approaches for an entire range of automotive hardware sets from cell to pack. We also discuss challenges in building this framework and directions for its future development.

  9. High shock load testing of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, J.; Marincic, N.

    1983-10-01

    Low rate cylindrical cells have been developed, capable of withstanding mechanical shocks up to 23,000 g's for one millisecond. The cells were based on the lithium-thionyl chloride battery system and totally hermetic stainless steel hardware incorporating a glass sealed positive terminal. Four cells in series were required to deliver 25 mA pulses at a minimum voltage of 10 V before and after such exposure to one mechanical shock. Batteries were contained in a hardened steel housing and mounted within a projectile accelerated by means of a gas gun. The velocity of the projectile was measured with electronic probes immediately before impact and the deceleration was effected using a special aluminum honeycomb structure from which the g values were calculated. A high survival rate for the cells was achieved in spite of some mechanical damage to the battery housing still present.

  10. 3-D CFD modeling and experimental testing of thermal behavior of a Li-Ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gümüşsu, Emre; Ekici, Özgür; Köksal, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermally fully predictive 3-D CFD model is developed for Li-Ion batteries. • Complete flow field around the battery and conduction inside the battery are solved. • Macro-scale thermophysical properties and the entropic term are investigated. • Discharge rate and usage history of the battery are systematically investigated. • Reliability of the model was tested through experimental measurements. - Abstract: In this study, a 3-D computational fluid dynamics model was developed for investigating the thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries under natural convection. The model solves the complete flow field around the battery as well as conduction inside the battery using the well-known heat generation model of Bernardi et al. (1985). The model is thermally fully predictive so it requires only electrical performance parameters of the battery to calculate its temperature during discharging. Using the model, detailed investigation of the effects of the variation of the macro-scale thermophysical properties and the entropic term of the heat generation model was carried out. Results show that specific heat is a critical property that has a significant impact on the simulation results whereas thermal conductivity has relatively minor importance. Moreover, the experimental data can be successfully predicted without taking the entropic term into account in the calculation of the heat generation. The difference between the experimental and predicted battery surface temperature was less than 3 °C for all discharge rates and regardless of the usage history of the battery. The developed model has the potential to be used for the investigation of the thermal behavior of Li-Ion batteries in different packaging configurations under natural and forced convection.

  11. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part II. Test proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A.O. [BMW Group, 80788 Muenchen (Germany); Albers, J. [Johnson Controls Power Solutions EMEA, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Weirather-Koestner, D. [ZSW Ulm, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Kabza, H. [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Energiewandlung und -speicherung, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-02-01

    In the first part of this work selected key parameters for applying lead-acid (LA) batteries in micro-hybrid power systems (MHPS) were investigated. Main results are integrated in an accelerated, comprehensive test proposal presented here. The test proposal aims at a realistic representation of the pSoC operation regime, which is described in Refs. The test is designed to be sensitive with respect to dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at partially discharged state (critical for regenerative braking) and the internal resistance at high-rate discharge (critical for idling stop applications). First results are presented for up-to-date valve-regulated LA batteries with absorbent glass mat (AGM) separators. The batteries are close to the limits of the first proposal of pass/fail-criteria. Also flooded batteries were tested; the first out of ten units failed already. (author)

  12. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part II. Test proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Albers, J.; Weirather-Koestner, D.; Kabza, H.

    In the first part of this work [1] selected key parameters for applying lead-acid (LA) batteries in micro-hybrid power systems (MHPS) were investigated. Main results are integrated in an accelerated, comprehensive test proposal presented here. The test proposal aims at a realistic representation of the pSoC operation regime, which is described in Refs. [1,6]. The test is designed to be sensitive with respect to dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at partially discharged state (critical for regenerative braking) and the internal resistance at high-rate discharge (critical for idling stop applications). First results are presented for up-to-date valve-regulated LA batteries with absorbent glass mat (AGM) separators. The batteries are close to the limits of the first proposal of pass/fail-criteria. Also flooded batteries were tested; the first out of ten units failed already.

  13. Parametric and cycle tests of a 40-A-hr bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A series of tests was performed to characterize battery performance relating to certain operating parameters which included charge current, discharge current, temperature and pressure. The parameters were varied to confirm battery design concepts and to determine optimal operating conditions. Spacecraft power requirements are constantly increasing. Special spacecraft such as the Space Station and platforms will require energy storage systems of 130 and 25 kWh, respectively. The complexity of these high power systems will demand high reliability, and reduced mass and volume. A system that uses batteries for storage will require a cell count in excess of 400 units. These cell units must then be assembled into several batteries with over 100 cells in a series connected string. In an attempt to simplify the construction of conventional cells and batteries, the NASA Lewis Research Center battery systems group initiated work on a nickel-hydrogen battery in a bipolar configuration in early 1981. Features of the battery with this bipolar construction show promise in improving both volumetric and gravimetric energy densities as well as thermal management. Bipolar construction allows cooling in closer proximity to the cell components, thus heat removal can be accomplished at a higher rejection temperature than conventional cell designs. Also, higher current densities are achievable because of low cell impedance. Lower cell impedance is achieved via current flow perpendicular to the electrode face, thus reducing voltage drops in the electrode grid and electrode terminals tabs.

  14. Systematic review and proposal of a field-based physical fitness-test battery in preschool children: the PREFIT battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Guillermo; Mora-González, José; Martínez-Téllez, Borja; Artero, Enrique G; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Labayen, Idoia; Chillón, Palma; Löf, Marie; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2015-04-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful health marker in childhood and adolescence, and it is reasonable to think that it might be just as important in younger children, i.e. preschoolers. At the moment, researchers, clinicians and sport practitioners do not have enough information about which fitness tests are more reliable, valid and informative from the health point of view to be implemented in preschool children. Our aim was to systematically review the studies conducted in preschool children using field-based fitness tests, and examine their (1) reliability, (2) validity, and (3) relationship with health outcomes. Our ultimate goal was to propose a field-based physical fitness-test battery to be used in preschool children. PubMed and Web of Science. Studies conducted in healthy preschool children that included field-based fitness tests. When using PubMed, we included Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms to enhance the power of the search. A set of fitness-related terms were combined with 'child, preschool' [MeSH]. The same strategy and terms were used for Web of Science (except for the MeSH option). Since no previous reviews with a similar aim were identified, we searched for all articles published up to 1 April 2014 (no starting date). A total of 2,109 articles were identified, of which 22 articles were finally selected for this review. Most studies focused on reliability of the fitness tests (n = 21, 96%), while very few focused on validity (0 criterion-related validity and 4 (18%) convergent validity) or relationship with health outcomes (0 longitudinal and 1 (5%) cross-sectional study). Motor fitness, particularly balance, was the most studied fitness component, while cardiorespiratory fitness was the least studied. After analyzing the information retrieved in the current systematic review about fitness testing in preschool children, we propose the PREFIT battery, field-based FITness testing in PREschool children. The PREFIT battery is composed of the following

  15. Do neurocognitive deficits in decision making differentiate conduct disorder subtypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Kostas A; Kimonis, Eva R; Hadjicharalambous, Maria-Zoe; Steinberg, Laurence

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to test whether neurocognitive deficits involved in decision making underlie subtypes of conduct-disorder (CD) differentiated on the basis of callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Eighty-five participants (M age = 10.94 years) were selected from a sample of 1200 children based on repeated assessment of CD and CU traits. Participants completed a multi-method battery of well-validated measures of risky decision making and associated constructs of selective attention and future orientation (Stroop, Stoplight, and Delay-Discounting Tasks). Findings indicated that impaired decision making, selective attention, and future orientation contribute to the antisocial presentations displayed by children with CD, irrespective of level of CU traits. Youth high on CU traits without CD showed less risky decision making, as indicated by their performance on the Stoplight laboratory task, than those high on both CD and CU traits, suggesting a potential protective factor against the development of antisocial behavior.

  16. Psychometric evaluation of a motor control test battery of the craniofacial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Piekartz, H; Stotz, E; Both, A; Bahn, G; Armijo-Olivo, S; Ballenberger, N

    2017-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the structural and known-group validity as well as the inter-rater reliability of a test battery to evaluate the motor control of the craniofacial region. Seventy volunteers without TMD and 25 subjects with TMD (Axes I) per the DC/TMD were asked to execute a test battery consisting of eight tests. The tests were video-taped in the same sequence in a standardised manner. Two experienced physical therapists participated in this study as blinded assessors. We used exploratory factor analysis to identify the underlying component structure of the eight tests. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α), inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient) and construct validity (ie, hypothesis testing-known-group validity) (receiver operating curves) were also explored for the test battery. The structural validity showed the presence of one factor underlying the construct of the test battery. The internal consistency was excellent (0.90) as well as the inter-rater reliability. All values of reliability were close to 0.9 or above indicating very high inter-rater reliability. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.93 for rater 1 and 0.94 for rater two, respectively, indicating excellent discrimination between subjects with TMD and healthy controls. The results of the present study support the psychometric properties of test battery to measure motor control of the craniofacial region when evaluated through videotaping. This test battery could be used to differentiate between healthy subjects and subjects with musculoskeletal impairments in the cervical and oro-facial regions. In addition, this test battery could be used to assess the effectiveness of management strategies in the craniofacial region. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Implications of Combined Exposure to Household Air Pollution and HIV on Neurocognition in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. Suter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposure and HIV infection can each cause neurocognitive insult in children. The purpose of this study was to test whether children with combined high air pollution exposure and perinatal HIV infection have even greater risk of neurocognitive impairment. This was a cross-sectional study of HIV-uninfected unexposed (HUU and HIV-infected children and their caregivers in Nairobi, Kenya. We used a detailed neuropsychological battery to evaluate neurocognitive functioning in several domains. We measured caregiver 24-h personal CO exposure as a proxy for child CO exposure and child urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP, a biomarker for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Median 24-h caregiver CO exposure was 6.1 and 3.7 ppm for 45 HIV-infected (mean age 6.6 years and 49 HUU (mean age 6.7 years, respectively; 48.5% of HIV-infected and 38.6% of HUU had caregiver 24-h CO levels exceeding the WHO recommended level. Median 1-OHP exposure was 0.6 and 0.7 µmol/mol creatinine among HIV-infected and HUU children, respectively. HIV-infected children with high urinary 1-OHP (exceeding 0.68 µmol/mol creatinine had significantly lower global cognition (p = 0.04, delayed memory (p = 0.01, and attention scores (p = 0.003. Among HUU children, urinary 1-OHP and caregiver 24-h caregiver CO were not significantly associated with neurocognitive function. Our findings suggest that combined chronic exposure to air pollutants and perinatal HIV infection may be associated with poorer neurocognitive outcomes. High prevalence of air pollution exposure highlights the need to reduce these exposures.

  18. Characterization of neurophysiologic and neurocognitive biomarkers for use in genomic and clinical outcome studies of schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Light

    Full Text Available Endophenotypes are quantitative, laboratory-based measures representing intermediate links in the pathways between genetic variation and the clinical expression of a disorder. Ideal endophenotypes exhibit deficits in patients, are stable over time and across shifts in psychopathology, and are suitable for repeat testing. Unfortunately, many leading candidate endophenotypes in schizophrenia have not been fully characterized simultaneously in large cohorts of patients and controls across these properties. The objectives of this study were to characterize the extent to which widely-used neurophysiological and neurocognitive endophenotypes are: 1 associated with schizophrenia, 2 stable over time, independent of state-related changes, and 3 free of potential practice/maturation or differential attrition effects in schizophrenia patients (SZ and nonpsychiatric comparison subjects (NCS. Stability of clinical and functional measures was also assessed.Participants (SZ n = 341; NCS n = 205 completed a battery of neurophysiological (MMN, P3a, P50 and N100 indices, PPI, startle habituation, antisaccade, neurocognitive (WRAT-3 Reading, LNS-forward, LNS-reorder, WCST-64, CVLT-II. In addition, patients were rated on clinical symptom severity as well as functional capacity and status measures (GAF, UPSA, SOF. 223 subjects (SZ n = 163; NCS n = 58 returned for retesting after 1 year.Most neurophysiological and neurocognitive measures exhibited medium-to-large deficits in schizophrenia, moderate-to-substantial stability across the retest interval, and were independent of fluctuations in clinical status. Clinical symptoms and functional measures also exhibited substantial stability. A Longitudinal Endophenotype Ranking System (LERS was created to rank neurophysiological and neurocognitive biomarkers according to their effect sizes across endophenotype criteria.The majority of neurophysiological and neurocognitive measures exhibited deficits in

  19. Characterization of neurophysiologic and neurocognitive biomarkers for use in genomic and clinical outcome studies of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Gregory A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Rissling, Anthony J; Radant, Allen; Sugar, Catherine A; Sprock, Joyce; Pela, Marlena; Geyer, Mark A; Braff, David L

    2012-01-01

    Endophenotypes are quantitative, laboratory-based measures representing intermediate links in the pathways between genetic variation and the clinical expression of a disorder. Ideal endophenotypes exhibit deficits in patients, are stable over time and across shifts in psychopathology, and are suitable for repeat testing. Unfortunately, many leading candidate endophenotypes in schizophrenia have not been fully characterized simultaneously in large cohorts of patients and controls across these properties. The objectives of this study were to characterize the extent to which widely-used neurophysiological and neurocognitive endophenotypes are: 1) associated with schizophrenia, 2) stable over time, independent of state-related changes, and 3) free of potential practice/maturation or differential attrition effects in schizophrenia patients (SZ) and nonpsychiatric comparison subjects (NCS). Stability of clinical and functional measures was also assessed. Participants (SZ n = 341; NCS n = 205) completed a battery of neurophysiological (MMN, P3a, P50 and N100 indices, PPI, startle habituation, antisaccade), neurocognitive (WRAT-3 Reading, LNS-forward, LNS-reorder, WCST-64, CVLT-II). In addition, patients were rated on clinical symptom severity as well as functional capacity and status measures (GAF, UPSA, SOF). 223 subjects (SZ n = 163; NCS n = 58) returned for retesting after 1 year. Most neurophysiological and neurocognitive measures exhibited medium-to-large deficits in schizophrenia, moderate-to-substantial stability across the retest interval, and were independent of fluctuations in clinical status. Clinical symptoms and functional measures also exhibited substantial stability. A Longitudinal Endophenotype Ranking System (LERS) was created to rank neurophysiological and neurocognitive biomarkers according to their effect sizes across endophenotype criteria. The majority of neurophysiological and neurocognitive measures exhibited deficits in patients

  20. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahir Vally

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection is associated with disturbances in brain function referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. This literature review outlines the recently revised diagnostic criteria for the range of HAND from the earliest to the more advanced stages: (i asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment; (ii mild neurocognitive disorder; and (iii HIV-associated dementia. Relevant literature is also reviewed regarding the differential impact upon component cognitive domains known to be affected in HAND, which in turn should ideally be targeted during clinical and neuropsychological assessments: psychomotor and information processing speed, learning and memory, attention and working memory, speech and language, executive functioning and visuospatial functioning. A discussion outlining the neuropsychological tools used in the diagnostic screening of HAND is also included. The central mechanisms of HAND appear to revolve primarily around psychomotor slowing and cognitive control over mental operations, possibly reflecting the influence of disrupted fronto-striatal circuits on distributed neural networks critical to cognitive functions. The accurate assessment and diagnosis of HAND depends on meeting the need for statistically sound neuropsychological assessment techniques that may be used confidently in assessing South African populations, as well as the development of relevant norms for comparison of test performance data.

  1. Standing Up for Learning: A Pilot Investigation on the Neurocognitive Benefits of Stand-Biased School Desks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana K. Mehta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Standing desks have proven to be effective and viable solutions to combat sedentary behavior among children during the school day in studies around the world. However, little is known regarding the potential of such interventions on cognitive outcomes in children over time. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the neurocognitive benefits, i.e., improvements in executive functioning and working memory, of stand-biased desks and explore any associated changes in frontal brain function. 34 freshman high school students were recruited for neurocognitive testing at two time points during the school year: (1 in the fall semester and (2 in the spring semester (after 27.57 (1.63 weeks of continued exposure. Executive function and working memory was evaluated using a computerized neurocognitive test battery, and brain activation patterns of the prefrontal cortex were obtained using functional near infrared spectroscopy. Continued utilization of the stand-biased desks was associated with significant improvements in executive function and working memory capabilities. Changes in corresponding brain activation patterns were also observed. These findings provide the first preliminary evidence on the neurocognitive benefits of standing desks, which to date have focused largely on energy expenditure. Findings obtained here can drive future research with larger samples and multiple schools, with comparison groups that may in turn implicate the importance of stand-biased desks, as simple environmental changes in classrooms, on enhancing children’s cognitive functioning that drive their cognitive development and impact educational outcomes.

  2. Lithium-ion batteries for hearing aid applications. II. Pulse discharge and safety tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passerini, S.; Coustier, F.; Owens, B. B.

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries were designed to meet the power requirements of hearing aid devices (HADs). The batteries were designed in a 312-button cell size, compatible with existing hearing aids. The batteries were tested to evaluate the design and the electrochemical performance, as they relate to a typical hearing aid application. The present report covers the pulse capabilities, cycle life and preliminary safety tests. The results are compared with other battery chemistries: secondary lithium-alloy and nickel-metal hydride batteries and primary Zn-air batteries. The cell AC impedance was stable over the frequency range between 1 and 50 kHz, ranging between 5 Ω at the higher frequency and 12 Ω at the lower extreme. Pulse tests were consistent with these values, as the cells were capable of providing a series of 100 mA pulses of 10-s duration. The safety tests suggest that the design is intrinsically safe with respect to the most common types of abuse conditions.

  3. Performance Model for High-Power Lithium Titanate Oxide Batteries based on Extended Characterization Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are found nowadays not only in portable/consumer electronics but also in more power demanding applications, such as stationary renewable energy storage, automotive and back-up power supply, because of their superior characteristics in comparison to other energy...... storage technologies. Nevertheless, prior to be used in any of the aforementioned application, a Li-ion battery cell must be intensively characterized and its behavior needs to be understood. This can be realized by performing extended laboratory characterization tests and developing Li-ion battery...... performance models. Furthermore, accurate performance models are necessary in order to analyze the behavior of the battery cell under different mission profiles, by simulation; thus, avoiding time and cost demanding real life tests. This paper presents the development and the parametrization of a performance...

  4. Relationship of amotivation to neurocognition, self-efficacy and functioning in first-episode psychosis: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W C; Kwong, V W Y; Hui, C L M; Chan, S K W; Lee, E H M; Chen, E Y H

    2017-03-01

    Better understanding of the complex interplay among key determinants of functional outcome is crucial to promoting recovery in psychotic disorders. However, this is understudied in the early course of illness. We aimed to examine the relationships among negative symptoms, neurocognition, general self-efficacy and global functioning in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients using structural equation modeling (SEM). Three hundred and twenty-one Chinese patients aged 26-55 years presenting with FEP to an early intervention program in Hong Kong were recruited. Assessments encompassing symptom profiles, functioning, perceived general self-efficacy and a battery of neurocognitive tests were conducted. Negative symptom measurement was subdivided into amotivation and diminished expression (DE) domain scores based on the ratings in the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms. An initial SEM model showed no significant association between functioning and DE which was removed from further analysis. A final trimmed model yielded very good model fit (χ2 = 15.48, p = 0.63; comparative fit index = 1.00; root mean square error of approximation amotivation, neurocognition and general self-efficacy had a direct effect on global functioning. Amotivation was also found to mediate a significant indirect effect of neurocognition and general self-efficacy on functioning. Neurocognition was not significantly related to general self-efficacy. Our results indicate a critical intermediary role of amotivation in linking neurocognitive impairment to functioning in FEP. General self-efficacy may represent a promising treatment target for improvement of motivational deficits and functional outcome in the early illness stage.

  5. 78 FR 15753 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ...-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft...-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The draft guide describes methods that the NRC staff..., testing, and replacement of vented lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit...

  6. Characterization testing of a 40 ampere hour bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gemeiner, Russel P.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive characterization testing has been done on a second 40-ampere hour (A h), 10-cell, bipolar nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery, to study the effects of operating parameters such as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure on capacity, A h and watt hour (W h) efficiencies, and end-of-charge and midpoint discharge voltages. Testing to date has produced many interesting results, with the battery performing well throughout the test matrix except during the high-rate (5 C and 10 C) discharges, where poorer than expected results were observed. The exact cause of this poor performance is, as yet, unknown. Small scale 2 in. x 2 in. battery tests are to be used in studying this problem. Low earth orbit cycle life testing at a 40-percent depth of discharge and 10 C is scheduled to follow the characterization testing.

  7. Characterization testing of a 40 AHR bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gemeiner, Russel P.

    1989-01-01

    Extensive characterization testing has been done on a second 40 amp-hour (Ahr), 10-cell bipolar nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery to study the effects of such operating parameters as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure, on capacity, Ahr and watt-hour (Whr) efficiencies, end-of-charge (EOC) and mid-point discharge voltages. Testing to date has produced many interesting results, with the battery performing well throughout all of the test matrix except during the high-rate (5C and 10C) discharges, where poorer than expected results were observed. The exact cause of this poor performance is, as yet, unknown. Small scale 2 x 2 inch battery tests are to be used in studying this problem. Low earth orbit (LEO) cycle life testing at a 40 percent depth of discharge (DOD) and 10 C is scheduled to follow the characterization testing.

  8. LEO life tests on a 75 Ah bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, S.; Koehler, C.; Applewhite, A.

    1988-01-01

    The design, building, and testing of an actively cooled 10-cell 75-Ah bipolar nickel/hydrogen battery are discussed. During the last 1000 cycles, the battery has shown some evidence of elecrical performance degradation. In particular, EOC and EOD voltages have increased and decreased by several millivolts, respectively, and deep discharge capacities to a 1.0 V/cell average cutoff voltage have decreased.

  9. Test Series 4: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Exide EMP-13 battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1985-03-01

    This report, the fourth in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of a 27-year old lead-antimony Exide EMP-13 cells from the recently decommissioned Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; and multicell (five-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of nine electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations. None of the nine cells failed during the actual seismic tests when a range of ZPAs up to 1.5 g was imposed. Subsequent discharge capacity tests of five of the cells showed, however, that none of the cells could deliver the accepted standard of 80% of their rated electrical capacity for 3 hours. In fact, none of the 5 cells could deliver more than a 33% capacity. Two of the seismically tested cells and one untested, low capacity cell were disassembled for examination and metallurgical analyses. The inspection showed the cells to be in poor condition. The negative plates in the vicinity of the bus connections were extremely weak, the positive buses were corroded and brittle, negative and positive active material utilization was extremely uneven, and corrosion products littered the cells

  10. Toxicity assessment of sediments from three European river basins using a sediment contact test battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuikka, A.I.; Schmitt, C.; Hoess, S.; Bandow, N; von der Ohe, P.; de Zwart, D.; de Deckere, E.; Streck, G.; Mothes, S.; van Hattum, A.G.M.; Kocan, A.; Brix, R.; Brack, W.; Barcelo, D.; Sormunen, A.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of four polluted sediments and their corresponding reference sediments from three European river basins were investigated using a battery of six sediment contact tests representing three different trophic levels. The tests included were chronic tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus

  11. Fireworks Assembler (Fireworks) 737.887 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  12. Neurocognitive recovery of patients with paranoid schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Molchanova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. At present neurocognitive impairment is considered a core feature of schizophrenia. This statement is grounded on cognitive impairment stability, the persistence of cognitive impairment independently of the disease stage and other symptoms of schizophrenia. The relevance of the search for cognitive remediation methods is determined by the influence of cognitive functioning on the functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia. In order to solve this problem, scientists are actively investigating such direction in the treatment of patients with this psychopathology as «neurocognitive therapy» or neurocognitive training. Objective.To evaluate the effectiveness of neurocognitive training in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Methods and materials. The patients who matched inclusion criteria were assessed on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP, neuropsychological tests (Trail Making Test part A and B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Luria test at the baseline, 1st and 6th month. All patients who were included in the study were randomly assigned into two groups. The intervention group (n=40 underwent a standard supportive treatment and neurocognitive training. The control group (n=31 received supportive medication treatment alone. Results. After 1st month, a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups was found both for the overall PANSS score improvement and improvement in several items, which represented the cognitive decline. Total PSP score increased significantly in the intervention group from 41-50 to 51-60 (р=0.0001. In Wisconsin Card Sorting Test the proportion of incorrect answers decreased by 31.4% (р=0.0001, perseverative errors by 20.1% (р=0.042, the number of completed categories increased by 33.5% (р=0.002. Conclusion. The proposed neurocognitive training program showed positive results, which was reflected in a statistically

  13. Concussion symptoms and neurocognitive performance of high school and college athletes who incur multiple concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Moran, Ryan; Wilhelm, Kristyn

    2013-12-01

    Multiple concussions have been associated with prolonged symptoms, recovery time, and risk for future concussions. However, very few studies have examined the effect of multiple concussions on neurocognitive performance and the recently revised symptom clusters using a large database. To examine concussed athletes with a history of 0, 1, 2, or ≥3 concussions on neurocognitive performance and the recently revised symptom clusters. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. The independent variables were concussion group (0, 1, 2, and ≥3 concussions) and time (baseline, 3 days, and 8 days). The dependent variables were neurocognitive test scores as measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neurocognitive test battery (verbal and visual memory, processing speed, and reaction time) and 4 concussion symptom clusters (migraine-cognitive-fatigue, affective, somatic, and sleep). All concussed athletes (n = 596) were administered the ImPACT test at a mean 2.67 ± 1.98 and 7.95 ± 4.46 days after injury. A series of 4 (concussion group) × 3 (time) repeated-measures analyses of covariance (age = covariate) were performed on ImPACT composite scores and symptom clusters. Concussed athletes with ≥3 concussions were still impaired 8 days after a concussion compared with baseline scores on verbal memory (P Concussed athletes with a history of ≥3 concussions take longer to recover than athletes with 1 or no previous concussion. Future research should concentrate on validating the new symptom clusters on multiple concussed athletes, examining longer recovery times (ie, >8 days) among athletes with multiple concussions.

  14. The re-emergence of sodium ion batteries: testing, processing, and manufacturability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Samuel; Kendrick, Emma

    2018-01-01

    With the re-emergence of sodium ion batteries (NIBs), we discuss the reasons for the recent interests in this technology and discuss the synergies between lithium ion battery (LIB) and NIB technologies and the potential for NIB as a “drop-in” technology for LIB manufacturing. The electrochemical testing of sodium materials in sodium metal anode arrangements is reviewed. The performance, stability, and polarization of the sodium in these test cells lead to alternative testing in three-electrode and alternative anode cell configurations. NIB manufacturability is also discussed, together with the impact that the material stability has upon the electrodes and coating. Finally, full-cell NIB technologies are reviewed, and literature proof-of-concept cells give an idea of some of the key differences in the testing protocols of these batteries. For more commercially relevant formats, safety, passive voltage control through cell balancing and cell formation aspects are discussed. PMID:29910609

  15. Experimental Testing Procedures and Dynamic Model Validation for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baccino, Francesco; Marinelli, Mattia; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at characterizing the electrochemical and thermal parameters of a 15 kW/320 kWh vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) installed in the SYSLAB test facility of the DTU Risø Campus and experimentally validating the proposed dynamic model realized in Matlab-Simulink. The adopted testing...... efficiency of the battery system. The test procedure has general validity and could also be used for other storage technologies. The storage model proposed and described is suitable for electrical studies and can represent a general model in terms of validity. Finally, the model simulation outputs...

  16. Mood disorders: neurocognitive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Byrow, Yulisha; Fritz, Kristina; Das, Pritha; Baune, Bernhard T; Porter, Richard J; Outhred, Tim

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, a number of neurocognitive models stemming from psychiatry and psychology schools of thought have conceptualized the pathophysiology of mood disorders in terms of dysfunctional neural mechanisms that underpin and drive neurocognitive processes. Though these models have been useful for advancing our theoretical understanding and facilitating important lines of research, translation of these models and their application within the clinical arena have been limited-partly because of lack of integration and synthesis. Cognitive neuroscience provides a novel perspective for understanding and modeling mood disorders. This selective review of influential neurocognitive models develops an integrative approach that can serve as a template for future research and the development of a clinically meaningful framework for investigating, diagnosing, and treating mood disorders. A selective literature search was conducted using PubMed and PsychINFO to identify prominent neurobiological and neurocognitive models of mood disorders. Most models identify similar neural networks and brain regions and neuropsychological processes in the neurocognition of mood, however, they differ in terms of specific functions attached to neural processes and how these interact. Furthermore, cognitive biases, reward processing and motivation, rumination, and mood stability, which play significant roles in the manner in which attention, appraisal, and response processes are deployed in mood disorders, are not sufficiently integrated. The inclusion of interactions between these additional components enhances our understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of mood disorders. Through integration of key cognitive functions and understanding of how these interface with neural functioning within neurocognitive models of mood disorders, a framework for research can be created for translation to diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John

  17. Diffusion tensor imaging identifies deficits in white matter microstructure in subjects with type 1 diabetes that correlate with reduced neurocognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodl, Christopher T; Franc, Daniel T; Rao, Jyothi P; Anderson, Fiona S; Thomas, William; Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Seaquist, Elizabeth R

    2008-11-01

    Long-standing type 1 diabetes is associated with deficits on neurocognitive testing that suggest central white matter dysfunction. This study investigated whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a type of magnetic resonance imaging that measures white matter integrity quantitatively, could identify white matter microstructural deficits in patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes and whether these differences would be associated with deficits found by neurocognitive tests. Twenty-five subjects with type 1 diabetes for at least 15 years and 25 age- and sex-matched control subjects completed DTI on a 3.0 Tesla scanner and a battery of neurocognitive tests. Fractional anisotropy was calculated for the major white matter tracts of the brain. Diabetic subjects had significantly lower mean fractional anisotropy than control subjects in the posterior corona radiata and the optic radiation (P < 0.002). In type 1 diabetic subjects, reduced fractional anisotropy correlated with poorer performance on the copy portion of the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure Drawing Test and the Grooved Peg Board Test, both of which are believed to assess white matter function. Reduced fractional anisotropy also correlated with duration of diabetes and increased A1C. A history of severe hypoglycemia did not correlate with fractional anisotropy. DTI can detect white matter microstructural deficits in subjects with long-standing type 1 diabetes. These deficits correlate with poorer performance on selected neurocognitive tests of white matter function.

  18. Modeling a constant power load for nickel-hydrogen battery testing using SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Douglas B.; Lollar, Louis F.; Nelms, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effort to design and model a constant power load for the HST (Hubble Space Telescope) nickel-hydrogen battery tests is described. The constant power load was designed for three different simulations on the batteries: life cycling, reconditioning, and capacity testing. A dc-dc boost converter was designed to act as this constant power load. A boost converter design was chosen because of the low test battery voltage (4 to 6 VDC) generated and the relatively high power requirement of 60 to 70 W. The SPICE model was shown to consistently predict variations in the actual circuit as various designs were attempted. It is concluded that the confidence established in the SPICE model of the constant power load ensures its extensive utilization in future efforts to improve performance in the actual load circuit.

  19. Interpreting in vitro developmental toxicity test battery results: The consideration of toxicokinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosgra, S.; Westerhout, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the EU collaborative project ChemScreen an alternative, in vitro assay-based test strategy was developed to screen compounds for reproductive toxicity. A toxicokinetic modeling approach was used to allow quantitative comparison between effective concentrations in the in vitro test battery and

  20. Evaluation of an alternative in vitro test battery for detecting reproductive toxicants in a grouping context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, E.D.; Bosgra, S.; Buist, H.E.; Lewin, G.; Linden, S.C. van der; Man, H.Y.; Piersma, A.H.; Rorije, E.; Schulpen, S.H.W.; Schwarz, M.; Uibel, F.; Vugt-Lussenburg, B.M.A. van; Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Burg, B. van der

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed a battery consisting of CALUX transcriptional activation assays, the ReProGlo assay, and the embryonic stem cell test, and zebrafish embryotoxicity assay as 'apical' tests to correctly predict developmental toxicity for 11 out of 12 compounds, and to explain the one false

  1. The NEWMEDS rodent touchscreen test battery for cognition relevant to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvoslef-Eide, M; Mar, A C; Nilsson, S R O; Alsiö, J; Heath, C J; Saksida, L M; Robbins, T W; Bussey, T J

    2015-11-01

    The NEWMEDS initiative (Novel Methods leading to New Medications in Depression and Schizophrenia, http://www.newmeds-europe.com ) is a large industrial-academic collaborative project aimed at developing new methods for drug discovery for schizophrenia. As part of this project, Work package 2 (WP02) has developed and validated a comprehensive battery of novel touchscreen tasks for rats and mice for assessing cognitive domains relevant to schizophrenia. This article provides a review of the touchscreen battery of tasks for rats and mice for assessing cognitive domains relevant to schizophrenia and highlights validation data presented in several primary articles in this issue and elsewhere. The battery consists of the five-choice serial reaction time task and a novel rodent continuous performance task for measuring attention, a three-stimulus visual reversal and the serial visual reversal task for measuring cognitive flexibility, novel non-matching to sample-based tasks for measuring spatial working memory and paired-associates learning for measuring long-term memory. The rodent (i.e. both rats and mice) touchscreen operant chamber and battery has high translational value across species due to its emphasis on construct as well as face validity. In addition, it offers cognitive profiling of models of diseases with cognitive symptoms (not limited to schizophrenia) through a battery approach, whereby multiple cognitive constructs can be measured using the same apparatus, enabling comparisons of performance across tasks. This battery of tests constitutes an extensive tool package for both model characterisation and pre-clinical drug discovery.

  2. Affective symptoms in schizophrenia are strongly associated with neurocognitive deficits indicating disorders in executive functions, visual memory, attention and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Thika, Supaksorn; Anderson, George; Galecki, Piotr; Maes, Michael

    2018-01-03

    The aim of this study was to assess the neurocognitive correlates of affective symptoms in schizophrenia. Towards this end, 40 healthy controls and 80 schizophrenia patients were investigated with six tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), assessing spatial working memory, paired-association learning, one touch stocking, rapid visual information (RVP), emotional recognition test and intra/extradimensional set shifting. The Hamilton Depression (HDRS) and Anxiety (HAMA) Rating Scales and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) as well as the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were also used. There were highly significant associations between all 6 CANTAB tests and HDRS, HAMA and CDSS (except RVP) scores. The most significant items associating with neurocognitive impairments in schizophrenia were self-depreciation (CDSS), fatigue, psychomotor retardation and agitation, psychic and somatic anxiety (HDRS), fears, cognitive symptoms, somatic-muscular, genito-urinary and autonomic symptoms and anxious behavior (HAMA). The selected HDRS and HAMA symptoms indicate fatigue, fears, anxiety, agitation, retardation, somatization and subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) and are therefore labeled "FAARS". Up to 28.8% of the variance in the 6 CANTAB measurements was explained by FAARS, which are better predictors of neurocognitive impairments than the PANSS negative subscale score. Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia are best predicted by FAARS combined with difficulties in abstract thinking. In conclusion, depression and anxiety symptoms accompanying the negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with neurocognitive deficits indicating disorders in executive functions, attention, visual memory, and social cognition. Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia reflect difficulties in abstract thinking and FAARS, including subjective cognitive complaints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Study of the fire behavior of high-energy lithium-ion batteries with full-scale burning test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Ping; Wang, QingSong; Huang, PeiFeng; Li, Ke; Sun, JinHua; Kong, DePeng; Chen, ChunHua

    2015-07-01

    A full-scale burning test is conducted to evaluate the safety of large-size and high-energy 50 Ah lithium-iron phosphate/graphite battery pack, which is composed of five 10 Ah single cells. The complex fire hazards associated with the combustion process of the battery are presented. The battery combustion behavior can be summarized into the following stages: battery expansion, jet flame, stable combustion, a second cycle of a jet flame followed by stable combustion, a third cycle of a jet flame followed by stable combustion, abatement and extinguishment. The multiple jets of flame indicate serious consequences for the battery and pose a challenge for battery safety. The battery ignites when the battery temperature reaches approximately 175-180 °C. This critical temperature is related to an internal short circuit of the battery, which results from the melting of the separator. The maximum temperature of the flame can reach 1500 °C. The heat release rate (HRR) varies based on the oxygen generated by the battery and the Joule effect of the internal short circuit. The HRR and heat of combustion can reach 49.4 kW and 18,195.1 kJ, respectively. The state of charge of the battery has a significant effect on the maximum HRR, the overall heat generation and the mass loss of the battery.

  4. The minimum test battery to screen for binocular vision anomalies: report 3 of the BAND study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Rakshit, Archayeeta; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Swaminathan, Meenakshi; George, Ronnie; Kapur, Suman; Scheiman, Mitchell; Ramani, Krishna Kumar

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to report the minimum test battery needed to screen non-strabismic binocular vision anomalies (NSBVAs) in a community set-up. When large numbers are to be screened we aim to identify the most useful test battery when there is no opportunity for a more comprehensive and time-consuming clinical examination. The prevalence estimates and normative data for binocular vision parameters were estimated from the Binocular Vision Anomalies and Normative Data (BAND) study, following which cut-off estimates and receiver operating characteristic curves to identify the minimum test battery have been plotted. In the receiver operating characteristic phase of the study, children between nine and 17 years of age were screened in two schools in the rural arm using the minimum test battery, and the prevalence estimates with the minimum test battery were found. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed that near point of convergence with penlight and red filter (> 7.5 cm), monocular accommodative facility ( 1.25 prism dioptres) were significant factors with cut-off values for best sensitivity and specificity. This minimum test battery was applied to a cohort of 305 children. The mean (standard deviation) age of the subjects was 12.7 (two) years with 121 males and 184 females. Using the minimum battery of tests obtained through the receiver operating characteristic analyses, the prevalence of NSBVAs was found to be 26 per cent. Near point of convergence with penlight and red filter > 10 cm was found to have the highest sensitivity (80 per cent) and specificity (73 per cent) for the diagnosis of convergence insufficiency. For the diagnosis of accommodative infacility, monocular accommodative facility with a cut-off of less than seven cycles per minute was the best predictor for screening (92 per cent sensitivity and 90 per cent specificity). The minimum test battery of near point of convergence with penlight and red filter, difference between distance and near

  5. Hippocampal dosimetry correlates with the change in neurocognitive function after hippocampal sparing during whole brain radiotherapy: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Ping-Fang; Yang, Chi-Cheng; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Ting-Yi; Wu, Yi-Ming; Pai, Ping-Ching; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Wu, Tung-Ho; Shen, Yi-Liang; Lin, Shinn-Yn

    2015-01-01

    Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has been the treatment of choice for patients with brain metastases. However, change/decline of neurocognitive functions (NCFs) resulting from impaired hippocampal neurogenesis might occur after WBRT. It is reported that conformal hippocampal sparing would provide the preservation of NCFs. Our study aims to investigate the hippocampal dosimetry and to demonstrate the correlation between hippocampal dosimetry and neurocognitive outcomes in patients receiving hippocampal sparing during WBRT (HS-WBRT). Forty prospectively recruited cancer patients underwent HS-WBRT for therapeutic or prophylactic purposes. Before receiving HS-WBRT, all participants received a battery of baseline neurocognitive assessment, including memory, executive functions and psychomotor speed. The follow-up neurocognitive assessment at 4 months after HS-WBRT was also performed. For the delivery of HS-WBRT, Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) with two full arcs and two non-coplanar partial arcs was employed. For each treatment planning, dose volume histograms were generated for left hippocampus, right hippocampus, and the composite hippocampal structure respectively. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD 2 ) assuming an alpha/beta ratio of 2 Gy were computed. To perform analyses addressing the correlation between hippocampal dosimetry and the change in scores of NCFs, pre- and post-HS-WBRT neurocognitive assessments were available in 24 patients in this study. Scores of NCFs were quite stable before and after HS-WBRT in terms of hippocampus-dependent memory. Regarding verbal memory, the corresponding EQD 2 values of 0, 10, 50, 80 % irradiating the composite hippocampal structure with <12.60 Gy, <8.81, <7.45 Gy and <5.83 Gy respectively were significantly associated with neurocognitive preservation indicated by the immediate recall of Word List Test of Wechsler Memory Scale-III. According to logistic regression analyses, it was noted that

  6. The testing of batteries linked to supercapacitors with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy: A comparison between Li-ion and valve regulated lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferg, Ernst; Rossouw, Claire; Loyson, Peter

    2013-03-01

    For electric vehicles, a supercapacitor can be coupled to the electrical system in order to increase and optimize the energy and power densities of the drive system during acceleration and regenerative breaking. This study looked at the charge acceptance and maximum discharge ability of a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) and a Li-ion battery connected in parallel to supercapacitors. The test procedure evaluated the advantage of using a supercapacitor at a 2 F:1 Ah ratio with the battery types at various states of charge (SoC). The results showed that about 7% of extra charge was achieved over a 5-s test time for a Li-ion hybrid system at 20% SoC, whereas at the 80% SoC the additional capacity was approximately 16%. While for the VRLA battery hybrid system, an additional charge of up to 20% was achieved when the battery was at 80% SoC, with little or no benefit at the 20% SoC. The advantage of the supercapacitor in parallel with a VRLA battery was noticeable on its discharge ability, where significant extra capacity was achieved for short periods of time for a battery at the 60% and 40% SoC when compared to the Li-ion hybrid system. The study also made use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) with a suitable equivalent circuit model to explain, in particular, the internal resistance and capacitance differences observed between the different battery chemistries with and without a supercapacitor.

  7. Red blood cell omega-3 fatty acid levels and neurocognitive performance in deployed U.S. Servicemembers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Daniel T; Deuster, Patricia A; Harris, William S; Macrae, Holden; Dretsch, Michael N

    2013-01-01

    To explore the cross-sectional relationships between blood eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid (HSOmega-3 Index(®)) and sleep disorders, depression, anxiety, and neurocognitive performance in Servicemembers deployed to Iraq. Servicemembers with mild-to-moderate depression by the Patient Health Questionnarie-9 from two US military camps were invited to participate in this study. A battery of validated psychosocial (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Zung Depression, Zung Anxiety, Epworth Sleepiness, and Combat Experiences scales) and computerized neurocognitive tests were completed by each participant. Five neurocognitive domain scores were calculated--Processing Speed, Complex Attention, Reaction Time, Cognitive Flexibility (CF), and Executive Function (EF). A drop of blood was also collected on an anti-oxidant-treated filter paper card and sent for HS-Omega-3 Index(®) analysis. An analysis of variance contrast was used to test for linear trends between quartiles of the HS-Omega-3 Index(®) for both EF and CF. The mean HS-Omega-3 Index(®) was 3.5 ± 0.7% (n = 78). The HS-Omega-3 Index(®) was not significantly associated with scores for anxiety, depression, or sleep, whether assessed as continuous or dichotomous variables, but was directly associated with CF and EF (P quality. In those with poor sleep quality (n = 63), EF and CF were higher (P = 0.005) in subjects with Omega-3 levels above versus below the mean. Optimal neurocognitive performance is essential during deployment. Our finding that EF and CF were positively related to HS-Omega-3 Index(®) suggests that improving omega-3 status through an increase in omega-3 intake may improve neurocognitive performance and confer an element of resilience to poor sleep.

  8. Accuracy statistics in predicting Independent Activities of Daily Living (IADL) capacity with comprehensive and brief neuropsychological test batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzmark, Peter; Deutsch, Gayle K

    2018-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine the predictive accuracy of a comprehensive neuropsychological and brief neuropsychological test battery with regard to the capacity to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Accuracy statistics that included measures of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicted power and positive likelihood ratio were calculated for both types of batteries. The sample was drawn from a general neurological group of adults (n = 117) that included a number of older participants (age >55; n = 38). Standardized neuropsychological assessments were administered to all participants and were comprised of the Halstead Reitan Battery and portions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. A comprehensive test battery yielded a moderate increase over base-rate in predictive accuracy that generalized to older individuals. There was only limited support for using a brief battery, for although sensitivity was high, specificity was low. We found that a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery provided good classification accuracy for predicting IADL capacity.

  9. Neurocognitive impairment in the deficit subtype of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; Foussias, George; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Remington, Gary

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by numerous diverse signs and symptoms. Individuals with prominent, persistent, and idiopathic negative symptoms are thought to encompass a distinct subtype of schizophrenia. Previous work, including studies involving neuropsychological evaluations, has supported this position. The present study sought to further examine whether deficit patients are cognitively distinct from non-deficit patients with schizophrenia. A comprehensive neurocognitive battery including tests of verbal memory, vigilance, processing speed, reasoning, and working memory was administered to 657 patients with schizophrenia. Of these, 144 (22 %) patients were classified as deficit patients using a proxy identification method based on severity, persistence over time, and possible secondary sources (e.g., depression) of negative symptoms. Deficit patients with schizophrenia performed worse on all tests of cognition relative to non-deficit patients. These patients were characterized by a generalized cognitive impairment on the order of about 0.4 standard deviations below that of non-deficit patients. However, when comparing deficit patients to non-deficit patients who also present with negative symptoms, albeit not enduring or primary, no group differences in cognitive performance were found. Furthermore, a discriminant function analysis classifying patients into deficit/non-deficit groups based on cognitive scores demonstrated only 62.3 % accuracy, meaning over one-third of individuals were misclassified. The deficit subtype of schizophrenia is not markedly distinct from non-deficit schizophrenia in terms of neurocognitive performance. While deficit patients tend to have poorer performance on cognitive tests, the magnitude of this effect is relatively modest, translating to over 70 % overlap in scores between groups.

  10. Theory of mind and neurocognition in early psychosis: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Robyn; Connors, Michael H; Still, Megan; Ward, Philip B; Catts, Stanley

    2014-12-04

    People with chronic psychosis often display theory of mind impairments that are not fully accounted for by other, more general neurocognitive deficits. In these patients, both theory of mind and neurocognitive deficits contribute to poor functioning, independently of psychotic symptoms. In young people with recent-onset psychosis, however, it is unclear the extent to which theory of mind impairment is independent of neurocognitive deficits. The primary aim of this study was to examine the evidence for specific theory of mind impairments in early psychosis. A secondary aim was to explore the relations between theory of mind, neurocognition, symptom severity, and functional outcomes. Twenty-three patients who were within two years of their first psychotic episode and 19 healthy controls completed theory of mind and neurocognitive batteries. Social functioning, quality of life, and symptom severity were also assessed in patients. Patients demonstrated deficits in tasks assessing theory of mind and neurocognition relative to controls. Patients' deficits in theory of mind were evident even after adjusting for their deficits in neurocognition. Neither theory of mind nor neurocognition predicted social functioning or quality of life in this early psychosis sample. Severity of negative symptoms, however, was a significant predictor of both outcomes. While a specific theory of mind impairment was evident in this early psychosis sample, severity of negative symptoms emerged as the best predictor of poor functional outcome. Further early psychosis research is needed to examine the longitudinal progression of theory of mind impairments - independent of neurocognitive deficits - and their impact on psychosocial function.

  11. 76 FR 31749 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Consumer Appliances: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... cellular telephones and portable media players such as MP3 players. D. Multiple-Voltage External Power... solid base for performing battery charger testing. (PG&E, Pub. Mtg. Tran., No. 2 at p. 14) PG&E, Delta-Q...

  12. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module

  13. Evaluation of the preliminary auditory profile test battery in an international multi-centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, T.E.M.; Kollmeier, B.; Vormann, M.; Lijzenga, J.; Houtgast, T.; Hallgren, M.; Larsby, B.; Athalye, S.P.; Lutman, M.E.; Dreschler, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes the composition and international multi-centre evaluation of a battery of tests termed the preliminary auditory profile. It includes measures of loudness perception, listening effort, speech perception, spectral and temporal resolution, spatial hearing, self-reported

  14. Fast Charging and Smart Charging Tests for Electric Vehicles Batteries Using Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forero Camacho, Oscar Mauricio; Mihet-Popa, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EV) technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend, there is an outstanding need for common platforms and sharing of knowledge and core technologies. This paper presents......, and forced and pulsed power. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of smart charging and fast charging on the power system, on the battery state of health and degradation, and to find out the limitations of the batteries for a Smart Grid. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages...

  15. Neurocognitive performance in family-based and case-control studies of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Ruben C.; Braff, David L.; Calkins, Monica E.; Dobie, Dorcas J.; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Light, Gregory A.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D.; Seidman, Larry J.; Siever, Larry J.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sprock, Joyce; Stone, William S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) are established and the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) investigated such measures as endophenotypes in family-based (COGS-1) and case-control (COGS-2) studies. By requiring family participation, family-based sampling may result in samples that vary demographically and perform better on neurocognitive measures. Methods The Penn computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) evaluates accuracy and speed of performance for several domains and was administered across sites in COGS-1 and COGS-2. Most tests were included in both studies. COGS-1 included 328 patients with SZ and 497 healthy comparison subjects (HCS) and COGS-2 included 1195 patients and 1009 HCS. Results Demographically, COGS-1 participants were younger, more educated, with more educated parents and higher estimated IQ compared to COGS-2 participants. After controlling for demographics, the two samples produced very similar performance profiles compared to their respective controls. As expected, performance was better and with smaller effect sizes compared to controls in COGS-1 relative to COGS-2. Better performance was most pronounced for spatial processing while emotion identification had large effect sizes for both accuracy and speed in both samples. Performance was positively correlated with functioning and negatively with negative and positive symptoms in both samples, but correlations were attenuated in COGS-2, especially with positive symptoms. Conclusions Patients ascertained through family-based design have more favorable demographics and better performance on some neurocognitive domains. Thus, studies that use case-control ascertainment may tap into populations with more severe forms of illness that are exposed to less favorable factors compared to those ascertained with family-based designs. PMID:25432636

  16. Neurocognitive performance in family-based and case-control studies of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Ruben C; Braff, David L; Calkins, Monica E; Dobie, Dorcas J; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Light, Gregory A; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Sprock, Joyce; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Gur, Raquel E

    2015-04-01

    Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) are established and the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) investigated such measures as endophenotypes in family-based (COGS-1) and case-control (COGS-2) studies. By requiring family participation, family-based sampling may result in samples that vary demographically and perform better on neurocognitive measures. The Penn computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) evaluates accuracy and speed of performance for several domains and was administered across sites in COGS-1 and COGS-2. Most tests were included in both studies. COGS-1 included 328 patients with SZ and 497 healthy comparison subjects (HCS) and COGS-2 included 1195 patients and 1009 HCS. Demographically, COGS-1 participants were younger, more educated, with more educated parents and higher estimated IQ compared to COGS-2 participants. After controlling for demographics, the two samples produced very similar performance profiles compared to their respective controls. As expected, performance was better and with smaller effect sizes compared to controls in COGS-1 relative to COGS-2. Better performance was most pronounced for spatial processing while emotion identification had large effect sizes for both accuracy and speed in both samples. Performance was positively correlated with functioning and negatively with negative and positive symptoms in both samples, but correlations were attenuated in COGS-2, especially with positive symptoms. Patients ascertained through family-based design have more favorable demographics and better performance on some neurocognitive domains. Thus, studies that use case-control ascertainment may tap into populations with more severe forms of illness that are exposed to less favorable factors compared to those ascertained with family-based designs.

  17. Identification of conductive hearing loss using air conduction tests alone: reliability and validity of an automatic test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convery, Elizabeth; Keidser, Gitte; Seeto, Mark; Freeston, Katrina; Zhou, Dan; Dillon, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a combination of automatically administered pure-tone audiometry and a tone-in-noise detection task, both delivered via an air conduction (AC) pathway, could reliably and validly predict the presence of a conductive component to the hearing loss. The authors hypothesized that performance on the battery of tests would vary according to hearing loss type. A secondary objective was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a novel automatic audiometry algorithm to assess its suitability for inclusion in the test battery. Participants underwent a series of hearing assessments that were conducted in a randomized order: manual pure-tone air conduction audiometry and bone conduction audiometry; automatic pure-tone air conduction audiometry; and an automatic tone-in-noise detection task. The automatic tests were each administered twice. The ability of the automatic test battery to: (a) predict the presence of an air-bone gap (ABG); and (b) accurately measure AC hearing thresholds was assessed against the results of manual audiometry. Test-retest conditions were compared to determine the reliability of each component of the automatic test battery. Data were collected on 120 ears from normal-hearing and conductive, sensorineural, and mixed hearing-loss subgroups. Performance differences between different types of hearing loss were observed. Ears with a conductive component (conductive and mixed ears) tended to have normal signal to noise ratios (SNR) despite impaired thresholds in quiet, while ears without a conductive component (normal and sensorineural ears) demonstrated, on average, an increasing relationship between their thresholds in quiet and their achieved SNR. Using the relationship between these two measures among ears with no conductive component as a benchmark, the likelihood that an ear has a conductive component can be estimated based on the deviation from this benchmark. The sensitivity and

  18. Orbital simulation life tests of nickel hydrogen batteries with additional non-eclipse cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. J.; Donley, S. W.; Verrier, D. C.

    Nickel-hydrogen battery technology has established itself as the system of choice to provide energy storage on board Earth orbiting satellites. In addition to providing electrical power for the satellite during the periods the satellite's solar arrays are eclipsed by the Earth, applications are evolving (such as ion propulsion) where the battery is required to supplement the power supplied to the spacecraft by the solar panels in order to meet the peak power demands. In this paper, the results of a four-year accelerated life test programme, equivalent to more than 20 years in orbit, are reported. Additional non-eclipse cycles were added to both the eclipse and solstice seasons of each simulated spacecraft year. The results show that the additional discharges do not significantly effect the rates of performance degradation of the batteries.

  19. Simulated earthquake testing of naturally aged C and D LCU-13 station battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulk, J.D.; Black, D.A.; Janis, W.J.; Royce, C.J.

    1985-03-01

    A sample of 10-year-old lead-acid storage batteries from the North Anna Nuclear Power Station (Virginia Electric and Power Company) were tested on a shaker table. Seven cells were subjected to simulated earthquakes with a ZPA of approximately 1.5 g. All seven delivered uninterrupted power during the shaker tests and were able to pass a post-seismic capacity test. Two cells were shaken to higher intensities (ZPA approximately equal to 2 g). These cells provided uninterrupted power during the shaker tests, but had post-seismic capacities that were below the required level for Class1E battery cells. After the tests, several cells were disassembled and examined. Internal components were in good condition with limited oxidization and plate cracking

  20. Recharging the battery: placement tests for ESP students

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Isabel Azevedo Cunha; Márcia do Amaral Peixoto Martins; Inés Kayon de Miller; Lucia Pacheco de Oliveira; James Dean Brown

    2001-01-01

    This paper first reviews key concepts in language testing and discusses the use of the English Language Placement Test administered at the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro to computer science students, who are required t o take one of the two ESP courses offered by the English program. The analysis of the scores on two versions of a test administered to two different groups of computer science students who took the examination in sequential semesters is presented. For the origin...

  1. Higher Anti-CMV IgG Concentrations are Associated with Worse Neurocognitive Performance During Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, Scott; Bharti, Ajay; Perez-Valero, Ignacio; Hanson, Barbara; Franklin, Donald; Woods, Steven Paul; Gianella, Sara; de Oliveira, Michelli Faria; Heaton, Robert K; Grant, Igor; Landay, Alan L; Lurain, Nell

    2018-03-01

    To determine the association of CMV infection with neurocognitive performance in HIV+ adults. Cross-sectional, observational, exploratory study. Anti-CMV IgG concentrations in blood and CMV DNA copies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in stored specimens of 80 HIV+ adults who were previously assessed with a standardized, comprehensive neurocognitive test battery. Thirty-eight were taking suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART, HIV RNA ≤ 50 copies/mL) and 42 were not taking ART. A panel of 7 soluble biomarkers were also measured by immunoassay in CSF. Anti-CMV IgG concentrations ranged from 5.2 to 46.1 U/mL. CMV DNA was detected in 7 (8.8%) blood plasma but in none of the CSF specimens. Higher anti-CMV IgG levels were associated with older age (p=0.0017), lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count (pperformance overall (p=0.059). This correlation was present in those taking suppressive ART (p=0.0049) but not in those who were not taking ART (p=0.92). Worse neurocognitive performance remained associated with higher anti-CMV IgG levels after accounting for other covariates in multivariate models (Model p=0.0038). Detectable plasma CMV DNA was associated with AIDS (p=0.05) but not with neurocognitive performance. CMV may influence neurocognitive performance in HIV+ adults taking suppressive ART. Future clinical trials of anti-CMV therapy should help determine whether the observed relationships are causal.

  2. Schizophrenia, Narrative, and Neurocognition: The Utility of Life-Stories in Understanding Social Problem-Solving Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Aubrey M; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Bourassa, Kyle J; Gallagher, Colin J; Shakeel, Mohammed K; Docherty, Nancy M

    2018-01-22

    Schizophrenia researchers have focused on phenomenological aspects of the disorder to better understand its underlying nature. In particular, development of personal narratives-that is, the complexity with which people form, organize, and articulate their "life stories"-has recently been investigated in individuals with schizophrenia. However, less is known about how aspects of narrative relate to indicators of neurocognitive and social functioning. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of linguistic complexity of life-story narratives to measures of cognitive and social problem-solving abilities among people with schizophrenia. Thirty-two individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia completed a research battery consisting of clinical interviews, a life-story narrative, neurocognitive testing, and a measure assessing multiple aspects of social problem solving. Narrative interviews were assessed for linguistic complexity using computerized technology. The results indicate differential relationships of linguistic complexity and neurocognition to domains of social problem-solving skills. More specifically, although neurocognition predicted how well one could both describe and enact a solution to a social problem, linguistic complexity alone was associated with accurately recognizing that a social problem had occurred. In addition, linguistic complexity appears to be a cognitive factor that is discernible from other broader measures of neurocognition. Linguistic complexity may be more relevant in understanding earlier steps of the social problem-solving process than more traditional, broad measures of cognition, and thus is relevant in conceptualizing treatment targets. These findings also support the relevance of developing narrative-focused psychotherapies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Recharging the battery: placement tests for ESP students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Azevedo Cunha

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper first reviews key concepts in language testing and discusses the use of the English Language Placement Test administered at the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro to computer science students, who are required t o take one of the two ESP courses offered by the English program. The analysis of the scores on two versions of a test administered to two different groups of computer science students who took the examination in sequential semesters is presented. For the original test, it em facility and it em discrimination were calculated, then overall test reliability was estimated. The statistics were carefully examined and a number of t he test items were eliminated, revamped or replaced in creating a revised version of the test. This modified and improved version of the test was then administered to a second group of students and the same statistics were applied once more. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of item analysis and revision for providing more consistent and accurate language testing instruments.

  4. Performance norms for a rhesus monkey neuropsychological testing battery: acquisition and long-term performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, M R; Taffe, M A; Polis, I; Roberts, A C; Robbins, T W; Koob, G F; Bloom, F E; Gold, L H

    1999-10-25

    A computerized behavioral battery based upon human neuropsychological tests (CANTAB, CeNeS, Cambridge, UK) has been developed to assess cognitive behaviors of rhesus monkeys. Monkeys reliably performed multiple tasks, providing long-term assessment of changes in a number of behaviors for a given animal. The overall goal of the test battery is to characterize changes in cognitive behaviors following central nervous system (CNS) manipulations. The battery addresses memory (delayed non-matching to sample, DNMS; spatial working memory, using a self-ordered spatial search task, SOSS), attention (intra-/extra-dimensional shift, ID/ED), motivation (progressive-ratio, PR), reaction time (RT) and motor coordination (bimanual task). As with human neuropsychological batteries, different tasks are thought to involve different neural substrates, and therefore performance profiles should assess function in particular brain regions. Monkeys were tested in transport cages, and responding on a touch sensitive computer monitor was maintained by food reinforcement. Parametric manipulations of several tasks demonstrated the sensitivity of performance to increases in task difficulty. Furthermore, the factors influencing difficulty for rhesus monkeys were the same as those shown to affect human performance. Data from this study represent performance of a population of healthy normal monkeys that will be used for comparison in subsequent studies of performance following CNS manipulations such as infection with simian immunodeficiency virus (NeuroAIDS) or drug administration.

  5. HIV and Neurocognitive Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Spudich, Serena

    2013-01-01

    The spectrum of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) has been dramatically altered in the setting of widely available effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). Once culminating in dementia in many individuals infected with HIV, HAND now typically manifests as more subtle, though still morbid, forms of cognitive impairment in persons surviving long-term with treated HIV infection. Despite the substantial improvement in severity of this disorder, the fact that neurologic injury persists ...

  6. Accelerated lifetime testing methodology for lifetime estimation of Lithium-ion batteries used in augmented wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    The development of lifetime estimation models for Lithium-ion battery cells, which are working under highly variable mission profiles characteristic for wind power plant applications, requires a lot of expenditures and time resources. Therefore, batteries have to be tested under accelerated...... lifetime ageing conditions. This paper presents a three-stage methodology used for accelerated lifetime testing of Lithium-ion batteries. The results obtained at the end of the accelerated ageing process can be used for the parametrization of a performance-degradation lifetime model. In the proposed...... methodology both calendar and cycling lifetime tests are considered since both components are influencing the lifetime of Lithium-ion batteries. The methodology proposes also a lifetime model verification stage, where Lithium-ion battery cells are tested at normal operating conditions using an application...

  7. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  8. The Construction of a Muscular Strength Test Battery for Girls in the Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNucci, James M.; Pelton, Elois B.

    This study was designed to construct a gross muscular strength test battery for girls 6-9 years of age in grades 1-3. The subjects for this investigation were a random sample of 183 girls in grades 1-3 of the public schools of Natchitoches, Louisiana. The variables selected were 22 cable tension strength tests developed by Clarke and associates.…

  9. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Cell Life Test Program Update for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2000-01-01

    NASA and Boeing North America are responsible for constructing the electrical power system for the International Space Station (ISS), which circles the Earth every 90 minutes in a low Earth orbit (LEO). For approximately 55 minutes of this orbit, the ISS is in sunlight, and for the remaining 35 minutes, the ISS is in the Earth s shadow (eclipse). The electrical power system must not only provide power during the sunlight portion by means of the solar arrays, but also store energy for use during the eclipse. Nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) battery cells were selected as the energy storage systems for ISS. Each battery Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) comprises 38 individual series-connected Ni/H2 battery cells, and there are 48 battery ORU s on the ISS. On the basis of a limited Ni/H2 LEO data base on life and performance characteristics, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field commenced testing through two test programs: one in-house and one at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Crane, Indiana.

  10. Test series 1: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Gould NCX-2250 battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.S.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1984-09-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged, nuclear station, safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds; and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the end-of-life of a battery, given a seismic event. This report covers the first test series of an extensive program using 12-year old, lead-calcium, Gould NCX-2250 cells, from the James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Station operated by the New York Power Authority. Seismic tests with three cell configurations were performed using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; multi-cell (three) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack; and single-cell tests specifically aimed towards examining propagation of pre-existing case cracks. In general the test philosophy was to monitor the electrical properties including discharge capacity of cells through a graduated series of g-level step increases until either the shake-table limits were reached or until electrical failure of the cells occurred. Of nine electrically active cells, six failed during seismic testing over a range of imposed g-level loads in excess of a 1-g ZPA. Post-test examination revealed a common failure mode, the cracking at the abnormally brittle, positive lead bus-bar/post interface; further examination showed that the failure zone was extremely coarse grained and extensively corroded. Presently accepted accelerated-aging methods for qualifying batteries, per IEEE Std. 535-1979, are based on plate growth, but these naturally-aged 12-year old cells showed no significant plate growth

  11. Neurocognitive deficits in obsessive compulsive disorder: A state or trait phenomenon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, there is impairment of neurocognitive functioning during the symptomatic phase. However, studies that explore the "state or trait" dependent nature of these neurocognitive deficits are largely lacking. By comparing the neuropsychological functions of the clinical and subclinical group of OCD patients and healthy controls; we tried to establish whether neuropsychological deficits in OCD were "state" dependent or independent. Materials and Methods: Twenty "mild to moderate" OCD patients, 15 subclinical (remitted OCD patients, and 20 matched healthy controls were compared and assessed on computerized battery of neuropsychological tests including Wisconsin card sorting test, continuous performance test, and spatial working memory test. The observations were statistically analyzed. Results: Executive functions in both the subclinical and clinical groups performed poorly when compared to healthy controls. The patient groups made significantly more wrong responses, more missed responses and took more time to respond. On the test of spatial working memory, the mild to moderate OCD patients showed significant impairment, but not the subclinical patients group. Conclusion: Thus, we conclude that cognitive dysfunctions are core and enduring deficits of OCD, they seem to continue into the subclinical- well state. Certain cognitive deficits, depending on their presence or absence in subclinical cases, may be identified as "state" or "trait" markers of OCD.

  12. Reliability of a Test Battery Designed for Quickly and Safely Assessing Diverse Indices of Neuromuscular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Barry A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bentley, Jason, R.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Lawrence, Emily L.; Sinka, Joseph; Guilliams, Mark E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Spaceflight affects nearly every physiological system. Spaceflight-induced alterations in physiological function translate to decrements in functional performance. Purpose: To develop a test battery for quickly and safely assessing diverse indices of neuromuscular performance. I. Quickly: Battery of tests can be completed in approx.30-40 min. II. Safely: a) No eccentric muscle actions or impact forces. b) Tests present little challenge to postural stability. III. Diverse indices: a) Strength: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) b) Central activation: Very good reliability (ICC = 0.87) c) Power: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) d) Endurance: Total work has excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) e) Force steadiness: Poor reliability (ICC = 0.20 - 0.60) National

  13. Accelerated Lifetime Testing Methodology for Lifetime Estimation of Lithium-ion Batteries used in Augmented Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    The development of lifetime estimation models for Lithium-ion battery cells, which are working under highly variable mission profiles characteristic for wind power plant applications, requires a lot of expenditures and time resources. Therefore, batteries have to be tested under accelerated...... lifetime ageing conditions. This paper presents a three-stage methodology used for accelerated lifetime testing of Lithium ion batteries. The results obtained at the end of the accelerated ageing process were used for the parametrization of a performance-degradation lifetime model, which is able to predict...... both the capacity fade and the power capability decrease of the selected Lithium-ion battery cells. In the proposed methodology both calendar and cycling lifetime tests were considered since both components are influencing the lifetime of Lithium-ion batteries. Furthermore, the proposed methodology...

  14. Test-retest reliability of the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bégel, Valentin; Verga, Laura; Benoit, Charles-Etienne; Kotz, Sonja A; Bella, Simone Dalla

    2018-01-01

    Perceptual and sensorimotor timing skills can be comprehensively assessed with the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA). The battery has been used for testing rhythmic skills in healthy adults and patient populations (e.g., with Parkinson disease),

  15. Development of USES Specific Aptitude Test Battery for Waiter/Waitress, Informal (hotel & rest.) 311.477-030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Human Resources, Salem.

    The United States Employment Service (USES) Specific Aptitude Test Battery (SATB) for Waiter/Waitress (Informal) is evaluated from three points of view: (1) technical adequacy of the research, (2) fairness to minorities, and (3) usefulness of the battery to Employment Service staff and employers in selecting individuals for training as…

  16. Sleep and neurocognitive functioning in children with eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfferman, Danny; Kennedy, J Declan; Gold, Michael; Simpson, Carol; Lushington, Kurt

    2013-08-01

    Sleep disruption in childhood is associated with clearly defined deficits in neurocognition and behaviour. Childhood eczema is also a potent cause of sleep disruption though it is unknown whether it too results in neurocognitive deficits. To test this hypothesis, neurocognitive (WISC-IV), parental-reported sleep quality (Sleep Disturbance Scale of Children (SDSC)) and overnight polysomnographic (PSG) data were collected in 21 children with eczema and 20 healthy controls (age range 6-16 years). Children with eczema had worse sleep quality on both PSG (notably increased nocturnal wakefulness, a higher number of stage shifts and a longer latency to REM onset) and parental report. In addition, they demonstrated significant neurocognitive deficits (especially verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning and to a lesser extent working memory) with a composite Full Scale IQ 16 points lower than controls. Parental reported sleep problems but not PSG parameters were correlated with reduced neurocognitive performance. However, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that eczema status was predictive while sleep fragmentation (parental or PSG) was not predictive of neurocognitive performance. As this is the first study to systematically examine neurocognitive functioning in children with eczema and given the finding of significant deficits it merits replication especially given the prevalence of the condition. The unanswered question is whether these cognitive deficits normalise with effective eczema treatment and if this is mediated by improvements in sleep architecture. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of neurocognition and social context in predicting community functioning among formerly homeless seriously mentally ill persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, Russell K; Seidman, Larry J; Caplan, Brina; Martsinkiv, Anna; Goldfinger, Stephen M

    2007-11-01

    To test the influence of neurocognitive functioning on community functioning among formerly homeless persons with serious mental illness and to determine whether that influence varies with social context, independent of individual characteristics. In metropolitan Boston, 112 persons in Department of Mental Health shelters were administered a neuropsychological test battery and other measures and then randomly assigned to empowerment-oriented group homes or independent apartments, as part of a longitudinal study of the effects of housing on multiple outcomes. Subjects' case managers completed Rosen's 5-dimensional Life Skills Inventory at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months and subjects reported on their social contacts at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Subject characteristics are controlled in the analysis. Three dimensions of neurocognitive functioning--executive function, verbal declarative memory, and vigilance--each predicted community functioning. Better executive function predicted improved self-care and less turbulent behavior among persons living alone, better memory predicted more positive social contacts for those living in a group home, and higher levels of vigilance predicted improved communication in both housing types. Neurocognition predicts community functioning among homeless persons with severe mental illness, but in a way that varies with the social context in which community functioning occurs.

  18. Effects of repeated asenapine in a battery of tests for anxiety-like behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Hila M; Kara, Nirit Z; Barak, Noa; Reshef Ben-Mordechai, Tal; Einat, Haim

    2016-04-01

    A number of atypical antipsychotic drugs were demonstrated to have anxiolytic effects in patients and in animal models. These effects were mostly suggested to be the consequence of the drugs' affinity to the serotonin system and its receptors. Asenapine is a relatively new atypical antipsychotic that is prescribed for schizophrenia and for bipolar mania. Asenapine has a broad pharmacological profile with significant effects on serotonergic receptors, hence it is reasonable to expect that asenapine may have some anxiolytic effects. The present study was therefore designed to examine possible effects of asenapine on anxiety-like behaviour of mice. Male ICR mice were repeatedly treated with 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg injections of asenapine and then tested in a battery of behavioural tests related to anxiety including the open-field test, elevated plus-maze (EPM), defensive marble burying and hyponeophagia tests. In an adjunct experiment, we tested the effects of acute diazepam in the same test battery. The results show that diazepam reduced anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM, the defensive marble burying test and the hyponeophagia test but not in the open field. Asenapine has anxiolytic-like effects in the EPM and the defensive marble burying tests but had no effects in the open-field or the hyponeophagia tests. Asenapine had no effects on locomotor activity. The results suggest that asenapine may have anxiolytic-like properties and recommends that clinical trials examining such effects should be performed.

  19. An alcohol withdrawal test battery measuring multiple behavioral symptoms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metten, Pamela; Schlumbohm, Jason P; Huang, Lawrence C; Greenberg, Gian D; Hack, Wyatt R; Spence, Stephanie E; Crabbe, John C

    2018-05-01

    Despite acceptance that risk for alcohol-use disorder (AUD) has a large genetic component, the identification of genes underlying various components of risk for AUD has been hampered in humans, in part by the heterogeneity of expression of the phenotype. One aspect of AUD is physical dependence. Alcohol withdrawal is a serious consequence of alcohol dependence with multiple symptoms, many of which are seen in multiple species, and can be experienced over a wide-ranging time course. In the present three studies, we developed a battery of withdrawal tests in mice, examining behavioral symptoms from multiple domains that could be measured over time. To permit eventual use of the battery in different strains of mice, we used male and female mice of a genetically heterogeneous stock developed from intercrossing eight inbred strains. Withdrawal symptoms were assessed using commonly used tests after administration of ethanol in vapor for 72 continuous hours. We found significant effects of ethanol withdrawal versus air-breathing controls on nearly all symptoms, spanning 4 days following ethanol vapor inhalation. Withdrawal produced hypothermia, greater neurohyperexcitability (seizures and tremor), anxiety-like behaviors using an apparatus (such as reduced transitions between light and dark compartments), anhedonia (reduced sucrose preference), Straub tail, backward walking, and reductions in activity; however, there were no changes in thermal pain sensitivity, hyper-reactivity to handling, or anxiety-like emergence behaviors in other apparatus. Using these data, we constructed a refined battery of withdrawal tests. Individual differences in severity of withdrawal among different tests were weakly correlated at best. This battery should be useful for identifying genetic influences on particular withdrawal behaviors, which should reflect the influences of different constellations of genes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Impaired Neurobehavioural Performance in Untreated Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients Using a Novel Standardised Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela L. D'Rozario

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective/BackgroundAlthough polysomnography (PSG is the gold-standard measure for assessing disease severity in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, it has limited value in identifying individuals experiencing significant neurobehavioural dysfunction. This study used a brief and novel computerised test battery to examine neurobehavioural function in adults with and without OSA.Patients/Methods204 patients with untreated OSA [age 49.3 (12.5 years; body mass index, [BMI] 33.6 (8.0 kg/m2; Epworth sleepiness scale 12 (4.9/24; apnea hypopnea index 33.6 (25.8/h] and 50 non-OSA participants [age 39.2 (14.0 years; BMI 25.8 (4.2 kg/m2, ESS 3.6 (2.3/24]. All participants completed a computerised neurobehavioural battery during the daytime in the sleep clinic. The OSA group subsequently underwent an overnight PSG. The 30 min test battery assessed cognitive domains of visual spatial scanning and selective attention (Letter Cancellation Test, executive function (Stroop task and working memory (2- and 3-Back tasks, and a validated sustained attention task (psychomotor vigilance task, PVT. Group differences in performance were compared. Associations between disease severity and performance were examined in the OSA group.ResultsAfter controlling for age, gender and education, OSA patients demonstrated impaired performance on the Stroop-Text, 2 and 3-Back tasks, and the PVT compared with the non-OSA group. OSA patients had worse performance on the LCT with fewer average hits albeit with better accuracy. Some OSA polysomnographic disease severity measures were weakly correlated with performance.ConclusionsThis brief test battery may provide a sensitive, standardised method of assessing daytime dysfunction in OSA.

  1. Neurocognitive Dysfunction in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruebner, Rebecca L; Laney, Nina; Kim, Ji Young; Hartung, Erum A; Hooper, Stephen R; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Furth, Susan L

    2016-04-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a known complication in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, less is known about putative mechanisms or modifiable risk factors. The objective of this study was to characterize and determine risk factors for cognitive dysfunction in children, adolescents, and young adults with CKD compared with controls. Cross-sectional study. The Neurocognitive Assessment and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of Children and Young Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease (NiCK) Study included 90 individuals aged 8 to 25 years with CKD compared with 70 controls. CKD versus control, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), ambulatory blood pressure. Performance on neurocognitive assessment with relevant tests grouped into 11 domains defined a priori by expert opinion. Results of tests were converted to age-normalized z scores. Each neurocognitive domain was analyzed through linear regression, adjusting for eGFR and demographic and clinical variables. For domains defined by multiple tests, the median z score of tests in that domain was used. We found significantly poorer performance in multiple areas of neurocognitive function among individuals with CKD compared with controls. Particular deficits were seen in domains related to attention, memory, and inhibitory control. Adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, we found lower performance in multiple domains with decreasing eGFRs (attention: β=0.053, P=0.02; visual spatial: β=0.062, P=0.02; and visual working memory: β=0.069, P=0.04). Increased diastolic load and decreased diastolic nocturnal dipping on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were independently associated with impairments in neurocognitive performance. Unable to assess changes in neurocognitive function over time, and neurocognitive tests were grouped into predetermined neurocognitive domains. Lower eGFR in children, adolescents, and young adults is associated with poorer neurocognitive performance, particularly in

  2. Reliability of a Functional Test Battery Evaluating Functionality, Proprioception and Strength of the Ankle Joint

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIZ, Yavuz; ŞEKİR, Ufuk; HAZNECİ, Bülent

    2009-01-01

    Aim: In contrast to the one-sided evaluation methods used in the past, combining multiple tests allows one to obtain a global assessment of the ankle joint. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy male volunteers participated in this study. One component of the test battery included five different functional ability tests, which included: single limb hopping course, one-legged and triple-legged hop for distance, and six-meter (6-m) and cross 6-m hop for time. Ankle joint position sense and on...

  3. Prospective memory in schizophrenia: relationship to medication management skills, neurocognition, and symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Sarah A; Maye, Jacqueline; Rogers, Alexandra; Correll, David; Zamroziewicz, Marta; Kurtz, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Impaired adherence to medication regimens is a serious concern for individuals with schizophrenia linked to relapse and poorer outcomes. One possible reason for poor adherence to medication is poor ability to remember future intentions, labeled prospective memory skills. It has been demonstrated in several studies that individuals with schizophrenia have impairments in prospective memory that are linked to everyday life skills. However, there have been no studies, to our knowledge, examining the relationship of a clinical measure of prospective memory to medication management skills, a key element of successful adherence. In this Study 41 individuals with schizophrenia and 25 healthy adults were administered a standardized test battery that included measures of prospective memory, medication management skills, neurocognition, and symptoms. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated impairments in prospective memory (both time and event-based) relative to healthy controls. Performance on the test of prospective memory was correlated with the standardized measure of medication management in individuals with schizophrenia. Moreover, the test of prospective memory predicted skills in medication adherence even after measures of neurocognition were accounted for. This suggests that prospective memory may play a key role in medication management skills and thus should be a target of cognitive remediation programs.

  4. Relationship between neurometabolite derangement and neurocognitive dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, W M; Jung, R E; Ford, C C; Greinel, E J; Sibbitt, W L

    1999-01-01

    To determine the relationship between neurochemical markers of brain injury and brain dysfunction associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients with SLE (n = 12) were studied using magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 1.5 Tesla to determine neurochemistry and a neurocognitive testing battery to determine brain dysfunction. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cre), and choline (Cho) concentrations were measured in white (WM) and gray (GM) matter and expressed as the ratios NAA/Cho, NAA/Cre, and Cho/Cre. Neurocognitive testing results were expressed as a composite z score. Disease activity was quantified by SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and disease injury by Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC)/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index. Neurochemical measures of brain injury were correlated with neurocognitive testing z scores: NAA/Cho in WM (r = 0.77, p = 0.003) and GM (r = 0.67, p = 0.017); WM Cho/Cre also correlated with total z score (r = -0.74, p = 0.006). Neurometabolite ratios and SLICC were correlated: GM NAA/Cho (r = -0.70, p = 0.011 ) and NAA/Cre (r = -0.71, p = 0.01) and WM Cho/Cre (r = 0.66, p = 0.02). Correlations between neurometabolite ratios and SLEDAI did not reach significance. Brain function is closely correlated with brain injury assessed noninvasively by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This important finding further supports the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy to evaluate brain injury in SLE.

  5. Battery designs the testing physical of skills for selecting talented taekwondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mustafa Bakr

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to design a battery test physical of skill for the selection of talented young taekwondo Egyptian national project for may have a practical importance of overseeing the selection of young people as well as in the planning of the training process to reach high levels. Applied study on a sample of (750 Individual clubs and youth centers in 14 countries in the Arab Republic of Egypt, and the average age of (11.11 ± 1.06 years, height (143.50 ± 11,09 cm and weight (42.53 ±10,74kg. Tests were conducted in the period from 17/11/2012 to 29/12/2012. Physical tests following (Ability, Hinge flexibility basin, Agility, Kinetics speed in a level trunk, Kinetics speed in the level face, Endure Performance. Scientific transactions testing laboratories account sincerity and consistency of the tests used in the study. Where the value of the coefficient of sincerity d statistically at the level of the significance of 0.05 is a sign the two sides between the high level and the low level as the value of the coefficient of sincerity between (0.682, 0.932, which indicates that the tests measure what it was made. It was also correlation coefficient d statistically at the level of an indication (0.01 and (0.05 is a sign of the two parties, where the value of P < 0.05 in all tests as they ranged between (0.964-0.998, pointing to a flat these tests. The researcher used the descriptive survey method. Calculated using the weight of the medical balance and use a tape measure to the nearest (0.5 cm. The statistical analysis SPSS was used to apply formulas statistical by calculating: average, standard deviation, correlation, Factor analysis, Six Sigma Score, percentile scores. The results of the standard levels the battery test of physical skills extracted the selection of talented taekwondo sports in the factors of grace the second factor is the dynamic speed. The study concluded that this study concluded to a battery physical of skill tests for

  6. Select neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected women: associations with HIV viral load, hepatitis C virus, and depression, but not leukocyte telomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle J Giesbrecht

    Full Text Available Through implementation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART remarkable gains have been achieved in the management of HIV infection; nonetheless, the neurocognitive consequences of infection remain a pivotal concern in the cART era. Research has often employed norm-referenced neuropsychological scores, derived from healthy populations (excluding many seronegative individuals at high risk for HIV infection, to characterize impairments in predominately male HIV-infected populations.Using matched-group methodology, we assessed 81 HIV-seropositive (HIV+ women with established neuropsychological measures validated for detection of HIV-related impairments, as well as additional detailed tests of executive function and decision-making from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB.On validated tests, the HIV+ women exhibited impairments that were limited to significantly slower information processing speed when compared with 45 HIV-seronegative (HIV- women with very similar demographic backgrounds and illness comorbidities. Additionally, select executive impairments in shifting attention (i.e., reversal learning and in decision-making quality were revealed in HIV+ participants. Modifiers of neurocognition in HIV-infected women included detectable HIV plasma viral load, active hepatitis C virus co-infection, and self-reported depression symptoms. In contrast, leukocyte telomere length (LTL, a marker of cellular aging, did not significantly differ between HIV+ and HIV- women, nor was LTL associated with overall neurocognition in the HIV+ group.The findings suggest that well-managed HIV infection may entail a more circumscribed neurocognitive deficit pattern than that reported in many norm-referenced studies, and that common comorbidities make a secondary contribution to HIV-related neurocognitive impairments.

  7. Reward Learning, Neurocognition, Social Cognition, and Symptomatology in Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E; Whitton, Alexis E; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Norris, Lesley A; Ongur, Dost; Hall, Mei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Patients with psychosis spectrum disorders exhibit deficits in social and neurocognition, as well as hallmark abnormalities in motivation and reward processing. Aspects of reward processing may overlap behaviorally and neurobiologically with some elements of cognitive functioning, and abnormalities in these processes may share partially overlapping etiologies in patients. However, whether reward processing and cognition are associated across the psychoses and linked to state and trait clinical symptomatology is unclear. The present study examined associations between cognitive functioning, reward learning, and clinical symptomatology in a cross-diagnostic sample. Patients with schizophrenia (SZ; n = 37), bipolar I disorder with psychosis (BD; n = 42), and healthy controls (n = 29) were assessed for clinical symptoms (patients only), neurocognitive functioning using the MATRICS Battery (MCCB) and reward learning using the probabilistic reward task (PRT). Groups were compared on neurocognition and PRT response bias, and associations between PRT response bias and neurocognition or clinical symptoms were examined controlling for demographic variables and PRT task difficulty (discriminability). Patients with SZ performed worse than controls on most measures of neurocognition; patients with BD exhibited deficits in some domains between the level of patients with SZ and controls. The SZ - but not BD - group exhibited deficits in social cognition compared to controls. Patients and controls did not differ on PRT response bias, but did differ on PRT discriminability. Better response bias across the sample was associated with poorer social cognition, but not neurocognition; conversely, discriminability was associated with neurocognition but not social cognition. Symptoms of psychosis, particularly negative symptoms, were associated with poorer response bias across patient groups. Reward learning was associated with symptoms of psychosis - in particular negative

  8. Seismic-fragility tests of new and accelerated-aged Class 1E battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged nuclear station safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the potential survivability of a battery given a seismic event. Prior reports in this series discussed the seismic-fragility tests and results for three specific naturally-aged cell types: 12-year old NCX-2250, 10-year old LCU-13, and 10-year old FHC-19. This report focuses on the complementary approach, namely, the seismic-fragility response of accelerated-aged batteries. Of particular interest is the degree to which such approaches accurately reproduce the actual failure modes and thresholds. In these tests the significant aging effects observed, in terms of seismic survivability, were: embrittlement of cell cases, positive bus material and positive plate grids; and excessive sulphation of positive plate active material causing hardening and expansion of positive plates. The IEEE Standard 535 accelerated aging method successfully reproduced seismically significant aging effects in new cells but accelerated grid embrittlement an estimated five years beyond the conditional age of other components

  9. Behavioural analysis of four mouse strains in an anxiety test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gaalen, M M; Steckler, T

    2000-10-01

    Differences in locomotor activity, exploratory activity and anxiety-like behaviour of C57BL/6ChR,C57BL/6J, Swiss Webster/J and A/J strain were investigated in an anxiety battery. The battery consisted of paradigms studying spontaneous behaviour after a mild stressor, tasks of innate anxiety (light-dark box, elevated plus maze, novel object exploration), response to a conflict situation (Vogel conflict), conditioned fear and response to inescapable swim stress. Locomotor activity was studied in an open field and compared with locomotion in the other tests. Exploratory behaviour was studied in a 16-hole board task. The data confirm previous studies suggesting that A/J mice are a relatively anxious strain. Also, the data indicated that locomotor activity was independent of the paradigm employed, while the rank order of strain-dependent effects on anxiety-related behaviour changed as a function of the task under study. Our data provide further support for the notion that choice of strain is essential in studies of anxiety-related behaviour. Influence of strain should be considered in pharmacological and lesion studies, as well as in studies with mutant mice. In addition, the data indicate that different anxiety paradigms tax different aspects of anxiety, suggesting that a battery of different tests should be used in studies of anxiety-related behaviour.

  10. Test and data reduction algorithm for the evaluation of lead-acid battery packs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, D.

    1986-01-15

    Experience from the DOE Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project indicated severe battery problems associated with driving electric cars in temperature extremes. The vehicle batteries suffered from a high module failure rate, reduced capacity, and low efficiency. To assess the nature and the extent of the battery problems encountered at various operating temperatures, a test program was established at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). A test facility was built that is based on Propel cycling equipment, the Hewlett Packard 3497A Data Acquisition System, and the HP85F and HP87 computers. The objective was to establish a cost effective facility that could generate the engineering data base needed for the development of thermal management systems, destratification systems, central watering systems and proper charge algorithms. It was hoped that the development and implementation of these systems by EV manufacturers and fleet operators of EVs would eliminate the most pressing problems that occurred in the DOE EV Demonstration Project. The data reduction algorithm is described.

  11. Reliability and validity of a talent identification test battery for seated and standing Paralympic throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spathis, Jemima Grace; Connick, Mark James; Beckman, Emma Maree; Newcombe, Peter Anthony; Tweedy, Sean Michael

    2015-01-01

    Paralympic throwing events for athletes with physical impairments comprise seated and standing javelin, shot put, discus and seated club throwing. Identification of talented throwers would enable prediction of future success and promote participation; however, a valid and reliable talent identification battery for Paralympic throwing has not been reported. This study evaluates the reliability and validity of a talent identification battery for Paralympic throws. Participants were non-disabled so that impairment would not confound analyses, and results would provide an indication of normative performance. Twenty-eight non-disabled participants (13 M; 15 F) aged 23.6 years (±5.44) performed five kinematically distinct criterion throws (three seated, two standing) and nine talent identification tests (three anthropometric, six motor); 23 were tested a second time to evaluate test-retest reliability. Talent identification test-retest reliability was evaluated using Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots (Limits of Agreement). Spearman's correlation assessed strength of association between criterion throws and talent identification tests. Reliability was generally acceptable (mean ICC = 0.89), but two seated talent identification tests require more extensive familiarisation. Correlation strength (mean rs = 0.76) indicated that the talent identification tests can be used to validly identify individuals with competitively advantageous attributes for each of the five kinematically distinct throwing activities. Results facilitate further research in this understudied area.

  12. Between-Day Reliability and Usefulness of a Fitness Testing Battery in Youth Sport Athletes: Reference Data for Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawczuk, Thomas; Jones, Ben; Scantlebury, Sean; Weakley, Jonathan; Read, Dale; Costello, Nessan; Darrall-Jones, Joshua David; Stokes, Keith; Till, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the between-day reliability and usefulness of a fitness testing battery in a group of youth sport athletes. Fifty-nine youth sport athletes (age = 17.3 ± 0.7 years) undertook a fitness testing battery including the isometric mid-thigh pull, counter-movement jump, 5-40 m sprint splits, and the 5-0-5 change of direction…

  13. Validation of a Paper and Pencil Test Battery for the Diagnosis of Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Yoon; Jun, Dae Won; Bai, Daiseg; Kim, Ji Yean; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Ahn, Sang Bong; Kim, Sang Gyune; Kim, Tae Yeob; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jeong, Soung Won; Cho, Yong Kyun; Song, Do Seon; Kim, Hee Yeon; Jung, Young Kul; Yoon, Eileen L

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a new paper and pencil test battery to diagnose minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in Korea. A new paper and pencil test battery was composed of number connection test-A (NCT-A), number connection test-B (NCT-B), digit span test (DST), and symbol digit modality test (SDMT). The norm of the new test was based on 315 healthy individuals between the ages of 20 and 70 years old. Another 63 healthy subjects (n = 31) and cirrhosis patients (n = 32) were included as a validation cohort. All participants completed the new paper and pencil test, a critical flicker frequency (CFF) test and computerized cognitive function test (visual continuous performance test [CPT]). The scores on the NCT-A and NCT-B increased but those of DST and SDMT decreased according to age. Twelve of the cirrhotic patients (37.5%) were diagnosed with MHE based on the new paper and pencil test battery. The total score of the paper and pencil test battery showed good positive correlation with the CFF (r = 0.551, P cognitive function test. Also, this score was lower in patients with MHE compared to those without MHE (P cognitive test decreased significantly in patients with MHE compared to those without MHE. Test-retest reliability was comparable. In conclusion, the new paper and pencil test battery including NCT-A, NCT-B, DST, and SDMT showed good correlation with neuropsychological tests. This new paper and pencil test battery could help to discriminate patients with impaired cognitive function in cirrhosis (registered at Clinical Research Information Service [CRIS], https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris, KCT0000955). © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  14. Factors Contributing to Disparities in Baseline Neurocognitive Performance and Concussion Symptom Scores Between Black and White Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jessica; Covassin, Tracey; Moran, Ryan; Deitrick, Jamie McAllister

    2017-11-02

    National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) concussion guidelines state that all NCAA athletes must have a concussion baseline test prior to commencing their competitive season. To date, little research has examined potential racial differences on baseline neurocognitive performance among NCAA athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between Black and White collegiate athletes on baseline neurocognitive performance and self-reported symptoms. A total of 597 collegiate athletes (400 White, 197 Black) participated in this study. Athletes self-reported their race on the demographic section of their pre-participation physical examination and were administered the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) neurocognitive battery in a supervised, quiet room. Controlling for sex, data were analyzed using separate one-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) on symptom score, verbal and visual memory, visual motor processing speed, and reaction time composite scores. Results revealed significant differences between White and Black athletes on baseline symptom score (F (1,542)  = 5.82, p = .01), visual motor processing speed (F (1,542)  = 14.89, p baseline visual motor processing speed and reaction time. Black athletes reported higher baseline symptom scores compared to Whites. There was no statistical difference between race on verbal memory (p = .08) and that on visual memory (p = .06). Black athletes demonstrated disparities on some neurocognitive measures at baseline. These results suggest capturing an individual baseline on each athlete, as normative data comparisons may be inappropriate for athletes of a racial minority.

  15. Development, content validity and test-retest reliability of the Lifelong Physical Activity Skills Battery in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulteen, Ryan M; Barnett, Lisa M; Morgan, Philip J; Robinson, Leah E; Barton, Christian J; Wrotniak, Brian H; Lubans, David R

    2018-03-28

    Numerous skill batteries assess fundamental motor skill (e.g., kick, hop) competence. Few skill batteries examine lifelong physical activity skill competence (e.g., resistance training). This study aimed to develop and assess the content validity, test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the "Lifelong Physical Activity Skills Battery". Development of the skill battery occurred in three stages: i) systematic reviews of lifelong physical activity participation rates and existing motor skill assessment tools, ii) practitioner consultation and iii) research expert consultation. The final battery included eight skills: grapevine, golf swing, jog, push-up, squat, tennis forehand, upward dog and warrior I. Adolescents (28 boys, 29 girls; M = 15.8 years, SD = 0.4 years) completed the Lifelong Physical Activity Skills Battery on two occasions two weeks apart. The skill battery was highly reliable (ICC = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.72-0.90) with individual skill reliability scores ranging from moderate (warrior I; ICC = 0.56) to high (tennis forehand; ICC = 0.82). Typical error (4.0; 95% CI 3.4-5.0) and proportional bias (r = -0.21, p = .323) were low. This study has provided preliminary evidence for the content validity and reliability of the Lifelong Physical Activity Skills Battery in an adolescent population.

  16. Cycle life test. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells. [performance tests on silver zinc batteries, silver cadmium batteries, and nickel cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Considerable research is being done to find more efficient and reliable means of starting electrical energy for orbiting satellites. Rechargeable cells offer one such means. A test program is described which has been established in order to further the evaluation of certain types of cells and to obtain performance and failure data as an aid to their continued improvement. The purpose of the program is to determine the cycling performance capabilities of packs of cells under different load and temperature conditions. The various kinds of cells tested were nickel-cadmium, silver-cadmium, and silver-zinc sealed cells. A summary of the results of the life cycling program is given in this report.

  17. Phototest for neurocognitive screening in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Joana; Lopes, Emanuela; Gonçalves, Gerly; Silva, Ângela; Carnero-Pardo; Peixoto, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common neurological disorders. Cognitive dysfunction is considered a clinical marker of MS, where approximately half of patients with MS have cognitive impairment. Objective: The Phototest (PT) is a brief cognitive test with high diagnostic sensitivity, accuracy and cost-effectiveness for detecting cognitive deterioration. Our aim was to test the utility of the PT as a neurocognitive screening instrument for MS. Methods: The study enrolled 30 patients with different types of MS from an outpatient clinic as well as 19 healthy participants. In conjunction with the PT, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Barthel Index (BI), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) were administered. Results: The MS group obtained significantly lower results on all domains of the PT, except for the naming task. The PT showed good concurrent validity with the MoCA. In direct comparison to the MoCA, PT showed a greater area under the curve and higher levels of sensitivity and specificity for MS neurocognitive impairments. A cut-off score of 31 on the Phototest was associated with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 76.7%. Conclusion : The PT is a valid, specific, sensitive and brief test that is not dependent on motor functions. The instrument could be an option for neurocognitive screening in MS, especially in identifying cases for further neuropsychological assessment and intervention. PMID:29213425

  18. Test Results of a Ten Cell Bipolar Nickel-hydrogen Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    A study was initiated to design and evaluate a new design concept for nickel-hydrogen cells. This concept involved constructing a battery in a bipolar stack with cells consisting of a one plate for each nickel and hydrogen electrode. Preliminary designs at the system level of this concept promised improvements in both volumetric and gravimetric energy densities, thermal management, life extension, costs, and peak power capability over more conventional designs. Test results were most encouraging. This preprototype battery, built with less than ideal components and hardware, exceeded expectations. A total of 2000 LEO cycles at 80 percent depth of discharge were accrued. A cycle life goal of 30,000 cycles appears achievable with minor design changes. These improvements include advanced technology nickel electrodes, insulated bipolar plates and specifically designed frames to minimize shunt currents. The discharge rate capability of this design exceeds 25C. At the 10C discharge rate, 80% of the battery capacity can be withdrawn in six minutes. This data shows that the bipolar design is well suited for those applications requiring high peak power pulses.

  19. Nickel - iron battery. Nikkel - jern batteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, H. A.

    1989-03-15

    A newer type of nickel-iron battery, (SAFT 6v 230 Ah monobloc), which could possibly be used in relation to electrically driven light road vehicles, was tested. The same test methods used for lead batteries were utilized and results compared favourably with those reached during other testings carried out, abroad, on a SAFT nickle-iron battery and a SAB-NIFE nickel-iron battery. Description (in English) of the latter-named tests are included in the publication as is also a presentation of the SAFT battery. Testing showed that this type of battery did not last as long as had been expected, but the density of energy and effect was superior to lead batteries. However energy efficiency was rather poor in comparison to lead batteries and it was concluded that nickel-iron batteries are not suitable for stationary systems where recharging under a constant voltage is necessary. (AB).

  20. Neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Clarifying concepts of diagnostic dichotomy versus continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carissa Nadia Kuswanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kraepelinian dichotomy posits that patients with schizophrenia (SCZ and bipolar disorder (BD present as two separate psychotic entities such that they differ in terms of clinical severity including neurocognitive functioning. Our study aimed to specifically compare and contrast the level of neurocognitive functioning between SCZ and BD patients and identify predictors of their poor neurocognitive functioning. We hypothesized that patients with SCZ had a similar level of neurcognitive impairment compared with BD. Forty-nine healthy controls (HC, 72 SCZ and 42 BD patients who were matched for age, gender, and premorbid IQ were administered the Brief Assessment of Cognition battery (BAC. Severity of psychopathology and socio-occupational functioning were assessed for both patients groups. Both BD and SCZ groups demonstrated similar patterns of neurocognitive deficits across several domains (verbal memory, working memory, semantic fluency, processing speed compared with HC subjects. However, no significant difference was found in neurocognitive functioning between BD and SCZ patients, suggesting that both patient groups suffer the same degree of neurocognitive impairment. Patients with lower level of psychosocial functioning (F(1,112 = 2.661, p = 0.009 and older age (F(1,112 = -2.625, p = 0.010, not diagnosis or doses of psychotropic medications, predicted poorer overall neurocognitive functioning as measured by the lower BAC composite score. Our findings of comparable neurocognitive impairments between SCZ and BD affirm our hypothesis and support less the Kraepelinian concept of dichotomy but more of a continuum of psychotic spectrum conditions. This should urge clinicians to investigate further the underlying neural basis of these neurocognitive deficits, and be attentive to the associated socio-demographic and clinical profile in order to recognize and optimize early the management of the widespread neurocognitive deficits in patients with

  1. Neurocognitive functions of pediatric kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar-Varga, Marta; Novak, Marta; Szabo, Attila J; Kelen, Kata; Streja, Elani; Remport, Adam; Mucsi, Istvan; Molnar, Miklos Z; Reusz, Gyorgy

    2016-09-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children is associated with impaired neurocognitive function and development. However, data on factors associated with neurocognitive dysfunctions in children with kidney transplants are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis comparing cognitive functions (using the Woodcock-Johnson International Edition, WJIE) in 35 kidney transplant and 35 healthy control children. Data on laboratory measurements, comorbidities, and social characteristics were collected. Transplant children had significantly worse scores on the intelligence quotient (IQ) test compared with controls [Full Scale IQ score 85 (26) vs 107 (10), p 9 months) were associated with lower test scores. Age-standardized duration of hospitalization was inversely correlated with IQ (r = -0.46, p <0.01) and was an independent significant predictor (Beta = -0.38, p = 0.02) of IQ scores in transplanted children. Child kidney transplant recipients have neurocognitive function impairments that are associated with markers of socioeconomic status (SES) and factors related to disease severity.

  2. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB): list sorting test to measure working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Kisala, Pamela A; Mungas, Dan; Conway, Kevin; Gershon, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The List Sorting Working Memory Test was designed to assess working memory (WM) as part of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. List Sorting is a sequencing task requiring children and adults to sort and sequence stimuli that are presented visually and auditorily. Validation data are presented for 268 participants ages 20 to 85 years. A subset of participants (N=89) was retested 7 to 21 days later. As expected, the List Sorting Test had moderately high correlations with other measures of working memory and executive functioning (convergent validity) but a low correlation with a test of receptive vocabulary (discriminant validity). Furthermore, List Sorting demonstrates expected changes over the age span and has excellent test-retest reliability. Collectively, these results provide initial support for the construct validity of the List Sorting Working Memory Measure as a measure of working memory. However, the relationship between the List Sorting Test and general executive function has yet to be determined.

  3. Cross-cultural standardization of the South Texas Assessment of Neurocognition in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkil, S; Satish, S; Mathew, S S; Dinesh, N; Kumar, C T S; Lombardo, L E; Glahn, D C; Frangou, S

    2012-08-01

    Despite the central role of cognition for mental disorders most studies have been conducted in western countries. Similar research from other parts of the world, particularly India, is very limited. As a first step in closing this gap this cross-cultural comparability study of the South Texas Assessment of Neurocognition (STAN) battery was conducted between USA and India. One hundred healthy adults from Kerala, India, were administered six language independent subtests of the Java Neuropsychological Test (JANET) version of the STAN, assessing aspects of general intellectual ability (Matrix Reasoning), attention (Identical Pairs Continuous Performance, 3 Symbol Version Test; IPCPTS), working memory (Spatial Capacity Delayed Response Test; SCAP), response inhibition (Stop Signal Reaction Time; SSRT), Emotional Recognition and Risk taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task; BART). Test results were compared to a demographically matched US sample. Overall test performance in the Kerala sample was comparable to that of the US sample and commensurate to that generally described in studies from western countries. Our results support the metric equivalence of currently available cognitive test batteries developed in western countries for use in India. However, the sample was restricted to individuals who were literate and had completed basic primary and secondary education.

  4. Targeting as the basis for pre-test market of lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniaristanto, Zakaria, R.; Saputri, V. H. L.; Sutopo, W.; Kadir, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses about market segmentation and targeting as a first step in pre-test market of a new technology. The benefits of targeting towards pre-test market are pre-test market can be conducted to focus on selected target markets so there is no bias during the pre-test market. In determining the target market then do some surveys to identify the state of market in the future, so that the marketing process is not misplaced. Lithium ion battery which is commercialized through start-up companies is the case study. This start-up companies must be able to respond the changes and bring in customers as well as maintain them so that companies can survive and evolve to achieve its objectives. The research aims to determine market segments and target market effectively. Marketing strategy (segmentation and targeting) is used to make questionnaire and cluster analysis in data processing. Respondents were selected by purposive sampling and have obtained data as many as 80 samples. As the results study, there are three segments for lithium ion battery with their own distinguished characteristics and there are two segments that can be used as the target market for the company.

  5. US Department of Energy Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery and Fuel Economy Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Donald; Francfort, James

    The advanced vehicle testing activity (AVTA), part of the US Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modelling, and research and development programs. The AVTA has tested over 200 advanced technology vehicles including full-size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and internal combustion engine vehicles powered by hydrogen. Currently, the AVTA is conducting a significant evaluation of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) produced by major automotive manufacturers. The results are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory. Through the course of this testing, the fuel economy of HEV fleets has been monitored and analyzed to determine the 'real world' performance of their hybrid energy systems, particularly the battery. The initial fuel economy of these vehicles has typically been less than that determined by the manufacturer and also varies significantly with environmental conditions. Nevertheless, the fuel economy and, therefore, battery performance, has remained stable over the life of a given vehicle (160 000 miles).

  6. Association Between a Single General Anesthesia Exposure Before Age 36 Months and Neurocognitive Outcomes in Later Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lena S; Li, Guohua; Miller, Tonya L K; Salorio, Cynthia; Byrne, Mary W; Bellinger, David C; Ing, Caleb; Park, Raymond; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Hays, Stephen R; DiMaggio, Charles J; Cooper, Timothy J; Rauh, Virginia; Maxwell, Lynne G; Youn, Ahrim; McGowan, Francis X

    2016-06-07

    Exposure of young animals to commonly used anesthetics causes neurotoxicity including impaired neurocognitive function and abnormal behavior. The potential neurocognitive and behavioral effects of anesthesia exposure in young children are thus important to understand. To examine if a single anesthesia exposure in otherwise healthy young children was associated with impaired neurocognitive development and abnormal behavior in later childhood. Sibling-matched cohort study conducted between May 2009 and April 2015 at 4 university-based US pediatric tertiary care hospitals. The study cohort included sibling pairs within 36 months in age and currently 8 to 15 years old. The exposed siblings were healthy at surgery/anesthesia. Neurocognitive and behavior outcomes were prospectively assessed with retrospectively documented anesthesia exposure data. A single exposure to general anesthesia during inguinal hernia surgery in the exposed sibling and no anesthesia exposure in the unexposed sibling, before age 36 months. The primary outcome was global cognitive function (IQ). Secondary outcomes included domain-specific neurocognitive functions and behavior. A detailed neuropsychological battery assessed IQ and domain-specific neurocognitive functions. Parents completed validated, standardized reports of behavior. Among the 105 sibling pairs, the exposed siblings (mean age, 17.3 months at surgery/anesthesia; 9.5% female) and the unexposed siblings (44% female) had IQ testing at mean ages of 10.6 and 10.9 years, respectively. All exposed children received inhaled anesthetic agents, and anesthesia duration ranged from 20 to 240 minutes, with a median duration of 80 minutes. Mean IQ scores between exposed siblings (scores: full scale = 111; performance = 108; verbal = 111) and unexposed siblings (scores: full scale = 111; performance = 107; verbal = 111) were not statistically significantly different. Differences in mean IQ scores between sibling pairs were

  7. IQ subgroups in relation to neurocognitive profiles, psychopathology and brain volume in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Høj; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Rostrup, Egill

    . low) using the healthy controls as reference. The IQ subgroups were compared using psychopathology ratings (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale), neuropsychological assessments (Brief Assessment of Cognition in schizophrenia and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) and a combined 3T......Background and Aim: Approximately half of patients with schizophrenia experience a deterioration in IQ before or around illness onset and recent studies have found apositive association between IQ and brain volume in first episode schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the combined...... impact of estimated IQ trajectory and IQ level at illness onset on psychopathology, neurocognitive profiles and brain volume. Materials and methods: The design is a cross-sectional, case-control study of 60 first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 60 matched healthy controls...

  8. Influence of different open circuit voltage tests on state of charge online estimation for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Fangdan; Xing, Yinjiao; Jiang, Jiuchun; Sun, Bingxiang; Kim, Jonghoon; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two common tests for observing battery open circuit voltage performance are compared. • The temperature dependency of the OCV-SOC relationship is investigated. • Two estimators are evaluated in terms of accuracy and robustness for estimating battery SOC. • The incremental OCV test is better to predetermine the OCV-SOCs for SOC online estimation. - Abstract: Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is a crucial function of battery management systems (BMSs), since accurate estimated SOC is critical to ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicles. A widely used technique for SOC estimation is based on online inference of battery open circuit voltage (OCV). Low-current OCV and incremental OCV tests are two common methods to observe the OCV-SOC relationship, which is an important element of the SOC estimation technique. In this paper, two OCV tests are run at three different temperatures and based on which, two SOC estimators are compared and evaluated in terms of tracking accuracy, convergence time, and robustness for online estimating battery SOC. The temperature dependency of the OCV-SOC relationship is investigated and its influence on SOC estimation results is discussed. In addition, four dynamic tests are presented, one for estimator parameter identification and the other three for estimator performance evaluation. The comparison results show that estimator 2 (based on the incremental OCV test) has higher tracking accuracy and is more robust against varied loading conditions and different initial values of SOC than estimator 1 (based on the low-current OCV test) with regard to ambient temperature. Therefore, the incremental OCV test is recommended for predetermining the OCV-SOCs for battery SOC online estimation in BMSs.

  9. A virtual reality test battery for assessment and screening of spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordell, H; Bodin, K; Bucht, G; Malm, J

    2011-03-01

    There is a need for improved screening methods for spatial neglect. To construct a VR-test battery and evaluate its accuracy and usability in patients with acute stroke. VR-DiSTRO consists of a standard desktop computer, a CRT monitor and eye shutter stereoscopic glasses, a force feedback interface, and software, developed to create an interactive and immersive 3D experience. VR-tests were developed and validated to the conventional Star Cancellation test, Line bisection, Baking Tray Task (BTT), and Visual Extinction test. A construct validation to The Rivermead Behavioral Inattention Test, used as criterion of visuospatial neglect, was made. Usability was assessed according to ISO 9241-11. Thirty-one patients with stroke were included, 9/31 patients had neglect. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 82% for the VR-DiSTRO to correctly identify neglect. VR-BTT and VR-Extinction had the highest correlation (r² = 0.64 and 0.78), as well as high sensitivity and specificity. The kappa values describing the agreement between traditional neglect tests and the corresponding virtual reality test were between 0.47-0.85. Usability was assessed by a questionnaire; 77% reported that the VR-DiSTRO was 'easy' to use. Eighty-eight percent reported that they felt 'focused', 'pleased' or 'alert'. No patient had adverse symptoms. The test session took 15 min. The VR-DiSTRO quickly and with a high accuracy identified visuospatial neglect in patients with stroke in this construct validation. The usability among elderly patients with stroke was high. This VR-test battery has the potential to become an important screening instrument for neglect and a valuable adjunct to the neuropsychological assessment. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. The use of the bi-factor model to test the uni-dimensionality of a battery of reasoning tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primi, Ricardo; Rocha da Silva, Marjorie Cristina; Rodrigues, Priscila; Muniz, Monalisa; Almeida, Leandro S

    2013-02-01

    The Battery of Reasoning Tests 5 (BPR-5) aims to assess the reasoning ability of individuals, using sub-tests with different formats and contents that require basic processes of inductive and deductive reasoning for their resolution. The BPR has three sequential forms: BPR-5i (for children from first to fifth grade), BPR-5 - Form A (for children from sixth to eighth grade) and BPR-5 - form B (for high school and undergraduate students). The present study analysed 412 questionnaires concerning BPR-5i, 603 questionnaires concerning BPR-5 - Form A and 1748 questionnaires concerning BPR-5 - Form B. The main goal was to test the uni-dimensionality of the battery and its tests in relation to items using the bi-factor model. Results suggest that the g factor loadings (extracted by the uni-dimensional model) do not change when the data is adjusted for a more flexible multi-factor model (bi-factor model). A general reasoning factor underlying different contents items is supported.

  11. Functional Assessment of Battery Management System Tested on Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    . The BMS under test is interacting in real-time with the emulated battery pack and several of its functions such as current, voltage and State of Charge (SOC) estimation are evaluated. Also, passive balancing experiments are conducted during charging in order to assess different balancing settings...... of the BMS as far as their respective balancing times and deviations in SOC are concerned. Finally, the energy efficiency of the BMS is accurately measured which, depending on the requirements, can achieve more than 99% of efficiency. In general, it is demonstrated that the HIL setup can provide...... representative outcomes at minimum resources and time requirements....

  12. Cyclic performance tests of Sn/MWCNT composite lithium ion battery anodes at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocoglu, U., E-mail: utocoglu@sakarya.edu.tr; Cevher, O.; Akbulut, H. [Sakarya University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Esentepe Campus 54187 (Turkey)

    2016-04-21

    In this study tin-multi walled carbon nanotube (Sn-MWCNT) lithium ion battery anodes were produced and their electrochemical galvanostatic charge/discharge tests were conducted at various (25 °C, 35 °C, 50 °C) temperatures to determine the cyclic behaviors of anode at different temperatures. Anodes were produced via vacuum filtration and DC magnetron sputtering technique. Tin was sputtered onto buckypapers to form composite structure of anodes. SEM analysis was conducted to determine morphology of buckypapers and Sn-MWCNT composite anodes. Structural and phase analyses were conducted via X-ray diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy technique. CR2016 coin cells were assembled for electrochemical tests. Cyclic voltammetry test were carried out to determine the reversibility of reactions between anodes and reference electrode between 0.01-2.0 V potential window. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests were performed to determine cycle performance of anodes at different temperatures.

  13. A Smartphone App to Screen for HIV-Related Neurocognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Reuben N; Brown, Henry; Ehlers, Andries; Joska, John A; Thomas, Kevin G F; Burgess, Rhonda; Byrd, Desiree; Morgello, Susan

    2014-02-01

    Neurocognitive Impairment (NCI) is one of the most common complications of HIV-infection, and has serious medical and functional consequences. However, screening for it is not routine and NCI often goes undiagnosed. Screening for NCI in HIV disease faces numerous challenges, such as limited screening tests, the need for specialized equipment and apparatuses, and highly trained personnel to administer, score and interpret screening tests. To address these challenges, we developed a novel smartphone-based screening tool, NeuroScreen , to detect HIV-related NCI that includes an easy-to-use graphical user interface with ten highly automated neuropsychological tests. To examine NeuroScreen's : 1) acceptability among patients and different potential users; 2) test construct and criterion validity; and 3) sensitivity and specificity to detect NCI. Fifty HIV+ individuals were administered a gold-standard neuropsychological test battery, designed to detect HIV-related NCI, and NeuroScreen . HIV+ test participants and eight potential provider-users of NeuroScreen were asked about its acceptability. There was a high level of acceptability of NeuroScreen by patients and potential provider-users. Moderate to high correlations between individual NeuroScreen tests and paper-and-pencil tests assessing the same cognitive domains were observed. NeuroScreen also demonstrated high sensitivity to detect NCI. NeuroScreen, a highly automated, easy-to-use smartphone-based screening test to detect NCI among HIV patients and usable by a range of healthcare personnel could help make routine screening for HIV-related NCI feasible. While NeuroScreen demonstrated robust psychometric properties and acceptability, further testing with larger and less neurocognitively impaired samples is warranted.

  14. Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA Lithium-Ion 18650 Battery Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Hooper

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a study undertaken to determine if the electrical performance of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA 3.1 Ah 18650 battery cells can be degraded by road induced vibration typical of an electric vehicle (EV application. This study investigates if a particular cell orientation within the battery assembly can result in different levels of cell degradation. The 18650 cells were evaluated in accordance with Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J2380 standard. This vibration test is synthesized to represent 100,000 miles of North American customer operation at the 90th percentile. This study identified that both the electrical performance and the mechanical properties of the NCA lithium-ion cells were relatively unaffected when exposed to vibration energy that is commensurate with a typical vehicle life. Minor changes observed in the cell’s electrical characteristics were deemed not to be statistically significant and more likely attributable to laboratory conditions during cell testing and storage. The same conclusion was found, irrespective of cell orientation during the test.

  15. Lead paste recycling based on conversion into battery grade oxides. Electrochemical tests and industrial production of new batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusillo, G.; Rosestolato, D.; Scura, F.; Cattarin, S.; Mattarozzi, L.; Guerriero, P.; Gambirasi, A.; Brianese, N.; Staiti, P.; Guerriero, R.; La Sala, G.

    2018-03-01

    We present the preparation and characterization of pure lead monoxide obtained through recycling of the lead paste recovered from exhausted lead acid batteries. The recycling is based on a hydrometallurgical procedure reported in a STC Patent, that includes simple chemical operations (desulphurisation, leaching, precipitation, filtration) and a final thermal conversion. Materials obtained by treatment at 600 °C consist predominantly of β-PbO. The electrochemical behaviour of Positive Active Mass (PAM) prepared from different materials (or mixtures) is then investigated and compared. An optimized oxide material, obtained by prolonged (8 h) thermal treatment at 600 °C, consists of pure β-PbO and appears suitable for preparation of battery elements, alone or in mixture with a small fraction (10%-30%) of traditional industrial leady oxide. The resulting battery performances are similar to those obtained from pure leady oxide. In comparison with traditional recycling processes, the proposed method guarantees lower energy consumption, limited environmental impact and reduced operating risk for industry workers.

  16. Power Lawn Mower Assembler (agric. equip.) 6-94.352--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  17. Tomato Peeler (can. & preserv.) 529.887 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  18. Autoclave Operator (chem.) 4-52.711--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  19. Turret-Lathe Operator 4-78.021 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  20. Room Clerk (hotel and rest.) 1-07.60--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  1. Various Occupations in the Iron and Steel Industry. Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  2. Cutting-and-Creasing Pressman (paper goods) 649.782--Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  3. Peeling-and-Coring-Machine Operator 529.886 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  4. Effects of biscuit-type feeding supplementation on the neurocognitive outcomes of HIV-affected school-age children: a randomized, double-blind, controlled intervention trial in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kek Khee Loo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine if meat or soy protein dietary supplementation will enhance the neurocognitive performance of HIV-affected children at-risk of malnutrition and food insecurity. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, controlled intervention trial evaluated the effect of nutritional supplementation on the neurocognitive outcomes of 49 HIV-affected school-age children in western Kenya. The intervention consisted in providing the mother, target child, and siblings with one of three isocaloric biscuit-type supplements – soy, wheat, or beef – on 5 days per week for 18 months. Neurocognitive outcomes of the target children were assessed by a battery of eight measures and followed up longitudinally for up to 24 months. Results: Mixed effects modeling demonstrated significant differences in the rates of increase over time among all three groups (F test degrees of freedom of 2, P<0.05 for Raven’s progressive matrices performance, but not for verbal meaning, arithmetic, digit span backward, forward, and total, embedded figure test, and Beery visual–motor integration scores. Conclusion: HIV-affected school-age children provided with soy protein supplementation showed greater improvement in nonverbal cognitive (fluid intelligence performance compared with peers who received isocaloric beef or wheat biscuits. Soy nutrients may have an enhancing effect on neurocognitive skills in HIV-affected school-age children.

  5. Bilingualism and performance on two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Linda C; Soveri, Anna; Räsänen, Pekka; Kärnä, Antti; Delatte, Sonia; Lagerström, Emma; Mård, Lena; Steffansson, Mikaela; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use.

  6. Neurocognitive Function in Children with Primary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Marc B.; Batisky, Donald L.; Kupferman, Juan C.; Samuels, Joshua; Hooper, Stephen R.; Falkner, Bonita; Waldstein, Shari R.; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Wang, Hongyue; Staskiewicz, Jennifer; Adams, Heather R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare neurocognitive test performance of children with primary hypertension to that of normotensive controls. Study design Seventy-five children (10-18 years of age) with newly diagnosed, untreated hypertension and 75 frequency matched normotensive controls had baseline neurocognitive testing as part of a prospective multicenter study of cognition in primary hypertension. Subjects completed tests of general intelligence, attention, memory, executive function, and processing speed. Parents completed rating scales of executive function and the Sleep-Related Breathing Disorder scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ-SRBD). Results Hypertension and control groups did not differ significantly in age, sex, maternal education, income, race, ethnicity, obesity, anxiety, depression, cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein. Subjects with hypertension had higher PSQ-SRBD scores (p = 0.04) and triglycerides (p = 0.037). Multivariate analyses showed that hypertension was independently associated with worse performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (List A Trial 1, p = 0.034; List A Total, p = 0.009; Short delay recall, p = 0.013), CogState Groton Maze Learning Test delayed recall (p = 0.002), Grooved Pegboard dominant hand (p = 0.045), and Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence Vocabulary (p = 0.016). Results indicated a significant interaction between disordered sleep (PSQ-SRBD score) and hypertension on ratings of executive function (p = 0.04), such that hypertension heightened the association between increased disordered sleep and worse executive function. Conclusions Youth with primary hypertension demonstrated significantly lower performance on neurocognitive testing compared with normotensive controls, in particular, on measures of memory, attention, and executive functions. PMID:27692987

  7. Design and Construction of a Test Bench to Characterize Efficiency and Reliability of High Voltage Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Tobias; Thomas, Stephan; Roggendorf, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    system efficiency. High voltage batteries may be advantageous for future medium voltage DC-grids as well. In all cases, high availability and reliability is indispensable. Investigations on the operating behavior of such systems are needed. For this purpose, a test bench for high voltage storage systems...... was built to analyze these processes for different battery technologies. A special safety infrastructure for the test bench was developed due to the high voltage and the storable energy of approximately 120 kWh. This paper presents the layout of the test bench for analyzing high voltage batteries with about...... 4,300 volts including all components, the safety requirements with the resultant safety circuit and the aim of the investigations to be performed with the test bench....

  8. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Karner

    2012-04-01

    The UltraBattery retrofit project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEVs).

  9. Sensitivity of the Halstead and Wechsler Test Batteries to brain damage: Evidence from Reitan's original validation sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W; Larrabee, Glenn J

    2006-06-01

    The Halstead-Reitan Battery has been instrumental in the development of neuropsychological practice in the United States. Although Reitan administered both the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale and Halstead's test battery when evaluating Halstead's theory of biologic intelligence, the relative sensitivity of each test battery to brain damage continues to be an area of controversy. Because Reitan did not perform direct parametric analysis to contrast group performances, we reanalyze Reitan's original validation data from both Halstead (Reitan, 1955) and Wechsler batteries (Reitan, 1959a) and calculate effect sizes and probability levels using traditional parametric approaches. Eight of the 10 tests comprising Halstead's original Impairment Index, as well as the Impairment Index itself, statistically differentiated patients with unequivocal brain damage from controls. In addition, 13 of 14 Wechsler measures including Full-Scale IQ also differed statistically between groups (Brain Damage Full-Scale IQ = 96.2; Control Group Full Scale IQ = 112.6). We suggest that differences in the statistical properties of each battery (e.g., raw scores vs. standardized scores) likely contribute to classification characteristics including test sensitivity and specificity.

  10. Reliability of a functional test battery evaluating functionality, proprioception, and strength in recreational athletes with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekir, U; Yildiz, Y; Hazneci, B; Ors, F; Saka, T; Aydin, T

    2008-12-01

    In contrast to the single evaluation methods used in the past, the combination of multiple tests allows one to obtain a global assessment of the ankle joint. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the different tests in a functional test battery. Twenty-four male recreational athletes with unilateral functional ankle instability (FAI) were recruited for this study. One component of the test battery included five different functional ability tests. These tests included a single limb hopping course, single-legged and triple-legged hop for distance, and six and cross six meter hop for time. The ankle joint position sense and one leg standing test were used for evaluation of proprioception and sensorimotor control. The isokinetic strengths of the ankle invertor and evertor muscles were evaluated at a velocity of 120 degrees /s. The reliability of the test battery was assessed by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Each subject was tested two times, with an interval of 3-5 days between the test sessions. The ICCs for ankle functional and proprioceptive ability showed high reliability (ICCs ranging from 0.94 to 0.98). Additionally, isokinetic ankle joint inversion and eversion strength measurements represented good to high reliability (ICCs between 0.82 and 0.98). The functional test battery investigated in this study proved to be a reliable tool for the assessment of athletes with functional ankle instability. Therefore, clinicians may obtain reliable information from the functional test battery during the assessment of ankle joint performance in patients with functional ankle instability.

  11. Internal Structure and Partial Invariance across Gender in the Spanish Version of the Reasoning Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosua, Paula; Mujika, Josu

    2015-10-13

    The Reasoning Test Battery (BPR) is an instrument built on theories of the hierarchical organization of cognitive abilities and therefore consists of different tasks related with abstract, numerical, verbal, practical, spatial and mechanical reasoning. It was originally created in Belgium and later adapted to Portuguese. There are three forms of the battery consisting of different items and scales which cover an age range from 9 to 22. This paper focuses on the adaptation of the BPR to Spanish, and analyzes different aspects of its internal structure: (a) exploratory item factor analysis was applied to assess the presence of a dominant factor for each partial scale; (b) the general underlined model was evaluated through confirmatory factor analysis, and (c) factorial invariance across gender was studied. The sample consisted of 2624 Spanish students. The results concluded the presence of a general factor beyond the scales, with equivalent values for men and women, and gender differences in the factorial structure which affect the numerical reasoning, abstract reasoning and mechanical reasoning scales.

  12. 10 CFR Appendix Y to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements,” append this sentence to the end: “The test equipment must be capable of accounting for crest factor and frequency spectrum in its measurement of the UUT input current.” 4. Test Measurement: (a) Inactive Mode Energy Consumption Measurement. The measurement of the battery charger energy ratio shall...

  13. Battery Usage and Thermal Performance of the Toyota Prius and Honda Insight for Various Chassis Dynamometer Test Procedures: Preprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, K. J.; Mihalic, M.; Zolot, M.

    2001-01-01

    This study describes the results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) chassis dynamometer testing of a 2000 model year Honda Insight and 2001 model year Toyota Prius. The tests were conducted for the purpose of evaluating the battery thermal performance, assessing the impact of air conditioning on fuel economy and emissions, and providing information for NREL's Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

  14. JPL's electric and hybrid vehicles project: Project activities and preliminary test results. [power conditioning and battery charge efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Efforts to achieve a 100 mile urban range, to reduce petroleum usage 40% to 70%, and to commercialize battery technology are discussed with emphasis on an all plastic body, four passenger car that is flywheel assisted and battery powered, and on an all metal body, four passenger car with front wheel drive and front motor. For the near term case, a parallel hybrid in which the electric motor and the internal combustion engine may directly power the drive wheels, is preferred to a series design. A five passenger car in which the electric motor and the gasoline engine both feed into the same transmission is discussed. Upgraded demonstration vehicles were tested using advanced lead acid, nickel zinc, nickel iron, and zinc chloride batteries to determine maximum acceleration, constant speed, and battery behavior. The near term batteries demonstrated significant improvement relative to current lead acid batteries. The increase in range was due to improved energy density, and ampere hour capacity, with relatively 1 small weight and volume differences.

  15. Testing for developmental neurotoxicity using a battery of in vitro assays for key cellular events in neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrill, Joshua A; Freudenrich, Theresa; Wallace, Kathleen; Ball, Kenneth; Shafer, Timothy J; Mundy, William R

    2018-04-05

    Medium- to high-throughput in vitro assays that recapitulate the critical processes of nervous system development have been proposed as a means to facilitate rapid testing and identification of chemicals which may affect brain development. In vivo neurodevelopment is a complex progression of distinct cellular processes. Therefore, batteries of in vitro assays that model and quantify effects on a variety of neurodevelopmental processes have the potential to identify chemicals which may affect brain development at different developmental stages. In the present study, the results of concentration-response screening of 67 reference chemicals in a battery of high content imaging and microplate reader-based assays that evaluate neural progenitor cell proliferation, neural proginitor cell apoptosis, neurite initiation/outgrowth, neurite maturation and synaptogenesis are summarized and compared. The assay battery had a high degree of combined sensitivity (87%) for categorizing chemicals known to affect neurodevelopment as active and a moderate degree of combined specificity (71%) for categorizing chemicals not associated with affects on neurodevelopment as inactive. The combined sensitivity of the assay battery was higher compared to any individual assay while the combined specificity of the assay battery was lower compared to any individual assay. When selectivity of effects for a neurodevelopmental endpoint as compared to general cytotoxicity was taken into account, the combined sensitivity of the assay battery decreased (68%) while the combined specificity increased (93%). The identity and potency of chemicals identified as active varied across the assay battery, underscoring the need for use of a combination of diverse in vitro models to comprehensively screen chemicals and identify those which potentially affect neurodevelopment. Overall, these data indicate that a battery of assays which address many different processes in nervous system development may be used to

  16. Identification and quantification of gases emitted during abuse tests by overcharge of a commercial Li-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Y.; Bry, A.; de Persis, S.

    2018-06-01

    As hazardous situations can occur during the life of a Li-ion battery, it is of great importance to understand its behavior under abusive conditions (mechanical, thermal or electrical). In particular, the study of overcharge, which consists of forcing a current through the cell, can be very helpful in improving battery safety. Very few studies in the literature have focused on the chemical reaction mechanism responsible for failure during overcharge. This is, however, of great interest because a Li-ion battery can produce reactions in a sealed container and is thus a highly reactive system. Here, experimental approaches are employed to understand the reaction mechanisms that occur during overcharge testing. Experiments consist of studying the overcharge kinetics of a commercial battery at an initial state of charge of 100%. The battery is maintained in a known volume and gaseous samples are withdrawn both at the end of the test and continuously during the test. The main gaseous species are then identified and quantified by gas phase chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and FTIR spectroscopy. This experimental study is completed by a numerical investigation to determine the combustion parameters of the exhaust gases using a detailed reaction mechanism associated with a numerical code.

  17. Selective Neurocognitive Impairments in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Georges; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Jepsen, Susie; Ballard, Kristin; Nelson, Megan; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Cullen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether major depression in adolescence is characterized by neurocognitive deficits in attention, affective decision making, and cognitive control of emotion processing. Neuropsychological tests including the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs, the Attention Network…

  18. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophersen, Jon P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  19. Social cognition and neurocognition as independent domains in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooren, S; Versmissen, D; Janssen, I; Myin-Germeys, I; à Campo, J; Mengelers, R; van Os, J; Krabbendam, L

    2008-08-01

    Patients with psychosis display alterations in social cognition as well as in the realm of neurocognition. It is unclear, however, to what degree these cognitive domains represent two separate dimensions of liability or the pleiotropic expression of a single deficit. The purpose of the present study was to investigate (i) to what extent alterations in social cognition represent an independent area of vulnerability to psychosis, separate from neurocognitive deficits and (ii) whether social cognition is one construct or can be divided into several subcomponents. Five social cognition and three neurocognitive tasks were completed by 186 participants with different levels of vulnerability for psychosis: 44 patients with psychotic disorder; 47 subjects at familial risk; 41 subjects at psychometric risk and 54 control subjects. The social cognition tasks covered important basic subcomponents of social cognition, i.e. mentalisation (or theory of mind), data gathering bias (jumping to conclusions), source monitoring and attribution style. Neurocognitive tasks assessed speed of information processing, inhibition, cognitive shifting and strategy-driven retrieval from semantic memory. The results of factor analysis suggested that neurocognition and social cognition are two separate areas of vulnerability in psychosis. Furthermore, the social cognition measures lacked significant overlap, suggesting a multidimensional construct. Cognitive liabilities to psychosis are manifold, and include key processes underlying basic person-environment interactions in daily life, independent of cognition quantified by neuropsychological tests.

  20. Low temperature (-15°C operational test of the battery package in the Antarctic penetrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Shibuya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform seismic explosion experiments in the crevassed area of the Antarctic ice sheet, a seismometer deployable from the air is desired. We have developed such a helicopter-deployable system (called the Antarctic penetrator, which consists of a Ground System Segment (GSS and an Automatic Data Collection Segment (ADCS. Its test operation by the 43rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-43 was, however, not successful. The reason was found to be leakage of 3.6mA current from the battery package during transportation. In order to re-examine the life time of the battery package under an operational environment at -15°C , we tested the lithium thionyl chloride batteries in a laboratory cryostat. The operational scenario is as follows. After initialization of the GSS, it enters into a sleep mode of 20days duration. At the 21st day, the GSS becomes awake and enters into the switching stage of 12 hours-awake and 12 hours-sleep modes for the following 20-30days. During the awake-period, the radio-telemeter module becomes active and transmits commands and/or recovers stored data to the ADCS once or twice a day. The current consumption in the sleep-mode was 60mA, while it was 135mA during the awake-mode. The current consumption attained about 230mA during the active mode, with an associated voltage fall of 0.5V. With 8 TL5930 cells in parallel and 2 in serial (cell capacity 19 Ah; Tadiran Co., Ltd., operation was successful with a life time of more than 50days. The life limit can be predicted from the time when the voltage becomes lower than 4.8V in the active mode. It was possible to recover the GSS-stored 4 event data (48Kbytes to the ADCS in about 40 s fifty times during the above 50days.

  1. Modeling and Operational Testing of an Isolated Variable Speed PMSG Wind Turbine with Battery Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAROTE, L.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling and operational testing of an isolated permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG, driven by a small wind turbine with a battery energy storage system during wind speed and load variations. The whole system is initially modeled, including the PMSG, the boost converter and the storage system. The required power for the connected loads can be effectively delivered and supplied by the proposed wind turbine and energy storage systems, subject to an appropriate control method. Energy storage devices are required for power balance and power quality in stand alone wind energy systems. The main purpose is to supply 230 V / 50 Hz domestic appliances through a single-phase inverter. The experimental waveforms, compared to the simulation results, show a good prediction of the electrical variable parameters. Furthermore, it can be seen that the results validate the stability of the supply.

  2. Evaluation of genotoxicity through micronuclei test in workers of car and battery repair garages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino-Roth M.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the micronuclei test (MNT was applied in exfoliated cells of buccal mucosa, in order to evaluate the genotoxic risk associated with occupational exposure of mechanics, storage battery renovation workers, and car painters. For each individual, 3000 exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed. There was a significantly higher frequency of micronucleated cells (MNC in the exposed workers than in controls. Smoking and drinking habits, age, and working time did not represent significant factors in terms of increasing the production of micronuclei (MN, when the control and the exposed groups were compared. These results allowed to conclude that the studied individuals belong to a risk group and should periodically undergo biological monitoring and proper care.

  3. Test battery for measuring the perception and recognition of facial expressions of emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Oliver; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Manske, Karsten; Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of perceiving and recognizing facial expressions in everyday life, there is no comprehensive test battery for the multivariate assessment of these abilities. As a first step toward such a compilation, we present 16 tasks that measure the perception and recognition of facial emotion expressions, and data illustrating each task's difficulty and reliability. The scoring of these tasks focuses on either the speed or accuracy of performance. A sample of 269 healthy young adults completed all tasks. In general, accuracy and reaction time measures for emotion-general scores showed acceptable and high estimates of internal consistency and factor reliability. Emotion-specific scores yielded lower reliabilities, yet high enough to encourage further studies with such measures. Analyses of task difficulty revealed that all tasks are suitable for measuring emotion perception and emotion recognition related abilities in normal populations. PMID:24860528

  4. Performance in neurocognitive tasks in obese patients. Does somatic comorbidity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibke eKiunke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine if obese individuals with obesity-related somatic comorbidity (i.e., hypertension, diabetes, sleep apnea, dyslipidemia, pain disorder perform worse in neurocognitive tasks compared to obese individuals without any somatic disorder. Neurocognitive functioning was measured by a computerized test battery that consisted of the following tasks: Corsi Block Tapping Test, Auditory Word Learning Task, Trail Making Test-Part B, Stroop Test, Labyrinth Test, and a 4-disk version of the Tower of Hanoi. The total sample consisted of 146 patients, the majority (N=113 suffered from obesity grade 3, 26 individuals had obesity grade 2, and only 7 individuals obesity grade 1. Ninety-eight participants (67.1% reported at least one somatic disorder (Soma+-group. Hypertension was present in 75 individuals (51.4%, type 2 diabetes in 34 participants (23.3%, 38 individuals had sleep apnea (26.0%, 16 suffered from dyslipidemia (11.0%, and 14 individuals reported having a chronic pain disorder (9.6%. Participants without a coexisting somatic disorder were younger (MSoma-=33.7, SD=9.8 vs. MSoma+=42.7, SD=11.0, F(1,144=23.01, p<0.001 and more often female (89.6% and 62.2%, χ2(1= 11.751, p=0.001 but did not differ with respect to education, regular binge eating or depressive symptoms from those in the Soma+-group. The Soma--group performed better on cognitive tasks related to memory and mental flexibility. However, the group differences disappeared completely after controlling for age. The findings indicate that in some obese patients increasing age may not only be accompanied by an increase of obesity severity and by more obesity-related somatic disorders but also by poorer cognitive functioning.

  5. Neurocognitive Models of Medical Decision-Making Capacity in Traumatic Brain Injury Across Injury Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebel, Kristen L; Novack, Thomas A; Kennedy, Richard; Martin, Roy C; Dreer, Laura E; Raman, Rema; Marson, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    To identify neurocognitive predictors of medical decision-making capacity (MDC) in participants with mild and moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Academic medical center. Sixty adult controls and 104 adults with TBI (49 mild, 55 moderate/severe) evaluated within 6 weeks of injury. Prospective cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument to assess MDC and a neuropsychological test battery. We used factor analysis to reduce the battery test measures into 4 cognitive composite scores (verbal memory, verbal fluency, academic skills, and processing speed/executive function). We identified cognitive predictors of the 3 most clinically relevant Capacity to Consent to Treatment Instrument consent standards (appreciation, reasoning, and understanding). In controls, academic skills (word reading, arithmetic) and verbal memory predicted understanding; verbal fluency predicted reasoning; and no predictors emerged for appreciation. In the mild TBI group, verbal memory predicted understanding and reasoning, whereas academic skills predicted appreciation. In the moderate/severe TBI group, verbal memory and academic skills predicted understanding; academic skills predicted reasoning; and academic skills and verbal fluency predicted appreciation. Verbal memory was a predictor of MDC in controls and persons with mild and moderate/severe TBI. In clinical practice, impaired verbal memory could serve as a "red flag" for diminished consent capacity in persons with recent TBI.

  6. Testing ESL sociopragmatics development and validation of a web-based test battery

    CERN Document Server

    Roever, Carsten; Elder, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Testing of second language pragmatics has grown as a research area but still suffers from a tension between construct coverage and practicality. In this book, the authors describe the development and validation of a web-based test of second language pragmatics for learners of English. The test has a sociopragmatic orientation and strives for a broad coverage of the construct by assessing learners'' metapragmatic judgments as well as their ability to co-construct discourse. To ensure practicality, the test is delivered online and is scored partially automatically and partially by human raters.

  7. Cognitive Screening Tests Versus Comprehensive Neuropsychological Test Batteries: A National Academy of Neuropsychology Education Paper†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Glen, Tannahill; Puente, Antonio E; Denney, Robert L; Ruff, Ronald M; Hostetter, Gayle; Bianchini, Kevin J

    2017-06-01

    The American Medical Association Current Procedural Panel developed a new billing code making behavioral health screening a reimbursable healthcare service. The use of computerized testing as a means for cognitive screening and brief cognitive testing is increasing at a rapid rate. The purpose of this education paper is to provide information to clinicians, healthcare administrators, and policy developers about the purpose, strengths, and limitations of cognitive screening tests versus comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. Screening tests are generally brief and narrow in scope, they can be administered during a routine clinical visit, and they can be helpful for identifying individuals in need of more comprehensive assessment. Some screening tests can also be helpful for monitoring treatment outcomes. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments are multidimensional in nature and used for purposes such as identifying primary and secondary diagnoses, determining the nature  and severity of a person's cognitive difficulties, determining functional limitations, and planning treatment and rehabilitation. Cognitive screening tests are expected to play an increasingly important role in identifying individuals with cognitive impairment and in determining which individuals should be referred for further neuropsychological assessment. However, limitations of existing cognitive screening tests are present and cognitive screening tests should not be used as a replacement for comprehensive neuropsychological testing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Testing of a naturally aged nuclear power plant inverter and battery charger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, W.E.

    1988-09-01

    A naturally aged inverter and battery charger were obtained from the Shippingport facility. This equipment was manufactured in 1974, and was installed at Shippingport in 1975 as part of a major plant modification. Testing was performed on this equipment under the auspices of the NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program to evaluate the type and extent of degradation due to aging, and to determine the effectiveness of condition monitoring techniques which could be used to detect aging effects. Steady state testing was conducted over the equipment's entire operating range. Step load changes were also initiated in order to monitor the electrical response. During this testing, component temperatures were monitored and circuit waveforms analyzed. Results indicated that aging had not substantially affected equipment operation. On the other hand, when compared with original acceptance test data, the monitoring techniques employed were sensitive to changes in measurable component and equipment parameters indicating the viability of detecting degradation prior to catastrophic failure. 7 refs., 34 figs., 12 tabs

  9. Visual Working Memory and Perception Speed of 3- to 6-Year-Old Children Tested with a Matrix Film Battery Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittorf, Martin L.; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Huckauf, Anke

    2014-01-01

    In this study the visual working memory (VWM) and perception speed of 60 children between the ages of three and six years were tested with an age-based, easy-to-handle Matrix Film Battery Test (reliability R?=?0.71). It was thereby affirmed that the VWM is age dependent (correlation coefficient r?=?0.66***) as expected. Furthermore, a significant…

  10. [The battery of tests for behavioral phenotyping of aging animals in the experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorina, Ya V; Komleva, Yu K; Lopatina, O L; Volkova, V V; Chernykh, A I; Shabalova, A A; Semenchukov, A A; Olovyannikova, R Ya; Salmina, A B

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a battery of tests to study social and cognitive impairments for behavioral phenotyping of aging experimental animals with physiological neurodegeneration. Object of the study were outbred CD1 mice in the following groups: 1st group - 12-month old male mice (physiological aging); 2nd group - 2-month old male mice (control group). Social recognition test, elevated plus maze test (EPM), open field test, light-dark box test, and Fear conditioning protocol were used to estimate the neurological status of experimental animals. We found that aging male mice in a contrast to young ones have demonstrated lower social interest to female mice in the social recognition task. EPM and light-dark box tests showed increased level of anxiety in the group of aged mice comparing to the control group. Fear conditioning protocol revealed impairment of associative learning and memory in the group of aged mice, particularly, fear memory consolidation was dramatically suppressed. Analysis of behavioral factors, social interactions and anxiety level in the experimental mice has confirmed age-related neurodegeneration in the 1st group. We found that the most informative approach to identifying neurological impairments in aging mice (social interaction deficit, limitation of interests, increased level of anxiety) should be based on the open field test light-dark box test, and Fear conditioning protocol. Such combination allows obtaining new data on behavioral alterations in the age-associated of neurodegeneration and to develop novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of age-related brain pathology.

  11. Development of a Physical Employment Testing Battery for Infantry Soldiers: 11B Infantryman and 11C Infantryman - Indirect Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    quickly as possible and ran around the course in the direction indicated, without knocking over the cones. Time to complete the course was recorded (14...in order to reduce the cost of collecting equipment. Additionally, all the tests used may be readily purchased at a sporting goods store. The third...a sporting goods store. The third model resulted in a test battery that included the medicine ball put, squat lift, Illinois agility test (lower

  12. Multidimensional Aptitude Battery-Second Edition Intelligence Testing of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Training Candidates Compared with Manned Airframe Training Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    assessing the general intelligence and neuropsychological aptitudes of USAF RPA pilot training candidates. Chappelle et al. obtained comprehensive...computer-based intelligence testing (Multidimensional Aptitude Battery-Second Edition [MAB-II]) and neuropsychological screening (MicroCog) on USAF MQ-1... schizophrenia , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorders) and not on very high functioning populations such as aviators

  13. The neurocognitive nature of children with ADHD comorbid sluggish cognitive tempo: Might SCT be a disorder of vigilance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytunca, Muharrem Burak; Inci, Sevim Berrin; Ipci, Melis; Kardas, Burcu; Bolat, Gul Unsel; Ercan, Eyup Sabri

    2018-03-21

    Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) refers to a clinical construct including several symptoms such as sluggishness, absentmindedness, low energy. In the present study, we compared neurocognitive laboratory outcomes of ADHD children with or without SCT. The CNS Vital Signs Battery was utilized to measure neurocognitive measure of the participants. The SCT+ADHD group comprised of 42 subjects, ADHD group was 41 subjects and control group was 24 subjects. The cognitive flexibility score was found to be more severely impaired in ADHD children with SCT in comparison to the ADHD-only. Additionally, greater deficits in the Shifting Attention Test (p = 0.014) and the Continuous Performance Test (reaction time score, p SCT+ADHD group relative to ADHD group. Processing speed, visual/auditory memory, psychomotor speed and reaction time were not found to more impaired in those comorbid with SCT. Impairments in the cognitive flexibility and more specifically shifting attention and continuous performance may be indicative of vigilance and orientation problems rather than executive functions for the SCT construct. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characteristics of Pediatric Performance on a Test Battery Commonly Used in the Diagnosis of Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihing, Jeffrey; Guenette, Linda; Chermak, Gail; Brown, Mallory; Ceruti, Julianne; Fitzgerald, Krista; Geissler, Kristin; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Brenneman, Lauren; Musiek, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Although central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) test battery performance has been examined in adults with neurologic lesions of the central auditory nervous system (CANS), similar data on children being referred for CAPD evaluations are sparse. This study characterizes CAPD test battery performance in children using tests commonly administered to diagnose the disorder. Specifically, this study describes failure rates for various test combinations, relationships between CAPD tests used in the battery, and the influence of cognitive function on CAPD test performance and CAPD diagnosis. A comparison is also made between the performance of children with CAPD and data from patients with neurologic lesions of the CANS. A retrospective study. Fifty-six pediatric patients were referred for CAPD testing. Participants were administered four CAPD tests, including frequency patterns (FP), low-pass filtered speech (LPFS), dichotic digits (DD), and competing sentences (CS). In addition, they were given the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). Descriptive analyses examined the failure rates of various test combinations, as well as how often children with CAPD failed certain combinations when compared with adults with CANS lesions. A principal components analysis was performed to examine interrelationships between tests. Correlations and regressions were conducted to determine the relationship between CAPD test performance and the WISC. Results showed that the FP and LPFS tests were most commonly failed by children with CAPD. Two-test combinations that included one or both of these two tests and excluded DD tended to be failed more often. Including the DD and CS test in a battery benefited specificity. Tests thought to measure interhemispheric transfer tended to be correlated. Compared with adult patients with neurologic lesions, children with CAPD tended to fail LPFS more frequently and DD less frequently. Both groups failed FP with relatively equal frequency

  15. Development, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the resistance training skills battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Harries, Simon K; Barnett, Lisa M; Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the development and assess test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Resistance Training Skills Battery (RTSB) for adolescents. The RTSB provides an assessment of resistance training skill competency and includes 6 exercises (i.e., body weight squat, push-up, lunge, suspended row, standing overhead press, and front support with chest touches). Scoring for each skill is based on the number of performance criteria successfully demonstrated. An overall resistance training skill quotient (RTSQ) is created by adding participants' scores for the 6 skills. Participants (44 boys and 19 girls, mean age = 14.5 ± 1.2 years) completed the RTSB on 2 occasions separated by 7 days. Participants also completed the following fitness tests, which were used to create a muscular fitness score (MFS): handgrip strength, timed push-up, and standing long jump tests. Intraclass correlation (ICC), paired samples t-tests, and typical error were used to assess test-retest reliability. To assess construct validity, gender and RTSQ were entered into a regression model predicting MFS. The rank order repeatability of the RTSQ was high (ICC = 0.88). The model explained 39% of the variance in MFS (p ≤ 0.001) and RTSQ (r = 0.40, p ≤ 0.001) was a significant predictor. This study has demonstrated the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the RTSB in a sample of adolescents. The RTSB can reliably rank participants in regards to their resistance training competency and has the necessary sensitivity to detect small changes in resistance training skill proficiency.

  16. Test results of a 60 volt bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, Olga; Gahn, Randall F.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gemeiner, Russel P.

    1987-01-01

    In July 1986, a high-voltage nickel-hydrogen battery was assembled at the NASA Lewis Research Center. This battery incorporated bipolar construction techniques to build a 50-cell stack with approximately 1.0 A-hr capacity (C) and an open-circuit voltage of 65 V. The battery was characterized at both low and high current rates prior to pulsed and nonpulsed discharges. Pulse discharges at 5 and 10 C were performed before placing the battery on over 1400, 40-percent depth-of-discharge, low-earth-orbit cycles. The successful demonstration of a high-voltage bipolar battery in one containment vessel has advanced the technology to where nickel-hydrogen high-voltage systems can be constructed of several modules instead of hundreds of individual cells.

  17. Latent toxoplasmosis is associated with neurocognitive impairment in young adults with and without chronic HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, L; Marcotte, T D; Umlauf, A; Grancea, C; Temereanca, A; Bharti, A; Achim, C L; Letendre, S; Ruta, S M

    2016-10-15

    We evaluated the impact of latent toxoplasmosis (LT) on neurocognitive (NC) and neurobehavioural functioning in young adults with and without chronic HIV infection, using a standardised NC test battery, self-reported Beck Depression Inventory, Frontal System Behavior Scale, MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and risk-assessment battery. 194 young adults (median age 24years, 48.2% males) with chronic HIV infection (HIV+) since childhood and 51 HIV seronegative (HIV-) participants were included. HIV+ individuals had good current immunological status (median CD4: 479 cells/μl) despite a low CD4 nadir (median: 93 cells/μl). LT (positive anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies) was present in one third of participants. The impairment rates in the HIV- with and without Toxo were not significantly different (p=0.17). However, we observed an increasing trend (pToxoplasmosis may contribute to NC impairment in young adults, including those with and without chronic HIV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eVaskinn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data suggests that individuals with schizophrenia (SZ and superior intelligence can present without specific neurocognitive deficits. However, neurocognitive decrements, defined as worse cognition than expected, have been reported in practically all schizophrenia cases. This study investigated if neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ by comparing the neuropsychological profile of SZ cases with IQ-matched healthy controls (HC across intellectual level. Participants with SZ and HCs were stratified into three IQ-groups; intellectually low (IQ 80-95; SZ n = 65 & HC n = 13, intellectually normal (IQ = 100-115; SZ n = 111 & HC n = 115 and intellectually superior (IQ > 120; SZ n = 20 & HC n = 50. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of co-variance compared performance on eight selected neuropsychological tests across IQ-strata and diagnostic group. Differences in clinical characteristics and social functioning in SZ across IQ-strata were investigated with multivariate and univariate analyses of variance. Intellectually superior SZ participants scored within normal limits, but had neurocognitive decrements compared to superior HCs. Decrements were of the same magnitude as in the low and normal IQ-strata. Levels of functional impairments and clinical characteristics in participants with SZ did not differ significantly across IQ-strata. Results indicate that neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ to the same extent as in intellectually low and intellectually normal SZ, supporting the notion that SZ is a neurocognitive disorder. Similar levels of social functional deficits and clinical symptoms suggest similar disease processes in SZ across intellectual level.

  19. Post-test analysis of lithium-ion battery materials at Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareno, Javier; Dietz-Rago, Nancy; Bloom, Ira

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical performance is often limited by surface and interfacial reactions at the electrodes. However, routine handling of samples can alter the very surfaces that are the object of study. Our approach combines standardized testing of batteries with sample harvesting under inert atmosphere conditions. Cells of different formats are disassembled inside an Argon glove box with controlled water and oxygen concentrations below 2 ppm. Cell components are characterized in situ, guaranteeing that observed changes in physicochemical state are due to electrochemical operation, rather than sample manipulation. We employ a complementary set of spectroscopic, microscopic, electrochemical and metallographic characterization to obtain a complete picture of cell degradation mechanisms. The resulting information about observed degradation mechanisms is provided to materials developers, both academic and industrial, to suggest new strategies and speed up the Research & Development cycle of Li-ion and related technologies. This talk will describe Argonne's post-test analysis laboratory, with an emphasis on capabilities and opportunities for collaboration. Cell disassembly, sample harvesting procedures and recent results will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies, Hybrid and Electric Systems, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  20. Strain-specific battery of tests for domains of mania: effects of valproate, lithium and imipramine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomit Flaisher-Grinberg

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The lack of efficient animal models for bipolar disorder (BPD, especially for the manic pole, is a major factor hindering the research of its pathophysiology and the development of improved drug treatments. The present study was designed to identify an appropriate mouse strain for modeling some behavioral domains of mania and to evaluate the effects of drugs using this strain. The study compared the behavior of four strains: Black Swiss, C57Bl/6, CBA/J and A/J mice in a battery of tests that included spontaneous activity; sweet solution preference; light/dark box; resident-intruder; forced-swim and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity. Based on the ‘manic-like’ behavior demonstrated by the Black Swiss strain, the study evaluated the effects of the mood stabilizers valproate and lithium and of the antidepressant imipramine in the same tests using this strain. Results indicated that lithium and valproate attenuate the ‘manic-like’ behavior of Black Swiss mice whereas imipramine had no effects. These findings suggest that Black Swiss mice might be a good choice for modeling several domains of mania and distinguishing the effects of drugs on these specific domains. However, the relevance of the behavioral phenotype of Black Swiss mice to the biology of BPD is unknown at this time and future studies will investigate molecular differences between Black Swiss mice and other strains and asess the interaction between strain and mood stabilizing treatment.

  1. Comparison of Physical Fitness Parameters with EUROFIT Test Battery of Male Adolescent Soccer Players and Sedentary Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür ERİKOĞLU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare physical fitness parameters of male adolescent soccer players and sedentary counterparts. A total of 26 male adolescents participated in this study voluntarily: Active soccer players (n: 3, age x : 13,00 ± 0,00 and sedentary counterparts (n: 13, age x :12,92 ± 0,75. The EUROFIT test battery was used to determine physical fitness. The test battery includes body height and weight measurements, touching the discs, flamingo balan ce, throwing health ball, vertical jumping, sit and reach, sit - up for 30 s, 20 meter sprint run, and 20 meter shuttle run tests. Data were analyzed by Mann Whitney U test. Significance was defined as p.05. In conclusion, children who do sports are more successful on most of the fitness parameters than sedentary children.

  2. Acquisition of Co metal from spent lithium-ion battery using emulsion liquid membrane technology and emulsion stability test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Wulandari, P. T.; Amiliana, R. A.; Huda, M.; Kusumadewi, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are the most common type to be used as energy source in mobile phone. The amount of lithium-ion battery wastes is approximated by 200 – 500 ton/year. In one lithium-ion battery, there are 5 – 20% of cobalt metal, depend on the manufacturer. One of the way to recover a valuable metal from waste is leaching process then continued with extraction, which is the aim of this study. Spent lithium-ion batteries will be characterized with EDX and AAS, the result will show the amount of cobalt metal with form of LiCoO2 in the cathode. Hydrochloric acid concentration used is 4 M, temperature 80°C, and reaction time 1 hour. This study will discuss the emulsion stability test on emulsion liquid membrane. The purpose of emulsion stability test in this study was to determine optimum concentration of surfactant and extractant to produce a stable emulsion. Surfactant and extractant used were SPAN 80 and Cyanex 272 respectively with both concentrations varied. Membrane and feed phase ratios used in this experiment was 1 : 2. The optimum results of this study were SPAN 80 concentrations of 10% w/v and Cyanex 272 0.7 M.

  3. Verification test for an electric vehicle using capacitor-battery series connection for battery load levelling; Denchi no fuka heijunka no tame no kyapashita to denchi no chokuretsu setsuzoku hoshiki wo saiyoshita denki jidosha no jissho shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaoka, K.; Takehara, J.; Kato, S. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1998-03-25

    For the prolongation of the distance that an electric vehicle (EV) can cover on a single charge and of the service life of the EV battery unit, a system is developed, in which the battery unit and the capacitor unit are connected in series for the levelling-off of battery peak loads, and the system is tested aboard a running real vehicle. Installed on the real vehicle is a battery unit that is a series connection of 20 12V-38Ah seal-type lead-acid batteries, each battery consisting of two cells connected in parallel. Driving the vehicle is a DC brushless motor capable of a maximum operation of 9000rpm. Also installed is a capacitor unit that is a parallel connection of 40 2.3V-1800F capacitors, each capacitor consisting of two capacitors connected in parallel. Findings are described below. In a 0-400m acceleration test, 22.5 seconds is recorded with the capacitor unit in operation, meaning an improvement of 0.7 seconds. The maximum speed remains unchanged at 110km/h, which agrees with the pre-calculated value. Although the battery peak load reduction rate in a 15-mode drive pattern marks 23%, the distances covered on a single charge in this drive pattern turn out to be almost the same whether the capacitor unit is in operation or not. 3 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Prospective and concurrent correlates of emotion perception in psychotic disorders: a naturalistic, longitudinal study of neurocognition, affective blunting and avolition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskinn, Anja; Johnsen, Erik; Jørgensen, Hugo A; Kroken, Rune A; Løberg, Else-Marie

    2013-06-01

    This naturalistic study investigated longitudinal and cross-sectional symptomatic and neurocognitive correlates of social cognition indexed by emotion perception. Participants were 31 persons admitted to a psychiatric emergency ward due to acute psychosis. Positive and negative (i.e., affective blunting and avolition) symptoms were assessed at baseline and 12-month follow-up using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Participants completed neuropsychological assessments with alternative versions of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status at baseline and at 12-month follow-up. Emotion perception was measured using the Face/Voice Emotion Test at 12-month follow-up. Correlational analyses (Spearman's rho) revealed strong and statistically significant associations between neurocognition and emotion perception (baseline r = 0.58, follow-up r = 0.43). Associations between positive symptoms and emotion perception were weak or non-existent (baseline r = 0.13, follow-up r  =  -0.01). Emotion perception was moderately, but not significantly, associated with affective blunting at follow-up (r = 0.33), but not at baseline (r = 0.21). The association with avolition was non-existent (baseline r  =  -0.05, follow-up r = 0.01). This study supports the notion that emotion perception has neurocognitive correlates. The cross-sectional trend level association with affective blunting suggests that the ability to perceive emotions might be related to, but dissociable from the ability to express emotions. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  5. Modafinil and cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia and healthy volunteers: the effects of test battery in a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, J; Michalopoulou, P G; Lewis, S W; Preston, S; Bamford, C; Collier, T; Kalpakidou, A; Wykes, T; Emsley, R; Pandina, G; Kapur, S; Drake, R J

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have major functional impacts. Modafinil is a cognitive enhancer whose effect in healthy volunteers is well-described, but whose effects on the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia appear to be inconsistent. Two possible reasons for this are that cognitive test batteries vary in their sensitivity, or that the phase of illness may be important, with patients early in their illness responding better. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled single-dose crossover study of modafinil 200 mg examined this with two cognitive batteries [MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)] in 46 participants with under 3 years' duration of DSM-IV schizophrenia, on stable antipsychotic medication. In parallel, the same design was used in 28 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy volunteers. Uncorrected p values were calculated using mixed effects models. In patients, modafinil significantly improved CANTAB Paired Associate Learning, non-significantly improved efficiency and significantly slowed performance of the CANTAB Stockings of Cambridge spatial planning task. There was no significant effect on any MCCB domain. In healthy volunteers, modafinil significantly increased CANTAB Rapid Visual Processing, Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shifting and verbal recall accuracy, and MCCB social cognition performance. The only significant differences between groups were in MCCB visual learning. As in earlier chronic schizophrenia studies, modafinil failed to produce changes in cognition in early psychosis as measured by MCCB. CANTAB proved more sensitive to the effects of modafinil in participants with early schizophrenia and in healthy volunteers. This confirms the importance of selecting the appropriate test battery in treatment studies of cognition in schizophrenia.

  6. The Course of Neurocognitive Changes in Acute Psychosis: Relation to Symptomatic Improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liss Anda

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is a core aspect of psychosis, but the course of cognitive functioning during acute psychosis remains poorly understood, as does the association between symptom change and neurocognitive change. Some studies have found cognitive improvement to be related to improvement in negative symptoms, but few have examined cognitive changes in the early acute phase, when clinical improvement mainly happens. This study's aim was to investigate the relation between cognitive and symptomatic change in clinically heterogeneous patients during the early acute phase of psychosis.Participants (n = 84, including both first-episode and previously ill patients, were recruited from consecutive admissions to the acute psychiatric emergency ward of Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, as part of the Bergen Psychosis Project (BPP. The RBANS neurocognitive test battery was administered on admission and again at discharge from the acute ward (mean time 4.1 weeks, SD 1.86 weeks. Symptomatic change was measured by PANSS.The proportion of subjects with cognitive impairment (t < 35 was 28.6% in the acute phase and 13.1% at follow-up. A sequential multiple linear regression model with RBANS change as the dependent variable found PANSS negative symptoms change to significantly predict total RBANS performance improvement (beta = -.307, p = .016. There was no significant difference between subjects with schizophrenia and those with other psychotic disorders in terms of cognitive change.The proportion of subjects with mild to moderate impairment in cognitive test performance is reduced across the acute phase of psychosis, with improvement related to amelioration of negative symptoms.

  7. Vitamin D and neurocognitive function

    OpenAIRE

    Schlögl, Mathias; Holick, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Mathias Schlögl,1 Michael F Holick21University Center for Medicine of Aging Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition, and Diabetes, Vitamin D, Skin, and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: In recent years, emerging evidence has linked vitamin D not only to its known effects on calcium and bone metabolism, but also to many chronic illnesses involving neurocognitive decl...

  8. Analisis Teoritis dan Empiris Uji Craps dari Diehard Battery of Randomness Test untuk Pengujian Pembangkit Bilangan Acaksemu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Agustini Hafman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Kerchoffs (1883, the security system should only rely on cryptographic keys which is used in that system. Generally, the key sequences are generated by a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG or Random Number Generator (RNG. There are three types of randomness sequences that generated by the RNG and PRNG i.e. pseudorandom sequence, cryptographically secure pseudorandom sequences, and real random sequences. Several statistical tests, including diehard battery of tests of randomness, is used to check the type of randomness sequences that generated by PRNG or RNG. Due to its purpose, the principle on taking the testing parameters and the test statistic are associated with the validity of the conclusion produced by a statistical test, then the theoretical analysis is performed by applying a variety of statistical theory to evaluate craps test, one of the test included in the diehard battery of randomness tests. Craps test, inspired by craps game, aims to examine whether a PRNG produces an independent and identically distributed (iid pseudorandom sequences. To demonstrate the process to produce a test statistics equation and to show how craps games applied on that test, will be carried out theoretical analysis by applying a variety of statistical theory. Furthermore, empirical observations will be done by applying craps test on a PRNG in order to check the test effectiveness in detecting the distribution and independency of sequences which produced by PRNG

  9. Functional Observational Battery Testing for Nervous System Effects of Drugs and Other Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for behavioral toxicity, or neurotoxicity, has become standard practice in preclinical safety pharmacology and toxicology. Behavior represents the integrated sum of activities mediated by the nervous system. Current screening batteries, such as the functional observat...

  10. Qualification and Life Testing of Li-Ion Ves16 Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remy Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Up to the present time, Saft batteries have been mainly utilizing for space applications high capacity cells, like the 45 Ah VES180 and the 35 Ah VES140 cells, targeting predominantly space missions in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO. However following the qualification and commercialization of the Saft 4.5 Ah VES16 cell in October 2011 [1] & [2], Saft has been developing and qualifying in the frame of this ESA GSTP 5.2 contract, VES 16 batteries for space missions, targeting both GEO and Low Earth Orbit (LEO satellite missions. The electrochemistry of the VES16 cells used for the battery modules under the ESA qualification program is not novel. For VES16 cells, the Saft knowhow from large capacity space cells used for space applications, since SMART 1 mission in 2003, has been tailored for a cell with smaller capacity in order to facilitate the modular philosophy that has been deployed in this battery range.

  11. Lead/acid batteries for photovoltaic applications. Test results and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copetti, J B [CIEMAT, Inst. de Energias Renovables, Madrid (Spain); Chenlo, F [CIEMAT, Inst. de Energias Renovables, Madrid (Spain)

    1994-01-01

    This work presents the results of experiments carried out on lead/acid batteries during charge and discharge processes at different currents and temperatures, selected to a cover a large range of operating conditions, including those encountered in photovoltaic (PV) system applications. The results allow us to verify the relations among the battery external parameters (voltage, current, state-of-charge and temperature), the behaviour of the internal resistance, and to deduce a model that represents the discharge and charge processes, including the overcharge. Finally, normalized equations with respect to the battery capacity are proposed, which allow us to fix the values of parameters and hence the model is valid for any type and size of lead/acid battery. (orig.)

  12. Recovery of neurocognitive functions following sustained abstinence after substance dependence and implications for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, Mieke H J; Cousijn, Janna; den Uyl, Tess E; Goudriaan, Anna E; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Schilt, Thelma; Wiers, Reinout W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) have been associated with impaired neurocognitive functioning, which may (partly) improve with sustained abstinence. New treatments are emerging, aimed at improving cognitive functions, and being tested. However, no integrated review is available regarding

  13. Old world monkeys compare to apes in the primate cognition test battery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Schmitt

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolution of intelligence rests on comparative analyses of brain sizes as well as the assessment of cognitive skills of different species in relation to potential selective pressures such as environmental conditions and social organization. Because of the strong interest in human cognition, much previous work has focused on the comparison of the cognitive skills of human toddlers to those of our closest living relatives, i.e. apes. Such analyses revealed that apes and children have relatively similar competencies in the physical domain, while human children excel in the socio-cognitive domain; in particular in terms of attention sharing, cooperation, and mental state attribution. To develop a full understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of primate intelligence, however, comparative data for monkeys are needed. We tested 18 Old World monkeys (long-tailed macaques and olive baboons in the so-called Primate Cognition Test Battery (PCTB (Herrmann et al. 2007, Science. Surprisingly, our tests revealed largely comparable results between Old World monkeys and the Great apes. Single comparisons showed that chimpanzees performed only better than the macaques in experiments on spatial understanding and tool use, but in none of the socio-cognitive tasks. These results question the clear-cut relationship between cognitive performance and brain size and--prima facie--support the view of an accelerated evolution of social intelligence in humans. One limitation, however, is that the initial experiments were devised to tap into human specific skills in the first place, thus potentially underestimating both true nonhuman primate competencies as well as species differences.

  14. Using the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) 7 Nonverbal Battery to Identify the Gifted/Talented: An Investigation of Demographic Effects and Norming Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Carol A.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Bartsch, Robert A.

    2018-01-01

    The nonverbal battery of the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) is one of the two most common nonverbal measures used in gifted identification, yet the relationships between demographic variables and CogAT7 performance has not yet been fully examined. Additionally, the effect of using the CogAT7 nonverbal battery on the identification of diverse…

  15. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond CK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. Methods One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. Results No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. Conclusions The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  16. The concurrent validity of the technical test battery as an indicator of work performance in a telecommunications company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marelize Barnard

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the Technical Test Battery (TTB in a South African telecommunications institution. The Technical Test Battery (TTB was administered to a sample of 107 technical officers. Their test scores were compared to the scores obtained from a job performance rating scale specifically designed for this position on the basis of a thorough job analysis. The TTB demonstrated high concurrent validity as an indicator of work performance for technical posts in the telecommunications environment. These results suggest that the TTB may have a high predictive validity for performance in technical positions. The findings and implications of the study are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was om die samevallende geldigheid van die “Technical Test Battery (TTB�? in ’n Suid-Afrikaanse telekommunikasie instansie te bepaal. Die TTB is op ’n steekproef van 107 tegniese personeel toegepas. Die toetstellings is in verband gebring met die tellings van ’n werksprestasiemaatstaf wat spesifiek vir die pos ontwikkel is op grond van ’n deeglike posanalise. Daar is bevind dat die TTB ’n hoë samevallende geldigheid as aanduider van werksprestasie vir tegniese poste in the telekommunikasiebedryf toon. Dié resultate dui op ’n sterk moontlikheid dat die TTB ’n goeie voorspeller van werksprestasie vir tegniese beroepe kan wees. Die bevindinge en implikasies van die studie word bespreek.

  17. The Relationship Between Midday Napping And Neurocognitive Function in Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaopeng; Li, Junxin; Liu, Jianghong

    2018-02-01

    The impact of midday napping on neurocognitive function in adolescents has not been well established. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between self-reported midday-napping behaviors and neurocognitive function in early adolescents. The sample was comprised of 363 early adolescents (12.00 ± 0.38 years old) from Jintan, China. Midday napping, nighttime sleep duration, and sleep quality were measured by self-reported questionnaires. Neurocognitive function was measured by the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (accuracy and reaction times). Generalized linear regression was used to analyze the relationships. Sixty-four percent of our sample took more than 3 naps per week, and 70.11% reported nap durations of over 30 min. Participants with higher frequencies or longer durations of midday napping reported significantly better nighttime sleep quality (p napping duration subgroups, early adolescents who took naps of any length were estimated to have faster reaction speeds on the sustained attention task compared with participants who never napped (ps napping and neurocognitive function in early adolescents, especially in China, where midday napping is a cultural practice.

  18. HIV- and AIDS-associated neurocognitive functioning in Zambia – a perspective based on differences between the genders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabuba N

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Norma Kabuba,1,2 J Anitha Menon,1 Donald R Franklin Jr,3 Robert K Heaton,3 Knut A Hestad2,4,5 1Department of Psychology, The University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia; 2Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Research, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Hamar, Norway; 5Department of Public Health, Hedmark University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS are frequently associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI. However, few studies have examined the interrelationship between gender and NCI in the HIV and AIDS population. This cross-sectional study examined the neurocognitive (NC functioning of HIV-infected male and female adults from urban Zambia. The participants included 266 HIV seropositive (HIV+ adults (males [n=107] and females [n=159]. Participants completed NC assessment by means of a comprehensive test battery using normative data from 324 HIV-seronegative (HIV- controls. The norms corrected for effects of age, education, and gender in the general population, and the test battery measures domains of attention/working memory (learning and delayed recall, executive function, verbal fluency, processing speed, verbal and visual episodic memory, and fine motor skills. An overall comparison of the HIV+ male and female participants yielded no statistically significant differences. Analysis of covariance results controlling for disease characteristics showed that HIV+ female participants had worse delayed recall scores than males, F(1,117 =9.70, P=0.002, partial ƞ2=0.077. The females also evidenced a trend toward greater impairment on learning efficiency (P=0.015. The findings suggest that there are gender-related differences in NCI after controlling for disease characteristics. It was observed that although the HIV

  19. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release and neurocognitive function in treatment-naive adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasova, Mariya V; Faridi, Nazlie; Casey, Kevin F; O'Driscoll, Gillian A; Hechtman, Lily; Joober, Ridha; Baker, Glen B; Palmer, Jennifer; Dagher, Alain; Leyton, Marco; Benkelfat, Chawki

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence from clinical, preclinical, neuroimaging, and genetic research implicates dopamine neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The in vivo neuroreceptor imaging evidence also suggests alterations in the dopamine system in ADHD; however, the nature and behavioral significance of those have not yet been established. Here, we investigated striatal dopaminergic function in ADHD using [(11)C]raclopride PET with a d-amphetamine challenge. We also examined the relationship of striatal dopamine responses to ADHD symptoms and neurocognitive function. A total of 15 treatment-free, noncomorbid adult males with ADHD (age: 29.87 ± 8.65) and 18 healthy male controls (age: 25.44 ± 6.77) underwent two PET scans: one following a lactose placebo and the other following d-amphetamine (0.3 mg/kg, p.o.), administered double blind and in random order counterbalanced across groups. In a separate session without a drug, participants performed a battery of neurocognitive tests. Relative to the healthy controls, the ADHD patients, as a group, showed greater d-amphetamine-induced decreases in striatal [(11)C]raclopride binding and performed more poorly on measures of response inhibition. Across groups, a greater magnitude of d-amphetamine-induced change in [(11)C]raclopride binding potential was associated with poorer performance on measures of response inhibition and ADHD symptoms. Our findings suggest an augmented striatal dopaminergic response in treatment-naive ADHD. Though in contrast to results of a previous study, this finding appears consistent with a model proposing exaggerated phasic dopamine release in ADHD. A susceptibility to increased phasic dopamine responsivity may contribute to such characteristics of ADHD as poor inhibition and impulsivity.

  20. The relationship between IQ and performance on the MATRICS consensus cognitive battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Mohn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The associations between IQ and individual tests of neurocognitive function are well studied. However, there is a lack of information as to how IQ relates to performance on neuropsychological test batteries as a whole and in the same individuals. In this study, 250 healthy participants aged 20-69 years were tested with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB. In correlation analyses, IQ was significantly related to all MCCB scores, except the Social Cognition domain. Hierarchical regression analyses including gender, age, and education confirmed this association. For overall cognitive function, 50% of the variance was explained by IQ and demographic characteristics. For the domains Speed of Processing, Working Memory, Visual and Verbal Learning, IQ explained a larger proportion of the variance than the demographic factors did. The implication is that these domains may provide information of a person’s intelligence level.

  1. Effect profile of paracetamol, Δ9-THC and promethazine using an evoked pain test battery in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amerongen, G; Siebenga, P; de Kam, M L; Hay, J L; Groeneveld, G J

    2018-04-10

    A battery of evoked pain tasks (PainCart) was developed to investigate the pharmacodynamic properties of novel analgesics in early-phase clinical research. As part of its clinical validation, compounds with different pharmacological mechanisms of actions are investigated. The aim was to investigate the analgesic effects of classic and nonclassic analgesics compared to a sedating negative control in a randomized placebo-controlled crossover study in 24 healthy volunteers using the PainCart. The PainCart consisted of pain tasks eliciting electrical, pressure, heat, cold and inflammatory pain. Subjective scales for cognitive functioning and psychotomimetic effects were included. Subjects were administered each of the following oral treatments: paracetamol (1000 mg), Δ9-THC (10 mg), promethazine (50 mg) or matching placebo. Pharmacodynamic measurements were performed at baseline and repeated up to 10 h postdose. Paracetamol did not show a significant reduction in pain sensation or subjective cognitive functioning compared to placebo. Promethazine induced a statistically significant reduction in PTT for cold pressor and pressure stimulation. Furthermore, reduced subjective alertness was observed. Δ9-THC showed a statistically significant decrease in PTT for electrical and pressure stimulation. Δ9-THC also demonstrated subjective effects, including changes in alertness and calmness, as well as feeling high and psychotomimetic effects. This study found a decreased pain tolerance due to Δ9-THC and promethazine, or lack thereof, using an evoked pain task battery. Pain thresholds following paracetamol administration remained unchanged, which may be due to insufficient statistical power. We showed that pain thresholds determined using this pain test battery are not driven by sedation. The multimodal battery of evoked pain tasks utilized in this study may play an important role in early-phase clinical drug development. This battery of pain tasks is not sensitive to the

  2. Low levels of neurocognitive impairment detected in screening HIV-infected men who have sex with men: The MSM Neurocog Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T J; Bansi, L; Pozniak, A; Asboe, D; Nelson, M; Moyle, G; Davies, N; Margetts, A; Ratcliffe, D; Catalan, J; Boffito, M; Gazzard, B

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HIV neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected men who have sex with men aged 18-50 years, using a simple battery of screening tests in routine clinical appointments. Those with suspected abnormalities were referred on for further assessment. The cohort was also followed up over time to look at evolving changes. HIV-infected participants were recruited at three clinical sites in London during from routine clinical visits. They could be clinician or self-referred and did not need to be symptomatic. They completed questionnaires on anxiety, depression, and memory. They were then screened using the Brief Neurocognitive Screen (BNCS) and International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS). Two hundred and five HIV-infected subjects were recruited. Of these, 59 patients were excluded as having a mood disorder and two patients were excluded due to insufficient data, leaving 144 patients for analysis. One hundred and twenty-four (86.1%) had a normal composite z score (within 1 SD of mean) calculated for their scores on the three component tests of the BNCS. Twenty (13.9%) had an abnormal z score, of which seven (35%) were symptomatic and 13 (65%) asymptomatic. Current employment and previous educational level were significantly associated with BNCS scores. Of those referred onwards for diagnostic testing, only one participant was found to have impairment likely related to HIV infection. We were able to easily screen for mood disorders and cognitive impairment in routine clinical practice. We identified a high level of depression and anxiety in our cohort. Using simple screening tests in clinic and an onward referral process for further testing, we were not able to identify neurocognitive impairment in this cohort at levels consistent with published data.

  3. Neurocognitive Effects of Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    performance of the two groups on the Audiovisual Attentional Shift Test did not differ. These tests have not been used previously within the proton...TPrescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18T Table of Contents Introduction …………………………………………………………..…………........ 8 Body ……………………………………………………………………………...……. 9...Timing Functions, Serial Response, and Audiovisual Attentional Shift) Table 2. Organs at Risk. #The percent of patients with radiation doses exceeding the

  4. Psychometric properties and convergent and predictive validity of an executive function test battery for two-year-olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eMulder

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF is an important predictor of numerous developmental outcomes, such as academic achievement and behavioral adjustment. Although a plethora of measurement instruments exists to assess executive function in children, only few of these are suitable for toddlers, and even fewer have undergone psychometric evaluation. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties and validity of an assessment battery for measuring EF in two-year-olds. A sample of 2437 children were administered the assessment battery at a mean age of 2;4 years (SD = 0;3 years in a large-scale field study. Measures of both hot EF (snack and gift delay tasks and cool EF (six boxes, memory for location, and visual search task were included. Confirmatory Factor Analyses showed that a two-factor hot and cool EF model fitted the data better than a one-factor model. Measurement invariance was supported across groups differing in age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES, home language, and test setting. Criterion and convergent validity were evaluated by examining relationships between EF and age, gender, SES, home language, and parent and teacher reports of children’s attention and inhibitory control. Predictive validity of the test battery was investigated by regressing children’s pre-academic skills and behavioral problems at age three on the latent hot and cool EF factors at age two years. The test battery showed satisfactory psychometric quality and criterion, convergent, and predictive validity. Whereas cool EF predicted both pre-academic skills and behavior problems one year later, hot EF predicted behavior problems only. These results show that EF can be assessed with psychometrically sound instruments in children as young as two years, and that EF tasks can be reliably applied in large scale field research. The current instruments offer new opportunities for investigating EF in early childhood, and for evaluating interventions targeted at improving

  5. Seismic fragility testing of naturally-aged, safety-related, class 1E battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.S.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1984-01-01

    The concern over seismic susceptibility of naturally-aged lead-acid batteries used for safety-related emergency power in nuclear power stations was brought about by battery problems that periodically had been reported in Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The Turkey Point Station had reported cracked and buckled plates in several cells in October 1974 (LER 75-5). The Fitzpatrick Station had reported cracked battery cell cases in October 1977 (LER 77-55) and again in September 1979 (LER 79-59). The Browns Ferry Station had reported a cracked cell leaking a small quantity of electrolyte in July 1981 (LER 81-42). The Indian Point Station had reported cracked and leaking cells in both February (LER 82-7) and April 1982 (LER 82-16); both of these LERs indicated the cracked cells were due to expansion (i.e., growth) of the positive plates

  6. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  7. Performance in normal subjects on a novel battery of driving-related sensory-motor and cognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Carrie R H; Jones, Richard D; Anderson, Tim J; Hollobon, Susan G; Dalrymple-Alford, John C

    2009-05-01

    Currently, there is no international standard for the assessment of fitness to drive for cognitively or physically impaired persons. A computerized battery of driving-related sensory-motor and cognitive tests (SMCTests) has been developed, comprising tests of visuoperception, visuomotor ability, complex attention, visual search, decision making, impulse control, planning, and divided attention. Construct validity analysis was conducted in 60 normal, healthy subjects and showed that, overall, the novel cognitive tests assessed cognitive functions similar to a set of standard neuropsychological tests. The novel tests were found to have greater perceived face validity for predicting on-road driving ability than was found in the equivalent standard tests. Test-retest stability and reliability of SMCTests measures, as well as correlations between SMCTests and on-road driving, were determined in a subset of 12 subjects. The majority of test measures were stable and reliable across two sessions, and significant correlations were found between on-road driving scores and measures from ballistic movement, footbrake reaction, hand-control reaction, and complex attention. The substantial face validity, construct validity, stability, and reliability of SMCTests, together with the battery's level of correlation with on-road driving in normal subjects, strengthen our confidence in the ability of SMCTests to detect and identify sensory-motor and cognitive deficits related to unsafe driving and increased risk of accidents.

  8. Negative symptoms mediate the relationship between neurocognition and function in individuals at ultrahigh risk for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, L B; Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    -Risk Social Challenge task and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms respectively. Four instruments were used to assess overall functioning, and one instrument assessed quality of life encompassing social functioning. RESULTS: The cross-sectional analyses revealed that neurocognition was related......OBJECTIVE: Neurocognition is known to impact functioning in individuals at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis, but studies investigating potential mediators of this relationship are scarce. Building on evidence from schizophrenia spectrum disorders, the study tested whether negative symptoms...... and social skills act as mediators between neurocognition and functional outcome in UHR individuals. METHODS: Ultrahigh risk participants (N = 84) underwent neurocognitive testing using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia. Social skills and negative symptoms were assessed using the High...

  9. International Neurocognitive Normative Study: Neurocognitive Comparison Data in Diverse Resource Limited Settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5271

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K; Jiang, H; Evans, SR; Marra, CM; Berzins, B; Hakim, J; Sacktor, N; Silva, M Tulius; Campbell, TB; Nair, A; Schouten, J; Kumwenda, J; Supparatpinyo, K; Tripathy, S.; Kumarasamy, N; La Rosa, A; Montano, S; Mwafongo, A; Firnhaber, C; Sanne, I; Naini, L.; Amod, F; Walawander, A

    2016-01-01

    Summary ACTG A5271 collected neurocognitive normative comparison test data in 2400 at-risk HIV seronegative participants from Brazil, India, Malawi, Peru, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe. The participants were enrolled in strata by site (10 levels), age (2 levels), education (2 levels), and gender (2 levels). These data provide necessary normative data infrastructure for future clinical research and care in these diverse resource limited settings. Infrastructure for conducting neurological research in resource limited settings (RLS) is limited. The lack of neurological and neuropsychological (NP) assessment, and normative data needed for clinical interpretation impede research and clinical care. Here we report on ACTG 5271, which provided neurological training of clinical site personnel, and collected neurocognitive normative comparison data in diverse settings. At 10 sites in seven RLS countries, we provided training for NP assessments. We collected normative comparison data on HIV- participants from Brazil (n=240), India (n=480), Malawi (n=481), Peru (n=239), South Africa (480), Thailand (n=240) and Zimbabwe (n=240). Participants had a negative HIV test within 30 days before standardized NP exams were administered at baseline, and 770 at six-months. Participants were enrolled in 8 strata, gender (female and male), education (<10 years and ≥ 10 years), and age (<35 years and ≥35 years). Of 2400 enrolled, 770 completed the six-month follow up. As expected, significant between-country differences were evident in all the neurocognitive test scores (p<.0001). There was variation between the age, gender and education strata on the neurocognitive tests. Age and education were important variables for all tests; older participants had poorer performance and those with higher education had better performance. Women had better performance on verbal learning/memory and speed of processing tests, while men performed better on motor tests. This study provides the

  10. Electrical Vehicle Batteries Testing in a Distribution Network Using Sustainable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forero Camacho, Oscar Mauricio; Nørgård, Per Bromand; Rao, Ningling

    2014-01-01

    EV technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Many different designs and choices of technologies have been pursued by the automotive OEMs, battery industry and EV research centers. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend, there is ......EV technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Many different designs and choices of technologies have been pursued by the automotive OEMs, battery industry and EV research centers. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend...

  11. Neurocognitive Aspects of Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald T.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This literature review on neurocognitive functioning and learning of children with sickle cell disease found diffuse neurocognitive deficits, with much variability across subjects. Studies of psychosocial development of these children indicate that behavioral problems, low self-esteem, and body image disturbances are frequently characteristic.…

  12. Normative data for a battery of free recall, cued recall and recognition tests in the elderly Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccia, Emanuele; Gamboz, Nadia; Brandimonte, Maria A

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to provide normative data on a large sample of the elderly Italian population (N = 464; range of age = 49-94; range of education = 3-25) on both the word and the picture versions of a battery of free recall, cued recall, and recognition tests of memory. Results from multiple regression analyses showed that both age and education were significant predictors of performance. Therefore, norms were calculated taking into account these demographic variables. The availability of normative data based on a large sample will allow a more reliable use of the battery for clinical assessment in Italian-speaking dementia population.

  13. The definition of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: are we overestimating the real prevalence?

    OpenAIRE

    Gisslén, Magnus; Price, Richard W; Nilsson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A substantial prevalence of mild neurocognitive disorders has been reported in HIV, also in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This includes a new disorder that has been termed asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI). Discussion ANI is identified by performance on formal neuropsychological testing that is at least 1 SD below the mean of normative scores in at least two cognitive domains out of at least five examined in patients without as...

  14. Report of NPSAT1 Battery Thermal Contact Resistance Testing, Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    interface through use of the Siemens NX I-DEAS thermal model generator ( TMG ) software. Once the orbital parameters are defined, the appropriate interface...I-DEAS TMG software. For the case when the battery is mounted to the boundary condition plate an additional ‘null’ element was created to work

  15. Reliability and validity of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based test battery for assessing cognition across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy Lawson; Miller, Terissa M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based battery of tests measuring short-term memory, long-term memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, visual processing, as well as auditory processing and word attack skills. This study included 2,737 participants aged 5-85 years. A series of studies was conducted to examine the validity and reliability using the test performance of the entire norming group and several subgroups. The evaluation of the technical properties of the test battery included content validation by subject matter experts, item analysis and coefficient alpha, test-retest reliability, split-half reliability, and analysis of concurrent validity with the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement. Results indicated strong sources of evidence of validity and reliability for the test, including internal consistency reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.98, test-retest reliability coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 0.91, split-half reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.91, and concurrent validity coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.93. The Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills-2 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing cognition in the general population across the lifespan.

  16. Executive functioning in three groups of pupils in D-KEFS: Selected issues in adapting the test battery for Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjenčík Ján

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the adaptation of a D-KEFS test battery for Slovakia. Drawing on concrete examples, it describes and illustrates the key issues relating to the transfer of test items from one socio-cultural environment to another. The standardisation sample of the population of Slovak pupils in the fourth year of primary school included 250 children with an average age of 9.7 years. The two comparative samples of the same age range were analysed at the same time. They included pupils from classes for gifted children (n = 55 and Roma children from socially disadvantaging environments (n = 50.

  17. Test-retest reliability of the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégel, Valentin; Verga, Laura; Benoit, Charles-Etienne; Kotz, Sonja A; Bella, Simone Dalla

    2018-04-27

    Perceptual and sensorimotor timing skills can be comprehensively assessed with the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA). The battery has been used for testing rhythmic skills in healthy adults and patient populations (e.g., with Parkinson disease), showing sensitivity to timing and rhythm deficits. Here we assessed the test-retest reliability of the BAASTA in 20 healthy adults. Participants were tested twice with the BAASTA, implemented on a tablet interface, with a 2-week interval. They completed 4 perceptual tasks, namely, duration discrimination, anisochrony detection with tones and music, and the Beat Alignment Test (BAT). Moreover, they completed motor tasks via finger tapping, including unpaced and paced tapping with tones and music, synchronization-continuation, and adaptive tapping to a sequence with a tempo change. Despite high variability among individuals, the results showed stable test-retest reliability in most tasks. A slight but significant improvement from test to retest was found in tapping with music, which may reflect a learning effect. In general, the BAASTA was found a reliable tool for evaluating timing and rhythm skills. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Neurocognitive function in HIV-infected patients: comparison of two methods to define impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Arenas-Pinto

    Full Text Available To compare two definitions of neurocognitive impairment (NCI in a large clinical trial of effectively-treated HIV-infected adults at baseline.Hopkins Verbal Learning test-Revised (HVLT-R, Colour Trail (CTT and Grooved Pegboard (GPT tests were applied exploring five cognitive domains. Raw scores were transformed into Z-scores and NCI defined as summary NPZ-5 score one standard deviation below the mean of the normative dataset (i.e. <-1SD or Z-scores <-1SD in at least two individual domains (categorical scale. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed to explore the contribution of individual tests to the total variance.Mean NPZ-5 score was -0.72 (SD 0.98 and 178/548 (32% participants had NPZ-5 scores <-1SD. When impairment was defined as <-1SD in at least two individual tests, 283 (52% patients were impaired. Strong correlations between the two components of the HVLT-R test (learning/recall (r = 0.73, and the CTT and (attention/executive functioning (r = 0.66 were observed. PCA showed a clustering with three components accounting for 88% of the total variance. When patients who scored <-1SD only in two correlated tests were considered as not impaired, prevalence of NCI was 43%. When correlated test scores were averaged, 36% of participants had NPZ-3 scores <-1SD and 32% underperformed in at least two individual tests.Controlling for differential contribution of individual test-scores on the overall performance and the level of correlation between components of the test battery used appear to be important when testing cognitive function. These two factors are likely to affect both summary scores and categorical scales in defining cognitive impairment.EUDRACT: 2007-006448-23 and ISRCTN04857074.

  19. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  20. Contribution of neurocognition to 18-month employment outcomes in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karambelas, George J; Cotton, Sue M; Farhall, John; Killackey, Eóin; Allott, Kelly A

    2017-10-27

    To examine whether baseline neurocognition predicts vocational outcomes over 18 months in patients with first-episode psychosis enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of Individual Placement and Support or treatment as usual. One-hundred and thirty-four first-episode psychosis participants completed an extensive neurocognitive battery. Principal axis factor analysis using PROMAX rotation was used to determine the underlying structure of the battery. Setwise (hierarchical) multiple linear and logistic regressions were used to examine predictors of (1) total hours employed over 18 months and (2) employment status, respectively. Neurocognition factors were entered in the models after accounting for age, gender, premorbid IQ, negative symptoms, treatment group allocation and employment status at baseline. Five neurocognitive factors were extracted: (1) processing speed, (2) verbal learning and memory, (3) knowledge and reasoning, (4) attention and working memory and (5) visual organization and memory. Employment status over 18 months was not significantly predicted by any of the predictors in the final model. Total hours employed over 18 months were significantly predicted by gender (P = .027), negative symptoms (P = .032) and verbal learning and memory (P = .040). Every step of the regression model was a significant predictor of total hours worked overall (final model: P = .013). Verbal learning and memory, negative symptoms and gender were implicated in duration of employment in first-episode psychosis. The other neurocognitive domains did not significantly contribute to the prediction of vocational outcomes over 18 months. Interventions targeting verbal memory may improve vocational outcomes in early psychosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Charge efficiencies were determined by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state of charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  2. Test-retest reliability of the KINARM end-point robot for assessment of sensory, motor and neurocognitive function in young adult athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron S Mang

    Full Text Available Current assessment tools for sport-related concussion are limited by a reliance on subjective interpretation and patient symptom reporting. Robotic assessments may provide more objective and precise measures of neurological function than traditional clinical tests.To determine the reliability of assessments of sensory, motor and cognitive function conducted with the KINARM end-point robotic device in young adult elite athletes.Sixty-four randomly selected healthy, young adult elite athletes participated. Twenty-five individuals (25 M, mean age±SD, 20.2±2.1 years participated in a within-season study, where three assessments were conducted within a single season (assessments labeled by session: S1, S2, S3. An additional 39 individuals (28M; 22.8±6.0 years participated in a year-to-year study, where annual pre-season assessments were conducted for three consecutive seasons (assessments labeled by year: Y1, Y2, Y3. Forty-four parameters from five robotic tasks (Visually Guided Reaching, Position Matching, Object Hit, Object Hit and Avoid, and Trail Making B and overall Task Scores describing performance on each task were quantified.Test-retest reliability was determined by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs between the first and second, and second and third assessments. In the within-season study, ICCs were ≥0.50 for 68% of parameters between S1 and S2, 80% of parameters between S2 and S3, and for three of the five Task Scores both between S1 and S2, and S2 and S3. In the year-to-year study, ICCs were ≥0.50 for 64% of parameters between Y1 and Y2, 82% of parameters between Y2 and Y3, and for four of the five Task Scores both between Y1 and Y2, and Y2 and Y3.Overall, the results suggest moderate-to-good test-retest reliability for the majority of parameters measured by the KINARM robot in healthy young adult elite athletes. Future work will consider the potential use of this information for clinical assessment of concussion

  3. Neurocognitive function in clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder: Comparisons with schizophrenia patients and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yun Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the levels of the five domains of neurocognitive function—executive function, attention, memory, verbal comprehension, and perceptual organization—among clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder, individuals with long-term schizophrenia, and a group of controls. We recruited a total of 93 clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder, 94 individuals with schizophrenia, and 106 controls in this study. Their neurocognitive function was measured using a series of neurocognitive function tests: the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Third Edition (WAIS-III, Line Cancellation Test, Visual Form Discrimination, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Continuous Performance Task, and Wechsler Memory Scale—Third Edition. Neurocognitive function was compared among the three groups through a multivariate analysis of variance. The results indicated that when the effect of age was controlled, clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder and those with schizophrenia demonstrated poor neurocognitive function on all tests except for the WAIS-III Similarity and Information and the Line Cancellation Test. The individuals with bipolar I disorder had similar levels of neurocognitive function compared with the schizophrenia group, but higher levels of neurocognitive function on the WAIS-III Comprehension, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Wechsler Memory Scale—Third Edition Auditory Immediate and Delayed Index and Visual Immediate and Delayed Index. The conclusions of this study suggest that compared with controls, individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have poorer neurocognitive function, even when clinically stable. Individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have similar levels of deficits in several domains of neurocognitive function.

  4. A Triadic Reflective-Impulsive-Interoceptive Awareness Model of General and Impulsive Information System Use: Behavioral Tests of Neuro-Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This study examines a behavioral tripartite model developed in the field of addiction, and applies it here to understanding general and impulsive information technology use. It suggests that technology use is driven by two information-processing brain systems: reflective and impulsive, and that their effects on use are modulated by interoceptive awareness processes. The resultant reflective-impulsive-interoceptive awareness model is tested in two behavioral studies. Both studies employ SEM techniques to time-lagged self-report data from n 1 = 300 and n 2 = 369 social networking site users. Study 1 demonstrated that temptations augment the effect of habit on technology use, and reduce the effect of satisfaction on use. Study 2 showed that temptations strengthen the effect of habit on impulsive technology use, and weaken the effect of behavioral expectations on impulsive technology use. Hence, the results consistently support the notion that information technology users' behaviors are influenced by reflective and impulsive information processing systems; and that the equilibrium of these systems is determined, at least in part, by one's temptations. These results can serve as a basis for understanding the etiology of modern day addictions.

  5. A preclinical cognitive test battery to parallel the National Institute of Health Toolbox in humans: bridging the translational gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snigdha, Shikha; Milgram, Norton W; Willis, Sherry L; Albert, Marylin; Weintraub, S; Fortin, Norbert J; Cotman, Carl W

    2013-07-01

    A major goal of animal research is to identify interventions that can promote successful aging and delay or reverse age-related cognitive decline in humans. Recent advances in standardizing cognitive assessment tools for humans have the potential to bring preclinical work closer to human research in aging and Alzheimer's disease. The National Institute of Health (NIH) has led an initiative to develop a comprehensive Toolbox for Neurologic Behavioral Function (NIH Toolbox) to evaluate cognitive, motor, sensory and emotional function for use in epidemiologic and clinical studies spanning 3 to 85 years of age. This paper aims to analyze the strengths and limitations of animal behavioral tests that can be used to parallel those in the NIH Toolbox. We conclude that there are several paradigms available to define a preclinical battery that parallels the NIH Toolbox. We also suggest areas in which new tests may benefit the development of a comprehensive preclinical test battery for assessment of cognitive function in animal models of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychosocial profile of pediatric brain tumor survivors with neurocognitive complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Marieke Anna; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Yvonne Narda; van Vuurden, Dannis Gilbert; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Gidding, Corrie; Beek, Laura Rachel; Granzen, Bernd; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Grootenhuis, Martha Alexandra

    2016-02-01

    With more children surviving a brain tumor, neurocognitive consequences of the tumor and its treatment become apparent, which could affect psychosocial functioning. The present study therefore aimed to assess psychosocial functioning of pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS) in detail. Psychosocial functioning of PBTS (8-18 years) with parent-reported neurocognitive complaints was compared to normative data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), self-esteem, psychosocial adjustment, and executive functioning (one-sample t tests) and to a sibling control group on fatigue (independent-samples t test). Self-, parent-, and teacher-report questionnaires were included, where appropriate, providing complementary information. Eighty-two PBTS (mean age 13.4 years, SD 3.2, 49 % males) and 43 healthy siblings (mean age 14.3, SD 2.4, 40 % males) were included. As compared to the normative population, PBTS themselves reported decreased physical, psychological, and generic HRQOL (d = 0.39-0.62, p psychosocial adjustment seemed not to be affected. Parents of PBTS reported more psychosocial (d = 0.81, p psychosocial adjustment problems for female PBTS aged 8-11 years than for the female normative population (d = 0.69, p psychosocial problems, as reported by PBTS, parents, and teachers. Systematic screening of psychosocial functioning is necessary so that tailored support from professionals can be offered to PBTS with neurocognitive complaints.

  7. Carpet Layer (ret. tr.) 7-59.220; Linoleum Layer (const.; ret. tr.) 5-32.732--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  8. Asparagus Sorter (agric.; can. & preserv.; whole tr.) 529.687 (8-04.10)--Technical Report on Development of USES Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  9. Ornamental-Iron Worker (const.) 4-84.020; Structural-Steel Worker (const.) 4-84-010--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  10. Pressman (rubber goods; rubber tire & tube) 559.885; Pressman, O-Rings (rubber goods) 559.885--Technical Report on Development of the USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  11. Neurocognitive consequences of cigarette smoking in young adults--a comparison with pre-drug performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, P A; Watkinson, B; Gray, R

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined effects of current and past regular cigarette smoking in young adult subjects. One hundred and twelve 17-21-year-old subjects, assessed since infancy, were evaluated using a battery of neurocognitive tests for which commensurate measures were obtained at 9-12 years of age, prior to the initiation of regular smoking. Smokers, determined by urinalysis and self-report, were categorized as heavy (>9 cigarettes per day) and light (non-smokers in a variety of cognitive areas predicated upon verbal/auditory competence including receptive and expressive vocabulary, oral arithmetic, and auditory memory. This impact of current smoking appears to behave in a dose-response and duration-related fashion. In contrast, former smokers differed from the non-smokers only in the arithmetic task. These results suggest that regular smoking during early adulthood is associated with cognitive impairments in selected domains and that these deficits may be reversed upon cessation. Together, the findings add to the body of evidence to be used in persuading adolescents and young adults against the initiation of smoking and, if currently smoking, the advantages of stopping.

  12. Neurocognitive functioning in parents of schizophrenia patients: Attentional and executive performance vary with genetic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Rauschenbach, Svenja; Lennertz, Leonhard; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Petrovsky, Nadine; Ettinger, Ulrich; Pukrop, Ralf; Dreher, Jan; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael

    2015-12-30

    Neuropsychological deficits are candidate endophenotypes of schizophrenia which can assist to explain the neurocognitive impact of genetic risk variants. The identification of endophenotypes is often based on the familiality of these phenotypes. Several studies demonstrate neuropsychological deficits in unaffected biological relatives of schizophrenia patients without differentiating between genetic and non-genetic factors underlying these deficits. We assessed N=129 unaffected biological parents of schizophrenia patients, N=28 schizophrenia patients (paranoid subtype), and N=143 controls without a family history of schizophrenia with an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Direct comparison of N=22 parents with an ancestral history of schizophrenia (more likely carriers, MLC) and N=17 of their spouses without such a history (less likely carriers, LLC) allowed the separation of genetic and non-genetic aspects in cognition. Overall, parents showed significant deficits in neuropsychological tasks from all cognitive domains with medium effect sizes. Direct comparisons of MLC- and LLC-parents showed that attentional and executive tasks were most strongly affected by genetic loading. To conclude, unaffected parents of schizophrenia patients showed modest yet significant impairments in attention, memory, and executive functioning. In particular, attentional and executive impairments varied most strongly with genetic loading for schizophrenia, prioritising these dysfunctions for genotype-endophenotype analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurocognitive dysfunction in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Melle, Ingrid; Friis, Svein

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship of neurocognitive function with duration of untreated psychosis, premorbid illness factors, and clinical symptoms to determine whether long duration of untreated psychosis independently compromises cognitive function....

  14. Test-retest reliability of evoked BOLD signals from a cognitive-emotive fMRI test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plichta, Michael M; Schwarz, Adam J; Grimm, Oliver; Morgen, Katrin; Mier, Daniela; Haddad, Leila; Gerdes, Antje B M; Sauer, Carina; Tost, Heike; Esslinger, Christine; Colman, Peter; Wilson, Frederick; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2012-04-15

    Even more than in cognitive research applications, moving fMRI to the clinic and the drug development process requires the generation of stable and reliable signal changes. The performance characteristics of the fMRI paradigm constrain experimental power and may require different study designs (e.g., crossover vs. parallel groups), yet fMRI reliability characteristics can be strongly dependent on the nature of the fMRI task. The present study investigated both within-subject and group-level reliability of a combined three-task fMRI battery targeting three systems of wide applicability in clinical and cognitive neuroscience: an emotional (face matching), a motivational (monetary reward anticipation) and a cognitive (n-back working memory) task. A group of 25 young, healthy volunteers were scanned twice on a 3T MRI scanner with a mean test-retest interval of 14.6 days. FMRI reliability was quantified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) applied at three different levels ranging from a global to a localized and fine spatial scale: (1) reliability of group-level activation maps over the whole brain and within targeted regions of interest (ROIs); (2) within-subject reliability of ROI-mean amplitudes and (3) within-subject reliability of individual voxels in the target ROIs. Results showed robust evoked activation of all three tasks in their respective target regions (emotional task=amygdala; motivational task=ventral striatum; cognitive task=right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortices) with high effect sizes (ES) of ROI-mean summary values (ES=1.11-1.44 for the faces task, 0.96-1.43 for the reward task, 0.83-2.58 for the n-back task). Reliability of group level activation was excellent for all three tasks with ICCs of 0.89-0.98 at the whole brain level and 0.66-0.97 within target ROIs. Within-subject reliability of ROI-mean amplitudes across sessions was fair to good for the reward task (ICCs=0.56-0.62) and, dependent on the particular ROI

  15. Social cognitive and neurocognitive deficits in inpatients with unilateral thalamic lesions — pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkos E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ewelina Wilkos,2 Timothy JB Brown,3 Ksenia Slawinska,1 Katarzyna A Kucharska2,3 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of Neuroses, Personality and Eating Disorders Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland; 3Department of Medical Education, Hull York Medical School, Hull, UK Background: The essential role of the thalamus in neurocognitive processes has been well documented. In contrast, relatively little is known about its involvement in social cognitive processes such as recognition of emotion, mentalizing, or empathy. The aim of the study: This study was designed to compare the performance of eight patients (five males, three females, mean age ± SD: 63.7±7.9 years at early stage of unilateral thalamic lesions and eleven healthy controls (six males, five females, 49.6±12.2 years in neurocognitive tests (CogState Battery: Groton Maze Learning Test, GML; Groton Maze Learning Test-Delayed Recall, GML-DR; Detection Task, DT; Identification Task, IT; One Card Learning Task, OCLT; One Back Task, OBT; Two Back Task, TBT; Set-Shifting Task, S-ST and other well-known tests (Benton Visual Retention Test, BVRT; California Verbal Learning Test, CVLT; The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, ROCF; Trail Making Test, TMT part A and B; Color – Word Stroop Task, CWST; Verbal Fluency Test, VFT, and social cognitive tasks (The Penn Emotion Recognition Test, ER40; Penn Emotion Discrimination Task, EmoDiff40; The Penn Emotional Acuity Test, PEAT40; Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, revised version II; Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20. Methods: Thalamic-damaged subjects were included if they experienced a single-episode ischemic stroke localized in right or left thalamus. The patients were examined at 3 weeks after the stroke onset. All were right handed. In addition, the following clinical scales were used: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI II. An inclusion

  16. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A.O.; Hockgeiger, E. [BMW Group, Powertrain Development, Energy Storage, Hufelandstrasse 4, 80788 Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-05-01

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 C and at 3 C battery temperature. (author)

  17. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  18. Neurocognitive profiles in MSUD school-age patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchereau, Juliette; Leduc-Leballeur, Julie; Pichard, Samia; Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Abi Warde, Marie-Thérèse; Arnoux, Jean-Baptiste; Barbier, Valérie; Brassier, Anaïs; Broué, Pierre; Cano, Aline; Chabrol, Brigitte; Damon, Gilles; Gay, Claire; Guillain, Isabelle; Habarou, Florence; Lamireau, Delphine; Ottolenghi, Chris; Paermentier, Laetitia; Sabourdy, Frédérique; Touati, Guy; Ogier de Baulny, Hélène; de Lonlay, Pascale; Schiff, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), an inborn error of amino acids catabolism is characterized by accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, valine and their corresponding alpha-ketoacids. Impact on the cognitive development has been reported historically, with developmental delays of varying degree. Currently, earlier diagnosis and improved management allow a better neurodevelopment, without requirement of special education. However, specific impairments can be observed, and so far, results of detailed neurocognitive assessments are not available. The aim of this study was to analyse neurocognitive profiles of French MSUD patients. This was a multicentre retrospective study on MSUD patients who underwent neurocognitive evaluation at primary school age. Twenty-one patients with classical neonatal onset MSUD were included. The patients' mean age at the time of evaluation was 8.7 years. The mean intellectual quotient (IQ) score was in the normal range (95.1 ± 12.6). In a subset of eight patients, a consistent developmental pattern of higher verbal than performance IQ was observed (mean of the difference 25.7 ± 8.7, p < 0.0001). No correlation could be established between this pattern and long-term metabolic balance (BCAA blood levels), or severity of acute metabolic imbalances, or leucine blood levels at diagnosis and time to toxin removal procedure. These data show that some MSUD patients may exhibit an abnormal neurocognitive profile with higher verbal than performance abilities. This might suggest an executive dysfunction disorder that would need to be further investigated by specialized testing. This pattern is important to detect in MSUD, as appropriate neuropsychological treatment strategies should be proposed.

  19. Altered structural brain changes and neurocognitive performance in pediatric HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K. Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric HIV patients often suffer with neurodevelopmental delay and subsequently cognitive impairment. While tissue injury in cortical and subcortical regions in the brain of adult HIV patients has been well reported there is sparse knowledge about these changes in perinatally HIV infected pediatric patients. We analyzed cortical thickness, subcortical volume, structural connectivity, and neurocognitive functions in pediatric HIV patients and compared with those of pediatric healthy controls. With informed consent, 34 perinatally infected pediatric HIV patients and 32 age and gender matched pediatric healthy controls underwent neurocognitive assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI on a 3 T clinical scanner. Altered cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, and abnormal neuropsychological test scores were observed in pediatric HIV patients. The structural network connectivity analysis depicted lower connection strengths, lower clustering coefficients, and higher path length in pediatric HIV patients than healthy controls. The network betweenness and network hubs in cortico-limbic regions were distorted in pediatric HIV patients. The findings suggest that altered cortical and subcortical structures and regional brain connectivity in pediatric HIV patients may contribute to deficits in their neurocognitive functions. Further, longitudinal studies are required for better understanding of the effect of HIV pathogenesis on brain structural changes throughout the brain development process under standard ART treatment.

  20. Multifactorial Determinants of the Neurocognitive Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Shawn M.; Choi, Jimmy; Deng, Zhi-De; Appelbaum, Lawrence G.; Krystal, Andrew D.; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2014-01-01

    For many patients with neuropsychiatric illnesses, standard psychiatric treatments with mono or combination pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation are ineffective. For these patients with treatment resistant neuropsychiatric illnesses, a main therapeutic option is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Decades of research have found ECT to be highly effective; however, it can also result in adverse neurocognitive effects. Specifically, ECT results in disorientation after each session, anterograde amnesia for recently learned information, and retrograde amnesia for previously learned information. Unfortunately, the neurocognitive effects and underlying mechanisms of action of ECT remain poorly understood. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize the multiple moderating and mediating factors that are thought to underlie the neurocognitive effects of ECT into a coherent model. Such factors include demographic and neuropsychological characteristics, neuropsychiatric symptoms, ECT technical parameters, and ECT associated neurophysiological changes. Future research is warranted to evaluate and test this model, so that these findings may support the development of more refined clinical seizure therapy delivery approaches and efficacious cognitive remediation strategies to improve the utility of this important and widely used intervention tool for neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:24820942

  1. Neurocognitive profiles of learning disabled children with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladys eOrraca-Castillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1 is a genetic condition generally associated with intellectual deficiency and learning disabilities. Although there have been groundbreaking advances in the understanding of the molecular, cellular, and neural systems underlying learning deficits associated to NF1 in animal models, much remains to be learned about the spectrum of neurocognitive phenotype associated with the NF1 clinical syndrome. In the present study, 32 children with NF1 ranging from 7 to 14 years were evaluated with neurocognitive tests dedicated to assess basic capacities which are involved in reading and mathematical achievement. Deficits in lexical and phonological strategies and poor number facts retrieval were found underlying reading and arithmetic disorders, respectively. Additionally, efficiencies in lexical/phonological strategies and mental arithmetic were significant predictors of individual differences in reading attainment and math. However, deficits in core numeric capacities were not found in the sample, suggesting that it is not responsible for calculation dysfluency. The estimated prevalence of Developmental Dyscalculia was 18.8%, and the male:female ratio was 5:1. On the other hand, the prevalence of Developmental Dyslexia was almost 3 times as high (50%, and no gender differences were found (male:female ratio=1:1. This study offers new evidence to the neurocognitive phenotype of NF1 contributing to an in depth understanding of this condition, but also to possible treatments for the cognitive deficits associated with NF1.

  2. Virtual Reality Stroop Task for neurocognitive assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; Courtney, Christopher G; Arizmendi, Brian; Dawson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Given the prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the fact that many mild TBIs have no external marker of injury, there is a pressing need for innovative assessment technology. The demand for assessment that goes beyond traditional paper-and-pencil testing has resulted in the use of automated cognitive testing for increased precision and efficiency; and the use of virtual environment technology for enhanced ecological validity and increased function-based assessment. To address these issues, a Virtual Reality Stroop Task (VRST) that involves the subject being immersed in a virtual Humvee as Stroop stimuli appear on the windshield was developed. This study is an initial validation of the VRST as an assessment of neurocognitive functioning. When compared to the paper-and-pencil, as well as Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics versions of the Stroop, the VRST appears to have enhanced capacity for providing an indication of a participant's reaction time and ability to inhibit a prepotent response while immersed in a military relevant simulation that presents psychophysiologically arousing high and low threat stimuli.

  3. Comparative neurocognitive effects of lithium and anticonvulsants in long-term stable bipolar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Ana; García-Blanco, Ana C; Verdet, Hélade M; Sierra, Pilar; Ribes, Josep; Villar, Irene; Lara, Mª José; Arnal, Pilar; Rojo, Luis; Livianos, Lorenzo

    2016-01-15

    The aim of choosing a mood-stabilizing drug (lithium or anticonvulsants) or a combination of them with minimal neurocognitive effects is to stimulate the development of criteria for a therapeutic adequacy, particularly in Bipolar Disorder (BD) patients who are clinically stabilized. Three groups of BD patients were established according to their treatment: (i) lithium monotherapy (n=29); (ii) lithium together with one or more anticonvulsants (n=28); and (iii) one or more anticonvulsants (n=16). A group of healthy controls served as the control (n=25). The following tests were applied: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Trail Making Test, Wechsler Memory Scale, Rey Complex Figure Test, Stroop color-word test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Tower of Hanoi, Frontal Assessment Battery, and Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Relative to healthy controls, BD patients showed the following: (i) those on lithium monotherapy, but not other BD groups, had preserved short-term auditory memory, long-term memory, and attention; (ii) those who took only anticonvulsants showed worse findings in short-term visual memory, working memory, and several executive functions; and (iii) all BD patients showed worse performance in processing speed, resistance to interference, and emotion recognition. Medication alone cannot explain why all BD patients showed common cognitive deficits despite different pharmacological treatment. The impairment on some executive functions and emotion recognition is an inherent trait in BD patients, regardless of their pharmacological treatment. However, while memory, attention, and most of the executive functions are preserved in long-term stable BD patients, these cognitive functions are impaired in those who take anticonvulsants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Reliability and validity of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based test battery for assessing cognition across the lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore AL

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Amy Lawson Moore, Terissa M Miller Gibson Institute of Cognitive Research, Colorado Springs, CO, USA Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based battery of tests measuring short-term memory, long-term memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, visual processing, as well as auditory processing and word attack skills.Methods: This study included 2,737 participants aged 5–85 years. A series of studies was conducted to examine the validity and reliability using the test performance of the entire norming group and several subgroups. The evaluation of the technical properties of the test battery included content validation by subject matter experts, item analysis and coefficient alpha, test–retest reliability, split-half reliability, and analysis of concurrent validity with the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement.Results: Results indicated strong sources of evidence of validity and reliability for the test, including internal consistency reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.98, test–retest reliability coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 0.91, split-half reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.91, and concurrent validity coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.93.Conclusion: The Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills-2 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing cognition in the general population across the lifespan. Keywords: testing, cognitive skills, memory, processing speed, visual processing, auditory processing

  5. The neurocognition of conduct disorder behaviors: specificity to physical aggression and theft after controlling for ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Edward D; Tremblay, Richard E; van Lier, Pol A C; Vitaro, Frank; Nagin, Daniel S; Assaad, Jean-Marc; Séguin, Jean R

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence that among the different conduct disorder (CD) behaviors, physical aggression, but not theft, links to low neurocognitive abilities. Specifically, physical aggression has consistently been found to be negatively related to neurocognitive abilities, whereas theft has been shown to be either positively or not related to neurocognition. The specificity of these links needs further examination because attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) links to both physical aggression and neurocognitive variation. The development of self-reported physical aggression and theft, from age 11 to 17 years, was studied in a prospective at-risk male cohort via a dual process latent growth curve model. Seven neurocognitive tests at age 20 were regressed on the growth parameters of physical aggression and theft. The links between neurocognition and the growth parameters of physical aggression and theft were adjusted for ADHD symptoms at ages 11 and 15 (parent, child and teacher reports). Results indicated that verbal abilities were negatively related to physical aggression while they were positively associated with theft. However, inductive reasoning was negatively associated with increases in theft across adolescence. Symptoms of ADHD accounted for part of the neurocognitive test links with physical aggression but did not account for the associations with theft. These differences emphasize the importance of examining specific CD behaviors to better understand their neurodevelopmental mechanisms. They also suggest that youth who engage in different levels of physical aggression or theft behaviors may require different preventive and corrective interventions. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Norms for a neuropsychological test battery to diagnose dementia in the elderly: A study from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To pilot a neuropsychological battery for diagnosing dementia and provide normative scores in an elderly Sri Lankan sample. Materials and Methods: Consecutive subjects over the age of 60 yrs were administered tests assessing the individual domains of language, verbal episodic memory, visual perceptuospatial skills and executive functions in the Sinhala language. Results: There were a total of 230 subjects in the final sample. The mean age of the entire sample was 69 years, mean education level was 12 years and the sample comprised 53% female. One-month test-retest reliability ranged from 0.71 to 0.85 for the various tests. Most tests were significantly influenced by age and education level but not gender. The exceptions to this were some language subtests (repetition, grammar comprehension and word picture matching and two tests of executive functioning (maze completion and alternate target cancellation, which were uninfluenced by age. The subtests where ceiling performance was attained by almost all subjects were repetition, grammar comprehension and word picture matching from the language domain, dot position discrimination from the visuospatial domain and maze completion test from the executive function domain. Scores for various tests after stratifying subjects by age and educational level are given. Conclusions: The tests were well received and could provide a basis for cognitive profiling in similar settings elsewhere.

  7. Energy Management of a Hybrid AC–DC Micro-Grid Based on a Battery Testing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy Recovery Battery Testing Systems (ERBTS plays an important role in battery manufacture. The conventional ERBTS configuration contains a fundamental transformer, and a bidirectional Direct Current (DC–DC and Alternating Current (AC–DC converter. All ERBTS are connected in parallel, thus constituting a special and complicated AC micro-grid system. Aiming at addressing their low energy recovery efficiency, complex grid-connected control algorithm issues for islanded detection, and complicated power circuit topology issues, a hierarchical DC-link voltage hybrid AC–DC micro-grid that contains composite energy storing devices is proposed. Moreover, an energy management optimal scheme for the proposed scheme is put forward. The system configuration of the proposed scheme is described in detail. Compared to the conventional scheme, the proposed scheme has the merits of simplified power circuit topology, no need for phase synchronous control, and much higher energy recovery efficiency and reliability. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed technique is verified through numerous experimental results.

  8. Content Validity Index and Intra- and Inter-Rater Reliability of a New Muscle Strength/Endurance Test Battery for Swedish Soldiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Larsson

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the content validity of commonly used muscle performance tests in military personnel and to investigate the reliability of a proposed test battery. For the content validity investigation, thirty selected tests were those described in the literature and/or commonly used in the Nordic and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO countries. Nine selected experts rated, on a four-point Likert scale, the relevance of these tests in relation to five different work tasks: lifting, carrying equipment on the body or in the hands, climbing, and digging. Thereafter, a content validity index (CVI was calculated for each work task. The result showed excellent CVI (≥0.78 for sixteen tests, which comprised of one or more of the military work tasks. Three of the tests; the functional lower-limb loading test (the Ranger test, dead-lift with kettlebells, and back extension, showed excellent content validity for four of the work tasks. For the development of a new muscle strength/endurance test battery, these three tests were further supplemented with two other tests, namely, the chins and side-bridge test. The inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC2,1 0.99 for all five tests. The intra-rater reliability was good to high (ICC3,1 0.82-0.96 with an acceptable standard error of mean (SEM, except for the side-bridge test (SEM%>15. Thus, the final suggested test battery for a valid and reliable evaluation of soldiers' muscle performance comprised the following four tests; the Ranger test, dead-lift with kettlebells, chins, and back extension test. The criterion-related validity of the test battery should be further evaluated for soldiers exposed to varying physical workload.

  9. Neurocognitive training in patients with high-grade glioma: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Marco Ronald; Elandt, Katarzyna; Preusser, Matthias; Lehrner, Johann; Binder, Petra; Dieckmann, Karin; Rottenfusser, Andrea; Marosi, Christine

    2010-03-01

    Although their neurocognitive performance is one of the major concerns of patients with high-grade gliomas (HGG) and although neurocognitive deficits have been described to be associated with negative outcome, neurocognitive rehabilitation is usually not integrated into the routine care of patients with malignant gliomas. In this pilot trial, a weekly group training session for attention, verbal, and memory skills was offered to patients with HGG with pre and post-training evaluation. Eleven patients, six with glioblastoma multiforme and five with WHO grade III gliomas, median age 50 years, with a Karnofsky performance score of 80-100 participated in ten group training sessions of 90 min. For evaluation at baseline and after the training by a neuropsychologist not involved in care or training of the patients, Trail Making Tests A and B (TMTA and TMTB), Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT), and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWA) were used. Comparison of mean group differences between baseline and at post-training evaluation after 12 weeks revealed improvement across all neurocognitive variables. The patients showed a great diversity in their performances, with worsening, improvement, and stabilization. However, a significant group difference was detected only for the HVLT (score 19.6 +/- 8.9 at baseline, 23.6 +/- 8.8 after 12 weeks, P = 0.04). This pilot study shows that neurocognitive training in patients with HGG is feasible as group training with weekly sessions and might be able to induce improvements in attention and memory skills.

  10. Neurocognitive functioning in compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Katherine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2014-02-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) is a fairly common behavioral problem estimated to affect 5.8% of the population. Although previous research has examined the clinical characteristics of CB, little research has examined whether people with CB manifest cognitive deficits. Twenty-three non-treatment-seeking compulsive buyers (mean age, 22.3±3.5; 60.9% female) and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (mean age, 21.1±3.4, 60.9% female) underwent neurocognitive assessment. We predicted that the following cognitive domains would be impaired in CB: spatial working memory (Spatial Working Memory test), response inhibition (Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift task), and decision making (Cambridge Gambling Task). Compared with controls, individuals with CB exhibited significant impairments in response inhibition (P=.043), risk adjustment during decision making (P=.010), and spatial working memory (P=.041 total errors; P=.044 strategy scores). Deficits were of large effect size (Cohen's d, 0.6 to 1.05). These pilot data suggest that individuals with CB experience problems in several distinct cognitive domains, supporting a likely neurobiological overlap between CB and other putative behavioral and substance addictions. These findings may have implications for shared treatment approaches as well as how we currently classify and understand CB.

  11. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  12. Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional thin-film lithium batteries for a variety of technological applications. These batteries have high essentially any size and shape. Recently, Teledyne licensed this technology from ORNL to make batteries for

  13. Impact of aging on neurocognitive performance in previously antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected individuals on their first suppressive regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Hamza; Robertson, Kevin; Smurzynski, Marlene; Krishnan, Supriya; Wu, Kunling; Bosch, Ronald J; Collier, Ann C; Ellis, Ronald J

    2017-07-17

    Despite treatment with virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), neurocognitive impairment may persist or develop de novo in aging HIV-infected individuals. We evaluated advancing age as a predictor of neurocognitive impairment in a large cohort of previously ART-naive individuals on long-term ART. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials was a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected individuals originally enrolled in randomized ART trials. This analysis examined neurocognitive outcomes at least 2 years after ART initiation. All participants underwent annual neurocognitive testing consisting of Trail making A and B, the wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised Digit Symbol and Hopkins Verbal Learning Tests. Uni and multivariable repeated measures regression models evaluated factors associated with neurocognitive performance. Predictors at parent study entry (ART naive) included entry demographics, smoking, injection drug use, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C virus serostatus, history of stroke, ART regimen type, pre-ART nadir CD4 cell count, and plasma viral load and as well as time-updated plasma viral load and CD4 cell count. The cohort comprised 3313 individuals with median pre-ART age of 38 years, 20% women; 36% Black, non-Hispanic; 22% Hispanic. Virologic suppression was maintained at 91% of follow-up visits. Neurocognitive performance improved with years of ART. After adjusting for the expected effects of age using norms from HIV-negative individuals, the odds of neurocognitive impairment at follow-up visits among the HIV infected increased by nearly 20% for each decade of advancing age. Despite continued virologic suppression and neurocognitive improvement in the cohort as a whole, older individuals were more likely to have neurocognitive impairment than younger individuals.

  14. Stress-Related Mental Health Symptoms in Coast Guard: Incidence, Vulnerability, and Neurocognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Servatius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available U.S. Coast Guard (CG personnel face occupational stressors (e.g., search and rescue which compound daily life stressors encountered by civilians. However, the degree CG personnel express stress-related mental health symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD is understudied as a military branch, and little is known concerning the interplay of vulnerabilities and neurocognitive outcomes in CG personnel. The current study addressed this knowledge gap, recruiting 241 active duty CG personnel (22% female to assess mental health, personality, and neurocognitive function. Participants completed a battery of scales: PTSD Checklist with military and non-military prompts to screen for PTSD, Psychological Health Questionnaire 8 for MDD, and scales for behaviorally inhibited (BI temperament, and distressed (Type D personality. Neurocognitive performance was assessed with the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA battery. Cluster scoring yielded an overall rate of PTSD of 15% (95% CI: 11–20% and 8% (95% CI: 3–9% for MDD. Non-military trauma was endorsed twice that of military trauma in those meeting criteria for PTSD. Individual vulnerabilities were predictive of stress-related mental health symptoms in active duty military personnel; specifically, BI temperament predicted PTSD whereas gender and Type D personality predicted MDD. Stress-related mental health symptoms were also associated with poorer reaction time and response inhibition. These results suggest rates of PTSD and MDD are comparable among CG personnel serving Boat Stations to those of larger military services after combat deployment. Further, vulnerabilities distinguished between PTSD and MDD, which have a high degree of co-occurrence in military samples. To what degree stress-related mental healthy symptoms and attendant neurocognitive deficits affect operational effectiveness remains unknown and warrant future study.

  15. Test Series 3: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E C and D LCU-13 battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1985-03-01

    This report, the third in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of 10-year old lead-calcium C and D LCU-13 cells from the North Anna Nuclear Power Station operated by the Virginia Electric and Power Company. The C and D cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, both rigidly and loosely mounted; and multicell (three-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of seven electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations. None of the seven cells failed in the first stage tests during the actual seismic test up to the 1.5 g ZPAs imposed. Subsequent discharge capacity tests showed that while these cells suffered some loss of discharge capacity, all cells could deliver the accepted standard of 80% of their rated electrical capacity for 3 hours. When two of the same cells were exposed to the second stage, higher g-level tests, both cells again provided instantaneous uninterrupted power. Subsequent capacity tests showed both of these cells to have capacities well below the accepted standard of 80%. Four of the cells were disassembled for examination and metallurgical analyses. The examination showed that all plates and separators were in very good condition

  16. Neurocognitive profile in psychotic versus nonpsychotic individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Ronnie; Yi, James; Calkins, Monica; Guri, Yael; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Emanuel, Beverly S; Zackai, Elaine H; Ruparel, Kosha; Carmel, Miri; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Gothelf, Doron

    2016-10-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with increased rates of psychotic disorders and cognitive deficits, but large scale studies are needed to elucidate their interaction. The objective of this two-center study was to identify the neurocognitive phenotype of individuals with 22q11DS and psychotic disorders. We hypothesized that psychotic 22q11DS individuals compared to nonpsychotic deleted individuals would have more severe neurocognitive deficits, especially in executive function and social cognition. These deficits would be present when compared to IQ- matched individuals with Williams Syndrome (WS). Three groups were ascertained from the Tel Aviv and Philadelphia centers: 22q11DS individuals with a psychotic disorder (n=31), nonpsychotic 22q11DS (n=86) and typically-developing controls (TD, n=828). In Tel Aviv a group of individuals with WS (n=18) matched in IQ to the 22q11DS psychotic group was also included. The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB) was used to assess a wide-range of cognitive functions and all patients underwent structured psychiatric evaluations. 22q11DS individuals performed poorly on all CNB domains compared to TD. Participants with 22q11DS and psychosis, compared to nonpsychotic 22q11DS, had more severe deficits in global neurocognitive performance (GNP), executive function, social cognition and episodic memory domains. The primary deficits were also significant when comparing the Tel Aviv 22q11DS psychotic group to IQ-matched individuals with WS. In conclusion, 22q11DS individuals with a psychotic disorder have specific neurocognitive deficits that are reliably identified cross nationality using the CNB. These cognitive dysfunctions should be further studied as potential endophenotypes of psychosis in 22q11DS and as targets for intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurocognition, insight and medication nonadherence in schizophrenia: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Boyer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the complex relationships among neurocognition, insight and nonadherence in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. DATA COLLECTION: Neurocognition was assessed using a global approach that addressed memory, attention, and executive functions; insight was analyzed using the multidimensional 'Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder;' and nonadherence was measured using the multidimensional 'Medication Adherence Rating Scale.' ANALYSIS: Structural equation modeling (SEM was applied to examine the non-straightforward relationships among the following latent variables: neurocognition, 'awareness of positive symptoms' and 'negative symptoms', 'awareness of mental disorder' and nonadherence. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-nine patients were enrolled. The final testing model showed good fit, with normed χ(2 = 1.67, RMSEA = 0.063, CFI = 0.94, and SRMR = 0.092. The SEM revealed significant associations between (1 neurocognition and 'awareness of symptoms,' (2 'awareness of symptoms' and 'awareness of mental disorder' and (3 'awareness of mental disorder' and nonadherence, mainly in the 'attitude toward taking medication' dimension. In contrast, there were no significant links between neurocognition and nonadherence, neurocognition and 'awareness of mental disorder,' and 'awareness of symptoms' and nonadherence. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that neurocognition influences 'awareness of symptoms,' which must be integrated into a higher level of insight (i.e., the 'awareness of mental disorder' to have an impact on nonadherence. These findings have important implications for the development of effective strategies to enhance medication adherence.

  18. Research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated in a test-bed bus. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-30

    This project, the research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated into test-bed buses, began as a multi-phase U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project in 1989. Phase I had a goal of developing two competing half-scale (25 kW) brassboard phosphoric acid fuel cell systems. An air-cooled and a liquid-cooled fuel cell system were developed and tested to verify the concept of using a fuel cell and a battery in a hybrid configuration wherein the fuel cell supplies the average power required for operating the vehicle and a battery supplies the `surge` or excess power required for acceleration and hill-climbing. Work done in Phase I determined that the liquid-cooled system offered higher efficiency.

  19. Impact of Cognitive Remediation Therapy on Neurocognitive Processing in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppanen, Jenni; Adamson, James; Tchanturia, Kate

    2018-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by severe malnutrition as well as inefficiencies in neurocognitive functioning, which are believed to contribute to the maintenance of disordered eating. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of individual cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) on neurocognition in AN. A total of 145 adult women from an eating disorders inpatient program took part in the present study. All participants were given individual CRT in addition to treatment as usual. Neurocognitive processes were assessed at baseline and at the end of treatment using task-based and self-report measures. The task-based measures included the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test and the Brixton test, which were used to assess central coherence and set-shifting. The Detail and Flexibility Questionnaire was used to examine patients self-reported detail focus and cognitive flexibility. Participants showed significant improvement in task-based measures of neurocognition following CRT. There were no significant changes in self-report measures. These findings suggest that CRT may be an effective intervention targeting inefficiencies in neurocognition in AN. Future studies may benefit from assessing neural changes associated with these improvements and conducting randomized controlled trials to replicate these findings.

  20. Nutritional status and social behavior in preschool children: the mediating effects of neurocognitive functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition–social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood. PMID:27133006

  1. Functional and operational requirements document : building 1012, Battery and Energy Storage Device Test Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, William H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report provides an overview of information, prior studies, and analyses relevant to the development of functional and operational requirements for electrochemical testing of batteries and energy storage devices carried out by Sandia Organization 2546, Advanced Power Sources R&D. Electrochemical operations for this group are scheduled to transition from Sandia Building 894 to a new Building located in Sandia TA-II referred to as Building 1012. This report also provides background on select design considerations and identifies the Safety Goals, Stakeholder Objectives, and Design Objectives required by the Sandia Design Team to develop the Performance Criteria necessary to the design of Building 1012. This document recognizes the Architecture-Engineering (A-E) Team as the primary design entity. Where safety considerations are identified, suggestions are provided to provide context for the corresponding operational requirement(s).

  2. Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments using the species sensitivity distribution from a soil organisms test battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domene, Xavier; Ramirez, Wilson; Mattana, Stefania; Alcaniz, Josep Maria; Andres, Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Safe amendment rates (the predicted no-effect concentration or PNEC) of seven organic wastes were estimated from the species sensitivity distribution of a battery of soil biota tests and compared with different realistic amendment scenarios (different predicted environmental concentrations or PEC). None of the wastes was expected to exert noxious effects on soil biota if applied according either to the usual maximum amendment rates in Europe or phosphorus demands of crops (below 2 tonnes DM ha -1 ). However, some of the wastes might be problematic if applied according to nitrogen demands of crops (above 2 tonnes DM ha -1 ). Ammonium content and organic matter stability of the studied wastes are the most influential determinants of the maximum amendment rates derived in this study, but not pollutant burden. This finding indicates the need to stabilize wastes prior to their reuse in soils in order to avoid short-term impacts on soil communities. - Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments

  3. The Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT): a battery for assessing beat perception and production and their dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shinya; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Humans have the abilities to perceive, produce, and synchronize with a musical beat, yet there are widespread individual differences. To investigate these abilities and to determine if a dissociation between beat perception and production exists, we developed the Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT), a new battery that assesses beat perception and production abilities. H-BAT consists of four subtests: (1) music tapping test (MTT), (2) beat saliency test (BST), (3) beat interval test (BIT), and (4) beat finding and interval test (BFIT). MTT measures the degree of tapping synchronization with the beat of music, whereas BST, BIT, and BFIT measure perception and production thresholds via psychophysical adaptive stair-case methods. We administered the H-BAT on thirty individuals and investigated the performance distribution across these individuals in each subtest. There was a wide distribution in individual abilities to tap in synchrony with the beat of music during the MTT. The degree of synchronization consistency was negatively correlated with thresholds in the BST, BIT, and BFIT: a lower degree of synchronization was associated with higher perception and production thresholds. H-BAT can be a useful tool in determining an individual's ability to perceive and produce a beat within a single session. PMID:24324421

  4. The Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT): a battery for assessing beat perception and production and their dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shinya; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Humans have the abilities to perceive, produce, and synchronize with a musical beat, yet there are widespread individual differences. To investigate these abilities and to determine if a dissociation between beat perception and production exists, we developed the Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT), a new battery that assesses beat perception and production abilities. H-BAT consists of four subtests: (1) music tapping test (MTT), (2) beat saliency test (BST), (3) beat interval test (BIT), and (4) beat finding and interval test (BFIT). MTT measures the degree of tapping synchronization with the beat of music, whereas BST, BIT, and BFIT measure perception and production thresholds via psychophysical adaptive stair-case methods. We administered the H-BAT on thirty individuals and investigated the performance distribution across these individuals in each subtest. There was a wide distribution in individual abilities to tap in synchrony with the beat of music during the MTT. The degree of synchronization consistency was negatively correlated with thresholds in the BST, BIT, and BFIT: a lower degree of synchronization was associated with higher perception and production thresholds. H-BAT can be a useful tool in determining an individual's ability to perceive and produce a beat within a single session.

  5. Evaluation of a new computerized psychometric test battery: Effects of zolpidem and caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Raveendranadh Pilli; MUR Naidu; Usharani Pingali; J C Shobha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of centrally active drugs using a new indigenously developed automated psychometric test system and compare the results with that obtained using pencil- and paper-based techniques. Materials and Methods: The tests were standardized in 24 healthy participants. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by performing the tests by a single experimenter on two occasions (interday reproducibility). To evaluate the sensitivity of the tests, the effects of...

  6. The Facial Expression Action Stimulus Test. A test battery for the assessment of face memory, face and object perception, configuration processing and facial expression recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice eDe Gelder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to assess face perception skills. In this study, we describe a novel task battery FEAST (Facial Expression Action Stimulus Test developed to test recognition of identity and expressions of human faces as well as stimulus control categories. The FEAST consists of a neutral and emotional face memory task, a face and object identity matching task, a face and house part-to-whole matching task, and a human and animal facial expression matching task. The identity and part-to-whole matching tasks contain both upright and inverted conditions. The results provide reference data of a healthy sample of controls in two age groups for future users of the FEAST.

  7. A music quality rating test battery for cochlear implant users to compare the FSP and HDCIS strategies for music appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Valerie; Winter, Philip; Anderson, Ilona; Sucher, Catherine

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a music quality rating test battery (MQRTB) and pilot test it by comparing appraisal ratings from cochlear implant (CI) recipients using the fine-structure processing (FSP) and high-definition continuous interleaved sampling (HDCIS) speech processing strategies. The development of the MQRTB involved three stages: (1) Selection of test items for the MQRTB; (2) Verification of its length and complexity with normally-hearing individuals; and (3) Pilot testing with CI recipients. Part 1 involved 65 adult listeners, Part 2 involved 10 normally-hearing adults, and Part 3 involved five adult MED-EL CI recipients. The MQRTB consisted of ten songs, with ratings made on scales assessing pleasantness, naturalness, richness, fullness, sharpness, and roughness. Results of the pilot study, which compared FSP and HDCIS for music, indicated that acclimatization to a strategy had a significant effect on ratings (p genre on ratings. Overall the results suggest that the use of FSP as the default strategy for MED-EL recipients would have a positive effect on music appreciation, and that the MQRTB is an effective tool for assessing music sound quality.

  8. Evaluation of a new computerized psychometric test battery: Effects of zolpidem and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli, Raveendranadh; Naidu, Mur; Pingali, Usharani; Shobha, Jc

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of centrally active drugs using a new indigenously developed automated psychometric test system and compare the results with that obtained using pencil- and paper-based techniques. The tests were standardized in 24 healthy participants. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by performing the tests by a single experimenter on two occasions (interday reproducibility). To evaluate the sensitivity of the tests, the effects of zolpidem (5 mg) and caffeine (500 mg) versus placebo were studied in 24 healthy participants in a randomized, double-blind three-way crossover design. Psychometric tests were performed at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 h after administration of study medication. The effects of zolpidem and caffeine on the psychomotor performance were most pronounced 1 h after administration. At this time, a significant impairment of performance in the simple reaction test (SRT), choice discrimination test (CDT), digit symbol substitution test (DSST), digit vigilance test (DVT), and card sorting test (CST) was observed with zolpidem. In contrast, caffeine showed a significant improvement in performance in CDT and DVT only. The results suggest that the tests of the computerized system are more sensitive and reliable then the pencil and paper tests in detecting the effects of central acting agents and are suitable for use in clinical areas to conduct studies with patients.

  9. Fabrication and test of inorganic/organic separators. [for silver zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smatko, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Completion of testing and failure analysis of MDC 40 Ahr silver zinc cells containing largely inorganic separators was accomplished. The results showed that the wet stand and cycle life objectives of the silver zinc cell development program were accomplished. Building, testing and failure analysis of two plate cells employing three optimum separators selected on the basis of extensive screening tests, was performed. The best separator material as a result of these tests was doped calcium zirconate.

  10. Association between the MMPI-2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF) and malingered neurocognitive dysfunction among non-head injury disability claimants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Wygant, Dustin B; Gervais, Roger O; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the over-reporting Validity Scales of the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) in relation to the Slick, Sherman, and Iverson (1999) criteria for the diagnosis of Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction in a sample of 916 consecutive non-head injury disability claimants. The classification of Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction was based on scores from several cognitive symptom validity tests and response bias indicators built into traditional neuropsychological tests. Higher scores on MMPI-2-RF Validity Scales, particularly the Response Bias Scale (Gervais, Ben-Porath, Wygant, & Green, 2007), were associated with probable and definite Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction. The MMPI-2-RF's Validity Scales classification accuracy of Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction improved when multiple scales were interpreted. Additionally, higher scores on MMPI-2-RF substantive scales measuring distress, internalizing dysfunction, thought dysfunction, and social avoidance were associated with probable and definite Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction. Implications for clinical practice and future directions are noted.

  11. Serotonin-Related Gene Polymorphisms and Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV-Infected Alcohol Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Villalba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals continue to experience neurocognitive deterioration despite virologically successful treatments. While the cause remains unclear, evidence suggests that HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND may be associated with neurobehavioral dysfunction. Genetic variants have been explored to identify risk markers to determine neuropathogenesis of neurocognitive deterioration. Memory deficits and executive dysfunction are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults. These conditions can affect their quality of life and HIV risk-taking behaviors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SLC6A4, TPH2, and GALM genes may affect the activity of serotonin and increase the risk of HAND. The present study explored the relationship between SLC6A4, TPH2, and GALM genes and neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected alcohol abusers. A total of 267 individuals were genotyped for polymorphisms in SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, TPH2 rs4570625, and GALM rs6741892. To assess neurocognitive functions, the Short Category and the Auditory Verbal Learning Tests were used. TPH2 SNP rs4570625 showed a significant association with executive function in African American males (odds ratio 4.8, 95% CI, 1.5–14.8; P=0.005. Similarly, GALM SNP rs6741892 showed an increased risk with African American males (odds ratio 2.4, 95% CI, 1.2–4.9; P=0.02. This study suggests that TPH2 rs4570625 and GALM rs6741892 polymorphisms may be risk factors for HAND.

  12. Grammar-Lexicon Distinction in a Neurocognitive Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishkhanyan, Byurakn

    hypotheses and testing them through using various methods. The grammar-lexicon distinction and working memory are thus central topics of this thesis. The results suggest a potential for a successful integration of the two theories. The findings further provide evidence for Boye & Harder’s (2012......) understanding of the grammar-lexicon distinction, and for the involvement of working memory in language production, as the REF-model would predict. As a starting point for integrating the two theories, the present thesis gives directions for future research on the neurocognitive underpinning of language and its...... relation to working memory....

  13. Cognitive Dysfunction after On-Pump Operations: Neuropsychological Characteristics and Optimal Core Battery of Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G. Polunina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD is a mild form of perioperative ischemic brain injury, which emerges as memory decline, decreased attention, and decreased concentration during several months, or even years, after surgery. Here we present results of our three neuropsychological studies, which overall included 145 patients after on-pump operations. We found that the auditory memory span test (digit span was more effective as a tool for registration of POCD, in comparison with the word-list learning and story-learning tests. Nonverbal memory or visuoconstruction tests were sensitive to POCD in patients after intraoperative opening of cardiac chambers with increased cerebral air embolism. Psychomotor speed tests (digit symbol, or TMT A registered POCD, which was characteristic for elderly atherosclerotic patients. Finally, we observed that there were significant effects of the order of position of a test on the performance on this test. For example, the postoperative performance on the core tests (digit span and digit symbol showed minimal impairment when either of these tests was administered at the beginning of testing. Overall, our data shows that the selection of tests, and the order of which these tests are administered, may considerably influence the results of studies of POCD.

  14. Homocysteine, Cobalamin and Folate Status and their Relations to Neurocognitive and Psychological Markers in Elderly in Northeastern of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Manavifar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available       Objective(s: Incidence of neurocognitive and psychological disorders may be related to serum homocystein (Hcy, cobalamin (vitamin B12 and folate levels in old people. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between Hcy, cobalamin, folate and neurocognitive and/or psychological disorders in the elderly.   Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 280 subjects with ≥ 65 years old, were evaluated. The subjects were selected from 12 regions of Mashhad, Iran, over March to October 2009. After blood sampling, data were collected by questionnaire, face to face interview and performing neurocognitive and psychological tests. The sera of 250 persons were analyzed for cobalamin and folate by RIA method. Amongst the aforementioned samples, 78 cases with cobalamin Results: Amongst the people, 126 (45% were male and 154 (55% were female. The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy was 59.5% and 37.1% in male and female respectively (P -value =0.049. Hcy inversely correlated to cobalamin (r=-0.282, P=0.014 and to folate (r=-0.203, P=0.014. Hcy, cobalamin and folate correlations to neurocognitive and psychological impairments were not statically significant. Conclusion: Hyper Hcy or low cobalamin and folate in the elderly, are prevalent but their relationships with neurocognitive and psychological impairments is controversial. If these relationships had been confirmed, performing a single serum Hcy or cobalamin test would have been enough to diagnose and prevent neurocognitive impairments and inversely, neurocognitive-psychological sign and symptoms could have meant probable tissue vitamin deficiencies. However methods of assessing neurocognitive and psychological markers with validity and reliability of clinical and laboratory tests for finding aforementioned relationships should be revised.  

  15. Homocysteine, Cobalamin and Folate Status and their Relations to Neurocognitive and Psychological Markers in Elderly in Northeasten of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavifar, Lida; Nemati Karimooy, Habibollah; Jamali, Jamshid; Talebi Doluee, Morteza; Shirdel, Abbas; Nejat Shokohi, Amireh; Fatemi Nayyeri, Mahdie

    2013-06-01

    Incidence of neurocognitive and psychological disorders may be related to serum homocystein (Hcy), cobalamin (vitamin B12) and folate levels in old people. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between Hcy, cobalamin, folate and neurocognitive and/or psychological disorders in the elderly. In this cross-sectional study, 280 subjects with ≥ 65 years old ,were evaluated. The subjects were selected from 12 regions of Mashhad, Iran, over March to October 2009. After blood sampling, data were collected by questionnaire, face to face interview and performing neurocognitive and psychological tests. The sera of 250 persons were analyzed for cobalamin and folate by RIA method. Amongst the aforementioned samples, 78 cases with cobalamin <300 pg/ml and folate <6.5 ng/ml were analyzed for Hcy by ELISA method. Amongst the people, 126 (45%) were male and 154 (55%) were female. The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) was 59.5% and 37.1% in male and female respectively (P -value =0.049). Hcy inversely correlated to cobalamin (r=-0.282, P=0.014) and to folate (r=-0.203, P=0.014). Hcy, cobalamin and folate correlations to neurocognitive and psychological impairments were not statically significant. Hyper Hcy or low cobalamin and folate in the elderly, are prevalent but their relationships with neurocognitive and psychological impairments is controversial. If these relationships had been confirmed, performing a single serum Hcy or cobalamin test would have been enough enough to diagnose and prevent neurocognitive impairments and inversely, neurocognitive-psychological sign and symptoms could have meant probable tissue vitamin deficiencies. However methods of assessing neurocognitive and psychological markers with validity and reliability of clinical and laboratory tests for finding aforementioned relationships should be revised.

  16. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ...-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The guide describes methods that the NRC staff considers acceptable for... replacement of vented lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to Docket...

  17. Neurocognitive profiles of preterm infants randomly assigned to lower or higher hematocrit thresholds for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Thomasin E; Conrad, Amy L; Richman, Lynn C; Lindgren, Scott D; Nopoulos, Peg C; Bell, Edward F

    2011-01-01

    Preterm infants are frequently transfused with red blood cells based on standardized guidelines or clinical concerns that anemia taxes infants' physiological compensatory mechanisms and thereby threatens their health and well-being. The impact of various transfusion guidelines on long-term neurocognitive outcome is not known. The purpose of this study is to evaluate long-term neurocognitive outcome on children born prematurely and treated at birth with different transfusion guidelines. Neurocognitive outcomes were examined at school age for 56 preterm infants randomly assigned to a liberal (n = 33) or restrictive (n = 23) transfusion strategy. Tests of intelligence, achievement, language, visual-spatial/motor, and memory skills were administered. Between-group differences were assessed. Those in the liberal transfusion group performed more poorly than those in the restrictive group on measures of associative verbal fluency, visual memory, and reading. Findings highlight possible long-term neurodevelopmental consequences of maintaining higher hematocrit levels.

  18. Does neurocognitive function affect cognitive bias toward an emotional stimulus? Association between general attentional ability and attentional bias toward threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko eHakamata

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although poorer cognitive performance has been found to be associated with anxiety, it remains unclear whether neurocognitive function affects biased cognitive processing toward emotional information. We investigated whether general cognitive function evaluated with a standard neuropsychological test predicts biased cognition, focusing on attentional bias toward threat.Methods: One hundred and five healthy young adults completed a dot-probe task measuring attentional bias and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS measuring general cognitive function, which consists of five domains: immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, and delayed memory. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships between attentional bias and cognitive function. Results: The attentional domain was the best predictor of attentional bias toward threat (β = -0.26, p = 0.006. Within the attentional domain, digit symbol coding was negatively correlated with attentional bias (r = -0.28, p = 0.005.Conclusions: The present study provides the first evidence that general attentional ability, which was assessed with a standard neuropsychological test, affects attentional bias toward threatening information. Individual cognitive profiles might be important for the measurement and modification of cognitive biases.

  19. The relationship between obesity and neurocognitive function in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhanchou; Wei, Qinling; Lv, Hailong; Wu, Renrong; Zhao, Jingping

    2013-04-09

    Studies have reported that up to 60% of individuals with schizophrenia are overweight or obese. This study explored the relationship between obesity and cognitive performance in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Outpatients with schizophrenia aged 18-50 years were recruited from 10 study sites across China. Demographic and clinical information was collected. A neuropsychological battery including tests of attention, processing speed, learning/memory, and executive functioning was used to assess cognitive function, and these 4 individual domains were transformed into a neurocognitive composite z score. In addition, height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Patients were categorized into 4 groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese) based on BMI cutoff values for Asian populations recommended by the World Health Organization. A total number of 896 patients were enrolled into the study. Fifty-four percent of participants were overweight or obese. A higher BMI was significantly associated with lower scores on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) Visual Reproduction subscale, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Digit Symbol subscale, and the composite z score (p's ≤ 0.024). Obese patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower scores than normal weight patients on the Trail Making Test B, the WMS-R Visual Reproduction subscale, the WAIS Digit Symbol subscale, and the composite z score (p's ≤ 0.004). Our study suggests that, in addition to its well established risk for various cardiometabolic conditions, obesity is also associated with decreased cognitive function in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Future studies should explore if weight loss and management can improve cognitive function in obese patients who suffer from schizophrenia.

  20. Residual Neurocognitive Features of Long-Term Ecstasy Users With Minimal Exposure to Other Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, John H.; Sherwood, Andrea R.; Hudson, James I.; Gruber, Staci; Kozin, David; Pope, Harrison G.

    2010-01-01

    Aims In field studies assessing cognitive function in illicit ecstasy users, there are several frequent confounding factors that might plausibly bias the findings toward an overestimate of ecstasy-induced neurocognitive toxicity. We designed an investigation seeking to minimize these possible sources of bias. Design We compared illicit ecstasy users and non-users while 1) excluding individuals with significant lifetime exposure to other illicit drugs or alcohol; 2) requiring that all participants be members of the “rave” subculture; and 3) testing all participants with breath, urine, and hair samples at the time of evaluation to exclude possible surreptitious substance use. We compared groups with adjustment for age, gender, race/ethnicity, family-of-origin variables, and childhood history of conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We provide significance levels without correction for multiple comparisons. Setting Field study. Participants Fifty-two illicit ecstasy users and 59 non-users, age 18-45. Measurements Battery of 15 neuropsychological tests tapping a range of cognitive functions. Findings We found little evidence of decreased cognitive performance in ecstasy users, save for poorer strategic-self-regulation, possibly reflecting increased impulsivity. However this finding might have reflected a premorbid attribute of ecstasy users, rather than a residual neurotoxic effect of the drug. Conclusions In a study designed to minimize limitations found in many prior investigations, we failed to demonstrate marked residual cognitive effects in ecstasy users. This finding contrasts with many previous findings—including our own—and emphasizes the need for continued caution in interpreting field studies of cognitive function in illicit ecstasy users. PMID:21205042

  1. Neurocognitive Treatments for Eating Disorders and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichen, Dawn M; Matheson, Brittany E; Appleton-Knapp, Sara L; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2017-09-01

    Recent research has highlighted executive function and neurocognitive deficits among individuals with eating and weight disorders, identifying a potential target for treatment. Treatments targeting executive function for eating and weight disorders are emerging. This review aims to summarize the recent literature evaluating neurocognitive/executive function-oriented treatments for eating and weight disorders and highlights additional work needed in this area. Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) for anorexia nervosa has been the most extensively studied neurocognitive treatment for eating disorders. Results demonstrate that CRT improves executive function and may aid in the reduction of eating disorder symptomatology. Computer training programs targeting modifying attention and increasing inhibition are targeting reduction of binge eating and weight loss with modest success. Neurocognitive treatments are emerging and show initial promise for eating and weight disorders. Further research is necessary to determine whether these treatments can be used as stand-alone treatments or whether they need to be used as an adjunct to or in conjunction with other evidence-based treatments to improve outcomes.

  2. GALEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, P.-J.; Burbach, G.; Heinzerling, L. M.; Edenharter, G.; Bachert, C.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bonini, S.; Bousquet-Rouanet, L.; Demoly, P.; Bresciani, M.; Bruno, A.; Gjomarkaj, M.; Canonica, G. W.; Darsow, U.; Durham, S.; Fokkens, W. J.; Giavi, S.; Gramiccioni, C.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Haahtela, T.; Kowalski, M. L.; Magyar, P.; Muraközi, G.; Orosz, M.; Röhnelt, C.; Stingl, G.; Todo-Bom, A.; von Mutius, E.; Wiesner, A.; Wöhrl, S.; Bousquet, J.; Zuberbier, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. Objective: To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify a patient

  3. Relationship between HIV stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score at a Kenyan sub-county hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael N. Kinuthia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is associated with cognitive impairment which affects psychomotor speed. Psychomotor slowing is a predictor of dementia and death in people living with HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between HIV disease stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score which will add to the body of knowledge required to manage patients with HIV and AIDS. Objective: To determine the relationship between psychomotor speed neurocognitive score and the HIV disease stage in adults at initiation of care. Setting: This study was conducted at Kangundo Sub-county hospital comprehensive care centre. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All HIV seropositive patients aged 18 to 50 years recently initiated into care were studied. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data. The World Health Organization (WHO stage was used during data collection to classify study participants into asymptomatic and symptomatic groups. The grooved pegboard test was used to obtain psychomotor speed neurocognitive scores. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise data. Mann–Whitney U test, Spearman’s rho and multiple linear regression were employed in the analysis; p-value of 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The WHO stage did not have a significant effect on the psychomotor speed neurocognitive score (p ≥ 0.05. The CD4 count had a significant effect on psychomotor speed neurocognitive score (p = 0.001. Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between CD4 counts and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score. Efforts should be made to ensure that the CD4 counts of people living with HIV and AIDS do not continue to fall after initiation into care in order to preserve psychomotor function.

  4. Testing ESL pragmatics development and validation of a web-based assessment battery

    CERN Document Server

    Roever, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Although second language learners' pragmatic competence (their ability to use language in context) is an essential part of their general communicative competence, it has not been a part of second language tests. This book helps fill this gap by describing the development and validation of a web-based test of ESL pragmalinguistics. The instrument assesses learners' knowledge of routine formulae, speech acts, and implicature in 36 multiple-choice and brief-response items. The test's quantitative and qualitative validation with 300 learners showed high reliability and provided strong evidence of

  5. Effects of Caffeinated Gum on a Battery of Soccer-Specific Tests in Trained University-Standard Male Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; King, George; Russell, Mitchell; Lynn, Anthony; Russell, Mark

    2018-03-27

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether caffeinated gum influenced performance in a battery of soccer-specific tests used in the assessment of performance in soccer players. In a double blind, randomised, cross-over design, ten male university-standard soccer players (age 19 ± 1 y, stature 1.80 ± 0.10 m, body mass 75.5 ± 4.8 kg) masticated a caffeinated (200 mg; caffeine) or control (0 mg; placebo) gum on two separate occasions. After a standardised warm-up, gum was chewed for 5 min and subsequently expectorated 5 min before players performed a maximal countermovement jump, a 20 m sprint test and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1). Performance on 20 m sprints were not different between trials (caffeine: 3.2 ± 0.3 s, placebo: 3.1 ± 0.3 s; p = 0.567; small effect size: d = 0.33), but caffeine did allow players to cover 2.0% more distance during Yo-YoIR1 (caffeine: 1754 ± 156 m, placebo: 1719 ± 139 m; p = 0.016; small effect size: d = 0.24) and increase maximal countermovement jump height by 2.2% (caffeine: 47.1 ± 3.4 cm, placebo: 46.1 ± 3.2 cm; p = 0.008; small effect size: d = 0.30). Performance on selected physical tests (Yo-YoIR1 and countermovement jump) was improved by the chewing of caffeinated gum in the immediate period before testing in university-standard soccer players but the sizes of such effects were small. Such findings may have implications for the recommendations made to soccer players about to engage with subsequent exercise performance.

  6. Design and Control of a Multi-Functional Energy Recovery Power Accumulator Battery Pack Testing System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, aiming at the energy loss and harmonic problems in the conventional power accumulator battery pack testing system (PABPTS, an improved multi-functional energy recovery PABPTS (ERPABPTS for electric vehicles (EVs was proposed. The improved system has the functions of harmonic detection, suppression, reactive compensation and energy recovery. The ERPABPTS, which contains a bi-directional buck-boost direct current (DC-DC converter and a bi-directional alternating current (AC-DC converter with an inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL type filter interfacing to the AC-grid, is proposed. System configuration and operation principle of the combined system are discussed first, then, the reactive compensation and harmonic suppression controller under balanced grid-voltage condition are presented. Design of a fourth order band-pass Butterworth filter for current harmonic detection is put forward, and the reactive compensator design procedure considering the non-linear load is also illustrated. The proposed scheme is implemented in a 175-kW prototype in the laboratory. Simulation and experimental results show that the combined configuration can effectively realize energy recovery for high accuracy current test requirement, meanwhile, can effectively achieve reactive compensation and current harmonic suppression.

  7. The Effect of Presentation Medium on Pilot Selection Test Battery Scores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biggerstaff, S

    1998-01-01

    .... The American Psychological Association (APA) has set guidelines to be followed to ensure both qualitative and quantitative equivalence of new test formats prior to their use in applied settings...

  8. Motivational and neurocognitive deficits are central to the prediction of longitudinal functional outcome in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, G; Foussias, G; Agid, O; Remington, G

    2014-10-01

    Functional impairment is characteristic of most individuals with schizophrenia; however, the key variables that undermine community functioning are not well understood. This study evaluated the association between selected clinical variables and one-year longitudinal functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. The sample included 754 patients with schizophrenia who completed both baseline and one-year follow-up visits in the CATIE study. Patients were evaluated with a comprehensive battery of assessments capturing symptom severity and cognitive performance among other variables. The primary outcome variable was functional status one-year postbaseline measured using the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale. Factor analysis of negative symptom items revealed two factors reflecting diminished expression and amotivation. Multivariate regression modeling revealed several significant independent predictors of longitudinal functioning scores. The strongest predictors were baseline amotivation and neurocognition. Both amotivation and neurocognition also had independent predictive value for each of the domains of functioning assessed (e.g., vocational). Both motivational and neurocognitive deficits independently contribute to longitudinal functional outcomes assessed 1 year later among patients with schizophrenia. Both of these domains of psychopathology impede functional recovery; hence, it follows that treatments ameliorating each of these symptoms should promote community functioning among individuals with schizophrenia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Neurocognitive Function in Children with Primary Hypertension after Initiation of Antihypertensive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Marc B; Batisky, Donald L; Kupferman, Juan C; Samuels, Joshua; Hooper, Stephen R; Falkner, Bonita; Waldstein, Shari R; Szilagyi, Peter G; Wang, Hongyue; Staskiewicz, Jennifer; Adams, Heather R

    2018-04-01

    To determine the change in neurocognitive test performance in children with primary hypertension after initiation of antihypertensive therapy. Subjects with hypertension and normotensive control subjects had neurocognitive testing at baseline and again after 1 year, during which time the subjects with hypertension received antihypertensive therapy. Subjects completed tests of general intelligence, attention, memory, executive function, and processing speed, and parents completed rating scales of executive function. Fifty-five subjects with hypertension and 66 normotensive control subjects underwent both baseline and 1-year assessments. Overall, the blood pressure (BP) of subjects with hypertension improved (24-hour systolic BP load: mean baseline vs 1 year, 58% vs 38%, P < .001). Primary multivariable analyses showed that the hypertension group improved in scores of subtests of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Grooved Pegboard, and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Tower Test (P < .05). However, the control group also improved in the same measures with similar effects sizes. Secondary analyses by effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy showed that subjects with persistent ambulatory hypertension at 1 year (n = 17) did not improve in subtests of Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and had limited improvement in Grooved Pegboard. Overall, children with hypertension did not improve in neurocognitive test performance after 1 year of antihypertensive therapy, beyond that also seen in normotensive controls, suggesting improvements with age or practice effects because of repeated neurocognitive testing. However, the degree to which antihypertensive therapy improves BP may affect its impact upon neurocognitive function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a Physical Employment Testing Battery for Armor Soldiers: 19D Cavalry Scout and 19K M1 Armor Crewman

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    around the course in the direction indicated, without knocking the cones. Time to complete the course was recorded (14). Standing Long Jump...easily purchased at a sporting goods store (as requested by Mr. Brinkley, G3/5/7 TRADOC). This model excluded the arm ergometer, handgrip, upright...purchased at a sporting goods store (R2 = 0.84). This model resulted in a test battery consisting of four tests: squat lift, standing long jump, beep

  11. Multicenter European Prevalence Study of Neurocognitive Impairment and Associated Factors in HIV Positive Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddow, Lewis J; Laverick, Rosanna; Daskalopoulou, Marina

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study in 448 HIV positive patients attending five European outpatient clinics to determine prevalence of and factors associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI) using computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests. NCI was defined as a normalized Z scor...

  12. Using aquatic macroinvertebrate species traits to build test batteries for sediment toxicity assessment: accounting for the diversity of potential biological responses to toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Péry, T Alexandre R R; Mouthon, Jacques; Lafont, Michel; Roger, Marie-Claude; Garric, Jeanne; Férard, Jean-François

    2005-09-01

    An original species-selection method for the building of test batteries is presented. This method is based on the statistical analysis of the biological and ecological trait patterns of species. It has been applied to build a macroinvertebrate test battery for the assessment of sediment toxicity, which efficiently describes the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate biological responses to toxicants in a large European lowland river. First, 109 potential representatives of benthic communities of European lowland rivers were selected from a list of 479 taxa, considering 11 biological traits accounting for the main routes of exposure to a sediment-bound toxicant and eight ecological traits providing an adequate description of habitat characteristics used by the taxa. Second, their biological and ecological trait patterns were compared using coinertia analysis. This comparison allowed the clustering of taxa into groups of organisms that exhibited similar life-history characteristics, physiological and behavioral features, and similar habitat use. Groups exhibited various sizes (7-35 taxa), taxonomic compositions, and biological and ecological features. Main differences among group characteristics concerned morphology, substrate preferendum and habitat utilization, nutritional features, maximal size, and life-history strategy. Third, the best representatives of the mean biological and ecological characteristics of each group were included in the test battery. The final selection was composed of Chironomus riparius (Insecta: Diptera), Branchiura sowerbyi (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae), Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta: Lumbriculidae), Valvata piscinalis (Gastropoda: Valvatidae), and Sericostoma personatum (Trichoptera: Sericostomatidae). This approach permitted the biological and ecological variety of the battery to be maximized. Because biological and ecological traits of taxa determine species sensitivity, such maximization should permit the battery to better account

  13. High performance Li3V2(PO4)3/C composite cathode material for lithium ion batteries studied in pilot scale test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhenyu; Dai Changsong; Wu Gang; Nelson, Mark; Hu Xinguo; Zhang Ruoxin; Liu Jiansheng; Xia Jicai

    2010-01-01

    Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C composite cathode material was synthesized via carbothermal reduction process in a pilot scale production test using battery grade raw materials with the aim of studying the feasibility for their practical applications. XRD, FT-IR, XPS, CV, EIS and battery charge-discharge tests were used to characterize the as-prepared material. The XRD and FT-IR data suggested that the as-prepared Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C material exhibits an orderly monoclinic structure based on the connectivity of PO 4 tetrahedra and VO 6 octahedra. Half cell tests indicated that an excellent high-rate cyclic performance was achieved on the Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C cathodes in the voltage range of 3.0-4.3 V, retaining a capacity of 95% (96 mAh/g) after 100 cycles at 20C discharge rate. The low-temperature performance of the cathode was further evaluated, showing 0.5C discharge capacity of 122 and 119 mAh/g at -25 and -40 o C, respectively. The discharge capacity of graphite//Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 batteries with a designed battery capacity of 14 Ah is as high as 109 mAh/g with a capacity retention of 92% after 224 cycles at 2C discharge rates. The promising high-rate and low-temperature performance observed in this work suggests that Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C is a very strong candidate to be a cathode in a next-generation Li-ion battery for electric vehicle applications.

  14. Executive Functions as Endophenotypes in ADHD: Evidence from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Shang, Chi-Yung

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about executive functions among unaffected siblings of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and there is lack of such information from non-Western countries. We examined verbal and nonverbal executive functions in adolescents with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls to test whether executive…

  15. Development of Software and Strategies for Battery Management System Testing on HIL Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Barreras, Jorge Varela

    2016-01-01

    of complexity of the tests, the higher the demands for ad hoc development of SW and strategies. With regard to the latter, there is not a universal definition and there are different points of view. Therefore different strategies may be followed, which can be classified into many different ways according...

  16. Feasibility and safety of virtual-reality-based early neurocognitive stimulation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turon, Marc; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sol; Jodar, Mercè; Gomà, Gemma; Montanya, Jaume; Hernando, David; Bailón, Raquel; de Haro, Candelaria; Gomez-Simon, Victor; Lopez-Aguilar, Josefina; Magrans, Rudys; Martinez-Perez, Melcior; Oliva, Joan Carles; Blanch, Lluís

    2017-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that critical illness often results in significant long-term neurocognitive impairments in one-third of survivors. Although these neurocognitive impairments are long-lasting and devastating for survivors, rehabilitation rarely occurs during or after critical illness. Our aim is to describe an early neurocognitive stimulation intervention based on virtual reality for patients who are critically ill and to present the results of a proof-of-concept study testing the feasibility, safety, and suitability of this intervention. Twenty critically ill adult patients undergoing or having undergone mechanical ventilation for ≥24 h received daily 20-min neurocognitive stimulation sessions when awake and alert during their ICU stay. The difficulty of the exercises included in the sessions progressively increased over successive sessions. Physiological data were recorded before, during, and after each session. Safety was assessed through heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate. Heart rate variability analysis, an indirect measure of autonomic activity sensitive to cognitive demands, was used to assess the efficacy of the exercises in stimulating attention and working memory. Patients successfully completed the sessions on most days. No sessions were stopped early for safety concerns, and no adverse events occurred. Heart rate variability analysis showed that the exercises stimulated attention and working memory. Critically ill patients considered the sessions enjoyable and relaxing without being overly fatiguing. The results in this proof-of-concept study suggest that a virtual-reality-based neurocognitive intervention is feasible, safe, and tolerable, stimulating cognitive functions and satisfying critically ill patients. Future studies will evaluate the impact of interventions on neurocognitive outcomes. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov identifier: NCT02078206.

  17. Development and application of an actively controlled hybrid proton exchange membrane fuel cell - Lithium-ion battery laboratory test-bed based on off-the-shelf components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yufit, V.; Brandon, N.P. [Dept. Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The use of commercially available components enables rapid prototyping and assembling of laboratory scale hybrid test-bed systems, which can be used to evaluate new hybrid configurations. The development of such a test-bed using an off-the-shelf PEM fuel cell, lithium-ion battery and DC/DC converter is presented here, and its application to a hybrid configuration appropriate for an unmanned underwater vehicle is explored. A control algorithm was implemented to regulate the power share between the fuel cell and the battery with a graphical interface to control, record and analyze the electrochemical and thermal parameters of the system. The results demonstrate the applicability of the test-bed and control algorithm for this application, and provide data on the dynamic electrical and thermal behaviour of the hybrid system. (author)

  18. A field operational test on valve-regulated lead-acid absorbent-glass-mat batteries in micro-hybrid electric vehicles. Part I. Results based on kernel density estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Karspeck, T.; Ott, C.; Weckler, M.; Stoermer, A. O.

    2011-03-01

    In March 2007 the BMW Group has launched the micro-hybrid functions brake energy regeneration (BER) and automatic start and stop function (ASSF). Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology are applied in vehicles with micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In both part I and part II of this publication vehicles with MHPS and AGM batteries are subject to a field operational test (FOT). Test vehicles with conventional power system (CPS) and flooded batteries were used as a reference. In the FOT sample batteries were mounted several times and electrically tested in the laboratory intermediately. Vehicle- and battery-related diagnosis data were read out for each test run and were matched with laboratory data in a data base. The FOT data were analyzed by the use of two-dimensional, nonparametric kernel estimation for clear data presentation. The data show that capacity loss in the MHPS is comparable to the CPS. However, the influence of mileage performance, which cannot be separated, suggests that battery stress is enhanced in the MHPS although a battery refresh function is applied. Anyway, the FOT demonstrates the unsuitability of flooded batteries for the MHPS because of high early capacity loss due to acid stratification and because of vanishing cranking performance due to increasing internal resistance. Furthermore, the lack of dynamic charge acceptance for high energy regeneration efficiency is illustrated. Under the presented FOT conditions charge acceptance of lead-acid (LA) batteries decreases to less than one third for about half of the sample batteries compared to new battery condition. In part II of this publication FOT data are presented by multiple regression analysis (Schaeck et al., submitted for publication [1]).

  19. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R): a brief cognitive test battery for dementia screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioshi, Eneida; Dawson, Kate; Mitchell, Joanna; Arnold, Robert; Hodges, John R

    2006-11-01

    There is a clear need for brief, but sensitive and specific, cognitive screening instruments as evidenced by the popularity of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE). We aimed to validate an improved revision (the ACE-R) which incorporates five sub-domain scores (orientation/attention, memory, verbal fluency, language and visuo-spatial). Standard tests for evaluating dementia screening tests were applied. A total of 241 subjects participated in this study (Alzheimer's disease=67, frontotemporal dementia=55, dementia of Lewy Bodies=20; mild cognitive impairment-MCI=36; controls=63). Reliability of the ACE-R was very good (alpha coefficient=0.8). Correlation with the Clinical Dementia Scale was significant (r=-0.321, pcognitive dysfunction. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Hairy carbon electrodes studied by cyclic voltammetry and battery discharge testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Deborah D. L.; Shui, Xiaoping; Frysz, Christine A.

    1993-01-01

    Hairy carbon is a new material developed by growing submicron carbon filaments on conventional carbon substrates. Typical substrate materials include carbon black, graphite powder, carbon fibers, and glassy carbon. A catalyst is used to initiate hair growth with carbonaceous gases serving as the carbon source. To study the electrochemical behavior of hairy carbons, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and discharge testing were conducted. In both cases, hairy carbon results surpassed those of the substrate material alone.

  1. Development of a Physical Employment Testing Battery for 12B Combat Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-10

    3/4" Interlocking Diamond Plate Tiles, Kodiak Sports , Plano, TX) for the casualty drag. This allowed for a standardized surface for testing, which...around the course in the direction indicated, without knocking the cones. Time to complete the course was recorded (12). Standing Long Jump...calibrated equipment and omitted any equipment that would not be easily purchased at a sporting goods store (as requested by Mr. Brinkley, G3/5n TRADOC

  2. Neurocognitive impairment in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: measurement issues in diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tricia S; Aranow, Cynthia; Ross, Gail S; Barsdorf, Alexandra; Imundo, Lisa F; Eichenfield, Andrew H; Kahn, Philip J; Diamond, Betty; Levy, Deborah M

    2011-08-01

    To assess the prevalence of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) by comparing published classification criteria, and to examine associations between NCI, disease characteristics, psychosocial well-being, and intelligence. cSLE patients and ethnicity- and age-matched healthy controls completed a neuropsychological research battery, and results were categorized by 3 different NCI classification criteria with different cutoff scores (e.g., >2, 1.5, or 1 SD below the mean) and the number of required abnormal tests or domains. Forty-one cSLE subjects and 22 controls were included. Subjects were predominantly female (~70%) and Hispanic (∼70%). Executive functioning, psychomotor speed, and fine motor speed were most commonly affected. Method 1 classified 34.1% of cSLE subjects with NCI compared to method 2 (14.6% with decline and 7.3% with NCI) and method 3 (63.4% with NCI). The prevalence of NCI was not significantly different between the controls and patients using any of the categorization methods. NCI was not associated with SLE disease activity or characteristics or with depression. Using method 3, patients in the cognitive impairment group reported significantly lower quality of life estimates (69.7 versus 79.3; P = 0.03). Below average intellectual functioning (intelligence quotient 1 and >1.5 SDs, but not >2 SDs below the mean. NCI was prevalent in cSLE, but varied according to the chosen categorization method. A similar proportion of cSLE patients and controls had NCI, reinforcing the importance of studying an appropriate control group. Categorical classification (i.e., impaired/nonimpaired) may oversimplify the commonly observed deficits in cSLE. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  3. System design considerations for implementing performance and service tests on Class 1E batteries in accordance with IEEE 450-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagan, E.J.; Weronick, R.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive electrical system design considerations are required to implement performance and service tests on Class 1E in accordance iwth IEEE 450-1980 ''Recommended Practice For Maintenance Testing and Replacement of Large Lead Storage Batteries For Generating Stations and Substations''. Class 1E is the safety classification of the electric equipment and systems that are essential to emergency reactor shutdown, cotainment isolation, reactor core cooling, and containment and reactor heat removal, or are otherwise essential to emergency reactor shutdown, containment isolation, reactor core cooling, and containment and reactor heat removal, or are otherwise essential in preventing significant release of radioactive material to the environment. The paper discusses alternatives which merit investigating to determine a feasible method for performing these tests at operating nuclear power plants, or plants nearing completion, which may lack provisions for incorporating such tests. The scope of each alternative presented includes a description and critique of the test circuit configuration and the auxiliary equipment required to isolate the battery and connect it to a Battery Capacity Tester (BCT). 6 refs

  4. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  5. Specific Features of Executive Dysfunction in Alzheimer-Type Mild Dementia Based on Computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmickienė, Jurgita; Kaubrys, Gintaras

    2016-10-08

    BACKGROUND The primary manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is decline in memory. Dysexecutive symptoms have tremendous impact on functional activities and quality of life. Data regarding frontal-executive dysfunction in mild AD are controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and specific features of executive dysfunction in mild AD based on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) results. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fifty newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve, mild, late-onset AD patients (MMSE ≥20, AD group) and 25 control subjects (CG group) were recruited in this prospective, cross-sectional study. The CANTAB tests CRT, SOC, PAL, SWM were used for in-depth cognitive assessment. Comparisons were performed using the t test or Mann-Whitney U test, as appropriate. Correlations were evaluated by Pearson r or Spearman R. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. RESULTS AD and CG groups did not differ according to age, education, gender, or depression. Few differences were found between groups in the SOC test for performance measures: Mean moves (minimum 3 moves): AD (Rank Sum=2227), CG (Rank Sum=623), p<0.001. However, all SOC test time measures differed significantly between groups: SOC Mean subsequent thinking time (4 moves): AD (Rank Sum=2406), CG (Rank Sum=444), p<0.001. Correlations were weak between executive function (SOC) and episodic/working memory (PAL, SWM) (R=0.01-0.38) or attention/psychomotor speed (CRT) (R=0.02-0.37). CONCLUSIONS Frontal-executive functions are impaired in mild AD patients. Executive dysfunction is highly prominent in time measures, but minimal in performance measures. Executive disorders do not correlate with a decline in episodic and working memory or psychomotor speed in mild AD.

  6. Report of the substudy assessing the impact of neurocognitive function on quality of life 5 years after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M F; Grocott, H P; Mathew, J P; White, W D; Landolfo, K; Reves, J G; Laskowitz, D T; Mark, D B; Blumenthal, J A

    2001-12-01

    The importance of perioperative cognitive decline has long been debated. We recently demonstrated a significant correlation between perioperative cognitive decline and long-term cognitive dysfunction. Despite this association, some still question the importance of these changes in cognitive function to the quality of life of patients and their families. The purpose of our investigation was to determine the association between cognitive dysfunction and long-term quality of life after cardiac surgery. After institutional review board approval and patient informed consent, 261 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled and followed for 5 years. Cognitive function was measured with a battery of tests at baseline, discharge, and 6 weeks and 5 years postoperatively. Quality of life was assessed with well-validated, standardized assessments at the 5-year end point. Our results demonstrate significant correlations between cognitive function and quality of life in patients after cardiac surgery. Lower 5-year overall cognitive function scores were associated with lower general health and a less productive working status. Multivariable logistic and linear regression controlling for age, sex, education, and diabetes confirmed this strong association in the majority of areas of quality of life. Five years after cardiac surgery, there is a strong relationship between neurocognitive functioning and quality of life. This has important social and financial implications for preoperative evaluation and postoperative care of patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  7. Advanced paternal age is associated with impaired neurocognitive outcomes during infancy and childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Saha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced paternal age (APA is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, as well as with dyslexia and reduced intelligence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between paternal age and performance on neurocognitive measures during infancy and childhood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A sample of singleton children (n = 33,437 was drawn from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project. The outcome measures were assessed at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test. The main analyses examined the relationship between neurocognitive measures and paternal or maternal age when adjusted for potential confounding factors. Advanced paternal age showed significant associations with poorer scores on all of the neurocognitive measures apart from the Bayley Motor score. The findings were broadly consistent in direction and effect size at all three ages. In contrast, advanced maternal age was generally associated with better scores on these same measures. CONCLUSIONS: The offspring of older fathers show subtle impairments on tests of neurocognitive ability during infancy and childhood. In light of secular trends related to delayed fatherhood, the clinical implications and the mechanisms underlying these findings warrant closer scrutiny.

  8. GALEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, P-J; Burbach, G; Heinzerling, L M

    2009-01-01

    Background: The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. Objective: To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify a patient...... the allergens selection. Result: Among the 3034 patients involved, 1996 (68.2%) were sensitized to at least one allergen. Overall, eight allergens (grass pollen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, birch pollen, cat dander, Artemisia, olive pollen, Blatella and Alternaria) allowed to identified more than 95......% of sensitized subjects. However, differences were observed between countries, two allergens being sufficient for Switzerland (grass pollen and cat dander) as opposed to nine for France (grass pollen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, olive pollen, cat dander, Blatella, cypress, dog dander, alder and [Artemisia...

  9. Identification of medically relevant Nocardia species with an abbreviated battery of tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiska, Deanna L; Hicks, Karen; Pettit, David J

    2002-04-01

    Identification of Nocardia to the species level is useful for predicting antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and defining the pathogenicity and geographic distribution of these organisms. We sought to develop an identification method which was accurate, timely, and employed tests which would be readily available in most clinical laboratories. We evaluated the API 20C AUX yeast identification system as well as several biochemical tests and Kirby-Bauer susceptibility patterns for the identification of 75 isolates encompassing the 8 medically relevant Nocardia species. There were few biochemical reactions that were sufficiently unique for species identification; of note, N. nova were positive for arylsulfatase, N. farcinica were positive for opacification of Middlebrook 7H11 agar, and N. brasiliensis and N. pseudobrasiliensis were the only species capable of liquefying gelatin. API 20C sugar assimilation patterns were unique for N. transvalensis, N. asteroides IV, and N. brevicatena. There was overlap among the assimilation patterns for the other species. Species-specific patterns of susceptibility to gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and erythromycin were obtained for N. nova, N. farcinica, and N. brevicatena, while there was overlap among the susceptibility patterns for the other isolates. No single method could identify all Nocardia isolates to the species level; therefore, a combination of methods was necessary. An algorithm utilizing antibiotic susceptibility patterns, citrate utilization, acetamide utilization, and assimilation of inositol and adonitol accurately identified all isolates. The algorithm was expanded to include infrequent drug susceptibility patterns which have been reported in the literature but which were not seen in this study.

  10. Long term neurocognitive impact of low dose prenatal methylmercury exposure in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hugh Simon; Kwok, Ka Ming; Chan, Peggy Hiu Ying; So, Hung Kwan; Li, Albert Martin; Ng, Pak Cheung; Fok, Tai Fai

    2013-04-01

    International studies suggest that low dose prenatal methylmercury exposure (>29 nmol/L) has long-term adverse neurocognitive effects. There is evidence that the majority of children in Hong Kong exceed this level as a result of high fish consumption of mothers during pregnancy. To study whether there are any associations between low-dose prenatal methylmercury exposure and neurocognitive outcomes in Hong Kong children. All 1057 children from the original birth cohort were eligible for entry into the study, except children with conditions that would affect neurocognitive development, but were unrelated to methylmercury exposure. Subjects were assessed by a wide panel of tests covering a broad range of neurocognitive functions: Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (HK-WISC), Hong Kong List Learning Test (HKLLT), Tests of Everyday Attention for Children (TEACH), Boston Naming Test, and Grooved Pegboard Test. 608 subjects were recruited (median age 8.2 years, IQR 7.3, 8.8; 53.9% boys). After correction by confounders including child age and sex, multivariate analysis showed that cord blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with three subtests: Picture Arrangement of HK-WISC (coefficient -0.944, P=0.049) and Short and Long Delay Recall Difference of the HKLLT (coefficient -1.087, P=0.007 and coefficient -1.161, P=0.005, respectively), i.e., performance worsened with increasing prenatal methylmercury exposure in these subtests. Small, but statistically significant adverse associations between prenatal methylmercury exposure and long-term neurocognitive effects (a visual sequencing task and retention ability of verbal memory) were found in our study. These effects are compatible with findings of studies with higher prenatal methylmercury exposure levels and suggest that safe strategies to further reduce exposure levels in Hong Kong are desirable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring the Factor Structure of Neurocognitive Measures in Older Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nadine Correia; Costa, Patrício Soares; Amorim, Liliana; Moreira, Pedro Silva; Cunha, Pedro; Cotter, Jorge; Sousa, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Here we focus on factor analysis from a best practices point of view, by investigating the factor structure of neuropsychological tests and using the results obtained to illustrate on choosing a reasonable solution. The sample (n=1051 individuals) was randomly divided into two groups: one for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to investigate the number of factors underlying the neurocognitive variables; the second to test the “best fit” model via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). For the exploratory step, three extraction (maximum likelihood, principal axis factoring and principal components) and two rotation (orthogonal and oblique) methods were used. The analysis methodology allowed exploring how different cognitive/psychological tests correlated/discriminated between dimensions, indicating that to capture latent structures in similar sample sizes and measures, with approximately normal data distribution, reflective models with oblimin rotation might prove the most adequate. PMID:25880732

  12. A behavioural test battery to investigate tic-like symptoms, stereotypies, attentional capabilities, and spontaneous locomotion in different mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti Onori, Martina; Ceci, Chiara; Laviola, Giovanni; Macrì, Simone

    2014-07-01

    The preclinical study of human disorders associated with comorbidities and for which the aetiology is still unclear may substantially benefit from multi-strain studies conducted in mice. The latter can help isolating experimental populations (strains) exhibiting distinct facets in the parameters isomorphic to the symptoms of a given disorder. Through a reverse-translation approach, multi-strain studies can inform both natural predisposing factors and environmental modulators. Thus, mouse strains selected for a particular trait may be leveraged to generate hypothesis-driven studies aimed at clarifying the potential role played by the environment in modulating the exhibition of the symptoms of interest. Tourette's syndrome (TS) constitutes a paradigmatic example whereby: it is characterized by a core symptom (tics) often associated with comorbidities (attention-deficit-hyperactivity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms); it has a clear genetic origin though specific genes are, as yet, unidentified; its course (exacerbations and remissions) is under the influence of environmental factors. Based on these considerations, we tested four mouse strains (ABH, C57, CD1, and SJL) - varying along a plethora of behavioural, neurochemical, and immunological parameters - on a test battery tailored to address the following domains: tics (through the i.p. administration of the selective 5-HT2 receptor agonist DOI, 5mg/kg); locomotion (spontaneous locomotion in the home-cage); perseverative responding in an attentional set shifting task; and behavioural stereotypies in response to a single amphetamine (10mg/kg, i.p.) injection. Present data demonstrate that while ABH and SJL mice respectively exhibit selective increments in amphetamine-induced sniffing behaviour and DOI-induced tic-like behaviours, C57 and CD1 mice show a distinct phenotype, compared to other strains, in several parameters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender differences in performance of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2nd edition test in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtr Ludvík

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2nd edition (MABC-2 is used for the assessment of motor proficiency and identification of motor impairments in 3-16 year old children. Although there are some gender differences in the motor development of children, in the MABC-2 test the same tasks and norms are used for both genders. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine gender differences in performance of motor tasks involved in the MABC-2 test in adolescents aged 15 to 16. Methods: Participants (N = 121, 50 boys and 71 girls, mean age 16.0 ± 0.5 years randomly recruited from schools were assessed using the MABC-2 test. The Mann-Whitney U test and effect size r were used to analyse gender differences in performance outcome in the particular motor tasks of the MABC-2 test. Results: As compared to the boys, the girls achieved a significantly shorter time of completion of the unimanual coordination task executed with their preferred hand (p < .001, r = .33 and significantly fewer errors in the graphomotor task (p = .001, r = .29. On the other hand, the boys achieved significantly better results than the girls in the aiming and catching tasks (p ≤ .030, r = .20-.33. Performance in the dynamic balance tasks was not significantly different between genders. The girls demonstrated a significantly longer duration of static balance in one-leg standing as compared to the boys (p = .011, r = .23. For the motor tasks some statistical differences were found, however the effect size of the gender on performance was small or medium. Conclusions: The findings of the study suggest that gender could be a significant factor of performance in the motor tasks associated with object control such as aiming and catching. Other domains, such as manual dexterity and balance, seem to be influenced by gender to a small extent.

  14. Sensitivity of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-Second Edition (WASI-II) to the neurocognitive deficits associated with the semantic dementia variant of frontotemporal lobar degeneration: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontkovsky, Samuel T

    2017-01-01

    This case study of a 71-year-old woman illustrates the clinical utility of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-Second Edition (WASI-II) in assessing the neurocognitive sequelae of the semantic dementia variant of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Obtained scores revealed a decline in estimated Full Scale IQ from the patient's expected premorbid level. Consistent with her initial onset of neuropathology in the left temporal lobe, the WASI-II yielded a difference of 53 standard score points between the Perceptual Reasoning and Verbal Comprehension composites, reflecting the patient's intact capabilities in visuospatial perception and construction in conjunction with marked disturbances of language. The similarities subtest was particularly sensitive to the patient's neurocognitive deficits. WASI-II scores corresponded well with the results obtained from other administered measures, in particular those from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Findings provide support for use of the WASI-II in the clinical evaluation of semantic dementia and offer preliminary evidence that the test may be helpful in both lateralization and localization of brain lesions.

  15. A systematic review to determine reliability and usefulness of the field-based test batteries for the assessment of physical fitness in adolescents – The ASSO Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Bianco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review is to investigate the main field-based tests, used alone or included in sport or fitness batteries, for the assessment of health- and skill-related physical fitness components in adolescents. Different scientific databases were searched through using the selected key words related to physical fitness and its components for adolescence. The search focused on original articles and reviews/meta-analyses using valid, reproducible and feasible tests that fit within the school environment. A total of 100 scientific manuscripts were included in the qualitative synthesis. The present systematic review pointed out 5 fitness tests that well adapt to the evaluation of the components of physical fitness of adolescents within a school environment: the 20 m shuttle run test for cardio-respiratory endurance; the handgrip strength test for upper body maximal strength; the standing broad jump test for lower body maximal strength; the sit-up test to exhaustion for muscular endurance and the 4×10 m shuttle run test for speed, agility and coordination. These fitness tests have been finally selected and incorporated into the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity prevention – Fitness Test Battery (ASSO-FTB, and will be adopted within the ASSO Project for evaluation purposes. This instrument could be also provided to teachers and people working in schools in order to assess physical fitness of adolescents over time and prevent obesity and related diseases.

  16. Basic self-disturbance, neurocognition and metacognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koren, Dan; Scheyer, Ravit; Reznik, Noa

    2017-01-01

    AIM: The goal of this pilot study was to assess the association between basic self-disturbance (SD) and deficits in neurocognitive and metacognitive functioning among help-seeking adolescents with and without attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS). METHODS: Sixty-one non-psychotic, help-seeking adol......AIM: The goal of this pilot study was to assess the association between basic self-disturbance (SD) and deficits in neurocognitive and metacognitive functioning among help-seeking adolescents with and without attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS). METHODS: Sixty-one non-psychotic, help...... recognition) domains. After each answer, subjects were also requested to indicate their level of confidence in the answer and to decide whether they desired it to be "counted" toward their total score on the task. Each volunteered answer earned a 5-cent gain if correct, but an equal fine if wrong. RESULTS......, it was not moderated by the presence of APS. CONCLUSIONS: These pilot results provide preliminary support a modest association between SD and metacognition, which is not reducible to neurocognition and APS. In addition, they raise an intriguing possibility regarding metacognitive monitoring and control being...

  17. Preliminary neurocognitive outcomes in Jeavons syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Goodnight, Ashley S; Gabriel, Marsha; Perry, M Scott

    2015-11-01

    Jeavons syndrome (JS, eyelid myoclonia with absences [EMA]) consists of a triad of symptoms including eyelid myoclonia that may be accompanied by absence seizures, eye closure-induced EEG paroxysms or seizures, and photosensitivity. The age of onset ranges between 2 and 14 years with symptoms peaking between 6 and 8 years of age. Though investigation of the clinical, EEG, and neurological features of JS has occurred, neurocognitive functioning has not been well-delineated despite suggestion that a subtype of the syndrome is characterized in part by cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study was to define neurocognitive functioning in a more detailed manner by examining global IQ and relevant neurocognitive domains (i.e., verbal and nonverbal reasoning, attention, executive functioning, memory) in pediatric patients. The sample (N=6, 4 females) ranged in age from 8 to 15 years (M=11, SD=2.82). All participants completed neuropsychological evaluations. Statistical analyses revealed performance that was below average on measures of global IQ, processing speed and rote, verbal learning coupled with average nonverbal reasoning, and sustained attention. There was also evidence of impaired higher-level verbal reasoning. While global IQ ranged from low average to borderline impaired, no participant could be accurately described as impaired or having intellectual disability (ID) given the consistently average performance noted on some higher-order tasks including nonverbal reasoning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery as a substitute dry battery for motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniyati, Indah; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Zakaria, Roni; Kadir, Evizal Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Dry battery on a motorcycle has a rapid rate of voltage drop, life time is not too long, and a long charging time. These are problems for users of dry battery for motorcycle. When the rate in the voltage decreases, the energy storage in the battery is reduced, then at the age of one to two years of battery will be dead and cannot be used, it makes the user should replace the battery. New technology development of a motorcycle battery is lithium ion battery. Lithium ion battery has a specification that has been tested and possible to replace dry battery. Characteristics of lithium ion battery can answer the question on the dry battery service life, the rate of decrease in voltage and charging time. This paper discusses about the technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery for motorcycle battery. Our proposed methodology of technical feasibility by using a goldsmith commercialization model of the technical feasibility and reconfirm the technical standard using the national standard of motorcycle battery. The battery has been through all the stages of the technical feasibility of the goldsmith model. Based on the results of the study, lithium ion batteries have the minimum technical requirements to be commercialized and has been confirmed in accordance with the standard motorcycle battery. This paper results that the lithium ion battery is visible to commercialized by the technical aspect.

  19. Development of a Standard Test Scenario to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Portable Fire Extinguishers on Lithium-ion Battery Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susan A.; Hirsch, David B.; Carriere, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Many sources of fuel are present aboard current spacecraft, with one especially hazardous source of stored energy: lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are a very hazardous form of fuel due to their self-sustaining combustion once ignited, for example, by an external heat source. Batteries can become extremely energetic fire sources due to their high density electrochemical energy content that may, under duress, be violently converted to thermal energy and fire in the form of a thermal runaway. Currently, lithium ion batteries are the preferred types of batteries aboard international spacecraft and therefore are routinely installed, collectively forming a potentially devastating fire threat to a spacecraft and its crew. Currently NASA is developing a fine water mist portable fire extinguisher for future use on international spacecraft. As its development ensues, a need for the standard evaluation of various types of fire extinguishers against this potential threat is required to provide an unbiased means of comparing between fire extinguisher technologies and ranking them based on performance.

  20. Selecting chemical and ecotoxicological test batteries for risk assessment of trace element-contaminated soils (phyto)managed by gentle remediation options (GRO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Bert, Valérie; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Eriksson, Jan; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Galazka, Rafal; Herzig, Rolf; Janssen, Jolien; Kidd, Petra; Mench, Michel; Müller, Ingo; Neu, Silke; Oustriere, Nadège; Puschenreiter, Markus; Renella, Giancarlo; Roumier, Pierre-Hervé; Siebielec, Grzegorz; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Manier, Nicolas

    2014-10-15

    During the past decades a number of field trials with gentle remediation options (GRO) have been established on trace element (TE) contaminated sites throughout Europe. Each research group selects different methods to assess the remediation success making it difficult to compare efficacy between various sites and treatments. This study aimed at selecting a minimum risk assessment battery combining chemical and ecotoxicological assays for assessing and comparing the effectiveness of GRO implemented in seven European case studies. Two test batteries were pre-selected; a chemical one for quantifying TE exposure in untreated soils and GRO-managed soils and a biological one for characterizing soil functionality and ecotoxicity. Soil samples from field studies representing one of the main GROs (phytoextraction in Belgium, Sweden, Germany and Switzerland, aided phytoextraction in France, and aided phytostabilization or in situ stabilization/phytoexclusion in Poland, France and Austria) were collected and assessed using the selected test batteries. The best correlations were obtained between NH4NO3-extractable, followed by NaNO3-extractable TE and the ecotoxicological responses. Biometrical parameters and biomarkers of dwarf beans were the most responsive indicators for the soil treatments and changes in soil TE exposures. Plant growth was inhibited at the higher extractable TE concentrations, while plant stress enzyme activities increased with the higher TE extractability. Based on these results, a minimum risk assessment battery to compare/biomonitor the sites phytomanaged by GROs might consist of the NH4NO3 extraction and the bean Plantox test including the stress enzyme activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dexmedetomidina para teste neurocognitivo em craniotomia com o paciente acordado: relato de caso Dexmedetomidina para prueba neurocognitiva en craniotomía con el paciente despierto: relato de caso Dexmedetomidine for neurocognitive testing in awake craniotomy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cursino Pinto dos Santos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As ressecções tumorais em áreas eloqüentes do cérebro são realizadas com mais segurança utilizando-se testes cognitivos para identificação exata desses locais. Os pacientes devem estar acordados, confortáveis e colaborativos para que se identifiquem com clareza as áreas que devem ser preservadas. O objetivo deste relato foi apresentar intervenção cirúrgica realizada com o paciente acordado, utilizando sevoflurano no período inicial, sem intubação traqueal e a dexmedetomidina, posteriormente, técnica que permitiu a realização dos testes de avaliação motora e da fala. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 27 anos, estado físico ASA I, com tumor cerebral. Na sala cirúrgica, sem medicação pré-anestésica, foi administrado midazolam (1 mg, induzida a anestesia geral com propofol (80 mg. A manutenção foi realizada com O2, N2O e sevoflurano sob máscara para punção da artéria radial direita, cateterismo vesical e infiltração da área cirúrgica. Essa fase durou cerca de 20 minutos, com início da infusão de dexmedetomidina nos últimos 10 minutos, para manter o nível de sedação Ramsay 2. Depois, foi realizado o mapeamento cortical (75 minutos. Seguiu-se a ressecção tumoral, com o paciente sedado recebendo doses maiores de dexmedetomidina. Observou-se estabilidades hemodinâmica e respiratória, tendo o procedimento transcorrido sem intercorrências, com duração total de cinco horas. Após o término da intervenção cirúrgica o paciente foi encaminhado ao CTI, sem alterações neurológicas, tendo alta para a enfermaria no dia seguinte. CONCLUSÕES: A craniotomia com o paciente acordado e o adequado mapeamento das áreas corticais de fala e motora foram realizados com sucesso, por meio da infusão contínua de dexmedetomidina. Houve plena satisfação do paciente e da equipe cirúrgica com a técnica.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Las resecciones tumorales en áreas elocuentes del

  2. The relative contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to 6-month vocational outcomes following Individual Placement and Support in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allott, Kelly A; Cotton, Susan M; Chinnery, Gina L; Baksheev, Gennady N; Massey, Jessica; Sun, Pamela; Collins, Zoe; Barlow, Emma; Broussard, Christina; Wahid, Tasha; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; Jackson, Henry J; Killackey, Eoin

    2013-10-01

    To examine whether baseline neurocognition and social cognition predict vocational outcomes over 6 months in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of Individual Placement and Support (IPS) versus treatment as usual (TAU). 135 FEP participants (IPS n=69; TAU n=66) completed a comprehensive neurocognitive and social cognitive battery. Principal axis factor analysis using PROMAX rotation was used to determine the underlying cognitive structure of the battery. Setwise (hierarchical) logistic and multivariate linear regressions were used to examine predictors of: (a) enrolment in education and employment; and (b) hours of employment over 6 months. Neurocognition and social cognition factors were entered into the models after accounting for premorbid IQ, baseline functioning and treatment group. Six cognitive factors were extracted: (i) social cognition; (ii) information processing speed; (iii) verbal learning and memory; (iv) attention and working memory; (v) visual organisation and memory; and (vi) verbal comprehension. Enrolment in education over 6 months was predicted by enrolment in education at baseline (p=.002) and poorer visual organisation and memory (p=.024). Employment over 6 months was predicted by employment at baseline (p=.041) and receiving IPS (p=.020). Better visual organisation and memory predicted total hours of paid work over 6 months (paccounting for premorbid IQ, baseline functioning and treatment. Social cognition did not contribute to the prediction of vocational outcomes. Neurocognitive interventions may enhance employment duration in FEP. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. How self-reflection and self-certainty are related to neurocognitive functioning: an examination of cognitive insight in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, L S C; Oldenburg, J F E; Sabbe, B G C

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of associations between clinical insight, cognitive insight, and neurocognitive functioning was assessed in bipolar disorder patients. Data from 42 bipolar disorder patients were examined. Cognitive insight was measured using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). The BCIS is a 15-item self-report instrument consisting of two subscales, self-reflectiveness and self-certainty. Clinical insight was measured by the use of the item G12 of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Neurocognitive functioning was assessed using the International Society for Bipolar Disorders-Battery for Assessment of Neurocognition. Correlation analyses revealed significant positive associations between self-reflectiveness and speed of processing, attention, working memory, visual learning, and reasoning and problem solving. The subscale self-certainty was negatively correlated to working memory, however, this correlation disappeared when we controlled for confounding variables. No correlations between clinical insight and neurocognition were found. In addition, there was no association between cognitive insight and clinical insight. Better neurocognitive functioning was more related to higher levels of self-reflectiveness than to diminished self-certainty.

  4. Crystallization of aluminum hydroxide in the aluminum-air battery: Literature review, crystallizer design and results of integrated system tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, A.

    1988-03-01

    The literature on aluminum trihydroxide crystallization is reviewed and the implications of crystallization on the design and performance of the aluminum-air battery are illustrated. Results of research on hydrargillite crystallization under battery operating conditions at Alcoa Laboratories, Alcan Kingston Laboratories, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are summarized and are applied to the design of an electrolyte management system using lamella settlers for clarification of the electrolyte and product separation. The design principles were validated in a series of experiments that, for the first time in the aluminum-air program, demonstrated continuous operation of an integrated system consisting of cells, crystallizer, and a product-removal system.

  5. Behavioural profiles in the mouse defence test battery suggest anxiolytic potential of 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, G; Rodgers, R J; Perrault, G; Sanger, D J

    1999-05-01

    Compounds varying in selectivity as 5-HT1A receptor antagonists have recently been reported to produce anxiolytic-like effects comparable to those of benzodiazepines in the mouse elevated plus-maze procedure. In view of the potential clinical significance of these findings, the present experiments compared the behavioural effects of diazepam (0.5-3.0 mg/kg) with those of several non-selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonists [NAN-190, 0.1-3.0 mg/kg, MM-77, 0.03-1.0 mg/kg, (S)-UH-301, 0.3-3.0 mg/kg and pindobind-5-HT1A, 0.03-1.0 mg/kg], and three selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonists (WAY100635, 0.01-3.0 mg/kg, p-MPPI, 0.1-3.0 mg/kg and SL88.0338, 0.3-3.0 mg/kg) in the mouse defence test battery (MDTB). In this well-validated anxiolytic screening test, Swiss mice are directly confronted with a natural threat (a rat) as well as situations associated with this threat. Primary measures taken during and after rat confrontation were flight, risk assessment (RA), defensive threat/attack and escape attempts. Diazepam significantly decreased flight reactions after the rat was introduced into the runway, reduced RA activities of mice chased by the rat, increased RA responses displayed when subjects were constrained in a straight alley and reduced defensive upright postures and biting upon forced contact. All the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonists and NAN-190 also reduced flight, RA in the chase test, and defensive threat and attack behaviours. (S)-UH-301 and pindobind-5-HT1A reduced RA in the chase test, but only partially modified defensive threat and attack. Unlike the other drugs tested, MM-77 produced significant effects only at doses which also markedly reduced spontaneous locomotor activity, suggesting a behaviourally non-specific action. In contrast to diazepam, the 5-HT1A receptor ligands failed to affect RA in the straight alley test. Following removal of the rat from the test area, only diazepam and (S)-UH-301 reduced escape behaviour (contextual defence) at doses

  6. Assessing Neurocognition via Gamified Experimental Logic: A novel approach to simultaneous acquisition of multiple ERPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar eNair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the development of a neurocognitive paradigm: ‘Assessing Neurocognition via Gamified Experimental Logic’ (ANGEL, for performing the parametric evaluation of multiple neurocognitive functions simultaneously. ANGEL employs an audiovisual sensory motor design for the acquisition of multiple event related potentials (ERPs - the C1, P50, MMN, N1, N170, P2, N2pc, LRP, P300 and ERN. The ANGEL paradigm allows assessment of ten neurocognitive variables over the course of three ‘game’ levels of increasing complexity ranging from simple passive observation to complex discrimination and response in the presence of multiple distractors. The paradigm allows assessment of several levels of rapid decision making: speeded up response vs response-inhibition; responses to easy vs difficult tasks; responses based on gestalt perception of clear vs ambiguous stimuli; and finally, responses with set shifting during challenging tasks. The paradigm has been tested using 18 healthy participants from both sexes and the possibilities of varied data analyses have been presented in this paper. The ANGEL approach provides an ecologically valid assessment (as compared to existing tools that quickly yields a very rich dataset and helps to assess multiple ERPs that can be studied extensively to assess cognitive functions in health and disease conditions.

  7. Assessing Neurocognition via Gamified Experimental Logic: A Novel Approach to Simultaneous Acquisition of Multiple ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ajay K; Sasidharan, Arun; John, John P; Mehrotra, Seema; Kutty, Bindu M

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a neurocognitive paradigm: "Assessing Neurocognition via Gamified Experimental Logic" (ANGEL), for performing the parametric evaluation of multiple neurocognitive functions simultaneously. ANGEL employs an audiovisual sensory motor design for the acquisition of multiple event related potentials (ERPs)-the C1, P50, MMN, N1, N170, P2, N2pc, LRP, P300, and ERN. The ANGEL paradigm allows assessment of 10 neurocognitive variables over the course of three "game" levels of increasing complexity ranging from simple passive observation to complex discrimination and response in the presence of multiple distractors. The paradigm allows assessment of several levels of rapid decision making: speeded up response vs. response-inhibition; responses to easy vs. difficult tasks; responses based on gestalt perception of clear vs. ambiguous stimuli; and finally, responses with set shifting during challenging tasks. The paradigm has been tested using 18 healthy participants from both sexes and the possibilities of varied data analyses have been presented in this paper. The ANGEL approach provides an ecologically valid assessment (as compared to existing tools) that quickly yields a very rich dataset and helps to assess multiple ERPs that can be studied extensively to assess cognitive functions in health and disease conditions.

  8. Relationships among neurocognition, symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia: a path-analytic approach for associations at baseline and following 24 weeks of antipsychotic drug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keefe Richard SE

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurocognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms have been associated with deficits in psychosocial and occupational functioning in patients with schizophrenia. This post-hoc analysis evaluates the relationships among cognition, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in patients with schizophrenia at baseline and following sustained treatment with antipsychotic drugs. Methods Data were obtained from a clinical trial assessing the cognitive effects of selected antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia. Patients were randomly assigned to 24 weeks of treatment with olanzapine (n = 159, risperidone (n = 158, or haloperidol (n = 97. Psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale [QLS], cognition with a standard battery of neurocognitive tests; and psychiatric symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS]. A path-analytic approach was used to evaluate the effects of changes in cognitive functioning on subdomains of quality of life, and to determine whether such effects were direct or mediated via changes in psychiatric symptoms. Results At baseline, processing speed affected functioning mainly indirectly via negative symptoms. Positive symptoms also affected functioning at baseline although independent of cognition. At 24 weeks, changes in processing speed affected changes in functioning both directly and indirectly via PANSS negative subscale scores. Positive symptoms no longer contributed to the path-analytic models. Although a consistent relationship was observed between processing speed and the 3 functional domains, variation existed as to whether the paths were direct and/or indirect. Working memory and verbal memory did not significantly contribute to any of the path-analytic models studied. Conclusion Processing speed demonstrated direct and indirect effects via negative symptoms on three domains of functioning as measured by the QLS at baseline and

  9. Development of a lifetime prediction model for lithium-ion batteries based on extended accelerated aging test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Madeleine; Gerschler, Jochen B.; Vogel, Jan; Käbitz, Stefan; Hust, Friedrich; Dechent, Philipp; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2012-10-01

    Battery lifetime prognosis is a key requirement for successful market introduction of electric and hybrid vehicles. This work aims at the development of a lifetime prediction approach based on an aging model for lithium-ion batteries. A multivariable analysis of a detailed series of accelerated lifetime experiments representing typical operating conditions in hybrid electric vehicle is presented. The impact of temperature and state of charge on impedance rise and capacity loss is quantified. The investigations are based on a high-power NMC/graphite lithium-ion battery with good cycle lifetime. The resulting mathematical functions are physically motivated by the occurring aging effects and are used for the parameterization of a semi-empirical aging model. An impedance-based electric-thermal model is coupled to the aging model to simulate the dynamic interaction between aging of the battery and the thermal as well as electric behavior. Based on these models different drive cycles and management strategies can be analyzed with regard to their impact on lifetime. It is an important tool for vehicle designers and for the implementation of business models. A key contribution of the paper is the parameterization of the aging model by experimental data, while aging simulation in the literature usually lacks a robust empirical foundation.

  10. National Field Testing of the "Mini" Version of the Transition Competence Battery for Adolescents and Young Adults Who Are Deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Reiman, John W.; Davis, Cheryl; Reid, Chris

    1997-01-01

    A study involving 593 students (ages 15-29) with deafness investigated the validity of a shortened version of the Transition Competence Battery for Deaf Adolescents and Young Adults (TCB). Overall results suggest that the "Mini" TCB is a viable assessment tool that can be used in transition assessment. (Author/CR)

  11. Quality Control of Lead-Acid Battery according to Its Condition Test for UPS Supplier and Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chih Hsiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of insufficient petroleum resources has forced human beings to emphasize the acquisition and storage of energy. To avoid such situation, this study tends to explore the effective management of lead-acid batteries for effective utilization conforming to the industrial requirements.

  12. Correlation of neurocognitive function and brain parenchyma volumes in children surviving cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddick, Wilburn E.; White, Holly A.; Glass, John O.; Mulhern, Raymond K.

    2002-04-01

    This research builds on our hypothesis that white matter damage and associated neurocognitive symptoms, in children treated for cancer with cranial spinal irradiation, spans a continuum of severity that can be reliably probed using non-invasive MR technology. Quantitative volumetric assessments of MR imaging and psychological assessments were obtained in 40 long-term survivors of malignant brain tumors treated with cranial irradiation. Neurocognitive assessments included a test of intellect (Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), attention (Conner's Continuous Performance Test), and memory (California Verbal Learning Test). One-sample t-tests were conducted to evaluate test performance of survivors against age-adjusted scores from the test norms; these analyses revealed significant impairments in all apriori selected measures of intelligence, attention, and memory. Partial correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationships between brain tissues volumes (normal appearing white matter (NAWM), gray matter, and CSF) and neurocognitive function. Global intelligence (r = 0.32, p = 0.05) and global attentional (r = 0.49, p attentional deficits, whereas overall parenchyma loss, as reflected by increased CSF and decreased white matter, is associated with memory-related deficits.

  13. Correlations between physical activity and neurocognitive domain functions in patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurebayashi, Yusuke; Otaki, Junichi

    2017-01-05

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a critical target symptom of schizophrenia treatment. A positive correlation between physical activity level and neurocognitive function has been reported in healthy individuals, but it is unclear whether such a correlation exists in patients with schizophrenia and whether the relationship is different according to inpatients or outpatients. This study aimed to examine the differences in the correlations between physical activity and multiple neurocognitive domains in inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia and obtain suggestions for further study to facilitate this field. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia were examined (16 inpatients and 13 outpatients, 56.0 ± 11.4 years of age). Current symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and neurocognitive functions using Cognitrax, which yields a composite neurocognitive index (NCI) and 11 domain scores. After testing, participants wore an HJA-750C accelerometer for one week to measure physical activity levels and durations. Partial correlation analyses were performed between exercise and cognitive parameters. In the outpatient group, higher physical activity was associated with faster Motor and Psychomotor Speeds in outpatients. However, higher physical activity was associated with lower overall NCI, Attention score, and Memory scores in inpatients. Although higher physical activity was associated with better neurocognitive functions of outpatients, in inpatients with non-remitted schizophrenia, higher physical activity was associated with worsening of several cognitive domains. In a future study examining the relationship between physical activity and neurocognitive function for facilitating this research field, separation between inpatients and outpatients are needed because the relationship is different between inpatients and outpatients.

  14. Perspectives on neurocognitive rehabilitation as an adjunct treatment for addictive disorders: From cognitive improvement to relapse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour, Tara; DeVito, Elise E; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Addiction, as a brain disorder, can be defined with two distinct but interacting components: drug dependency and neurocognitive deficits. Most of the therapeutic interventions in addiction medicine, including pharmacological or psychosocial therapies, that are in clinical use have been mainly focused on directly addressing addictive behaviors, especially drug use and urges to use drugs. In the field of addiction treatment, it is often presumed that drug users' neurocognitive deficits will reverse following abstinence. However, in many cases, neurocognitive deficits are not fully ameliorated following sustained abstinence, and neurocognitive function may further deteriorate in early abstinence. It can be argued that many cognitive functions, such as sustained attention and executive control, are essential for full recovery and long-term abstinence from addiction. Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience have provided scientific foundations for neurocognitive rehabilitation as a means of facilitating recovery from drug addiction. Neurocognitive rehabilitation for drug addicted individuals could be implemented as part of addiction treatment, with highly flexible delivery methods including traditional "paper and pencil" testing, or computer-based technology via laptops, web-based, or smartphones in inpatient and outpatient settings. Despite this promise, there has been limited research into the potential efficacy of neurocognitive rehabilitation as a treatment for drug addiction. Further, many questions including the optimum treatment length, session duration, and necessary treatment adherence for treatment efficacy remain to be addressed. In this chapter, we first introduce cognitive rehabilitation as one of the potential areas to bridge the gap between cognitive neuroscience and addiction medicine, followed by an overview of current challenges and future directions. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurological soft signs and their relationships to neurocognitive functions: a re-visit with the structural equation modeling design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond C K Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurological soft signs and neurocognitive impairments have long been considered important features of schizophrenia. Previous correlational studies have suggested that there is a significant relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive functions. The purpose of the current study was to examine the underlying relationships between these two distinct constructs with structural equation modeling (SEM. METHODS: 118 patients with schizophrenia and 160 healthy controls were recruited for the current study. The abridged version of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory (CNI and a set of neurocognitive function tests were administered to all participants. SEM was then conducted independently in these two samples to examine the relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive functions. RESULTS: Both the measurement and structural models showed that the models fit well to the data in both patients and healthy controls. The structural equations also showed that there were modest to moderate associations among neurological soft signs, executive attention, verbal memory, and visual memory, while the healthy controls showed more limited associations. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings indicate that motor coordination, sensory integration, and disinhibition contribute to the latent construct of neurological soft signs, whereas the subset of neurocognitive function tests contribute to the latent constructs of executive attention, verbal memory, and visual memory in the present sample. Greater evidence of neurological soft signs is associated with more severe impairment of executive attention and memory functions. Clinical and theoretical implications of the model findings are discussed.

  16. Preliminary clinical study in patients with hemispatial neglect after stroke by neglect test battery and 99mTc-ECD single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Yafu; Li Xuena; Li Yaming; Gu Hui; Han Chunqi; Liu Hao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the presence, clinical characteristics, anatomical foci in image and mechanism of hemispatial neglect (HSN), neglect test battery and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) imaging were performed on patients with stroke. Methods: Thirty dextromanual patients who were diagnosed as having unilateral stroke clinically were recruited. A neglect test battery including line bisection test, star cancellation test and drawing test was performed on the subjects. The severity of neglect was measured on neglect tests. The lowest rCBF, the range with decreased rCBF, number of the foci with decreased rCBF, the flow deficit size and the total number of pixels in the foci were measured on SPECT rCBF imaging. Results: Twenty-five patients were diagnosed as having HSN by the neglect test battery. Contralateral neglect (CN) and ipsilateral neglect (IN) were observed in both right and left hemisphere strokes. On SPECT imaging, the patients with neglect had decreased rCBF in the frontal cortex most often; followed by the parietal, occipital and temporal cortices; and basal ganglia and thalamus in some cases. The patients who had two or more regions damaged showed neglect more often and severity. The correlation coefficients between rCBF in the foci, the decreased percentage of rCBF of the foci and the severity of neglect were -0.119 (P>.05) and 0.221 (P>.05). The correlation coefficients between the range, number of foci, the flow deficit size, the total number of pixels of the foci and the severity of neglect were 0.537 (P<.05), 0.493 (P<.05), 0.561 (P<.05), 0.466 (P<.05), respectively. No difference between CN and IN on SPECT images reached statistical significance. Conclusions: The severity of neglect did not correlate with rCBF and the decreased percentage of rCBF in the foci, while it was significantly correlated with the range, number of foci, the flow deficit size and the total numbers of pixels of the foci

  17. Validation of the International HIV Dementia Scale as a Screening Tool for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in a German-Speaking HIV Outpatient Clinic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Marin-Webb

    Full Text Available HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND are widely present among people living with HIV. Especially its milder forms, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI and mild neurocognitive disorder (MND, remain highly prevalent worldwide. Diagnosing these conditions is subject to a time and resource consuming neuropsychological assessment. Selecting patients at a higher risk of cognitive impairment by using a simple but effective screening tool helps to organise access to further neuropsychological diagnosis. The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS has until now been a well-established screening tool in African and American countries, however these populations' demographics defer significantly from ours, so using the same parameters could be ineffective.To calculate the prevalence of this condition among people attending an HIV outpatient clinic in Berlin and to validate the use of the IHDS as a screening tool for HAND in a German-speaking population.We screened 480 HIV-infected patients using the IHDS, 89% of them were on a stable antiretroviral treatment. Ninety of them completed a standardised neuropsychological battery of tests and a specific cognitive complaints questionnaire. The same procedure was applied to a control group of 30 HIV-negative participants. HAND diagnosis was established according to the Frascati criteria.The overall prevalence of HAND in our cohort was 43% (20% ANI, 17% MND and 6% HIV-associated dementia. The optimal cut-off on the IHDS for detecting HAND cases was set at 11 and achieved both a sensitivity and a specificity of 80%. When specifically screening for the more severe form of HAND, HIV-associated dementia, a cut-off value of 10 offered an increase in both sensitivity (94% and specificity (86%. The Youden Index for diagnostic accuracy was 0.6 and 0.8, respectively.The prevalence of HAND was comparable to the reported by recent studies performed in countries with a similar economic development. The study

  18. Validation of the International HIV Dementia Scale as a Screening Tool for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in a German-Speaking HIV Outpatient Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Webb, Victor; Jessen, Heiko; Kopp, Ute; Jessen, Arne B; Hahn, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are widely present among people living with HIV. Especially its milder forms, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), remain highly prevalent worldwide. Diagnosing these conditions is subject to a time and resource consuming neuropsychological assessment. Selecting patients at a higher risk of cognitive impairment by using a simple but effective screening tool helps to organise access to further neuropsychological diagnosis. The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) has until now been a well-established screening tool in African and American countries, however these populations' demographics defer significantly from ours, so using the same parameters could be ineffective. To calculate the prevalence of this condition among people attending an HIV outpatient clinic in Berlin and to validate the use of the IHDS as a screening tool for HAND in a German-speaking population. We screened 480 HIV-infected patients using the IHDS, 89% of them were on a stable antiretroviral treatment. Ninety of them completed a standardised neuropsychological battery of tests and a specific cognitive complaints questionnaire. The same procedure was applied to a control group of 30 HIV-negative participants. HAND diagnosis was established according to the Frascati criteria. The overall prevalence of HAND in our cohort was 43% (20% ANI, 17% MND and 6% HIV-associated dementia). The optimal cut-off on the IHDS for detecting HAND cases was set at 11 and achieved both a sensitivity and a specificity of 80%. When specifically screening for the more severe form of HAND, HIV-associated dementia, a cut-off value of 10 offered an increase in both sensitivity (94%) and specificity (86%). The Youden Index for diagnostic accuracy was 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. The prevalence of HAND was comparable to the reported by recent studies performed in countries with a similar economic development. The study confirms

  19. Neurocognition and psychosocial functioning in adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Michael W; Bowie, Christopher R; Naiberg, Melanie R; Newton, Dwight F; Goldstein, Benjamin I

    2017-01-01

    Adults with bipolar disorder demonstrate significantly poorer psychosocial functioning and neurocognition compared to controls. In adult bipolar disorder neurocognition predicts a substantial portion of variance in functioning. Adolescents with bipolar disorder have reducedpsychosocial functioning, but less is known about neurocognitive impairments, and no studies have examined the relationship between neurocognition and functioning in an adolescent sample. 38 adolescents with bipolar disorder and 49 healthy controls under 20 years of age completed assessments of psychosocial functioning, neurocognitive ability, and psychiatric symptoms. Adolescents with bipolar disorder had significantly poorer psychosocial functioning in domains of daily activities, social functioning, and satisfaction with functioning, psadolescent sample with bipolar disorder experiences significantly poorer neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning compared to controls; however, psychosocial functioning appears to be more strongly related to mood symptoms than to neurocognition. Future work is needed to delineate the time course of neurocognitive functioning and its relation to psychosocial functioning across the course of illness. Adolescence may provide an ideal time for cognitive enhancement and intensive psychosocial intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Hypertension on Neurocognitive Functioning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of hypertension on neurocognitive functioning and quality of life. Design: The study was ... Conclusion: Quality of life seems to be more affected than neurocognitive functioning in the hypertensives in this study.

  1. Practical Methods in Li-ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela

    This thesis presents, as a collection of papers, practical methods in Li-ion batteries for simplified modeling (Manuscript I and II), battery electric vehicle design (III), battery management system testing (IV and V) and balancing system control (VI and VII). • Manuscript I tackles methodologies...... to parameterize battery models based solely on manufacturer’s datasheets • Manuscript II presents a parameterization method for battery models based on the notion of direct current resistance • Manuscript III proposes a battery electric vehicle design that combines fixed and swappable packs • Manuscript IV...... develops a battery system model for battery management system testing on a hardware-in-the-loop simulator • Manuscript V extends the previous work, introducing theoretical principles and presenting a practical method to develop ad hoc software and strategies for testing • Manuscript VI presents...

  2. The Functional Fitness MOT Test Battery for Older Adults: Protocol for a Mixed-Method Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Lex D; Peters, Andy; Hooper, Julie; Chalmers, Nina; Henderson, Claire; Laventure, Robert Me; Skelton, Dawn A

    2016-06-20

    Increasing physical activity (PA) brings many health benefits, but engaging people in higher levels of PA after their 60s is not straightforward. The Functional Fitness MOT (FFMOT) is a new approach which aims to raise awareness about the importance of components of fitness (strength, balance, flexibility), highlight benefits of PA, engages older people in health behavior change discussions, and directs them to local activity resources. This battery of tests combined with a brief motivational interview has not been tested in terms of feasibility or effectiveness. To assess whether the FFMOT, provided in a health care setting, is appealing to older patients of a community physiotherapy service and to understand the views and perceptions of the older people undergoing the FFMOT regarding the intervention, as well as the views of the physiotherapy staff delivering the intervention. Secondary aims are to assess the feasibility of carrying out a phase 2 pilot randomized controlled trial of the FFMOT, in the context of a community physiotherapy service, by establishing whether enough patients can be recruited and retained in the study, and enough outcome data can be generated. A mixed-methods feasibility study will be conducted in two physiotherapy outpatient clinics in the United Kingdom. A total of 30 physically inactive, medically stable older adults over the age of 60 will be provided with an individual FFMOT, comprising a set of six standardized, validated, age-appropriate tests aimed at raising awareness of the different components of fitness. The results of these tests will be used to provide the participants with feedback on performance in comparison to sex and age-referenced norms. This will be followed by tailored advice on how to become more active and improve fitness, including advice on local opportunities to be more active. Subsequently, participants will be invited to attend a focus group to discuss barriers and motivators to being more active, health

  3. Characterization of vanadium flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project 'Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  4. A VRLA battery simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoe, Phillip E.; Anbuky, Adnan H.

    2004-01-01

    A valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery simulation model is an invaluable tool for the standby power system engineer. The obvious use for such a model is to allow the assessment of battery performance. This may involve determining the influence of cells suffering from state of health (SOH) degradation on the performance of the entire string, or the running of test scenarios to ascertain the most suitable battery size for the application. In addition, it enables the engineer to assess the performance of the overall power system. This includes, for example, running test scenarios to determine the benefits of various load shedding schemes. It also allows the assessment of other power system components, either for determining their requirements and/or vulnerabilities. Finally, a VRLA battery simulation model is vital as a stand alone tool for educational purposes. Despite the fundamentals of the VRLA battery having been established for over 100 years, its operating behaviour is often poorly understood. An accurate simulation model enables the engineer to gain a better understanding of VRLA battery behaviour. A system level multipurpose VRLA battery simulation model is presented. It allows an arbitrary battery (capacity, SOH, number of cells and number of strings) to be simulated under arbitrary operating conditions (discharge rate, ambient temperature, end voltage, charge rate and initial state of charge). The model accurately reflects the VRLA battery discharge and recharge behaviour. This includes the complex start of discharge region known as the coup de fouet

  5. A low pressure bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golben, M.; Nechev, K.; DaCosta, D.H.; Rosso, M.J.

    1997-12-01

    Ergenics is developing a low pressure high power rechargeable battery for electric vehicles and other large battery applications. The Hy-Stor{trademark} battery couples a bipolar nickel-hydrogen electrochemical system with the high energy storage density of metal hydride technology. In addition to its long cycle life, high specific power, and energy density, this battery offers safety and economic advantages over other rechargeable batteries. Results from preliminary testing of the first Hy-Stor battery are presented.

  6. Neuropsychological mechanisms of Digit Symbol Substitution Test impairment in Asperger Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoran-Hegesh, Roni; Kertzman, Semion; Vishne, Tali; Weizman, Abraham; Kotler, Moshe

    2009-03-31

    Our aim was to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms recruited by adolescents with Asperger Disorder (AD), in comparison to controls, and to detect the underlying mechanisms during the complex information processing required for the performance of the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Male adolescents (n=23; mean age 15.1+/-3.6 years) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of AD were compared with a normal male control group with similar demographic characteristics (n=43; mean age: 15.1+/-3.6 years). A computerized neurocognitive battery was administered and included: Inspection Time (IT), Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Simple Reaction Time (SRT), Choice Reaction Time (CRT), Digit Running task (DRT), Stroop test and Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Adolescents with AD performed significantly worse than controls on the DSST. This impaired DSST performance was related to cognitive mechanisms different from those employed by normal controls. Motor slowness and inability to deal with increased amounts of information affected the performance of the AD group, while shifting of attention was the limiting factor in the controls. Both groups were similarly dependent on response selection. This study demonstrated differences in performance in complex cognitive tasks between adolescents with AD and normal controls that may be related to differences in neurocognitive mechanisms underlying information processing. Future neuroimaging studies are needed to clarify the neural network involved in the differences in cognitive performance between AD subjects and normal controls.

  7. Neurocognitive impairment in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei eMizuno

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive impairment is a feature of childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS. Several studies have demonstrated reduced attention control in CCFS patients in switching and divided attention tasks. In students, the extent of deterioration in task performance depends on the level of fatigue. Poor performance in switching and divided attention is common in both fatigued students and CCFS patients. Additionally, attentional functions show dramatic development from childhood to adolescence, suggesting that abnormal development of switching and divided attention may be induced by chronic fatigue. The brain structures associated with attentional control are situated in the frontal and parietal cortices, which are the last to mature, suggesting that severe fatigue in CCFS patients and students may inhibit normal structural and functional development in these regions. A combination of treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy and antidepressant medication is effective to improve attentional control processing in CCFS patients. Studies identifying the features of neurocognitive impairment in CCFS have improved our current understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms of CCFS.

  8. Improving detection of HIV-associated cognitive impairment: Comparison of the International HIV Dementia Scale and a Brief Screening Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Sergio Monteiro; Kamat, Rujvi; Cherner, Mariana; Umlauf, Anya; Ribeiro, Clea Elisa; de Pereira, Ana Paula; Franklin, Donald; Heaton, Robert K.; Ellis, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) was developed to screen for HIV-associated dementia (HAD), but it has been used more generally for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). This study sought to examine the accuracy of the IHDS in a cohort of Brazilian HIV-infected individuals and compare its performance to an alternative screening battery for detecting HAND. Methods 108 participants (including 60 HIV-infected persons), completed the IHDS and a gold standard neuropsychological (NP) battery of 17 tests. As alternative screening method, all possible three-test combinations from the NP battery were examined and a superiority index (a marker of specificity and sensitivity) was calculated. Results Sensitivity and specificity to HAND using the standard IHDS cutpoint of 10 were 36% and 75% respectively. The best balance between sensitivity and specificity was accomplished with a modified cutpoint of 11.5, which yielded sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 58%. The top two most sensitive test combinations, compared to the gold standard NP battery, were Trail Making Test A, WAIS-III Digit Symbol (DS) and HVLT-R Total Recall (sensitivity 91%, specificity 96%), and DS, BVMT-R Total Recall and Grooved Pegboard Test-Dominant Hand (sensitivity 94%, specificity 91%). Conclusions Both test combinations can be administered in under 10 minutes and were more accurate than the IHDS in classifying HIV+ participants as NP impaired or unimpaired. These data suggest that demographically corrected T-scores from commonly used NP measures with modest time and material demands can improve identification of patients with HAND who may benefit from a more extensive NP examination. PMID:27828876

  9. Circadian Levels of Serum Melatonin and Cortisol in relation to Changes in Mood, Sleep, and Neurocognitive Performance, Spanning a Year of Residence in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Premkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Altered circadian cortisol and melatonin rhythms in healthy subjects exposed to an extreme polar photoperiod results in changes in mood and sleep, which can influence cognitive performance. Materials and Methods. We assessed the circadian rhythm of 20 subjects who wintered over at Maitri (70°S, 11°E, India’s permanent Antarctic station, from November 2010 to December 2011. Serum cortisol and melatonin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay at 8 am, 3 pm, 8 pm, and 2 am in a single day, once each during the polar summer and winter photoperiods. Conventional psychological tests, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and a computerized neurocognitive test battery were used to measure mood, sleep, and cognitive performance. Results. The mean scores for DASS42 were higher during midwinter suggesting the presence of “overwintering.” Mean diurnal cortisol levels during summer and winter were comparable, but the levels of melatonin were markedly higher during winter. Higher 8 am melatonin levels were associated with better sleep quality, lower depression scores, and better performance in tasks like attention, visual memory, and arithmetic. Conclusion. Timing of artificial light exposure and usage of melatonin supplements in improving sleep and cognitive performance in expedition teams are of future research interest.

  10. Fast Effects of Cognitive Restructuring Training on Neurocognitive Functions in Opioid Addicts

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Tavakolian; Abbas Abolghasemi

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study This study intended to investigate the effect of cognitive restructuring training on prefrontal related neurocognitive functions in opioid addicts and its relationship with relapse prevention. Subject or material and methods Thirty opioid addicts who completed a 21-day detoxification program were randomly placed in experimental and control groups. Before and after the training, the subjects underwent urinalysis, Addiction-Stroop test, Iowa Gambling Task, Wisconsin C...

  11. Impact of neurocognition on social and role functioning in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Ricardo E; Goldberg, Terry E; McLaughlin, Danielle; Auther, Andrea M; Correll, Christoph U; Cornblatt, Barbara A

    2011-08-01

    Cognitive deficits have been well documented in schizophrenia and have been shown to impair quality of life and to compromise everyday functioning. Recent studies of adolescents and young adults at high risk for developing psychosis show that neurocognitive impairments are detectable before the onset of psychotic symptoms. However, it remains unclear how cognitive impairments affect functioning before the onset of psychosis. The authors assessed cognitive impairment in adolescents at clinical high risk for psychosis and examined its impact on social and role functioning. A sample of 127 treatment-seeking patients at clinical high risk for psychosis and a group of 80 healthy comparison subjects were identified and recruited for research in the Recognition and Prevention Program. At baseline, participants were assessed with a comprehensive neurocognitive battery as well as measures of social and role functioning. Relative to healthy comparison subjects, clinical high-risk patients showed significant impairments in the domains of processing speed, verbal memory, executive function, working memory, visuospatial processing, motor speed, sustained attention, and language. Clinical high-risk patients also displayed impaired social and role functioning at baseline. Among patients with attenuated positive symptoms, processing speed was related to social and role functioning at baseline. These findings demonstrate that cognitive and functional impairments are detectable in patients at clinical high risk for psychosis before the onset of psychotic illness and that processing speed appears to be an important cognitive predictor of poor functioning.

  12. Relationship between social competence and neurocognitive performance in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raud, Triin; Kaldoja, Mari-Liis; Kolk, Anneli

    2015-11-01

    Epilepsy may affect a child's social skills and social cognition. The purpose of the study was to examine associations between sociocognitive skills and neurocognitive performance in children with epilepsy. Thirty-five children with epilepsy between the ages of 7 and 12 years (25 with partial and 10 with generalized epilepsy) and 30 controls participated. Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks, Social Cognition Questionnaire proposed by Saltzman-Benaiah and Lalonde (2007), and Social Skills Rating System were used to assess social competence and sociocognitive skills. Neurocognitive performance was assessed using the NEPSY battery. Children with epilepsy demonstrated more difficulties in understanding false belief (pChildren with epilepsy performed significantly worse in attention, executive, verbal, and fine motor tasks (pChildren with generalized epilepsy had more problems in memory tasks (pchildren with partial epilepsy. An age of onset over 9.1 years was positively associated with ToM skills (r=.42, pchildren with better executive functions, and language and visuospatial skills was revealed. The type of epilepsy and age of onset significantly affected ToM skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Longterm neurocognitive sequellae of a prospectively followed cohort of low grade tumor patients treated by conformal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, C.; Ruffer, J.; Hopwood, C.; Montenegro, L.; Mollman, J.; Judy, K.; Alavi, J.; Corn, B.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Although many advances have been made in the use of therapeutic irradiation to treat patients with brain tumors, the neurocognitive effects of conformal radiation therapy (CRT) are poorly known and controversial. Retrospective studies of radiotherapy in children and adults have revealed both leukoencephalopathy and cognitive impairments in follow-up of months to 20 years after treatment. Most prospective studies have examined neurocognitive effects at one year post CRT, and our previous findings (1993,1995) suggest that this endpoint misses the first two phases of the delayed effects of CRT. We also propose that the effects of CRT can be characterized in terms of dissociated curvilinear slopes of neurocognitive impairments, which allow specific hypotheses about the multiple phases of the delayed effects. Materials/Methods: We have examined our neurocognitive model of radiotherapy effects in our current group of 20 patients who have supratentorial, low grade, primary brain tumors. Total CRT doses ranged between 46 to 63 Gy (med. dose of 54 Gy, with fractionations of 1.8-2.0 Gy). Healthy control subjects were matched to patients with respect to age and education. Patients were tested with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at baseline (6 weeks post resection/biopsy, immediately prior to CRT), at three month intervals for one year, and yearly; current analyses reflect three years post baseline. To test the hypothesis that long-term memory is generally impaired versus selective impairment of verbal/semantic memory processes, we used parallel tests of verbal/semantic and visual/perceptual long-term memory which require association to encode and retrieve the stimuli. The visual long-term memory test was available on 10 patients. Results: A specific treatment-dependent deficit in long-term memory retrieval of word lists was found in 18 of 20 patients at six weeks post completion of CRT, though it was a temporary impairment which rebounded by one

  14. Neurocognitive Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Wall

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is estimated that 30% to 40% of adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD do not receive full benefit from current antidepressant therapies. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a novel therapy approved by the US FDA to treat adults with MDD. Research suggests rTMS is not associated with adverse neurocognitive effects in adult populations; however, there is no documentation of its neurocognitive effects in adolescents. This is a secondary post hoc analysis of neurocognitive outcome in adolescents who were treated with open label rTMS in two separate studies. Methods: Eighteen patients (mean age, 16.2 ± 1.1 years; 11 females, 7 males with MDD who failed to adequately respond to at least 1 antidepressant agent were enrolled in the studies. Fourteen patients completed all 30 rTMS treatments (5 days/week, 120% of motor threshold, 10 Hz, 3,000 stimulations per session applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC. Depression was rated using the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R. Neurocognitive evaluation was performed at baseline and after completion of 30 rTMS treatments with the Children’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test (CAVLT and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (DKEFS Trail Making Test. Results: Over the course of 30 rTMS treatments, adolescents showed a substantial decrease in depression severity and a statistically significant improvement in memory and delayed verbal recall. Other learning and memory indices and executive function remained intact. Neither participants nor their family members reported clinically meaningful changes in neurocognitive function. Conclusion: These preliminary findings suggest rTMS does not adversely impact neurocognitive functioning in adolescents and may provide subtle enhancement of verbal memory as measured by the CAVLT. Further controlled investigations are warranted to confirm and extend these findings.

  15. Neurofeedback to improve neurocognitive functioning of children treated for a brain tumor: design of a randomized controlled double-blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Ruiter Marieke A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotoxicity caused by treatment for a brain tumor is a major cause of neurocognitive decline in survivors. Studies have shown that neurofeedback may enhance neurocognitive functioning. This paper describes the protocol of the PRISMA study, a randomized controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of neurofeedback to improve neurocognitive functioning in children treated for a brain tumor. Methods/Design Efficacy of neurofeedback will be compared to placebo training in a randomized controlled double-blind trial. A total of 70 brain tumor survivors in the age range of 8 to 18 years will be recruited. Inclusion also requires caregiver-reported neurocognitive problems and being off treatment for more than two years. A group of 35 healthy siblings will be included as the control group. On the basis of a qEEG patients will be assigned to one of three treatment protocols. Thereafter patients will be randomized to receive either neurofeedback training (n=35 or placebo training (n=35. Neurocognitive tests, and questionnaires administered to the patient, caregivers, and teacher, will be used to evaluate pre- and post-intervention functioning, as well as at 6-month follow-up. Siblings will be administered the same tests and questionnaires once. Discussion If neurofeedback proves to be effective for pediatric brain tumor survivors, this can be a valuable addition to the scarce interventions available to improve neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00961922.

  16. Neurofeedback to improve neurocognitive functioning of children treated for a brain tumor: design of a randomized controlled double-blind trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiter, Marieke A de; Meeteren, Antoinette YN Schouten-Van; Mourik, Rosa van; Janssen, Tieme WP; Greidanus, Juliette EM; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2012-01-01

    Neurotoxicity caused by treatment for a brain tumor is a major cause of neurocognitive decline in survivors. Studies have shown that neurofeedback may enhance neurocognitive functioning. This paper describes the protocol of the PRISMA study, a randomized controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of neurofeedback to improve neurocognitive functioning in children treated for a brain tumor. Efficacy of neurofeedback will be compared to placebo training in a randomized controlled double-blind trial. A total of 70 brain tumor survivors in the age range of 8 to 18 years will be recruited. Inclusion also requires caregiver-reported neurocognitive problems and being off treatment for more than two years. A group of 35 healthy siblings will be included as the control group. On the basis of a qEEG patients will be assigned to one of three treatment protocols. Thereafter patients will be randomized to receive either neurofeedback training (n=35) or placebo training (n=35). Neurocognitive tests, and questionnaires administered to the patient, caregivers, and teacher, will be used to evaluate pre- and post-intervention functioning, as well as at 6-month follow-up. Siblings will be administered the same tests and questionnaires once. If neurofeedback proves to be effective for pediatric brain tumor survivors, this can be a valuable addition to the scarce interventions available to improve neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00961922

  17. Gasoline-Engine Assembler (engine & turbine) 806.781; Internal-Combustion-Engine-Assembler (engine & turbine) 806.781; Outboard-Motor Assembler (engine & turbine) 806.781--Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  18. Associations of Cigarette Smoking and Polymorphisms in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase with Neurocognition in Alcohol Dependent Individuals during Early Abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy eDurazzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking and polymorphisms in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT are associated with neurocognition in normal controls and those with various neuropsychiatric conditions. The influence of these polymorphisms on neurocognition in alcohol dependence is unclear. The goal of this report was to investigate the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158Met with neurocognition in a treatment-seeking alcohol dependent cohort and determine if neurocognitive differences between non-smokers and smokers previously observed in this cohort persist when controlled for these functional SNPs. Genotyping was conducted on 70 primarily male treatment-seeking alcohol dependent participants (ALC who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery after 33 ± 9 days of monitored abstinence. Smoking ALC performed significantly worse than non-smoking ALC on the domains of auditory-verbal and visuospatial learning and memory, cognitive efficiency, general intelligence, processing speed and global neurocognition. In smoking ALC, greater number of years of smoking over lifetime was related to poorer performance on multiple domains. COMT Met homozygotes were superior to Val homozygotes on measures of executive skills and showed trends for higher general intelligence and visuospatial skills, while COMT Val/Met heterozygotes showed significantly better general intelligence than Val homozygotes. COMT Val homozygotes performed better than heterozygotes on auditory-verbal memory. BDNF genotype was not related to any neurocognitive domain. The findings are consistent with studies in normal controls and neuropsychiatric cohorts that observed COMT Met carriers showed better performance on measures of executive skills and general intelligence. Overall, the findings support to the expanding clinical movement to make smoking cessation programs available at the inception of

  19. Testing a decades' old assumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, N; Mann, J; Fagerlund, B

    2017-01-01

    and attention. Parameters from the PPI and P50 suppression paradigms were significantly associated with the distractor effects on strategy formation, cognitive inhibition and flexibility, visual short-term memory, and the level of subjective distraction. Subjectively reported distraction was significantly...... to the effect of distraction on strategy formation, cognitive inhibition and flexibility, as well as visual short term memory. Future studies should investigate if gating deficits affect the distractibility of the same specific cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia....... with the P50 suppression and pre-pulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI) paradigms. Additionally, a neurocognitive test battery was administered in a cross-over design: with/without auditory distraction. Significant effects of distraction were found in response inhibition, and verbal working memory...

  20. Mild traumatic brain injuries in early adolescent rugby players: Long-term neurocognitive and academic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D G; Shuttleworth-Edwards, A B; Kidd, M; Malcolm, C M

    2015-01-01

    Information is scant concerning enduring brain injury effects of participation in the contact sport of Rugby Union (hereafter rugby) on early adolescents. The objective was prospectively to investigate differences between young adolescent male rugby players and non-contact sports controls on neurocognitive test performance over 3 years and academic achievement over 6 years. A sample of boys from the same school and grade was divided into three groups: rugby with seasonal concussions (n = 45), rugby no seasonal concussions (n = 21) and non-contact sports controls (n = 30). Baseline neurocognitive testing was conducted pre-season in Grade 7 and post-season in Grades 8 and 9. Year-end academic grades were documented for Grades 6-9 and 12 (pre-high school to year of school leaving). A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to investigate comparative neurocognitive and academic outcomes between the three sub-groups. Compared with controls, both rugby groups were significantly lower on the WISC-III Coding Immediate Recall sub-test. There was a significant interaction effect on the academic measure, with improved scores over time for controls, that was not in evidence for either rugby group. Tentatively, the outcome suggests cognitive vulnerability in association with school level participation in rugby.

  1. Slim Battery Modelling Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Prevot, D.

    2011-10-01

    Saft has developed a life prediction model for VES and MPS cells and batteries. The Saft Li-ion Model (SLIM) is a macroscopic electrochemical model based on energy (global at cell level). The main purpose is to predict the battery performances during the life for GEO, MEO and LEO missions. This model is based on electrochemical characteristics such as Energy, Capacity, EMF, Internal resistance, end of charge voltage. It uses fading and calendar law effects on energy and internal impedance vs. time, temperature, End of Charge voltage. Based on the mission profile, satellite power system characteristics, the model proposes the various battery configurations. For each configuration, the model gives the battery performances using mission figures and profiles: power, duration, DOD, end of charge voltages, temperatures during eclipses and solstices, thermal dissipations and cell failures. For the GEO/MEO missions, eclipse and solstice periods can include specific profile such as plasmic propulsion fires and specific balancing operations. For LEO missions, the model is able to simulate high power peaks to predict radar pulses. Saft's main customers have been using the SLIM model available in house for two years. The purpose is to have the satellite builder power engineers able to perform by themselves in the battery pre-dimensioning activities their own battery simulations. The simulations can be shared with Saft engineers to refine the power system designs. This model has been correlated with existing life and calendar tests performed on all the VES and MPS cells. In comparing with more than 10 year lasting life tests, the accuracy of the model from a voltage point of view is less than 10 mV at end Of Life. In addition, thethe comparison with in-orbit data has been also done. b This paper will present the main features of the SLIM software and outputs comparison with real life tests. b0

  2. Assessment of cognition using the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests on a group of Brazilian patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the cognition of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS using the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRB-N. METHOD: BRB-N was translated and adapted for control subjects. Subsequently, it was applied to a group of patients with relapsing-remitting (RR MS. RESULTS: The assessment on the healthy controls (n=47 showed that the correlation between tests on the same cognitive domain was high and that there was a five-factor solution that explained 90% of the total variance. Except for the Word List Generation subset of tests, the performance of patients with RRMS (n=39 was worse than that of the healthy controls. CONCLUSION: BRB-N is a relatively simple method to assess cognition of patients with MS in the daily clinic. It does not take long to apply and does not require special skills or equipment.

  3. Battery of Pedagogical Test to evaluate the preparation of the boxers (1st category of the Academy of Havana during the 2016 ATR structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Liuban Alvarado Castillo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the technical-methodological experiences in the application of a battery of Pedagogical Test to the provincial selection of boxing of the first category belonging to the Academy of Havana during the Macrocycle 2016. Theoretical, empirical and statistical methods were used., as were the logical historical method, inductive deductive, synthesis analysis, observation, interview, measurement, pre experiment and descriptive statistics. In addition, we worked with 100% of the population. The dates of the fundamental competitions, both national and international, in which the team was called to obtain positive results in the "Roberto Balado" International Cup, the National Boxing League and the National Tournament, were taken into consideration for said investigation. "Playa Girón", fundamental events of the season. The studied population was 28 boxers belonging to the Provincial Seniors Selection. Due to the application of the Pedagogical Test battery, it was possible to evaluate the level of preparation achieved by the sample investigated during the development of the ATR structure (Accumulation-Transformation-Realization. All of which allowed to have more control and precision during the planning of each of the training directions during the stage of the investigation.

  4. Comprehensive neurocognitive assessment of patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipou, Andrea; Gurvich, Caroline; Castle, David Jonathan; Abel, Larry Allen; Rossell, Susan Lee

    2015-12-22

    To utilise a comprehensive cognitive battery to gain a better understanding of cognitive performance in anorexia nervosa (AN). Twenty-six individuals with AN and 27 healthy control participants matched for age, gender and premorbid intelligence, participated in the study. A standard cognitive battery, the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia Consensus Cognitive Battery, was used to investigate performance on seven cognitive domains with the use of 10 different tasks: speed of processing [Brief Assessment Of Cognition In Schizophrenia: Symbol Coding, Category Fluency: Animal Naming (Fluency) and Trail Making Test: Part A], attention/vigilance [Continuous Performance Test - Identical Pairs (CPT-IP)], working memory [Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS(®)-III): Spatial Span, and Letter-Number Span (LNS)], verbal learning [Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised], visual learning [Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised], reasoning and problem solving [Neuropsychological Assessment Battery: Mazes], and social cognition [Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test: Managing Emotions]. Statistical analyses involved the use of multivariate and univariate analyses of variance. Analyses conducted on the cognitive domain scores revealed no overall significant difference between groups nor any interaction between group and domain score [F(1,45) = 0.73, P = 0.649]. Analyses conducted on each of the specific tasks within the cognitive domains revealed significantly slower reaction times for false alarm responses on the CPT-IP task in AN [F(1,51) = 12.80, P < 0.01, Cohen's d = 0.982] and a trend towards poorer performance in AN on the backward component of the WMS(®)-III Spatial Span task [F(1,51) = 5.88, P = 0.02, Cohen's d = -0.665]. The finding of slower reaction times of false alarm responses is, however, limited due to the small number of false alarm responses for either group. The findings are discussed in terms of poorer capacity to

  5. Neurocognitive Function in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: 3-Year Follow-Up Shows Cognitive Development Lagging behind Healthy Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; West, Amy; Hill, Kristian; Jindal, Kittu; Sweeney, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The comparison of the neurocognitive functioning of people with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) with a control group shows that the developmental progress in executive functions and verbal memory of those with PBD was significantly less than those in the control group. The results were seen after comparing data from baseline cognitive tests and a…

  6. [Neurocognitive disorders in DSM-5: pervasive changes in the diagnostics of dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, W; Barnikol, U B

    2014-05-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) proposes an innovative chapter on neurocognitive disorders (NCD) as a substitute for the dementia, delirium and amnestic disorders chapter in DSM-IV. This NCD chapter promotes a most innovative change compared to DSM-IV. While the term delirium is preserved, the commonly used term dementia does not occur as a diagnostic entity. Neurocognitive disorders are more inclusive than dementias; they also cover early prodromal stages of dementias below the DSM-IV threshold. The diagnosis of NCDs requires essentially neuropsychological testing preferentially with standardized instruments. Special focus is given to etiological subtyping taking former diagnostic consensus processes by expert groups into consideration. The subsequent more extensive concept of NCD also allows the diagnosis of etiological-specific prodromal states of cognitive impairments. The changes from DSM-IV to DSM-5 are critically discussed.

  7. Long-term neurocognitive outcomes of patients with end-stage renal disease during infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca J; Warady, Bradley A

    2013-08-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) during infancy has been associated with poor short-term neurocognitive outcomes. Limited information exists regarding long-term outcomes. Neurocognitive outcomes for 12 patients diagnosed with ESRD during the first 16 months of life were assessed. Nine patients (mean age: 11 years) were compared to their healthy siblings (mean age: 10 years) on measures of intellectual and executive functioning, memory, and academic achievement using paired-samples t tests. Patients' Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores (M = 78, SD = 16.1) were significantly lower than sibling controls (M = 94, SD = 18.9; p executive functioning, memory, and academic achievement. In summary, patients diagnosed with ESRD as infants had intellectual and metacognitive functioning significantly lower than sibling controls. Fewer months on dialysis and younger age at transplant were associated with better outcomes.

  8. Development of an in vitro test battery for assessing chemical effects on bovine germ cells under the ReProTect umbrella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzari, Giovanna; Tessaro, Irene; Crotti, Gabriella; Galli, Cesare; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Bremer, Susanne; Pellizzer, Cristian

    2008-01-01

    Current European legislation for the registration and authorisation of chemicals (REACH) will require a dramatic increase in the use of animals for reproductive toxicity testing. Since one objective of REACH is to use vertebrates only as last resort, the development and validation of alternative methods is urgently needed. For this purpose ReProTect, an integrated research project funded by the European Union, joining together 33 partners with complementary expertise in reproductive toxicology, was designed. The study presented here describes a battery of two tests developed within ReProTect. The objective of these tests is the detection of chemical effects during the processes of oocyte maturation and fertilisation in a bovine model. The corresponding toxicological endpoints are the reaching of metaphase II and the formation of the pronuclei respectively. Fifteen chemicals have been tested (Benzo[a]pyrene, Busulfan, Butylparaben, Cadmium Chloride, Carbendazim, Cycloheximide, Diethylstilbestrol, Genistein, Ionomycin, Ketoconazole, Lindane, Methylacetoacetate, Mifepristone, Nocodazole and DMSO as solvent) demonstrating high intra-laboratory reproducibility of the tests. Furthermore, the responses obtained in both tests, for several substances, had a good correlation with the available in vivo and in vitro data. These tests therefore, could predictably become part of an integrated testing strategy that combines the bovine models with additional in vitro tests, in order to predict chemical hazards on mammalian fertility

  9. Drop-Jump Landing Varies With Baseline Neurocognition: Implications for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel C; Barth, Jeffrey T

    2016-09-01

    Neurocognitive status may be a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Neurocognitive domains such as visual attention, processing speed/reaction time, and dual-tasking may influence ACL injury risk via alterations to neuromuscular performance during athletic tasks. However, the relationship between neurocognition and performance during athletic tasks is not yet established. Athletes with low baseline neurocognitive scores will demonstrate poorer jump landing performance compared with athletes with high baseline neurocognitive score. Controlled laboratory study. Neurocognitive performance was measured using the Concussion Resolution Index (CRI). Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data of the dominant limb were collected for 37 recreational athletes while performing an unanticipated jump-landing task. Healthy, nonconcussed subjects were screened using a computer-based neurocognitive test into a high performers (HP; n = 20; average CRI percentile, 78th) and a low performers (LP; n = 17; average CRI percentile, 41st) group. The task consisted of a forward jump onto a force plate with an immediate rebound to a second target that was assigned 250 milliseconds before landing on the force plate. Kinematic and kinetic data were obtained during the first jump landing. The LP group demonstrated significantly altered neuromuscular performance during the landing phase while completing the jump-landing task, including significantly increased peak vertical ground-reaction force (mean ± SD of LP vs HP: 1.81 ± 0.53 vs 1.38 ± 0.37 body weight [BW]; P knee abduction moment (0.47 ± 0.56 vs 0.03 ± 0.64 BW × body height; P = .03), and knee abduction angle (6.1° ± 4.7° vs 1.3° ± 5.6°; P = .03), as well as decreased trunk flexion angle (9.6° ± 9.6° vs 16.4° ± 11.2°; P knee kinematic and kinetic patterns that are linked to ACL injury. Neurocognitive testing using the CRI may be useful for identification of athletes at elevated risk for future ACL

  10. Behavior and neurocognitive performance in children aged 5-10 years who snore compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, S; Lushington, K; Kennedy, D; Martin, J; Dawson, D

    2000-10-01

    Sleep disordered breathing in children is a common but largely underdiagnosed problem. It ranges in severity from primary snoring to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Preliminary evidence suggests that children with severe OSAS show reduced neurocognitive performance, however, less is known about children who snore but do not have severe upper airway obstruction. Participants included 16 children referred to the Ear, Nose and Throat/Respiratory departments of a Children's Hospital for evaluation of snoring and 16 non-snoring controls aged 5-10 years. Overnight polysomnography (PSG) was carried out in 13 children who snored and 13 controls. The PSG confirmed the presence of primary snoring in seven and very mild OSAS (as evidenced by chest wall paradox) in eight children referred for snoring while controls showed a normal sleep pattern. To test for group differences in neurocognitive functioning and behavior, children underwent one day of testing during which measures of intelligence, memory, attention, social competency, and problematic behavior were collected. Compared to controls, children who snored showed significantly impaired attention and, although within the normal range, lower memory and intelligence scores. No significant group differences were observed for social competency and problematic behavior. These findings suggest that neurocognitive performance is reduced in children who snore but are otherwise healthy and who do not have severe OSAS. They further imply that the impact of mild sleep disordered breathing on daytime functioning may be more significant than previously realized with subsequent implications for successful academic and developmental progress.

  11. Long term neurocognitive improvement after "late" right hemispherectomy: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moletto, Alessandra; Bagnasco, Irene; Dassi, Patrizia; Vigliano, Piernanda

    2018-03-21

    To study the long-term neurocognitive changes of a right-handed girl with intractable epilepsy after late right hemispherectomy and compare them with data in the literature. The girl was affected by an epileptic encephalopathy associated with right fronto-temporo-parietal polymicrogyria; she was submitted to right hemispherectomy at the age of 5 and examined with cognitive and neuropsychological tests at the age of 17 years. The girl took advantage of neurocognitive rehabilitation for several years; she is currently seizure-free and off therapy. At the end of the follow-up, the full-scale IQ is stable and within the normal range (p = 88). As the discrepancy between verbal IQ (pp = 120) and performance IQ (pp = 71) is significantly high, the girl was subjected to neurocognitive evaluation with the following results: verbal problem solving, verbal short- and long-term memory, and executive functions are within normal range. The most fragile functional areas are visual and spatial reasoning, verbal working memory, short-term visuospatial memory, visual attention, and processing speed, all > 2 SD. The spatial tests, such as coding, matrix reasoning, picture concepts, and arithmetic reasoning (which are favored by other functions such as associative memory and learning ability), are less severely impaired. These findings show that good conceptual skills and verbal reasoning can compensate for some deficits in visual-perceptual and visuospatial functions.

  12. Neurocognitive, mental health, and glucose disorders in farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekirad, Ali Akbar; Faghih, Mahya; Mirabdollahi, Mansuoreh; Kiani, Mahdi; Fathi, Arezoo; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    About 25 million agricultural workers in the developing world suffer from at least one episode of poisoning each year, mainly by anticholinesterase-like organophosphates (OPs). The objective of this cross-sectional study was to establish the OP toxicity in 187 occupationally exposed farmers in terms of neurocognitive impairment, mental health status, clinical symptoms, diabetes, and haematological factors. The exposed group was compared to 187 healthy age-, sex-, and education-matching controls. Neurocognitive impairment was measured using the Subjective Neurocognition Inventory (SNI) and mental health status using the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). The subjects were also tested for fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), cholesterol (CL), triglycerides (TG), creatinine, oral glucose tolerance test (GTT), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The exposed farmers showed higher FBG (peczema, saliva secretion, fatigue, headache, sweating, abdominal pain, nausea, superior distal muscle weakness, inferior distal muscle weakness, inferior proximal muscle weakness, breath muscle weakness, hand tingling, foot tingling, epiphoria, polyuria, miosis, dyspnoea, bradycardia, and rhinorrhoea, which all significantly correlated with the number of working years. These findings indicate that farmers who work with OPs are prone to neuropsychological disorders and diabetes.

  13. Neurocognitive effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bink, Marleen; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs; Popma, Arne; Bongers, Ilja L; van Boxtel, Geert J M

    2014-05-01

    Neurofeedback aims to reduce symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mainly attention problems. However, the additional influence of neurofeedback over treatment as usual (TAU) on neurocognitive functioning for adolescents with ADHD remains unclear. By using a multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, male adolescents with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD (mean age = 16.1 years; range, 12-24) were randomized to receive either a combination of TAU and neurofeedback (n = 45) or TAU (n = 26). Randomization was computer generated and stratified by age group (ages 12 through 15, 16 through 20, and 21 through 24 years). The neurofeedback intervention consisted of approximately 37 sessions over a period of 25 weeks of theta/sensorimotor rhythm training on the vertex (Cz). Primary neurocognitive outcomes included performance parameters derived from the D2 Test of Attention, the Digit Span backward, the Stroop Color-Word Test and the Tower of London, all assessed preintervention and postintervention. Data were collected between December 2009 and July 2012. At postintervention, outcomes of attention and/or motor speed were improved, with faster processing times for both intervention conditions and with medium to large effect sizes (range, ηp2 = .08-.54; P values neurofeedback over TAU was observed. Hence, this study does not provide evidence for using theta/sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback to enhance neurocognitive performance as additional intervention to TAU for adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Trialregister.nl identifier: 1759. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. Performance of middle-aged and elderly European minority and majority populations on a Cross-Cultural Neuropsychological Test Battery (CNTB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Segers, Kurt; Vanderaspoilden, Valérie; Bekkhus-Wetterberg, Peter; Minthon, Lennart; Pissiota, Anna; Bjørkløf, Guro Hanevold; Beinhoff, Ulrike; Tsolaki, Magda; Gkioka, Mara; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2018-01-24

    The aim of this study was to examine test performance on a cross-cultural neuropsychological test battery for assessment of middle-aged and elderly ethnic minority and majority populations in western Europe, and to present preliminary normative data. The study was a cross-sectional multi-center study. Tests in the European Cross-Cultural Neuropsychological Test Battery (CNTB) cover several cognitive domains, including global cognitive function, memory, executive functions, and visuospatial functions. A total of 330 participants were included: 14 Moroccan, 45 Pakistani/Indian Punjabi, 41 Polish, 66 Turkish, and 19 former Yugoslavian minority participants, and 145 western European majority participants. Significant differences between ethnic groups were found on most CNTB measures. However, ethnic groups differed greatly in demographic characteristics and differences in test scores were mainly related to educational differences, explaining an average of 15% of the variance. Preliminary multicultural CNTB normative data dichotomized by education and age were constructed using overlapping cells. Applying this normative data across the whole sample resulted in an acceptable number of participants scoring in the impaired range across all ethnic groups. Factor analyses found the CNTB to have a stable and clinically meaningful factor structure. The CNTB represents the first European joint effort to establish neuropsychological measures appropriate for ethnic minority populations in western Europe. The CNTB can be applied in approximately 60 min, covers several cognitive domains, and appears appropriate for assessment of the targeted populations. However, due to the small sample size in some ethnic groups further studies are needed replicate and support this.

  15. The role of self-reported impulsivity and reward sensitivity versus neurocognitive measures of disinhibition and decision-making in the prediction of relapse in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudriaan, A E; Oosterlaan, J; De Beurs, E; Van Den Brink, W

    2008-01-01

    Disinhibition and decision-making skills play an important role in theories on the cause and outcome of addictive behaviors such as substance use disorders and pathological gambling. In recent studies, both disinhibition and disadvantageous decision-making strategies, as measured by neurocognitive tests, have been found to influence the course of substance use disorders. Research on factors affecting relapse in pathological gambling is scarce. This study investigated the effect of both self-reported impulsivity and reward sensitivity, and neurocognitively assessed disinhibition and decision-making under conflicting contingencies, on relapse in a group of 46 pathological gamblers. Logistic regression analysis indicated that longer duration of the disorder and neurocognitive indicators of disinhibition (Stop Signal Reaction Time) and decision-making (Card Playing Task) were significant predictors of relapse (explaining 53% of the variance in relapse), whereas self-reported impulsivity and reward sensitivity did not significantly predict relapse. Overall classification accuracy was 76%, with a positive classification accuracy of 76% and a negative classification accuracy of 75%. Duration of the disorder and neurocognitive measures of disinhibition and decision-making are powerful predictors of relapse in pathological gambling. The results suggest that endophenotypical neurocognitive characteristics are more promising in the prediction of relapse in pathological gambling than phenotypical personality characteristics. Neurocognitive predictors may be useful to guide treatment planning of follow-up contacts and booster sessions.

  16. Theory of Mind as a mediator variable between neurocognition and functioning in young individuals in treatment with secondary services for non-psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Marta; Minichino, Amedeo; Carrión, Ricardo E; Chiaie, Roberto Delle; Bevilacqua, Arturo; Parisi, Maurizio; Rullo, Santo; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Biondi, Massimo; Cadenhead, Kristin

    2016-12-30

    A large body of studies provides evidence for a link between neurocognition, theory of mind (ToM) and functioning in psychotic spectrum disorders (PSDs), with ToM mediating the effect that neurocognition