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Sample records for neurochemical adaptations compared

  1. Distinct Neurochemical Adaptations Within the Nucleus Accumbens Produced by a History of Self-Administered vs Non-Contingently Administered Intravenous Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lominac, Kevin D; Sacramento, Arianne D; Szumlinski, Karen K; Kippin, Tod E

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychomotor stimulant yet the neurobiological consequences of methamphetamine self-administration remain under-characterized. Thus, we employed microdialysis in rats trained to self-administer intravenous (IV) infusions of methamphetamine (METH-SA) or saline (SAL) and a group of rats receiving non-contingent IV infusions of methamphetamine (METH-NC) at 1 or 21 days withdrawal to determine the dopamine and glutamate responses in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) to a 2 mg/kg methamphetamine intraperitoneal challenge. Furthermore, basal NAC extracellular glutamate content was assessed employing no net-flux procedures in these three groups at both time points. At both 1- and 21-day withdrawal points, methamphetamine elicited a rise in extracellular dopamine in SAL animals and this effect was sensitized in METH-NC rats. However, METH-SA animals showed a much greater sensitized dopamine response to the drug challenge compared with the other groups. Additionally, acute methamphetamine decreased extracellular glutamate in both SAL and METH-NC animals at both time-points. In contrast, METH-SA rats exhibited a modest and delayed rise in glutamate at 1-day withdrawal and this rise was sensitized at 21 days withdrawal. Finally, no net-flux microdialysis revealed elevated basal glutamate and increased extraction fraction at both withdrawal time-points in METH-SA rats. Although METH-NC rats exhibited no change in the glutamate extraction fraction, they exhibited a time-dependent elevation in basal glutamate levels. These data illustrate for the first time that a history of methamphetamine self-administration produces enduring changes in NAC neurotransmission and that non-pharmacological factors have a critical role in the expression of these methamphetamine-induced neurochemical adaptations. PMID:22030712

  2. The Method of Adaptive Comparative Judgement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, Alastair

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive Comparative Judgement (ACJ) is a modification of Thurstone's method of comparative judgement that exploits the power of adaptivity, but in scoring rather than testing. Professional judgement by teachers replaces the marking of tests; a judge is asked to compare the work of two students and simply to decide which of them is the better.…

  3. Quantitative autoradiography of neurochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, T.C.; Biegon, A.; Bleisch, W.V.

    1982-01-01

    Several new methods have been developed that apply quantitative autoradiography to neurochemistry. These methods are derived from the 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) technique of Sokoloff (1), which uses quantitative autoradiography to measure the rate of glucose utilization in brain structures. The new methods allow the measurement of the rate of cerbral protein synthesis and the levels of particular neurotransmitter receptors by quantitative autoradiography. As with the 2DG method, the new techniques can measure molecular levels in micron-sized brain structures; and can be used in conjunction with computerized systems of image processing. It is possible that many neurochemical measurements could be made by computerized analysis of quantitative autoradiograms

  4. Neurochemical aspects of childhood autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Minderaa (Ruud)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe topic of this thesis is neurochemical aspects of infantile autism. The experimental work is centered around the most robust and consistant neurochemical finding in child psychiatry, namely that group mean whole blood serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) values are

  5. Suicide: Neurochemical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritabrata Banerjee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the devastating effect of suicide on numerous lives, there is still a dearthof knowledge concerning its neurochemical aspects. There is increasing evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and Nerve growth factor (NGF are involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression through binding and activating their cognate receptors trk B and trk A respectively. The present study was performed to examine whether the expression profiles of BDNF and/or trk B as well as NGF and/or trk A were altered in postmortem brain in subjects who commitsuicide and whether these alterations were associated with specific psychopathologic conditions. These studies were performed in hippocampus obtained 21 suicide subjects and 19 non-psychiatric control subjects. The protein and mRNA levels of BDNF, trk B and NGF, trk A were determined with Sandwich ELISA, Western Blot and RT PCR respectively. Given the importance of BDNFand NGF along with their cognate receptors in mediating physiological functions, including cell survival and synaptic plasticity, our findings of reduced expression of BDNF, Trk B and NGF, Trk A in both protein and mRNA levels of postmortem brain in suicide subjects suggest that these molecules may play an important role in the pathophysiological aspects of suicidal behavior.

  6. Neurochemical alterations associated with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Karakoc, Tevfik; Mermi, Osman; Gurkan Gurok, M; Yildirim, Hanefi

    2015-01-01

    In neuroimaging on borderline personality disorder, prior studies focused on the hippocampus and amygdala, as mentioned above. However, no study investigated whether there were neurochemical changes in the patients with borderline personality disorder. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate neurochemical change of patients diagnosed with borderline disorder and hypothesized that neurochemicals would change in the hippocampus region of these patients. Seventeen patients and the same number of healthy control subjects were analyzed by using a 1.5 Tesla GE Signa Imaging System. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline compounds (CHO), and creatine (CRE) values of hippocampal region were measured. The mean NAA/CRE ratio in the hippocampus region was significantly reduced in the patients with borderline personality disorder compared to that of healthy control subjects, In addition, NAA/CHO ratio of the patients with borderline personality disorder was also significantly reduced when compared to that of healthy subjects. There was no difference in the ratio of CHO/CRE. In summary, we present evidence for reduced NAA in the patients with borderline personality disorder. © 2015, The Author(s).

  7. Europe adapts to climate change: Comparing National Adaptation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biesbroek, G. Robbert; Swart, Rob J.; Carter, Timothy R.

    2010-01-01

    For the last two decades, European climate policy has focused almost exclusively on mitigation of climate change. It was only well after the turn of the century, with impacts of climate change increasingly being observed, that adaptation was added to the policy agenda and EU Member States started...

  8. Unrequited: neurochemical enhancement of love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, Rebecca

    2015-07-01

    I raise several concerns with Earp and colleagues' analysis of enhancement through neurochemical modulation of love as a key issue in contemporary neuroethics. These include: (i) strengthening their deflation of medicalization concerns by showing how the objection that love should be left outside of the scope of medicine would directly undermine the goal of medicine; (ii) developing stronger analysis of the social and political concerns relevant to neurochemical modulation of love, by exploring and suggesting possible counters to ways in which 'wellbeing' may be used as a tool of oppression; (iii) providing reasons to support a broad need for ecological investigation of, and indeed ecological education concerning, neurotechnology; (iv) suggesting ways in which philosophy, and the humanities more broadly, remain directly relevant to responding effectively to issues in contemporary neuroethics.

  9. Neurochemical aftermath of amateur boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterberg, Henrik; Hietala, M Albert; Jonsson, Michael; Andreasen, Niels; Styrud, Ewa; Karlsson, Ingvar; Edman, Ake; Popa, Cornel; Rasulzada, Abdullah; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Mehta, Pankaj D; Rosengren, Lars; Blennow, Kaj; Wallin, Anders

    2006-09-01

    Little solid information is available on the possible risks for neuronal injury in amateur boxing. To determine whether amateur boxing and severity of hits are associated with elevated levels of biochemical markers for neuronal injury in cerebrospinal fluid. Longitudinal study. Referral center specializing in evaluation of neurodegenerative disorders. Fourteen amateur boxers (11 men and 3 women) and 10 healthy male nonathletic control subjects. The boxers underwent lumbar puncture 7 to 10 days and 3 months after a bout. The control subjects underwent LP once. Neurofilament light protein, total tau, glial fibrillary acidic protein, phosphorylated tau, and beta-amyloid protein 1-40 (Abeta([1-40])) and 1-42 (Abeta([1-42])) concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid were measured. Increased levels after a bout compared with after 3 months of rest from boxing were found for 2 markers for neuronal and axonal injury, neurofilament light protein (mean +/- SD, 845 +/- 1140 ng/L vs 208 +/- 108 ng/L; P = .008) and total tau (mean +/- SD, 449 +/- 176 ng/L vs 306 +/- 78 ng/L; P = .006), and for the astroglial injury marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (mean +/- SD, 541 +/- 199 ng/L vs 405 +/- 138 ng/L; P = .003). The increase was significantly higher among boxers who had received many hits (>15) or high-impact hits to the head compared with boxers who reported few hits. In the boxers, concentrations of neurofilament light protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein, but not total tau, were significantly elevated after a bout compared with the nonathletic control subjects. With the exception of neurofilament light protein, there were no significant differences between boxers after 3 months of rest from boxing and the nonathletic control subjects. Amateur boxing is associated with acute neuronal and astroglial injury. If verified in longitudinal studies with extensive follow-up regarding the clinical outcome, analyses of cerebrospinal fluid may provide a scientific basis for

  10. Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.

  11. Neurochemical enhancement of conscious error awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Robert; Nandam, L Sanjay; O'Connell, Redmond G; Wagner, Joe; Strudwick, Mark; Nathan, Pradeep J; Mattingley, Jason B; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2012-02-22

    How the brain monitors ongoing behavior for performance errors is a central question of cognitive neuroscience. Diminished awareness of performance errors limits the extent to which humans engage in corrective behavior and has been linked to loss of insight in a number of psychiatric syndromes (e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug addiction). These conditions share alterations in monoamine signaling that may influence the neural mechanisms underlying error processing, but our understanding of the neurochemical drivers of these processes is limited. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design of the influence of methylphenidate, atomoxetine, and citalopram on error awareness in 27 healthy participants. The error awareness task, a go/no-go response inhibition paradigm, was administered to assess the influence of monoaminergic agents on performance errors during fMRI data acquisition. A single dose of methylphenidate, but not atomoxetine or citalopram, significantly improved the ability of healthy volunteers to consciously detect performance errors. Furthermore, this behavioral effect was associated with a strengthening of activation differences in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and inferior parietal lobe during the methylphenidate condition for errors made with versus without awareness. Our results have implications for the understanding of the neurochemical underpinnings of performance monitoring and for the pharmacological treatment of a range of disparate clinical conditions that are marked by poor awareness of errors.

  12. Covertly active and progressing neurochemical abnormalities in suppressed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysique, Lucette A; Jugé, Lauriane; Gates, Thomas; Tobia, Michael; Moffat, Kirsten; Brew, Bruce J; Rae, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    To assess whether HIV-related brain injury is progressive in persons with suppressed HIV infection. Seventy-three HIV+ virally suppressed men and 35 HIV- men, screened for psychiatric and alcohol/drug use disorders, underwent neuropsychological evaluation and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) at baseline and after and 23 ± 5 months. 1 H-MRS included brain regions known to be vulnerable to HIV and aging: frontal white matter (FWM), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and caudate area (CA). Major brain metabolites such as creatine (Cr: marker of cellular energy), N -acetyl aspartate (NAA: marker of neuronal integrity), choline (marker of cellular membrane turnover), glutamate/glutamine (excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitter), and myo -Inositol (mI: marker of neuroinflammation) were calculated with reference to water signal. Neurocognitive decline was corrected for practice effect and baseline HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) status. Across the study period, 44% had intact cognition, 42% stable HAND (including the single case that improved), 10% progressing HAND, and 4% incident HAND. When analyzing the neurochemical data per neurocognitive trajectories, we found decreasing PCC Cr in all subgroups compared with controls ( p < 0.002). In addition, relative to the HIV- group, stable HAND showed decreasing FWM Cr, incident HAND showed steep FWM Cr reduction, whereas progressing HAND had a sharply decreasing PCC NAA and reduced but stable CA NAA. When analyzing the neurochemical data at the group level (HIV+ vs HIV- groups), we found stable abnormal metabolite concentrations over the study period: decreased FWM and PCC Cr (both p < 0.001), decreased PCC NAA and CA NAA (both p < 0.05) and PCC mI increase ( p < 0.05). HIV duration and historical HAND had modest effects on metabolite changes. Our study reveals covertly active or progressing HIV-related brain injury in the majority of this virally suppressed cohort, reflecting ongoing

  13. Effect of Artificial Gravity: Central Nervous System Neurochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; D'Amelio, Fernando; Eng, Lawrence F.

    1997-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to assess chemical and morphological modifications occurring in muscle receptors and the central nervous system of animals subjected to altered gravity (2 x Earth gravity produced by centrifugation and simulated micro gravity produced by hindlimb suspension). The underlying hypothesis for the studies was that afferent (sensory) information sent to the central nervous system by muscle receptors would be changed in conditions of altered gravity and that these changes, in turn, would instigate a process of adaptation involving altered chemical activity of neurons and glial cells of the projection areas of the cerebral cortex that are related to inputs from those muscle receptors (e.g., cells in the limb projection areas). The central objective of this research was to expand understanding of how chronic exposure to altered gravity, through effects on the vestibular system, influences neuromuscular systems that control posture and gait. The project used an approach in which molecular changes in the neuromuscular system were related to the development of effective motor control by characterizing neurochemical changes in sensory and motor systems and relating those changes to motor behavior as animals adapted to altered gravity. Thus, the objective was to identify changes in central and peripheral neuromuscular mechanisms that are associated with the re-establishment of motor control which is disrupted by chronic exposure to altered gravity.

  14. OER Quality and Adaptation in K-12: Comparing Teacher Evaluations of Copyright-Restricted, Open, and Open/Adapted Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmons, Royce

    2015-01-01

    Conducted in conjunction with an institute on open textbook adaptation, this study compares textbook evaluations from practicing K-12 classroom teachers (n = 30) on three different types of textbooks utilized in their contexts: copyright-restricted, open, and open/adapted. Copyright-restricted textbooks consisted of those textbooks already in use…

  15. Neuroprotective and neurochemical properties of mint extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Víctor; Martín, Sara; Gómez-Serranillos, Maria Pilar

    2010-01-01

    (A) receptor). Mentha x piperita and Mentha aquatica produced significant (p oxidative stress. All the plants exhibited antioxidant and MAO-A inhibitory activities, M. x piperita being the most active. M. aquatica showed the highest affinity to the GABA......Mints are aromatic plants with a tradition as medicinal remedies and culinary herbs. With the aim of investigating potential central nervous system (CNS) activities of traditional medicinal plants, four species and one hybrid of the genus Mentha (M. aquatica, M. longifolia, M. pulegium, M....... suaveolens and M. x piperita) were selected. Methanolic extracts of the plants were tested for protective effects against hydrogen-peroxide-induced toxicity in PC12 cells, antioxidant activity (by ABTS and X/XO methods) and neurochemical properties (MAO-A inhibition, AChE inhibition and affinity to the GABA...

  16. SOME NEUROCHEMICAL DISTURBANCES IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

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    Vladimir V. Markelov

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe data presented in this manuscript suggest a pivotal role of the central nervous system (CNS in the regulation of immune status. We describe here that some neurochemical disturbances may provoke development of various diseases including multiple sclerosis. Some theoretic and practical backgrounds, how to improve the multiple sclerosis sufferers and patients with other autoimmune disorders, are also given.RESUMENLos datos que presentamos en este manuscrito, sugieren un papel guia del sistema nervioso central (SNC en la regulación del estado inmune. Describimos aquí que varias alteraciones neuroquímicas pueden provocar el desarrollo de varias enfermedades, incluyendo esclerosis múltiple. También se comenta acerca del trasfondo teórico y práctico, y cómo mejorar a víctimas y pacientes con esclerosis múltiple y otras alteraciones autoinmunes.

  17. A neurochemical map of the developing amphioxus nervous system

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    Candiani Simona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amphioxus, representing the most basal group of living chordates, is the best available proxy for the last invertebrate ancestor of the chordates. Although the central nervous system (CNS of amphioxus comprises only about 20,000 neurons (as compared to billions in vertebrates, the developmental genetics and neuroanatomy of amphioxus are strikingly vertebrate-like. In the present study, we mapped the distribution of amphioxus CNS cells producing distinctive neurochemicals. To this end, we cloned genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes and/or transporters of the most common neurotransmitters and assayed their developmental expression in the embryo and early larva. Results By single and double in situ hybridization experiments, we identified glutamatergic, GABAergic/glycinergic, serotonergic and cholinergic neurons in developing amphioxus. In addition to characterizing the distribution of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the developing amphioxus CNS, we observed that cholinergic and GABAergic/glycinergic neurons are segmentally arranged in the hindbrain, whereas serotonergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons are restricted to specific regions of the cerebral vesicle and the hindbrain. We were further able to identify discrete groups of GABAergic and glutamatergic interneurons and cholinergic motoneurons at the level of the primary motor center (PMC, the major integrative center of sensory and motor stimuli of the amphioxus nerve cord. Conclusions In this study, we assessed neuronal differentiation in the developing amphioxus nervous system and compiled the first neurochemical map of the amphioxus CNS. This map is a first step towards a full characterization of the neurotransmitter signature of previously described nerve cell types in the amphioxus CNS, such as motoneurons and interneurons.

  18. The ends of adaptation: comparative media, digital culture, and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dicecco, Nico

    2015-01-01

    The starting point of this dissertation is a history of ideas tacitly organized around the conception of adaptation as a formal object—which is to say as a specific kind of intertext defined by its incorporation of material drawn from one or more precursor works. Within this framework, scholars have struggled against a set of recurrent methodological pitfalls having to do with the relative importance of medium specificity, the place and purpose of aesthetic evaluation, and the perennial reapp...

  19. Molecular determinants of enzyme cold adaptation: comparative structural and computational studies of cold- and warm-adapted enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Elena; Tiberti, Matteo; Invernizzi, Gaetano; Pasi, Marco; Ranzani, Valeria

    2011-11-01

    The identification of molecular mechanisms underlying enzyme cold adaptation is a hot-topic both for fundamental research and industrial applications. In the present contribution, we review the last decades of structural computational investigations on cold-adapted enzymes in comparison to their warm-adapted counterparts. Comparative sequence and structural studies allow the definition of a multitude of adaptation strategies. Different enzymes carried out diverse mechanisms to adapt to low temperatures, so that a general theory for enzyme cold adaptation cannot be formulated. However, some common features can be traced in dynamic and flexibility properties of these enzymes, as well as in their intra- and inter-molecular interaction networks. Interestingly, the current data suggest that a family-centered point of view is necessary in the comparative analyses of cold- and warm-adapted enzymes. In fact, enzymes belonging to the same family or superfamily, thus sharing at least the three-dimensional fold and common features of the functional sites, have evolved similar structural and dynamic patterns to overcome the detrimental effects of low temperatures.

  20. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Larkin, Denis M.; Lee, Chul; Storz, Jay F.; Antunes, Agostinho; Greenwold, Matthew J.; Meredith, Robert W.; Ödeen, Anders; Cui, Jie; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Wang, Zongji; Jin, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Hu, Haofu; Yang, Wei; Hu, Jiang; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhikai; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiaolin; Yu, Hao; Lian, Jinmin; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Yongli; Xiong, Zijun; Liu, Shiping; Zhou, Long; Huang, Zhiyong; An, Na; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Qiumei; Xiong, Yingqi; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jingjing; Fan, Yu; da Fonseca, Rute R.; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic; Mourier, Tobias; Howard, Jason T.; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Pfenning, Andreas; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V.; Hara, Erina; Smith, Julia; Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho; Romanov, Michael N; Borges, Rui; Machado, João Paulo; Khan, Imran; Springer, Mark S.; Gatesy, John; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Opazo, Juan C.; Håstad, Olle; Sawyer, Roger H.; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Bruford, Michael W.; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Derryberry, Elizabeth; Warren, Wesley; Wilson, Richard K; Li, Shengbin; Ray, David A.; Green, Richard E.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Griffin, Darren; Johnson, Warren E.; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A.; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R.; Alström, Per; Fjeldså, Jon; Mindell, David P.; Edwards, Scott V.; Braun, Edward L.; Rahbek, Carsten; Burt, David W.; Houde, Peter; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Jarvis, Erich D.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits. PMID:25504712

  1. Institutions for adaptation to climate change: comparing national adaptation strategies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Biesbroek, G.R.; Brink, van den M.A.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, societies worldwide have to cope with the potential impacts of climate change. The central question of this paper is to what extent our historically grown institutions enable actors to cope with the new challenges of climate adaptation. We present

  2. Caffeine tolerance: behavioral, electrophysiological and neurochemical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, D.T.; Khan, S.; Forde, J.; Hirsh, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of tolerance to the stimulatory action of caffeine upon mesencephalic reticular neurons and upon spontaneous locomotor activity was evaluated in rats after two weeks of chronic exposure to low doses of caffeine (5-10 mg/kg/day via their drinking water). These doses are achievable through dietary intake of caffeine-containing beverages in man. Concomitant measurement of [ 3 H]-CHA binding in the mesencephalic reticular formation was also carried out in order to explore the neurochemical basis of the development of tolerance. Caffeine, 2.5 mg/kg i.v., markedly increased the firing rate of reticular neurons in caffeine naive rats but failed to modify the neuronal activity in a group exposed chronically to low doses of caffeine. In addition, in spontaneous locomotor activity studies, the data show a distinct shift to the right of the caffeine dose-response curve in caffeine pretreated rats. These results clearly indicate that tolerance develops to the stimulatory action of caffeine upon the reticular formation at the single neuronal activity level as well as upon spontaneous locomotor activity. Furthermore, in chronically caffeine exposed rats, an increase in the number of binding sites for [ 3 H]-CHA was observed in reticular formation membranes without any change in receptor affinity. 28 references, 4 figures

  3. Carbon Nanofiber Electrode Array for Neurochemical Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica E.

    2017-01-01

    A sensor platform based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been developed. Their inherent nanometer scale, high conductivity, wide potential window, good biocompatibility and well-defined surface chemistry make them ideal candidates as biosensor electrodes. Here, we report using vertically aligned CNF as neurotransmitter recording electrodes for application in a smart deep brain stimulation (DBS) device. Our approach combines a multiplexed CNF electrode chip, developed at NASA Ames Research Center, with the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) system, developed at the Mayo Clinic. Preliminary results indicate that the CNF nanoelectrode arrays are easily integrated with WINCS for neurotransmitter detection in a multiplexed array format. In the future, combining CNF based stimulating and recording electrodes with WINCS may lay the foundation for an implantable smart therapeutic system that utilizes neurochemical feedback control while likely resulting in increased DBS application in various neuropsychiatric disorders. In total, our goal is to take advantage of the nanostructure of CNF arrays for biosensing studies requiring ultrahigh sensitivity, high-degree of miniaturization, and selective biofunctionalization.

  4. Neurochemical mechanisms underlying responses to psychostimulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Hitzemann, R.; Wang, G.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This study employed positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate biochemical and metabolic characteristics of the brain of individuals which could put them at risk for drug addiction. It takes advantage of the normal variability between individuals in response to psychoactive drugs to investigate relation between mental state, brain neurochemistry and metabolism and the behavioral response to drugs. We discuss its use to assess if there is an association between mental state and dompaminergic reactivity in response to the psychostimulant drug methylphenidate (MP). Changes in synaptic dopamine induced by MP were evaluated with PET and [11C]raclopride, a D{sub 2} receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous dopamine. Methylpphenidate significantly decreased striatal [11C]raclopride binding. The study showed a correlation between the magnitude of the dopamine-induced changes by methylphenidate, and the mental state of the subjects. Subjects reporting high levels of anxiety and restlessness at baseline had larger changes in MP-induced dopamine changes than those that did not. Further investigations on the relation between an individual`s response to a drug and his/her mental state and personality as well as his neurochemical brain composition may enable to understand better differences in drug addiction vulnerability.

  5. A diamond-based electrode for detection of neurochemicals in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E. Bennet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS, a surgical technique to treat certain neurologic and psychiatric conditions, relies on pre-determined stimulation parameters in an open-loop configuration. The major advancement in DBS devices is a closed-loop system that uses neurophysiologic feedback to dynamically adjust stimulation frequency and amplitude. Stimulation-driven neurochemical release can be measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV, but existing FSCV electrodes rely on carbon fiber, which degrades quickly during use and is therefore unsuitable for chronic neurochemical recording. To address this issue, we developed durable, synthetic boron-doped diamond-based electrodes capable of measuring neurochemical release in humans. Compared to carbon fiber electrodes, they were more than two orders-of-magnitude more physically-robust and demonstrated longevity in vitro without deterioration. Applied for the first time in humans, diamond electrode recordings from thalamic targets in patients (n=4 undergoing DBS for tremor produced signals consistent with adenosine release at a sensitivity comparable to carbon fiber electrodes.

  6. Neuroanatomical and Neurochemical Basis of Impulsivity

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    Kemal Yazici

    2010-08-01

    tis paradigm, the tendency to prefer small immediate rewards over larger, more delayed reinforcers is measured. İmpulsive choice is defined by a greater tendency to value or choose smaller, more immediate reinforcers. Impulsivity is a multi-faceted behaviour. This behaviour may be studied by subdividing it into different processes neuroanatomically and neurochemically. Neuroanatomical data support the suggestion that behavioral disinhibition (impulsive action / motoric impulsivity and delay-discounting (impulsive choice / decision making differ in the degree to which various components of frontostriatal loops are implicated in their regulation. The dorsal prefrontal cortex does not appear to be involved in mediating impulsive choice, yet does have some role in regulating inhibitory processes. In contrast, there appears to be a pronounced role for the orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala in controlling impulsive choice. Other structures, however, such as the nucleus accumbens and subthalamic nucleus may be common to both circuits. From the neurochemical perspective, dopamine system and dopamine- 2 (D2 receptors in particular, seems to be closely involved in making impulsive choice. When the noradrenaline system does not function optimally, it might contribute to increased impulsivity. Serotonin might act upon prefrontal cortex to decrease impulsive choices. Interactions between the serotonin and the dopamine systems are important in the regulation of impulsive behaviour. It is possible that various receptor subtypes of the serotonin system may exert differing and even contrasting effects on impulsive behaviour. Although it is very informative to study neurotransmitter systems separately, it should be kept in mind that there are very intimate interactions between the neurotransmitter systems mentioned above. Based on the fact that impulsivity is regulated through multiple neurotransmitters and even more receptors, one may suggest that pharmacotherapy of

  7. Specific genetic deficiencies of the A and B isoenzymes of monoamine oxidase are characterized by distinct neurochemical and clinical phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, J. W.; Eisenhofer, G.; Abeling, N. G.; Berger, W.; Murphy, D. L.; Konings, C. H.; Wagemakers, L. M.; Kopin, I. J.; Karoum, F.; van Gennip, A. H.; Brunner, H. G.

    1996-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) exists as two isoenzymes and plays a central role in the metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters. In this study we compared the neurochemical phenotypes of previously described subjects with genetically determined selective lack of MAO-A or a lack of both MAO-A and MAO-B

  8. Subnational Adaptation Finance Allocation: Comparing Decentralized and Devolved Political Institutions in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Barrett

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation finance is designed to help vulnerable populations withstand effects of climate variability and change. However, levels of vulnerability seldom determine finance distribution. Political and economic preferences of national and local government decision-makers tend to direct funding streams. This article takes an institutional approach to adaptation finance allocation by comparing decentralized and devolved local governance structures managing adaptation finance in Kenya before and ...

  9. Multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects thalamic neurochemical metabolic changes in patients with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania E. Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The multi-voxel 1H-MRS can provide an insight to the neurochemical metabolic changes occurring in both thalami in patients with MDD. Increased severity of depression is significantly related to these thalamic neurochemical changes.

  10. Comparative analysis of psychological adaptation in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and shizotypal disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Stepanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was the comparing of psychological adaptation characteristics (type of attitude to a disease, psychological defense mechanisms, special aspects of coping-strategy as exemplified by 2 groups of schizophrenia disorder patients: 1 schizotypal disorders (F-21 according to ICD-10; 2 paranoid schizophrenia (F-20 according to ICD-10. The authors arrived at the conclusion of the same nature if special aspects of psychological adaptation in the groups compared. At the same time, both groups compared showed imbalance of «the level of success» between individual characteristics constituting the module of psychological adaptation. This circumstance testifies to the fact that psychological adaptation in the patients with schizophrenic disorders should be evaluated on a case- bycase basis. In conclusion, the study revealed the necessity to take into consideration of these characteristics during rehabilitation of these patients.

  11. Neurochemical characterization of the tree shrew dorsal striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTHEW W RICE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is a major component of the basal ganglia and is associated with motor and cognitive functions. Striatal pathologies have been linked to several disorders, including Huntington's, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorders and schizophrenia. For the study of these striatal pathologies different animal models have been used, including rodents and non-human primates. Rodents lack on morphological complexity (for example, the lack of well defined caudate and putamen nuclei, which makes it difficult to translate data to the human paradigm. Primates, and especially higher primates, are the closest model to humans, but there are ever-increasing restrictions to the use of these animals for research. In our search for a non-primate animal model with a striatum that anatomically (and perhaps functionally can resemble that of humans, we turned our attention to the tree shrew. Evolutionary genetic studies have provided strong data supporting that the tree shrews (Scadentia are one of the closest groups to primates, although their brain anatomy has only been studied in detail for specific brain areas. Morphologically, the tree shrew striatum resembles the primate striatum with the presence of an internal capsule separating the caudate and putamen, but little is known about its neurochemical composition. Here we analyzed the expression of calcium-binding proteins, the presence and distribution of the striosome and matrix compartments (by the use of calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholinesterase immunohistochemistry, and the GABAergic system by immunohistochemistry against glutamic acid decarboxylase and Golgi impregnation. In summary, our results show that when compared to primates, the tree shrew dorsal striatum presents striking similarities in the distribution of most of the markers studied, while presenting some marked divergences when compared to the rodent striatum.

  12. Altered Neurochemical Ingredient of Hippocampus in Patients with Bipolar Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Atmaca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In a number of investigations, hippocampal neurochemicals were evaluated in the patients with bipolar disorder who were on their first episode or euthymic periods. However, we did not meet any investigation in which only patients with bipolar depression were examined. As a consequence, the objective of the present study was to examine both sides of hippocampus of patients with bipolar disorder in depressive episode and healthy controls using 1H-MRS. Methods. Thirteen patients with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder, most recent episode depressed, were recruited from the Department of Psychiatry at Firat University School of Medicine. We also studied 13 healthy comparison subjects who were without any DSM-IV Axis I disorders recruited from the hospital staff. The patients and controls underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS of their hippocampus. NAA, CHO, and CRE values were measured. Results. No significant effect of diagnosis was observed for NAA/CRE ratio. For the NAA/CHO ratio, the ANCOVA with age, gender, and whole brain volume as covariates revealed that the patients with bipolar depression had significantly lower ratio compared to healthy control subjects for right and for left side. As for the CHO/CRE ratio, the difference was statistically significant for right side, with an effect diagnosis of F = 4.763, P = 0.038, and was very nearly significant for left side, with an effect diagnosis of F = 3.732, P = 0.064. Conclusions. We found that the patients with bipolar depression had lower NAA/CHO and higher CHO/CRE ratios compared to those of healthy control subjects. The findings of the present study also suggest that there may be a degenerative process concerning the hippocampus morphology in the patients with bipolar depression.

  13. Behavioral metabolomics analysis identifies novel neurochemical signatures in methamphetamine sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Daniel E.; McClay, Joseph L.; Vunck, Sarah A.; Batman, Angela M.; Vann, Robert E.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Souza, Renan P.; Crowley, James J.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; van den Oord, Edwin J.C.G.; Beardsley, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral sensitization has been widely studied in animal models and is theorized to reflect neural modifications associated with human psychostimulant addiction. While the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway is known to play a role, the neurochemical mechanisms underlying behavioral sensitization remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we conducted the first metabolomics analysis to globally characterize neurochemical differences associated with behavioral sensitization. Methamphetamine-induced sensitization measures were generated by statistically modeling longitudinal activity data for eight inbred strains of mice. Subsequent to behavioral testing, nontargeted liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling was performed on 48 brain samples, yielding 301 metabolite levels per sample after quality control. Association testing between metabolite levels and three primary dimensions of behavioral sensitization (total distance, stereotypy and margin time) showed four robust, significant associations at a stringent metabolome-wide significance threshold (false discovery rate < 0.05). Results implicated homocarnosine, a dipeptide of GABA and histidine, in total distance sensitization, GABA metabolite 4-guanidinobutanoate and pantothenate in stereotypy sensitization, and myo-inositol in margin time sensitization. Secondary analyses indicated that these associations were independent of concurrent methamphetamine levels and, with the exception of the myo-inositol association, suggest a mechanism whereby strain-based genetic variation produces specific baseline neurochemical differences that substantially influence the magnitude of MA-induced sensitization. These findings demonstrate the utility of mouse metabolomics for identifying novel biomarkers, and developing more comprehensive neurochemical models, of psychostimulant sensitization. PMID:24034544

  14. Neurochemical Correlates of Autistic Disorder: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kristen S. L.; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Review of neurochemical investigations in autistic disorder revealed that a wide array of transmitter systems have been studied, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, oxytocin, endogenous opioids, cortisol, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These studies have been complicated by the fact that autism is a very…

  15. Adaptation to Climate Change: A Comparative Analysis of Modeling Methods for Heat-Related Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Simon N; Hondula, David M; Bunker, Aditi; Ibarreta, Dolores; Liu, Junguo; Zhang, Xinxin; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2017-08-16

    Multiple methods are employed for modeling adaptation when projecting the impact of climate change on heat-related mortality. The sensitivity of impacts to each is unknown because they have never been systematically compared. In addition, little is known about the relative sensitivity of impacts to "adaptation uncertainty" (i.e., the inclusion/exclusion of adaptation modeling) relative to using multiple climate models and emissions scenarios. This study had three aims: a ) Compare the range in projected impacts that arises from using different adaptation modeling methods; b ) compare the range in impacts that arises from adaptation uncertainty with ranges from using multiple climate models and emissions scenarios; c ) recommend modeling method(s) to use in future impact assessments. We estimated impacts for 2070-2099 for 14 European cities, applying six different methods for modeling adaptation; we also estimated impacts with five climate models run under two emissions scenarios to explore the relative effects of climate modeling and emissions uncertainty. The range of the difference (percent) in impacts between including and excluding adaptation, irrespective of climate modeling and emissions uncertainty, can be as low as 28% with one method and up to 103% with another (mean across 14 cities). In 13 of 14 cities, the ranges in projected impacts due to adaptation uncertainty are larger than those associated with climate modeling and emissions uncertainty. Researchers should carefully consider how to model adaptation because it is a source of uncertainty that can be greater than the uncertainty in emissions and climate modeling. We recommend absolute threshold shifts and reductions in slope. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP634.

  16. Neurochemical Changes after Acute Binge Toluene Inhalation in Adolescent and Adult Rats: A High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Galloway, Matthew P.; McMechan, Andrew P.; Irtenkauf, Susan; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.

    2009-01-01

    Inhalant abuse in young people is a growing public health concern. We reported previously that acute toluene intoxication in young rats, using a pattern of exposures that approximate abuse patterns of inhalant use in humans, significantly altered neurochemical measures in select brain regions. In this study, adolescent and young adult rats were exposed similarly to an acute (2 × 15 min), high dose (8000 − 12000 ppm) of toluene and high-resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS 1H-MRS) was used to assess neurochemical profiles of tissue samples from a number of brain regions collected immediately following solvent exposure. The current investigation focused on N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), choline-containing compounds, creatine, glutamate, GABA, and glutamine. Contrary to our predictions, no significant alterations were found in levels of NAA, choline, creatine, glutamate, or glutamine in adolescent animals. In contrast to these minimal effects in adolescents, binge toluene exposure altered several neurochemical parameters in young adult rats, including decreased levels of choline and GABA in the frontal cortex and striatum and lowered glutamine and NAA levels in the frontal cortex. One of the more robust findings was a wide-ranging increase in lactate after toluene exposure in adult animals, an effect not observed in adolescents. These age-dependent effects of toluene are distinct from those reported previously in juvenile rats and suggest a developmental difference in vulnerability to the effects of inhalants. Specifically, the results suggest that the neurochemical response to toluene in adolescents is attenuated compared to adults, and imply an association between these neurochemical differences and age-influenced differences in solvent abuse in humans. PMID:19628036

  17. Neurochemical binding profiles of novel indole and benzofuran MDMA analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimshoni, Jakob A; Winkler, Ilan; Golan, Ezekiel; Nutt, David

    2017-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in numerous clinical trials. In the present study, we have characterized the neurochemical binding profiles of three MDMA-benzofuran analogues (1-(benzofuran-5-yl)-propan-2-amine, 5-APB; 1-(benzofuran-6-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine, 6-MAPB; 1-(benzofuran-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine, 5-MAPB) and one MDMA-indole analogue (1-(1H-indol-5-yl)-2-methylamino-propan-1-ol, 5-IT). These compounds were screened as potential second-generation anti-PTSD drugs, against a battery of human and non-human receptors, transporters, and enzymes, and their potencies as 5-HT 2 receptor agonist and monoamine uptake inhibitors determined. All MDMA analogues displayed high binding affinities for 5-HT 2a,b,c and NE α2 receptors, as well as significant 5-HT, DA, and NE uptake inhibition. 5-APB revealed significant agonist activity at the 5-HT 2a,b,c receptors, while 6-MAPB, 5-MAPB, and 5-IT exhibited significant agonist activity at the 5-HT 2c receptor. There was a lack of correlation between the results of functional uptake and the monoamine transporter binding assay. MDMA analogues emerged as potent and selective monoamine oxidase A inhibitors. Based on 6-MAPB favorable pharmacological profile, it was further subjected to IC 50 determination for monoamine transporters. Overall, all MDMA analogues displayed higher monoamine receptor/transporter binding affinities and agonist activity at the 5-HT 2a,c receptors as compared to MDMA.

  18. Comparing and contrasting observed adaptations in three deltas: the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra, Mahanadi and Volta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, R. J.; Suckall, N.; Mensah, A.; Mondal, S.; Dey, S.; Hazra, S.

    2015-12-01

    In low and middle-income countries, many deltaic communities directly depend on the natural environment for income and well-being. Current environmental concerns that threaten deltaic communities, such as increasing salinity, sedimentation, erosion and subsidence are likely to be exacerbated by climate change and variability, for example sea-level rise, increased storminess and rising temperatures. Such changes, along with other social and environmental stressors, mean that communities must adapt. This paper outlines findings of a systematic review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature that examines observed adaptations in three deltas of differing sizes in various geographical contexts: the Ganges-Meghna-Brahmaputra in India and Bangladesh, the Mahanadi in India, and the Volta in Ghana. It compares and contrasts various elements of observed adaptations, including who is driving the adaptation, the beneficiaries, barriers to participation and evidence for maladaptation. The predominant drivers of adaptation vary from government (at state level in India and national level in Bangladesh) and NGOs (in Ghana). Autonomous adaptations are not widely reported in the literature from any of the deltas. In all three deltas there is a focus on supporting adaptation in farming rather than fishing; despite the fact that fisheries contribute to local food security as well as national economies. Lack of access to financial, natural, physical and human capital are common barriers to adaptation in all three deltas. Additionally the Indian literature in particular highlights the lack of coordination between different government departments, coupled with an excessively top-down (state-driven) approach to adaptation. Maladaptation is most commonly reported in the literature from Bangladesh, for example, loss of employment of inland fishermen in embanked areas. The paper concludes by highlighting some of the implications of these findings for adaptation policy in deltas.

  19. Comparative analysis of field-isolate and monkey-adapted Plasmodium vivax genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ernest R; Barnwell, John W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Serre, David

    2015-03-01

    Significant insights into the biology of Plasmodium vivax have been gained from the ability to successfully adapt human infections to non-human primates. P. vivax strains grown in monkeys serve as a renewable source of parasites for in vitro and ex vivo experimental studies and functional assays, or for studying in vivo the relapse characteristics, mosquito species compatibilities, drug susceptibility profiles or immune responses towards potential vaccine candidates. Despite the importance of these studies, little is known as to how adaptation to a different host species may influence the genome of P. vivax. In addition, it is unclear whether these monkey-adapted strains consist of a single clonal population of parasites or if they retain the multiclonal complexity commonly observed in field isolates. Here we compare the genome sequences of seven P. vivax strains adapted to New World monkeys with those of six human clinical isolates collected directly in the field. We show that the adaptation of P. vivax parasites to monkey hosts, and their subsequent propagation, did not result in significant modifications of their genome sequence and that these monkey-adapted strains recapitulate the genomic diversity of field isolates. Our analyses also reveal that these strains are not always genetically homogeneous and should be analyzed cautiously. Overall, our study provides a framework to better leverage this important research material and fully utilize this resource for improving our understanding of P. vivax biology.

  20. Comparative study of adaptive controller using MIT rules and Lyapunov method for MPPT standalone PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariba, N.; Bouknadel, A.; Haddou, A.; Ikken, N.; Omari, Hafsa El; Omari, Hamid El

    2017-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Generator have a nonlinear characteristic function relating the intensity at the voltage I = f (U) and depend on the variation of solar irradiation and temperature, In addition, its point of operation depends directly on the load that it supplies. To fix this drawback, and to extract the maximum power available to the terminal of the generator, an adaptation stage is introduced between the generator and the load to couple the two elements as perfectly as possible. The adaptation stage is associated with a command called MPPT MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) whose is used to force the PVG to operate at the MPP (Maximum Power Point) under variation of climatic conditions and load variation. This paper presents a comparative study between the adaptive controller for PV Systems using MIT rules and Lyapunov method to regulate the PV voltage. The Incremental Conductance (IC) algorithm is used to extract the maximum power from the PVG by calculating the voltage Vref, and the adaptive controller is used to regulate and track quickly the PV voltage. The two methods of the adaptive controller will be compared to prove their performance by using the PSIM tools and experimental test, and the mathematical model of step-up with PVG model will be presented.

  1. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Vestibular Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSmith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that the normal aging process is associated with impaired vestibulo-ocular (VOR and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, causing reduced visual acuity and postural instability. Nonetheless, the available evidence is not entirely consistent, especially with respect to the VOR. Some recent studies have reported that VOR gain can be intact even above 80 years of age. Similarly, although there is evidence for age-related hair cell loss and neuronal loss in Scarpa’s ganglion and the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC, it is not entirely consistent. Whatever structural and functional changes occur in the VNC as a result of aging, either to cause vestibular impairment or to compensate for it, neurochemical changes must underlie them. However, the neurochemical changes that occur in the VNC with aging are poorly understood because the available literature is very limited. This review summarises and critically evaluates the available evidence relating to the noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and nitric oxide neurotransmitter systems in the aging VNC. It is concluded that, at present, it is difficult, if not impossible, to relate the neurochemical changes observed to the function of specific VNC neurons and whether the observed changes are the cause of a functional deficit in the VNC or an effect of it. A better understanding of the neurochemical changes that occur during aging may be important for the development of potential drug treatments for age-related vestibular disorders. However, this will require the use of more sophisticated methodology such as in vivo microdialysis with single neuron recording and perhaps new technologies such as optogenetics.

  2. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Vestibular Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the normal aging process is associated with impaired vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, causing reduced visual acuity and postural instability. Nonetheless, the available evidence is not entirely consistent, especially with respect to the VOR. Some recent studies have reported that VOR gain can be intact even above 80 years of age. Similarly, although there is evidence for age-related hair cell loss and neuronal loss in Scarpa's ganglion and the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC), it is not entirely consistent. Whatever structural and functional changes occur in the VNC as a result of aging, either to cause vestibular impairment or to compensate for it, neurochemical changes must underlie them. However, the neurochemical changes that occur in the VNC with aging are poorly understood because the available literature is very limited. This review summarizes and critically evaluates the available evidence relating to the noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and nitric oxide neurotransmitter systems in the aging VNC. It is concluded that, at present, it is difficult, if not impossible, to relate the neurochemical changes observed to the function of specific VNC neurons and whether the observed changes are the cause of a functional deficit in the VNC or an effect of it. A better understanding of the neurochemical changes that occur during aging may be important for the development of potential drug treatments for age-related vestibular disorders. However, this will require the use of more sophisticated methodology such as in vivo microdialysis with single neuron recording and perhaps new technologies such as optogenetics.

  3. Linking Essential Tremor to the Cerebellum: Neurochemical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Lahoz, Juan; Gironell, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    The pathophysiology and the exact anatomy of essential tremor (ET) is not well known. One of the pillars that support the cerebellum as the main anatomical locus in ET is neurochemistry. This review examines the link between neurochemical abnormalities found in ET and cerebellum. The review is based on published data about neurochemical abnormalities described in ET both in human and in animal studies. We try to link those findings with cerebellum. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main neurotransmitter involved in the pathophysiology of ET. There are several studies about GABA that clearly points to a main role of the cerebellum. There are few data about other neurochemical abnormalities in ET. These include studies with noradrenaline, glutamate, adenosine, proteins, and T-type calcium channels. One single study reveals high levels of noradrenaline in the cerebellar cortex. Another study about serotonin neurotransmitter results negative for cerebellum involvement. Finally, studies on T-type calcium channels yield positive results linking the rhythmicity of ET and cerebellum. Neurochemistry supports the cerebellum as the main anatomical locus in ET. The main neurotransmitter involved is GABA, and the GABA hypothesis remains the most robust pathophysiological theory of ET to date. However, this hypothesis does not rule out other mechanisms and may be seen as the main scaffold to support findings in other systems. We clearly need to perform more studies about neurochemistry in ET to better understand the relations among the diverse systems implied in ET. This is mandatory to develop more effective pharmacological therapies.

  4. Comparative study of adaptive-noise-cancellation algorithms for intrusion detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claassen, J.P.; Patterson, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Some intrusion detection systems are susceptible to nonstationary noise resulting in frequent nuisance alarms and poor detection when the noise is present. Adaptive inverse filtering for single channel systems and adaptive noise cancellation for two channel systems have both demonstrated good potential in removing correlated noise components prior detection. For such noise susceptible systems the suitability of a noise reduction algorithm must be established in a trade-off study weighing algorithm complexity against performance. The performance characteristics of several distinct classes of algorithms are established through comparative computer studies using real signals. The relative merits of the different algorithms are discussed in the light of the nature of intruder and noise signals

  5. Complete synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems via a single proportional adaptive controller: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Israr, E-mail: iak-2000plus@yahoo.com; Saaban, Azizan Bin, E-mail: azizan.s@uum.edu.my; Ibrahim, Adyda Binti, E-mail: adyda@uum.edu.my [School of Quantitative Sciences, College of Arts & Sciences, UUM (Malaysia); Shahzad, Mohammad, E-mail: dmsinfinite@gmail.com [College of Applied Sciences Nizwa, Ministry of Higher Education, Sultanate of Oman (Oman)

    2015-12-11

    This paper addresses a comparative computational study on the synchronization quality, cost and converging speed for two pairs of identical chaotic and hyperchaotic systems with unknown time-varying parameters. It is assumed that the unknown time-varying parameters are bounded. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory and using the adaptive control method, a single proportional controller is proposed to achieve the goal of complete synchronizations. Accordingly, appropriate adaptive laws are designed to identify the unknown time-varying parameters. The designed control strategy is easy to implement in practice. Numerical simulations results are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization scheme.

  6. Behavioral, neurochemical, and electrophysiological changes in an early spontaneous mouse model of nigrostriatal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgadò, Paola; Viaggi, Cristina; Pinna, Annalisa; Marrone, Cristina; Vaglini, Francesca; Pontis, Silvia; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Morelli, Micaela; Corsini, Giovanni Umberto

    2011-08-01

    In idiopathic Parkinson's disease, clinical symptoms do not emerge until consistent neurodegeneration has occurred. The late appearance of symptoms implies the existence of a relatively long preclinical period during which several disease-induced neurochemical changes take place to mask the existence of the disease and delay its clinical manifestations. The aim of this study was to examine the neurochemical, neurophysiological, and behavioral changes induced by the loss of nigrostriatal innervation in the En1+/-;En2-/- mouse, in the 10 months following degeneration, compared to En2 null mutant mice. Behavioral analysis (Pole-test, Beam-walking test, and Inverted grid test) and field potential recordings in the striatum indicated that loss of ~70% of nigrostriatal neurons produced no significant functional effects until 8 months of age, when En1+/-;En2-/- animals started to show frank motor deficits and electrophysiological alterations in corticostriatal plasticity. Similarly, alterations in dopamine homeostasis, dopamine turnover, and dopamine innervation were observed in aged animals compared to young En1+/-;En2-/- mice. These data suggests that in En1+/-;En2-/- mice nigrostriatal degeneration in the substantia nigra is functionally compensated.

  7. Comparative genomics Lactobacillus reuteri from sourdough reveals adaptation of an intestinal symbiont to food fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinshui; Zhao, Xin; Lin, Xiaoxi B; Gänzle, Michael

    2015-12-11

    Lactobacillus reuteri is a dominant member of intestinal microbiota of vertebrates, and occurs in food fermentations. The stable presence of L. reuteri in sourdough provides the opportunity to study the adaptation of vertebrate symbionts to an extra-intestinal habitat. This study evaluated this adaptation by comparative genomics of 16 strains of L. reuteri. A core genome phylogenetic tree grouped L. reuteri into 5 clusters corresponding to the host-adapted lineages. The topology of a gene content tree, which includes accessory genes, differed from the core genome phylogenetic tree, suggesting that the differentiation of L. reuteri is shaped by gene loss or acquisition. About 10% of the core genome (124 core genes) were under positive selection. In lineage III sourdough isolates, 177 genes were under positive selection, mainly related to energy conversion and carbohydrate metabolism. The analysis of the competitiveness of L. reuteri in sourdough revealed that the competitivess of sourdough isolates was equal or higher when compared to rodent isolates. This study provides new insights into the adaptation of L. reuteri to food and intestinal habitats, suggesting that these two habitats exert different selective pressure related to growth rate and energy (carbohydrate) metabolism.

  8. Generalised Adaptive Harmony Search: A Comparative Analysis of Modern Harmony Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Fourie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Harmony search (HS was introduced in 2001 as a heuristic population-based optimisation algorithm. Since then HS has become a popular alternative to other heuristic algorithms like simulated annealing and particle swarm optimisation. However, some flaws, like the need for parameter tuning, were identified and have been a topic of study for much research over the last 10 years. Many variants of HS were developed to address some of these flaws, and most of them have made substantial improvements. In this paper we compare the performance of three recent HS variants: exploratory harmony search, self-adaptive harmony search, and dynamic local-best harmony search. We compare the accuracy of these algorithms, using a set of well-known optimisation benchmark functions that include both unimodal and multimodal problems. Observations from this comparison led us to design a novel hybrid that combines the best attributes of these modern variants into a single optimiser called generalised adaptive harmony search.

  9. Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  10. Neurochemical, morphologic, and laminar characterization of cortical projection neurons in the cingulate motor areas of the macaque monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimchinsky, E. A.; Hof, P. R.; Young, W. G.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The primate cingulate gyrus contains multiple cortical areas that can be distinguished by several neurochemical features, including the distribution of neurofilament protein-enriched pyramidal neurons. In addition, connectivity and functional properties indicate that there are multiple motor areas in the cortex lining the cingulate sulcus. These motor areas were targeted for analysis of potential interactions among regional specialization, connectivity, and cellular characteristics such as neurochemical profile and morphology. Specifically, intracortical injections of retrogradely transported dyes and intracellular injection were combined with immunocytochemistry to investigate neurons projecting from the cingulate motor areas to the putative forelimb region of the primary motor cortex, area M1. Two separate groups of neurons projecting to area M1 emanated from the cingulate sulcus, one anterior and one posterior, both of which furnished commissural and ipsilateral connections with area M1. The primary difference between the two populations was laminar origin, with the anterior projection originating largely in deep layers, and the posterior projection taking origin equally in superficial and deep layers. With regard to cellular morphology, the anterior projection exhibited more morphologic diversity than the posterior projection. Commissural projections from both anterior and posterior fields originated largely in layer VI. Neurofilament protein distribution was a reliable tool for localizing the two projections and for discriminating between them. Comparable proportions of the two sets of projection neurons contained neurofilament protein, although the density and distribution of the total population of neurofilament protein-enriched neurons was very different in the two subareas of origin. Within a projection, the participating neurons exhibited a high degree of morphologic heterogeneity, and no correlation was observed between somatodendritic morphology and

  11. Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 reveals its genetic adaptation and potential probiotic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Li, Xuan; Gu, Qing; Lou, Xiu-Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Song, Da-Feng; Zhang, Chen

    2016-08-01

    In previous studies, Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 showed probiotic properties, such as antimicrobial activity against various pathogens and the capacity to significantly improve pig growth and pork quality. The purpose of this study was to reveal the genes potentially related to its genetic adaptation and probiotic profiles based on comparative genomic analysis. The genome sequence of L. plantarum ZJ316 was compared with those of eight L. plantarum strains deposited in GenBank. BLASTN, Mauve, and MUMmer programs were used for genome alignment and comparison. CRISPRFinder was applied for searching the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). We identified genes that encode proteins related to genetic adaptation and probiotic profiles, including carbohydrate transport and metabolism, proteolytic enzyme systems and amino acid biosynthesis, CRISPR adaptive immunity, stress responses, bile salt resistance, ability to adhere to the host intestinal wall, exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis, and bacteriocin biosynthesis. Comparative characterization of the L. plantarum ZJ316 genome provided the genetic basis for further elucidating the functional mechanisms of its probiotic properties. ZJ316 could be considered a potential probiotic candidate.

  12. Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 reveals its genetic adaptation and potential probiotic profiles* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Li, Xuan; Gu, Qing; Lou, Xiu-yu; Zhang, Xiao-mei; Song, Da-feng; Zhang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In previous studies, Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 showed probiotic properties, such as antimicrobial activity against various pathogens and the capacity to significantly improve pig growth and pork quality. The purpose of this study was to reveal the genes potentially related to its genetic adaptation and probiotic profiles based on comparative genomic analysis. Methods: The genome sequence of L. plantarum ZJ316 was compared with those of eight L. plantarum strains deposited in GenBank. BLASTN, Mauve, and MUMmer programs were used for genome alignment and comparison. CRISPRFinder was applied for searching the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). Results: We identified genes that encode proteins related to genetic adaptation and probiotic profiles, including carbohydrate transport and metabolism, proteolytic enzyme systems and amino acid biosynthesis, CRISPR adaptive immunity, stress responses, bile salt resistance, ability to adhere to the host intestinal wall, exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis, and bacteriocin biosynthesis. Conclusions: Comparative characterization of the L. plantarum ZJ316 genome provided the genetic basis for further elucidating the functional mechanisms of its probiotic properties. ZJ316 could be considered a potential probiotic candidate. PMID:27487802

  13. Neuroprotective potential of curcumin in combination with piperine against 6-hydroxy dopamine induced motor deficit and neurochemical alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shamsher; Kumar, Puneet

    2017-02-01

    6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) is a neurotoxin which on intranigral administration produces severe nigrostriatal damage with motor and cognitive deficit in animals. Curcumin (CMN) in combination with bioenhancer piperine (PP) in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinsonian rats was used to investigate the antioxidant, neuromodulatory and neuroprotective mechanisms. Hemi-Parkinson's rat model was developed with intranigral infusion of 6-OHDA (8 μg/2 μl, once, unilaterally), treatment with CMN (25 and 50 mg/kg) and combination of PP (2.5 mg/kg) with CMN (25 mg/kg) was given daily for 21 days starting from the 7th day after 6-OHDA infusion. The behavioral (locomotor, grip strength, and narrow beam walk) parameters were studied on weekly basis. On 22nd day, isolated brain preparations were subjected to biochemical (lipid peroxidation, glutathione, and nitrite), neuroinflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF- α), and neurochemical (DA, NE, 5- HT, GABA, Glutamate, DOPAC, HVA, and 5-HIAA) analysis. Oral administration of CMN had significantly prevented behavioral, neuroinflammatory, and neurochemical changes and preserved the antioxidant potential of the nigrostriatum in rats treated with 6-OHDA. In the present study, PP and CMN had afforded a better neuroprotective effect compared to alone treatment on behavior, biochemical, neuroinflammatory, and neurochemical parameters in rats.

  14. [Comparative adaptation of crowns of selective laser melting and wax-lost-casting method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-qiang; Shen, Qing-yi; Gao, Jian-hua; Wu, Xue-ying; Chen, Li; Dai, Wen-an

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the marginal adaptation of crowns fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) and wax-lost-casting method, so as to provide an experimental basis for clinic. Co-Cr alloy full crown were fabricated by SLM and wax-lost-casting for 24 samples in each group. All crowns were cemented with zinc phosphate cement and cut along longitudinal axis by line cutting machine. The gap between crown tissue surface and die was measured by 6-point measuring method with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The marginal adaptation of crowns fabricated by SLM and wax-lost-casting were compared statistically. The gap between SLM crowns were (36.51 ± 2.94), (49.36 ± 3.31), (56.48 ± 3.35), (42.20 ± 3.60) µm, and wax-lost-casting crowns were (68.86 ± 5.41), (58.86 ± 6.10), (70.62 ± 5.79), (69.90 ± 6.00) µm. There were significant difference between two groups (P casting method and SLM method provide acceptable marginal adaptation in clinic, and the marginal adaptation of SLM is better than that of wax-lost-casting method.

  15. Adaptation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    building skills, knowledge or networks on adaptation, ... the African partners leading the AfricaAdapt network, together with the UK-based Institute of Development Studies; and ... UNCCD Secretariat, Regional Coordination Unit for Africa, Tunis, Tunisia .... 26 Rural–urban Cooperation on Water Management in the Context of.

  16. Neurochemical binding profiles of novel indole and benzofuran MDMA analogues.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimshoni, JA; Winkler, I; Golan, E; Nutt, D

    2016-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in numerous clinical trials. In the present study, we have characterized the neurochemical binding profiles of three MDMA-benzofuran analogues (1-(benzofuran-5-yl)-propan-2-amine, 5-APB; 1-(benzofuran-6-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine, 6-MAPB; 1-(benzofuran-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine, 5-MAPB) and one MDMA-indole analogue (1-(1H-indol-5-yl)-2-methylamino-propan-1-...

  17. Metabolomics reveals distinct neurochemical profiles associated with stress resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke N. Dulka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute social defeat represents a naturalistic form of conditioned fear and is an excellent model in which to investigate the biological basis of stress resilience. While there is growing interest in identifying biomarkers of stress resilience, until recently, it has not been feasible to associate levels of large numbers of neurochemicals and metabolites to stress-related phenotypes. The objective of the present study was to use an untargeted metabolomics approach to identify known and unknown neurochemicals in select brain regions that distinguish susceptible and resistant individuals in two rodent models of acute social defeat. In the first experiment, male mice were first phenotyped as resistant or susceptible. Then, mice were subjected to acute social defeat, and tissues were immediately collected from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, basolateral/central amygdala (BLA/CeA, nucleus accumbens (NAc, and dorsal hippocampus (dHPC. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS was used for the detection of water-soluble neurochemicals. In the second experiment, male Syrian hamsters were paired in daily agonistic encounters for 2 weeks, during which they formed stable dominant-subordinate relationships. Then, 24 h after the last dominance encounter, animals were exposed to acute social defeat stress. Immediately after social defeat, tissue was collected from the vmPFC, BLA/CeA, NAc, and dHPC for analysis using UPLC-HRMS. Although no single biomarker characterized stress-related phenotypes in both species, commonalities were found. For instance, in both model systems, animals resistant to social defeat stress also show increased concentration of molecules to protect against oxidative stress in the NAc and vmPFC. Additionally, in both mice and hamsters, unidentified spectral features were preliminarily annotated as potential targets for future experiments. Overall, these findings

  18. SU-E-J-80: A Comparative Analysis of MIM and Pinnacle Software for Adaptive Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanford, J; Duggar, W; Morris, B; Yang, C [University of Mississippi Med. Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: IMRT treatment is often administered with image guidance and small PTV margins. Change in body habitus such as weight loss and tumor response during the course of a treatment could be significant, thus warranting re-simulation and re-planning. Adaptive planning is challenging and places significant burden on the staff, as such some commercial vendors are now offering adaptive planning software to stream line the process of re-planning and dose accumulation between different CT data set. The purpose of this abstract is to compare the adaptive planning tools between Pinnacle version 9.8 and MIM 6.4 software. Methods: Head and Neck cases of previously treated patients that experienced anatomical changes during the course of their treatment were chosen for evaluation. The new CT data set from the re-simulation was imported to Pinnacle and MIM software. The dynamic planning tool in pinnacle was used to calculate the old plan with fixed MU setting on the new CT data. In MIM, the old CT was registered to the new data set, followed by a dose transformation to the new CT. The dose distribution to the PTV and critical structures from each software were analyzed and compared. Results: 9% difference was observed between the Global maximum doses reported by both software. Mean doses to organs at risk and PTV’s were within 6 % however pinnacle showed greater difference in PTV coverage change. Conclusion: MIM software adaptive planning corrects for geometrical changes without consideration for the effect of radiological path length on dose distribution; however Pinnacle corrects for both geometric and radiological effect on the dose distribution. Pinnacle gives a better estimate of the dosimetric impact due to anatomical changes.

  19. Effects of Gladiolus dalenii on the Stress-Induced Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Reproductive Changes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fotsing

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gladiolus dalenii is a plant commonly used in many regions of Cameroon as a cure for various diseases like headaches, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and mood disorders. Recent studies have revealed that the aqueous extract of G. dalenii (AEGD exhibited antidepressant-like properties in rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that the AEGD could protect from the stress-induced behavioral, neurochemical, and reproductive changes in rats. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of the AEGD on behavioral, neurochemical, and reproductive characteristics, using female rats subjected to chronic immobilization stress. The chronic immobilization stress (3 h per day for 28 days was applied to induce female reproductive and behavioral impairments in rats. The immobilization stress was provoked in rats by putting them separately inside cylindrical restrainers with ventilated doors at ambient temperature. The plant extract was given to rats orally everyday during 28 days, 5 min before induction of stress. On a daily basis, a vaginal smear was made to assess the duration of the different phases of the estrous cycle and at the end of the 28 days of chronic immobilization stress, the rat’s behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze. They were sacrificed by cervical disruption. The organs were weighed, the ovary histology done, and the biochemical parameters assessed. The findings of this research revealed that G. dalenii increased the entries and the time of open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze. Evaluation of the biochemical parameters levels indicated that there was a significant reduction in the corticosterone, progesterone, and prolactin levels in the G. dalenii aqueous extract treated rats compared to stressed rats whereas the levels of serotonin, triglycerides, adrenaline, cholesterol, glucose estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were significantly increased in the stressed rats treated with, G. dalenii

  20. Comparing computer adaptive and curriculum-based measures of math in progress monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Edward S; Dennis, Minyi Shih; Fu, Qiong

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the use of a Computer Adaptive Test and Curriculum-Based Measurement in the assessment of mathematics. This study also investigated the degree to which slope or rate of change predicted student outcomes on the annual state assessment of mathematics above and beyond scores of single point screening assessments (i.e., the computer adaptive test or the CBM assessment just before the administration of the state assessment). Repeated measurement of mathematics once per month across a 7-month period using a Computer Adaptive Test (STAR-Math) and Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM, AIMSweb Math Computation, AIMSweb Math Concepts/Applications) was collected for a maximum total of 250 third, fourth, and fifth grade students. Results showed STAR-Math in all 3 grades and AIMSweb Math Concepts/Applications in the third and fifth grades had primarily linear growth patterns in mathematics. AIMSweb Math Computation in all grades and AIMSweb Math Concepts/Applications in Grade 4 had decelerating positive trends. Predictive validity evidence showed the strongest relationships were between STAR-Math and outcomes for third and fourth grade students. The blockwise multiple regression by grade revealed that slopes accounted for only a very small proportion of additional variance above and beyond what was explained by the scores obtained on a single point of assessment just prior to the administration of the state assessment. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. A comparative study of software adaptation using remote method call and Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFFONSO, F. J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The software development process has been directed, over the years, to various methodologies with specific purposes to attend emerging needs. Besides, it can also be noticed, during this period, that some processes require mechanisms related to software reuse and greater speed in the development stage. An important factor in this context is the mutation (adaptation, which occurs in all the software's life cycle, due to its customers' needs or due to technological changes. Regarding the latter factor, it has been observed a significant increase in developments that use distributed applications through the World Wide Web or remote application. Based on the adaptation idea and on the necessity of software distribution systems, this paper presents a technique to reconfigure software capable of acting in several developmental contexts (local, distributed and/or Web. In order to demonstrate its applicability, a case study, through the use of service orientation and remote calls, was done to show the software adaptation in the development of applications. Besides, comparative results among the approaches used in the development of reconfigurable applications are also presented.

  2. Comparative modeling of coevolution in communities of unicellular organisms: adaptability and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashin, Sergey A; Suslov, Valentin V; Matushkin, Yuri G

    2010-06-01

    We propose an original program "Evolutionary constructor" that is capable of computationally efficient modeling of both population-genetic and ecological problems, combining these directions in one model of required detail level. We also present results of comparative modeling of stability, adaptability and biodiversity dynamics in populations of unicellular haploid organisms which form symbiotic ecosystems. The advantages and disadvantages of two evolutionary strategies of biota formation--a few generalists' taxa-based biota formation and biodiversity-based biota formation--are discussed.

  3. Proteomic and comparative genomic analysis reveals adaptability of Brassica napus to phosphorus-deficient stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuisen; Ding, Guangda; Wang, Zhenhua; Cai, Hongmei; Xu, Fangsen

    2015-03-18

    Given low solubility and immobility in many soils of the world, phosphorus (P) may be the most widely studied macronutrient for plants. In an attempt to gain an insight into the adaptability of Brassica napus to P deficiency, proteome alterations of roots and leaves in two B. napus contrasting genotypes, P-efficient 'Eyou Changjia' and P-inefficient 'B104-2', under long-term low P stress and short-term P-free starvation conditions were investigated, and proteomic combined with comparative genomic analyses were conducted to interpret the interrelation of differential abundance protein species (DAPs) responding to P deficiency with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for P deficiency tolerance. P-efficient 'Eyou Changjia' had higher dry weight and P content, and showed high tolerance to low P stress compared with P-inefficient 'B104-2'. A total of 146 DAPs were successfully identified by MALDI TOF/TOF MS, which were categorized into several groups including defense and stress response, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, signaling and regulation, amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, protein process, biogenesis and cellular component, and function unknown. 94 of 146 DAPs were mapped to a linkage map constructed by a B. napus population derived from a cross between the two genotypes, and 72 DAPs were located in the confidence intervals of QTLs for P efficiency related traits. We conclude that the identification of these DAPs and the co-location of DAPs with QTLs in the B. napus linkage genetic map provide us novel information in understanding the adaptability of B. napus to P deficiency, and helpful to isolate P-efficient genes in B. napus. Low P seriously limits the production and quality of B. napus. Proteomics and genetic linkage map were widely used to study the adaptive strategies of B. napus response to P deficiency, proteomic combined with comparative genetic analysis to investigate the correlations between DAPs and QTLs are scarce. Thus, we herein investigated

  4. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  5. Individual differences in the effects of chronic stress on memory: behavioral and neurochemical correlates of resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, B M; Veverka, K K; Dhillon, E S; Urban, J H; Lucas, L R

    2013-08-29

    Chronic stress has been shown to impair memory, however, the extent to which memory can be impaired is often variable across individuals. Predisposed differences in particular traits, such as anxiety, may reveal underlying neurobiological mechanisms that could be driving individual differences in sensitivity to stress and, thus, stress resiliency. Such pre-morbid characteristics may serve as early indicators of susceptibility to stress. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and enkephalin (ENK) are neurochemical messengers of interest implicated in modulating anxiety and motivation circuitry; however, little is known about how these neuropeptides interact with stress resiliency and memory. In this experiment, adult male rats were appetitively trained to locate sugar rewards in a motivation-based spatial memory task before undergoing repeated immobilization stress and then being tested for memory retention. Anxiety-related behaviors, among other characteristics, were monitored longitudinally. Results indicated that stressed animals which showed little to no impairments in memory post-stress (i.e., the more stress-resilient individuals) exhibited lower anxiety levels prior to stress when compared to stressed animals that showed large deficits in memory (i.e., the more stress-susceptible individuals). Interestingly, all stressed animals, regardless of memory change, showed reduced body weight gain as well as thymic involution, suggesting that the effects of stress on metabolism and the immune system were dissociated from the effects of stress on higher cognition, and that stress resiliency seems to be domain-specific rather than a global characteristic within an individual. Neurochemical analyses revealed that NPY in the hypothalamus and amygdala and ENK in the nucleus accumbens were modulated differentially between stress-resilient and stress-susceptible individuals, with elevated expression of these neuropeptides fostering anxiolytic and pro-motivation function, thus driving

  6. More with less: A comparative kinematical analysis of Django Reinhardt's adaptations to hand injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wininger, Michael; Williams, David J

    2015-06-01

    At the age of 18 years, jazz guitarist Django Reinhardt (1910-1953) sustained significant burns to his left-hand ring and little fingers; yet, subsequently, he relearned to play and achieved international fame, despite his injuries. Archive film footage and novel motion analysis software were used to compare movements of Django's fretting hand with that of six other guitarists of the same genre. Django employed greater abduction of index and middle fingers (-9.11 ± 6.52° vs -5.78 ± 2.41°; p < 0.001) and more parallel alignment of fingers to the guitar neck (157.7 ± 3.37° vs 150.59 ± 2.67°; p < 0.001) compared to controls. In response to debilitating hand injury, Django developed quantifiable compensatory adaptation of function of his remaining functional fingers by developing an original playing technique. Hand function following injury may be optimized by maximizing latent degrees of freedom in remaining digits, rather than through extensive surgical reconstruction or complex prostheses. Further study of adaptation strategies may inform prosthesis design. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  7. Comparing Residue Clusters from Thermophilic and Mesophilic Enzymes Reveals Adaptive Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanne W Sammond

    Full Text Available Understanding how proteins adapt to function at high temperatures is important for deciphering the energetics that dictate protein stability and folding. While multiple principles important for thermostability have been identified, we lack a unified understanding of how internal protein structural and chemical environment determine qualitative or quantitative impact of evolutionary mutations. In this work we compare equivalent clusters of spatially neighboring residues between paired thermophilic and mesophilic homologues to evaluate adaptations under the selective pressure of high temperature. We find the residue clusters in thermophilic enzymes generally display improved atomic packing compared to mesophilic enzymes, in agreement with previous research. Unlike residue clusters from mesophilic enzymes, however, thermophilic residue clusters do not have significant cavities. In addition, anchor residues found in many clusters are highly conserved with respect to atomic packing between both thermophilic and mesophilic enzymes. Thus the improvements in atomic packing observed in thermophilic homologues are not derived from these anchor residues but from neighboring positions, which may serve to expand optimized protein core regions.

  8. Comparing Residue Clusters from Thermophilic and Mesophilic Enzymes Reveals Adaptive Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammond, Deanne W; Kastelowitz, Noah; Himmel, Michael E; Yin, Hang; Crowley, Michael F; Bomble, Yannick J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how proteins adapt to function at high temperatures is important for deciphering the energetics that dictate protein stability and folding. While multiple principles important for thermostability have been identified, we lack a unified understanding of how internal protein structural and chemical environment determine qualitative or quantitative impact of evolutionary mutations. In this work we compare equivalent clusters of spatially neighboring residues between paired thermophilic and mesophilic homologues to evaluate adaptations under the selective pressure of high temperature. We find the residue clusters in thermophilic enzymes generally display improved atomic packing compared to mesophilic enzymes, in agreement with previous research. Unlike residue clusters from mesophilic enzymes, however, thermophilic residue clusters do not have significant cavities. In addition, anchor residues found in many clusters are highly conserved with respect to atomic packing between both thermophilic and mesophilic enzymes. Thus the improvements in atomic packing observed in thermophilic homologues are not derived from these anchor residues but from neighboring positions, which may serve to expand optimized protein core regions.

  9. The Use of Television Format Adaptation in Denmark: Public Service Broadcasters Compared to Commercial Broadcasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    brought about major changes in both production and scheduling. This paper evaluates the impact that format adaptation has had in Denmark on public service broadcasters (PSBs) compared to commercial broadcasters. To illustrate transnational differences, references are made to Germany and Australia. First......, a quantitative analysis of PSB and commercial schedules in Denmark is presented to establish the extent to which PSBs have employed formats between 2000 and 2012, and how this compares with commercial broadcasters. Secondly, a qualitative analysis looks into genre and the nature of the individual formats...... employed to assess any important differences between the formats in the two sectors. Most formats fall within entertainment and is well suited to providing the consumption friendly environment that commercial broadcasters seek to offer their advertising clients (Brennan 2012). Broadcasters also favour...

  10. Thiamine Deficiency Induced Neurochemical, Neuroanatomical, and Neuropsychological Alterations: A Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Nardone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional deficiency can cause, mainly in chronic alcoholic subjects, the Wernicke encephalopathy and its chronic neurological sequela, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS. Long-term chronic ethanol abuse results in hippocampal and cortical cell loss. Thiamine deficiency also alters principally hippocampal- and frontal cortical-dependent neurochemistry; moreover in WKS patients, important pathological damage to the diencephalon can occur. In fact, the amnesic syndrome typical for WKS is mainly due to the damage in the diencephalic-hippocampal circuitry, including thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies. The loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain region results in decreased cholinergic input to the hippocampus and the cortex and reduced choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities and function, as well as in acetylcholine receptor downregulation within these brain regions. In this narrative review, we will focus on the neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuropsychological studies shedding light on the effects of thiamine deficiency in experimental models and in humans.

  11. Individual differences in the forced swimming test and neurochemical kinetics in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira-Cordero, Andrey; Mora-Gallegos, Andrea; Cuenca-Berger, Patricia; Fornaguera-Trías, Jaime

    2014-04-10

    Individual differences in the forced swimming test (FST) could be associated with differential temporal dynamics of gene expression and neurotransmitter activity. We tested juvenile male rats in the FST and classified the animals into those with low and high immobility according to the amount of immobility time recorded in FST. These groups and a control group which did not undergo the FST were sacrificed either 1, 6 or 24 h after the test. We analyzed the expression of the CRF, CRFR1, BDNF and TrkB in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens as well as norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, GABA and glutamine in the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens. Animals with low immobility showed significant reductions of BDNF expression across time points in both the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens when compared with non-swim control. Moreover, rats with high immobility only showed a significant decrease of BDNF expression in the prefrontal cortex 6h after the FST. Regarding neurotransmitters, only accumbal dopamine turnover and hippocampal glutamate content showed an effect of individual differences (i.e. animals with low and high immobility), whereas nearly all parameters showed significant differences across time points. Correlational analyses suggest that immobility in the FST, probably reflecting despair, is related to prefrontal cortical BDNF and to the kinetics observed in several other neurochemical parameters. Taken together, our results suggest that individual differences observed in depression-like behavior can be associated not only with changes in the concentrations of key neurochemical factors but also with differential time courses of such factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of roots of contrasting Gossypium herbaceum genotypes revealing adaptation to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Alok

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root length and its architecture govern the adaptability of plants to various stress conditions, including drought stress. Genetic variations in root growth, length, and architecture are genotypes dependent. In this study, we compared the drought-induced transcriptome of four genotypes of Gossypium herbaceum that differed in their drought tolerance adaptability. Three different methodologies, namely, microarray, pyrosequencing, and qRT–PCR, were used for transcriptome analysis and validation. Results The variations in root length and growth were found among four genotypes of G.herbaceum when exposed to mannitol-induced osmotic stress. Under osmotic stress, the drought tolerant genotypes Vagad and GujCot-21 showed a longer root length than did by drought sensitive RAHS-14 and RAHS-IPS-187. Further, the gene expression patterns in the root tissue of all genotypes were analyzed. We obtained a total of 794 differentially expressed genes by microarray and 104928 high-quality reads representing 53195 unigenes from the root transcriptome. The Vagad and GujCot-21 respond to water stress by inducing various genes and pathways such as response to stresses, response to water deprivation, and flavonoid pathways. Some key regulatory genes involved in abiotic stress such as AP2 EREBP, MYB, WRKY, ERF, ERD9, and LEA were highly expressed in Vagad and GujCot-21. The genes RHD3, NAP1, LBD, and transcription factor WRKY75, known for root development under various stress conditions, were expressed specifically in Vagad and GujCot-21. The genes related to peroxidases, transporters, cell wall-modifying enzymes, and compatible solutes (amino acids, amino sugars, betaine, sugars, or sugar alcohols were also highly expressed in Vagad and Gujcot-21. Conclusion Our analysis highlights changes in the expression pattern of genes and depicts a small but highly specific set of drought responsive genes induced in response to drought stress. Some of these

  13. A comparative ideotype, yield component and cultivation value analysis for spring wheat adaptation in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Laurila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study Mixed structural covariance, Path and Cultivation Value analyses and the CERES-Wheat crop model were used to evaluate vegetation and yield component variation affecting yield potential between different high-latitude (> 60° N lat. and mid-European (< 60° N lat. spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes currently cultivated in southern Finland. Path modeling results from this study suggest that especially grains/ear, harvest index (HI and maximum 1000 kernel weight were significant factors defining the highest yield potential. Mixed and Cultivation value modeling results suggest that when compared with genotypes introduced for cultivation before 1990s, modern spring wheat genotypes have a significantly higher yielding capacity, current high yielding mid-European genotypes even exceeding the 5 t ha-1 non-potential baseline yield level (yb. Because of a forthcoming climate change, the new high yielding wheat genotypes have to adapt for elevated temperatures and atmospheric CO2 growing conditions in northern latitudes. The optimized ideotype profiles derived from the generic high-latitude and mid-European genotypes are presented in the results. High-latitude and mid-European ideotype profiles with factors estimating the effects of concurrent elevated CO2 and temperature levels with photoperiodical daylength effects can be utilized when designing future high yielding ideotypes adapted to future growing conditions. The CERES-Wheat ideotype modeling results imply, that with new high yielding mid-European ideotypes, the non-potential baseline yield (yb would be on average 5150 kg ha-1 level (+ 108 % vs. new high-latitude ideotypes (yb 4770 kg ha-1, 100% grown under the elevated CO2(700ppm×temperature(+3ºC growing conditions projected by the year 2100 climate change scenario in southern Finland.

  14. Comparison of Different Matrices as Potential Quality Control Samples for Neurochemical Dementia Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelental, Natalia; Brandner, Sebastian; Kofanova, Olga; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Andreasson, Ulf; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Mroczko, Barbara; Gabryelewicz, Tomasz; Teunissen, Charlotte; Mollenhauer, Brit; Parnetti, Lucilla; Chiasserini, Davide; Molinuevo, Jose Luis; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Verbeek, Marcel M.; Andreasen, Niels; Brosseron, Frederic; Bahl, Justyna M. C.; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Hausner, Lucrezia; Froelich, Lutz; Labonte, Anne; Poirier, Judes; Miller, Anne-Marie; Zilka, Norbert; Kovacech, Branislav; Urbani, Andrea; Suardi, Silvia; Oliveira, Catarina; Baldeiras, Ines; Dubois, Bruno; Rot, Uros; Lehmann, Sylvain; Skinningsrud, Anders; Betsou, Fay; Wiltfang, Jens; Gkatzima, Olymbia; Winblad, Bengt; Buchfelder, Michael; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lewczuk, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Background: Assay-vendor independent quality control (QC) samples for neurochemical dementia diagnostics (NDD) biomarkers are so far commercially unavailable. This requires that NDD laboratories prepare their own QC samples, for example by pooling leftover cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples.

  15. Comparative genome analysis of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Clavibacter strains reveals adaptations to their lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Załuga, Joanna; Stragier, Pieter; Baeyen, Steve; Haegeman, Annelies; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Maes, Martine; De Vos, Paul

    2014-05-22

    The genus Clavibacter harbors economically important plant pathogens infecting agricultural crops such as potato and tomato. Although the vast majority of Clavibacter strains are pathogenic, there is an increasing number of non-pathogenic isolates reported. Non-pathogenic Clavibacter strains isolated from tomato seeds are particularly problematic because they affect the current detection and identification tests for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), which is regulated with a zero tolerance in tomato seed. Their misidentification as pathogenic Cmm hampers a clear judgment on the seed quality and health. To get more insight in the genetic features linked to the lifestyle of these bacteria, a whole-genome sequence of the tomato seed-borne non-pathogenic Clavibacter LMG 26808 was determined. To gain a better understanding of the molecular determinants of pathogenicity, the genome sequence of LMG 26808 was compared with that of the pathogenic Cmm strain (NCPPB 382). The comparative analysis revealed that LMG 26808 does not contain plasmids pCM1 and pCM2 and also lacks the majority of important virulence factors described so far for pathogenic Cmm. This explains its apparent non-pathogenic nature in tomato plants. Moreover, the genome analysis of LMG 26808 detected sequences from a plasmid originating from a member of Enterobacteriaceae/Klebsiella relative. Genes received that way and coding for antibiotic resistance may provide a competitive advantage for survival of LMG 26808 in its ecological niche. Genetically, LMG 26808 was the most similar to the pathogenic Cmm NCPPB 382 but contained more mobile genetic elements. The genome of this non-pathogenic Clavibacter strain contained also a high number of transporters and regulatory genes. The genome sequence of the non-pathogenic Clavibacter strain LMG 26808 and the comparative analyses with other pathogenic Clavibacter strains provided a better understanding of the genetic bases of virulence and

  16. Attenuation of neurobehavioral and neurochemical abnormalities in animal model of cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease by fermented soybean nanonutraceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Prakash Chandra; Pathak, Shruti; Kumar, Vikas; Panda, Bibhu Prasad

    2018-02-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of nanonutraceuticals (NN) for attenuation of neurobehavioral and neurochemical abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease. Solid-state fermentation of soybean with Bacillus subtilis was performed to produce different metabolites (nattokinase, daidzin, genistin and glycitin and menaquinone-7). Intoxication of rats with colchicine caused impairment in learning and memory which was demonstrated in neurobehavioral paradigms (Morris water maze and passive avoidance) linked with decreased activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). NN treatment led to a significant increase in TLT in the retention trials as compared to acquisition trial TLT suggesting an improved learning and memory in rats. Further, treatment of NN caused an increase in the activity of AChE (42%), accompanied with a reduced activity of glutathione (42%), superoxide dismutase (43%) and catalase (41%). It also decreased the level of lipid peroxidation (28%) and protein carbonyl contents (30%) in hippocampus as compared to those treated with colchicine alone, suggesting a possible neuroprotective efficacy of NN. Interestingly, in silico studies also demonstrated an effective amyloid-β and BACE-1 inhibition activity. These findings clearly indicated that NN reversed colchicine-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations through potent antioxidant activity and could possibly impart beneficial effects in cognitive defects associated with Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Wireless Amperometric Neurochemical Monitoring Using an Integrated Telemetry Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roham, Masoud; Halpern, Jeffrey M.; Martin, Heidi B.; Chiel, Hillel J.

    2015-01-01

    An integrated circuit for wireless real-time monitoring of neurochemical activity in the nervous system is described. The chip is capable of conducting high-resolution amperometric measurements in four settings of the input current. The chip architecture includes a first-order ΔΣ modulator (ΔΣM) and a frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) operating near 433 MHz. It is fabricated using the AMI 0.5 μm double-poly triple-metal n-well CMOS process, and requires only one off-chip component for operation. Measured dc current resolutions of ~250 fA, ~1.5 pA, ~4.5 pA, and ~17 pA were achieved for input currents in the range of ±5, ±37, ±150, and ±600 nA, respectively. The chip has been interfaced with a diamond-coated, quartz-insulated, microneedle, tungsten electrode, and successfully recorded dopamine concentration levels as low as 0.5 μM wirelessly over a transmission distance of ~0.5 m in flow injection analysis experiments. PMID:18990633

  18. Neurochemical Effects of Chronic Administration of Calcitriol in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Jiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite accumulating data showing the various neurological actions of vitamin D (VD, its effects on brain neurochemistry are still far from fully understood. To further investigate the neurochemical influence of VD, we assessed neurotransmitter systems in the brain of rats following 6-week calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D administration (50 ng/kg/day or 100 ng/kg/day. Both the two doses of calcitriol enhanced VDR protein level without affecting serum calcium and phosphate status. Rats treated with calcitriol, especially with the higher dose, exhibited elevated γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA status. Correspondingly, the mRNA expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD 67 was increased. 100 ng/kg of calcitriol administration also increased glutamate and glutamine levels in the prefrontal cortex, but did not alter glutamine synthetase (GS expression. Additionally, calcitriol treatment promoted tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2 expression without changing dopamine and serotonin status. However, the concentrations of the metabolites of dopamine and serotonin were increased and the drug use also resulted in a significant rise of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA expression, which might be responsible to maintain the homeostasis of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission. Collectively, the present study firstly showed the effects of calcitriol in the major neurotransmitter systems, providing new evidence for the role of VD in brain function.

  19. In vivo neurochemical characterization of clothianidin induced striatal dopamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, L R F; Oliveira, I M; Durán, R; Alfonso, M

    2012-12-16

    Clothianidin (CLO) is a neonicotinoid insecticide with selective action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The aim of this study was to determine the neurochemical basis for CLO-induced striatal dopamine release using the microdialysis technique in freely moving and conscious rats. Intrastriatal administration of CLO (3.5mM), produced an increase in both spontaneous (2462 ± 627% with respect to basal values) and KCl-evoked (4672 ± 706% with respect to basal values) dopamine release. This effect was attenuated in Ca(2+)-free medium, and was prevented in reserpine pre-treated animals or in presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX). To investigate the involvement of dopamine transporter (DAT), the effect of CLO was observed in presence of nomifensine. The coadministration of CLO and nomifensine produced an additive effect on striatal dopamine release. The results suggest that the effect of CLO on striatal dopamine release is predominantly mediated by an exocytotic mechanism, Ca(2+), vesicular and TTX-dependent and not by a mechanism mediated by dopamine transporter. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Neurochemical imaging of Alzheimer's disease and other degenerative dementias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, K.A.; Minoshima, S.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    A wide variety of neurochemical and functional imaging approaches have been applied to the study of progressive dementias, particularly Alzheimer's disease (Ad) and related disorders. Despite considerable progress in the past decade, the cause((s) of most cases of Ad remain undetermined and preventive or protective therapies are lacking. Specifically-designed imaging procedures have permitted the testing of pathophysiological hypotheses of the etiology and progression of Ad, and have yielded important insights in several areas including the potential roles of cerebral cortical cholinergic lesions, cellular inflammation, and losses of cortical synapses. From the perspective of clinical diagnosis, PET glucose metabolism imaging with use of ( 18 F)2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most sensitive and specific imaging modality yet identified. The overall performance of PET FDG is favorable for routine clinical evaluation of suspected Ad, and will likely gain increasing utilization in the near future. Assessments of glucose metabolism and other, specific aspects of neurochemistry in Ad will provide direct measures of therapeutic drug actions and may permit distinction of symptomatic versus disease-modifying therapies as they are developed and introduced in clinical trials

  1. Wireless amperometric neurochemical monitoring using an integrated telemetry circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roham, Masoud; Halpern, Jeffrey M; Martin, Heidi B; Chiel, Hillel J; Mohseni, Pedram

    2008-11-01

    An integrated circuit for wireless real-time monitoring of neurochemical activity in the nervous system is described. The chip is capable of conducting high-resolution amperometric measurements in four settings of the input current. The chip architecture includes a first-order Delta Sigma modulator (Delta Sigma M) and a frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) operating near 433 MHz. It is fabricated using the AMI 0.5 microm double-poly triple-metal n-well CMOS process, and requires only one off-chip component for operation. Measured dc current resolutions of approximately 250 fA, approximately 1.5 pA, approximately 4.5 pA, and approximately 17 pA were achieved for input currents in the range of +/-5, +/-37, +/-150, and +/-600 nA, respectively. The chip has been interfaced with a diamond-coated, quartz-insulated, microneedle, tungsten electrode, and successfully recorded dopamine concentration levels as low as 0.5 microM wirelessly over a transmission distance of approximately 0.5 m in flow injection analysis experiments.

  2. Comparison of the adaptability to heavy metals among crop plants. I. Adaptability to manganese-studies on comparative plant nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, A; Tadano, T; Fujita, H

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to compare the tolerance of a variety of crop plants to the uptake of manganese. Three different concentrations of manganese were used for growing test plants, which included the following: rice, sugar beets, azuki beans, radishes, broad beans, peas, rutabaga, turnips, Arctinum tappa, Brassica japonica, green pepper, maize, spinach, cucumbers, tomatoes, mustard, and millet.

  3. How immigrants adapt their smoking behaviour: comparative analysis among Turkish immigrants in Germany and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Katharina; Sauzet, Odile; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Spallek, Jacob; Razum, Oliver

    2014-08-14

    Smoking behaviour among immigrants is assumed to converge to that of the host country's majority population with increasing duration of stay. We compared smoking prevalence among Turkish immigrants residing in two different countries (Germany (DE)/the Netherlands (NL)) between and within countries by time spent in Turkey and DE/NL. The German 2009 micro-census and the Dutch POLS database (national survey, 1997-2004) were analysed. An interaction variable with dichotomised length of stay (LOS) in Turkey (age: 0-17; 18+) and categorised LOS in the host country (immigration year: 1979 and earlier, 1980-1999, 2000-2009; the latter only for Germany) was generated. Age standardised smoking prevalences and sex-specific logistic regression models were calculated. 6,517 Turkish participants were identified in Germany, 2,106 in the Netherlands. Age-standardised smoking prevalences were higher among Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands compared to those in Germany: 62.3% vs. 53.1% (men/lower education); 30.6% vs. 23.0% (women/lower education). A similar trend was observed for the majority population of both countries. The chance of being a smoker was lower among Turkish men with short LOS in Turkey and middle LOS in Germany/the Netherlands compared to those with short LOS in Turkey and long LOS in Germany/the Netherlands (NL: OR = 0.57[95% CI = 0.36-0.89]; DE: OR = 0.73[95% CI = 0.56-0.95]). Contrary to that, the chance of being a smoker was higher among Turkish men with long LOS in Turkey and middle LOS in Germany/the Netherlands compared to those with long LOS in Turkey and long LOS in Germany/the Netherlands (NL: OR = 1.35[95% CI = 0.79-2.33]; DE: OR = 1.44[95% CI = 1.03-2.02]). The effects for Turkish women were similar, but smaller and often non-significant. Turkish immigrants adapt their smoking behaviour towards that of the Dutch/German majority population with increasing duration of stay. This was particularly obvious among those who left Turkey before the age of 18

  4. Ganzfeld stimulation or sleep enhance long term motor memory consolidation compared to normal viewing in saccadic adaptation paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Voges

    Full Text Available Adaptation of saccade amplitude in response to intra-saccadic target displacement is a type of implicit motor learning which is required to compensate for physiological changes in saccade performance. Once established trials without intra-saccadic target displacement lead to de-adaptation or extinction, which has been attributed either to extra-retinal mechanisms of spatial constancy or to the influence of the stable visual surroundings. Therefore we investigated whether visual deprivation ("Ganzfeld"-stimulation or sleep can partially maintain this motor learning compared to free viewing of the natural surroundings. Thirty-five healthy volunteers performed two adaptation blocks of 100 inward adaptation trials - interspersed by an extinction block - which were followed by a two-hour break with or without visual deprivation (VD. Using additional adaptation and extinction blocks short and long (4 weeks term memory of this implicit motor learning were tested. In the short term, motor memory tested immediately after free viewing was superior to adaptation performance after VD. In the long run, however, effects were opposite: motor memory and relearning of adaptation was superior in the VD conditions. This could imply independent mechanisms that underlie the short-term ability of retrieving learned saccadic gain and its long term consolidation. We suggest that subjects mainly rely on visual cues (i.e., retinal error in the free viewing condition which makes them prone to changes of the visual stimulus in the extinction block. This indicates the role of a stable visual array for resetting adapted saccade amplitudes. In contrast, visual deprivation (GS and sleep, might train subjects to rely on extra-retinal cues, e.g., efference copy or prediction to remap their internal representations of saccade targets, thus leading to better consolidation of saccadic adaptation.

  5. Comparative Genomics of the Herbivore Gut Symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri Reveals Genetic Diversity and Lifestyle Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus reuteri is a catalase-negative, Gram-positive, non-motile, obligately heterofermentative bacterial species that has been used as a model to describe the ecology and evolution of vertebrate gut symbionts. However, the genetic features and evolutionary strategies of L. reuteri from the gastrointestinal tract of herbivores remain unknown. Therefore, 16 L. reuteri strains isolated from goat, sheep, cow, and horse in Inner Mongolia, China were sequenced in this study. A comparative genomic approach was used to assess genetic diversity and gain insight into the distinguishing features related to the different hosts based on 21 published genomic sequences. Genome size, G + C content, and average nucleotide identity values of the L. reuteri strains from different hosts indicated that the strains have broad genetic diversity. The pan-genome of 37 L. reuteri strains contained 8,680 gene families, and the core genome contained 726 gene families. A total of 92,270 nucleotide mutation sites were discovered among 37 L. reuteri strains, and all core genes displayed a Ka/Ks ratio much lower than 1, suggesting strong purifying selective pressure (negative selection. A highly robust maximum likelihood tree based on the core genes shown in the herbivore isolates were divided into three clades; clades A and B contained most of the herbivore isolates and were more closely related to human isolates and vastly distinct from clade C. Some functional genes may be attributable to host-specific of the herbivore, omnivore, and sourdough groups. Moreover, the numbers of genes encoding cell surface proteins and active carbohydrate enzymes were host-specific. This study provides new insight into the adaptation of L. reuteri to the intestinal habitat of herbivores, suggesting that the genomic diversity of L. reuteri from different ecological origins is closely associated with their living environment.

  6. A decision analysis approach to climate adaptation: comparing multiple pathways for multi-decadal decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, B. B.; Little, L.

    2013-12-01

    Policy planners around the world are required to consider the implications of adapting to climatic change across spatial contexts and decadal timeframes. However, local level information for planning is often poorly defined, even though climate adaptation decision-making is made at this scale. This is especially true when considering sea level rise and coastal impacts of climate change. We present a simple approach using sea level rise simulations paired with adaptation scenarios to assess a range of adaptation options available to local councils dealing with issues of beach recession under present and future sea level rise and storm surge. Erosion and beach recession pose a large socioeconomic risk to coastal communities because of the loss of key coastal infrastructure. We examine the well-known adaptation technique of beach nourishment and assess various timings and amounts of beach nourishment at decadal time spans in relation to beach recession impacts. The objective was to identify an adaptation strategy that would allow for a low frequency of management interventions, the maintenance of beach width, and the ability to minimize variation in beach width over the 2010 to 2100 simulation period. 1000 replications of each adaptation option were produced against the 90 year simulation in order to model the ability each adaptation option to achieve the three key objectives. Three sets of adaptation scenarios were identified. Within each scenario, a number of adaptation options were tested. The three scenarios were: 1) Fixed periodic beach replenishment of specific amounts at 20 and 50 year intervals, 2) Beach replenishment to the initial beach width based on trigger levels of recession (5m, 10m, 20m), and 3) Fixed period beach replenishment of a variable amount at decadal intervals (every 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 years). For each adaptation option, we show the effectiveness of each beach replenishment scenario to maintain beach width and consider the implications of more

  7. Neurochemical Evidence of Potential Neurotoxicity After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalm, Marie, E-mail: marie.kalm@neuro.gu.se [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Insitute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Abel, Edvard [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wasling, Pontus [Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Nyman, Jan [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Hietala, Max Albert [Department of Neurology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Bremell, Daniel; Hagberg, Lars [Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Elam, Mikael [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Insitute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Blennow, Kaj [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal (Sweden); Björk-Eriksson, Thomas [Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Zetterberg, Henrik [Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal (Sweden); UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To examine whether cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for neuroaxonal damage, neuroglial activation, and amyloid β–related processes could characterize the neurochemical response to cranial radiation. Methods and Materials: Before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) of patients with small cell lung cancer, each patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, lumbar puncture, and Mini-Mental State Examination of cognitive function. These examinations were repeated at approximately 3 and 12 months after radiation. Results: The major findings were as follows. (1) Cerebrospinal fluid markers for neuronal and neuroglial injury were elevated during the subacute phase after PCI. Neurofilament and T-tau increased 120% and 50%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). The same was seen for the neuroglial markers YKL-40 and glial fibrillary acidic protein, which increased 144% and 106%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). (2) The levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein-α and -β were reduced 44% and 46%, respectively, 3 months after PCI, and the levels continued to decrease as long as 1 year after treatment (P<.05). (3) Mini-Mental State Examination did not reveal any cognitive decline, indicating that a more sensitive test should be used in future studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, we were able to detect radiation therapy–induced changes in several markers reflecting neuronal injury, inflammatory/astroglial activation, and altered amyloid precursor protein/amyloid β metabolism, despite the low number of patients and quite moderate radiation doses (20-30 Gy). These changes are hypothesis generating and could potentially be used to assess the individual risk of developing long-term symptoms of chronic encephalopathy after PCI. This has to be evaluated in large studies with extended clinical follow-up and more detailed neurocognitive assessments.

  8. Neurochemical Evidence of Potential Neurotoxicity After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalm, Marie; Abel, Edvard; Wasling, Pontus; Nyman, Jan; Hietala, Max Albert; Bremell, Daniel; Hagberg, Lars; Elam, Mikael; Blennow, Kaj; Björk-Eriksson, Thomas; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for neuroaxonal damage, neuroglial activation, and amyloid β–related processes could characterize the neurochemical response to cranial radiation. Methods and Materials: Before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) of patients with small cell lung cancer, each patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, lumbar puncture, and Mini-Mental State Examination of cognitive function. These examinations were repeated at approximately 3 and 12 months after radiation. Results: The major findings were as follows. (1) Cerebrospinal fluid markers for neuronal and neuroglial injury were elevated during the subacute phase after PCI. Neurofilament and T-tau increased 120% and 50%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). The same was seen for the neuroglial markers YKL-40 and glial fibrillary acidic protein, which increased 144% and 106%, respectively, after PCI (P<.05). (2) The levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein-α and -β were reduced 44% and 46%, respectively, 3 months after PCI, and the levels continued to decrease as long as 1 year after treatment (P<.05). (3) Mini-Mental State Examination did not reveal any cognitive decline, indicating that a more sensitive test should be used in future studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, we were able to detect radiation therapy–induced changes in several markers reflecting neuronal injury, inflammatory/astroglial activation, and altered amyloid precursor protein/amyloid β metabolism, despite the low number of patients and quite moderate radiation doses (20-30 Gy). These changes are hypothesis generating and could potentially be used to assess the individual risk of developing long-term symptoms of chronic encephalopathy after PCI. This has to be evaluated in large studies with extended clinical follow-up and more detailed neurocognitive assessments

  9. Caffeine triggers behavioral and neurochemical alterations in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardais, A P; Borges, M F; Rocha, A S; Sallaberry, C; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2014-06-13

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide but concerns arise about the growing intake of caffeine-containing drinks by adolescents since the effects of caffeine on cognitive functions and neurochemical aspects of late brain maturation during adolescence are poorly known. We now studied the behavioral impact in adolescent male rats of regular caffeine intake at low (0.1mg/mL), moderate (0.3mg/mL) and moderate/high (1.0mg/mL) doses only during their active period (from 7:00 P.M. to 7:00 A.M.). All tested doses of caffeine were devoid of effects on locomotor activity, but triggered anxiogenic effects. Caffeine (0.3 and 1mg/mL) improved the performance in the object recognition task, but the higher dose of caffeine (1.0mg/mL) decreased the habituation to an open-field arena, suggesting impaired non-associative memory. All tested doses of caffeine decreased the density of glial fibrillary acidic protein and synaptosomal-associated protein-25, but failed to modify neuron-specific nuclear protein immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Caffeine (0.3-1mg/mL) increased the density of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and proBDNF density as well as adenosine A1 receptor density in the hippocampus, whereas the higher dose of caffeine (1mg/mL) increased the density of proBDNF and BDNF and decreased A1 receptor density in the cerebral cortex. These findings document an impact of caffeine consumption in adolescent rats with a dual impact on anxiety and recognition memory, associated with changes in BDNF levels and decreases of astrocytic and nerve terminal markers without overt neuronal damage in hippocampal and cortical regions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative Study of Neural Network Frameworks for the Next Generation of Adaptive Optics Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Santos, Jesús Daniel; Martínez-Zarzuela, Mario; Basden, Alistair G; Osborn, James; Díaz-Pernas, Francisco Javier; De Cos Juez, Francisco Javier

    2017-06-02

    Many of the next generation of adaptive optics systems on large and extremely large telescopes require tomographic techniques in order to correct for atmospheric turbulence over a large field of view. Multi-object adaptive optics is one such technique. In this paper, different implementations of a tomographic reconstructor based on a machine learning architecture named "CARMEN" are presented. Basic concepts of adaptive optics are introduced first, with a short explanation of three different control systems used on real telescopes and the sensors utilised. The operation of the reconstructor, along with the three neural network frameworks used, and the developed CUDA code are detailed. Changes to the size of the reconstructor influence the training and execution time of the neural network. The native CUDA code turns out to be the best choice for all the systems, although some of the other frameworks offer good performance under certain circumstances.

  11. Comparative Associations Between Achieved Bicultural Identity, Achieved Ego Identity, and Achieved Religious Identity and Adaptation Among Australian Adolescent Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rayya, Hisham M; Abu-Rayya, Maram H; White, Fiona A; Walker, Richard

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the comparative roles of biculturalism, ego identity, and religious identity in the adaptation of Australian adolescent Muslims. A total of 504 high school Muslim students studying at high schools in metropolitan Sydney and Melbourne, Australia, took part in this study which required them to complete a self-report questionnaire. Analyses indicated that adolescent Muslims' achieved religious identity seems to play a more important role in shaping their psychological and socio-cultural adaptation compared to adolescents' achieved bicultural identity. Adolescents' achieved ego identity tended also to play a greater role in their psychological and socio-cultural adaptation than achieved bicultural identity. The relationships between the three identities and negative indicators of psychological adaptation were consistently indifferent. Based on these findings, we propose that the three identity-based forces-bicultural identity development, religious identity attainment, and ego identity formation-be amalgamated into one framework in order for researchers to more accurately examine the adaptation of Australian adolescent Muslims.

  12. Designing Training for Temporal and Adaptive Transfer: A Comparative Evaluation of Three Training Methods for Process Control Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Annette; Sauer, Juergen; Burkolter, Dina; Ritzmann, Sandrina

    2010-01-01

    Training in process control environments requires operators to be prepared for temporal and adaptive transfer of skill. Three training methods were compared with regard to their effectiveness in supporting transfer: Drill & Practice (D&P), Error Training (ET), and procedure-based and error heuristics training (PHT). Communication…

  13. WINCS Harmoni: Closed-loop dynamic neurochemical control of therapeutic interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kendall H.; Lujan, J. Luis; Trevathan, James K.; Ross, Erika K.; Bartoletta, John J.; Park, Hyung Ook; Paek, Seungleal Brian; Nicolai, Evan N.; Lee, Jannifer H.; Min, Hoon-Ki; Kimble, Christopher J.; Blaha, Charles D.; Bennet, Kevin E.

    2017-04-01

    There has been significant progress in understanding the role of neurotransmitters in normal and pathologic brain function. However, preclinical trials aimed at improving therapeutic interventions do not take advantage of real-time in vivo neurochemical changes in dynamic brain processes such as disease progression and response to pharmacologic, cognitive, behavioral, and neuromodulation therapies. This is due in part to a lack of flexible research tools that allow in vivo measurement of the dynamic changes in brain chemistry. Here, we present a research platform, WINCS Harmoni, which can measure in vivo neurochemical activity simultaneously across multiple anatomical targets to study normal and pathologic brain function. In addition, WINCS Harmoni can provide real-time neurochemical feedback for closed-loop control of neurochemical levels via its synchronized stimulation and neurochemical sensing capabilities. We demonstrate these and other key features of this platform in non-human primate, swine, and rodent models of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Ultimately, systems like the one described here will improve our understanding of the dynamics of brain physiology in the context of neurologic disease and therapeutic interventions, which may lead to the development of precision medicine and personalized therapies for optimal therapeutic efficacy.

  14. Individual behavioral and neurochemical markers of unadapted decision-making processes in healthy inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaras, Elsa; Callebert, Jacques; Chennaoui, Mounir; Rabat, Arnaud; Granon, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of decision-making processes is the inter-individual variability between healthy subjects. These behavioral patterns could constitute risk factors for the development of psychiatric disorders. Therefore, finding predictive markers of safe or risky decision-making is an important challenge for psychiatry research. We set up a mouse gambling task (MGT)-adapted from the human Iowa gambling task with uncertain contingencies between response and outcome that furthermore enables the emergence of inter-individual differences. Mice (n = 54) were further individually characterized for locomotive, emotional and cognitive behavior. Individual basal rates of monoamines and brain activation after the MGT were assessed in brain regions related to reward, emotion or cognition. In a large healthy mice population, 44 % showed a balanced strategy with limited risk-taking and flexible choices, 29 % showed a safe but rigid strategy, while 27 % adopted risky behavior. Risky mice took also more risks in other apparatus behavioral devices and were less sensitive to reward. No difference existed between groups regarding anxiety, working memory, locomotion and impulsivity. Safe/rigid mice exhibited a hypoactivation of prefrontal subareas, a high level of serotonin in the orbitofrontal cortex combined with a low level of dopamine in the putamen that predicted the emergence of rigid behavior. By contrast, high levels of dopamine, serotonin and noradrenalin in the hippocampus predicted the emergence of more exploratory and risky behaviors. The coping of C57bl/6J mice in MGT enables the determination of extreme patterns of choices either safe/rigid or risky/flexible, related to specific neurochemical and behavioral markers.

  15. Integrating climate change adaptation into civil protection: comparative lessons from Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groven, K.; Aall, C.; van den Berg, Maya Marieke; Carlsson-Kanyama, A.; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating policy on climate change adaptation into civil protection is explored through studies of extreme weather management at the national level in Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands, and through local case studies of the three coastal cities of Bergen, Malmö and Rotterdam. The research issues

  16. Physiological and comparative evidence fails to confirm an adaptive role for aging in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan A

    2015-01-01

    The longstanding debate about whether aging may have evolved for some adaptive reason is generally considered to pit evolutionary theory against empirical observations consistent with aging as a programmed aspect of organismal biology, in particular conserved aging genes. Here I argue that the empirical evidence on aging mechanisms does not support a view of aging as a programmed phenomenon, but rather supports a view of aging as the dysregulation of complex networks that maintain organismal homeostasis. The appearance of programming is due largely to the inadvertent activation of existing pathways during the process of dysregulation. It is argued that aging differs markedly from known programmed biological phenomena such as apoptosis in that it is (a) very heterogeneous in how it proceeds, and (b) much slower than it would need to be. Furthermore, the taxonomic distribution of aging across species does not support any proposed adaptive theories of aging, which would predict that aging rate would vary on a finer taxonomic scale depending on factors such as population density. Thus, while there are problems with the longstanding non-adaptive paradigm, current evidence does not support the notion that aging is programmed or that it may have evolved for adaptive reasons.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Family Adaptability and Cohesion Ratings among Traumatized Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellantuono, Alessandro; Saigh, Philip A.; Durham, Katherine; Dekis, Constance; Hackler, Dusty; McGuire, Leah A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.; Halamandaris, Phill V.; Oberfield, Richard A.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Given the need to identify psychological risk factors among traumatized youth, this study examined the family functioning of traumatized youth with or without PTSD and a nonclinical sample. Method: The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales, second edition (FACES II; Olson, Portner, & Bell, 1982), scores of youth with…

  18. Subchronic steroid administration induces long lasting changes in neurochemical and behavioral response to cocaine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailanto, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Aino; Seppälä, Timo

    2011-11-01

    The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs), such as nandrolone, is not only a problem in the world of sports but is associated with the polydrug use of non-athletes. Among other adverse effects, AAS abuse has been associated with long term or even persistent psychiatric problems. We have previously found that nandrolone decanoate treatment could produce prolonged changes in rats' brain reward circuits associated to drug dependence. The aim in this study was to evaluate whether AAS-induced neurochemical and behavioral changes are reversible. The increases in extracellular dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) concentration, as well as stereotyped behavior and locomotor activity (LMA) evoked by cocaine were attenuated by pretreatment with nandrolone. The recovery period, which was needed for the DA system to return back to the basic level, was fairly long compared to the dosing period of the steroid. In the 5-HT system, the time that system needed to return back to the basal level, was even longer than in the DA system. The attenuation was still seen though there were no detectable traces of nandrolone in the blood samples. Given that accumbal outflow of DA and 5-HT, as well as LMA and stereotyped behavior are all related to reward of stimulant drugs, this study suggests that nandrolone decanoate has significant, long-lasting but reversible effects on the rewarding properties of cocaine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ¹H MRS characterization of neurochemical profiles in orthotopic mouse models of human brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, Keith M; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Banerjee, Abhishek; Soesbe, Todd C; Spence, Jeffrey S; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Maher, Elizabeth A; Bachoo, Robert M; Choi, Changho

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor, is resistant to currently available treatments. The development of mouse models of human GBM has provided a tool for studying mechanisms involved in tumor initiation and growth as well as a platform for preclinical investigation of new drugs. In this study we used (1) H MR spectroscopy to study the neurochemical profile of a human orthotopic tumor (HOT) mouse model of human GBM. The goal of this study was to evaluate differences in metabolite concentrations in the GBM HOT mice when compared with normal mouse brain in order to determine if MRS could reliably differentiate tumor from normal brain. A TE =19 ms PRESS sequence at 9.4 T was used for measuring metabolite levels in 12 GBM mice and 8 healthy mice. Levels for 12 metabolites and for lipids/macromolecules at 0.9 ppm and at 1.3 ppm were reliably detected in all mouse spectra. The tumors had significantly lower concentrations of total creatine, GABA, glutamate, total N-acetylaspartate, aspartate, lipids/macromolecules at 0.9 ppm, and lipids/macromolecules at 1.3 ppm than did the brains of normal mice. The concentrations of glycine and lactate, however, were significantly higher in tumors than in normal brain. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Diphenyl ditelluride impairs short-term memory and alters neurochemical parameters in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangherlin, Eluza Curte; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if maternal exposure to 0.03 mg/kg of diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)2 during the first 14 days of lactational period in Wistar rats alters recognition memory and neurochemical parameters in young rats. Object recognition memory task, evaluation of synaptosomal [3H]glutamate uptake and release as well as cerebral Na+/K+ATPase activity were evaluated in 4 week-old rats. There were no significant specific overt signs of maternal intoxication. The body weight gain of rats was similar among groups. (PhTe)2-exposed group showed a significantly lower time exploring the novel object when compared to the performance of the control group in short-term memory (STM) test. In addition, (PhTe)2 significantly inhibited synaptosomal [3H]glutamate uptake and cerebral Na+/K+ATPase activity in animals. The synaptosomal [3H]glutamate release was similar between (PhTe)2 and control groups. In conclusion, the present study establishes that young rats presented cognitive impairment after exposure to (PhTe)2 via maternal milk, demonstrated by the performance of animals in object recognition memory task. The possible mechanism involved in (PhTe)2 action in memory of recognition might involve inhibition of cerebral Na+/K+ATPase activity and synaptosomal [3H]glutamate uptake.

  1. Neurochemical abnormalities in brains of renal failure patients treated by repeated hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, T L; Yong, V W; Kish, S J; Ito, M; Foulks, J G; Godolphin, W J; Sweeney, V P

    1985-10-01

    We examined autopsied brain from 10 patients with end-stage renal failure who had undergone repeated hemodialysis. Eight had classic symptoms, and two had suggestive symptoms of dialysis encephalopathy. Findings were compared with those in autopsied brain from control adults who had never been hemodialyzed. Mean gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents were significantly reduced in frontal and occipital cortex, cerebellar cortex, dentate nucleus, caudate nucleus, and medial-dorsal thalamus of the hemodialyzed patients, the reduction being greater than 40% in cerebral cortex and thalamus. Choline acetyltransferase activity was reduced by 25-35% in three cortical regions in the hemodialyzed patients. These two abnormalities were observed in the brain of each hemodialyzed patient, regardless of whether or not the patient died with unequivocal dialysis encephalopathy. Pyridoxal phosphate contents were substantially reduced in brains of the hemodialyzed patients, but metabolites of noradrenaline, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) were present in normal amounts. Aluminum levels were abnormally high in frontal cortical gray matter in the hemodialyzed patients. Although this study does not clarify the role played by aluminum toxicity in the pathogenesis of dialysis encephalopathy, the abnormalities we found suggest the need for further neurochemical investigations in this disorder.

  2. A comparative review of multi-risk modelling methodologies for climate change adaptation in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Stefano; Torresan, Silvia; Schneiderbauer, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Keywords: Climate change, mountain regions, multi-risk assessment, climate change adaptation. Climate change has already led to a wide range of impacts on the environment, the economy and society. Adaptation actions are needed to cope with the impacts that have already occurred (e.g. storms, glaciers melting, floods, droughts) and to prepare for future scenarios of climate change. Mountain environment is particularly vulnerable to the climate changes due to its exposure to recent climate warming (e.g. water regime changes, thawing of permafrost) and due to the high degree of specialization of both natural and human systems (e.g. alpine species, valley population density, tourism-based economy). As a consequence, the mountain local governments are encouraged to undertake territorial governance policies to climate change, considering multi-risks and opportunities for the mountain economy and identifying the best portfolio of adaptation strategies. This study aims to provide a literature review of available qualitative and quantitative tools, methodological guidelines and best practices to conduct multi-risk assessments in the mountain environment within the context of climate change. We analyzed multi-risk modelling and assessment methods applied in alpine regions (e.g. event trees, Bayesian Networks, Agent Based Models) in order to identify key concepts (exposure, resilience, vulnerability, risk, adaptive capacity), climatic drivers, cause-effect relationships and socio-ecological systems to be integrated in a comprehensive framework. The main outcomes of the review, including a comparison of existing techniques based on different criteria (e.g. scale of analysis, targeted questions, level of complexity) and a snapshot of the developed multi-risk framework for climate change adaptation will be here presented and discussed.

  3. Comparative and functional genomics of the Lactococcus lactis taxon; insights into evolution and niche adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Philip; Bottacini, Francesca; Mahony, Jennifer; Kilcawley, Kieran N; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2017-03-29

    Lactococcus lactis is among the most widely studied lactic acid bacterial species due to its long history of safe use and economic importance to the dairy industry, where it is exploited as a starter culture in cheese production. In the current study, we report on the complete sequencing of 16 L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris genomes. The chromosomal features of these 16 L. lactis strains in conjunction with 14 completely sequenced, publicly available lactococcal chromosomes were assessed with particular emphasis on discerning the L. lactis subspecies division, evolution and niche adaptation. The deduced pan-genome of L. lactis was found to be closed, indicating that the representative data sets employed for this analysis are sufficient to fully describe the genetic diversity of the taxon. Niche adaptation appears to play a significant role in governing the genetic content of each L. lactis subspecies, while (differential) genome decay and redundancy in the dairy niche is also highlighted.

  4. Conventional to Cloud: Detailed survey and comparative study of multimedia streaming rate Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Selvaraj Kesavan; Jayakumar J

    2014-01-01

    Infotainment and telecommunication industry is fast evolving towards personalized network connectivity and newer applications services ranging from music playback to ever changing telephony applications. Streaming is the key services which enables the users to view real time multimedia content on-the-go anywhere and everywhere. In streaming, quality of service is a major concern in the increasing network traffic and high user demand. Rate adaptation is crucial process to dynamically evaluate,...

  5. Comparative genomics of Lactobacillus salivarius strains focusing on their host adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Yeong; Han, Geon Goo; Kim, Eun Bae; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2017-12-01

    Lactobacillus salivarius is an important member of the animal gut microflora and is a promising probiotic bacterium. However, there is a lack of research on the genomic diversity of L. salivarius species. In this study, we generated 21 L. salivarius draft genomes, and investigated the pan-genome of L. salivarius strains isolated from humans, pigs and chickens using all available genomes, focusing on host adaptation. Phylogenetic clustering showed a distinct categorization of L. salivarius strains depending on their hosts. In the pan-genome, 15 host-specific genes and 16 dual-host-shared genes that only one host isolate did not possess were identified. Comparison of 56 extracellular protein encoding genes and 124 orthologs related to exopolysaccharide production in the pan-genome revealed that extracellular components of the assayed bacteria have been globally acquired and mutated under the selection pressure for host adaptation. We also found the three host-specific genes that are responsible for energy production in L. salivarius. These results showed that L. salivarius has evolved to adapt to host habitats in two ways, by gaining the abilities for niche adhesion and efficient utilization of nutrients. Our study offers a deeper understanding of the probiotic species L. salivarius, and provides a basis for future studies on L. salivarius and other mutualistic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Personality and neurochemicals in the human brain: A preliminary study using 1H MRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shiyong; PENG Danling; JIN Zhen; LIU Hongyan; YANG Jie

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the neuro-biological bases of introversion-extraversion personality traits, the concentra- tion of four neurochemicals (Cho, mI, α-Glx and NAA) in anterior cigulate gyrus between normal extroverts and introverts were examined using non-invasive 1H MRS technique. Our study revealed that introverts have significantly higher level of α-Glx, Cho and mI in the anterior cingulate gyrus than extroverts. This result provides new evidence that the anterior cingulate gyrus is related to personality traits partly in support of Eysenck's supposition that introverts have higher arousal level than extroverts. Moreover, this result offers neurochemical data for psychobiological theories of personality.

  7. Short-term cardiorespiratory adaptation to high altitude in children compared with adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriemler, S; Radtke, T; Bürgi, F; Lambrecht, J; Zehnder, M; Brunner-La Rocca, H P

    2016-02-01

    As short-term cardiorespiratory adaptation to high altitude (HA) exposure has not yet been studied in children, we assessed acute mountain sickness (AMS), hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) at rest and maximal exercise capacity (CPET) at low altitude (LA) and HA in pre-pubertal children and their fathers. Twenty father-child pairs (11 ± 1 years and 44 ± 4 years) were tested at LA (450 m) and HA (3450 m) at days 1, 2, and 3 after fast ascent (HA1/2/3). HVR was measured at rest and CPET was performed on a cycle ergometer. AMS severity was mild to moderate with no differences between generations. HVR was higher in children than adults at LA and increased at HA similarly in both groups. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) relative to body weight was similar in children and adults at LA and decreased significantly by 20% in both groups at HA; maximal heart rate did not change at HA in children while it decreased by 16% in adults (P < 0.001). Changes in HVR and VO2 peak from LA to HA were correlated among the biological child-father pairs. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory adaptation to altitude seems to be at least partly hereditary. Even though children and their fathers lose similar fractions of aerobic capacity going to high altitude, the mechanisms might be different. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Initial phantom study comparing image quality in computed tomography using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and new adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction v.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyungjae; Kwon, Heejin; Cho, Jinhan; Oh, Jongyoung; Yoon, Seongkuk; Kang, Myungjin; Ha, Dongho; Lee, Jinhwa; Kang, Eunju

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the image quality of a novel advanced iterative reconstruction (IR) method called as "adaptive statistical IR V" (ASIR-V) by comparing the image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and spatial resolution from those of filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical IR (ASIR) on computed tomography (CT) phantom image. We performed CT scans at 5 different tube currents (50, 70, 100, 150, and 200 mA) using 3 types of CT phantoms. Scanned images were subsequently reconstructed in 7 different scan settings, such as FBP, and 3 levels of ASIR and ASIR-V (30%, 50%, and 70%). The image noise was measured in the first study using body phantom. The CNR was measured in the second study using contrast phantom and the spatial resolutions were measured in the third study using a high-resolution phantom. We compared the image noise, CNR, and spatial resolution among the 7 reconstructed image scan settings to determine whether noise reduction, high CNR, and high spatial resolution could be achieved at ASIR-V. At quantitative analysis of the first and second studies, it showed that the images reconstructed using ASIR-V had reduced image noise and improved CNR compared with those of FBP and ASIR (P ASIR-V had significantly improved spatial resolution than those of FBP and ASIR (P ASIR-V provides a significant reduction in image noise and a significant improvement in CNR as well as spatial resolution. Therefore, this technique has the potential to reduce the radiation dose further without compromising image quality.

  9. Measuring recovery: An adapted Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM+) compared to biochemical and power output alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, David A; Sparkes, William; Northeast, Jonny; Cunningham, Daniel J; Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P

    2017-05-01

    Biochemical (e.g. creatine kinase (CK)) and neuromuscular (e.g. peak power output (PPO)) markers of recovery are expensive and require specialist equipment. Perceptual measures are an effective alternative, yet most validated scales are too long for daily use. This study utilises a longitudinal multi-level design to test an adapted Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM+), with four extra items and a 100mm visual analogue scale to measure recovery. Elite under-21 academy soccer players (N=11) were monitored across five games with data (BAM+, CK and PPO) collected for each game at 24h pre, 24h and 48h post-match. Match activity data for each participant was also collected using GPS monitors on players. BAM+, CK and PPO had significant (pathletes. Future research is needed to confirm both the scales reliability and validity. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative ecological and behavioral adaptations of Ovibos moschatus and Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Klein

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Caribou/reindeer and muskoxen are the only two ungulate species that have successfully occupied arctic tundra habitats. Although confronted with similar environmental constraints, their morphological dissimilarities have enabled them to develop unique behavioral and ecological adaptations that under most circumstances result in minimal overlap in use of forage resources. The large body and gut capacity of muskoxen have enabled them to adopt a strategy maximizing rate of forage intake and energy conservation, whereas caribou/reindeer of substantially smaller body size must pursue selective feeding, requiring high mobility and high energy expenditure. Responses to predators and insects by the two species show similar contrasts in associated energy costs. When confronted with environmental extremes that limit forage availability, competition for food may occur and the resulting differential success is a reflection of their divergent evolutionary routes.

  11. Development of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Jonathan M; Kimble, Christopher J; Covey, Daniel P; Blaha, Charles D; Agnesi, Filippo; Mohseni, Pedram; Whitlock, Sidney; Johnson, David M; Horne, April; Bennet, Kevin E; Lee, Kendall H; Garris, Paul A

    2009-10-01

    Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that modulation of specific central neuronal systems contributes to the clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and motor cortex stimulation (MCS). Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of targeted regions may therefore advance functional neurosurgery by, among other goals, providing a strategy for investigation of mechanisms, identification of new candidate neurotransmitters, and chemically guided placement of the stimulating electrode. The authors report the development of a device called the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring during functional neurosurgery. This device supports fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) for real-time, spatially and chemically resolved neurotransmitter measurements in the brain. The FSCV study consisted of a triangle wave scanned between -0.4 and 1 V at a rate of 300 V/second and applied at 10 Hz. All voltages were compared with an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The CFM was constructed by aspirating a single carbon fiber (r = 2.5 mum) into a glass capillary and pulling the capillary to a microscopic tip by using a pipette puller. The exposed carbon fiber (that is, the sensing region) extended beyond the glass insulation by approximately 100 microm. The neurotransmitter dopamine was selected as the analyte for most trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow injection and noise analysis, and in vivo measurements in urethane-anesthetized rats by monitoring dopamine release in the striatum following high-frequency electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle. Direct comparisons were made to a conventional hardwired system. The WINCS, designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, consisted of 4 modules: 1) front-end analog circuit for FSCV (that is, current-to-voltage transducer); 2

  12. Chronic MDMA induces neurochemical changes in the hippocampus of adolescent and young adult rats: Down-regulation of apoptotic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cabrerizo, Rubén; García-Fuster, M Julia

    2015-07-01

    While hippocampus is a brain region particularly susceptible to the effects of MDMA, the cellular and molecular changes induced by MDMA are still to be fully elucidated, being the dosage regimen, the species and the developmental stage under study great variables. This study compared the effects of one and four days of MDMA administration following a binge paradigm (3×5 mg/kg, i.p., every 2 h) on inducing hippocampal neurochemical changes in adolescent (PND 37) and young adult (PND 58) rats. The results showed that chronic MDMA caused hippocampal protein deficits in adolescent and young adult rats at different levels: (1) impaired serotonergic (5-HT2A and 5-HT2C post-synaptic receptors) and GABAergic (GAD2 enzyme) signaling, and (2) decreased structural cytoskeletal neurofilament proteins (NF-H, NF-M and NF-L). Interestingly, these effects were not accompanied by an increase in apoptotic markers. In fact, chronic MDMA inhibited proteins of the apoptotic pathway (i.e., pro-apoptotic FADD, Bax and cytochrome c) leading to an inhibition of cell death markers (i.e., p-JNK1/2, cleavage of PARP-1) and suggesting regulatory mechanisms in response to the neurochemical changes caused by the drug. The data, together with the observed lack of GFAP activation, support the view that chronic MDMA effects, regardless of the rat developmental age, extends beyond neurotransmitter systems to impair other hippocampal structural cell markers. Interestingly, inhibitory changes in proteins from the apoptotic pathway might be taking place to overcome the protein deficits caused by MDMA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of electroconvulsive seizures on depression-related behavior, memory and neurochemical changes in Wistar and Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyeremanteng, C; MacKay, J C; James, J S; Kent, P; Cayer, C; Anisman, H; Merali, Z

    2014-10-03

    Investigations in healthy outbred rat strains have shown a potential role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the antidepressant and memory side effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, or ECS in animals). The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain is used as a genetic model of depression yet no studies to date have directly compared the impact of ECS on the WKY strain to its healthy outbred control (Wistar). The objective of this study is to examine behavioral (antidepressant and retrograde memory) and neurochemical (BDNF and HPA axis) changes immediately (1day) and at a longer delay (7days) after repeated ECS (5 daily administrations) in WKY and Wistar rats. Male Wistar and WKY rats received 5days of repeated ECS or sham treatment and were assessed 1 and 7days later for 1) depression-like behavior and mobility; 2) retrograde memory; and 3) brain BDNF protein, brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and plasma corticosterone levels. Both strains showed the expected antidepressant response and retrograde memory impairments at 1day following ECS, which were sustained at 7days. In addition, at 1day after ECS, Wistar and WKY rats showed similar elevations in brain BDNF and extra-hypothalamic CRF and no change in plasma corticosterone. At 7days after ECS, Wistar rats showed sustained elevations of brain BDNF and CRF, whereas WKY rats showed a normalization of brain BDNF, despite sustained elevations of brain CRF. The model of 5 daily ECS was effective at eliciting behavioral and neurochemical changes in both strains. A temporal association was observed between brain CRF levels, but not BDNF, and measures of antidepressant effectiveness of ECS and retrograde memory impairments suggesting that extra-hypothalamic CRF may be a potential important contributor to these behavioral effects after repeated ECS/ECT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparing adaptive procedures for estimating the psychometric function for an auditory gap detection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi

    2013-05-01

    A subject's sensitivity to a stimulus variation can be studied by estimating the psychometric function. Generally speaking, three parameters of the psychometric function are of interest: the performance threshold, the slope of the function, and the rate at which attention lapses occur. In the present study, three psychophysical procedures were used to estimate the three-parameter psychometric function for an auditory gap detection task. These were an up-down staircase (up-down) procedure, an entropy-based Bayesian (entropy) procedure, and an updated maximum-likelihood (UML) procedure. Data collected from four young, normal-hearing listeners showed that while all three procedures provided similar estimates of the threshold parameter, the up-down procedure performed slightly better in estimating the slope and lapse rate for 200 trials of data collection. When the lapse rate was increased by mixing in random responses for the three adaptive procedures, the larger lapse rate was especially detrimental to the efficiency of the up-down procedure, and the UML procedure provided better estimates of the threshold and slope than did the other two procedures.

  15. Comparative and quantitative proteomics reveal the adaptive strategies of oyster larvae to ocean acidification

    KAUST Repository

    Dineshram, R.; Q., Quan; Sharma, Rakesh; Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli; Yalamanchili, Hari Krishna; Chu, Ivan; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Decreasing pH due to anthropogenic CO2 inputs, called ocean acidification (OA), can make coastal environments unfavorable for oysters. This is a serious socioeconomical issue for China which supplies >70% of the world's edible oysters. Here, we present an iTRAQ-based protein profiling approach for the detection and quantification of proteome changes under OA in the early life stage of a commercially important oyster, Crassostrea hongkongensis. Availability of complete genome sequence for the pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) enabled us to confidently quantify over 1500 proteins in larval oysters. Over 7% of the proteome was altered in response to OA at pHNBS 7.6. Analysis of differentially expressed proteins and their associated functional pathways showed an upregulation of proteins involved in calcification, metabolic processes, and oxidative stress, each of which may be important in physiological adaptation of this species to OA. The downregulation of cytoskeletal and signal transduction proteins, on the other hand, might have impaired cellular dynamics and organelle development under OA. However, there were no significant detrimental effects in developmental processes such as metamorphic success. Implications of the differentially expressed proteins and metabolic pathways in the development of OA resistance in oyster larvae are discussed. The MS proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD002138 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002138).

  16. Comparative and quantitative proteomics reveal the adaptive strategies of oyster larvae to ocean acidification

    KAUST Repository

    Dineshram, R.

    2015-10-28

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Decreasing pH due to anthropogenic CO2 inputs, called ocean acidification (OA), can make coastal environments unfavorable for oysters. This is a serious socioeconomical issue for China which supplies >70% of the world\\'s edible oysters. Here, we present an iTRAQ-based protein profiling approach for the detection and quantification of proteome changes under OA in the early life stage of a commercially important oyster, Crassostrea hongkongensis. Availability of complete genome sequence for the pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) enabled us to confidently quantify over 1500 proteins in larval oysters. Over 7% of the proteome was altered in response to OA at pHNBS 7.6. Analysis of differentially expressed proteins and their associated functional pathways showed an upregulation of proteins involved in calcification, metabolic processes, and oxidative stress, each of which may be important in physiological adaptation of this species to OA. The downregulation of cytoskeletal and signal transduction proteins, on the other hand, might have impaired cellular dynamics and organelle development under OA. However, there were no significant detrimental effects in developmental processes such as metamorphic success. Implications of the differentially expressed proteins and metabolic pathways in the development of OA resistance in oyster larvae are discussed. The MS proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD002138 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002138).

  17. Dual Adaptive Filtering by Optimal Projection Applied to Filter Muscle Artifacts on EEG and Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Boudet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle artifacts constitute one of the major problems in electroencephalogram (EEG examinations, particularly for the diagnosis of epilepsy, where pathological rhythms occur within the same frequency bands as those of artifacts. This paper proposes to use the method dual adaptive filtering by optimal projection (DAFOP to automatically remove artifacts while preserving true cerebral signals. DAFOP is a two-step method. The first step consists in applying the common spatial pattern (CSP method to two frequency windows to identify the slowest components which will be considered as cerebral sources. The two frequency windows are defined by optimizing convolutional filters. The second step consists in using a regression method to reconstruct the signal independently within various frequency windows. This method was evaluated by two neurologists on a selection of 114 pages with muscle artifacts, from 20 clinical recordings of awake and sleeping adults, subject to pathological signals and epileptic seizures. A blind comparison was then conducted with the canonical correlation analysis (CCA method and conventional low-pass filtering at 30 Hz. The filtering rate was 84.3% for muscle artifacts with a 6.4% reduction of cerebral signals even for the fastest waves. DAFOP was found to be significantly more efficient than CCA and 30 Hz filters. The DAFOP method is fast and automatic and can be easily used in clinical EEG recordings.

  18. Mayo-Portland adaptability inventory: comparing psychometrics in cerebrovascular accident to traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, James F; Kean, Jacob; Altman, Irwin M; Swick, Shannon

    2012-12-01

    (1) To evaluate the measurement reliability and construct validity of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory, 4th revision (MPAI-4) in a sample consisting exclusively of patients with cerebrovascular accident (CVA) using single parameter (Rasch) item-response methods; (2) to examine the differential item functioning (DIF) by sex within the CVA population; and (3) to examine DIF and differential test functioning (DTF) across traumatic brain injury (TBI) and CVA samples. Retrospective psychometric analysis of rating scale data. Home- and community-based brain injury rehabilitation program. Individuals post-CVA (n=861) and individuals with TBI (n=603). Not applicable. MPAI-4. Item data on admission to community-based rehabilitation were submitted to Rasch, DIF, and DTF analyses. The final calibration in the CVA sample revealed satisfactory reliability/separation for persons (.91/3.16) and items (1.00/23.64). DIF showed that items for pain, anger, audition, and memory were associated with higher levels of disability for CVA than TBI patients; whereas, self-care, mobility, and use of hands indicated greater overall disability for TBI patients. DTF analyses showed a high degree of association between the 2 sets of items (R=.92; R(2)=.85) and, at most, a 3.7 point difference in raw scores. The MPAI-4 demonstrates satisfactory psychometric properties for use with individuals with CVA applying for interdisciplinary posthospital rehabilitation. DIF reveals clinically meaningful differences between CVA and TBI groups that should be considered in results at the item and subscale level. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative metabolic responses and adaptive strategies of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to salt and alkali stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Yang, Zongze; Li, Feng; Yan, Changrong; Zhong, Xiuli; Liu, Qi; Xia, Xu; Li, Haoru; Zhao, Long

    2015-07-07

    It is well known that salinization (high-pH) has been considered as a major environmental threat to agricultural systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between salt stress and alkali stress in metabolic profiles and nutrient accumulation of wheat; these parameters were also evaluated to determine the physiological adaptive mechanisms by which wheat tolerates alkali stress. The harmful effect of alkali stress on the growth and photosynthesis of wheat were stronger than those of salt stress. High-pH of alkali stress induced the most of phosphate and metal ions to precipitate; as a result, the availability of nutrients significantly declined. Under alkali stress, Ca sharply increased in roots, however, it decreased under salt stress. In addition, we detected the 75 metabolites that were different among the treatments according to GC-MS analysis, including organic acids, amino acids, sugars/polyols and others. The metabolic data showed salt stress and alkali stress caused different metabolic shifts; alkali stress has a stronger injurious effect on the distribution and accumulation of metabolites than salt stress. These outcomes correspond to specific detrimental effects of a highly pH environment. Ca had a significant positive correlation with alkali tolerates, and increasing Ca concentration can immediately trigger SOS Na exclusion system and reduce the Na injury. Salt stress caused metabolic shifts toward gluconeogenesis with increased sugars to avoid osmotic stress; energy in roots and active synthesis in leaves were needed by wheat to develop salt tolerance. Alkali stress (at high pH) significantly inhibited photosynthetic rate; thus, sugar production was reduced, N metabolism was limited, amino acid production was reduced, and glycolysis was inhibited.

  20. A comparative study of cold- and warm-adapted Endonucleases A using sequence analyses and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Michetti

    Full Text Available The psychrophilic and mesophilic endonucleases A (EndA from Aliivibrio salmonicida (VsEndA and Vibrio cholera (VcEndA have been studied experimentally in terms of the biophysical properties related to thermal adaptation. The analyses of their static X-ray structures was no sufficient to rationalize the determinants of their adaptive traits at the molecular level. Thus, we used Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations to compare the two proteins and unveil their structural and dynamical differences. Our simulations did not show a substantial increase in flexibility in the cold-adapted variant on the nanosecond time scale. The only exception is a more rigid C-terminal region in VcEndA, which is ascribable to a cluster of electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds, as also supported by MD simulations of the VsEndA mutant variant where the cluster of interactions was introduced. Moreover, we identified three additional amino acidic substitutions through multiple sequence alignment and the analyses of MD-based protein structure networks. In particular, T120V occurs in the proximity of the catalytic residue H80 and alters the interaction with the residue Y43, which belongs to the second coordination sphere of the Mg2+ ion. This makes T120V an amenable candidate for future experimental mutagenesis.

  1. Comparative system identification of flower tracking performance in three hawkmoth species reveals adaptations for dim light vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Anna L; Kihlström, Klara; Chandler, Steven; Sponberg, Simon

    2017-04-05

    Flight control in insects is heavily dependent on vision. Thus, in dim light, the decreased reliability of visual signal detection also prompts consequences for insect flight. We have an emerging understanding of the neural mechanisms that different species employ to adapt the visual system to low light. However, much less explored are comparative analyses of how low light affects the flight behaviour of insect species, and the corresponding links between physiological adaptations and behaviour. We investigated whether the flower tracking behaviour of three hawkmoth species with different diel activity patterns revealed luminance-dependent adaptations, using a system identification approach. We found clear luminance-dependent differences in flower tracking in all three species, which were explained by a simple luminance-dependent delay model, which generalized across species. We discuss physiological and anatomical explanations for the variance in tracking responses, which could not be explained by such simple models. Differences between species could not be explained by the simple delay model. However, in several cases, they could be explained through the addition on a second model parameter, a simple scaling term, that captures the responsiveness of each species to flower movements. Thus, we demonstrate here that much of the variance in the luminance-dependent flower tracking responses of hawkmoths with different diel activity patterns can be captured by simple models of neural processing.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. An in vitro comparative study of the adaptation and sealing ability of two carrier-based root canal obturators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Ahmed; Al-Subait, Sara; Anil, Sukumaran

    2013-01-01

    The study was done to assess the sealing ability and adaptation of RealSeal 1, and to compare it with Thermafil. 65 single-rooted extracted teeth were selected and root canal treatment was performed. Root canals were obturated with RealSeal 1 or Thermafil. A double chamber bacterial leakage model using E. faecalis was developed to assess the sealing ability. Samples were monitored daily for 60 days. After the bacterial leakage test, samples were embedded in resin and sectioned horizontally at 2 and 4 mm from the apical foramen. Specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope and digitally photographed. AutoCAD software was used to measure the gap between the canal surface and obturation material. Results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for the bacterial leakage and t-test to compare the means of gap in RealSeal 1 and Thermafil at 2 and 4 mm. There was no significant difference between the RealSeal 1 and Thermafil with respect to leakage over time. At 2 mm and 4 mm, RealSeal 1 had significantly more gaps than Thermafil. From the observations it can be concluded that RealSeal 1 and Thermafil have comparable performance in terms of adaptation and sealing ability.

  3. An In Vitro Comparative Study of the Adaptation and Sealing Ability of Two Carrier-Based Root Canal Obturators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Alkahtani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was done to assess the sealing ability and adaptation of RealSeal 1, and to compare it with Thermafil. 65 single-rooted extracted teeth were selected and root canal treatment was performed. Root canals were obturated with RealSeal 1 or Thermafil. A double chamber bacterial leakage model using E. faecalis was developed to assess the sealing ability. Samples were monitored daily for 60 days. After the bacterial leakage test, samples were embedded in resin and sectioned horizontally at 2 and 4 mm from the apical foramen. Specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope and digitally photographed. AutoCAD software was used to measure the gap between the canal surface and obturation material. Results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for the bacterial leakage and t-test to compare the means of gap in RealSeal 1 and Thermafil at 2 and 4 mm. There was no significant difference between the RealSeal 1 and Thermafil with respect to leakage over time. At 2 mm and 4 mm, RealSeal 1 had significantly more gaps than Thermafil. From the observations it can be concluded that RealSeal 1 and Thermafil have comparable performance in terms of adaptation and sealing ability.

  4. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Tolerance and Adaptation of Ethanologenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Furfural, a Lignocellulosic Inhibitory Compound▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng-Ming; Qiao, Bin; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2009-01-01

    The molecular mechanism involved in tolerance and adaptation of ethanologenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inhibitors (such as furfural, acetic acid, and phenol) represented in lignocellulosic hydrolysate is still unclear. Here, 18O-labeling-aided shotgun comparative proteome analysis was applied to study the global protein expression profiles of S. cerevisiae under conditions of treatment of furfural compared with furfural-free fermentation profiles. Proteins involved in glucose fermentation and/or the tricarboxylic acid cycle were upregulated in cells treated with furfural compared with the control cells, while proteins involved in glycerol biosynthesis were downregulated. Differential levels of expression of alcohol dehydrogenases were observed. On the other hand, the levels of NADH, NAD+, and NADH/NAD+ were reduced whereas the levels of ATP and ADP were increased. These observations indicate that central carbon metabolism, levels of alcohol dehydrogenases, and the redox balance may be related to tolerance of ethanologenic yeast for and adaptation to furfural. Furthermore, proteins involved in stress response, including the unfolded protein response, oxidative stress, osmotic and salt stress, DNA damage and nutrient starvation, were differentially expressed, a finding that was validated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR to further confirm that the general stress responses are essential for cellular defense against furfural. These insights into the response of yeast to the presence of furfural will benefit the design and development of inhibitor-tolerant ethanologenic yeast by metabolic engineering or synthetic biology. PMID:19363068

  5. Sugar and protein digestion in flowerpiercers and hummingbirds: a comparative test of adaptive convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schondube, J E; Martinez del Rio, C

    2004-04-01

    Flowerpiercers are the most specialized nectar-feeding passerines in the Neotropics. They are nectar robbers that feed on the sucrose-rich diet of hummingbirds. To test the hypothesis that flowerpiercers have converged with hummingbirds in digestive traits, we compared the activity of intestinal enzymes and the gut nominal area of cinnamon-bellied flowerpiercers (Diglossa baritula) with those of eleven hummingbird species. We measured sucrase, maltase, and aminopeptidase-N activities. To provide a comparative context, we also compared flowerpiercers and hummingbirds with 29 species of passerines. We analyzed enzyme activity using both standard allometric analyses and phylogenetically independent contrasts. Both approaches revealed the same patterns. With the exception of sucrase activity, hummingbirds' digestive traits were indistinguishable from those of passerines. Sucrase activity was ten times higher in hummingbirds than in passerines. Hummingbirds and passerines also differed in the relationship between intestinal maltase and sucrase activities. Maltase activity was two times higher per unit of sucrase activity in passerines than in hummingbirds. The sucrase activity of D. baritula was much lower than that of hummingbirds, and not unlike that expected for a passerine of its body mass. With the exception of aminopeptidase-N activity, the digestive traits of D. baritula were not different from those of other passerines. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  6. Comparative genomics of 28 Salmonella enterica isolates: evidence for CRISPR-mediated adaptive sublineage evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, W Florian; Mammel, Mark K; McDermott, Patrick F; Tartera, Carmen; White, David G; Leclerc, J Eugene; Ravel, Jacques; Cebula, Thomas A

    2011-07-01

    Despite extensive surveillance, food-borne Salmonella enterica infections continue to be a significant burden on public health systems worldwide. As the S. enterica species comprises sublineages that differ greatly in antigenic representation, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, a better understanding of the species' evolution is critical for the prediction and prevention of future outbreaks. The roles that virulence and resistance phenotype acquisition, exchange, and loss play in the evolution of S. enterica sublineages, which to a certain extent are represented by serotypes, remains mostly uncharacterized. Here, we compare 17 newly sequenced and phenotypically characterized nontyphoidal S. enterica strains to 11 previously sequenced S. enterica genomes to carry out the most comprehensive comparative analysis of this species so far. These phenotypic and genotypic data comparisons in the phylogenetic species context suggest that the evolution of known S. enterica sublineages is mediated mostly by two mechanisms, (i) the loss of coding sequences with known metabolic functions, which leads to functional reduction, and (ii) the acquisition of horizontally transferred phage and plasmid DNA, which provides virulence and resistance functions and leads to increasing specialization. Matches between S. enterica clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), part of a defense mechanism against invading plasmid and phage DNA, and plasmid and prophage regions suggest that CRISPR-mediated immunity could control short-term phenotype changes and mediate long-term sublineage evolution. CRISPR analysis could therefore be critical in assessing the evolutionary potential of S. enterica sublineages and aid in the prediction and prevention of future S. enterica outbreaks.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Transcriptomes in Rhizophoraceae Provides Insights into the Origin and Adaptive Evolution of Mangrove Plants in Intertidal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuxia Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves are woody plants that grow at the interface between land and sea in tropical and subtropical latitudes, where they exist in conditions of high salinity, extreme tides, strong winds, high temperatures, and muddy, anaerobic soils. Rhizophoraceae is a key mangrove family, with highly developed morphological and physiological adaptations to extreme conditions. It is an ideal system for the study of the origin and adaptive evolution of mangrove plants. In this study, we characterized and comprehensively compared the transcriptomes of four mangrove species, from all four mangrove genera, as well as their closest terrestrial relative in Rhizophoraceae, using RNA-Seq. We obtained 41,936–48,845 unigenes with N50 values of 982–1,185 bp and 61.42–69.48% annotated for the five species in Rhizophoraceae. Orthology annotations of Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and Clusters of Orthologous Groups revealed overall similarities in the transcriptome profiles among the five species, whereas enrichment analysis identified remarkable genomic characteristics that are conserved across the four mangrove species but differ from their terrestrial relative. Based on 1,816 identified orthologs, phylogeny analysis and divergence time estimation revealed a single origin for mangrove species in Rhizophoraceae, which diverged from the terrestrial lineage ~56.4 million years ago (Mya, suggesting that the transgression during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum may have been responsible for the entry of the mangrove lineage of Rhizophoraceae into intertidal environments. Evidence showed that the ancestor of Rhizophoraceae may have experienced a whole genome duplication event ~74.6 Mya, which may have increased the adaptability and survival chances of Rhizophoraceae during and following the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction. The analysis of positive selection identified 10 positively selected genes from the ancestor branch of

  8. Adaptation and dissemination of an evidence-based obesity prevention intervention: design of a comparative effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Joanna; Odoms-Young, Angela; Stolley, Melinda L; Blumstein, Lara; Schiffer, Linda; Berbaum, Michael L; McCaffrey, Jennifer; Montoya, Anastasia McGee; Braunschweig, Carol; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2014-07-01

    Low-income youth are at increased risk for excess weight gain. Although evidence-based prevention programs exist, successful adaptation to provide wide dissemination presents a challenge. Hip-Hop to Health (HH) is a school-based obesity prevention intervention that targets primarily preschool children of low-income families. In a large randomized controlled trial, HH was found to be efficacious for prevention of excessive weight gain. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) are USDA-funded nutrition education programs offered to low-income families, and may provide an ideal platform for the wide dissemination of evidence-based obesity prevention programs. A research-practice partnership was established in order to conduct formative research to guide the adaptation and implementation of HH through EFNEP and SNAP-Ed. We present the design and method of a comparative effectiveness trial that will determine the efficacy of HH when delivered by peer educators through these programs compared to the standard EFNEP and SNAP-Ed nutrition education (NE) curriculum. Results from this trial will inform larger scale dissemination. The dissemination of HH through government programs has the potential to increase the reach of efficacious obesity prevention programs that target low-income children and families. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Risk Assessment to Inform Adaptation Priorities for the Natural Environment: Observations from the First UK Climate Change Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment can potentially provide an objective framework to synthesise and prioritise climate change risks to inform adaptation policy. However, there are significant challenges in the application of comparative risk assessment procedures to climate change, particularly for the natural environment. These challenges are evaluated with particular reference to the first statutory Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA and evidence review procedures used to guide policy for the UK government. More progress was achieved on risk identification, screening and prioritisation compared to risk quantification. This was due to the inherent complexity and interdependence of ecological risks and their interaction with socio-economic drivers as well as a climate change. Robust strategies to manage risk were identified as those that coordinate organisational resources to enhance ecosystem resilience, and to accommodate inevitable change, rather than to meet specific species or habitats targets. The assessment also highlighted subjective and contextual components of risk appraisal including ethical issues regarding the level of human intervention in the natural environment and the proposed outcomes of any intervention. This suggests that goals for risk assessment need to be more clearly explicated and assumptions on tolerable risk declared as a primer for further dialogue on expectations for managed outcomes. Ecosystem-based adaptation may mean that traditional habitats and species conservation goals and existing regulatory frameworks no longer provide the best guide for long-term risk management thereby challenging the viability of some existing practices.

  10. Role of Neurochemicals in the Interaction between the Microbiota and the Immune and the Nervous System of the Host Organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleskin, Alexander V; Shenderov, Boris A; Rogovsky, Vladimir S

    2017-09-01

    This work is concerned with the role of evolutionary conserved substances, neurotransmitters, and neurohormones, within the complex framework of the microbial consortium-immune system-nervous system axis in the human or animal organism. Although the operation of each of these systems per se is relatively well understood, their combined effects on the host organism still await further research. Drawing on recent research on host-produced and microbial low-molecular-weight neurochemicals such as biogenic amines, amino acids, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), we suggest that these mediators form a part of a universal neurochemical "language." It mediates the whole gamut of harmonious and disharmonious interactions between (a) the intestinal microbial consortium, (b) local and systemic immune cells, and (c) the central and peripheral nervous system. Importantly, the ongoing microbiota-host interactivity is bidirectional. We present evidence that a large number of microbially produced low-molecular-weight compounds are identical or homologous to mediators that are synthesized by immune or nervous cells and, therefore, can bind to the corresponding host receptors. In addition, microbial cells specifically respond to host-produced neuromediators/neurohormones because they have adapted to them during the course of many millions of years of microbiota-host coevolution. We emphasize that the terms "microbiota" and "microbial consortium" are to be used in the broadest sense, so as to include, apart from bacteria, also eukaryotic microorganisms. These are exemplified by the mycobiota whose role in the microbial consortium-immune system-nervous system axis researchers are only beginning to elucidate. In light of the above, it is imperative to reform the current strategies of using probiotic microorganisms and their metabolites for treating and preventing dysbiosis-related diseases. The review demonstrates, in the example of novel probiotics (psychobiotics), that many target

  11. Sequencing and comparative genome analysis of two pathogenic Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies: genome plasticity, adaptation and virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Streptococcus gallolyticus infections in humans are often associated with bacteremia, infective endocarditis and colon cancers. The disease manifestations are different depending on the subspecies of S. gallolyticus causing the infection. Here, we present the complete genomes of S. gallolyticus ATCC 43143 (biotype I and S. pasteurianus ATCC 43144 (biotype II.2. The genomic differences between the two biotypes were characterized with comparative genomic analyses. The chromosome of ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 are 2,36 and 2,10 Mb in length and encode 2246 and 1869 CDS respectively. The organization and genomic contents of both genomes were most similar to the recently published S. gallolyticus UCN34, where 2073 (92% and 1607 (86% of the ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 CDS were conserved in UCN34 respectively. There are around 600 CDS conserved in all Streptococcus genomes, indicating the Streptococcus genus has a small core-genome (constitute around 30% of total CDS and substantial evolutionary plasticity. We identified eight and five regions of genome plasticity in ATCC 43143 and ATCC 43144 respectively. Within these regions, several proteins were recognized to contribute to the fitness and virulence of each of the two subspecies. We have also predicted putative cell-surface associated proteins that could play a role in adherence to host tissues, leading to persistent infections causing sub-acute and chronic diseases in humans. This study showed evidence that the S. gallolyticus still possesses genes making it suitable in a rumen environment, whereas the ability for S. pasteurianus to live in rumen is reduced. The genome heterogeneity and genetic diversity among the two biotypes, especially membrane and lipoproteins, most likely contribute to the differences in the pathogenesis of the two S. gallolyticus biotypes and the type of disease an infected patient eventually develops.

  12. Comparing Service Delivery Models for Children with Developmental Delays in Canada: Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviours, Parental Perceptions of Stress and of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Fontil, Laura; Miodrag, Nancy; Karagiannakis, Anastasia; Amar, Daniel; Amos, Janet

    2017-01-01

    This study compares two service delivery models (community-based and centre-based), examining them in light of children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours, and parental perceptions of stress and of care. More specifically, parents of 96 children with developmental delays assessed their children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours and rated…

  13. Neurochemical phenotype of cytoglobin‑expressing neurons in the rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2014-01-01

    in a subpopulation of brain neurons. Recently, it has been shown that stress upregulates Cygb expression in the brain and the majority of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive neurons, an enzyme that produces NO, co-express Cygb. However, there are more neurons expressing Cygb than nNOS, thus a large number...... of Cygb neurons remain uncharacterized by the neurochemical content. The aim of the present study was to provide an additional and more detailed neurochemical phenotype of Cygb-expressing neurons in the rat hippocampus. The rat hippocampus was chosen due to the abundance of Cygb, as well as this limbic...... structure being an important target in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Using triple immunohistochemistry, it was demonstrated that nearly all the parvalbumin- and heme oxygenase 1-positive neurons co-express Cygb and to a large extent, these neuron populations are distinct from the population...

  14. Differential Effects of Intrauterine Growth Restriction on the Regional Neurochemical Profile of the Developing Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewski-Hall, Anne M; Alexander, Michelle; Tkáč, Ivan; Öz, Gülin; Rao, Raghavendra

    2017-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) infants are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental deficits that suggest the hippocampus and cerebral cortex may be particularly vulnerable. Evaluate regional neurochemical profiles in IUGR and normally grown (NG) 7-day old rat pups using in vivo 1 H magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy at 9.4 T. IUGR was induced via bilateral uterine artery ligation at gestational day 19 in pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams. MR spectra were obtained from the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum at P7 in IUGR (N = 12) and NG (N = 13) rats. In the cortex, IUGR resulted in lower concentrations of phosphocreatine, glutathione, taurine, total choline, total creatine (P regions. Persistent neurochemical changes may lead to cortex-based long-term neurodevelopmental deficits in human IUGR infants.

  15. Recent Advances in Mass Spectrometry for the Identification of Neuro-chemicals and their Metabolites in Biofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailasa, Suresh Kumar; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2013-07-01

    Recently, mass spectrometric related techniques have been widely applied for the identification and quantification of neurochemicals and their metabolites in biofluids. This article presents an overview of mass spectrometric techniques applied in the detection of neurological substances and their metabolites from biological samples. In addition, the advances of chromatographic methods (LC, GC and CE) coupled with mass spectrometric techniques for analysis of neurochemicals in pharmaceutical and biological samples are also discussed.

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two oysters, Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea hongkongensis provides insights into adaptation to hypo-osmotic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelin Zhao

    Full Text Available Environmental salinity creates a key barrier to limit the distribution of most aquatic organisms. Adaptation to osmotic fluctuation is believed to be a factor facilitating species diversification. Adaptive evolution often involves beneficial mutations at more than one locus. Bivalves hold great interest, with numerous species living in waters, as osmoconformers, who maintain the osmotic pressure balance mostly by free amino acids. In this study, 107,076,589 reads from two groups of Crassostrea hongkongensis were produced and the assembled into 130,629 contigs. Transcripts putatively involved in stress-response, innate immunity and cell processes were identified according to Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses. Comparing with the transcriptome of C. gigas to characterize the diversity of transcripts between species with osmotic divergence, we identified 182,806 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for C. hongkongensis, and 196,779 SNPs for C. gigas. Comparison of 11,602 pairs of putative orthologs allowed for identification of 14 protein-coding genes that experienced strong positive selection (Ka/Ks>1. In addition, 45 genes that may show signs of moderate positive selection (1 ≥ Ka/Ks>0.5 were also identified. Based on Ks ratios and divergence time between the two species published previously, we estimated a neutral transcriptome-wide substitution mutation rate of 1.39 × 10(-9 per site per year. Several genes were differentially expressed across the control and treated groups of each species. This is the first time to sequence the transcriptome of C. hongkongensis and provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource available for it. The increasing amount of transcriptome data on Crassostrea provides an excellent resource for phylogenetic analysis. A large number of SNPs identified in this work are expected to provide valuable resources for future marker and genotyping assay development. The analysis of natural

  17. Neurochemical dynamics of acute orofacial pain in the human trigeminal brainstem nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Nuno M P; Hock, Andreas; Wyss, Michael; Ettlin, Dominik A; Brügger, Mike

    2017-11-15

    The trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex is the first central relay structure mediating orofacial somatosensory and nociceptive perception. Animal studies suggest a substantial involvement of neurochemical alterations at such basal CNS levels in acute and chronic pain processing. Translating this animal based knowledge to humans is challenging. Human related examining of brainstem functions are challenged by MR related peculiarities as well as applicability aspects of experimentally standardized paradigms. Based on our experience with an MR compatible human orofacial pain model, the aims of the present study were twofold: 1) from a technical perspective, the evaluation of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T regarding measurement accuracy of neurochemical profiles in this small brainstem nuclear complex and 2) the examination of possible neurochemical alterations induced by an experimental orofacial pain model. Data from 13 healthy volunteers aged 19-46 years were analyzed and revealed high quality spectra with significant reductions in total N-acetylaspartate (N-acetylaspartate + N-acetylaspartylglutamate) (-3.7%, p = 0.009) and GABA (-10.88%, p = 0.041) during the pain condition. These results might reflect contributions of N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate in neuronal activity-dependent physiologic processes and/or excitatory neurotransmission, whereas changes in GABA might indicate towards a reduction in tonic GABAergic functioning during nociceptive signaling. Summarized, the present study indicates the applicability of 1 H-MRS to obtain neurochemical dynamics within the human trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex. Further developments are needed to pave the way towards bridging important animal based knowledge with human research to understand the neurochemistry of orofacial nociception and pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative genome analysis of Pediococcus damnosus LMG 28219, a strain well-adapted to the beer environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauwaert, Isabel; Stragier, Pieter; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-04-03

    Pediococcus damnosus LMG 28219 is a lactic acid bacterium dominating the maturation phase of Flemish acid beer productions. It proved to be capable of growing in beer, thereby resisting this environment, which is unfavorable for microbial growth. The molecular mechanisms underlying its metabolic capabilities and niche adaptations were unknown up to now. In the present study, whole-genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis were used to investigate this strain's mechanisms to reside in the beer niche, with special focus on not only stress and hop resistances but also folate biosynthesis and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. The draft genome sequence of P. damnosus LMG 28219 harbored 183 contigs, including an intact prophage region and several coding sequences involved in plasmid replication. The annotation of 2178 coding sequences revealed the presence of many transporters and transcriptional regulators and several genes involved in oxidative stress response, hop resistance, de novo folate biosynthesis, and EPS production. Comparative genome analysis of P. damnosus LMG 28219 with Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (beer origin) and Pediococcus pentosaceus ATCC 25745 (plant origin) revealed that various hop resistance genes and genes involved in de novo folate biosynthesis were unique to the strains isolated from beer. This contrasted with the genes related to osmotic stress responses, which were shared between the strains compared. Furthermore, transcriptional regulators were enriched in the genomes of bacteria capable of growth in beer, suggesting that those cause rapid up- or down-regulation of gene expression. Genome sequence analysis of P. damnosus LMG 28219 provided insights into the underlying mechanisms of its adaptation to the beer niche. The results presented will enable analysis of the transcriptome and proteome of P. damnosus LMG 28219, which will result in additional knowledge on its metabolic activities.

  19. Age-related changes of neurochemically different subpopulations of cardiac spinal afferent neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guić, Maja Marinović; Runtić, Branka; Košta, Vana; Aljinović, Jure; Grković, Ivica

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of aging on cardiac spinal afferent neurons in the rat. A patch loaded with retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) was applied to all chambers of the rat heart. Morphological and neurochemical characteristics of labeled cardiac spinal afferent neurons were assessed in young (2 months) and old (2 years) rats using markers for likely unmyelinated (isolectin B4; IB4) and myelinated (neurofilament 200; N52) neurons. The number of cardiac spinal afferent neurons decreased in senescence to 15% of that found in young rats (1604 vs. 248). The size of neuronal soma as well as proportion of IB4+ neurons increased significantly, whereas the proportion of N52+ neurons decreased significantly in senescence. Unlike somatic spinal afferents, neurochemically different populations of cardiac spinal afferent neurons experience morphological and neurochemical changes related to aging. A major decrease in total number of cardiac spinal afferent neurons occurs in senescence. The proportion of N52+ neurons decreased in senescence, but it seems that nociceptive innervation is preserved due to increased proportion and size of IB4+ unmyelinated neurons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Induction of gram-negative bacterial growth by neurochemical containing banana (Musa x paradisiaca) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyte, M

    1997-09-15

    Bananas contain large quantities of neurochemicals. Extracts from the peel and pulp of bananas in increasing stages of ripening were prepared and evaluated for their ability to modulate the growth of non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacteria. Extracts from the peel, and to a much lesser degree the pulp, increased the growth of Gram-negative bacterial strains Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter cloacae and Salmonella typhimurium, as well as two non-pathogenic E. coli strains, in direct relation to the content of norepinephrine and dopamine, but not serotonin. The growth of Gram-positive bacteria was not altered by any of the extracts. Supplementation of vehicle and pulp cultures with norepinephrine or dopamine yielded growth equivalent to peel cultures. Total organic analysis of extracts further demonstrated that the differential effects of peel and pulp on bacterial growth was not nutritionally based, but due to norepinephrine and dopamine. These results suggest that neurochemicals contained within foodstuffs may influence the growth of pathogenic and indigenous bacteria through direct neurochemical-bacterial interactions.

  1. Pupillometry as a glimpse into the neurochemical basis of human memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffing, Russell Cohen; Seitz, Aaron R

    2015-04-01

    Neurochemical systems are well studied in animal learning; however, ethical issues limit methodologies to explore these systems in humans. Pupillometry provides a glimpse into the brain's neurochemical systems, where pupil dynamics in monkeys have been linked with locus coeruleus (LC) activity, which releases norepinephrine (NE) throughout the brain. Here, we use pupil dynamics as a surrogate measure of neurochemical activity to explore the hypothesis that NE is involved in modulating memory encoding. We examine this using a task-irrelevant learning paradigm in which learning is boosted for stimuli temporally paired with task targets. We show that participants better recognize images that are paired with task targets than distractors and, in correspondence, that pupil size changes more for target-paired than distractor-paired images. To further investigate the hypothesis that NE nonspecifically guides learning for stimuli that are present with its release, a second procedure was used that employed an unexpected sound to activate the LC-NE system and induce pupil-size changes; results indicated a corresponding increase in memorization of images paired with the unexpected sounds. Together, these results suggest a relationship between the LC-NE system, pupil-size changes, and human memory encoding.

  2. Neurochemical changes underpinning the development of adjunct therapies in recovery after stroke: A role for GABA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Ainslie; Levenstein, Jacob M; Hinson, Emily L; Stagg, Charlotte J

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability, with around three-quarters of stroke survivors experiencing motor problems. Intensive physiotherapy is currently the most effective treatment for post-stroke motor deficits, but much recent research has been targeted at increasing the effects of the intervention by pairing it with a wide variety of adjunct therapies, all of which aim to increase cortical plasticity, and thereby hope to maximize functional outcome. Here, we review the literature describing neurochemical changes underlying plasticity induction following stroke. We discuss methods of assessing neurochemicals in humans, and how these measurements change post-stroke. Motor learning in healthy individuals has been suggested as a model for stroke plasticity, and we discuss the support for this model, and what evidence it provides for neurochemical changes. One converging hypothesis from animal, healthy and stroke studies is the importance of the regulation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA for the induction of cortical plasticity. We discuss the evidence supporting this hypothesis, before finally summarizing the literature surrounding the use of adjunct therapies such as non-invasive brain stimulation and SSRIs in post-stroke motor recovery, both of which have been show to influence the GABAergic system.

  3. Molecular and neurochemical substrates of the audiogenic seizure strains: The GASH:Sal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Martín, Ana I; Aroca-Aguilar, J Daniel; Sánchez-Sánchez, Francisco; Muñoz, Luis J; López, Dolores E; Escribano, Julio; de Cabo, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Animal models of audiogenic epilepsy are useful tools to understand the mechanisms underlying human reflex epilepsies. There is accumulating evidence regarding behavioral, anatomical, electrophysiological, and genetic substrates of audiogenic seizure strains, but there are still aspects concerning their neurochemical basis that remain to be elucidated. Previous studies have shown the involved of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) in audiogenic seizures. The aim of our research was to clarify the role of the GABAergic system in the generation of epileptic seizures in the genetic audiogenic seizure-prone hamster (GASH:Sal) strain. We studied the K + /Cl - cotransporter KCC2 and β2-GABAA-type receptor (GABAAR) and β3-GABAAR subunit expressions in the GASH:Sal both at rest and after repeated sound-induced seizures in different brain regions using the Western blot technique. We also sequenced the coding region for the KCC2 gene both in wild- type and GASH:Sal hamsters. Lower expression of KCC2 protein was found in GASH:Sal when compared with controls at rest in several brain areas: hippocampus, cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, pons-medulla, and mesencephalon. Repeated induction of seizures caused a decrease in KCC2 protein content in the inferior colliculus and hippocampus and an increase in the pons-medulla. When compared to controls, the basal β 2 -GABA A R subunit in the GASH:Sal was overexpressed in the inferior colliculus, rest of the mesencephalon, and cerebellum, whereas basal β 3 subunit levels were lower in the inferior colliculus and rest of the mesencephalon. Repeated seizures increased β2 both in the inferior colliculus and in the hypothalamus and β 3 in the hypothalamus. No differences in the KCC2 gene-coding region were found between GASH:Sal and wild-type hamsters. These data indicate that GABAergic system functioning is impaired in the GASH:Sal strain, and repeated seizures seem to aggravate this dysfunction. These results have potential clinical

  4. Comparative proteomics analyses of Kobresia pygmaea adaptation to environment along an elevational gradient on the central Tibetan Plateau.

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    Xiong Li

    Full Text Available Variations in elevation limit the growth and distribution of alpine plants because multiple environmental stresses impact plant growth, including sharp temperature shifts, strong ultraviolet radiation exposure, low oxygen content, etc. Alpine plants have developed special strategies to help survive the harsh environments of high mountains, but the internal mechanisms remain undefined. Kobresia pygmaea, the dominant species of alpine meadows, is widely distributed in the Southeastern Tibet Plateau, Tibet Autonomous Region, China. In this study, we mainly used comparative proteomics analyses to investigate the dynamic protein patterns for K. pygmaea located at four different elevations (4600, 4800, 4950 and 5100 m. A total of 58 differentially expressed proteins were successfully detected and functionally characterized. The proteins were divided into various functional categories, including material and energy metabolism, protein synthesis and degradation, redox process, defense response, photosynthesis, and protein kinase. Our study confirmed that increasing levels of antioxidant and heat shock proteins and the accumulation of primary metabolites, such as proline and abscisic acid, conferred K. pygmaea with tolerance to the alpine environment. In addition, the various methods K. pygmaea used to regulate material and energy metabolism played important roles in the development of tolerance to environmental stress. Our results also showed that the way in which K. pygmaea mediated stomatal characteristics and photosynthetic pigments constitutes an enhanced adaptation to alpine environmental stress. According to these findings, we concluded that K. pygmaea adapted to the high-elevation environment on the Tibetan Plateau by aggressively accumulating abiotic stress-related metabolites and proteins and by the various life events mediated by proteins. Based on the species'lexible physiological and biochemical processes, we surmised that environment change

  5. Comparative Proteomics Analyses of Kobresia pygmaea Adaptation to Environment along an Elevational Gradient on the Central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiong; Yang, Yunqiang; Ma, Lan; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Shihai; Kong, Xiangxiang; Hu, Xiangyang; Yang, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Variations in elevation limit the growth and distribution of alpine plants because multiple environmental stresses impact plant growth, including sharp temperature shifts, strong ultraviolet radiation exposure, low oxygen content, etc. Alpine plants have developed special strategies to help survive the harsh environments of high mountains, but the internal mechanisms remain undefined. Kobresia pygmaea, the dominant species of alpine meadows, is widely distributed in the Southeastern Tibet Plateau, Tibet Autonomous Region, China. In this study, we mainly used comparative proteomics analyses to investigate the dynamic protein patterns for K. pygmaea located at four different elevations (4600, 4800, 4950 and 5100 m). A total of 58 differentially expressed proteins were successfully detected and functionally characterized. The proteins were divided into various functional categories, including material and energy metabolism, protein synthesis and degradation, redox process, defense response, photosynthesis, and protein kinase. Our study confirmed that increasing levels of antioxidant and heat shock proteins and the accumulation of primary metabolites, such as proline and abscisic acid, conferred K. pygmaea with tolerance to the alpine environment. In addition, the various methods K. pygmaea used to regulate material and energy metabolism played important roles in the development of tolerance to environmental stress. Our results also showed that the way in which K. pygmaea mediated stomatal characteristics and photosynthetic pigments constitutes an enhanced adaptation to alpine environmental stress. According to these findings, we concluded that K. pygmaea adapted to the high-elevation environment on the Tibetan Plateau by aggressively accumulating abiotic stress-related metabolites and proteins and by the various life events mediated by proteins. Based on the species'lexible physiological and biochemical processes, we surmised that environment change has only a slight

  6. Comparative genome analysis provides insights into the evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Green

    Full Text Available A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae, is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem cankers on European horse chestnut in Britain (E-Pae. On the basis of these sequences alone, the E-Pae strains were identical to the Pae type-strain (I-Pae, isolated from leaf spots on Indian horse chestnut in India in 1969. The phylogenetic analyses also showed that Pae belongs to a distinct clade of P. syringae pathovars adapted to woody hosts. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from the three E-Pae strains and one strain of I-Pae. Comparative genomic analyses revealed pathovar-specific genomic regions in Pae potentially implicated in virulence on a tree host, including genes for the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds and enterobactin synthesis. Several gene clusters displayed intra-pathovar variation, including those encoding type IV secretion, a novel fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and a sucrose uptake pathway. Rates of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the four Pae genomes indicate that the three E-Pae strains diverged from each other much more recently than they diverged from I-Pae. The very low genetic diversity among the three geographically distinct E-Pae strains suggests that they originate from a single, recent introduction into Britain, thus highlighting the serious environmental risks posed by the spread of an exotic plant pathogenic bacterium to a new geographic location. The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree.

  7. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids.

  8. Comparative genomic analysis of the microbiome [corrected] of herbivorous insects reveals eco-environmental adaptations: biotechnology applications.

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    Weibing Shi

    Full Text Available Metagenome analysis of the gut symbionts of three different insects was conducted as a means of comparing taxonomic and metabolic diversity of gut microbiomes to diet and life history of the insect hosts. A second goal was the discovery of novel biocatalysts for biorefinery applications. Grasshopper and cutworm gut symbionts were sequenced and compared with the previously identified metagenome of termite gut microbiota. These insect hosts represent three different insect orders and specialize on different food types. The comparative analysis revealed dramatic differences among the three insect species in the abundance and taxonomic composition of the symbiont populations present in the gut. The composition and abundance of symbionts was correlated with their previously identified capacity to degrade and utilize the different types of food consumed by their hosts. The metabolic reconstruction revealed that the gut metabolome of cutworms and grasshoppers was more enriched for genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and transport than wood-feeding termite, whereas the termite gut metabolome was enriched for glycosyl hydrolase (GH enzymes relevant to lignocellulosic biomass degradation. Moreover, termite gut metabolome was more enriched with nitrogen fixation genes than those of grasshopper and cutworm gut, presumably due to the termite's adaptation to the high fiber and less nutritious food types. In order to evaluate and exploit the insect symbionts for biotechnology applications, we cloned and further characterized four biomass-degrading enzymes including one endoglucanase and one xylanase from both the grasshopper and cutworm gut symbionts. The results indicated that the grasshopper symbiont enzymes were generally more efficient in biomass degradation than the homologous enzymes from cutworm symbionts. Together, these results demonstrated a correlation between the composition and putative metabolic functionality of the gut microbiome and host

  9. Large-scale neurochemical metabolomics analysis identifies multiple compounds associated with methamphetamine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, Joseph L; Adkins, Daniel E; Vunck, Sarah A; Batman, Angela M; Vann, Robert E; Clark, Shaunna L; Beardsley, Patrick M; van den Oord, Edwin J C G

    2013-04-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is an illegal stimulant drug of abuse with serious negative health consequences. The neurochemical effects of MA have been partially characterized, with a traditional focus on classical neurotransmitter systems. However, these directions have not yet led to novel drug treatments for MA abuse or toxicity. As an alternative approach, we describe here the first application of metabolomics to investigate the neurochemical consequences of MA exposure in the rodent brain. We examined single exposures at 3 mg/kg and repeated exposures at 3 mg/kg over 5 days in eight common inbred mouse strains. Brain tissue samples were assayed using high-throughput gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, yielding quantitative data on >300 unique metabolites. Association testing and false discovery rate control yielded several metabolome-wide significant associations with acute MA exposure, including compounds such as lactate ( p = 4.4 × 10 -5 , q = 0.013), tryptophan ( p = 7.0 × 10 -4 , q = 0.035) and 2-hydroxyglutarate ( p = 1.1 × 10 -4 , q = 0.022). Secondary analyses of MA-induced increase in locomotor activity showed associations with energy metabolites such as succinate ( p = 3.8 × 10 -7 ). Associations specific to repeated (5 day) MA exposure included phosphocholine ( p = 4.0 × 10 -4 , q = 0.087) and ergothioneine ( p = 3.0 × 10 -4 , q = 0.087). Our data appear to confirm and extend existing models of MA action in the brain, whereby an initial increase in energy metabolism, coupled with an increase in behavioral locomotion, gives way to disruption of mitochondria and phospholipid pathways and increased endogenous antioxidant response. Our study demonstrates the power of comprehensive MS-based metabolomics to identify drug-induced changes to brain metabolism and to develop neurochemical models of drug effects.

  10. A neurochemical closed-loop controller for deep brain stimulation: toward individualized smart neuromodulation therapies.

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    Peter Jonas Grahn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current strategies for optimizing deep brain stimulation (DBS therapy involve multiple postoperative visits. During each visit, stimulation parameters are adjusted until desired therapeutic effects are achieved and adverse effects are minimized. However, the efficacy of these therapeutic parameters may decline with time due at least in part to disease progression, interactions between the host environment and the electrode, and lead migration. As such, development of closed-loop control systems that can respond to changing neurochemical environments, tailoring DBS therapy to individual patients, is paramount for improving the therapeutic efficacy of DBS.Evidence obtained using electrophysiology and imaging techniques in both animals and humans suggests that DBS works by modulating neural network activity. Recently, animal studies have shown that stimulation-evoked changes in neurotransmitter release that mirror normal physiology are associated with the therapeutic benefits of DBS. Therefore, to fully understand the neurophysiology of DBS and optimize its efficacy, it may be necessary to look beyond conventional electrophysiological analyses and characterize the neurochemical effects of therapeutic and non-therapeutic stimulation. By combining electrochemical monitoring and mathematical modeling techniques, we can potentially replace the trial-and-error process used in clinical programming with deterministic approaches that help attain optimal and stable neurochemical profiles. In this manuscript, we summarize the current understanding of electrophysiological and electrochemical processing for control of neuromodulation therapies. Additionally, we describe a proof-of-principle closed-loop controller that characterizes DBS-evoked dopamine changes to adjust stimulation parameters in a rodent model of DBS. The work described herein represents the initial steps toward achieving a smart neuroprosthetic system for treatment of neurologic and

  11. Mercury Vapour Long-Lasting Exposure: Lymphocyte Muscarinic Receptors as Neurochemical Markers of Accidental Intoxication

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    E. Roda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic poisoning may result in home setting after mercury (Hg vapours inhalation from damaged devices. We report a chronic, nonoccupational Hg poisoning due to 10-year indoor exposure to mercury spillage. Case Report. A 72-year-old man with polyneuropathy of suspected toxic origin. At hospitalization, toxicological clinical evaluations confirmed the altered neurological picture documented across the last decade. Periodic blood and urine Hg levels (BHg, UHg monitoring were performed from admission (t0, until 1 year later (t2, paralleled by blood neurochemical markers assessment, that is, lymphocytes muscarinic receptors (l-MRs. At t0: BHg and UHg were 27 and 1.4 microg/L, respectively (normal values: BHg 1–4.5; UHg 0.1–4.5, associated with l-MRs increase, 185.82 femtomoL/million lymphocytes (normal range: 8.0–16.0. At t1 (two days after DMSA-mobilization test, BHg weak reduction, paralleled by UHg 3.7-fold increase, was measured together with further l-MRs enhancement (205.43 femtomoL/million lymphocytes. At t2 (eight months after two cycles of DMSA chelating therapy ending, gradual improving of clinical manifestations was accompanied by progressive decrease of BHg and UHg (4.0 and 2.8 microg/L, resp. and peripheral l-MRs neurochemical marker (24.89 femtomoL/million lymphocytes. Conclusion. l-MRs modulatory effect supports their use as peripheral neurochemical marker in Hg poisoning diagnosis and chelation therapy monitoring.

  12. Comparative genomics of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 and related members of Lactobacillus. spp reveal adaptations to dairy and gut environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhuqing; Geng, Weitao; Li, Chao; Sun, Ye; Wang, Yanping

    2017-10-09

    It is important for probiotics that are currently utilized in the dairy industry to have clear genetic backgrounds. In this study, the genetic characteristics of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ZW3 were studied by undertaking a comparative genomics study, and key genes for adaptation to different environments were investigated and validated in vitro. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer resulting in strong self-defense mechanisms was detected in the ZW3 genome. We identified a series of genes relevant for dairy environments and the intestinal tract, particularly for extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. Reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR) revealed significant increases in the relative expression of pgm, ugp, and uge during the mid-logarithmic phase, whereas the expression of pgi was higher at the beginning of the stationary phase. The enzymes encoded by these four genes concertedly regulated carbon flux, which in turn modulated the production of EPS precursors. Moreover, ZW3 tolerated pH 3.5 and 3% bile salt and retained cell surface hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation. In conclusion, we explored the potential of ZW3 for utilization in both the dairy industry and in probiotic applications. Additionally, we elucidated the regulation of the relevant genes involved in EPS production.

  13. Comparability of Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory ratings by staff, significant others and people with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, James F

    2004-06-01

    To determine the internal consistency, reliability and comparability of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) and sub-scales completed by people with acquired brain injury (ABI), family and significant others (SO) and rehabilitation staff. 134 people with ABI consecutively seen for outpatient rehabilitation evaluation. MPAI-4 protocols based on independent ratings by the people with ABI undergoing evaluation, SO and rehabilitation staff were submitted to Rasch Facets analysis to determine the internal consistency of the overall measure and sub-scales (Ability, Adjustment and Participation indices) for each rater group and for a composite measure based on all rater groups. Rater agreement for individual items was also examined. Rasch indicators of internal consistency were entirely within acceptable limits for 3-rater composite full scale and sub-scale measures; these indicators were generally within acceptable limits for measures based on a single rater group. Item agreement was generally acceptable; disagreements suggested various sources of bias for specific rater groups. The MPAI-4 possesses satisfactory internal consistency regardless of rating source. A composite measure based on ratings made independently by people with ABI, SO and staff may serve as a 'gold standard' for research purposes. In the clinical setting, assessment of varying perspectives and biases may not only best represent outcome as evaluated by all parties involved but be essential to developing effective rehabilitation plans.

  14. Genome-Wide Comparative Functional Analyses Reveal Adaptations of Salmonella sv. Newport to a Plant Colonization Lifestyle

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    Marcos H. de Moraes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of salmonellosis linked to the consumption of vegetables have been disproportionately associated with strains of serovar Newport. We tested the hypothesis that strains of sv. Newport have evolved unique adaptations to persistence in plants that are not shared by strains of other Salmonella serovars. We used a genome-wide mutant screen to compare growth in tomato fruit of a sv. Newport strain from an outbreak traced to tomatoes, and a sv. Typhimurium strain from animals. Most genes in the sv. Newport strain that were selected during persistence in tomatoes were shared with, and similarly selected in, the sv. Typhimurium strain. Many of their functions are linked to central metabolism, including amino acid biosynthetic pathways, iron acquisition, and maintenance of cell structure. One exception was a greater need for the core genes involved in purine metabolism in sv. Typhimurium than in sv. Newport. We discovered a gene, papA, that was unique to sv. Newport and contributed to the strain’s fitness in tomatoes. The papA gene was present in about 25% of sv. Newport Group III genomes and generally absent from other Salmonella genomes. Homologs of papA were detected in the genomes of Pantoea, Dickeya, and Pectobacterium, members of the Enterobacteriacea family that can colonize both plants and animals.

  15. comparative transcriptomics between Synechococcus PCC 7942 and Synechocystis PCC 6803 provide insights into mechanisms of adaptation to stress.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantinos, Billis [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); European Bioinformatics Inst., Hinxton, Cambridge (United Kingdom). European Molecular Biology Lab.; Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Genetics; Billini, Maria [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Max Planck Inst. for Terrestrial Microbiology, Marburg (Germany); Tripp, Harry J. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Kyrpides, Nikos C. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Mavrommatis, Konstantinos [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Celgene Corp, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-03-21

    Background: Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 are model cyanobacteria from which the metabolism and adaptive responses of other cyanobacteria are inferred. Here we report the gene expression response of these two strains to a variety of nutrient and environmental stresses of varying duration, using transcriptomics. Our data comprise both stranded and 5? enriched libraries in order to elucidate many aspects of the transcriptome. Results: Both organisms were exposed to stress conditions due to nutrient deficiency (inorganic carbon) or change of environmental conditions (salinity, temperature, pH, light) sampled at 1 and 24 hours after the application of stress. The transcriptome profile of each strain revealed similarities and differences in gene expression for photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains and carbon fixation. Transcriptome profiles also helped us improve the structural annotation of the genome and identify possible missed genes (including anti-sense) and determine transcriptional units (operons). Finally, we predicted association of proteins of unknown function biochemical pathways by associating them to well-characterized ones based on their transcript levels correlation. Conclusions: Overall, this study results an informative annotation of those species and the comparative analysis of the response of the two organisms revealed similarities but also significant changes in the way they respond to external stress and the duration of the response

  16. Comparative analysis of an evaporative condenser using artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metin Ertunc, H. [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Kocaeli University, Umuttepe, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey); Hosoz, Murat [Department of Mechanical Education, Kocaeli University, Umuttepe, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    This study deals with predicting the performance of an evaporative condenser using both artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) techniques. For this aim, an experimental evaporative condenser consisting of a copper tube condensing coil along with air and water circuit elements was developed and equipped with instruments used for temperature, pressure and flow rate measurements. After the condenser was connected to an R134a vapour-compression refrigeration circuit, it was operated at steady state conditions, while varying both dry and wet bulb temperatures of the air stream entering the condenser, air and water flow rates as well as pressure, temperature and flow rate of the entering refrigerant. Using some of the experimental data for training, ANN and ANFIS models for the evaporative condenser were developed. These models were used for predicting the condenser heat rejection rate, refrigerant temperature leaving the condenser along with dry and wet bulb temperatures of the leaving air stream. Although it was observed that both ANN and ANFIS models yielded a good statistical prediction performance in terms of correlation coefficient, mean relative error, root mean square error and absolute fraction of variance, the accuracies of ANFIS predictions were usually slightly better than those of ANN predictions. This study reveals that, having an extended prediction capability compared to ANN, the ANFIS technique can also be used for predicting the performance of evaporative condensers. (author)

  17. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Novel Insights into the Adaptive Response of Skeletonema costatum to Changing Ambient Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Feng Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is a limiting macronutrient for diatom growth and productivity in the ocean. Much effort has been devoted to the physiological response of marine diatoms to ambient P change, however, the whole-genome molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we utilized RNA-Seq to compare the global gene expression patterns of a marine diatom Skeletonema costatum grown in inorganic P-replete, P-deficient, and inorganic- and organic-P resupplied conditions. In total 34,942 unique genes were assembled and 20.8% of them altered significantly in abundance under different P conditions. Genes encoding key enzymes/proteins involved in P utilization, nucleotide metabolism, photosynthesis, glycolysis and cell cycle regulation were significantly up-regulated in P-deficient cells. Genes participating in circadian rhythm regulation, such as circadian clock associated 1, were also up-regulated in P-deficient cells. The response of S. costatum to ambient P deficiency shows several similarities to the well-described responses of other marine diatom species, but also has its unique features. S. costatum has evolved the ability to re-program its circadian clock and intracellular biological processes in response to ambient P deficiency. This study provides new insights into the adaptive mechanisms to ambient P deficiency in marine diatoms.

  18. Impact of oral supplementation of Glutamate and GABA on memory performance and neurochemical profile in hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Saiqa; Ahmad, Saara; Madiha, Syeda; Khaliq, Saima; Shahzad, Sidrah; Batool, Zehra; Haider, Saida

    2017-05-01

    Glutamate (GLU) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) are essential amino acids (AA) for brain function serving as excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter respectively. Their tablets are available in market for improving gut function and muscle performance. Despite of having a major role during memory formation and processing, effects of these tablets on brain functioning like learning and memory have not been investigated. Therefore, present study is aimed to investigate the effects of orally supplemented GLU and GABA on learning and memory performance and further to monitor related effects of these orally supplemented GLU and GABA on brain levels of these AA. Three groups of rats were supplemented orally with drinking water (control group) or suspension of tablets of GABA and Glutamate, respectively for four weeks. Cognitive performance was determined using behavioral tests (Novel object recognition test, Morris water maze, Passive avoidance test) measuring recognition, spatial reference and aversive memory. Levels of GLU, GABA and acetylcholine (ACh) were estimated in rat hippocampus. Results showed that chronic oral administration of GLU and GABA tablets has a significant impact on brain function and can alter GLU and GABA content in rat hippocampus. Compared to GABA, GLU supplementation specifically enhances memory performance via increasing ACh. Thus, GLU can be suggested as a useful supplement for improving learning and memory performance and neurochemical status of brain and in future could be effective in the treatment of neurological disorders affecting learning and memory performance.

  19. Effect of chronic psychogenic stress on some behavioral and neurochemical characteristics of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchev, N.D.; Rozhanets, V.V.; Val'dman, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the behavioral, somatic, and certain neurochemical parameters in rats under conditions of unavoidable chronic stress, according to Hecht et al. in a situation of possible avoidance, with the same total number of aversive stimuli. Specific binding of tritium-flunitrazepam and tritium-dihydroalprenolol was studied. The dissociatin constant and the maximal concentration of ligand-receptor complexes were determined in Scatchard plots by means of an HP-33E computer. The protein concentration in the samples was determined by Peterson's method

  20. Specialized adaptation of a lactic acid bacterium to the milk environment: the comparative genomics of Streptococcus thermophilus LMD-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altermann Eric

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus thermophilus represents the only species among the streptococci that has “Generally Regarded As Safe” status and that plays an economically important role in the fermentation of yogurt and cheeses. We conducted comparative genome analysis of S. thermophilus LMD-9 to identify unique gene features as well as features that contribute to its adaptation to the dairy environment. In addition, we investigated the transcriptome response of LMD-9 during growth in milk in the presence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, a companion culture in yogurt fermentation, and during lytic bacteriophage infection. Results The S. thermophilus LMD-9 genome is comprised of a 1.8 Mbp circular chromosome (39.1% GC; 1,834 predicted open reading frames and two small cryptic plasmids. Genome comparison with the previously sequenced LMG 18311 and CNRZ1066 strains revealed 114 kb of LMD-9 specific chromosomal region, including genes that encode for histidine biosynthetic pathway, a cell surface proteinase, various host defense mechanisms and a phage remnant. Interestingly, also unique to LMD-9 are genes encoding for a putative mucus-binding protein, a peptide transporter, and exopolysaccharide biosynthetic proteins that have close orthologs in human intestinal microorganisms. LMD-9 harbors a large number of pseudogenes (13% of ORFeome, indicating that like LMG 18311 and CNRZ1066, LMD-9 has also undergone major reductive evolution, with the loss of carbohydrate metabolic genes and virulence genes found in their streptococcal counterparts. Functional genome distribution analysis of ORFeomes among streptococci showed that all three S. thermophilus strains formed a distinct functional cluster, further establishing their specialized adaptation to the nutrient-rich milk niche. An upregulation of CRISPR1 expression in LMD-9 during lytic bacteriophage DT1 infection suggests its protective role against phage invasion. When co

  1. Specialized adaptation of a lactic acid bacterium to the milk environment: the comparative genomics of Streptococcus thermophilus LMD-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yong Jun; Goin, Caitlin; O'Flaherty, Sarah; Altermann, Eric; Hutkins, Robert

    2011-08-30

    Streptococcus thermophilus represents the only species among the streptococci that has "Generally Regarded As Safe" status and that plays an economically important role in the fermentation of yogurt and cheeses. We conducted comparative genome analysis of S. thermophilus LMD-9 to identify unique gene features as well as features that contribute to its adaptation to the dairy environment. In addition, we investigated the transcriptome response of LMD-9 during growth in milk in the presence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, a companion culture in yogurt fermentation, and during lytic bacteriophage infection. The S. thermophilus LMD-9 genome is comprised of a 1.8 Mbp circular chromosome (39.1% GC; 1,834 predicted open reading frames) and two small cryptic plasmids. Genome comparison with the previously sequenced LMG 18311 and CNRZ1066 strains revealed 114 kb of LMD-9 specific chromosomal region, including genes that encode for histidine biosynthetic pathway, a cell surface proteinase, various host defense mechanisms and a phage remnant. Interestingly, also unique to LMD-9 are genes encoding for a putative mucus-binding protein, a peptide transporter, and exopolysaccharide biosynthetic proteins that have close orthologs in human intestinal microorganisms. LMD-9 harbors a large number of pseudogenes (13% of ORFeome), indicating that like LMG 18311 and CNRZ1066, LMD-9 has also undergone major reductive evolution, with the loss of carbohydrate metabolic genes and virulence genes found in their streptococcal counterparts. Functional genome distribution analysis of ORFeomes among streptococci showed that all three S. thermophilus strains formed a distinct functional cluster, further establishing their specialized adaptation to the nutrient-rich milk niche. An upregulation of CRISPR1 expression in LMD-9 during lytic bacteriophage DT1 infection suggests its protective role against phage invasion. When co-cultured with L. bulgaricus, LMD-9 overexpressed genes

  2. Comparative genome analysis of Prevotella intermedia strain isolated from infected root canal reveals features related to pathogenicity and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yunfeng; Shen, Lu; Zou, Yan; Qi, Zhengnan; Yin, Jun; Jiang, Jie; Guo, Liang; He, Lin; Chen, Zijiang; Tang, Zisheng; Qin, Shengying

    2015-02-25

    Many species of the genus Prevotella are pathogens that cause oral diseases. Prevotella intermedia is known to cause various oral disorders e.g. periodontal disease, periapical periodontitis and noma as well as colonize in the respiratory tract and be associated with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis. It is of clinical significance to identify the main drive of its various adaptation and pathogenicity. In order to explore the intra-species genetic differences among strains of Prevotella intermedia of different niches, we isolated a strain Prevotella intermedia ZT from the infected root canal of a Chinese patient with periapical periodontitis and gained a draft genome sequence. We annotated the genome and compared it with the genomes of other taxa in the genus Prevotella. The raw data set, consisting of approximately 65X-coverage reads, was trimmed and assembled into contigs from which 2165 ORFs were predicted. The comparison of the Prevotella intermedia ZT genome sequence with the published genome sequence of Prevotella intermedia 17 and Prevotella intermedia ATCC25611 revealed that ~14% of the genes were strain-specific. The Preveotella intermedia strains share a set of conserved genes contributing to its adaptation and pathogenic and possess strain-specific genes especially those involved in adhesion and secreting bacteriocin. The Prevotella intermedia ZT shares similar gene content with other taxa of genus Prevotella. The genomes of the genus Prevotella is highly dynamic with relative conserved parts: on average, about half of the genes in one Prevotella genome were not included in another genome of the different Prevotella species. The degree of conservation varied with different pathways: the ability of amino acid biosynthesis varied greatly with species but the pathway of cell wall components biosynthesis were nearly constant. Phylogenetic tree shows that the taxa from different niches are scarcely distributed among clades. Prevotella intermedia ZT

  3. Cannabinoids for the Treatment of Schizophrenia? A Balanced Neurochemical Framework for Both Adverse and Therapeutic Effects of Cannabis Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carissa M. Coulston

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have found that cannabinoids may improve neuropsychological performance, ameliorate negative symptoms, and have antipsychotic properties for a subgroup of the schizophrenia population. These findings are in contrast to the longstanding history of adverse consequences of cannabis use, predominantly on the positive symptoms, and a balanced neurochemical basis for these opposing views is lacking. This paper details a review of the neurobiological substrates of schizophrenia and the neurochemical effects of cannabis use in the normal population, in both cortical (in particular prefrontal and subcortical brain regions. The aim of this paper is to provide a holistic neurochemical framework in which to understand how cannabinoids may impair, or indeed, serve to ameliorate the positive and negative symptoms as well as cognitive impairment. Directions in which future research can proceed to resolve the discrepancies are briefly discussed.

  4. Neurochemical metabolites in prefrontal cortex in patients with mild/moderate levels in first-episode depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sozeri-Varma G

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gülfizar Sözeri-Varma,1 Nalan Kalkan-Oğuzhanoglu,1 Muharrem Efe,1 Yilmaz Kiroglu,2 Taçlan Duman11Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, TurkeyBackground: Previous studies have determined the neurochemical metabolite abnormalities in major depressive disorder (MDD. The results of studies are inconsistent. Severity of depression may relate to neurochemical metabolic changes. The aim of this study is to investigate neurochemical metabolite levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC of patients with mild/moderate MDD.Methods: Twenty-one patients with mild MDD, 18 patients with moderate MDD, and 16 matched control subjects participated in the study. Patients had had their first episode. They had not taken treatment. The severity of depression was assessed by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. Levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline-containing compounds (Cho, and creatine-containing compounds (Cr were measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS at 1.5 T, with an 8-cm3 single voxel placed in the right PFC.Results: The moderate MDD patients had lower NAA/Cr levels than the control group. No differences were found in neurochemical metabolite levels between the mild MDD and control groups. No correlation was found between the patients’ neurochemical metabolite levels and HAM-D scores.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that NAA/Cr levels are low in moderate-level MDD in the PFC. Neurochemical metabolite levels did not change in mild depressive disorder. Our results suggest that the severity of depression may affect neuronal function and viability. Studies are needed to confirm this finding, including studies on severely depressive patients.Keywords: major depressive disorder, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline

  5. Separate neurochemical classes of sympathetic postganglionic neurons project to the left ventricle of the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R J; Grkovic, I; Allen, A M; Anderson, C R

    2006-04-01

    The sympathetic innervation of the rat heart was investigated by retrograde neuronal tracing and multiple label immunohistochemistry. Injections of Fast Blue made into the left ventricular wall labelled sympathetic neurons that were located along the medial border of both the left and right stellate ganglia. Cardiac projecting sympathetic postganglionic neurons could be grouped into one of four neurochemical populations, characterised by their content of calbindin and/or neuropeptide Y (NPY). The subpopulations of neurons contained immunoreactivity to both calbindin and NPY, immunoreactivity to calbindin only, immunoreactivity to NPY only and no immunoreactivity to calbindin or NPY. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons were also labelled in vitro with rhodamine dextran applied to the cut end of a cardiac nerve. The same neurochemical subpopulations of sympathetic neurons were identified by using this technique but in different proportions to those labelled from the left ventricle. Preganglionic terminals that were immunoreactive for another calcium-binding protein, calretinin, preferentially surrounded retrogradely labelled neurons that were immunoreactive for both calbindin and NPY. The separate sympathetic pathways projecting to the rat heart may control different cardiac functions.

  6. Early-onset behavioral and neurochemical deficits in the genetic mouse model of phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Elena; Oddi, Diego; Ventura, Rossella; Colamartino, Marco; Valzania, Alessandro; D'Amato, Francesca Romana; Bruinenberg, Vibeke; van der Zee, Eddy; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Pascucci, Tiziana

    2017-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of the most common human inborn errors of metabolism, caused by phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, leading to high phenylalanine and low tyrosine levels in blood and brain causing profound cognitive disability, if untreated. Since 1960, population is screened for hyperphenylalaninemia shortly after birth and submitted to early treatment in order to prevent the major manifestations of the disease. However, the dietetic regimen (phenylalanine free diet) is difficult to maintain, and despite the recommendation to a strict and lifelong compliance, up to 60% of adolescents partially or totally abandons the treatment. The development and the study of new treatments continue to be sought, taking advantage of preclinical models, the most used of which is the PAHenu2 (BTBR ENU2), the genetic murine model of PKU. To date, adult behavioral and neurochemical alterations have been mainly investigated in ENU2 mice, whereas there are no clear indications about the onset of these deficiencies. Here we investigated and report, for the first time, a comprehensive behavioral and neurochemical assay of the developing ENU2 mice. Overall, our findings demonstrate that ENU2 mice are significantly smaller than WT until pnd 24, present a significant delay in the acquisition of tested developmental reflexes, impaired communicative, motor and social skills, and have early reduced biogenic amine levels in several brain areas. Our results extend the understanding of behavioral and cerebral abnormalities in PKU mice, providing instruments to an early preclinical evaluation of the effects of new treatments.

  7. A High-Performance Application Specific Integrated Circuit for Electrical and Neurochemical Traumatic Brain Injury Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagkalos, Ilias; Rogers, Michelle L; Boutelle, Martyn G; Drakakis, Emmanuel M

    2018-05-22

    This paper presents the first application specific integrated chip (ASIC) for the monitoring of patients who have suffered a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). By monitoring the neurophysiological (ECoG) and neurochemical (glucose, lactate and potassium) signals of the injured human brain tissue, it is possible to detect spreading depolarisations, which have been shown to be associated with poor TBI patient outcome. This paper describes the testing of a new 7.5 mm 2 ASIC fabricated in the commercially available AMS 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The ASIC has been designed to meet the demands of processing the injured brain tissue's ECoG signals, recorded by means of depth or brain surface electrodes, and neurochemical signals, recorded using microdialysis coupled to microfluidics-based electrochemical biosensors. The potentiostats use switchedcapacitor charge integration to record currents with 100 fA resolution, and allow automatic gain changing to track the falling sensitivity of a biosensor. This work supports the idea of a "behind the ear" wireless microplatform modality, which could enable the monitoring of currently non-monitored mobile TBI patients for the onset of secondary brain injury. ©2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  8. Genus-Wide Comparative Genomics of Malassezia Delineates Its Phylogeny, Physiology, and Niche Adaptation on Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guangxi; Zhao, He; Li, Chenhao; Rajapakse, Menaka Priyadarsani; Wong, Wing Cheong; Xu, Jun; Saunders, Charles W; Reeder, Nancy L; Reilman, Raymond A; Scheynius, Annika; Sun, Sheng; Billmyre, Blake Robert; Li, Wenjun; Averette, Anna Floyd; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Heitman, Joseph; Theelen, Bart; Schröder, Markus S; De Sessions, Paola Florez; Butler, Geraldine; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Boekhout, Teun; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Dawson, Thomas L

    2015-11-01

    Malassezia is a unique lipophilic genus in class Malasseziomycetes in Ustilaginomycotina, (Basidiomycota, fungi) that otherwise consists almost exclusively of plant pathogens. Malassezia are typically isolated from warm-blooded animals, are dominant members of the human skin mycobiome and are associated with common skin disorders. To characterize the genetic basis of the unique phenotypes of Malassezia spp., we sequenced the genomes of all 14 accepted species and used comparative genomics against a broad panel of fungal genomes to comprehensively identify distinct features that define the Malassezia gene repertoire: gene gain and loss; selection signatures; and lineage-specific gene family expansions. Our analysis revealed key gene gain events (64) with a single gene conserved across all Malassezia but absent in all other sequenced Basidiomycota. These likely horizontally transferred genes provide intriguing gain-of-function events and prime candidates to explain the emergence of Malassezia. A larger set of genes (741) were lost, with enrichment for glycosyl hydrolases and carbohydrate metabolism, concordant with adaptation to skin's carbohydrate-deficient environment. Gene family analysis revealed extensive turnover and underlined the importance of secretory lipases, phospholipases, aspartyl proteases, and other peptidases. Combining genomic analysis with a re-evaluation of culture characteristics, we establish the likely lipid-dependence of all Malassezia. Our phylogenetic analysis sheds new light on the relationship between Malassezia and other members of Ustilaginomycotina, as well as phylogenetic lineages within the genus. Overall, our study provides a unique genomic resource for understanding Malassezia niche-specificity and potential virulence, as well as their abundance and distribution in the environment and on human skin.

  9. Genus-Wide Comparative Genomics of Malassezia Delineates Its Phylogeny, Physiology, and Niche Adaptation on Human Skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxi Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia is a unique lipophilic genus in class Malasseziomycetes in Ustilaginomycotina, (Basidiomycota, fungi that otherwise consists almost exclusively of plant pathogens. Malassezia are typically isolated from warm-blooded animals, are dominant members of the human skin mycobiome and are associated with common skin disorders. To characterize the genetic basis of the unique phenotypes of Malassezia spp., we sequenced the genomes of all 14 accepted species and used comparative genomics against a broad panel of fungal genomes to comprehensively identify distinct features that define the Malassezia gene repertoire: gene gain and loss; selection signatures; and lineage-specific gene family expansions. Our analysis revealed key gene gain events (64 with a single gene conserved across all Malassezia but absent in all other sequenced Basidiomycota. These likely horizontally transferred genes provide intriguing gain-of-function events and prime candidates to explain the emergence of Malassezia. A larger set of genes (741 were lost, with enrichment for glycosyl hydrolases and carbohydrate metabolism, concordant with adaptation to skin's carbohydrate-deficient environment. Gene family analysis revealed extensive turnover and underlined the importance of secretory lipases, phospholipases, aspartyl proteases, and other peptidases. Combining genomic analysis with a re-evaluation of culture characteristics, we establish the likely lipid-dependence of all Malassezia. Our phylogenetic analysis sheds new light on the relationship between Malassezia and other members of Ustilaginomycotina, as well as phylogenetic lineages within the genus. Overall, our study provides a unique genomic resource for understanding Malassezia niche-specificity and potential virulence, as well as their abundance and distribution in the environment and on human skin.

  10. Comparative shotgun proteomic analysis of wild and domesticated Opuntia spp. species shows a metabolic adaptation through domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichereaux, Carole; Hernández-Domínguez, Eric E; Santos-Diaz, Maria Del Socorro; Reyes-Agüero, Antonio; Astello-García, Marizel; Guéraud, Françoise; Negre-Salvayre, Anne; Schiltz, Odile; Rossignol, Michel; Barba de la Rosa, Ana Paulina

    2016-06-30

    The Opuntia genus is widely distributed in America, but the highest richness of wild species are found in Mexico, as well as the most domesticated Opuntia ficus-indica, which is the most domesticated species and an important crop in agricultural economies of arid and semiarid areas worldwide. During domestication process, the Opuntia morphological characteristics were favored, such as less and smaller spines in cladodes and less seeds in fruits, but changes at molecular level are almost unknown. To obtain more insights about the Opuntia molecular changes through domestication, a shotgun proteomic analysis and database-dependent searches by homology was carried out. >1000 protein species were identified and by using a label-free quantitation method, the Opuntia proteomes were compared in order to identify differentially accumulated proteins among wild and domesticated species. Most of the changes were observed in glucose, secondary, and 1C metabolism, which correlate with the observed protein, fiber and phenolic compounds accumulation in Opuntia cladodes. Regulatory proteins, ribosomal proteins, and proteins related with response to stress were also observed in differential accumulation. These results provide new valuable data that will help to the understanding of the molecular changes of Opuntia species through domestication. Opuntia species are well adapted to dry and warm conditions in arid and semiarid regions worldwide, and they are highly productive plants showing considerable promises as an alternative food source. However, there is a gap regarding Opuntia molecular mechanisms that enable them to grow in extreme environmental conditions and how the domestication processes has changed them. In the present study, a shotgun analysis was carried out to characterize the proteomes of five Opuntia species selected by its domestication degree. Our results will help to a better understanding of proteomic features underlying the selection and specialization under

  11. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  12. Modern Models of Psychosocial Adaptation to Chronic Illness and Disability as Viewed through the Prism of Lewin's Field Theory: A Comparative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch; Bishop, Malachy; Anctil, Tina M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, we describe how four recent models of psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability (CID) could be fruitfully conceptualized and compared by resorting to the general framework of Lewin's field theory--a theory frequently regarded as a precursor and the primary impetus to the development of the field of…

  13. Local governments in the driving seat? A comparative analysis of public and private responsibilities for adaptation to climate change in European and North-American cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, Heleen

    The division of responsibilities between public and private actors has become a key governance issue for adaptation to climate change in urban areas. This paper offers a systematic, comparative analysis of three empirical studies which analysed how and why responsibilities were divided between

  14. Translation, Adaptation and Invariance Testing of the Teaching Perspectives Inventory: Comparing Faculty of Malaysia and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misieng, Jecky

    2013-01-01

    As a result of growing attention in cross-cultural research, existing measurement instruments developed in one language are being translated and adapted for use in other languages and cultural contexts. Producing invariant measurement instruments that assess educational and psychological constructs provide a way of testing the cross-cultural…

  15. A Comparative Pan-Genome Perspective of Niche-Adaptable Cell-Surface Protein Phenotypes in Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi; Sigvart-Mattila, Pia; Paulin, Lars; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Saarela, Maria; Palva, Airi; von Ossowski, Ingemar

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a ubiquitously adaptable Gram-positive bacterium and as a typical commensal can be recovered from various microbe-accessible bodily orifices and cavities. Then again, other isolates are food-borne, with some of these having been long associated with naturally fermented cheeses and yogurts. Additionally, because of perceived health benefits to humans and animals, numerous L. rhamnosus strains have been selected for use as so-called probiotics and are often taken in the form of dietary supplements and functional foods. At the genome level, it is anticipated that certain genetic variances will have provided the niche-related phenotypes that augment the flexible adaptiveness of this species, thus enabling its strains to grow and survive in their respective host environments. For this present study, we considered it functionally informative to examine and catalogue the genotype-phenotype variation existing at the cell surface between different L. rhamnosus strains, with the presumption that this might be relatable to habitat preferences and ecological adaptability. Here, we conducted a pan-genomic study involving 13 genomes from L. rhamnosus isolates with various origins. In using a benchmark strain (gut-adapted L. rhamnosus GG) for our pan-genome comparison, we had focused our efforts on a detailed examination and description of gene products for certain functionally relevant surface-exposed proteins, each of which in effect might also play a part in niche adaptability among the other strains. Perhaps most significantly of the surface protein loci we had analyzed, it would appear that the spaCBA operon (known to encode SpaCBA-called pili having a mucoadhesive phenotype) is a genomic rarity and an uncommon occurrence in L. rhamnosus. However, for any of the so-piliated L. rhamnosus strains, they will likely possess an increased niche-specific fitness, which functionally might presumably be manifested by a protracted transient colonization of

  16. Comparative leaf and root anatomy of two Dendrobium species (Orchidaceae) from different habitat in relation to their potential adaptation to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metusala, D.; Supriatna, J.; Nisyawati, Sopandie, D.

    2017-07-01

    Dendrobium capra and Dendrobium arcuatum are closely related in phylogeny, but they have very contrasting vegetative morphology and habitats. D. capra is known as a species that is well-adapted to dry lowland teak forest habitat in East Java, where most trees drop their leaves in summer, while D. arcuatum has adapted to mid or high land moist forest at elevation up to 800 m dpl. In order to investigate their potential adaptation to drought stress in the climate change era, we have compared and analyzed the leaf and root anatomical characteristics of both species. Transversal sections were made using hand mini microtome, dehydrated in graded alcohol series and stained with safranin 1 % and fastgreen 1 %. Leaf scraping technique has been used to prepare paradermal sections, and then dehydrated in graded alcohol series and stained with safranin 1 %. Quantitative anatomical characteristics between D. capra and D. arcuatum have been compared using a t-test. The result showed that there were significant differences on anatomical characters between both species. Compared to D. arcuatum, D. capra shows more developed anatomical features for adapting to drought and dry condition. These anatomical features were a thicker cuticle, thicker epidermis, presence of hypodermis, thicker mesophyll, broader primary vascular bundle, well developed xylem's sclerenchyma, lower stomatal density, thicker and high proportion of velamen.

  17. Convulsant activity and neurochemical alterations induced by a fraction obtained from fruit Averrhoa carambola (Oxalidaceae: Geraniales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolino, Ruither O G; Beleboni, Renê O; Pizzo, Andrea B; Vecchio, Flavio Del; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Moyses-Neto, Miguel; Santos, Wagner F Dos; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim

    2005-06-01

    We obtained a neurotoxic fraction (AcTx) from star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) and studied its effects on GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission systems. AcTx had no effect on GABA/glutamate uptake or release, or on glutamate binding. However, it specifically inhibited GABA binding in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50)=0.89muM). Video-electroencephalogram recordings demonstrated that following cortical administration of AcTx, animals showed behavioral changes, including tonic-clonic seizures, evolving into status epilepticus, accompanied by cortical epileptiform activity. Chemical characterization of AcTx showed that this compound is a nonproteic molecule with a molecular weight less than 500, differing from oxalic acid. This neurotoxic fraction of star fruit may be considered a new tool for neurochemical and neuroethological research.

  18. Unique Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects Induced by Repeated Adolescent Consumption of Caffeine-Mixed Alcohol in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meridith T Robins

    Full Text Available The number of highly caffeinated products has increased dramatically in the past few years. Among these products, highly caffeinated energy drinks are the most heavily advertised and purchased, which has resulted in increased incidences of co-consumption of energy drinks with alcohol. Despite the growing number of adolescents and young adults reporting caffeine-mixed alcohol use, knowledge of the potential consequences associated with co-consumption has been limited to survey-based results and in-laboratory human behavioral testing. Here, we investigate the effect of repeated adolescent (post-natal days P35-61 exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol in C57BL/6 mice on common drug-related behaviors such as locomotor sensitivity, drug reward and cross-sensitivity, and natural reward. To determine changes in neurological activity resulting from adolescent exposure, we monitored changes in expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the dopaminergic reward pathway as a sign of long-term increases in neuronal activity. Repeated adolescent exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure induced significant locomotor sensitization, desensitized cocaine conditioned place preference, decreased cocaine locomotor cross-sensitivity, and increased natural reward consumption. We also observed increased accumulation of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens following repeated adolescent caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure compared to alcohol or caffeine alone. Using our exposure model, we found that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence causes unique behavioral and neurochemical effects not observed in mice exposed to caffeine or alcohol alone. Based on similar findings for different substances of abuse, it is possible that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence could potentially alter or escalate future substance abuse as means to compensate for these behavioral and neurochemical alterations.

  19. Previous Ketamine Produces an Enduring Blockade of Neurochemical and Behavioral Effects of Uncontrollable Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzani, Samuel D.; Tilden, Scott; Christianson, John P.; Kubala, Kenneth H.; Bartholomay, Kristi; Sperr, Katherine; Ciancio, Nicholas; Watkins, Linda R.; Maier, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent interest in the antidepressant and anti-stress effects of subanesthetic doses of ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, has identified mechanisms whereby ketamine reverses the effect of stress, but little is known regarding the prophylactic effect ketamine might have on future stressors. Here we investigate the prophylactic effect of ketamine against neurochemical and behavioral changes that follow inescapable, uncontrollable tail shocks (ISs) in Sprague Dawley rats. IS induces increased anxiety, which is dependent on activation of serotonergic (5-HT) dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) neurons that project to the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Ketamine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) administered 2 h, 1 week, or 2 weeks before IS prevented the increased extracellular levels of 5-HT in the BLA typically produced by IS. In addition, ketamine administered at these time points blocked the decreased juvenile social investigation produced by IS. Microinjection of ketamine into the prelimbic (PL) region of the medial prefrontal cortex duplicated the effects of systemic ketamine, and, conversely, systemic ketamine effects were prevented by pharmacological inhibition of the PL. Although IS does not activate DRN-projecting neurons from the PL, IS did so after ketamine, suggesting that the prophylactic effect of ketamine is a result of altered functioning of this projection. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The reported data show that systemic ketamine, given up to 2 weeks before a stressor, blunts behavioral and neurochemical effects of the stressor. The study also advances understanding of the mechanisms involved and suggests that ketamine acts at the prelimbic cortex to sensitize neurons that project to and inhibit the DRN. PMID:26740657

  20. The gyri of the octopus vertical lobe have distinct neurochemical identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeno, Shuichi; Ragsdale, Clifton W

    2015-06-15

    The cephalopod vertical lobe is the largest learning and memory structure known in invertebrate nervous systems. It is part of the visual learning circuit of the central brain, which also includes the superior frontal and subvertical lobes. Despite the well-established functional importance of this system, little is known about neuropil organization of these structures and there is to date no evidence that the five longitudinal gyri of the vertical lobe, perhaps the most distinctive morphological feature of the octopus brain, differ in their connections or molecular identities. We studied the histochemical organization of these structures in hatchling and adult Octopus bimaculoides brains with immunostaining for serotonin, octopus gonadotropin-releasing hormone (oGNRH), and octopressin-neurophysin (OP-NP). Our major finding is that the five lobules forming the vertical lobe gyri have distinct neurochemical signatures. This is most prominent in the hatchling brain, where the median and mediolateral lobules are enriched in OP-NP fibers, the lateral lobule is marked by oGNRH innervation, and serotonin immunostaining heavily labels the median and lateral lobules. A major source of input to the vertical lobe is the superior frontal lobe, which is dominated by a neuropil of interweaving fiber bundles. We have found that this neuropil also has an intrinsic neurochemical organization: it is partitioned into territories alternately enriched or impoverished in oGNRH-containing fascicles. Our findings establish that the constituent lobes of the octopus superior frontal-vertical system have an intricate internal anatomy, one likely to reflect the presence of functional subsystems within cephalopod learning circuitry. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Chronic choline supplementation improves cognitive and motor performance via modulating oxidative and neurochemical status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Saiqa; Haider, Saida; Ahmad, Saara; Madiha, Syeda; Parveen, Tahira

    2017-08-01

    Choline, an essential nutrient, accounts for multiple functions in the body and brain. While its beneficial effects on healthy adults are not clear, choline supplementation is important during pregnancy for brain development, in elderly patients for support of cognitive performance and in patients with neurological disorders to reduce memory deficits. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate whether choline administration in healthy adult rats beneficially impacts cognitive and locomotor performance, and associated oxidative and neurochemical outcomes. Two groups, control and choline, received tap water and choline bitartrate, respectively at the dose equivalent to adequate intake for five weeks. Food intake and body weight were monitored daily. Behavioral analysis comprising assessment of cognitive performance (by novel object recognition, passive avoidance and Morris Water Maze test) and locomotor performance (by Open field, Kondziela's inverted screen and beam walking test) were performed. Following testing, rats were decapitated and brain samples were collected for estimation of acetylcholine, redox profile and monoamine measurements. The results showed that chronic choline administration significantly improves cognitive and locomotor performance accompanied by a reduction in oxidative stress, enhanced cholinergic neurotransmission and monoamine levels in the brain of healthy adult rats. Hence, chronic choline intake was found to improve behavioral, oxidative and neurochemical outcomes in the normal population, so it can be suggested that choline tablets can be used as a safe and effective supplement for improving the neurological health of normal individuals and that they might also be beneficial in preventing cognitive and motor disorders later in life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in neurochemicals within the ventrolateral medullary respiratory column in awake goats after carotid body denervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Justin Robert; Neumueller, Suzanne; Muere, Clarissa; Olesiak, Samantha; Pan, Lawrence; Hodges, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    A current and major unanswered question is why the highly sensitive central CO2/H+ chemoreceptors do not prevent hypoventilation-induced hypercapnia following carotid body denervation (CBD). Because perturbations involving the carotid bodies affect central neuromodulator and/or neurotransmitter levels within the respiratory network, we tested the hypothesis that after CBD there is an increase in inhibitory and/or a decrease in excitatory neurochemicals within the ventrolateral medullary column (VMC) in awake goats. Microtubules for chronic use were implanted bilaterally in the VMC within or near the pre-Bötzinger Complex (preBötC) through which mock cerebrospinal fluid (mCSF) was dialyzed. Effluent mCSF was collected and analyzed for neurochemical content. The goats hypoventilated (peak +22.3 ± 3.4 mmHg PaCO2) and exhibited a reduced CO2 chemoreflex (nadir, 34.8 ± 7.4% of control ΔV̇E/ΔPaCO2) after CBD with significant but limited recovery over 30 days post-CBD. After CBD, GABA and glycine were above pre-CBD levels (266 ± 29% and 189 ± 25% of pre-CBD; P 0.05) different from control after CBD. Analyses of brainstem tissues collected 30 days after CBD exhibited 1) a midline raphe-specific reduction (P < 0.05) in the percentage of tryptophan hydroxylase–expressing neurons, and 2) a reduction (P < 0.05) in serotonin transporter density in five medullary respiratory nuclei. We conclude that after CBD, an increase in inhibitory neurotransmitters and a decrease in excitatory neuromodulation within the VMC/preBötC likely contribute to the hypoventilation and attenuated ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex. PMID:23869058

  3. Rapid sensing of l-leucine by human and murine hypothalamic neurons: Neurochemical and mechanistic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeley, Nicholas; Kirwan, Peter; Darwish, Tamana; Arnaud, Marion; Evans, Mark L; Merkle, Florian T; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M; Blouet, Clemence

    2018-04-01

    Dietary proteins are sensed by hypothalamic neurons and strongly influence multiple aspects of metabolic health, including appetite, weight gain, and adiposity. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which hypothalamic neural circuits controlling behavior and metabolism sense protein availability. The aim of this study is to characterize how neurons from the mediobasal hypothalamus respond to a signal of protein availability: the amino acid l-leucine. We used primary cultures of post-weaning murine mediobasal hypothalamic neurons, hypothalamic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, and calcium imaging to characterize rapid neuronal responses to physiological changes in extracellular l-Leucine concentration. A neurochemically diverse subset of both mouse and human hypothalamic neurons responded rapidly to l-leucine. Consistent with l-leucine's anorexigenic role, we found that 25% of mouse MBH POMC neurons were activated by l-leucine. 10% of MBH NPY neurons were inhibited by l-leucine, and leucine rapidly reduced AGRP secretion, providing a mechanism for the rapid leucine-induced inhibition of foraging behavior in rodents. Surprisingly, none of the candidate mechanisms previously implicated in hypothalamic leucine sensing (K ATP channels, mTORC1 signaling, amino-acid decarboxylation) were involved in the acute activity changes produced by l-leucine. Instead, our data indicate that leucine-induced neuronal activation involves a plasma membrane Ca 2+ channel, whereas leucine-induced neuronal inhibition is mediated by inhibition of a store-operated Ca 2+ current. A subset of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus rapidly respond to physiological changes in extracellular leucine concentration. Leucine can produce both increases and decreases in neuronal Ca 2+ concentrations in a neurochemically-diverse group of neurons, including some POMC and NPY/AGRP neurons. Our data reveal that leucine can signal through novel mechanisms to rapidly

  4. Sex differences in abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenka, M F; Suyama, J A; Bauer, C T; Banks, M L; Negus, S S

    2017-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a substrate for dopamine (DA), norepinephrine and serotonin (5HT) transporters that produces greater pharmacological effects on certain endpoints in females than males in both clinical and rodent preclinical studies. To evaluate potential for sex differences in abuse-related MDMA effects, the present study compared MDMA effects on intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) and on in vivo microdialysis measurements of DA or 5HT in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in female and male Sprague-Dawley rats. For ICSS studies, electrodes were implanted in the medial forebrain bundle and rats trained to press for electrical stimulation over a range of frequencies (56-158Hz, 0.05 log increments) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule, and the potency (0.32-3.2mg/kg, 10min pretreatment) and time course (3.2. mg/kg, 10-180min pretreatment) of MDMA effects were determined. For in vivo microdialysis, rats were implanted with bilateral guide cannulae targeting the NAc, and the time course of MDMA effects (1.0-3.2mg/kg, 0-180min) on DA and 5HT was determined. MDMA produced qualitatively similar effects in both sexes on ICSS (both increases in low ICSS rates maintained by low brain-stimulation frequencies and decreases in high ICSS rates maintained by high brain-stimulation frequencies) and microdialysis (increases in both DA and 5HT). The duration and peak levels of both abuse-related ICSS facilitation and increases in NAc DA were longer in females. MDMA was also more potent to increase 5HT in females. These results provide evidence for heightened sensitivity of females to abuse-related behavioral and neurochemical effects of MDMA in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparing oncology clinical programs by use of innovative designs and expected net present value optimization: Which adaptive approach leads to the best result?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Tom; Marchenko, Olga; Anisimov, Vladimir; Ivanova, Anastasia; Jennison, Christopher; Perevozskaya, Inna; Song, Guochen

    2017-01-01

    Designing an oncology clinical program is more challenging than designing a single study. The standard approaches have been proven to be not very successful during the last decade; the failure rate of Phase 2 and Phase 3 trials in oncology remains high. Improving a development strategy by applying innovative statistical methods is one of the major objectives of a drug development process. The oncology sub-team on Adaptive Program under the Drug Information Association Adaptive Design Scientific Working Group (DIA ADSWG) evaluated hypothetical oncology programs with two competing treatments and published the work in the Therapeutic Innovation and Regulatory Science journal in January 2014. Five oncology development programs based on different Phase 2 designs, including adaptive designs and a standard two parallel arm Phase 3 design were simulated and compared in terms of the probability of clinical program success and expected net present value (eNPV). In this article, we consider eight Phase2/Phase3 development programs based on selected combinations of five Phase 2 study designs and three Phase 3 study designs. We again used the probability of program success and eNPV to compare simulated programs. For the development strategies, we considered that the eNPV showed robust improvement for each successive strategy, with the highest being for a three-arm response adaptive randomization design in Phase 2 and a group sequential design with 5 analyses in Phase 3.

  6. Comparative genomics of Thermus thermophilus and Deinococcus radiodurans: divergent routes of adaptation to thermophily and radiation resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daly Michael J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermus thermophilus and Deinococcus radiodurans belong to a distinct bacterial clade but have remarkably different phenotypes. T. thermophilus is a thermophile, which is relatively sensitive to ionizing radiation and desiccation, whereas D. radiodurans is a mesophile, which is highly radiation- and desiccation-resistant. Here we present an in-depth comparison of the genomes of these two related but differently adapted bacteria. Results By reconstructing the evolution of Thermus and Deinococcus after the divergence from their common ancestor, we demonstrate a high level of post-divergence gene flux in both lineages. Various aspects of the adaptation to high temperature in Thermus can be attributed to horizontal gene transfer from archaea and thermophilic bacteria; many of the horizontally transferred genes are located on the single megaplasmid of Thermus. In addition, the Thermus lineage has lost a set of genes that are still present in Deinococcus and many other mesophilic bacteria but are not common among thermophiles. By contrast, Deinococcus seems to have acquired numerous genes related to stress response systems from various bacteria. A comparison of the distribution of orthologous genes among the four partitions of the Deinococcus genome and the two partitions of the Thermus genome reveals homology between the Thermus megaplasmid (pTT27 and Deinococcus megaplasmid (DR177. Conclusion After the radiation from their common ancestor, the Thermus and Deinococcus lineages have taken divergent paths toward their distinct lifestyles. In addition to extensive gene loss, Thermus seems to have acquired numerous genes from thermophiles, which likely was the decisive contribution to its thermophilic adaptation. By contrast, Deinococcus lost few genes but seems to have acquired many bacterial genes that apparently enhanced its ability to survive different kinds of environmental stresses. Notwithstanding the accumulation of

  7. Assessment of adaptation strategies to flooding: A comparative study between informal settlements of Keko Machungwa in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Sangkrah in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpale Sakijege

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of informal settlements in developing countries are located in high risk areas(low-lying lands and on river banks. This situation is caused by poverty and the inabilityof authorities to supply planned plots for building to meet demands of the growing urbanpopulations. Informal settlements have, in turn, triggered disaster risks, flooding being just oneof them. As a way of reducing impacts of flooding, residents in informal settlements have resortedto the use of structural adaptation strategies. Despite these efforts, the vulnerability of peopleand properties in informal settlements is increasing. This article aimed to provide an answer as towhy this is the case, by assessing and comparing the technical suitability of adaptation strategiesto flooding in the informal settlements of Sangkrah and Keko Machungwa and recommendingmeasures for improvement. Household interviews, physical observation (visual inspections ofsigns of damage and deterioration, measurements of height of physical adaptation strategies,mapping, photographing, and in-depth interviews were the key methods employed. Generally,in both cases, it was determined that flood mitigation and risk minimisation measures throughstructural adaptation strategies were hardly achieved at the household level, as adaptationstrategies were constructed with little or no attention to acceptable technical considerations.However, when levels of compliance to technical considerations in the construction of houseswere compared between the two cases, they were found to be slightly higher in Sangkrah thanin Keko Machungwa. Residents in Sangkrah demonstrated a slight difference, especially in theuse of reinforced concrete (4.3% for constructing a building’s foundation, as well as in the useof ceramics (72.9% to construct the floor. In order to deliver technically suitable adaptationstrategies, efforts need to be directed toward: regulating and controlling the construction ofstructures for

  8. Comparative Salt Stress Study on Intracellular Ion Concentration in Marine and Salt-adapted Freshwater Strains of Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farhad TALEBI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Salinity imposes significant stresses in various living organisms including microalgae. High extracellular concentration of Na+ directly influences ionic balance inside the cell and subsequently the cellular activities. In the present study, the effect of such stress on growth and intracellular ions concentration (IIC of Dunaliella salina and Chlorella Spp. was investigated. IIC was analyzed using Ion chromatography technique. D. salina showed the highest degree of resistance to increase in salinity as little changes occurred both in IIC and in growth parameters. D. salina could maintain the balance of K+ inside the cell and eject the excess Na+ even at NaCl concentrations above 1M. Moreover, D. salina accumulated β-carotene in order to protect its photosynthetic apparatus. Among Chlorella species, C. vulgaris showed signs of adaptation to high content of salinity, though it is a fresh water species by nature. Moreover, the response shown by C. vulgaris to rise in salinity was even stronger than that of C. salina, which is presumably a salt-water resistant species. In fact, C. vulgaris could maintain intracellular K+ better than C. salina in response to increasing salinity, and as a result, it could survive at NaCl concentrations as high as 0.75 M. Marine strains such as D. salina well cope with the fluctuations in salinity through the existing adaptation mechanisms i.e. maintaining the K+/N+ balance inside the cell, K+ accumulation and Na+ ejection, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments like β-carotene.

  9. A comparative evaluation of adaptive noise cancellation algorithms for minimizing motion artifacts in a forehead-mounted wearable pulse oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtois, Gary; Mendelson, Yitzhak; Ramuka, Piyush

    2007-01-01

    Wearable physiological monitoring using a pulse oximeter would enable field medics to monitor multiple injuries simultaneously, thereby prioritizing medical intervention when resources are limited. However, a primary factor limiting the accuracy of pulse oximetry is poor signal-to-noise ratio since photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals, from which arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate (HR) measurements are derived, are compromised by movement artifacts. This study was undertaken to quantify SpO2 and HR errors induced by certain motion artifacts utilizing accelerometry-based adaptive noise cancellation (ANC). Since the fingers are generally more vulnerable to motion artifacts, measurements were performed using a custom forehead-mounted wearable pulse oximeter developed for real-time remote physiological monitoring and triage applications. This study revealed that processing motion-corrupted PPG signals by least mean squares (LMS) and recursive least squares (RLS) algorithms can be effective to reduce SpO2 and HR errors during jogging, but the degree of improvement depends on filter order. Although both algorithms produced similar improvements, implementing the adaptive LMS algorithm is advantageous since it requires significantly less operations.

  10. Comparing the cost effectiveness of nature-based and coastal adaptation: A case study from the Gulf Coast of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguero, Borja G; Beck, Michael W; Bresch, David N; Calil, Juliano; Meliane, Imen

    2018-01-01

    Coastal risks are increasing from both development and climate change. Interest is growing in the protective role that coastal nature-based measures (or green infrastructure), such as reefs and wetlands, can play in adapting to these risks. However, a lack of quantitative information on their relative costs and benefits is one principal factor limiting their use more broadly. Here, we apply a quantitative risk assessment framework to assess coastal flood risk (from climate change and economic exposure growth) across the United States Gulf of Mexico coast to compare the cost effectiveness of different adaptation measures. These include nature-based (e.g. oyster reef restoration), structural or grey (e.g., seawalls) and policy measures (e.g. home elevation). We first find that coastal development will be a critical driver of risk, particularly for major disasters, but climate change will cause more recurrent losses through changes in storms and relative sea level rise. By 2030, flooding will cost $134-176.6 billion (for different economic growth scenarios), but as the effects of climate change, land subsidence and concentration of assets in the coastal zone increase, annualized risk will more than double by 2050 with respect to 2030. However, from the portfolio we studied, the set of cost-effective adaptation measures (with benefit to cost ratios above 1) could prevent up to $57-101 billion in losses, which represents 42.8-57.2% of the total risk. Nature-based adaptation options could avert more than $50 billion of these costs, and do so cost effectively with average benefit to cost ratios above 3.5. Wetland and oyster reef restoration are found to be particularly cost-effective. This study demonstrates that the cost effectiveness of nature-based, grey and policy measures can be compared quantitatively with one another, and that the cost effectiveness of adaptation becomes more attractive as climate change and coastal development intensifies in the future. It also

  11. Optimizing trial design in pharmacogenetics research: comparing a fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection design on sample size requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessen, Ruud; van der Baan, Frederieke; Groenwold, Rolf; Egberts, Antoine; Klungel, Olaf; Grobbee, Diederick; Knol, Mirjam; Roes, Kit

    2013-01-01

    Two-stage clinical trial designs may be efficient in pharmacogenetics research when there is some but inconclusive evidence of effect modification by a genomic marker. Two-stage designs allow to stop early for efficacy or futility and can offer the additional opportunity to enrich the study population to a specific patient subgroup after an interim analysis. This study compared sample size requirements for fixed parallel group, group sequential, and adaptive selection designs with equal overall power and control of the family-wise type I error rate. The designs were evaluated across scenarios that defined the effect sizes in the marker positive and marker negative subgroups and the prevalence of marker positive patients in the overall study population. Effect sizes were chosen to reflect realistic planning scenarios, where at least some effect is present in the marker negative subgroup. In addition, scenarios were considered in which the assumed 'true' subgroup effects (i.e., the postulated effects) differed from those hypothesized at the planning stage. As expected, both two-stage designs generally required fewer patients than a fixed parallel group design, and the advantage increased as the difference between subgroups increased. The adaptive selection design added little further reduction in sample size, as compared with the group sequential design, when the postulated effect sizes were equal to those hypothesized at the planning stage. However, when the postulated effects deviated strongly in favor of enrichment, the comparative advantage of the adaptive selection design increased, which precisely reflects the adaptive nature of the design. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System-based amperometric detection of dopamine, adenosine, and glutamate for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnesi, Filippo; Tye, Susannah J; Bledsoe, Jonathan M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Kimble, Christopher J; Sieck, Gary C; Bennet, Kevin E; Garris, Paul A; Blaha, Charles D; Lee, Kendall H

    2009-10-01

    WINCS, which is designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, successfully measured dopamine, glutamate, and adenosine, both in vitro and in vivo. The WINCS detected striatal dopamine release at the implanted CFM during DBS of the MFB. The DBS-evoked adenosine release in the rat thalamus and MCS-evoked glutamate release in the pig cortex were also successfully measured. Overall, in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated signals comparable to a commercial hardwired electrochemical system for FPA. By incorporating FPA, the chemical repertoire of WINCS-measurable neurotransmitters is expanded to include glutamate and other nonelectroactive species for which the evolving field of enzyme-linked biosensors exists. Because many neurotransmitters are not electrochemically active, FPA in combination with enzyme-linked microelectrodes represents a powerful intraoperative tool for rapid and selective neurochemical sampling in important anatomical targets during functional neurosurgery.

  13. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System–based amperometric detection of dopamine, adenosine, and glutamate for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnesi, Filippo; Tye, Susannah J.; Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Sieck, Gary C.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2009-01-01

    model, the pig. Results The WINCS, which is designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, successfully measured dopamine, glutamate, and adenosine, both in vitro and in vivo. The WINCS detected striatal dopamine release at the implanted CFM during DBS of the MFB. The DBS-evoked adenosine release in the rat thalamus and MCS-evoked glutamate release in the pig cortex were also successfully measured. Overall, in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated signals comparable to a commercial hardwired electrochemical system for FPA. Conclusions By incorporating FPA, the chemical repertoire of WINCS-measurable neurotransmitters is expanded to include glutamate and other nonelectroactive species for which the evolving field of enzyme-linked biosensors exists. Because many neurotransmitters are not electrochemically active, FPA in combination with enzyme-linked microelectrodes represents a powerful intraoperative tool for rapid and selective neurochemical sampling in important anatomical targets during functional neurosurgery. PMID:19425899

  14. Vanillin Attenuated Behavioural Impairments, Neurochemical Deficts, Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Against Rotenone Induced Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanalakshmi, Chinnasamy; Janakiraman, Udaiyappan; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Justin Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Kalandar, Ameer; Khan, Mohammed Abdul Sattar; Guillemin, Gilles J

    2016-08-01

    Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde), a pleasant smelling organic aromatic compound, is widely used as a flavoring additive in food, beverage, cosmetic and drug industries. It is reported to cross the blood brain barrier and also displayed antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. We previously reported the neuroprotective effect of vanillin against rotenone induced in in vitro model of PD. The present experiment was aimed to analyze the neuroprotective effect of vanillin on the motor and non-motor deficits, neurochemical variables, oxidative, anti-oxidative indices and the expression of apoptotic markers against rotenone induced rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rotenone treatment exhibited motor and non-motor impairments, neurochemical deficits, oxidative stress and apoptosis, whereas oral administration of vanillin attenuated the above-said indices. However further studies are needed to explore the mitochondrial protective and anti-inflammatory properties of vanillin, as these processes play a vital role in the cause and progression of PD.

  15. Comparative biology and reproductive behaviour of a laboratory-adapted Redco strain of Anopheles Gambiae Giles (Diptera; culicidae and wild populations of the same species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barfi, E.

    2015-07-01

    The sterile insect technique involves mass rearing of male insects for sterility purpose. This heavily relies on male fitness and genetic compatibility of laboratory-adapted male insects and the wild to ensure successful competition with their male counterpart in the wild. Uniform environment in the laboratory as compared to the wild conditions might lead to genetic drift which might lead to reduced sexual competitiveness, fitness, morphological changes or changes in the sexual behaviour of mosquitoes. This work investigated the sexual compatibility, morphometry and sexual behaviour of laboratory-adapted strain and wild strain of Anopheles gambiae under laboratory conditions. These measurements were done by observing swarm formation, genitalia rotation, percentage insemination, fecundity, fertility, wing length, wing width, thoracic width, body length, body size index and wing size index. Morphometric studies of laboratory-adapted and wild strain of Anopheles gambiae were carried out by observing the wing length, body length and thoracic length under Lecia 4D stereoscope in order to find out variations in the body size between the two strains. The results showed significant difference between thoracic width and wing length between the laboratory-adapted strain and wild strain. Indices such as body size index and wing length index also showed significant difference between the two strains; laboratory-adapted REDCO strain (BSI 4.45 ± 0.10, p = 0.010 ; WSI 1.92 ± 0.07, p = 0.026) and wild REDCO strain ( 4.08 ± 0.10, p = 0.010 ; WSI 1.73 ± 0.04, p = 0.026 ). Body length of laboratory-adapted male mosquitoes (4.24 ± 0.05, p = 0.462) was not significantly different from its thoracic width, wing length, and wing width. The wild strain on the other hand had significant difference between its body length (4.19 ± 0.04, p = 0.462), thoracic width (0.096 ± 0.02, p = 0.002 ) and wing length (2.99 ± 0.03, p = 0.050 ). In the mating experiment, egg production in each of

  16. Comparative proteome analysis reveals conserved and specific adaptation patterns of Staphylococcus aureus after internalization by different types of human non-professional phagocytic host cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin eSurmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen that can cause a wide range of diseases. Although formerly regarded as extracellular pathogen, it has been shown that S. aureus can also be internalized by host cells and persist within these cells. In the present study, we comparatively analyzed survival and physiological adaptation of S. aureus HG001 after internalization by two human lung epithelial cell lines (S9 and A549, and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293. Combining enrichment of bacteria from host-pathogen assays by cell sorting and quantitation of the pathogen´s proteome by mass spectrometry we characterized S. aureus adaptation during the initial phase between 2.5 h and 6.5 h post-infection. Starting with about 2x106 bacteria, roughly 1,450 S. aureus proteins, including virulence factors and metabolic enzymes were identified by spectral comparison and classical database searches. Most of the bacterial adaptation reactions, such as decreases in levels of ribosomal proteins and metabolic enzymes or increases in amounts of proteins involved in arginine and lysine biosynthesis, coding for terminal oxidases and stress responsive genes or activation of the sigma factor SigB were observed after internalization into any of the three cell lines studied. However, differences were noted in central carbon metabolism including regulation of fermentation and threonine degradation. Since these differences coincided with different intracellular growth behavior, complementary profiling of the metabolome of the different non-infected host cell types was performed. This revealed similar levels of intracellular glucose but host cell specific differences in the amounts of amino acids such as glycine, threonine or glutamate. With this comparative study we provide an impression of the common and specific features of the adaptation of S. aureus HG001 to specific host cell environments as a starting point for follow-up studies with different strain isolates and

  17. Adaptation of Lorke's method to determine and compare ED50 values: the cases of two anticonvulsants drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Acosta, Osvaldo; Meza-Toledo, Sergio Enrique; Anguiano-Robledo, Liliana; Valencia-Hernández, Ignacio; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán

    2014-01-01

    We determined the median effective dose (ED50) values for the anticonvulsants phenobarbital and sodium valproate using a modification of Lorke's method. This modification allowed appropriate statistical analysis and the use of a smaller number of mice per compound tested. The anticonvulsant activities of phenobarbital and sodium valproate were evaluated in male CD1 mice by maximal electroshock (MES) and intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). The anticonvulsant ED50 values were obtained through modifications of Lorke's method that involved changes in the selection of the three first doses in the initial test and the fourth dose in the second test. Furthermore, a test was added to evaluate the ED50 calculated by the modified Lorke's method, allowing statistical analysis of the data and determination of the confidence limits for ED50. The ED50 for phenobarbital against MES- and PTZ-induced seizures was 16.3mg/kg and 12.7mg/kg, respectively. The sodium valproate values were 261.2mg/kg and 159.7mg/kg, respectively. These results are similar to those found using the traditional methods of finding ED50, suggesting that the modifications made to Lorke's method generate equal results using fewer mice while increasing confidence in the statistical analysis. This adaptation of Lorke's method can be used to determine median letal dose (LD50) or ED50 for compounds with other pharmacological activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of spatial trends and neurochemical impacts of mercury in herring gulls across the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkiewicz, Jennifer [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 S. Observatory St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Scheuhammer, Anton; Crump, Doug; Jagla, Magdalena [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Basu, Niladri, E-mail: niladri@umich.ed [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 S. Observatory St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) bioaccumulate mercury (Hg) but it is unknown whether they are exposed at levels of neurological concern. Here we studied brain tissues from gulls at five Great Lakes colonies and one non-Great Lakes colony during spring of 2001 and 2003. Total brain Hg concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 2.0 {mu}g/g (dry weight) with a mean of 0.54 {mu}g/g. Gulls from Scotch Bonnet Island, on the easternmost edge of the Great Lakes, had significantly higher brain Hg than other colonies. No association was found between brain Hg concentration and [3H]-ligand binding to neurochemical receptors (N-methyl-D-aspartate, muscarinic cholinergic, nicotinic cholinergic) or nicotinic receptor {alpha}-7 relative mRNA expression as previously documented in other wildlife. In conclusion, spatial trends in Hg contamination exist in herring gulls across the Great Lakes basin, and herring gulls accumulate brain Hg but not at levels associated with sub-clinical neurochemical alterations. - Spatial trends in brain mercury exist in herring gulls across the Laurentian Great Lakes though levels are not associated with neurochemical biomarkers.

  19. Piperine Augments the Protective Effect of Curcumin Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neurobehavioral and Neurochemical Deficits in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangra, Ashok; Kwatra, Mohit; Singh, Tavleen; Pant, Rajat; Kushwah, Pawan; Sharma, Yogita; Saroha, Babita; Datusalia, Ashok Kumar; Bezbaruah, Babul Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of curcumin alone and in combination with piperine against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits in the mice hippocampus. Mice were treated with curcumin (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and piperine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days followed by LPS (0.83 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. Animals exhibited anxiety and depressive-like phenotype after 3 and 24 h of LPS exposure, respectively. LPS administration increased the oxido-nitrosative stress as evident by elevated levels of malondialdehyde, nitrite, and depletion of glutathione level in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we found raised level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) in the hippocampus of LPS-treated mice. Pretreatment with curcumin alleviated LPS-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits. Furthermore, co-administration of curcumin with piperine significantly potentiated the neuroprotective effect of curcumin. These results demonstrate that piperine enhanced the neuroprotective effect of curcumin against LPS-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits.

  20. Investigation of spatial trends and neurochemical impacts of mercury in herring gulls across the Laurentian Great Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkiewicz, Jennifer; Scheuhammer, Anton; Crump, Doug; Jagla, Magdalena; Basu, Niladri

    2010-01-01

    Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) bioaccumulate mercury (Hg) but it is unknown whether they are exposed at levels of neurological concern. Here we studied brain tissues from gulls at five Great Lakes colonies and one non-Great Lakes colony during spring of 2001 and 2003. Total brain Hg concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 2.0 μg/g (dry weight) with a mean of 0.54 μg/g. Gulls from Scotch Bonnet Island, on the easternmost edge of the Great Lakes, had significantly higher brain Hg than other colonies. No association was found between brain Hg concentration and [3H]-ligand binding to neurochemical receptors (N-methyl-D-aspartate, muscarinic cholinergic, nicotinic cholinergic) or nicotinic receptor α-7 relative mRNA expression as previously documented in other wildlife. In conclusion, spatial trends in Hg contamination exist in herring gulls across the Great Lakes basin, and herring gulls accumulate brain Hg but not at levels associated with sub-clinical neurochemical alterations. - Spatial trends in brain mercury exist in herring gulls across the Laurentian Great Lakes though levels are not associated with neurochemical biomarkers.

  1. Neurochemical changes in the pericalcarine cortex in congenital blindness attributable to bilateral anophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coullon, Gaelle S L; Emir, Uzay E; Fine, Ione; Watkins, Kate E; Bridge, Holly

    2015-09-01

    Congenital blindness leads to large-scale functional and structural reorganization in the occipital cortex, but relatively little is known about the neurochemical changes underlying this cross-modal plasticity. To investigate the effect of complete and early visual deafferentation on the concentration of metabolites in the pericalcarine cortex, (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed in 14 sighted subjects and 5 subjects with bilateral anophthalmia, a condition in which both eyes fail to develop. In the pericalcarine cortex, where primary visual cortex is normally located, the proportion of gray matter was significantly greater, and levels of choline, glutamate, glutamine, myo-inositol, and total creatine were elevated in anophthalmic relative to sighted subjects. Anophthalmia had no effect on the structure or neurochemistry of a sensorimotor cortex control region. More gray matter, combined with high levels of choline and myo-inositol, resembles the profile of the cortex at birth and suggests that the lack of visual input from the eyes might have delayed or arrested the maturation of this cortical region. High levels of choline and glutamate/glutamine are consistent with enhanced excitatory circuits in the anophthalmic occipital cortex, which could reflect a shift toward enhanced plasticity or sensitivity that could in turn mediate or unmask cross-modal responses. Finally, it is possible that the change in function of the occipital cortex results in biochemical profiles that resemble those of auditory, language, or somatosensory cortex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. [Motivation and Emotional States: Structural Systemic, Neurochemical, Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The structural, systemic, neurochemical, molecular and cellular mechanisms of organization and coding motivation and emotional states are describe. The GABA and glutamatergic synaptic systems of basal ganglia form a neural network and participate in the implementation of voluntary behavior. Neuropeptides, neurohormones and paracrine neuromodulators involved in the organization of motivation and emotional states, integrated with synaptic systems, controlled by neural networks and organizing goal-directed behavior. Structural centers for united and integrated of information in voluntary and goal-directed behavior are globus pallidus. Substantia nigra pars reticulata switches the information from corticobasal networks to thalamocortical networks, induces global dopaminergic (DA) signal and organize interaction of mesolimbic and nigostriatnoy DA systems controlled by prefrontal and motor cortex. Together with the motor cortex, substantia nigra displays information in the brainstem and spinal cord to implementation of behavior. Motivation states are formed in the interaction of neurohormonal and neuropeptide systems by monoaminergic systems of brain. Emotional states are formed by monoaminergic systems of the mid-brain, where the leading role belongs to the mesolimbic DA system. The emotional and motivation state of the encoded specific epigenetic molecular and chemical pattern of neuron.

  3. Neurochemical metabolomics reveals disruption to sphingolipid metabolism following chronic haloperidol administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, Joseph L.; Vunck, Sarah A.; Batman, Angela M.; Crowley, James J.; Vann, Robert E.; Beardsley, Patrick M.; van den Oord, Edwin J.

    2015-01-01

    Haloperidol is an effective antipsychotic drug for treatment of schizophrenia, but prolonged use can lead to debilitating side effects. To better understand the effects of long-term administration, we measured global metabolic changes in mouse brain following 3 mg/kg/day haloperidol for 28 days. These conditions lead to movement-related side effects in mice akin to those observed in patients after prolonged use. Brain tissue was collected following microwave tissue fixation to arrest metabolism and extracted metabolites were assessed using both liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (MS). Over 300 unique compounds were identified across MS platforms. Haloperidol was found to be present in all test samples and not in controls, indicating experimental validity. Twenty-one compounds differed significantly between test and control groups at the p haloperidol-treated mice (p = 0.004), a marker previously associated with demyelination. This study further demonstrates the utility of murine neurochemical metabolomics as a method to advance understanding of CNS drug effects. PMID:25850894

  4. Effects of melatonin on aluminium-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allagui, M S; Feriani, A; Saoudi, M; Badraoui, R; Bouoni, Z; Nciri, R; Murat, J C; Elfeki, A

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of melatonin (Mel) against aluminium-induced neurodegenerative changes in aging Wistar rats (24-28months old). Herein, aluminium chloride (AlCl3) (50mg/kg BW/day) was administered by gavage, and melatonin (Mel) was co-administered to a group of Al-treated rats by an intra-peritoneal injection at a daily dose of 10mg/kg BW for four months. The findings revealed that aluminium administration induced a significant decrease in body weight associated with marked mortality for the old group of rats, which was more pronounced in old Al-treated rats. Behavioural alterations were assessed by 'open fields', 'elevated plus maze' and 'Radial 8-arms maze' tests. The results demonstrated that Mel co-administration alleviated neurobehavioral changes in both old and old Al-treated rats. Melatonin was noted to play a good neuroprotective role, reducing lipid peroxidation (TBARs), and enhancing enzymatic (SOD, CAT and GPx) activities in the brain organs of old control and old Al-treated rats. Mel treatment also reversed the decrease of AChE activity in the brain tissues, which was confirmed by histological sections. Overall, the results showed that Mel administration can induce beneficial effects for the treatment of Al-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in the central nervous system (CNS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biochemical and neurochemical effects in rats following Iow-level chronic moniliformin mycotoxin treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Y.M.; Abdel-Kader, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the biochemical and neurochemical effects of moniliformin mycotoxins in rats. Moniliformin was extracted from fusarium oxysporum and injected intraperitoneally to male albino rats at a dose level 225 magaa g/kg (1/220 LD 5 0) daily for three weeks. The results. The results revealed a decrease in body weight of treated animals, in addition to alteration in the weights of some selected organs. A significant increase of serum ALT, AST and ALP were observed, indicating changes in liver function. Kidney function of treated rats as determined by alteration creatinine and blood urea also was affected. On the other hand the data obtained revealed a dramatic decrease in brain acetylcholinesterase activity. In addition, moniliformin exhibited alteration in the total content of catecholamines, dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonine (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), free inorganic phosphate (Pi) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rat brain of treated animals. Also, profound decline in serum testosterone level was observed. No pathological changes were detected. Hormonal assays were performed using radioimmunoassay techniques

  6. The psychological and neurochemical mechanisms of drug memory reconsolidation: implications for the treatment of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Amy L; Everitt, Barry J

    2010-06-01

    Memory reconsolidation is the process by which memories, destabilised at retrieval, require restabilisation to persist in the brain. It has been demonstrated that even old, well-established memories require reconsolidation following retrieval; therefore, memory reconsolidation could potentially be exploited to disrupt, or even erase, aberrant memories that underlie psychiatric disorders, thereby providing a novel therapeutic target. Drug addiction is one such disorder; it is both chronic and relapsing, and one prominent risk factor for a relapse episode is the presentation of environmental cues that have previously been associated with drugs of abuse. This 'cue-induced relapse' can be accounted for in psychological terms by reinforcing memories of the pavlovian association between the cue and the drug, which can thus influence behaviour through at least three psychologically and neurobiologically dissociable mechanisms: conditioned reinforcement, conditioned approach and conditioned motivation. As each of these psychological processes could contribute to the resumption of drug-seeking following abstinence, it is important to develop treatments that can reduce drug-seeking re-established via influences on each or all of these pavlovian processes, in order to minimise the risk of a subsequent relapse. Investigation of the memory reconsolidation mechanisms of the memories underlying conditioned reinforcement, conditioned approach and conditioned motivation indicate that they depend upon different neurochemical systems, including the glutamatergic and adrenergic systems within limbic corticostriatal circuitry. We also discuss here the subsequent translation to the clinic of this preclinical work.

  7. Comparative genomics reveals adaptations of a halotolerant thaumarchaeon in the interfaces of brine pools in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ngugi, David

    2014-08-08

    The bottom of the Red Sea harbors over 25 deep hypersaline anoxic basins that are geochemically distinct and characterized by vertical gradients of extreme physicochemical conditions. Because of strong changes in density, particulate and microbial debris get entrapped in the brine-seawater interface (BSI), resulting in increased dissolved organic carbon, reduced dissolved oxygen toward the brines and enhanced microbial activities in the BSI. These features coupled with the deep-sea prevalence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the global ocean make the BSI a suitable environment for studying the osmotic adaptations and ecology of these important players in the marine nitrogen cycle. Using phylogenomic-based approaches, we show that the local archaeal community of five different BSI habitats (with up to 18.2% salinity) is composed mostly of a single, highly abundant Nitrosopumilus-like phylotype that is phylogenetically distinct from the bathypelagic thaumarchaea; ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were absent. The composite genome of this novel Nitrosopumilus-like subpopulation (RSA3) co-assembled from multiple single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) from one such BSI habitat further revealed that it shares ∼54% of its predicted genomic inventory with sequenced Nitrosopumilus species. RSA3 also carries several, albeit variable gene sets that further illuminate the phylogenetic diversity and metabolic plasticity of this genus. Specifically, it encodes for a putative proline-glutamate \\'switch\\' with a potential role in osmotolerance and indirect impact on carbon and energy flows. Metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses against the composite RSA3 genome, Nitrosopumilus maritimus, and SAGs of mesopelagic thaumarchaea also reiterate the divergence of the BSI genotypes from other AOA.

  8. Comparative genomics reveals adaptations of a halotolerant thaumarchaeon in the interfaces of brine pools in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanda Ngugi, David; Blom, Jochen; Alam, Intikhab; Rashid, Mamoon; Ba-Alawi, Wail; Zhang, Guishan; Hikmawan, Tyas; Guan, Yue; Antunes, Andre; Siam, Rania; El Dorry, Hamza; Bajic, Vladimir; Stingl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The bottom of the Red Sea harbors over 25 deep hypersaline anoxic basins that are geochemically distinct and characterized by vertical gradients of extreme physicochemical conditions. Because of strong changes in density, particulate and microbial debris get entrapped in the brine-seawater interface (BSI), resulting in increased dissolved organic carbon, reduced dissolved oxygen toward the brines and enhanced microbial activities in the BSI. These features coupled with the deep-sea prevalence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the global ocean make the BSI a suitable environment for studying the osmotic adaptations and ecology of these important players in the marine nitrogen cycle. Using phylogenomic-based approaches, we show that the local archaeal community of five different BSI habitats (with up to 18.2% salinity) is composed mostly of a single, highly abundant Nitrosopumilus-like phylotype that is phylogenetically distinct from the bathypelagic thaumarchaea; ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were absent. The composite genome of this novel Nitrosopumilus-like subpopulation (RSA3) co-assembled from multiple single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) from one such BSI habitat further revealed that it shares ∼54% of its predicted genomic inventory with sequenced Nitrosopumilus species. RSA3 also carries several, albeit variable gene sets that further illuminate the phylogenetic diversity and metabolic plasticity of this genus. Specifically, it encodes for a putative proline-glutamate ‘switch' with a potential role in osmotolerance and indirect impact on carbon and energy flows. Metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses against the composite RSA3 genome, Nitrosopumilus maritimus, and SAGs of mesopelagic thaumarchaea also reiterate the divergence of the BSI genotypes from other AOA. PMID:25105904

  9. Comparative genomics reveals adaptations of a halotolerant thaumarchaeon in the interfaces of brine pools in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ngugi, David; Blom, Jochen; Alam, Intikhab; Rashid, Mamoon; Ba Alawi, Wail; Zhang, Guishan; Hikmawan, Tyas I.; Guan, Yue; Antunes, Andre; Siam, Rania; El-Dorry, Hamza A A; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Stingl, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The bottom of the Red Sea harbors over 25 deep hypersaline anoxic basins that are geochemically distinct and characterized by vertical gradients of extreme physicochemical conditions. Because of strong changes in density, particulate and microbial debris get entrapped in the brine-seawater interface (BSI), resulting in increased dissolved organic carbon, reduced dissolved oxygen toward the brines and enhanced microbial activities in the BSI. These features coupled with the deep-sea prevalence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the global ocean make the BSI a suitable environment for studying the osmotic adaptations and ecology of these important players in the marine nitrogen cycle. Using phylogenomic-based approaches, we show that the local archaeal community of five different BSI habitats (with up to 18.2% salinity) is composed mostly of a single, highly abundant Nitrosopumilus-like phylotype that is phylogenetically distinct from the bathypelagic thaumarchaea; ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were absent. The composite genome of this novel Nitrosopumilus-like subpopulation (RSA3) co-assembled from multiple single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) from one such BSI habitat further revealed that it shares ∼54% of its predicted genomic inventory with sequenced Nitrosopumilus species. RSA3 also carries several, albeit variable gene sets that further illuminate the phylogenetic diversity and metabolic plasticity of this genus. Specifically, it encodes for a putative proline-glutamate 'switch' with a potential role in osmotolerance and indirect impact on carbon and energy flows. Metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses against the composite RSA3 genome, Nitrosopumilus maritimus, and SAGs of mesopelagic thaumarchaea also reiterate the divergence of the BSI genotypes from other AOA.

  10. Comparative genomics reveals adaptations of a halotolerant thaumarchaeon in the interfaces of brine pools in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanda Ngugi, David; Blom, Jochen; Alam, Intikhab; Rashid, Mamoon; Ba-Alawi, Wail; Zhang, Guishan; Hikmawan, Tyas; Guan, Yue; Antunes, Andre; Siam, Rania; El Dorry, Hamza; Bajic, Vladimir; Stingl, Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    The bottom of the Red Sea harbors over 25 deep hypersaline anoxic basins that are geochemically distinct and characterized by vertical gradients of extreme physicochemical conditions. Because of strong changes in density, particulate and microbial debris get entrapped in the brine-seawater interface (BSI), resulting in increased dissolved organic carbon, reduced dissolved oxygen toward the brines and enhanced microbial activities in the BSI. These features coupled with the deep-sea prevalence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the global ocean make the BSI a suitable environment for studying the osmotic adaptations and ecology of these important players in the marine nitrogen cycle. Using phylogenomic-based approaches, we show that the local archaeal community of five different BSI habitats (with up to 18.2% salinity) is composed mostly of a single, highly abundant Nitrosopumilus-like phylotype that is phylogenetically distinct from the bathypelagic thaumarchaea; ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were absent. The composite genome of this novel Nitrosopumilus-like subpopulation (RSA3) co-assembled from multiple single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) from one such BSI habitat further revealed that it shares ∼54% of its predicted genomic inventory with sequenced Nitrosopumilus species. RSA3 also carries several, albeit variable gene sets that further illuminate the phylogenetic diversity and metabolic plasticity of this genus. Specifically, it encodes for a putative proline-glutamate 'switch' with a potential role in osmotolerance and indirect impact on carbon and energy flows. Metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses against the composite RSA3 genome, Nitrosopumilus maritimus, and SAGs of mesopelagic thaumarchaea also reiterate the divergence of the BSI genotypes from other AOA.

  11. Inducible Protective Processes in Animal Systems XIII: Comparative Analysis of Induction of Adaptive Response by EMS and MMS in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Periyapatna Vishwaprakash Mahadimane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the presence of adaptive response in cancerous cells, two monofunctional alkylating agents, namely, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS, were employed to treat Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC cells in vivo. Conditioning dose of 80 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 50 mg/kg body weight of MMS and challenging dose of 240 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 150 mg/kg body weight of MMS were selected by pilot toxicity studies. Conditioned EAC cells when challenged after 8 h time lag resulted in significant reduction in chromosomal aberrations compared to challenging dose of respective agents. As has been proved in earlier studies with normal organisms, even in cancerous cells (EAC, there is presence of adaptive response to methylating and ethylating agents. Furthermore, it is also interesting to note in the present studies that the methylating agent, MMS, is a stronger inducer of the adaptive response than the ethylating agent, EMS.

  12. Comparative genomics of the marine bacterial genus Glaciecola reveals the high degree of genomic diversity and genomic characteristic for cold adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qi-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Yu, Yong; Shu, Yan-Li; Rong, Jin-Cheng; Zhang, Yan-Jiao; Zhao, Dian-Li; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Chen, Bo; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-06-01

    To what extent the genomes of different species belonging to one genus can be diverse and the relationship between genomic differentiation and environmental factor remain unclear for oceanic bacteria. With many new bacterial genera and species being isolated from marine environments, this question warrants attention. In this study, we sequenced all the type strains of the published species of Glaciecola, a recently defined cold-adapted genus with species from diverse marine locations, to study the genomic diversity and cold-adaptation strategy in this genus.The genome size diverged widely from 3.08 to 5.96 Mb, which can be explained by massive gene gain and loss events. Horizontal gene transfer and new gene emergence contributed substantially to the genome size expansion. The genus Glaciecola had an open pan-genome. Comparative genomic research indicated that species of the genus Glaciecola had high diversity in genome size, gene content and genetic relatedness. This may be prevalent in marine bacterial genera considering the dynamic and complex environments of the ocean. Species of Glaciecola had some common genomic features related to cold adaptation, which enable them to thrive and play a role in biogeochemical cycle in the cold marine environments.

  13. Inducible Protective Processes in Animal Systems XIII: Comparative Analysis of Induction of Adaptive Response by EMS and MMS in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadimane, Periyapatna Vishwaprakash; Vasudev, Venkateshaiah

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the presence of adaptive response in cancerous cells, two monofunctional alkylating agents, namely, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), were employed to treat Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in vivo. Conditioning dose of 80 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 50 mg/kg body weight of MMS and challenging dose of 240 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 150 mg/kg body weight of MMS were selected by pilot toxicity studies. Conditioned EAC cells when challenged after 8 h time lag resulted in significant reduction in chromosomal aberrations compared to challenging dose of respective agents. As has been proved in earlier studies with normal organisms, even in cancerous cells (EAC), there is presence of adaptive response to methylating and ethylating agents. Furthermore, it is also interesting to note in the present studies that the methylating agent, MMS, is a stronger inducer of the adaptive response than the ethylating agent, EMS.

  14. Genome Sequence of Azospirillum brasilense CBG497 and Comparative Analyses of Azospirillum Core and Accessory Genomes provide Insight into Niche Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence; Lozano, Luis; Acosta-Cruz, Erika; Borland, Stéphanie; Drogue, Benoît; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Rouy, Zoé; Barbe, Valérie; Mendoza Herrera, Alberto; González, Victor; Mavingui, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Azospirillum colonize roots of important cereals and grasses, and promote plant growth by several mechanisms, notably phytohormone synthesis. The genomes of several Azospirillum strains belonging to different species, isolated from various host plants and locations, were recently sequenced and published. In this study, an additional genome of an A. brasilense strain, isolated from maize grown on an alkaline soil in the northeast of Mexico, strain CBG497, was obtained. Comparative genomic analyses were performed on this new genome and three other genomes (A. brasilense Sp245, A. lipoferum 4B and Azospirillum sp. B510). The Azospirillum core genome was established and consists of 2,328 proteins, representing between 30% to 38% of the total encoded proteins within a genome. It is mainly chromosomally-encoded and contains 74% of genes of ancestral origin shared with some aquatic relatives. The non-ancestral part of the core genome is enriched in genes involved in signal transduction, in transport and in metabolism of carbohydrates and amino-acids, and in surface properties features linked to adaptation in fluctuating environments, such as soil and rhizosphere. Many genes involved in colonization of plant roots, plant-growth promotion (such as those involved in phytohormone biosynthesis), and properties involved in rhizosphere adaptation (such as catabolism of phenolic compounds, uptake of iron) are restricted to a particular strain and/or species, strongly suggesting niche-specific adaptation. PMID:24705077

  15. Genome Sequence of Azospirillum brasilense CBG497 and Comparative Analyses of Azospirillum Core and Accessory Genomes provide Insight into Niche Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Azospirillum colonize roots of important cereals and grasses, and promote plant growth by several mechanisms, notably phytohormone synthesis. The genomes of several Azospirillum strains belonging to different species, isolated from various host plants and locations, were recently sequenced and published. In this study, an additional genome of an A. brasilense strain, isolated from maize grown on an alkaline soil in the northeast of Mexico, strain CBG497, was obtained. Comparative genomic analyses were performed on this new genome and three other genomes (A. brasilense Sp245, A. lipoferum 4B and Azospirillum sp. B510. The Azospirillum core genome was established and consists of 2,328 proteins, representing between 30% to 38% of the total encoded proteins within a genome. It is mainly chromosomally-encoded and contains 74% of genes of ancestral origin shared with some aquatic relatives. The non-ancestral part of the core genome is enriched in genes involved in signal transduction, in transport and in metabolism of carbohydrates and amino-acids, and in surface properties features linked to adaptation in fluctuating environments, such as soil and rhizosphere. Many genes involved in colonization of plant roots, plant-growth promotion (such as those involved in phytohormone biosynthesis, and properties involved in rhizosphere adaptation (such as catabolism of phenolic compounds, uptake of iron are restricted to a particular strain and/or species, strongly suggesting niche-specific adaptation.

  16. Comparative evaluation of marginal fit and axial wall adaptability of copings fabricated by metal laser sintering and lost-wax technique: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Bhushan Satish; Nazirkar, Girish; Dable, Rajani; Singh, Shailendra

    2018-01-01

    The present study aims to compare and evaluate the marginal fit and axial wall adaptability of Co-Cr copings fabricated by metal laser sintering (MLS) and lost-wax (LW) techniques using a stereomicroscope. A stainless steel master die assembly was fabricated simulating a prepared crown; 40 replicas of master die were fabricated in gypsum type IV and randomly divided in two equal groups. Group A coping was fabrication by LW technique and the Group B coping fabrication by MLS technique. The copings were seated on their respective gypsum dies and marginal fit was measured using stereomicroscope and image analysis software. For evaluation of axial wall adaptability, the coping and die assembly were embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin and sectioned vertically. The discrepancies between the dies and copings were measured along the axial wall on each halves. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired t -test. The mean values of marginal fit for copings in Group B (MLS) were lower (24.6 μm) than the copings in Group A (LW) (39.53 μm), and the difference was statistically significant ( P adaptability in comparison with copings fabricated by the LW technique. However, the values of marginal fit of copings fabricated that the two techniques were within the clinically acceptable limit (<50 μm).

  17. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptococcus Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Reveals their Adaptation to a Highly Dynamic Ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogert, van den B.; Boekhorst, te J.; Herrmann, R.; Smid, E.J.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2013-01-01

    The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus

  18. Adaptive iterative dose reduction algorithm in CT: Effect on image quality compared with filtered back projection in body phantoms of different sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Milim; Lee, Jeong Min; Son, Hyo Shin; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Choi, Jin Woo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR) three-dimensional (3D) algorithm in CT on noise reduction and the image quality compared to the filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and to compare the effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction according to the body habitus using phantoms with different sizes. Three different-sized phantoms with diameters of 24 cm, 30 cm, and 40 cm were built up using the American College of Radiology CT accreditation phantom and layers of pork belly fat. Each phantom was scanned eight times using different mAs. Images were reconstructed using the FBP and three different strengths of the AIDR 3D. The image noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the phantom were assessed. Two radiologists assessed the image quality of the 4 image sets in consensus. The effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction compared with FBP were also compared according to the phantom sizes. Adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D significantly reduced the image noise compared with FBP and enhanced the SNR and CNR (p < 0.05) with improved image quality (p < 0.05). When a stronger reconstruction algorithm was used, greater increase of SNR and CNR as well as noise reduction was achieved (p < 0.05). The noise reduction effect of AIDR 3D was significantly greater in the 40-cm phantom than in the 24-cm or 30-cm phantoms (p < 0.05). The AIDR 3D algorithm is effective to reduce the image noise as well as to improve the image-quality parameters compared by FBP algorithm, and its effectiveness may increase as the phantom size increases.

  19. Adaptive iterative dose reduction algorithm in CT: Effect on image quality compared with filtered back projection in body phantoms of different sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Milim; Lee, Jeong Min; Son, Hyo Shin; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jeong Hee; Choi, Jin Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To evaluate the impact of the adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR) three-dimensional (3D) algorithm in CT on noise reduction and the image quality compared to the filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and to compare the effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction according to the body habitus using phantoms with different sizes. Three different-sized phantoms with diameters of 24 cm, 30 cm, and 40 cm were built up using the American College of Radiology CT accreditation phantom and layers of pork belly fat. Each phantom was scanned eight times using different mAs. Images were reconstructed using the FBP and three different strengths of the AIDR 3D. The image noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the phantom were assessed. Two radiologists assessed the image quality of the 4 image sets in consensus. The effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction compared with FBP were also compared according to the phantom sizes. Adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D significantly reduced the image noise compared with FBP and enhanced the SNR and CNR (p < 0.05) with improved image quality (p < 0.05). When a stronger reconstruction algorithm was used, greater increase of SNR and CNR as well as noise reduction was achieved (p < 0.05). The noise reduction effect of AIDR 3D was significantly greater in the 40-cm phantom than in the 24-cm or 30-cm phantoms (p < 0.05). The AIDR 3D algorithm is effective to reduce the image noise as well as to improve the image-quality parameters compared by FBP algorithm, and its effectiveness may increase as the phantom size increases.

  20. Loose policy and local adaptation : a comparative study of masters degrees in the context of the Bologna Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sin, Cristina; Saunders, Murray

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis focuses on a comparative analysis of six master programmes in Physics in three European countries (England, Portugal and Denmark) in the context of the implementation of reforms triggered by the Bologna Agreement. It undertakes the programme comparison with a particular interest in two dimensions: first, conceptions of master degrees, i.e. what people consider a master degree is, referred to as the ontology of the degree; second, teaching and learning pra...

  1. Comparative Transcriptomic Exploration Reveals Unique Molecular Adaptations of Neuropathogenic Trichobilharzia to Invade and Parasitize Its Avian Definitive Host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Leontovyč

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To date, most molecular investigations of schistosomatids have focused principally on blood flukes (schistosomes of humans. Despite the clinical importance of cercarial dermatitis in humans caused by Trichobilharzia regenti and the serious neuropathologic disease that this parasite causes in its permissive avian hosts and accidental mammalian hosts, almost nothing is known about the molecular aspects of how this fluke invades its hosts, migrates in host tissues and how it interacts with its hosts' immune system. Here, we explored selected aspects using a transcriptomic-bioinformatic approach. To do this, we sequenced, assembled and annotated the transcriptome representing two consecutive life stages (cercariae and schistosomula of T. regenti involved in the first phases of infection of the avian host. We identified key biological and metabolic pathways specific to each of these two developmental stages and also undertook comparative analyses using data available for taxonomically related blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Detailed comparative analyses revealed the unique involvement of carbohydrate metabolism, translation and amino acid metabolism, and calcium in T. regenti cercariae during their invasion and in growth and development, as well as the roles of cell adhesion molecules, microaerobic metabolism (citrate cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, peptidases (cathepsins and other histolytic and lysozomal proteins in schistosomula during their particular migration in neural tissues of the avian host. In conclusion, the present transcriptomic exploration provides new and significant insights into the molecular biology of T. regenti, which should underpin future genomic and proteomic investigations of T. regenti and, importantly, provides a useful starting point for a range of comparative studies of schistosomatids and other trematodes.

  2. Comparative genome analysis of rice-pathogenic Burkholderia provides insight into capacity to adapt to different environments and hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young-Su; Lim, Jae Yun; Park, Jungwook; Kim, Sunyoung; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Cheong, Hoon; Kim, Sang-Mok; Moon, Jae Sun; Hwang, Ingyu

    2015-05-06

    In addition to human and animal diseases, bacteria of the genus Burkholderia can cause plant diseases. The representative species of rice-pathogenic Burkholderia are Burkholderia glumae, B. gladioli, and B. plantarii, which primarily cause grain rot, sheath rot, and seedling blight, respectively, resulting in severe reductions in rice production. Though Burkholderia rice pathogens cause problems in rice-growing countries, comprehensive studies of these rice-pathogenic species aiming to control Burkholderia-mediated diseases are only in the early stages. We first sequenced the complete genome of B. plantarii ATCC 43733T. Second, we conducted comparative analysis of the newly sequenced B. plantarii ATCC 43733T genome with eleven complete or draft genomes of B. glumae and B. gladioli strains. Furthermore, we compared the genome of three rice Burkholderia pathogens with those of other Burkholderia species such as those found in environmental habitats and those known as animal/human pathogens. These B. glumae, B. gladioli, and B. plantarii strains have unique genes involved in toxoflavin or tropolone toxin production and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-mediated bacterial immune system. Although the genome of B. plantarii ATCC 43733T has many common features with those of B. glumae and B. gladioli, this B. plantarii strain has several unique features, including quorum sensing and CRISPR/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) systems. The complete genome sequence of B. plantarii ATCC 43733T and publicly available genomes of B. glumae BGR1 and B. gladioli BSR3 enabled comprehensive comparative genome analyses among three rice-pathogenic Burkholderia species responsible for tissue rotting and seedling blight. Our results suggest that B. glumae has evolved rapidly, or has undergone rapid genome rearrangements or deletions, in response to the hosts. It also, clarifies the unique features of rice pathogenic Burkholderia species relative to other

  3. Comparative Genomics of the Genus Porphyromonas Identifies Adaptations for Heme Synthesis within the Prevalent Canine Oral Species Porphyromonas cangingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Darling, Aaron E; Eisen, Jonathan A; Wallis, Corrin; Davis, Ian J; Harris, Stephen J

    2015-11-13

    Porphyromonads play an important role in human periodontal disease and recently have been shown to be highly prevalent in canine mouths. Porphyromonas cangingivalis is the most prevalent canine oral bacterial species in both plaque from healthy gingiva and plaque from dogs with early periodontitis. The ability of P. cangingivalis to flourish in the different environmental conditions characterized by these two states suggests a degree of metabolic flexibility. To characterize the genes responsible for this, the genomes of 32 isolates (including 18 newly sequenced and assembled) from 18 Porphyromonad species from dogs, humans, and other mammals were compared. Phylogenetic trees inferred using core genes largely matched previous findings; however, comparative genomic analysis identified several genes and pathways relating to heme synthesis that were present in P. cangingivalis but not in other Porphyromonads. Porphyromonas cangingivalis has a complete protoporphyrin IX synthesis pathway potentially allowing it to synthesize its own heme unlike pathogenic Porphyromonads such as Porphyromonas gingivalis that acquire heme predominantly from blood. Other pathway differences such as the ability to synthesize siroheme and vitamin B12 point to enhanced metabolic flexibility for P. cangingivalis, which may underlie its prevalence in the canine oral cavity. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Comparative Genomics of 28 Salmonella enterica Isolates: Evidence for CRISPR-Mediated Adaptive Sublineage Evolution ▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, W. Florian; Mammel, Mark K.; McDermott, Patrick F.; Tartera, Carmen; White, David G.; LeClerc, J. Eugene; Ravel, Jacques; Cebula, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive surveillance, food-borne Salmonella enterica infections continue to be a significant burden on public health systems worldwide. As the S. enterica species comprises sublineages that differ greatly in antigenic representation, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, a better understanding of the species' evolution is critical for the prediction and prevention of future outbreaks. The roles that virulence and resistance phenotype acquisition, exchange, and loss play in the evolution of S. enterica sublineages, which to a certain extent are represented by serotypes, remains mostly uncharacterized. Here, we compare 17 newly sequenced and phenotypically characterized nontyphoidal S. enterica strains to 11 previously sequenced S. enterica genomes to carry out the most comprehensive comparative analysis of this species so far. These phenotypic and genotypic data comparisons in the phylogenetic species context suggest that the evolution of known S. enterica sublineages is mediated mostly by two mechanisms, (i) the loss of coding sequences with known metabolic functions, which leads to functional reduction, and (ii) the acquisition of horizontally transferred phage and plasmid DNA, which provides virulence and resistance functions and leads to increasing specialization. Matches between S. enterica clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), part of a defense mechanism against invading plasmid and phage DNA, and plasmid and prophage regions suggest that CRISPR-mediated immunity could control short-term phenotype changes and mediate long-term sublineage evolution. CRISPR analysis could therefore be critical in assessing the evolutionary potential of S. enterica sublineages and aid in the prediction and prevention of future S. enterica outbreaks. PMID:21602358

  5. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis Reveals Evolutional Traits for Adaptation to Plant-Associated Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Yang, Dongqing; Kendall, Joshua R. A.; Borriss, Rainer; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis and its sister species B. amyloliquefaciens comprise an evolutionary compact but physiologically versatile group of bacteria that includes strains isolated from diverse habitats. Many of these strains are used as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agriculture and a plant-specialized subspecies of B. amyloliquefaciens—B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum, has recently been recognized, here we used 31 whole genomes [including two newly sequenced PGPR strains: B. amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 isolated from Musa sp. (banana) and B. subtilis HJ5 from Gossypium sp. (cotton)] to perform comparative analysis and investigate the genomic characteristics and evolution traits of both species in different niches. Phylogenomic analysis indicated that strains isolated from plant-associated (PA) habitats could be distinguished from those from non-plant-associated (nPA) niches in both species. The core genomes of PA strains are more abundant in genes relevant to intermediary metabolism and secondary metabolites biosynthesis as compared with those of nPA strains, and they also possess additional specific genes involved in utilization of plant-derived substrates and synthesis of antibiotics. A further gene gain/loss analysis indicated that only a few of these specific genes (18/192 for B. amyloliquefaciens and 53/688 for B. subtilis) were acquired by PA strains at the initial divergence event, but most were obtained successively by different subgroups of PA stains during the evolutional process. This study demonstrated the genomic differences between PA and nPA B. amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis from different niches and the involved evolutional traits, and has implications for screening of PGPR strains in agricultural production. PMID:28066362

  6. Enhanced chlorine resistance of tap water-adapted Legionella pneumophila as compared with agar medium-passaged strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, J M; States, S J; McGlaughlin, J E; Overmeyer, J H; Wadowsky, R M; McNamara, A M; Wolford, R S; Yee, R B

    1985-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that bacteria maintained in a low-nutrient "natural" environment such as swimming pool water are much more resistant to disinfection by various chemical agents than strains maintained on rich media. In the present study a comparison was made of the chlorine (Cl2) susceptibility of hot-water tank isolates of Legionella pneumophila maintained in tap water and strains passaged on either nonselective buffered charcoal-yeast extract or selective differential glycine-vancomycin-polymyxin agar medium. Our earlier work has shown that environmental and clinical isolates of L. pneumophila maintained on agar medium are much more resistant to Cl2 than coliforms are. Under the present experimental conditions (21 degrees C, pH 7.6 to 8.0, and 0.25 mg of free residual Cl2 per liter, we found the tap water-maintained L. pneumophila strains to be even more resistant than the agar-passaged isolates. Under these conditions, 99% kill of tap water-maintained strains of L. pneumophila was usually achieved within 60 to 90 min compared with 10 min for agar-passaged strains. Samples from plumbing fixtures in a hospital yielded legionellae which were "super"-chlorine resistant when assayed under natural conditions. After one agar passage their resistance dropped to levels of comparable strains which had not been previously exposed to additional chlorination. These studies more closely approximate natural conditions than our previous work and show that tap water-maintained L. pneumophila is even more resistant to Cl2 than its already resistant agar medium-passaged counterpart.

  7. Neurochemical Metabolomics Reveals Disruption to Sphingolipid Metabolism Following Chronic Haloperidol Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, Joseph L; Vunck, Sarah A; Batman, Angela M; Crowley, James J; Vann, Robert E; Beardsley, Patrick M; van den Oord, Edwin J

    2015-09-01

    Haloperidol is an effective antipsychotic drug for treatment of schizophrenia, but prolonged use can lead to debilitating side effects. To better understand the effects of long-term administration, we measured global metabolic changes in mouse brain following 3 mg/kg/day haloperidol for 28 days. These conditions lead to movement-related side effects in mice akin to those observed in patients after prolonged use. Brain tissue was collected following microwave tissue fixation to arrest metabolism and extracted metabolites were assessed using both liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (MS). Over 300 unique compounds were identified across MS platforms. Haloperidol was found to be present in all test samples and not in controls, indicating experimental validity. Twenty-one compounds differed significantly between test and control groups at the p < 0.05 level. Top compounds were robust to analytical method, also being identified via partial least squares discriminant analysis. Four compounds (sphinganine, N-acetylornithine, leucine and adenosine diphosphate) survived correction for multiple testing in a non-parametric analysis using false discovery rate threshold < 0.1. Pathway analysis of nominally significant compounds (p < 0.05) revealed significant findings for sphingolipid metabolism (p = 0.015) and protein biosynthesis (p = 0.024). Altered sphingolipid metabolism is suggestive of disruptions to myelin. This interpretation is supported by our observation of elevated N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate in the haloperidol-treated mice (p = 0.004), a marker previously associated with demyelination. This study further demonstrates the utility of murine neurochemical metabolomics as a method to advance understanding of CNS drug effects.

  8. Enrichment of MCI and early Alzheimer's disease treatment trials using neurochemical and imaging candidate biomarkers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hampel, H

    2012-02-01

    In the earliest clinical stages of Alzheimer\\'s Disease (AD), when symptoms are mild, clinical diagnosis will still be difficult. AD related molecular mechanisms precede symptoms. Biological markers can serve as early diagnostic indicators, as markers of preclinical pathological change, e.g. underlying mechanisms of action (MoA). Hypothesis based candidates are derived from structural and functional neuroimaging as well as from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma. Unbiased exploratory approaches e.g. proteome analysis or rater independent fully automated imaging post-processing methods yield novel candidates. Recent progress in the validation of core feasible imaging and neurochemical biomarkers for functions such as early detection, classification, progression and prediction of AD is summarized. Single core feasible biomarkers can already be used to enrich populations at risk for AD and may be further enhanced using distinct combinations. Some biomarkers are currently in the process of implementation as primary or secondary outcome variables into regulatory guideline documents, e.g. regarding phase II in drug development programs as outcome measures in proof of concept or dose finding studies. There are specific biomarkers available depending on the hypothesized mechanism of action of a medicinal product, e.g. impact on the amyloidogenic cascade or on tauhyperphosphorylation. Ongoing large-scale international controlled multi-center trials will provide further validation of selected core feasible imaging and CSF biomarker candidates as outcome measures in early AD for use in phase III clinical efficacy trials. There is a need of rigorous co-development of biological trait- and statemarker candidates facilitated through planned synergistic collaboration between academic, industrial and regulatory partners.

  9. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptococcus Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Reveals their Adaptation to a Highly Dynamic Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Boekhorst, Jos; Herrmann, Ruth; Smid, Eddy J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus strains in public databases. The Streptococcus pangenome consists of 12,403 orthologous groups of which 574 are shared among all sequenced streptococci and are defined as the Streptococcus core genome. Genome mining of the small-intestinal streptococci focused on functions playing an important role in the interaction of these streptococci in the small-intestinal ecosystem, including natural competence and nutrient-transport and metabolism. Analysis of the small-intestinal Streptococcus genomes predicts a high capacity to synthesize amino acids and various vitamins as well as substantial divergence in their carbohydrate transport and metabolic capacities, which is in agreement with observed physiological differences between these Streptococcus strains. Gene-specific PCR-strategies enabled evaluation of conservation of Streptococcus populations in intestinal samples from different human individuals, revealing that the S. salivarius strains were frequently detected in the small-intestine microbiota, supporting the representative value of the genomes provided in this study. Finally, the Streptococcus genomes allow prediction of the effect of dietary substances on Streptococcus population dynamics in the human small-intestine. PMID:24386196

  10. Assessing Student Attitudes Towards Science in an Adaptive Online Astrobiology Course: Comparing Online and On-Campus Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Perera, V.; Mead, C.; Horodyskyj, L.; Semken, S. C.; Lopatto, D.; Anbar, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    General-education Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses are considered essential to a college education, in part, to train students to think critically and to make informed decisions about complex scientific issues such as climate change and public health. Therefore, the goals of these STEM courses go beyond content knowledge to include generating positive attitudes towards science, developing competence in evaluating scientific information in everyday life, and understanding the nature of science. The Classroom Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) survey is frequently used to measure these attitudes, but it has not previously been used in an online, general education course. In this work, we administered the CURE survey for three semesters (N = 774) before and after completion of an online astrobiology course called Habitable Worlds. We compare students taking this course as part of fully-online degree programs (o-course) with those taking it as part of traditional undergraduate programs (i-course). More females and older students were among the o-course group, while overall the course had more white students than the Arizona State University average. Mean course grades were similar between the two groups but attitudes toward science differred significantly. O-course students began the course with more positive attitudes than i-course students, and o-course students also showed more positive changes at the end of the course. These differences suggest lesser intrinsic motivation among the i-course students. Additionally, pre-course attitudes correlated with final course grade for o-course students, but not for i-course students, which implies that success among o-course students is influenced by different factors than i-course students. Thus, effective student support strategies may differ for online-only students. Future work will include student interviews to better calibrate the CURE survey to online science courses.

  11. Comparative analysis of the complete genome sequence of the California MSW strain of myxoma virus reveals potential host adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J; Rogers, Matthew B; Fitch, Adam; Depasse, Jay V; Cattadori, Isabella M; Hudson, Peter J; Tscharke, David C; Holmes, Edward C; Ghedin, Elodie

    2013-11-01

    Myxomatosis is a rapidly lethal disease of European rabbits that is caused by myxoma virus (MYXV). The introduction of a South American strain of MYXV into the European rabbit population of Australia is the classic case of host-pathogen coevolution following cross-species transmission. The most virulent strains of MYXV for European rabbits are the Californian viruses, found in the Pacific states of the United States and the Baja Peninsula, Mexico. The natural host of Californian MYXV is the brush rabbit, Sylvilagus bachmani. We determined the complete sequence of the MSW strain of Californian MYXV and performed a comparative analysis with other MYXV genomes. The MSW genome is larger than that of the South American Lausanne (type) strain of MYXV due to an expansion of the terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) of the genome, with duplication of the M156R, M154L, M153R, M152R, and M151R genes and part of the M150R gene from the right-hand (RH) end of the genome at the left-hand (LH) TIR. Despite the extreme virulence of MSW, no novel genes were identified; five genes were disrupted by multiple indels or mutations to the ATG start codon, including two genes, M008.1L/R and M152R, with major virulence functions in European rabbits, and a sixth gene, M000.5L/R, was absent. The loss of these gene functions suggests that S. bachmani is a relatively recent host for MYXV and that duplication of virulence genes in the TIRs, gene loss, or sequence variation in other genes can compensate for the loss of M008.1L/R and M152R in infections of European rabbits.

  12. Comparative Genomics of NAC Transcriptional Factors in Angiosperms: Implications for the Adaptation and Diversification of Flowering Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Santana, Alejandro; Alcaraz, Luis David; Castaño, Enrique; Sanchez-Calderon, Lenin; Sanchez-Teyer, Felipe; Rodriguez-Zapata, Luis

    2015-01-01

    NAC proteins constitute one of the largest groups of plant-specific transcription factors and are known to play essential roles in various developmental processes. They are also important in plant responses to stresses such as drought, soil salinity, cold, and heat, which adversely affect growth. The current knowledge regarding the distribution of NAC proteins in plant lineages comes from relatively small samplings from the available data. In the present study, we broadened the number of plant species containing the NAC family origin and evolution to shed new light on the evolutionary history of this family in angiosperms. A comparative genome analysis was performed on 24 land plant species, and NAC ortholog groups were identified by means of bidirectional BLAST hits. Large NAC gene families are found in those species that have experienced more whole-genome duplication events, pointing to an expansion of the NAC family with divergent functions in flowering plants. A total of 3,187 NAC transcription factors that clustered into six major groups were used in the phylogenetic analysis. Many orthologous groups were found in the monocot and eudicot lineages, but only five orthologous groups were found between P. patens and each representative taxa of flowering plants. These groups were called basal orthologous groups and likely expanded into more recent taxa to cope with their environmental needs. This analysis on the angiosperm NAC family represents an effort to grasp the evolutionary and functional diversity within this gene family while providing a basis for further functional research on vascular plant gene families. PMID:26569117

  13. Comparative Genomics of NAC Transcriptional Factors in Angiosperms: Implications for the Adaptation and Diversification of Flowering Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pereira-Santana

    Full Text Available NAC proteins constitute one of the largest groups of plant-specific transcription factors and are known to play essential roles in various developmental processes. They are also important in plant responses to stresses such as drought, soil salinity, cold, and heat, which adversely affect growth. The current knowledge regarding the distribution of NAC proteins in plant lineages comes from relatively small samplings from the available data. In the present study, we broadened the number of plant species containing the NAC family origin and evolution to shed new light on the evolutionary history of this family in angiosperms. A comparative genome analysis was performed on 24 land plant species, and NAC ortholog groups were identified by means of bidirectional BLAST hits. Large NAC gene families are found in those species that have experienced more whole-genome duplication events, pointing to an expansion of the NAC family with divergent functions in flowering plants. A total of 3,187 NAC transcription factors that clustered into six major groups were used in the phylogenetic analysis. Many orthologous groups were found in the monocot and eudicot lineages, but only five orthologous groups were found between P. patens and each representative taxa of flowering plants. These groups were called basal orthologous groups and likely expanded into more recent taxa to cope with their environmental needs. This analysis on the angiosperm NAC family represents an effort to grasp the evolutionary and functional diversity within this gene family while providing a basis for further functional research on vascular plant gene families.

  14. Genome‐scale diversity and niche adaptation analysis of Lactococcus lactis by comparative genome hybridization using multi‐strain arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siezen, Roland J.; Bayjanov, Jumamurat R.; Felis, Giovanna E.; van der Sijde, Marijke R.; Starrenburg, Marjo; Molenaar, Douwe; Wels, Michiel; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E. T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Lactococcus lactis produces lactic acid and is widely used in the manufacturing of various fermented dairy products. However, the species is also frequently isolated from non‐dairy niches, such as fermented plant material. Recently, these non‐dairy strains have gained increasing interest, as they have been described to possess flavour‐forming activities that are rarely found in dairy isolates and have diverse metabolic properties. We performed an extensive whole‐genome diversity analysis on 39 L. lactis strains, isolated from dairy and plant sources. Comparative genome hybridization analysis with multi‐strain microarrays was used to assess presence or absence of genes and gene clusters in these strains, relative to all L. lactis sequences in public databases, whereby chromosomal and plasmid‐encoded genes were computationally analysed separately. Nearly 3900 chromosomal orthologous groups (chrOGs) were defined on basis of four sequenced chromosomes of L. lactis strains (IL1403, KF147, SK11, MG1363). Of these, 1268 chrOGs are present in at least 35 strains and represent the presently known core genome of L. lactis, and 72 chrOGs appear to be unique for L. lactis. Nearly 600 and 400 chrOGs were found to be specific for either the subspecies lactis or subspecies cremoris respectively. Strain variability was found in presence or absence of gene clusters related to growth on plant substrates, such as genes involved in the consumption of arabinose, xylan, α‐galactosides and galacturonate. Further niche‐specific differences were found in gene clusters for exopolysaccharides biosynthesis, stress response (iron transport, osmotolerance) and bacterial defence mechanisms (nisin biosynthesis). Strain variability of functions encoded on known plasmids included proteolysis, lactose fermentation, citrate uptake, metal ion resistance and exopolysaccharides biosynthesis. The present study supports the view of L. lactis as a species with a very flexible

  15. Comparative transcriptome and gene co-expression network analysis reveal genes and signaling pathways adaptively responsive to varied adverse stresses in the insect fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhangjiang; Zhao, Xin; Lu, Zhuoyue; Wang, Huifang; Liu, Pengfei; Zeng, Fanqin; Zhang, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Sensing, responding, and adapting to the surrounding environment are crucial for all living organisms to survive, proliferate, and differentiate in their biological niches. Beauveria bassiana is an economically important insect-pathogenic fungus which is widely used as a biocontrol agent to control a variety of insect pests. The fungal pathogen unavoidably encounters a variety of adverse environmental stresses and defense response from the host insects during application of the fungal agents. However, few are known about the transcription response of the fungus to respond or adapt varied adverse stresses. Here, we comparatively analyzed the transcriptome of B. bassiana in globe genome under the varied stationary-phase stresses including osmotic agent (0.8 M NaCl), high temperature (32 °C), cell wall-perturbing agent (Congo red), and oxidative agents (H 2 O 2 or menadione). Total of 12,412 reads were obtained, and mapped to the 6767 genes of the B. bassiana. All of these stresses caused transcription responses involved in basal metabolism, cell wall construction, stress response or cell rescue/detoxification, signaling transduction and gene transcription regulation, and likely other cellular processes. An array of genes displayed similar transcription patterns in response to at least two of the five stresses, suggesting a shared transcription response to varied adverse stresses. Gene co-expression network analysis revealed that mTOR signaling pathway, but not HOG1 MAP kinase pathway, played a central role in regulation the varied adverse stress responses, which was verified by RNAi-mediated knockdown of TOR1. Our findings provided an insight of transcription response and gene co-expression network of B. bassiana in adaptation to varied environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Insights into deep-sea adaptations and host-symbiont interactions: A comparative transcriptome study on Bathymodiolus mussels and their coastal relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ping; Wang, Minxiao; Li, Chaolun; Sun, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xiaocheng; Sun, Yan; Sun, Song

    2017-10-01

    Mussels (Bivalve: Mytilidae) have adapted to various habitats, from fresh water to the deep sea. To understand their adaptive characteristics in different habitats, particularly in the bathymodiolin mussels in deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems, we conducted a comparative transcriptomic analysis between deep-sea bathymodiolin mussels and their shallow-water relatives. A number of gene families related to stress responses were shared across all mussels, without specific or significantly expanded families in deep-sea species, indicating that all mussels are capable of adapting to diverse harsh environments, but that different members of the same gene family may be preferentially utilized by different species. One of the most extraordinary trait of bathymodiolin mussels is their endosymbiosis. Lineage-specific and positively selected TLRs and highly expressed C1QDC proteins were identified in the gills of the bathymodiolins, suggesting their possible functions in symbiont recognition. However, pattern recognition receptors of the bathymodiolins were globally reduced, facilitating the invasion and maintenance of the symbionts obtained by either endocytosis or phagocytosis. Additionally, various transporters were positively selected or more highly expressed in the deep-sea mussels, indicating a means by which necessary materials could be provided for the symbionts. Key genes supporting lysosomal activity were also positively selected or more highly expressed in the deep-sea mussels, suggesting that nutrition fixed by the symbionts can be absorbed in a "farming" way wherein the symbionts are digested by lysosomes. Regulation of key physiological processes including lysosome activity, apoptosis and immune reactions is needed to maintain a stable host-symbiont relationship, but the mechanisms are still unclear. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Crop Management as an Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in Early Modern Era: A Comparative Study of Eastern and Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Pei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective adaptation determines agricultural vulnerability to climate change, especially in the pre-industrial era. Crop management as an agricultural adaptation to climate change in recent human history, however, has rarely been systematically evaluated. Using Europe as our study area, we statistically compared yield ratio of wheat, rye, barley, and oats (an important performance indicator of an agrarian economy between Eastern and Western Europe in AD 1500–1800. In particular, a statistical comparison was made of crop yield ratio in the two regions during the warm agricultural recovery period AD 1700–1800. The general trend of crop yield in Eastern and Western Europe basically followed the alternation of climatic epochs, in which the extreme cooling period in AD 1560–1660 drastically reduced the crop yield ratio. The yield ratio of rye in Eastern and Western Europe was very similar throughout the entire study period. However, the yield ratio of wheat, barley, and oats showed different patterns in the two regions and increased drastically in Western Europe in the warm agricultural recovery period, which might have contributed to rapid socio-economic development in Western Europe and eventually the East–West Divide in Europe in the following centuries.

  18. Comparative genome analysis of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18, an African fermented camel milk isolate with adaptations to dairy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Follador, Rainer; Hochstrasser, Mira; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo; Stevens, Marc J A

    2013-03-22

    Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex associated with several human and animal infections. Sii is a predominant bacterium in spontaneously fermented milk products in Africa. The genome sequence of Sii strain CJ18 was compared with that of other Streptococcus species to identify dairy adaptations including genome decay such as in Streptococcus thermophilus, traits for its competitiveness in spontaneous milk fermentation and to assess potential health risks for consumers. The genome of Sii CJ18 harbors several unique regions in comparison to Sii ATCC BAA-102T, among others an enlarged exo- and capsular polysaccharide operon; Streptococcus thermophilus-associated genes; a region containing metabolic and hypothetical genes mostly unique to CJ18 and the dairy isolate Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus; and a second oligopeptide transport operon. Dairy adaptations in CJ18 are reflected by a high percentage of pseudogenes (4.9%) representing genome decay which includes the inactivation of the lactose phosphotransferase system (lacIIABC) by multiple transposases integration. The presence of lacS and lacZ genes is the major dairy adaptation affecting lactose metabolism pathways also due to the disruption of lacIIABC.We constructed mutant strains of lacS, lacZ and lacIIABC and analyzed the resulting strains of CJ18 to confirm the redirection of lactose metabolism via LacS and LacZ.Natural competence genes are conserved in both Sii strains, but CJ18 contains a lower number of CRISPR spacers which indicates a reduced defense capability against alien DNA. No classical streptococcal virulence factors were detected in both Sii strains apart from those involved in adhesion which should be considered niche factors. Sii-specific virulence factors are not described. Several Sii-specific regions encoding uncharacterized proteins provide new leads for virulence analyses and investigation of the

  19. Comparative genome analysis of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18, an African fermented camel milk isolate with adaptations to dairy environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex associated with several human and animal infections. Sii is a predominant bacterium in spontaneously fermented milk products in Africa. The genome sequence of Sii strain CJ18 was compared with that of other Streptococcus species to identify dairy adaptations including genome decay such as in Streptococcus thermophilus, traits for its competitiveness in spontaneous milk fermentation and to assess potential health risks for consumers. Results The genome of Sii CJ18 harbors several unique regions in comparison to Sii ATCC BAA-102T, among others an enlarged exo- and capsular polysaccharide operon; Streptococcus thermophilus-associated genes; a region containing metabolic and hypothetical genes mostly unique to CJ18 and the dairy isolate Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus; and a second oligopeptide transport operon. Dairy adaptations in CJ18 are reflected by a high percentage of pseudogenes (4.9%) representing genome decay which includes the inactivation of the lactose phosphotransferase system (lacIIABC) by multiple transposases integration. The presence of lacS and lacZ genes is the major dairy adaptation affecting lactose metabolism pathways also due to the disruption of lacIIABC. We constructed mutant strains of lacS, lacZ and lacIIABC and analyzed the resulting strains of CJ18 to confirm the redirection of lactose metabolism via LacS and LacZ. Natural competence genes are conserved in both Sii strains, but CJ18 contains a lower number of CRISPR spacers which indicates a reduced defense capability against alien DNA. No classical streptococcal virulence factors were detected in both Sii strains apart from those involved in adhesion which should be considered niche factors. Sii-specific virulence factors are not described. Several Sii-specific regions encoding uncharacterized proteins provide new leads for virulence analyses and

  20. Prediction of monthly global solar radiation using adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) technique over the state of Tamilnadu (India): a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumithira, T. R.; Nirmal, Kumar A.

    2012-01-01

    Enormous potential of solar energy as a clean and pollution free source enrich the global power generation. India, being a tropical country, has high solar radiation and it lies to the north of equator between 8 degree 4' and 37 degree 6' North latitude and 68 degree 7' , and 97 degree 5' East longitude. In south india, Tamilnadu is located in the extreme south east with an average temperature of grater than 27.5 degree (> 81.5 F). In this study, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based modelling approach to predict the monthly global solar radiation (MGSR) in Tamilnadu is presented using the real meteorological solar radiation data from the 31 districts of Tamilnadu with different latitude and longitude. The purpose of the study is to compare the accuracy of ANFIS and other soft computing models as found in literature to assess the solar radiation. The performance of the proposed model was tested and compared with other earth region in a case study. The statistical performance parameters such as root mean square error (RMSE), mean bias error (MBE), and coefficient of determination (R2) are presented and compared to validate the performance. The comparative test results prove the ANFIS based prediction are better than other models and furthermore proves its prediction capability for any geographical area with changing meteorological conditions. (author)

  1. Biochanin-A ameliorates behavioural and neurochemical derangements in cognitive-deficit mice for the betterment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, S M; Joshi, H; Chheda, T K

    2014-04-01

    Biochanin-A (BCA), a potent phytoconstituent, has been previously used as an antitumour, a dopaminergic neuron protective agent, an antioxidant, an anticholinergic and on other pharmacological activities including neuroprotection. The present study was aimed to evaluate the behavioural and neurochemical evidence of BCA in cognitive-deficit mice in scopolamine challenged and natural aged-induced amnesia models in young and aged mice, respectively. BCA has exhibited decrease in the transfer latency and increase in step through latency significantly (p 0.05), BCA 10 mg kg(-1) (p betterment of Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Rapid recovery and altered neurochemical dependence of locomotor central pattern generation following lumbar neonatal spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züchner, Mark; Kondratskaya, Elena; Sylte, Camilla B; Glover, Joel C; Boulland, Jean-Luc

    2018-01-15

    Spinal compression injury targeted to the neonatal upper lumbar spinal cord, the region of highest hindlimb locomotor rhythmogenicity, leads to an initial paralysis of the hindlimbs. Behavioural recovery is evident within a few days and approaches normal function within about 3 weeks. Fictive locomotion in the isolated injured spinal cord cannot be elicited by a neurochemical cocktail containing NMDA, dopamine and serotonin 1 day post-injury, but can 3 days post-injury as readily as in the uninjured spinal cord. Low frequency coordinated rhythmic activity can be elicited in the isolated uninjured spinal cord by NMDA + dopamine (without serotonin), but not in the isolated injured spinal cord. In both the injured and uninjured spinal cord, eliciting bona fide fictive locomotion requires the additional presence of serotonin. Following incomplete compression injury in the thoracic spinal cord of neonatal mice 1 day after birth (P1), we previously reported that virtually normal hindlimb locomotor function is recovered within about 3 weeks despite substantial permanent thoracic tissue loss. Here, we asked whether similar recovery occurs following lumbar injury that impacts more directly on the locomotor central pattern generator (CPG). As in thoracic injuries, lumbar injuries caused about 90% neuronal loss at the injury site and increased serotonergic innervation below the injury. Motor recovery was slower after lumbar than thoracic injury, but virtually normal function was attained by P25 in both cases. Locomotor CPG status was tested by eliciting fictive locomotion in isolated spinal cords using a widely used neurochemical cocktail (NMDA, dopamine, serotonin). No fictive locomotion could be elicited 1 day post-injury, but could within 3 days post-injury as readily as in age-matched uninjured control spinal cords. Burst patterning and coordination were largely similar in injured and control spinal cords but there were differences. Notably, in both groups there

  3. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-applied ultra-low-dose CT with radiography- comparable radiation dose: Usefulness for lung nodule detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Chung, Myung Jin; Hwang, Hye Sun; Lee, Kyung Soo; Moon, Jung Won

    2015-01-01

    To assess the performance of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)-applied ultra-low-dose CT (ULDCT) in detecting small lung nodules. Thirty patients underwent both ULDCT and standard dose CT (SCT). After determining the reference standard nodules, five observers, blinded to the reference standard reading results, independently evaluated SCT and both subsets of ASIR- and filtered back projection (FBP)-driven ULDCT images. Data assessed by observers were compared statistically. Converted effective doses in SCT and ULDCT were 2.81 ± 0.92 and 0.17 ± 0.02 mSv, respectively. A total of 114 lung nodules were detected on SCT as a standard reference. There was no statistically significant difference in sensitivity between ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT for three out of the five observers (p = 0.678, 0.735, < 0.01, 0.038, and < 0.868 for observers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). The sensitivity of FBP-driven ULDCT was significantly lower than that of ASIR-driven ULDCT in three out of the five observers (p < 0.01 for three observers, and p = 0.064 and 0.146 for two observers). In jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis, the mean values of figure-of-merit (FOM) for FBP, ASIR-driven ULDCT, and SCT were 0.682, 0.772, and 0.821, respectively, and there were no significant differences in FOM values between ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT (p = 0.11), but the FOM value of FBP-driven ULDCT was significantly lower than that of ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT (p = 0.01 and 0.00). Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-driven ULDCT delivering a radiation dose of only 0.17 mSv offers acceptable sensitivity in nodule detection compared with SCT and has better performance than FBP-driven ULDCT

  4. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-applied ultra-low-dose CT with radiography- comparable radiation dose: Usefulness for lung nodule detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Chung, Myung Jin; Hwang, Hye Sun; Lee, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jung Won [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To assess the performance of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)-applied ultra-low-dose CT (ULDCT) in detecting small lung nodules. Thirty patients underwent both ULDCT and standard dose CT (SCT). After determining the reference standard nodules, five observers, blinded to the reference standard reading results, independently evaluated SCT and both subsets of ASIR- and filtered back projection (FBP)-driven ULDCT images. Data assessed by observers were compared statistically. Converted effective doses in SCT and ULDCT were 2.81 ± 0.92 and 0.17 ± 0.02 mSv, respectively. A total of 114 lung nodules were detected on SCT as a standard reference. There was no statistically significant difference in sensitivity between ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT for three out of the five observers (p = 0.678, 0.735, < 0.01, 0.038, and < 0.868 for observers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). The sensitivity of FBP-driven ULDCT was significantly lower than that of ASIR-driven ULDCT in three out of the five observers (p < 0.01 for three observers, and p = 0.064 and 0.146 for two observers). In jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis, the mean values of figure-of-merit (FOM) for FBP, ASIR-driven ULDCT, and SCT were 0.682, 0.772, and 0.821, respectively, and there were no significant differences in FOM values between ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT (p = 0.11), but the FOM value of FBP-driven ULDCT was significantly lower than that of ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT (p = 0.01 and 0.00). Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-driven ULDCT delivering a radiation dose of only 0.17 mSv offers acceptable sensitivity in nodule detection compared with SCT and has better performance than FBP-driven ULDCT.

  5. Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction-Applied Ultra-Low-Dose CT with Radiography-Comparable Radiation Dose: Usefulness for Lung Nodule Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun Jung; Chung, Myung Jin; Hwang, Hye Sun; Moon, Jung Won; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the performance of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR)-applied ultra-low-dose CT (ULDCT) in detecting small lung nodules. Thirty patients underwent both ULDCT and standard dose CT (SCT). After determining the reference standard nodules, five observers, blinded to the reference standard reading results, independently evaluated SCT and both subsets of ASIR- and filtered back projection (FBP)-driven ULDCT images. Data assessed by observers were compared statistically. Converted effective doses in SCT and ULDCT were 2.81 ± 0.92 and 0.17 ± 0.02 mSv, respectively. A total of 114 lung nodules were detected on SCT as a standard reference. There was no statistically significant difference in sensitivity between ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT for three out of the five observers (p = 0.678, 0.735, ASIR-driven ULDCT in three out of the five observers (p ASIR-driven ULDCT, and SCT were 0.682, 0.772, and 0.821, respectively, and there were no significant differences in FOM values between ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT (p = 0.11), but the FOM value of FBP-driven ULDCT was significantly lower than that of ASIR-driven ULDCT and SCT (p = 0.01 and 0.00). Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction-driven ULDCT delivering a radiation dose of only 0.17 mSv offers acceptable sensitivity in nodule detection compared with SCT and has better performance than FBP-driven ULDCT.

  6. Pharmacological, neurochemical, and behavioral profile of JB-788, a new 5-HT1A agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, M; Morisset, S; Cloix, J F; Bizot, J C; Guerin, M; Beneteau, V; Guillaumet, G; Hevor, T K

    2010-09-01

    A novel pyridine derivative, 8-{4-[(6-methoxy-2,3-dihydro-[1,4]dioxino[2,3-b]pyridine-3-ylmethyl)-amino]-butyl}-8-aza-spiro[4.5]decane-7,9-dione hydrochloride, termed JB-788, was designed to selectively target 5-HT(1A) receptors. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of JB-788 was characterized in vitro using radioligands binding tests and in vivo using neurochemical and behavioural experiments. JB-788 bound tightly to human 5-HT(1A) receptor expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells with a K(i) value of 0.8 nM. Its binding affinity is in the same range as that observed for the (+/-)8-OH-DPAT, a reference 5HT(1A) agonist compound. Notably, JB-788 only bound weakly to 5-HT(1B) or 5-HT(2A) receptors and moreover the drug displayed only weak or indetectable binding to muscarinic, alpha(2), beta(1) and beta(2) adrenergic receptors, or dopaminergic D(1) receptors. JB-788 was found to display substantial binding affinity for dopaminergic D(2) receptors and, to a lesser extend to alpha(1) adrenoreceptors. JB-788 dose-dependently decreased forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation in HEK cells expressing human 5-HT(1A), thus acting as a potent 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (E(max.) 75%, EC(50) 3.5 nM). JB-788 did not exhibit any D(2) receptor agonism but progressively inhibited the effects of quinpirole, a D(2) receptor agonist, in the cAMP accumulation test with a K(i) value of 250 nM. JB-788 induced a weak change in cAMP levels in mouse brain but, like some antipsychotics, transiently increased glycogen contents in various brain regions. Behavioral effects were investigated in mice using the elevated plus-maze. JB-788 was found to increase the time duration spent by animals in anxiogenic situations. Locomotor hyperactivity induced by methamphetamine in mouse, a model of antipsychotic activity, was dose-dependently inhibited by JB-788. Altogether, these results suggest that JB-788 displays pharmacological properties, which could be of interest in the area

  7. Comparing the effects of adaptive support ventilation and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation on intubation duration and hospital stay after coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Yazdannik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different modes of mechanical ventilation are used for respiratory support after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG. This study aimed to compare the effect(s of using adaptive support ventilation (ASV and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV on the length of mechanical ventilation (intubation duration and hospital stay after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Materials and Methods: In a randomized control trial, 64 patients were ventilated with ASV as the experiment group or with SIMV as the control group after CABG surgery in Chamran Hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The time of tracheal intubation and the length of hospital stay were compared between the two groups. Data were analyzed and described using statistical analysis (independent t-test. Results: The mean time of intubation duration was significantly lower in ASV group compared with SIMV group. (4.83 h vs 6.71 h, P < 0.001. The lengths of hospital stay in the ASV and the SIMV groups were 140.6 h and 145.1 h, respectively. This difference was significant between the two groups (P = 0.006. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, using ASV mode for mechanical ventilation after CABG led to a decrease in intubation duration and also hospital stay in comparison with the SIMV group. It is recommended to use ASV mode on ventilators for respiratory support of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

  8. Voxel Scale Complex Networks of Functional Connectivity in the Rat Brain: Neurochemical State Dependence of Global and Local Topological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Schwarz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis of functional imaging data reveals emergent features of the brain as a function of its topological properties. However, the brain is not a homogeneous network, and the dependence of functional connectivity parameters on neuroanatomical substrate and parcellation scale is a key issue. Moreover, the extent to which these topological properties depend on underlying neurochemical changes remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated both global statistical properties and the local, voxel-scale distribution of connectivity parameters of the rat brain. Different neurotransmitter systems were stimulated by pharmacological challenge (d-amphetamine, fluoxetine, and nicotine to discriminate between stimulus-specific functional connectivity and more general features of the rat brain architecture. Although global connectivity parameters were similar, mapping of local connectivity parameters at high spatial resolution revealed strong neuroanatomical dependence of functional connectivity in the rat brain, with clear differentiation between the neocortex and older brain regions. Localized foci of high functional connectivity independent of drug challenge were found in the sensorimotor cortices, consistent with the high neuronal connectivity in these regions. Conversely, the topological properties and node roles in subcortical regions varied with neurochemical state and were dependent on the specific dynamics of the different functional processes elicited.

  9. Neurochemical properties of BDNF-containing neurons projecting to rostral ventromedial medulla in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Bin eYin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The periaqueductal gray (PAG modulates nociception via a descending pathway that relays in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM and terminates in the spinal cord. Previous behavioral pharmacology and electrophysiological evidence suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays an important role in descending pain modulation, likely through the PAG-RVM pathway. However, there still lacks detailed information on the distribution of BDNF, activation of BDNF-containing neurons projecting to RVM in the condition of pain, and neurochemical properties of these neurons within the PAG. Through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and immunofluorescent staining, the homogenous distributions of BDNF mRNA and protein were observed in the four subregions of PAG. Both neurons and astrocytes expressed BDNF, but not microglias. By combining retrograde tracing methods and formalin pain model, there were more BDNF-containing neurons projecting to RVM being activated in the ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG than other subregions of PAG. The neurochemical properties of BDNF-containing projection neurons in the vlPAG were investigated. BDNF-containing projection neurons expressed auto receptor Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB in addition to serotonin (5-HT, neurotensin (NT, substance P (SP, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, and parvalbumin (PV but not tyrosine decarboxylase (TH. It is speculated that BDNF released from projection neurons in the vlPAG might participate in the descending pain modulation through enhancing the presynaptic release of other neuroactive substances (NSs in the RVM.

  10. A comparative evaluation of the marginal adaptation of a thermoplastic resin, a light cured wax and an inlay casting wax on stone dies: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Reji P; Nair, Vivek V; Harshakumar, K; Ravichandran, R; Lylajam, S; Viswambaran, Prasanth

    2018-01-01

    Different pattern materials do not produce copings with satisfactory, marginal accuracy when used on stone dies at varying time intervals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the vertical marginal accuracy of patterns formed from three materials, namely, thermoplastic resin, light cured wax and inlay casting wax at three-time intervals of 1, 12, and 24 h. A master die (zirconia abutment mimicking a prepared permanent maxillary central incisor) and metal sleeve (direct metal laser sintering crown #11) were fabricated. A total of 30 stone dies were obtained from the master die. Ten patterns were made each from the three materials and stored off the die at room temperature. The vertical marginal gaps were measured using digital microscope at 1, 12, and 24 h after reseating with gentle finger pressure. The results revealed a significant statistical difference in the marginal adaptation of three materials at all the three-time intervals. Light cured wax was found to be most accurate at all time intervals, followed by thermoplastic resin and inlay casting wax. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between all pairs of materials. The change in vertical marginal gap from 1 to 24 h between thermoplastic resin and light cured wax was not statistically significant. The marginal adaptation of all the three materials used, was well within the acceptable range of 25-70 μm. The resin pattern materials studied revealed significantly less dimensional change than inlay casting wax on storage at 1, 12, and 24 h time intervals. They may be employed in situations where high precision and delayed investing is expected.

  11. Passion, Relational Mobility, and Proof of Commitment: A Comparative Socio-Ecological Analysis of an Adaptive Emotion in a Sexual Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Junko; Kito, Mie; Yuki, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Although monogamy, the exclusive bonding with a specific partner, is one characteristic of modern human mating, long-term romantic relationships inherently possess the commitment problem, which is the conflict between maintaining a relationship with a certain partner and seeking attractive alternatives. Frank has argued that love and passion help solve this problem because they make individuals commit voluntarily to the relationship, leading the other party to also be committed with less concern over being cheated on or rejected. Combining this idea with the comparative socio-ecological approach, we hypothesize that passion will be more pronounced in social environments in which people have greater freedom to choose and replace their partners (i.e., high relational mobility) than in societies in which relationships tend to be more stable and hard to change (i.e., low relational mobility). To test this hypothesis, we compared Americans (living in a society with high relational mobility) and Japanese (living in a society with low relational mobility). As predicted, Americans were more passionate toward their romantic partners than Japanese, and this cultural difference was partially explained by the levels of perceived relational mobility in participants' local ecology. Moreover, more intense passion was found to lead to greater commitment behaviors in both societies. The importance of taking socioecological factors into consideration for the theory of the adaptive function of interpersonal emotions is also discussed.

  12. Study protocol for "Study of Practices Enabling Implementation and Adaptation in the Safety Net (SPREAD-NET)": a pragmatic trial comparing implementation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Rachel; Hollombe, Celine; Bunce, Arwen; Nelson, Christine; Davis, James V; Cowburn, Stuart; Perrin, Nancy; DeVoe, Jennifer; Mossman, Ned; Boles, Bruce; Horberg, Michael; Dearing, James W; Jaworski, Victoria; Cohen, Deborah; Smith, David

    2015-10-16

    Little research has directly compared the effectiveness of implementation strategies in any setting, and we know of no prior trials directly comparing how effectively different combinations of strategies support implementation in community health centers. This paper outlines the protocol of the Study of Practices Enabling Implementation and Adaptation in the Safety Net (SPREAD-NET), a trial designed to compare the effectiveness of several common strategies for supporting implementation of an intervention and explore contextual factors that impact the strategies' effectiveness in the community health center setting. This cluster-randomized trial compares how three increasingly hands-on implementation strategies support adoption of an evidence-based diabetes quality improvement intervention in 29 community health centers, managed by 12 healthcare organizations. The strategies are as follows: (arm 1) a toolkit, presented in paper and electronic form, which includes a training webinar; (arm 2) toolkit plus in-person training with a focus on practice change and change management strategies; and (arm 3) toolkit, in-person training, plus practice facilitation with on-site visits. We use a mixed methods approach to data collection and analysis: (i) baseline surveys on study clinic characteristics, to explore how these characteristics impact the clinics' ability to implement the tools and the effectiveness of each implementation strategy; (ii) quantitative data on change in rates of guideline-concordant prescribing; and (iii) qualitative data on the "how" and "why" underlying the quantitative results. The outcomes of interest are clinic-level results, categorized using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework, within an interrupted time-series design with segmented regression models. This pragmatic trial will compare how well each implementation strategy works in "real-world" practices. Having a better understanding of how different

  13. Impact of Attitudinal Adaptation on Academic Achievement among Students: A Comparative Study of Boys and Girls in Boarding Secondary Schools in Meru County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murithi, Grace Gatune; Nyaga, Veronica Karimi; Barchok, Hillary K.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine the impact of attitudinal adaptation on academic achievement among boys and girls in boarding secondary schools in Meru County in Kenya. The descriptive survey research design was adapted for the study whose sample size was 384 students, school counsellors and deputy principals in the boarding secondary schools. The…

  14. Culturally adapted CBT (CA-CBT) for Latino women with treatment-resistant PTSD: a pilot study comparing CA-CBT to applied muscle relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Devon E; Hofmann, Stefan G; Rivera, Edwin; Otto, Michael W; Pollack, Mark H

    2011-04-01

    We examined the therapeutic efficacy of a culturally adapted form of CBT (CA-CBT) for PTSD as compared to applied muscle relaxation (AMR) for female Latino patients with treatment-resistant PTSD. Participants were randomized to receive either CA-CBT (n = 12) or AMR (n = 12), and were assessed before treatment, after treatment, and at a 12-week follow-up. The treatments were manualized and delivered in the form of group therapy across 14 weekly sessions. Assessments included a measure of PTSD, anxiety, culturally relevant idioms of distress (nervios and ataque de nervios), and emotion regulation ability. Patients receiving CA-CBT improved significantly more than in the AMR condition. Effect size estimates showed very large reductions in PTSD symptoms from pretreatment to posttreatment in the CA-CBT group (Cohen's d = 2.6) but only modest improvements in the AMR group (0.8). These results suggest that CA-CBT can be beneficial for previously treatment-resistant PTSD in Latino women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Within-clutch variation in yolk testosterone as an adaptive maternal effect to modulate avian sibling competition: evidence from a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martina; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2013-01-01

    In many species, embryos are exposed to maternal hormones in utero, in the egg, or in the seed. In birds, mothers deposit substantial testosterone into their eggs, which enhances competitive ability of offspring. These maternal testosterone concentrations vary systematically within clutches in different patterns and may enable mothers to adaptively fine-tune competitive hierarchies within broods. We performed a comparative analysis to investigate this hypothesis using a broad set of avian species. We expected species with small size differences among siblings (arising from small hatching asynchrony or slow growth rates) to aim for survival of the whole brood in good years and therefore compensate last-hatching eggs with relatively more testosterone. We expected species with large size differences among siblings (large hatching asynchrony or fast growth rates) to produce surplus young as insurance against failed offspring and to facilitate elimination of redundant surplus young by bestowing last-hatching eggs with relatively less testosterone. As predicted, we found that maternal testosterone compensation to last-hatching eggs is stronger when size differences among siblings become smaller. Maternal testosterone compensation to last-hatching eggs also correlated negatively with hatching asynchrony and growth rates. These findings provide evidence for correlated evolution of several maternal effects that together support different maternal reproductive strategies.

  16. Cold adaptive traits revealed by comparative genomic analysis of the eurypsychrophile Rhodococcus sp. JG3 isolated from high elevation McMurdo Dry Valley permafrost, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goordial, Jacqueline; Raymond-Bouchard, Isabelle; Zolotarov, Yevgen; de Bethencourt, Luis; Ronholm, Jennifer; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Stromvik, Martina; Greer, Charles W; Bakermans, Corien; Whyte, Lyle

    2016-02-01

    The permafrost soils of the high elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys are the most cold, desiccating and oligotrophic on Earth. Rhodococcus sp. JG3 is one of very few bacterial isolates from Antarctic Dry Valley permafrost, and displays subzero growth down to -5°C. To understand how Rhodococcus sp. JG3 is able to survive extreme permafrost conditions and be metabolically active at subzero temperatures, we sequenced its genome and compared it to the genomes of 14 mesophilic rhodococci. Rhodococcus sp. JG3 possessed a higher copy number of genes for general stress response, UV protection and protection from cold shock, osmotic stress and oxidative stress. We characterized genome wide molecular adaptations to cold, and identified genes that had amino acid compositions favourable for increased flexibility and functionality at low temperatures. Rhodococcus sp. JG3 possesses multiple complimentary strategies which may enable its survival in some of the harshest permafrost on Earth. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Antioxidant-Rich Fraction of Urtica dioica Mediated Rescue of Striatal Mito-Oxidative Damage in MPTP-Induced Behavioral, Cellular, and Neurochemical Alterations in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Rohit; Joshi, Bhuwan Chandra; Kalia, Ajudhiya Nath; Prakash, Atish

    2017-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) having a complex and multi-factorial neuropathology includes mainly the degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway, which is a cumulative effect of depleted endogenous antioxidant enzymes, increased oxidative DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, and neuroinflammation. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of a potent antioxidant from Urtica dioica in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of parkinsonism. MPTP was administered intranigrally for the induction of PD in male Wistar rats. Behavioral alterations were assessed in between the study period. Animals were sacrificed immediately after behavioral session, and different biochemical, cellular, and neurochemical parameters were measured. Intranigrally repeated administration of MPTP showed significant impairment of motor co-ordination and marked increase of mito-oxidative damage and neuroinflammation in rats. Intranigral MPTP significantly decreases the dopamine and its metabolites with impairment of dopaminergic cell density in rat brain. However, post-treatment with the potent antioxidant fraction of Urtica dioica Linn. (UD) (20, 40, 80 mg/kg) improved the motor function, mito-oxidative defense alteration significantly and dose dependently in MPTP-treated rats. In addition, the potent antioxidant fraction of UD attenuated the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-β) and restored the level of dopamine and its metabolites in MPTP-induced PD in rats. Moreover, minocycline (30 mg/kg) with lower dose of UD (20 mg/kg) had significantly potentiated the protective effect of minocycline as compared to its effect with other individual drug-treated groups. In conclusion, Urtica dioica protected the dopaminergic neurons probably by reducing mito-oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and cellular alteration along with enhanced neurotrophic potential. The above results revealed that the antioxidant rich

  18. Evaluating response shift in training evaluation: comparing the retrospective pretest with an adapted measurement invariance approach in a classroom management training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowar, Valentina; Thiel, Felicitas

    2014-10-01

    Response shift (RS) can threaten the internal validity of pre-post designs. As RS may indicate a redefinition of the target construct, its occurrence in training evaluation is rather likely. The most common approach to deal with RS is to implement a retrospective pretest (then-test) instead of the traditional pre-test. In health psychology, an adapted measurement invariance approach (MIad) was developed as an alternative technique to study RS. Results produced by identifying RS with the two approaches were rarely studied simultaneously or within an experimental framework. To study RS in two different treatment conditions and compare results produced by both techniques in identifying various types of RS. We further studied validity aspects of the then-test. We evaluated RS by applying the then-test procedure (TP) and the measurement invariance apporach MIad within an experimental design: Participants either attended a short-term or a long-term classroom management training program. Participants were 146 student teachers in their first year of master's study. Pre (before training), post, and then self-ratings (after training) on classroom management knowledge were administered. Results indicated that the two approaches do not yield the same results. The MIad identified more and also group-specific RS as opposed to the findings of the TP, which found less and only little evidence for group-specific RS. Further research is needed to study the usability and validity of the respective approaches. In particular, the usability of the then-test seems to be challenged. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. A comparative study of artificial neural network, adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system and support vector machine for forecasting river flow in the semiarid mountain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhibin; Wen, Xiaohu; Liu, Hu; Du, Jun

    2014-02-01

    Data driven models are very useful for river flow forecasting when the underlying physical relationships are not fully understand, but it is not clear whether these data driven models still have a good performance in the small river basin of semiarid mountain regions where have complicated topography. In this study, the potential of three different data driven methods, artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and support vector machine (SVM) were used for forecasting river flow in the semiarid mountain region, northwestern China. The models analyzed different combinations of antecedent river flow values and the appropriate input vector has been selected based on the analysis of residuals. The performance of the ANN, ANFIS and SVM models in training and validation sets are compared with the observed data. The model which consists of three antecedent values of flow has been selected as the best fit model for river flow forecasting. To get more accurate evaluation of the results of ANN, ANFIS and SVM models, the four quantitative standard statistical performance evaluation measures, the coefficient of correlation (R), root mean squared error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NS) and mean absolute relative error (MARE), were employed to evaluate the performances of various models developed. The results indicate that the performance obtained by ANN, ANFIS and SVM in terms of different evaluation criteria during the training and validation period does not vary substantially; the performance of the ANN, ANFIS and SVM models in river flow forecasting was satisfactory. A detailed comparison of the overall performance indicated that the SVM model performed better than ANN and ANFIS in river flow forecasting for the validation data sets. The results also suggest that ANN, ANFIS and SVM method can be successfully applied to establish river flow with complicated topography forecasting models in the semiarid mountain regions.

  20. A Comparative Survey of Adaptive Codec Solutions for VoIP over Multirate WLANs: A Capacity versus Quality Performance Trade-Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfairopoulou A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In multi-rate WLANs, users can suffer transmission rate changes due to the link adaptation mechanism. This results in a variable capacity channel, which is very hostile for VoIP and can cause serious quality of service (QoS degradation in all active calls. Various codec adaptation mechanisms have been proposed as a solution to this, as well as to solve congestion problems on WLAN environments. Here, these solutions are presented, categorized according to the adaptation policy and scenario they implement, and evaluated at call-level in terms of the resulting blocking and dropping probabilities, as well as the perceived voice quality. To define a common performance metric, a new index named VGoS-factor is presented, which, by combining these capacity and quality indicators, can provide an overall view of the capacity versus quality trade-off of the proposed mechanisms and consequently help in choosing the adequate policy for each scenario.

  1. A Comparative Case Study Analysis of Administrators Perceptions on the Adaptation of Quality and Continuous Improvement Tools to Community Colleges in the State of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, Ted B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether community college administrators in the state of Michigan believe that commonly known quality and continuous improvement tools, prevalent in a manufacturing environment, can be adapted to a community college model. The tools, specifically Six Sigma, benchmarking and process mapping have played a…

  2. Concerns with Computerized Adaptive Oral Proficiency Assessment. A Commentary on "Comparing Examinee Attitudes Toward Computer-Assisted and Other Oral Proficient Assessments" [and] Response to the Norris Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, John M.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Malabonga, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    Responds to an article on computerized adaptive second language (L2) testing, expressing concerns about the appropriateness of such tests for informing language educators about the language skills of L2 learners and users and fulfilling the intended purposes and achieving the desired consequences of language test use.The authors of the original…

  3. A comparative evaluation of the marginal adaptation of a thermoplastic resin, a light cured wax and an inlay casting wax on stone dies: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reji P Gopalan

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The marginal adaptation of all the three materials used, was well within the acceptable range of 25–70 μm. The resin pattern materials studied revealed significantly less dimensional change than inlay casting wax on storage at 1, 12, and 24 h time intervals. They may be employed in situations where high precision and delayed investing is expected.

  4. Transplacental exposure to AZT induces adverse neurochemical and behavioral effects in a mouse model: protection by L-acetylcarnitine.

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    Anna Rita Zuena

    Full Text Available Maternal-fetal HIV-1 transmission can be prevented by administration of AZT, alone or in combination with other antiretroviral drugs to pregnant HIV-1-infected women and their newborns. In spite of the benefits deriving from this life-saving prophylactic therapy, there is still considerable uncertainty on the potential long-term adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs on exposed children. Clinical and experimental studies have consistently shown the occurrence of mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress following prenatal treatment with antiretroviral drugs, and clinical evidence suggests that the developing brain is one of the targets of the toxic action of these compounds possibly resulting in behavioral problems. We intended to verify the effects on brain and behavior of mice exposed during gestation to AZT, the backbone of antiretroviral therapy during human pregnancy. We hypothesized that glutamate, a neurotransmitter involved in excitotoxicity and behavioral plasticity, could be one of the major actors in AZT-induced neurochemical and behavioral alterations. We also assessed the antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of L-acetylcarnitine, a compound that improves mitochondrial function and is successfully used to treat antiretroviral-induced polyneuropathy in HIV-1 patients. We found that transplacental exposure to AZT given per os to pregnant mice from day 10 of pregnancy to delivery impaired in the adult offspring spatial learning and memory, enhanced corticosterone release in response to acute stress, increased brain oxidative stress also at birth and markedly reduced expression of mGluR1 and mGluR5 subtypes and GluR1 subunit of AMPA receptors in the hippocampus. Notably, administration during the entire pregnancy of L-acetylcarnitine was effective in preventing/ameliorating the neurochemical, neuroendocrine and behavioral adverse effects induced by AZT in the offspring. The present preclinical findings provide a

  5. Brain region-specific perfluoroalkylated sulfonate (PFSA) and carboxylic acid (PFCA) accumulation and neurochemical biomarker responses in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kathrine Eggers; Basu, Niladri; Letcher, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    to bioaccumulate in lipid rich tissues of the brain among other tissues such as liver, and can reach high concentrations in top predators including the polar bear. PFCA and PFSA bioaccummulation in the brain has the potential to pose neurotoxic effects and therefore we conducted a study to investigate...... if variations in neurochemical transmitter systems i.e. the cholinergic, glutaminergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic, could be related to brain-specific bioaccumulation of PFASs in East Greenland polar bears. Nine brain regions from nine polar bears were analyzed for enzyme activity (monoamine oxidase (MAO...... regions, whereas GS activity was positively correlated with PFASs primarily in occipital lobe. Results from the present study support the hypothesis that PFAS concentrations in polar bears from East Greenland have exceeded the threshold limits for neurochemical alterations. It is not known whether...

  6. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Adaptive Evolution of Notopterygium incisum and Notopterygium franchetii, Two High-Alpine Herbal Species Endemic to China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The extreme conditions (e.g., cold, low oxygen, and strong ultraviolet radiation of the high mountains provide an ideal natural laboratory for studies on speciation and the adaptive evolution of organisms. Up to now, few genome/transcriptome-based studies have been carried out on how plants adapt to conditions at extremely high altitudes. Notopterygium incisum and Notopterygium franchetii (Notopterygium, Apiaceae are two endangered high-alpine herbal plants endemic to China. To explore the molecular genetic mechanisms of adaptation to high altitudes, we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq to characterize the transcriptomes of the two species. In total, more than 130 million sequence reads, 81,446 and 63,153 unigenes with total lengths of 86,924,837 and 62,615,693 bp, were generated for the two herbal species, respectively. OrthoMCL analysis identified 6375 single-copy orthologous genes between N. incisum and N. franchetii. In total, 381 positively-selected candidate genes were identified for both plants by using estimations of the non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate. At least 18 of these genes potentially participate in RNA splicing, DNA repair, glutathione metabolism and the plant–pathogen interaction pathway, which were further enriched in various functional gene categories possibly responsible for environment adaptation in high mountains. Meanwhile, we detected various transcription factors that regulated the material and energy metabolism in N. incisum and N. franchetii, which probably play vital roles in the tolerance to stress in surroundings. In addition, 60 primer pairs based on orthologous microsatellite-containing sequences between the both Notopterygium species were determined. Finally, 17 polymorphic microsatellite markers (SSR were successfully characterized for the two endangered species. Based on these candidate orthologous and SSR markers, we detected that the adaptive evolution and species divergence

  7. Behavioral and neurochemical responses to 8-OH-DPAT in restrained and unrestrained animals treated with lithium carbonate in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, H.; Haleem, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has been suggested for mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Its ability to increase the gray matter and provision of protection against neuronal death makes it tempting to be marketed as brain food. Moreover it also ameliorates the effects of stress on brain dendrites; however lithium has a narrow therapeutic range. Brain serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission may mediate the actions of lithium. Preclinical studies have shown that single restraint stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. The present study was designed to investigate a potential role of Lithium in attenuation of stress induced behavioral and neurochemical deficits in rats. Moreover the study also monitored the esponsiveness of pre and post synaptic serotonin 1 A receptor following restraint and administration of lithium carbonate. Pre stress behavioral activities were monitored after 15 and 30 days of consumption of 0.1% lithium carbonate in drinking water while post stress were monitored on day 31. Pre and post synaptic 5-HT -1 A responsiveness was monitored by injecting 0.25mg/ml/kg of 8-OH-DPAT. Although lithium produced hypo activity but attenuated stress induced behavioral deficits. Whole brain neurochemical analysis revealed that its administration increased tryptophan, 5-HT and 5-Hydroindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). 8-OH-DPAT elicited hyperactivity and fore paw treading were enhanced in lithium treated rats. Lithium induced pre synaptic changes together with the super sensitivity of post synaptic receptors may be able to produce antidepressant effect. (author)

  8. Protective effect of gallic acid in experimental model of ketamine-induced psychosis: possible behaviour, biochemical, neurochemical and cellular alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Monu; Jindal, Deepak Kumar; Dhingra, Mamta Sachdeva; Kumar, Anil; Parle, Milind; Dhingra, Sameer

    2018-04-01

    Gallic acid has been reported to possess a number of psychopharmacological activities. These activities are attributed to the antioxidant potential due to the presence of phenolic moeity. The present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of gallic acid in an experimental model of ketamine-induced psychosis in mice. Ketamine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce stereotyped psychotic behavioural symptoms in mice. Behavioural studies (locomotor activity, stereotype behaviour, immobility duration and memory retention) were carried out to investigate the protective of gallic acid on ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms, followed by biochemical and neurochemical changes and cellular alterations in the brain. Chronic treatment with gallic acid for 15 consecutive days significantly attenuated stereotyped behavioural symptoms in mice. Biochemical estimations revealed that gallic acid reduced the lipid peroxidation and restored the total brain proteins. Furthermore, gallic acid remarkably reduced the dopamine levels, AChE activity and inflammatory surge (serum TNF-α), and increased the levels of GABA and increased glutathione in mice. The study revealed that gallic acid could ameliorate psychotic symptoms and biochemical changes in mice, indicating protective effects in psychosis.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Marginal Adaptation and Fracture Strength of Different Ceramic Inlays Produced by CEREC Omnicam and Heat-Pressed Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Oz, F. D.; Bolay, S.

    2018-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate marginal adaptation and fracture strength of inlays produced by CEREC Omnicam using different types of blocs and heat-pressed technique. Methods: Seventy-five extracted human mandibular molars were divided randomly into 5 groups (n=15). 60 molars in four groups received MOD inlay preparations. Experimental groups were CO: Intact teeth, EC: IPS e.max CAD and CEREC, LU: Lava Ultimate and CEREC, EL: IPS Empress CAD and CEREC, EP: IPS Empr...

  10. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or “social threats” across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not “social threats”) significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and “social threat” groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the “social threat” group. Collectively, our

  11. Treatment of trigeminal ganglion neurons in vitro with NGF, GDNF or BDNF: effects on neuronal survival, neurochemical properties and TRPV1-mediated neuropeptide secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwardhan Amol M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nerve growth factor (NGF, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF all play important roles in the development of the peripheral sensory nervous system. Additionally, these growth factors are proposed to modulate the properties of the sensory system in the adult under pathological conditions brought about by nerve injury or inflammation. We have examined the effects of NGF, GDNF and BDNF on adult rat trigeminal ganglion (TG neurons in culture to gain a better understanding of how these growth factors alter the cytochemical and functional phenotype of these neurons, with special attention to properties associated with nociception. Results Compared with no growth factor controls, GDNF, at 1 and 100 ng/ml, significantly increased by nearly 100% the number of neurons in culture at 5 days post-plating. A significant, positive, linear trend of increasing neuron number as a function of BDNF concentration was observed, also peaking at nearly 100%. NGF treatment was without effect. Chronic treatment with NGF and GDNF significantly and concentration-dependently increased 100 nM capsaicin (CAP-evoked calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP release, reaching approximately 300% at the highest concentration tested (100 ng/ml. Also, NGF and GDNF each augmented anandamide (AEA- and arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA-evoked CGRP release, while BDNF was without effect. Utilizing immunohistochemistry to account for the proportions of TRPV1- or CGRP-positive neurons under each growth factor treatment condition and then standardizing evoked CGRP release to these proportions, we observed that NGF was much more effective in enhancing CAP- and 50 mM K+-evoked CGRP release than was GDNF. Furthermore, NGF and GDNF each altered the concentration-response function for CAP- and AEA-evoked CGRP release, increasing the Emax without altering the EC50 for either compound. Conclusions Taken together, our

  12. Resilience through adaptation.

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    Guus A Ten Broeke

    Full Text Available Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS. Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs. In this paper we propose a sensitivity analysis methodology that is based on comparing time-dependent probability density functions of output of ABMs with and without agent adaptation. The differences between the probability density functions are quantified by the so-called earth-mover's distance. We use this sensitivity analysis methodology to quantify the probability of occurrence of critical transitions and other long-term effects of agent adaptation. To test the potential of this new approach, it is used to analyse the resilience of an ABM of adaptive agents competing for a common-pool resource. Adaptation is shown to contribute positively to the resilience of this ABM. If adaptation proceeds sufficiently fast, it may delay or avert the collapse of this system.

  13. Resilience through adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Broeke, Guus A; van Voorn, George A K; Ligtenberg, Arend; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs) provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs. In this paper we propose a sensitivity analysis methodology that is based on comparing time-dependent probability density functions of output of ABMs with and without agent adaptation. The differences between the probability density functions are quantified by the so-called earth-mover's distance. We use this sensitivity analysis methodology to quantify the probability of occurrence of critical transitions and other long-term effects of agent adaptation. To test the potential of this new approach, it is used to analyse the resilience of an ABM of adaptive agents competing for a common-pool resource. Adaptation is shown to contribute positively to the resilience of this ABM. If adaptation proceeds sufficiently fast, it may delay or avert the collapse of this system.

  14. A fully integrated, wide-load-range, high-power-conversion-efficiency switched capacitor DC-DC converter with adaptive bias comparator for ultra-low-power power management integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroki; Hirose, Tetsuya; Kojima, Yuta; Kuroki, Nobutaka; Numa, Masahiro

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present a wide-load-range switched-capacitor DC-DC buck converter with an adaptive bias comparator for ultra-low-power power management integrated circuit. The proposed converter is based on a conventional one and modified to operate in a wide load range by developing a load current monitor used in an adaptive bias comparator. Measurement results demonstrated that our proposed converter generates a 1.0 V output voltage from a 3.0 V input voltage at a load of up to 100 µA, which is 20 times higher than that of the conventional one. The power conversion efficiency was higher than 60% in the load range from 0.8 to 100 µA.

  15. Protocol: Adaptive Implementation of Effective Programs Trial (ADEPT): cluster randomized SMART trial comparing a standard versus enhanced implementation strategy to improve outcomes of a mood disorders program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Amy M; Almirall, Daniel; Eisenberg, Daniel; Waxmonsky, Jeanette; Goodrich, David E; Fortney, John C; Kirchner, JoAnn E; Solberg, Leif I; Main, Deborah; Bauer, Mark S; Kyle, Julia; Murphy, Susan A; Nord, Kristina M; Thomas, Marshall R

    2014-09-30

    Despite the availability of psychosocial evidence-based practices (EBPs), treatment and outcomes for persons with mental disorders remain suboptimal. Replicating Effective Programs (REP), an effective implementation strategy, still resulted in less than half of sites using an EBP. The primary aim of this cluster randomized trial is to determine, among sites not initially responding to REP, the effect of adaptive implementation strategies that begin with an External Facilitator (EF) or with an External Facilitator plus an Internal Facilitator (IF) on improved EBP use and patient outcomes in 12 months. This study employs a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART) design to build an adaptive implementation strategy. The EBP to be implemented is life goals (LG) for patients with mood disorders across 80 community-based outpatient clinics (N = 1,600 patients) from different U.S. regions. Sites not initially responding to REP (defined as implementation costs, and organizational change. This study design will determine whether an off-site EF alone versus the addition of an on-site IF improves EBP uptake and patient outcomes among sites that do not respond initially to REP. It will also examine the value of delaying the provision of EF/IF for sites that continue to not respond despite EF. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02151331.

  16. Comparative Genomics of H. pylori and Non-Pylori Helicobacter Species to Identify New Regions Associated with Its Pathogenicity and Adaptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Min Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Helicobacter is a group of Gram-negative, helical-shaped pathogens consisting of at least 36 bacterial species. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, infecting more than 50% of the human population, is considered as the major cause of gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. However, the genetic underpinnings of H. pylori that are responsible for its large scale epidemic and gastrointestinal environment adaption within human beings remain unclear. Core-pan genome analysis was performed among 75 representative H. pylori and 24 non-pylori Helicobacter genomes. There were 1173 conserved protein families of H. pylori and 673 of all 99 Helicobacter genus strains. We found 79 genome unique regions, a total of 202,359bp, shared by at least 80% of the H. pylori but lacked in non-pylori Helicobacter species. The operons, genes, and sRNAs within the H. pylori unique regions were considered as potential ones associated with its pathogenicity and adaptability, and the relativity among them has been partially confirmed by functional annotation analysis. However, functions of at least 54 genes and 10 sRNAs were still unclear. Our analysis of protein-protein interaction showed that 30 genes within them may have the cooperation relationship.

  17. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously decide housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual adaptation...

  18. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    by adapting the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously choose housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual...

  19. What adaptation to research is needed following crises: a comparative, qualitative study of the health workforce in Sierra Leone and Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Joanna; Baral, Sushil; Wurie, Haja; Witter, Sophie; Samai, Mohamed; Paudel, Pravin; Subedi, Hom Nath; Martineau, Tim; Elsey, Helen; Theobald, Sally

    2018-02-07

    Health workers are critical to the performance of health systems; yet, evidence about their coping strategies and support needs during and post crisis is lacking. There is very limited discussion about how research teams should respond when unexpected crises occur during on-going research. This paper critically presents the approaches and findings of two health systems research projects that explored and evaluated health worker performance and were adapted during crises, and provides lessons learnt on re-orientating research when the unexpected occurs. Health systems research was adapted post crisis to assess health workers' experiences and coping strategies. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 health workers in a heavily affected earthquake district in Nepal and 25 frontline health workers in four districts in Ebola-affected Sierra Leone. All data were transcribed and analysed using the framework approach, which included developing coding frameworks for each study, applying the frameworks, developing charts and describing the themes. A second layer of analysis included analysis across the two contexts, whereas a third layer involved the research teams reflecting on the approaches used to adapt the research during these crises and what was learned as individuals and research teams. In Sierra Leone, health workers were heavily stigmatised by the epidemic, leading to a breakdown of trust. Coping strategies included finding renewed purpose in continuing to serve their community, peer and family support (in some cases), and religion. In Nepal, individual determination, a sense of responsibility to the community and professional duty compelled staff to stay or return to their workplace. The research teams had trusting relationships with policy-makers and practitioners, which brought credibility and legitimacy to the change of research direction as well as the relationships to maximise the opportunity for findings to inform practice. In both contexts

  20. Adaptive Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    1979-01-01

    Schools have devised several ways to adapt instruction to a wide variety of student abilities and needs. Judged by criteria for what adaptive education should be, most learning for mastery programs look good. (Author/JM)

  1. GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators modify the abuse-related behavioral and neurochemical effects of methamphetamine in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berro, Laís F; Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio; Howell, Leonard L

    2017-09-01

    GABA A receptor positive allosteric modulators (GABA A receptor modulators) are commonly used for the treatment of insomnia. Nevertheless, the effects of these compounds on psychostimulant-induced sleep impairment are poorly understood. Because GABA A receptor modulators have been shown to decrease the abuse-related effects of psychostimulants, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of temazepam (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg) and eszopiclone (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg), two GABA A receptor modulators, on the behavioral neuropharmacology of methamphetamine in adult rhesus macaques (n = 5). Sleep-like measures and general daytime activity were evaluated with Actiwatch monitors. Methamphetamine self-administration (0.03 mg/kg/inf) was evaluated during morning sessions. Methamphetamine-induced dopamine overflow was assessed through in vivo microdialysis targeting the nucleus accumbens. Nighttime treatment with either temazepam or eszopiclone was ineffective in improving sleep-like measures disrupted by methamphetamine self-administration. Acute pretreatment with a low dose of temazepam before self-administration sessions increased methamphetamine self-administration without affecting normal daytime home-cage activity. At a high dose, acute temazepam pretreatment decreased methamphetamine self-administration and attenuated methamphetamine-induced increases in dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, without decreasing general daytime activity. Acute eszopiclone treatment exerted no effects on methamphetamine intake or drug-induced increases in dopamine. Our study suggests that treatments based on GABA A receptor modulators are not effective for the treatment of sleep disruption in the context of psychostimulant use. In addition, distinct GABA A receptor modulators differentially modulated the abuse-related effects of methamphetamine, with acute treatment with the high efficacy GABA A receptor modulator temazepam decreasing the behavioral and neurochemical effects

  2. Neurochemical and Neuroanatomical Plasticity Following Memory Training and Yoga Interventions in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral interventions are becoming increasingly popular approaches to ameliorate age-related cognitive decline, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms and clinical efficiency have not been fully elucidated. The present study explored brain plasticity associated with two behavioral interventions, memory enhancement training (MET and a mind-body practice (yogic meditation, in healthy seniors with mild cognitive impairment (MCI using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS. Senior participants (age ≥ 55 years with MCI were randomized to the MET or yogic meditation interventions. For both interventions, participants completed either MET training or Kundalini yoga for 60-min sessions over 12 weeks, with 12-min daily homework assignments. Gray matter volume and metabolite concentrations in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and bilateral hippocampus were measured by structural MRI and 1H-MRS at baseline and after 12 weeks of training. Metabolites measured included glutamate-glutamine (Glx, choline-containing compounds (Cho, including glycerophosphocholine and phosphocholine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, and N-acetyl aspartate and N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate (NAA-NAAG. In total, 11 participants completed MET and 14 completed yogic meditation for this study. Structural MRI analysis showed an interaction between time and group in dACC, indicating a trend towards increased gray matter volume after the MET intervention. 1H-MRS analysis showed an interaction between time and group in choline-containing compounds in bilateral hippocampus, induced by significant decreases after the MET intervention. Though preliminary, our results suggest that memory training induces structural and neurochemical plasticity in seniors with mild cognitive impairment. Further research is needed to determine whether mind-body interventions like yoga yield similar neuroplastic changes.

  3. A detailed analysis of open-field habituation and behavioral and neurochemical antidepressant-like effects in postweaning enriched rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Juan C; Padilla, Michael; Fornaguera, Jaime

    2009-01-30

    Our previous work has shown that male Sprague-Dawley rats reared in social isolation, standard housing and environmental enrichment differ in their spontaneous open-field activity and in some neurobehavioral depressive-like parameters. Here, we extended this evidence by using a shorter postweaning rearing period (1 month) and including additional evaluations. First, in order to obtain a better characterization of the exploratory strategies among rearing conditions we analyzed in detail the spontaneous activity at the first minute and during the 10-min session. Second, we asked whether the changes in open-field activity were related with basal anxiety levels in the elevated plus-maze. Third, behavior in the forced-swimming test was analyzed and afterward, the tissue levels of hippocampal norepinephrine and serotonin were assessed. The possible relationship between neurotransmitters and forced-swimming behavior were explored through correlation analyses. We found that rearing conditions (i) differed on locomotor habituation and on sensory-motor exploration at the first minute and during the 10-min session without modifying the plus-maze behavior; (ii) affected differentially the grooming time, its sequential components, and the relationship between grooming and locomotor parameters; (iii) modified forced-swimming behavior and the hippocampal concentration of norepinephrine, serotonin, and its turnover; and (iv) produced different correlation patterns between both neurotransmitters and forced-swimming behaviors. Overall, environmental enrichment accelerated open-field habituation and led to behavioral and neurochemical antidepressant-like effects. In contract, isolation rearing strongly impaired habituation and simple information processing, but showed marginal effects on depressive-like behavior and on hippocampal neurochemistry. The current results suggest that differential rearing is not only a useful procedure to study behavioral plasticity or rigidity in response

  4. Neurochemical and Neuroanatomical Plasticity Following Memory Training and Yoga Interventions in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyu; Leaver, Amber M; Siddarth, Prabha; Paholpak, Pattharee; Ercoli, Linda; St Cyr, Natalie M; Eyre, Harris A; Narr, Katherine L; Khalsa, Dharma S; Lavretsky, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral interventions are becoming increasingly popular approaches to ameliorate age-related cognitive decline, but their underlying neurobiological mechanisms and clinical efficiency have not been fully elucidated. The present study explored brain plasticity associated with two behavioral interventions, memory enhancement training (MET) and a mind-body practice (yogic meditation), in healthy seniors with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using structural magnetic resonance imaging (s-MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Senior participants (age ≥55 years) with MCI were randomized to the MET or yogic meditation interventions. For both interventions, participants completed either MET training or Kundalini Yoga (KY) for 60-min sessions over 12 weeks, with 12-min daily homework assignments. Gray matter volume and metabolite concentrations in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and bilateral hippocampus were measured by structural MRI and 1 H-MRS at baseline and after 12 weeks of training. Metabolites measured included glutamate-glutamine (Glx), choline-containing compounds (Cho, including glycerophosphocholine and phosphocholine), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and N-acetyl aspartate and N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate (NAA-NAAG). In total, 11 participants completed MET and 14 completed yogic meditation for this study. Structural MRI analysis showed an interaction between time and group in dACC, indicating a trend towards increased gray matter volume after the MET intervention. 1 H-MRS analysis showed an interaction between time and group in choline-containing compounds in bilateral hippocampus, induced by significant decreases after the MET intervention. Though preliminary, our results suggest that memory training induces structural and neurochemical plasticity in seniors with MCI. Further research is needed to determine whether mind-body interventions like yoga yield similar neuroplastic changes.

  5. Somatostatin receptor 1 and 5 double knockout mice mimic neurochemical changes of Huntington's disease transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmesh S Rajput

    Full Text Available Selective degeneration of medium spiny neurons and preservation of medium sized aspiny interneurons in striatum has been implicated in excitotoxicity and pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD. However, the molecular mechanism for the selective sparing of medium sized aspiny neurons and vulnerability of projection neurons is still elusive. The pathological characteristic of HD is an extensive reduction of the striatal mass, affecting caudate putamen. Somatostatin (SST positive neurons are selectively spared in HD and Quinolinic acid/N-methyl-D-aspartic acid induced excitotoxicity, mimic the model of HD. SST plays neuroprotective role in excitotoxicity and the biological effects of SST are mediated by five somatostatin receptor subtypes (SSTR1-5.To delineate subtype selective biological responses we have here investigated changes in SSTR1 and 5 double knockout mice brain and compared with HD transgenic mouse model (R6/2. Our study revealed significant loss of dopamine and cAMP regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32 and comparable changes in SST, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors subtypes, calbindin and brain nitric oxide synthase expression as well as in key signaling proteins including calpain, phospho-extracellular-signal-regulated kinases1/2, synapsin-IIa, protein kinase C-α and calcineurin in SSTR1/5(-/- and R6/2 mice. Conversely, the expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes, enkephalin and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases were strain specific. SSTR1/5 appears to be important in regulating NMDARs, DARPP-32 and signaling molecules in similar fashion as seen in HD transgenic mice.This is the first comprehensive description of disease related changes upon ablation of G- protein coupled receptor gene. Our results indicate that SST and SSTRs might play an important role in regulation of neurodegeneration and targeting this pathway can provide a novel insight in understanding the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease.

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Marginal Adaptation and Fracture Strength of Different Ceramic Inlays Produced by CEREC Omnicam and Heat-Pressed Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Oz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate marginal adaptation and fracture strength of inlays produced by CEREC Omnicam using different types of blocs and heat-pressed technique. Methods: Seventy-five extracted human mandibular molars were divided randomly into 5 groups (n=15. 60 molars in four groups received MOD inlay preparations. Experimental groups were CO: Intact teeth, EC: IPS e.max CAD and CEREC, LU: Lava Ultimate and CEREC, EL: IPS Empress CAD and CEREC, EP: IPS Empress Esthetic ingots and heat-pressed technique. Marginal gap measurements were taken with a stereomicroscope. Restorations were cemented with Variolink N and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. All samples were subjected to thermocycling. The fracture strength of specimens was determined at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until fracture. Fracture modes were determined. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance for fracture strength data and Kruskal–Wallis for marginal gap data (p=0.05. Results. The mean marginal gap size of EC, LU, EL, and EP were 33.54 µm, 33.77 µm, 34.23 µm, and 85.34 µm, respectively. EP had statistically higher values than other groups. The fracture strength values were significantly higher in the intact teeth group (3959,00 ± 1279,79 N than those of restored groups EC (2408,00 ± 607,97 N, LU (2206,73 ± 675,16, EL (2573.27 ± 644,73 ve EP (2879,53 ± 897,30. Conclusion. Inlays fabricated using CEREC Omnicam demonstrated better marginal adaptation than inlays produced with heat-pressed technique, whereas fracture strength values of inlays fabricated with different type of blocks using CEREC Omnicam exhibited similarity to those fabricated with heat-pressed technique.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Marginal Adaptation and Fracture Strength of Different Ceramic Inlays Produced by CEREC Omnicam and Heat-Pressed Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, F D; Bolay, S

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate marginal adaptation and fracture strength of inlays produced by CEREC Omnicam using different types of blocs and heat-pressed technique. Methods: Seventy-five extracted human mandibular molars were divided randomly into 5 groups ( n =15). 60 molars in four groups received MOD inlay preparations. Experimental groups were CO: Intact teeth, EC: IPS e.max CAD and CEREC, LU: Lava Ultimate and CEREC, EL: IPS Empress CAD and CEREC, EP: IPS Empress Esthetic ingots and heat-pressed technique. Marginal gap measurements were taken with a stereomicroscope. Restorations were cemented with Variolink N and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. All samples were subjected to thermocycling. The fracture strength of specimens was determined at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until fracture. Fracture modes were determined. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance for fracture strength data and Kruskal-Wallis for marginal gap data ( p =0.05). The mean marginal gap size of EC, LU, EL, and EP were 33.54  µ m, 33.77  µ m, 34.23  µ m, and 85.34  µ m, respectively. EP had statistically higher values than other groups. The fracture strength values were significantly higher in the intact teeth group (3959,00 ± 1279,79 N) than those of restored groups EC (2408,00 ± 607,97 N), LU (2206,73 ± 675,16), EL (2573.27 ± 644,73) ve EP (2879,53 ± 897,30). Inlays fabricated using CEREC Omnicam demonstrated better marginal adaptation than inlays produced with heat-pressed technique, whereas fracture strength values of inlays fabricated with different type of blocks using CEREC Omnicam exhibited similarity to those fabricated with heat-pressed technique.

  8. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  9. Examining the Construct Validity of the MMPI-2-RF Interpersonal Functioning Scales Using the Computerized Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder as a Comparative Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Annabel O; Harrop, Tiffany M; McCord, David M

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the construct validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) interpersonal functioning scales (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011 ) using as a criterion measure the Computerized Adaptive Test of Personality Disorder-Static Form (CAT-PD-SF; Simms et al., 2011 ). Participants were college students (n = 98) recruited through the university subject pool. A series of a priori hypotheses were developed for each of the 6 interpersonal functioning scales of the MMPI-2-RF, expressed as predicted correlations with construct-relevant CAT-PD-SF scales. Of the 27 specific predictions, 21 were supported by substantial (≥ |.30|) correlations. The MMPI-2-RF Family Problems scale (FML) demonstrated the strongest correlations with CAT-PD-SF scales Anhedonia and Mistrust; Cynicism (RC3) was most highly correlated with Mistrust and Norm Violation; Interpersonal Passivity (IPP) was most highly correlated with Domineering and Rudeness; Social Avoidance (SAV) was most highly correlated with Social Withdrawal and Anhedonia; Shyness (SHY) was most highly correlated with Social Withdrawal and Anxioiusness; and Disaffiliativeness (DSF) was most highly correlated with Emotional Detachment and Mistrust. Results are largely consistent with hypotheses suggesting support for both models of constructs relevant to interpersonal functioning. Future research designed to more precisely differentiate Social Avoidance (SAV) and Shyness (SHY) is suggested.

  10. Comparative Study on the Adaptation and Growth Dynamics of the Helix pomatia and Helix aspersa Muller Terrestrial Snails Under Different Feeding Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Toader-Williams

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We used Helix pomatia and Helix aspersa species and measure their growth as the snails were approaching the hibernation season. Helix pomatia 2yo shown a decrease in weight while being raised in enclosed parcels of 4sqm the younger Helix pomatia 1yo as well as Helix aspersa Muller demonstrated the ability to adapt relatively fast to the same conditions. We established 5 experimental lots in a Helix pomatia farm, GPS coordinates N46.606040 E23.599950. Control lot contained Taraxacum officinales, Sonchus oleraceus, Equisetum arvense and Atriplex hortensis, wild flora found within the farm. The other lots contained the same plants as the control lot plus different combinations of imported plants from other areals. The H. pomatia 2yo weight decreased in the control lot by a mean of -3.86% while H. aspersa 1yo marked an increase of +16.89% in the same lot during the same period. The lot containing lupinus polyphyllus delivered snails with weight gain of +24.66% for H. pomatia 2yo and an increase of only +1.98% for H. aspersa 1yo. As a contrast, H. pomatia 2yo gained only +7.72% while H. aspersa 1yo gained +28.89%, in the lot containing Lavanda officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare and Hyssopus officinalis among the other plants.

  11. Anatomy of Shoulder Girdle Muscle Modifications and Walking Adaptation in the Scaly Chinese Pangolin (Manis Pentadactyla Pentadactyla: Pholidota) Compared with the Partially Osteoderm-Clad Armadillos (Dasypodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Thorington, Richard W; Bohaska, Paula W; Chen, Yen-Jean; Sato, Fumi

    2015-07-01

    Because pangolins are unique mammals with a body and limbs almost entirely sheathed in hard keratinous overlapping scales and with digging and climbing abilities, the shoulder girdle muscles may differ significantly from those of other mammals including the partially osteoderm-clad armadillos. Therefore, we conducted a functional anatomical study of the shoulder girdle muscles in Chinese pangolins (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla, Pholidota) and some armadillo species (Dasypodidae). Our CT scans revealed that the pangolin's overlapping scales are hard structures completely encasing the limbs. The armadillo's limbs, however, are covered with small relatively soft non-overlapping scales embedded in the skin, and articulate completely free of the hard osteodermal carapace. The attachments of some shoulder girdle muscles in the pangolin have moved from the surrounding edges of the scapula to the spine, and they, therefore, fully cover the scapula. In addition, some pangolin shoulder girdle muscles cross the shoulder joint to insert on the distal humerus, but this does not occur in armadillos. We cannot rule out the possibility that these muscle modifications represent adaptations for digging and/or climbing in pangolins. Our results and previous literature do not establish specific links between them and locomotive modes. However, we propose that the Chinese pangolin may use its derived muscular features when walking to move its armor-restricted forelimbs more effectively by swinging its head from side to side. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Adaptive Immunity against Streptococcus pyogenes in Adults Involves Increased IFN-gamma and IgG3 Responses Compared with Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Rasmus; Nissen, Thomas Norrelykke; Blauenfeldt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Each year, millions of people are infected with Streptococcus pyogenes, leading to an estimated 500,000 annual deaths worldwide. For unknown reasons, school-aged children have substantially higher infection rates than adults. The goal for this study was to provide, to our knowledge, the first det...... cellular memory response in combination with IgG1/IgG3-dominated humoral immunity that increase with age. The significance of these data regarding both the increased GAS infection rate in children and the development of protective GAS vaccines is discussed.......Each year, millions of people are infected with Streptococcus pyogenes, leading to an estimated 500,000 annual deaths worldwide. For unknown reasons, school-aged children have substantially higher infection rates than adults. The goal for this study was to provide, to our knowledge, the first...... detailed characterization of the human adaptive immune response against S. pyogenes in both children and adults. We report that all adults in our study, as well as most children, showed immunity against the two conserved group A streptococci (GAS) Ags, streptococcal C5a peptidase and immunogenic secreted...

  13. Neurochemical and behavioral characterization of neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT3 heterozygous mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. González

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD is a severe neuropsychiatric condition affecting 1–3% of the worldwide population. OCD has a strong genetic component, and the SLC1A1 gene that encodes neuronal glutamate transporter EAAT3 is a strong candidate for this disorder. To evaluate the impact of reduced EAAT3 expression in vivo, we studied male EAAT3 heterozygous and wild-type littermate mice using a battery of behavioral paradigms relevant to anxiety (open field test, elevated plus maze and compulsivity (marble burying, as well as locomotor activity induced by amphetamine. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, we also determined tissue neurotransmitter levels in cortex, striatum and thalamus—brain areas that are relevant to OCD. Results Compared to wild-type littermates, EAAT3 heterozygous male mice have unaltered baseline anxiety-like, compulsive-like behavior and locomotor activity. Administration of acute amphetamine (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally increased locomotion with no differences across genotypes. Tissue levels of glutamate, GABA, dopamine and serotonin did not vary between EAAT3 heterozygous and wild-type mice. Conclusions Our results indicate that reduced EAAT3 expression does not impact neurotransmitter content in the corticostriatal circuit nor alter anxiety or compulsive-like behaviors.

  14. Ceramide and Its Related Neurochemical Networks as Targets for Some Brain Disorder Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodowicz, Justyna; Przegaliński, Edmund; Müller, Christian P; Filip, Malgorzata

    2018-02-01

    Correlational and causal comparative research link ceramide (Cer), the precursor of complex sphingolipids, to some psychiatric (e.g., depression, schizophrenia (SZ), alcohol use disorder, and morphine antinociceptive tolerance) and neurological (e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD)) disorders. Cer generation can occur through the de novo synthesis pathway, the sphingomyelinase pathways, and the salvage pathway. The discoveries that plasma Cer concentration increase during depressive episodes in patients and that tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants functionally inhibit acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), the enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of sphingomyelin to Cer, have initiated a series of studies on the role of the ASM-Cer system in depressive disorder. Disturbances in the metabolism of Cer or SM are associated with the occurrence of SZ and PD. In both PD and SZ patients, the elevated levels of Cer or SM in the brain regions were associated with the disease. AD patients showed also an abnormal metabolism of brain Cer at early stages of the disease which may suggest Cer as an AD biomarker. In plasma of AD patients and in AD transgenic mice, ASM activity was increased. In contrast, partial ASM inhibition of Aβ deposition improved memory deficits. Furthermore, in clinical and preclinical research, ethanol enhanced activation of ASM followed by Cer production. Limited data have shown that Cer plays an important role in the development of morphine antinociceptive tolerance. In summary, clinical and preclinical findings provide evidence that targeting the Cer system should be considered as an innovative translational strategy for some brain disorders.

  15. Sustained neurochemical plasticity in central terminals of mouse DRG neurons following colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jessica R; Xu, Jiameng; Moynes, Derek M; Lapointe, Tamia K; Altier, Christophe; Vanner, Stephen J; Lomax, Alan E

    2014-05-01

    Sensitization of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons is an important mechanism underlying the expression of chronic abdominal pain caused by intestinal inflammation. Most studies have focused on changes in the peripheral terminals of DRG neurons in the inflamed intestine but recent evidence suggests that the sprouting of central nerve terminals in the dorsal horn is also important. Therefore, we examine the time course and reversibility of changes in the distribution of immunoreactivity for substance P (SP), a marker of the central terminals of DRG neurons, in the spinal cord during and following dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Acute and chronic treatment with DSS significantly increased SP immunoreactivity in thoracic and lumbosacral spinal cord segments. This increase developed over several weeks and was evident in both the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn and in lamina X. These increases persisted for 5 weeks following cessation of both the acute and chronic models. The increase in SP immunoreactivity was not observed in segments of the cervical spinal cord, which were not innervated by the axons of colonic afferent neurons. DRG neurons dissociated following acute DSS-colitis exhibited increased neurite sprouting compared with neurons dissociated from control mice. These data suggest significant colitis-induced enhancements in neuropeptide expression in DRG neuron central terminals. Such neurotransmitter plasticity persists beyond the period of active inflammation and might contribute to a sustained increase in nociceptive signaling following the resolution of inflammation.

  16. Neurochemical differences in learning and memory paradigms among rats supplemented with anthocyanin-rich blueberry diets and exposed to acute doses of 56Fe particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Shibu M.; Rabin, Bernard M.; Bielinski, Donna F.; Kelly, Megan E.; Miller, Marshall G.; Thanthaeng, Nopporn; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries (BB) on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress, which can lead to "accelerated aging." One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, consisting of high-energy and -charge particles (HZE), which are known to cause cognitive dysfunction and deleterious neurochemical alterations. We recently tested the behavioral and neurochemical effects of acute exposure to HZE particles such as 56Fe, within 24-48 h after exposure, and found that radiation primarily affects memory and not learning. Importantly, we observed that specific brain regions failed to upregulate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms in response to this insult. To further examine these endogenous response mechanisms, we have supplemented young rats with diets rich in BB, which are known to contain high amounts of antioxidant-phytochemicals, prior to irradiation. Exposure to 56Fe caused significant neurochemical changes in hippocampus and frontal cortex, the two critical regions of the brain involved in cognitive function. BB supplementation significantly attenuated protein carbonylation, which was significantly increased by exposure to 56Fe in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Moreover, BB supplementation significantly reduced radiation-induced elevations in NADPH-oxidoreductase-2 (NOX2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and upregulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Overall results indicate that 56Fe particles may induce their toxic effects on hippocampus and frontal cortex by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overload, which can cause alterations in the neuronal environment, eventually leading to hippocampal neuronal death and subsequent impairment of cognitive function. Blueberry supplementation provides an effective preventative measure to reduce the ROS load on the CNS in an event of acute HZE exposure.

  17. The effect of epileptic seizures on proton MRS visible neurochemical concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simister, Robert J; McLean, Mary A; Salmenpera, Tuuli M; Barker, Gareth J; Duncan, John S

    2008-09-01

    To investigate post-ictal changes in cerebral metabolites. We performed a longitudinal quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study in 10 patients with epilepsy and 10 control subjects. The patients were studied on two occasions: immediately following a seizure, and on a second occasion at least 7h after the most recent seizure. Each study measured N-acetyl aspartate plus N-acetyl aspartyl glutamate (NAAt), Creatine plus phosphocreatine (Cr), Choline containing compounds (Cho) and glutamate plus glutamine (GLX) concentrations using a short-echo time sequence (TE=30ms), and NAAt, Cr and lactate using a second sequence with longer echo time (TE=144ms). The control group was studied on two occasions using the same sequences. No inter-scan differences were observed for the control group. NAAt and NAAt/Cr levels were lower in the patient group at both measured TEs but did not change significantly between studies. The ratio of Cr at TE 144ms to TE 30ms (Cr(144)/Cr(30)) and GLX/Cr were higher and Cho lower in the post-ictal scan compared to the inter-ictal study. Change in Cr(144)/Cr(30) and NAAt(144)/Cr(144) correlated with the post-ictal interval. Lactate measurement at longer TE was not informative. Proton MRS is sensitive to metabolite changes following epileptic seizures within the immediate post-ictal period. The ratio Cr(144)/Cr(30) is the most sensitive measure of metabolic disturbance and is highest in the post-ictal period but appears to normalise within 2h of the most recent seizure.

  18. Differences in neurochemical profiles of two gadid species under ocean warming and acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Matthias; Windisch, Heidrun Sigrid; Ludwichowski, Kai-Uwe; Seegert, Sean Lando Levin; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Storch, Daniela; Bock, Christian

    2017-01-01

    the nervous system of Gadus morhua close to the optimum of the temperature range. Since a former study showed that juvenile G. morhua might be slightly more behaviourally resilient to CO 2 at this respective temperature, we conclude that the observed change of GABAergic metabolism could be involved in counteracting OA induced behavioural changes. This may serve as a fitness advantage of this respective species compared to B. saida in a future warmer, more acidified polar ocean.

  19. INFLUENCE OF QUINAPRIL ON THE REGULATORY-ADAPTIVE STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE HYHA CLASS I: RESULTS OF NOT COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Tregubov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess effects of quinapril on the regulatory-adaptive status (RAS in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF NYHA class 1 and arterial hypertension (HT. Material and methods. Patients (n=49 with CHF NYHA class I and HT stage I–II (25 men and 24 women, aged 52.5±8.4 years were included into an open noncomparative study. A cardio-respiratory synchronization (CRS test, 6 minute walk test, treadmill test with evaluation of the maximal oxygen uptake during exercise, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography , determination of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP plasma level were performed at baseline and after 6 months of quinapril therapy. Results. The quinapril treatment (average daily dose 17.3±7.9 mg improved myocardium structural and functional parameters, increased the exercise tolerance, reduced neurohumoral activity , improved the RAS according to CRS test: increase in synchronization range of cardiorespiratory cycles per minute from 8.0±2.1 to 11.0±2.5 (Δ27.3%; p<0.01, as well as RAS index from 52.6±7.8 to 89.7±8.9 (Δ41.4%; p<0.01, and decrease in the duration of CRS development at the minimal border of cardiac cycles from 15.5±3.5 to 12.9±2.8 (Δ15.8%; p<0.01. Conclusion. Quinapril has a positive effect on the RAS in patients with CHF NYHA class I and HT of stage I–II.

  20. INFLUENCE OF QUINAPRIL ON THE REGULATORY-ADAPTIVE STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE HYHA CLASS I: RESULTS OF NOT COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Tregubov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess effects of quinapril on the regulatory-adaptive status (RAS in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF NYHA class 1 and arterial hypertension (HT. Material and methods. Patients (n=49 with CHF NYHA class I and HT stage I–II (25 men and 24 women, aged 52.5±8.4 years were included into an open noncomparative study. A cardio-respiratory synchronization (CRS test, 6 minute walk test, treadmill test with evaluation of the maximal oxygen uptake during exercise, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography , determination of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP plasma level were performed at baseline and after 6 months of quinapril therapy. Results. The quinapril treatment (average daily dose 17.3±7.9 mg improved myocardium structural and functional parameters, increased the exercise tolerance, reduced neurohumoral activity , improved the RAS according to CRS test: increase in synchronization range of cardiorespiratory cycles per minute from 8.0±2.1 to 11.0±2.5 (Δ27.3%; p<0.01, as well as RAS index from 52.6±7.8 to 89.7±8.9 (Δ41.4%; p<0.01, and decrease in the duration of CRS development at the minimal border of cardiac cycles from 15.5±3.5 to 12.9±2.8 (Δ15.8%; p<0.01. Conclusion. Quinapril has a positive effect on the RAS in patients with CHF NYHA class I and HT of stage I–II.

  1. INFLUENCE OF METOPROLOL SUCCINATE ON REGULATORY AND ADAPTIVE STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE FUNCTIONAL CLASS I. RESULTS OF NOT COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Tregubov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate metoprolol succinate effect on regulatory and adaptive status (RAS of patients with сhronic heart failure (CHF functional class (FC I and arterial hypertension (HT I-II stages. Material and methods. 51 patients with CHF FC I and HT I-II stage, (30 men and 21 women aged 52.6±1.4 yeas. Cardio-respiratory synchronism (CRS test, 6-minute walking test, tread-mill burden test with registration of maximal oxygen consumption, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography and determination of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP blood level were performed initially and after 6 months of therapy with metoprolol succinate (dose 78.1±5.7 mg/day in sustained-release presentation. Results. Metoprolol succinate therapy had no significant effect on RAS (there was no unidirectional dynamics of the basic CRS test parameters: a range of synchronization decreased significantly from 8.8±0.4 to 7.2±0.6 сardio-respiratory cycles per minute (in 18%; р<0.05, and duration of CRS development on the minimal boundary from 18.8±2.2 to 14.3±1.2 сardiocycles (in 24%; р<0,05; RAS index considerably did not change, myocardium structure, exercise tolerance and neuro-humoral activity. Metoprolol therapy only moderately improved left ventricle diastolic function. Conclusion. Metoprolol succinate therapy has no significant effect on RAS of patients with CHF FC I and HT I-II stages.

  2. ADAPT Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  3. CT urography in the urinary bladder: To compare excretory phase images using a low noise index and a high noise index with adaptive noise reduction filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeyama, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Takaki; Ohgiya, Yoshimitsu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although CT urography (CTU) is widely used for the evaluation of the entire urinary tract, the most important drawback is the radiation exposure. Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a noise reduction filter (NRF) using a phantom and to quantitatively and qualitatively compare excretory phase (EP) images using a low noise index (NI) with those using a high NI and postprocessing NRF (pNRF). Material and Methods: Each NI value was defined for a slice thickness of 5 mm, and reconstructed images with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm were assessed. Sixty patients who were at high risk of developing bladder tumors (BT) were divided into two groups according to whether their EP images were obtained using an NI of 9.88 (29 patients; group A) or an NI of 20 and pNRF (31 patients; group B). The CT dose index volume (CTDI vol ) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the bladder with respect to the anterior pelvic fat were compared in both groups. Qualitative assessment of the urinary bladder for image noise, sharpness, streak artifacts, homogeneity, and the conspicuity of polypoid or sessile-shaped BTs with a short-axis diameter greater than 10 mm was performed using a 3-point scale. Results: The phantom study showed noise reduction of approximately 40% and 76% dose reduction between group A and group B. CTDI vol demonstrated a 73% reduction in group B (4.6 ± 1.1 mGy) compared with group A (16.9 ± 3.4 mGy). The CNR value was not significantly different (P = 0.60) between group A (16.1 ± 5.1) and group B (16.6 ± 7.6). Although group A was superior (P < 0.01) to group B with regard to image noise, other qualitative analyses did not show significant differences. Conclusion: EP images using a high NI and pNRF were quantitatively and qualitatively comparable to those using a low NI, except with regard to image noise

  4. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the connection between contract duration, relational mechanisms, and premature relationship termination. Based on an analysis of a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service-provider industry, we argue that investments in either longer contract duration or more in...... ambiguous reference points for adaption and thus increase the likelihood of premature termination by restricting the parties' set of adaptive actions....

  5. Climate adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  6. Dysregulation of Brain Reward Systems in Eating Disorders: Neurochemical Information from Animal Models of Binge Eating, Bulimia Nervosa, and Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M.; Bocarsly, Miriam E.

    2012-01-01

    Food intake is mediated, in part, through brain pathways for motivation and reinforcement. Dysregulation of these pathways may underlay some of the behaviors exhibited by patients with eating disorders. Research using animal models of eating disorders has greatly contributed to the detailed study of potential brain mechanisms that many underlie the causes or consequences of aberrant eating behaviors. This review focuses on neurochemical evidence of reward-related brain dysfunctions obtained through animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia nervosa. The findings suggest that alterations in dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh) and opioid systems in reward-related brain areas occur in response to binge eating of palatable foods. Moreover, animal models of bulimia nervosa suggest that while bingeing on palatable food releases DA, purging attenuates the release of ACh that might otherwise signal satiety. Animal models of anorexia nervosa suggest that restricted access to food enhances the reinforcing effects of DA when the animal does eat. The activity-based anorexia model suggests alterations in mesolimbic DA and serotonin occur as a result of starvation coupled with excessive wheel running. These findings with animal models complement data obtained through neuroimaging and pharmacotherapy studies of clinical populations. Finally, information on the neurochemical consequences of the behaviors associated with these eating disorders will be useful in understanding these complex disorders and may inform future therapeutic approaches, as discussed here. PMID:22138162

  7. Dysregulation of brain reward systems in eating disorders: neurochemical information from animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E

    2012-07-01

    Food intake is mediated, in part, through brain pathways for motivation and reinforcement. Dysregulation of these pathways may underlay some of the behaviors exhibited by patients with eating disorders. Research using animal models of eating disorders has greatly contributed to the detailed study of potential brain mechanisms that many underlie the causes or consequences of aberrant eating behaviors. This review focuses on neurochemical evidence of reward-related brain dysfunctions obtained through animal models of binge eating, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia nervosa. The findings suggest that alterations in dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh) and opioid systems in reward-related brain areas occur in response to binge eating of palatable foods. Moreover, animal models of bulimia nervosa suggest that while bingeing on palatable food releases DA, purging attenuates the release of ACh that might otherwise signal satiety. Animal models of anorexia nervosa suggest that restricted access to food enhances the reinforcing effects of DA when the animal does eat. The activity-based anorexia model suggests alterations in mesolimbic DA and serotonin occur as a result of restricted eating coupled with excessive wheel running. These findings with animal models complement data obtained through neuroimaging and pharmacotherapy studies of clinical populations. Information on the neurochemical consequences of the behaviors associated with these eating disorders will be useful in understanding these complex disorders and may inform future therapeutic approaches, as discussed here. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Central Control of Food Intake'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Global Genome Comparative Analysis Reveals Insights of Resistome and Life-Style Adaptation of Pseudomonas putida Strain T2-2 in Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yue Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most Pseudomonas putida strains are environmental microorganisms exhibiting a wide range of metabolic capability but certain strains have been reported as rare opportunistic pathogens and some emerged as multidrug resistant P. putida. This study aimed to assess the drug resistance profile of, via whole genome analysis, P. putida strain T2-2 isolated from oral cavity. At the same time, we also compared the nonenvironmental strain with environmentally isolated P. putida. In silico comparative genome analysis with available reference strains of P. putida shows that T2-2 has lesser gene counts on carbohydrate and aromatic compounds metabolisms, which suggested its little versatility. The detection of its edd gene also suggested T2-2’s catabolism of glucose via ED pathway instead of EMP pathway. On the other hand, its drug resistance profile was observed via in silico gene prediction and most of the genes found were in agreement with drug-susceptibility testing in laboratory by automated VITEK 2. In addition, the finding of putative genes of multidrug resistance efflux pump and ATP-binding cassette transporters in this strain suggests a multidrug resistant phenotype. In summary, it is believed that multiple metabolic characteristics and drug resistance in P. putida strain T2-2 helped in its survival in human oral cavity.

  9. Adaptive steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Rajarathnam; Li, Grace; Memon, Nasir D.

    2002-04-01

    Steganalysis techniques attempt to differentiate between stego-objects and cover-objects. In recent work we developed an explicit analytic upper bound for the steganographic capacity of LSB based steganographic techniques for a given false probability of detection. In this paper we look at adaptive steganographic techniques. Adaptive steganographic techniques take explicit steps to escape detection. We explore different techniques that can be used to adapt message embedding to the image content or to a known steganalysis technique. We investigate the advantages of adaptive steganography within an analytical framework. We also give experimental results with a state-of-the-art steganalysis technique demonstrating that adaptive embedding results in a significant number of bits embedded without detection.

  10. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and distributed......Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  11. KEEN Wave Simulations: Comparing various PIC to various fixed grid Vlasov to Phase-Space Adaptive Sparse Tiling & Effective Lagrangian (PASTEL) Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeyan, Bedros; Larson, David; Shadwick, Bradley; Sydora, Richard

    2017-10-01

    We compare various ways of solving the Vlasov-Poisson and Vlasov-Maxwell equations on rather demanding nonlinear kinetic phenomena associated with KEEN and KEEPN waves. KEEN stands for Kinetic, Electrostatic, Electron Nonlinear, and KEEPN, for electron-positron or pair plasmas analogs. Because these self-organized phase space structures are not steady-state, or single mode, or fluid or low order moment equation limited, typical techniques with low resolution or too much noise will distort the answer too much, too soon, and fail. This will be shown via Penrose criteria triggers for instability at the formation stage as well as particle orbit statistics in fully formed KEEN waves and KEEN-KEEN and KEEN-EPW interacting states. We will argue that PASTEL is a viable alternative to traditional methods with reasonable chances of success in higher dimensions. Work supported by a Grant from AFOSR PEEP.

  12. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    by Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... of typical analytical workloads and real spot price traces. SpotADAPT's suggested deployments are comparable to the theoretically optimal ones, and in particular, it shows good cost benefits for the budget optimization -- on average SpotADAPT is at most 0.3% more expensive than the theoretically optimal...

  13. Japanese Adaptation of the Stroke and Aphasia Quality of Life Scale-39 (SAQOL-39): Comparative Study among Different Types of Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Akane; Kamiya, Kentaro; Tatsumi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Makihiko; Horiguchi, Satoshi

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a Japanese version of the Stroke and Aphasia Quality of Life Scale-39 (SAQOL-39), designated as SAQOL-39-J, and used psychometric methods to examine its acceptability and reliability. The acceptability and reliability of SAQOL-39-J, which was developed from the English version using a standard translation and back-translation method, were examined in 54 aphasia patients using standard psychometric methods. The acceptability and reliability of SAQOL-39-J were then compared among patients with different types of aphasia. SAQOL-39-J showed good acceptability, internal consistency (Cronbach's α score = .90), and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .97). Broca's aphasia patients showed the lowest total scores and communication scores on SAQOL-39-J. The Japanese version of SAQOL-39, SAQOL-39-J, provides acceptable and reliable data in Japanese stroke patients with aphasia. Among different types of aphasia, Broca's aphasia patients had the lowest total and communication SAQOL-39-J scores. Further studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of health care interventions on health-related quality of life in this population. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparative study of scale-adaptive and large-eddy simulations of highly swirling turbulent flow through an abrupt expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javadi, Ardalan; Nilsson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    The strongly swirling turbulent flow through an abrupt expansion is investigated using highly resolved LES and SAS, to shed more light on the stagnation region and the helical vortex breakdown. The vortex breakdown in an abrupt expansion resembles the so-called vortex rope occurring in hydro power draft tubes. It is known that the large-scale helical vortex structures can be captured by regular RANS turbulence models. However, the spurious suppression of the small-scale structures should be avoided using less diffusive methods. The present work compares LES and SAS results with the experimental measurement of Dellenback et al. (1988). The computations are conducted using a general non-orthogonal finite-volume method with a fully collocated storage available in the OpenFOAM-2.1.x CFD code. The dynamics of the flow is studied at two Reynolds numbers, Re=6.0×10 4 and Re=10 5 , at the almost constant high swirl numbers of Sr=1.16 and Sr=1.23, respectively. The time-averaged velocity and pressure fields and the root mean square of the velocity fluctuations, are captured and investigated qualitatively. The flow with the lower Reynolds number gives a much weaker outburst although the frequency of the structures seems to be constant for the plateau swirl number

  15. Adaption of cardio-respiratory balance during day-rest compared to deep sleep--an indicator for quality of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bonin, Dietrich; Grote, Vincent; Buri, Caroline; Cysarz, Dirk; Heusser, Peter; Moser, Max; Wolf, Ursula; Laederach, Kurt

    2014-11-30

    Heart rate and breathing rate fluctuations represent interacting physiological oscillations. These interactions are commonly studied using respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) of heart rate variability (HRV) or analyzing cardiorespiratory synchronization. Earlier work has focused on a third type of relationship, the temporal ratio of respiration rate and heart rate (HRR). Each method seems to reveal a specific aspect of cardiorespiratory interaction and may be suitable for assessing states of arousal and relaxation of the organism. We used HRR in a study with 87 healthy subjects to determine the ability to relax during 5 day-resting periods in comparison to deep sleep relaxation. The degree to which a person during waking state could relax was compared to somatic complaints, health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression. Our results show, that HRR is barely connected to balance (LF/HF) in HRV, but significantly correlates to the perception of general health and mental well-being as well as to depression. If relaxation, as expressed in HRR, during day-resting is near to deep sleep relaxation, the subjects felt healthier, indicated better mental well-being and less depressive moods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative Transcriptomics of Bacillus mycoides Strains in Response to Potato-Root Exudates Reveals Different Genetic Adaptation of Endophytic and Soil Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yanglei; de Jong, Anne; Frenzel, Elrike; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2017-01-01

    Plant root secreted compounds alter the gene expression of associated microorganisms by acting as signal molecules that either stimulate or repel the interaction with beneficial or harmful species, respectively. However, it is still unclear whether two distinct groups of beneficial bacteria, non-plant-associated (soil) strains and plant-associated (endophytic) strains, respond uniformly or variably to the exposure with root exudates. Therefore, Bacillus mycoides , a potential biocontrol agent and plant growth-promoting bacterium, was isolated from the endosphere of potatoes and from soil of the same geographical region. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of plants inoculated with GFP-tagged B. mycoides strains showed that the endosphere isolate EC18 had a stronger plant colonization ability and competed more successfully for the colonization sites than the soil isolate SB8. To dissect these phenotypic differences, the genomes of the two strains were sequenced and the transcriptome response to potato root exudates was compared. The global transcriptome profiles evidenced that the endophytic isolate responded more pronounced than the soil-derived isolate and a higher number of significant differentially expressed genes were detected. Both isolates responded with the alteration of expression of an overlapping set of genes, which had previously been reported to be involved in plant-microbe interactions; including organic substance metabolism, oxidative reduction, and transmembrane transport. Notably, several genes were specifically upregulated in the endosphere isolate EC18, while being oppositely downregulated in the soil isolate SB8. These genes mainly encoded membrane proteins, transcriptional regulators or were involved in amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis. By contrast, several genes upregulated in the soil isolate SB8 and downregulated in the endosphere isolate EC18 were related to sugar transport, which might coincide with the different nutrient availability

  17. A ketogenic diet in rodents elicits improved mitochondrial adaptations in response to resistance exercise training compared to an isocaloric Western diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden W Hyatt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ketogenic diets (KD can facilitate weight loss, but their effects on skeletal muscle remain equivocal. In this experiment we investigated the effects of two diets on skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling, mitochondrial complex activity, markers of oxidative stress, and gene expression in sedentary and resistance exercised rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 weeks of age, 300-325 g were fed isocaloric amounts of either a KD (17 g/day, 5.2 kcal/g, 20.2% protein, 10.3% CHO, 69.5% fat, n=16 or a Western diet (WD (20 g/day, 4.5 kcal/g, 15.2% protein, 42.7% CHO, 42.0% fat, n=16 for 6 weeks. During these six weeks animals were either sedentary (SED, n=8 per diet group or voluntarily exercised using resistance-loaded running wheels (EXE, n=8 per diet group. Gastrocnemius was excised and used for mitochondrial isolation and biochemical analyses. RESULTS: In the presence of a complex II substrate, the respiratory control ratio (RCR of isolated gastrocnemius mitochondria was higher (p<0.05 in animals fed the KD compared to animals fed the WD. Complex I and IV enzyme activity was higher (p<0.05 in EXE animals regardless of diet. SOD2 protein levels and GLUT4 and PGC1α mRNA expression were higher (p<0.05 in EXE animals regardless of diet. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling of complex II substrates is more efficient in chronically resistance trained rodents fed a KD. These findings may provide merit for further investigation, perhaps on humans.

  18. Adaptation Insights

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Addressing Climate Change Adaptation in Africa through Participatory Action Research. A Regional Observatory ... while the average annual rainfall recorded between. 1968 and 1999 was .... the region of Thies. For sustainability reasons, the.

  19. Adaptation Stories

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By Reg'

    adaptation to climate change from various regions of the Sahel. Their .... This simple system, whose cost and maintenance were financially sustainable, brought ... method that enables him to learn from experience and save time, which he ...

  20. Dynamical adaptation in photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon A Clark

    Full Text Available Adaptation is at the heart of sensation and nowhere is it more salient than in early visual processing. Light adaptation in photoreceptors is doubly dynamical: it depends upon the temporal structure of the input and it affects the temporal structure of the response. We introduce a non-linear dynamical adaptation model of photoreceptors. It is simple enough that it can be solved exactly and simulated with ease; analytical and numerical approaches combined provide both intuition on the behavior of dynamical adaptation and quantitative results to be compared with data. Yet the model is rich enough to capture intricate phenomenology. First, we show that it reproduces the known phenomenology of light response and short-term adaptation. Second, we present new recordings and demonstrate that the model reproduces cone response with great precision. Third, we derive a number of predictions on the response of photoreceptors to sophisticated stimuli such as periodic inputs, various forms of flickering inputs, and natural inputs. In particular, we demonstrate that photoreceptors undergo rapid adaptation of response gain and time scale, over ∼ 300[Formula: see text] ms-i. e., over the time scale of the response itself-and we confirm this prediction with data. For natural inputs, this fast adaptation can modulate the response gain more than tenfold and is hence physiologically relevant.

  1. In vivo and In vitro neurochemical-based assessments of wastewater effluents from the Maumee River area of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arini, Adeline; Cavallin, Jenna E.; Berninger, Jason P.; Marfil-Vega, Ruth; Mills, Marc; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Basu, Niladri

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents contain potentially neuroactive chemicals though few methods are available to screen for the presence of such agents. Here, two parallel approaches (in vivo and in vitro) were used to assess WWTP exposure-related changes to neurochemistry. First, fathead minnows (FHM, Pimephales promelas) were caged for four days along a WWTP discharge zone into the Maumee River (Ohio, USA). Grab water samples were collected and extracts obtained for the detection of alkylphenols, bisphenol A (BPA) and steroid hormones. Second, the extracts were then used as a source of in vitro exposure to brain tissues from FHM and four additional species relevant to the Great Lakes ecosystem (rainbow trout (RT), river otter (RO), bald eagle (BE) and human (HU)). The ability of the wastewater (in vivo) or extracts (in vitro) to interact with enzymes (monoamine oxidase (MAO) and glutamine synthetase (GS)) and receptors (dopamine (D2) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA)) involved in dopamine and glutamate-dependent neurotransmission were examined on brain homogenates. In vivo exposure of FHM led to significant decreases of NMDA receptor binding in females (24–42%), and increases of MAO activity in males (2.8- to 3.2-fold). In vitro, alkylphenol-targeted extracts significantly inhibited D2 (66% in FHM) and NMDA (24–54% in HU and RT) receptor binding, and induced MAO activity in RT, RO, and BE brains. Steroid hormone-targeted extracts inhibited GS activity in all species except FHM. BPA-targeted extracts caused a MAO inhibition in FHM, RT and BE brains. Using both in vivo and in vitro approaches, this study shows that WWTP effluents contain agents that can interact with neurochemicals important in reproduction and other neurological functions. Additional work is needed to better resolve in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (IVIVE) as well as cross-species differences. - Highlights: • We conducted in vivo and in vitro neurochemical

  2. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation? Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition

  3. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    . The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to pro- vide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the ob- servation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested......In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence...... and compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch’s method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set...

  4. Brain region-specific perfluoroalkylated sulfonate (PFSA) and carboxylic acid (PFCA) accumulation and neurochemical biomarker responses in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers Pedersen, Kathrine; Basu, Niladri; Letcher, Robert; Greaves, Alana K; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is a growing class of contaminants in the Arctic environment, and include the established perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs; especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) and carboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFSAs and PFCAs of varying chain length have been reported to bioaccumulate in lipid rich tissues of the brain among other tissues such as liver, and can reach high concentrations in top predators including the polar bear. PFCA and PFSA bioaccummulation in the brain has the potential to pose neurotoxic effects and therefore we conducted a study to investigate if variations in neurochemical transmitter systems i.e. the cholinergic, glutaminergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic, could be related to brain-specific bioaccumulation of PFASs in East Greenland polar bears. Nine brain regions from nine polar bears were analyzed for enzyme activity (monoamine oxidase (MAO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutamine synthetase (GS)) and receptor density (dopamine-2 (D2), muscarinic cholinergic (mAChR) and gamma-butyric acid type A (GABA-A)) along with PFSA and PFCA concentrations. Average brain ∑PFSA concentration was 25ng/g ww where PFOS accounted for 91%. Average ∑PFCA concentration was 88ng/g ww where PFUnDA, PFDoDA and PFTrDA combined accounted for 79%. The highest concentrations of PFASs were measured in brain stem, cerebellum and hippocampus. Correlative analyses were performed both across and within brain regions. Significant positive correlations were found between PFASs and MAO activity in occipital lobe (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=0.83, p=0.041, n=6) and across brain regions (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=0.47, p=0.001, ∑PFSA; rp=0.44, p>0.001; n=50). GABA-A receptor density was positively correlated with two PFASs across brain regions (PFOS; rp=0.33, p=0.02 and PFDoDA; rp=0.34, p=0.014; n=52). Significant negative correlations were found between mAChR density and PFASs in cerebellum (e.g. ∑PFCA; rp=-0.95, p=0.013, n=5) and across brain regions (e.g.

  5. Attention modulates visual size adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Sylvia; Fink, Gereon R; Weidner, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The current study determined in healthy subjects (n = 16) whether size adaptation occurs at early, i.e., preattentive, levels of processing or whether higher cognitive processes such as attention can modulate the illusion. To investigate this issue, bottom-up stimulation was kept constant across conditions by using a single adaptation display containing both small and large adapter stimuli. Subjects' attention was directed to either the large or small adapter stimulus by means of a luminance detection task. When attention was directed toward the small as compared to the large adapter, the perceived size of the subsequent target was significantly increased. Data suggest that different size adaptation effects can be induced by one and the same stimulus depending on the current allocation of attention. This indicates that size adaptation is subject to attentional modulation. These findings are in line with previous research showing that transient as well as sustained attention modulates visual features, such as contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency, and influences adaptation in other contexts, such as motion adaptation (Alais & Blake, 1999; Lankheet & Verstraten, 1995). Based on a recently suggested model (Pooresmaeili, Arrighi, Biagi, & Morrone, 2013), according to which perceptual adaptation is based on local excitation and inhibition in V1, we conclude that guiding attention can boost these local processes in one or the other direction by increasing the weight of the attended adapter. In sum, perceptual adaptation, although reflected in changes of neural activity at early levels (as shown in the aforementioned study), is nevertheless subject to higher-order modulation.

  6. Chronic marijuana smoke exposure in the rhesus monkey. IV: Neurochemical effects and comparison to acute and chronic exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S F; Newport, G D; Scallet, A C; Paule, M G; Bailey, J R; Slikker, W

    1991-11-01

    THC is the major psychoactive constituent of marijuana and is known to produce psychopharmacological effects in humans. These studies were designed to determine whether acute or chronic exposure to marijuana smoke or THC produces in vitro or in vivo neurochemical alterations in rat or monkey brain. For the in vitro study, THC was added (1-100 nM) to membranes prepared from different regions of the rat brain and muscarinic cholinergic (MCh) receptor binding was measured. For the acute in vivo study, rats were injected IP with vehicle, 1, 3, 10, or 30 mg THC/kg and sacrificed 2 h later. For the chronic study, rats were gavaged with vehicle or 10 or 20 mg THC/kg daily, 5 days/week for 90 days and sacrificed either 24 h or 2 months later. Rhesus monkeys were exposed to the smoke of a single 2.6% THC cigarette once a day, 2 or 7 days a week for 1 year. Approximately 7 months after the last exposure, animals were sacrificed by overdose with pentobarbital for neurochemical analyses. In vitro exposure to THC produced a dose-dependent inhibition of MCh receptor binding in several brain areas. This inhibition of MCh receptor binding, however, was also observed with two other nonpsychoactive derivatives of marijuana, cannabidiol and cannabinol. In the rat in vivo study, we found no significant changes in MCh or other neurotransmitter receptor binding in hippocampus, frontal cortex or caudate nucleus after acute or chronic exposure to THC. In the monkey brain, we found no alterations in the concentration of neurotransmitters in caudate nucleus, frontal cortex, hypothalamus or brain stem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Modulatory effect of cilostazol on tramadol-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations in rats challenged across the forced swim despair test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha M. Gamil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain-associated depression is encountered clinically in some cases such as cancer, chronic neuropathy, and after operations. Tramadol is an opioid analgesic drug that may modulate monoaminergic neurotransmission by inhibition of noradrenaline and serotonin reuptake that may contribute to its antidepressant-like effects. Clinically, tramadol is used either alone or in combination with other NSAIDs in the treatment of cases associated with pain and depression, e.g. low back pain, spinal cord injury, and post-operative pain management. However, tramadol monotherapy as an antidepressant is impeded by severe adverse effects including seizures and serotonin syndrome. Interestingly, phosphodiesterase-III inhibitors demonstrated novel promising antidepressant effects. Among which, cilostazol was reported to attenuate depression in post-stroke cases, geriatrics and patients undergoing carotid artery stenting. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the possible antidepressant-like effects of tramadol and/or cilostazol on the behavioral level in experimental animals, and to examine the neurochemical and biochemical effects of tramadol, cilostazol and their combination in rats, in order to explore the probable mechanisms of action underlying their effects. To achieve our target, male albino mice and rats were randomly allocated into five groups and administered either vehicle for control, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, p.o., tramadol HCl (20 mg/kg, p.o., cilostazol (100 mg/kg, p.o., or combination of both tramadol and cilostazol. At day 14, mice and rats were challenged in the tail suspension test and forced swim test, respectively. Rats were sacrificed and brains were isolated for determination of brain monoamines, MDA, NO, SOD, and TNF-α. The current results showed that concurrent administration of cilostazol to tramadol-treated animals modulated depression on the behavioral level, and showed ameliorative neurochemical and biochemical effects

  8. Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation....... This model incorporates elements of central strategizing, autonomous entrepreneurial behavior, interactive information processing, and open communication systems that enhance the organization's ability to observe exogenous changes and respond effectively to them....

  9. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kongshaug, Jesper; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... to be static, and no longer acts as a kind of spatial constancy maintaining stability and order? Moreover, what new potentials open in lighting design? This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research project entitled LED Lighting; Interdisciplinary LED Lighting Research...

  10. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  11. What Drives Farmers to Make Top-Down or Bottom-Up Adaptation to Climate Change and Fluctuations? A Comparative Study on 3 Cases of Apple Farming in Japan and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Mariko; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Johnston, Peter; New, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors to climate change. Farmers have been exposed to multiple stressors including climate change, and they have managed to adapt to those risks. The adaptation actions undertaken by farmers and their decision making are, however, only poorly understood. By studying adaptation practices undertaken by apple farmers in three regions: Nagano and Kazuno in Japan and Elgin in South Africa, we categorize the adaptation actions into two types: farmer initiated bottom-up adaptation and institution led top-down adaptation. We found that the driver which differentiates the type of adaptation likely adopted was strongly related to the farmers’ characteristics, particularly their dependence on the institutions, e.g. the farmers’ cooperative, in selling their products. The farmers who rely on the farmers’ cooperative for their sales are likely to adopt the institution-led adaptation, whereas the farmers who have established their own sales channels tend to start innovative actions by bottom-up. We further argue that even though the two types have contrasting features, the combinations of the both types of adaptations could lead to more successful adaptation particularly in agriculture. This study also emphasizes that more farm-level studies for various crops and regions are warranted to provide substantial feedbacks to adaptation policy. PMID:25822534

  12. What drives farmers to make top-down or bottom-up adaptation to climate change and fluctuations? A comparative study on 3 cases of apple farming in Japan and South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Fujisawa

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors to climate change. Farmers have been exposed to multiple stressors including climate change, and they have managed to adapt to those risks. The adaptation actions undertaken by farmers and their decision making are, however, only poorly understood. By studying adaptation practices undertaken by apple farmers in three regions: Nagano and Kazuno in Japan and Elgin in South Africa, we categorize the adaptation actions into two types: farmer initiated bottom-up adaptation and institution led top-down adaptation. We found that the driver which differentiates the type of adaptation likely adopted was strongly related to the farmers' characteristics, particularly their dependence on the institutions, e.g. the farmers' cooperative, in selling their products. The farmers who rely on the farmers' cooperative for their sales are likely to adopt the institution-led adaptation, whereas the farmers who have established their own sales channels tend to start innovative actions by bottom-up. We further argue that even though the two types have contrasting features, the combinations of the both types of adaptations could lead to more successful adaptation particularly in agriculture. This study also emphasizes that more farm-level studies for various crops and regions are warranted to provide substantial feedbacks to adaptation policy.

  13. Effect of the novel synthetic cannabinoids AKB48 and 5F-AKB48 on "tetrad", sensorimotor, neurological and neurochemical responses in mice. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canazza, Isabella; Ossato, Andrea; Trapella, Claudio; Fantinati, Anna; De Luca, Maria Antonietta; Margiani, Giulia; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Rimondo, Claudia; Di Rosa, Fabiana; Gregori, Adolfo; Varani, Katia; Borea, Pier Andrea; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Marti, Matteo

    2016-10-01

    AKB48 and its fluorinate derivate 5F-AKB48 are two novel synthetic cannabinoids belonging to a structural class with an indazole core structure. They are marketed as incense, herbal preparations or chemical supply for their psychoactive Cannabis-like effects. The present study was aimed at investigating the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activity of AKB48 and 5F-AKB48 in male CD-1 mice and comparing their in vivo effects with those caused by the administration of Δ 9 -THC and JWH-018. In vitro competition binding experiments performed on mouse and human CB 1 and CB 2 receptors revealed a nanomolar affinity and potency of the AKB48 and 5F-AKB48. In vivo studies showed that AKB48 and 5F-AKB48, induced hypothermia, increased pain threshold to both noxious mechanical and thermal stimuli, caused catalepsy, reduced motor activity, impaired sensorimotor responses (visual, acoustic and tactile), caused seizures, myoclonia, hyperreflexia and promoted aggressiveness in mice. Moreover, microdialysis study in freely moving mice showed that systemic administration of AKB48 and 5F-AKB48 stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Behavioural, neurological and neurochemical effects were fully prevented by the selective CB 1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist AM 251. For the first time, the present study demonstrates the overall pharmacological effects induced by the administration of AKB48 and 5F-AKB48 in mice and suggests that the fluorination can increase the power and/or effectiveness of SCBs. Furthermore, this study outlines the potential detrimental effects of SCBs on human health.

  14. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning.

  15. Adaptation and perceptual norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

    2007-02-01

    We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

  16. Adaptation is...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    vital sector is under threat. While it is far from the only development challenge facing local farmers, extreme variations in the climate of West Africa in the past several decades have dealt the region a bad hand. Drought and flood now follow each other in succession. Adaptation is... “The floods spoiled our harvests and we.

  17. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  18. Characterization of recombinant B. abortus strain RB51SOD towards understanding the uncorrelated innate and adaptive immune responses induced by RB51SOD compared to its parent vaccine strain RB51

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo eZhu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen for several mammals, including humans. Live attenuated B. abortus strain RB51 is currently the official vaccine used against bovine brucellosis in the United States and several other countries. Overexpression of protective B. abortus antigen Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD in a recombinant strain of RB51 (strain RB51SOD significantly increases its vaccine efficacy against virulent B. abortus challenge in a mouse model. An attempt has been made to better understand the mechanism of the enhanced protective immunity of RB51SOD compared to its parent strain RB51. We previously reported that RB51SOD stimulated enhanced Th1 immune response. In this study, we further found that T effector cells derived from RB51SOD-immunized mice exhibited significantly higher cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL activity than T effector cells derived from RB51-immunized mice against virulent B. abortus-infected target cells. Meanwhile, the macrophage responses to these two strains were also studied. Compared to RB51, RB51SOD cells had a lower survival rate in macrophages and induced lower levels of macrophage apoptosis and necrosis. The decreased survival of RB51SOD cells correlates with the higher sensitivity of RB51SOD, compared to RB51, to the bactericidal action of either Polymyxin B or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. Furthermore, a physical damage to the outer membrane of RB51SOD was observed by electron microscopy. Possibly due to the physical damage, overexpressed Cu/Zn SOD in RB51SOD was found to be released into the bacterial cell culture medium. Therefore, the stronger adaptive immunity induced by RB51SOD did not correlate with the low level of innate immunity induced by RB51SOD compared to RB51. This unique and apparently contradictory profile is likely associated with the differences in outer membrane integrity and Cu/Zn SOD release.

  19. Patients requests and needs for culturally and individually adapted supportive care in type 2 diabetes patients: A comparative study between Nordic and non-Nordic patients in a social economical vulnerable area of Linköping, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Angelica; Garvin, Peter; Wiréhn, Ann-Britt; Yngman-Uhlin, Pia

    2017-12-01

    This study sought to determine and compare the metabolic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in non-Nordic immigrants and native Nordics. The aim was also to describe and compare the request of supportive care between these two groups. One hundred and eighty-four patients (n=184) coming to a routine check-up in a primary healthcare setting (PHC), were consecutively enrolled to the study during a period of one year. Data on therapeutic interventions, clinical measurements, healthcare consumption, and adherence to standard diabetes healthcare program were extracted from the patientś medical record. Structured interviews on supportive care were conducted by diabetes trained nurses. If needed, a qualified interpreter was used. Comparisons were made between Nordic patients (n=151) and non-Nordic patients (n=33). Among T2DM patients in a setting of PHC, there was a difference in meeting the metabolic target HbA1c, between native Nordics and non-Nordic immigrants. There was also a difference in request on supportive care. The non-Nordic group significantly requested more and different supportive care. They also attended the standard diabetes program to a lesser degree. Culturally/individually adapted prevention is not only medically warranted but also requested by the patients themselves. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in CTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, David

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports progress on implementing a new capability of adaptive mesh refinement into the Eulerian multimaterial shock- physics code CTH. The adaptivity is block-based with refinement and unrefinement occurring in an isotropic 2:1 manner. The code is designed to run on serial, multiprocessor and massive parallel platforms. An approximate factor of three in memory and performance improvements over comparable resolution non-adaptive calculations has-been demonstrated for a number of problems

  1. Maritime adaptive optics beam control

    OpenAIRE

    Corley, Melissa S.

    2010-01-01

    The Navy is interested in developing systems for horizontal, near ocean surface, high-energy laser propagation through the atmosphere. Laser propagation in the maritime environment requires adaptive optics control of aberrations caused by atmospheric distortion. In this research, a multichannel transverse adaptive filter is formulated in Matlab's Simulink environment and compared to a complex lattice filter that has previously been implemented in large system simulations. The adaptive fil...

  2. Hedonic "adaptation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available People live in a world in which they are surrounded by potential disgust elicitors such as ``used'' chairs, air, silverware, and money as well as excretory activities. People function in this world by ignoring most of these, by active avoidance, reframing, or adaptation. The issue is particularly striking for professions, such as morticians, surgeons, or sanitation workers, in which there is frequent contact with major disgust elicitors. In this study, we study the ``adaptation'' process to dead bodies as disgust elicitors, by measuring specific types of disgust sensitivity in medical students before and after they have spent a few months dissecting a cadaver. Using the Disgust Scale, we find a significant reduction in disgust responses to death and body envelope violation elicitors, but no significant change in any other specific type of disgust. There is a clear reduction in discomfort at touching a cold dead body, but not in touching a human body which is still warm after death.

  3. Adaptation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-11-15

    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  4. Assessment of Adaptive Rate Response Provided by Accelerometer, Minute Ventilation and Dual Sensor Compared with Normal Sinus Rhythm During Exercise: A Self-controlled Study in Chronotropically Competent Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dual sensor (DS for rate adaption was supposed to be more physiological. To evaluate its superiority, the DS (accelerometer [ACC] and minute ventilation [MV] and normal sinus rate response were compared in a self-controlled way during exercise treadmill testing. Methods: This self-controlled study was performed in atrioventricular block patients with normal sinus function who met the indications of pacemaker implant. Twenty-one patients came to the 1-month follow-up visit. Patients performed a treadmill test 1-month post implant while programmed in DDDR and sensor passive mode. For these patients, sensor response factors were left at default settings (ACC = 8, MV = 3 and sensor indicated rates (SIRs for DS, ACC and MV sensor were retrieved from the pacemaker memories, along with measured sinus node (SN rates from the beginning to 1-minute after the end of the treadmill test, and compared among study groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance and profile analysis, as well as variance analysis of randomized block designs, were used for statistical analysis. Results: Fifteen patients (15/21 were determined to be chronotropically competent. The mean differences between DS SIRs and intrinsic sinus rates during treadmill testing were smaller than those for ACC and MV sensor (mean difference between SIR and SN rate: ACC vs. SN, MV vs. SN, DS vs. SN, respectively, 34.84, 17.60, 16.15 beats/min, though no sensors could mimic sinus rates under the default settings for sensor response factor (ACC vs. SN P-adjusted < 0.001; MV vs. SN P-adjusted = 0.002; DS vs. SN P-adjusted = 0.005. However, both in the range of 1 st minute and first 3 minutes of exercise, only the DS SIR profile did not differ from sinus rates (P-adjusted = 0.09, 0.90, respectively. Conclusions: The DS under default settings provides more physiological rate response during physical activity than the corresponding single sensors (ACC or MV sensor. Further study is needed to

  5. Adaptable positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref

  6. Adaptive positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrador Pavon, I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs

  7. A cost-effectiveness analysis of celecoxib compared with diclofenac in the treatment of pain in osteoarthritis (OA) within the Swedish health system using an adaptation of the NICE OA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Nicholas; Pennington, Becky; Ekelund, Mats; Akehurst, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Celecoxib for the treatment of pain resulting from osteoarthritis (OA) was reviewed by the Tandvårds- och läkemedelsförmånsverket-Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Board (TLV) in Sweden in late 2010. This study aimed to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of celecoxib plus a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) compared to diclofenac plus a PPI in a Swedish setting. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK developed a health economic model as part of their 2008 assessment of treatments for OA. In this analysis, the model was reconstructed and adapted to a Swedish perspective. Drug costs were updated using the TLV database. Adverse event costs were calculated using the regional price list of Southern Sweden and the standard treatment guidelines from the county council of Stockholm. Costs for treating cardiovascular (CV) events were taken from the Swedish DRG codes and the literature. Over a patient's lifetime treatment with celecoxib plus a PPI was associated with a quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gain of 0.006 per patient when compared to diclofenac plus a PPI. There was an increase in discounted costs of 529 kr per patient, which resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 82,313 kr ($12,141). Sensitivity analysis showed that treatment was more cost effective in patients with an increased risk of bleeding or gastrointestinal (GI) complications. The results suggest that celecoxib plus a PPI is a cost effective treatment for OA when compared to diclofenac plus a PPI. Treatment is shown to be more cost effective in Sweden for patients with a high risk of bleeding or GI complications. It was in this population that the TLV gave a positive recommendation. There are known limitations on efficacy in the original NICE model.

  8. Adaptive ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berth, Mette

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin to...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles.......This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin...... to design and develop educational materials for mobile media platforms we must first understand everyday use and behaviour with a medium such as a mobile phone. The paper outlines the research design for a PhD project on mobile learning which focuses on mobile phones as a way to bridge the gap between...

  9. Adaptive sequential controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Xing, Jian (Seattle, WA); Butler, Nicholas G. (Newberg, OR); Rodriguez, Alonso (Pasadena, CA)

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  10. Adaptive sequential controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Xing, Jian; Butler, Nicholas G.; Rodriguez, Alonso

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  11. SU-F-I-68: Longitudinal Neurochemical Changes On Rat Prefrontal Cortex of Single Prolonged Stress Model by Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 9.4T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S-I; Yoo, C-H; Song, K-H; Choe, B-Y; Woo, D-C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Single prolonged stress (SPS) is an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it has not been known how PTSD develops from the first exposure to traumatic events and neurochemical differences between acute/single stress and PTSD-triggering stress. Therefore, the object of this study is to determine time-dependent neurochemical changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14; body weight=200–220g) were used. The SPS protocol was used in this study. Rats were restrained for 2h and then immediately forced to swim for 20min in water (20–24 Celsius). After a 15-min recuperation period, rats were exposed to ether (using a desiccator) until general anesthesia occurred (<5min). In vivo proton MRS was performed 30min before the SPS (Base), approximately 10min after the SPS (D+0), 3 (D+3) and 7 (D+7) days after SPS to investigate time-dependent changes on metabolites levels in the PFC. Acquisition of in vivo MRS spectra and MRI was conducted at the four time points using 9.4 T Agilent Scanner. Concentration of metabolites was quantified by LCModel. Results: Statistical significance was analyzed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey HSD tests to assess the metabolite changes in the PFC. The SPS resulted in significant stress-induced differences for 7 days in glutamine (F(3,52)=6.750, P=0.001), choline-containing compounds (F(3,52)=16.442, P=0.000), glutamine/glutamate concentrations (F(3,52)=7.352, P=0.000). Conclusion: PTSD in human is associated with decreased neuronal activity in the PFC. In this study, SPS altered total choline, glutamine levels but not NAA levels in the PFC of the rats. Therefore, for the three stressors and quiescent period of seven days, SPS attenuated excitatory tone and membrane turnover but did not affect neural integrity in the PFC.

  12. The Gastric Ganglion of Octopus vulgaris: Preliminary Characterization of Gene- and Putative Neurochemical-Complexity, and the Effect of Aggregata octopiana Digestive Tract Infection on Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Baldascino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The gastric ganglion is the largest visceral ganglion in cephalopods. It is connected to the brain and is implicated in regulation of digestive tract functions. Here we have investigated the neurochemical complexity (through in silico gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry of the gastric ganglion in Octopus vulgaris and tested whether the expression of a selected number of genes was influenced by the magnitude of digestive tract parasitic infection by Aggregata octopiana. Novel evidence was obtained for putative peptide and non-peptide neurotransmitters in the gastric ganglion: cephalotocin, corticotrophin releasing factor, FMRFamide, gamma amino butyric acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine, molluscan insulin-related peptide 3, peptide PRQFV-amide, and tachykinin–related peptide. Receptors for cholecystokininA and cholecystokininB, and orexin2 were also identified in this context for the first time. We report evidence for acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, octopamine, small cardioactive peptide related peptide, and receptors for cephalotocin and octopressin, confirming previous publications. The effects of Aggregata observed here extend those previously described by showing effects on the gastric ganglion; in animals with a higher level of infection, genes implicated in inflammation (NFκB, fascin, serpinB10 and the toll-like 3 receptor increased their relative expression, but TNF-α gene expression was lower as was expression of other genes implicated in oxidative stress (i.e., superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin 6, and glutathione peroxidase. Elevated Aggregata levels in the octopuses corresponded to an increase in the expression of the cholecystokininA receptor and the small cardioactive peptide-related peptide. In contrast, we observed decreased relative expression of cephalotocin, dopamine β-hydroxylase, peptide PRQFV-amide, and tachykinin-related peptide genes. A discussion is provided on (i potential roles of the various molecules

  13. The Gastric Ganglion of Octopus vulgaris: Preliminary Characterization of Gene- and Putative Neurochemical-Complexity, and the Effect of Aggregata octopiana Digestive Tract Infection on Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldascino, Elena; Di Cristina, Giulia; Tedesco, Perla; Hobbs, Carl; Shaw, Tanya J.; Ponte, Giovanna; Andrews, Paul L. R.

    2017-01-01

    The gastric ganglion is the largest visceral ganglion in cephalopods. It is connected to the brain and is implicated in regulation of digestive tract functions. Here we have investigated the neurochemical complexity (through in silico gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry) of the gastric ganglion in Octopus vulgaris and tested whether the expression of a selected number of genes was influenced by the magnitude of digestive tract parasitic infection by Aggregata octopiana. Novel evidence was obtained for putative peptide and non-peptide neurotransmitters in the gastric ganglion: cephalotocin, corticotrophin releasing factor, FMRFamide, gamma amino butyric acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine, molluscan insulin-related peptide 3, peptide PRQFV-amide, and tachykinin–related peptide. Receptors for cholecystokininA and cholecystokininB, and orexin2 were also identified in this context for the first time. We report evidence for acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, octopamine, small cardioactive peptide related peptide, and receptors for cephalotocin and octopressin, confirming previous publications. The effects of Aggregata observed here extend those previously described by showing effects on the gastric ganglion; in animals with a higher level of infection, genes implicated in inflammation (NFκB, fascin, serpinB10 and the toll-like 3 receptor) increased their relative expression, but TNF-α gene expression was lower as was expression of other genes implicated in oxidative stress (i.e., superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin 6, and glutathione peroxidase). Elevated Aggregata levels in the octopuses corresponded to an increase in the expression of the cholecystokininA receptor and the small cardioactive peptide-related peptide. In contrast, we observed decreased relative expression of cephalotocin, dopamine β-hydroxylase, peptide PRQFV-amide, and tachykinin-related peptide genes. A discussion is provided on (i) potential roles of the various molecules in food intake

  14. SU-F-I-68: Longitudinal Neurochemical Changes On Rat Prefrontal Cortex of Single Prolonged Stress Model by Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 9.4T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, S-I; Yoo, C-H [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, K-H; Choe, B-Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, D-C [Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Single prolonged stress (SPS) is an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it has not been known how PTSD develops from the first exposure to traumatic events and neurochemical differences between acute/single stress and PTSD-triggering stress. Therefore, the object of this study is to determine time-dependent neurochemical changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=14; body weight=200–220g) were used. The SPS protocol was used in this study. Rats were restrained for 2h and then immediately forced to swim for 20min in water (20–24 Celsius). After a 15-min recuperation period, rats were exposed to ether (using a desiccator) until general anesthesia occurred (<5min). In vivo proton MRS was performed 30min before the SPS (Base), approximately 10min after the SPS (D+0), 3 (D+3) and 7 (D+7) days after SPS to investigate time-dependent changes on metabolites levels in the PFC. Acquisition of in vivo MRS spectra and MRI was conducted at the four time points using 9.4 T Agilent Scanner. Concentration of metabolites was quantified by LCModel. Results: Statistical significance was analyzed using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey HSD tests to assess the metabolite changes in the PFC. The SPS resulted in significant stress-induced differences for 7 days in glutamine (F(3,52)=6.750, P=0.001), choline-containing compounds (F(3,52)=16.442, P=0.000), glutamine/glutamate concentrations (F(3,52)=7.352, P=0.000). Conclusion: PTSD in human is associated with decreased neuronal activity in the PFC. In this study, SPS altered total choline, glutamine levels but not NAA levels in the PFC of the rats. Therefore, for the three stressors and quiescent period of seven days, SPS attenuated excitatory tone and membrane turnover but did not affect neural integrity in the PFC.

  15. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D Keefe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals.

  16. Terrain Adaptive Reconfiguration of Mobility

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an algorithm (and software) to automatically adapt a reconfigurable robot to different types of terrains for improved mobility, that compared to SOA:...

  17. Adaptive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatenby, Robert A; Silva, Ariosto S; Gillies, Robert J; Frieden, B Roy

    2009-06-01

    A number of successful systemic therapies are available for treatment of disseminated cancers. However, tumor response is often transient, and therapy frequently fails due to emergence of resistant populations. The latter reflects the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment as well as the evolutionary capacity of cancer phenotypes to adapt to therapeutic perturbations. Although cancers are highly dynamic systems, cancer therapy is typically administered according to a fixed, linear protocol. Here we examine an adaptive therapeutic approach that evolves in response to the temporal and spatial variability of tumor microenvironment and cellular phenotype as well as therapy-induced perturbations. Initial mathematical models find that when resistant phenotypes arise in the untreated tumor, they are typically present in small numbers because they are less fit than the sensitive population. This reflects the "cost" of phenotypic resistance such as additional substrate and energy used to up-regulate xenobiotic metabolism, and therefore not available for proliferation, or the growth inhibitory nature of environments (i.e., ischemia or hypoxia) that confer resistance on phenotypically sensitive cells. Thus, in the Darwinian environment of a cancer, the fitter chemosensitive cells will ordinarily proliferate at the expense of the less fit chemoresistant cells. The models show that, if resistant populations are present before administration of therapy, treatments designed to kill maximum numbers of cancer cells remove this inhibitory effect and actually promote more rapid growth of the resistant populations. We present an alternative approach in which treatment is continuously modulated to achieve a fixed tumor population. The goal of adaptive therapy is to enforce a stable tumor burden by permitting a significant population of chemosensitive cells to survive so that they, in turn, suppress proliferation of the less fit but chemoresistant

  18. Region-specific aging of the human brain as evidenced by neurochemical profiles measured noninvasively in the posterior cingulate cortex and the occipital lobe using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjańska, Małgorzata; McCarten, J Riley; Hodges, James; Hemmy, Laura S; Grant, Andrea; Deelchand, Dinesh K; Terpstra, Melissa

    2017-06-23

    The concentrations of fourteen neurochemicals associated with metabolism, neurotransmission, antioxidant capacity, and cellular structure were measured noninvasively from two distinct brain regions using 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Seventeen young adults (age 19-22years) and sixteen cognitively normal older adults (age 70-88years) were scanned. To increase sensitivity and specificity, 1 H magnetic resonance spectra were obtained at the ultra-high field of 7T and at ultra-short echo time. The concentrations of neurochemicals were determined using water as an internal reference and accounting for gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid content of the volume of interest. In the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), the concentrations of neurochemicals associated with energy (i.e., creatine plus phosphocreatine), membrane turnover (i.e., choline containing compounds), and gliosis (i.e., myo-inositol) were higher in the older adults while the concentrations of N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) and phosphorylethanolamine (PE) were lower. In the occipital cortex (OCC), the concentration of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a marker of neuronal viability, concentrations of the neurotransmitters Glu and NAAG, antioxidant ascorbate (Asc), and PE were lower in the older adults while the concentration of choline containing compounds was higher. Altogether, these findings shed light on how the human brain ages differently depending on region. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Role of Item Feedback in Self-Adapted Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Linda L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The importance of item feedback in self-adapted testing was studied by comparing feedback and no feedback conditions for computerized adaptive tests and self-adapted tests taken by 363 college students. Results indicate that item feedback is not necessary to realize score differences between self-adapted and computerized adaptive testing. (SLD)

  20. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of alpha lipoic acid associated with omega-3 in tardive dyskinesia induced by chronic haloperidol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Dayane Pessoa; Camboim, Thaisa Gracielle Martins; Silva, Ana Patrícia Magalhães; Silva, Caio da Fonseca; de Sousa, Rebeca Canuto; Barbosa, Mabson Delâno Alves; Oliveira, Lucidio Clebeson; Cavalcanti, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva; Lucena, Eudes Euler de Souza; Guzen, Fausto Pierdoná

    2017-07-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is characterized by involuntary movements of the lower portion of the face being related to typical antipsychotic therapy. TD is associated with the oxidative imbalance in the basal ganglia. Lipoic acid (LA) and omega-3 (ω-3) are antioxidants acting as enzyme cofactors, regenerating antioxidant enzymes. This study aimed to investigate behavioral and neurochemical effects of supplementation with LA (100 mg/kg) and ω-3 (1 g/kg) in the treatment of TD induced by chronic use of haloperidol (HAL) (1 mg/kg) in rats. Wistar male rats were used, weighing between 180-200 g. The animals were treated chronically (31 days) with LA alone or associated with HAL or ω-3. Motor behavior was assessed by open-field test, the catalepsy test, and evaluation of orofacial dyskinesia. Oxidative stress was accessed by determination of lipid peroxidation and concentration of nitrite. LA and ω-3 alone or associated caused an improvement in motor performance by increasing locomotor activity in the open-field test and decreased the permanence time on the bar in the catalepsy test and decreased the orofacial dyskinesia. LA and ω-3 showed antioxidant effects, decreasing lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels. Thus, the use of LA associated with ω-3 reduced the extrapyramidal effects produced by chronic use of HAL.

  1. Doença dos tiques: aspectos genéticos e neuroquímicos atuais Genetic and neurochemical factors in tic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMES PITÁGORAS DE MATTOS

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Após breve revisão dos dados históricos, do conceito, do quadro clínico e dos critérios para o diagnóstico, analisamos os principais aspectos genéticos e neuroquímicos atuais dos tiques e da síndrome de Gilles de La Tourette. Dados epidemiológicos sugerem que todo tique seja de natureza orgânica, a maioria de origem genética, e que obedecem a transmissão autossômica dominante com penetrância aproximada de 100%. Ressaltamos, ainda, os recentes estudos imuno-histoquímicos, particularmente os que se referem aos sistemas dopaminérgico, noradrenérgico e serotoninérgico, que modulam a atividade dos circuitos córtico-estriato-talâmico-cortical, envolvidos na gênese dos tiques e dos transtornos obsessivos-compulsivos.We review historical, conceptual, clinical and diagnostic criteria as well as present genetic and neurochemical factors of tic disorders. Epidemiologic data sugest that tic is an organic disease with autosomal dominant transmission. We emphasize imunohistochemical studies particularly related to the dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. These modulate the activity of the cortico-striato-thalamocortical circuits implicated in both Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  2. Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid in the Model of Parkinson’s Disease Induced by Unilateral Stereotaxic Injection of 6-Ohda in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Pessoa de Araújo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate behavioral and neurochemical effects of α-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg alone or associated with L-DOPA using an animal model of Parkinson’s disease induced by stereotaxic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA in rat striatum. Motor behavior was assessed by monitoring body rotations induced by apomorphine, open field test and cylinder test. Oxidative stress was accessed by determination of lipid peroxidation using the TBARS method, concentration of nitrite and evaluation of catalase activity. α-Lipoic acid decreased body rotations induced by apomorphine, as well as caused an improvement in motor performance by increasing locomotor activity in the open field test and use of contralateral paw (in the opposite side of the lesion produced by 6-OHDA at cylinder test. α-lipoic acid showed antioxidant effects, decreasing lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels and interacting with antioxidant system by decreasing of endogenous catalase activity. Therefore, α-lipoic acid prevented the damage induced by 6-OHDA or by chronic use of L-DOPA in dopaminergic neurons, suggesting that α-lipoic could be a new therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease prevention and treatment.

  3. In vivo and in vitro changes in neurochemical parameters related to mercury concentrations from specific brain regions of polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Anke; Kwan, Michael; Chan, Hing Man

    2014-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been detected in polar bear brain tissue, but its biological effects are not well known. Relationships between Hg concentrations and neurochemical enzyme activities and receptor binding were assessed in the cerebellum, frontal lobes, and occipital lobes of 24 polar bears collected from Nunavik (Northern Quebec), Canada. The concentration-response relationship was further studied with in vitro experiments using pooled brain homogenate of 12 randomly chosen bears. In environmentally exposed brain samples, there was no correlative relationship between Hg concentration and cholinesterase (ChE) activity or muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) binding in any of the 3 brain regions. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity in the occipital lobe showed a negative correlative relationship with total Hg concentration. In vitro experiments, however, demonstrated that Hg (mercuric chloride and methylmercury chloride) can inhibit ChE and MAO activities and muscarinic mAChR binding. These results show that Hg can alter neurobiochemical parameters but the current environmental Hg exposure level does have an effect on the neurochemistry of polar bears from northern Canada. © 2014 SETAC.

  4. Neurochemical pathways that converge on thalamic trigeminovascular neurons: potential substrate for modulation of migraine by sleep, food intake, stress and anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Noseda

    Full Text Available Dynamic thalamic regulation of sensory signals allows the cortex to adjust better to rapidly changing behavioral, physiological and environmental demands. To fulfill this role, thalamic neurons must themselves be subjected to constantly changing modulatory inputs that originate in multiple neurochemical pathways involved in autonomic, affective and cognitive functions. Our overall goal is to define an anatomical framework for conceptualizing how a 'decision' is made on whether a trigeminovascular thalamic neuron fires, for how long, and at what frequency. To begin answering this question, we determine which neuropeptides/neurotransmitters are in a position to modulate thalamic trigeminovascular neurons. Using a combination of in-vivo single-unit recording, juxtacellular labeling with tetramethylrhodamine dextran (TMR and in-vitro immunohistochemistry, we found that thalamic trigeminovascular neurons were surrounded by high density of axons containing biomarkers of glutamate, GABA, dopamine and serotonin; moderate density of axons containing noradrenaline and histamine; low density of axons containing orexin and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH; but not axons containing CGRP, serotonin 1D receptor, oxytocin or vasopressin. In the context of migraine, the findings suggest that the transmission of headache-related nociceptive signals from the thalamus to the cortex may be modulated by opposing forces (i.e., facilitatory, inhibitory that are governed by continuous adjustments needed to keep physiological, behavioral, cognitive and emotional homeostasis.

  5. Adaptive management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Lucy; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Frost, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used...... in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how...... the concept might be further assessed. AM is currently being used to describe many different management contexts, scales and locations. Few authors define the term explicitly or describe how it offers a means to improve management outcomes in their specific management context. Many do not adhere to the idea...

  6. Predictor-Based Model Reference Adaptive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavretsky, Eugene; Gadient, Ross; Gregory, Irene M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the design and analysis of a predictor-based model reference adaptive control. Stable adaptive laws are derived using Lyapunov framework. The proposed architecture is compared with the now classical model reference adaptive control. A simulation example is presented in which numerical evidence indicates that the proposed controller yields improved transient characteristics.

  7. SU-E-I-34: Intermittent Low- and High-Dose Ethanol Exposure Alters Neurochemical Responses in Adult Rat Brain: An Ex Vivo 1H NMR Spectroscopy at 11.7 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Do-Wan; Kim, Sang-Young; Song, Kyu-Ho; Choe, Bo-Young [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The first goal of this study was to determine the influence of the dose-dependent effects of intermittent ethanol intoxication on cerebral neurochemical responses among sham controls and low- and high-dose-ethanol-exposed rats with ex vivo high-resolution spectra. The second goal of this study was to determine the correlations between the metabolite-metabolite levels (pairs-of-metabolite levels) from all of the individual data from the frontal cortex of the intermittent ethanol-intoxicated rats. Methods: Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups. Twenty rats in the LDE (n = 10) and the HDE (n = 10) groups received ethanol doses of 1.5 g/kg and 2.5 g/kg, respectively, through oral gavage every 8-h for 4 days. At the end of the 4-day intermittent ethanol exposure, one-dimensional ex vivo 500-MHz proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were acquired from 30 samples of the frontal cortex region (from the 3 groups). Results: Normalized total-N-acetylaspartate (tNAA: NAA + NAAG [N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate]), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly lower in the frontal cortex of the HDE-exposed rats than that of the LDE-exposed rats. Moreover, compared to the CNTL group, the LDE rats exhibited significantly higher normalized GABA levels. The 6 pairs of normalized metabolite levels were positively (+) or negatively (−) correlated in the rat frontal cortex as follows: tNAA and GABA (+), tNAA and Aspartate (Asp) (−), myo-Inositol (mIns) and Asp (−), mIns and Alanine (+), mIns and Taurine (+), and mIns and tNAA (−). Conclusion: Our results suggested that repeated intermittent ethanol intoxication might result in neuronal degeneration and dysfunction, changes in the rate of GABA synthesis, and oxidative stress in the rat frontal cortex. Our ex vivo 1H high-resolution-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy results suggested some novel metabolic markers for the dose

  8. SU-E-I-34: Intermittent Low- and High-Dose Ethanol Exposure Alters Neurochemical Responses in Adult Rat Brain: An Ex Vivo 1H NMR Spectroscopy at 11.7 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Do-Wan; Kim, Sang-Young; Song, Kyu-Ho; Choe, Bo-Young

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The first goal of this study was to determine the influence of the dose-dependent effects of intermittent ethanol intoxication on cerebral neurochemical responses among sham controls and low- and high-dose-ethanol-exposed rats with ex vivo high-resolution spectra. The second goal of this study was to determine the correlations between the metabolite-metabolite levels (pairs-of-metabolite levels) from all of the individual data from the frontal cortex of the intermittent ethanol-intoxicated rats. Methods: Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups. Twenty rats in the LDE (n = 10) and the HDE (n = 10) groups received ethanol doses of 1.5 g/kg and 2.5 g/kg, respectively, through oral gavage every 8-h for 4 days. At the end of the 4-day intermittent ethanol exposure, one-dimensional ex vivo 500-MHz proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were acquired from 30 samples of the frontal cortex region (from the 3 groups). Results: Normalized total-N-acetylaspartate (tNAA: NAA + NAAG [N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate]), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly lower in the frontal cortex of the HDE-exposed rats than that of the LDE-exposed rats. Moreover, compared to the CNTL group, the LDE rats exhibited significantly higher normalized GABA levels. The 6 pairs of normalized metabolite levels were positively (+) or negatively (−) correlated in the rat frontal cortex as follows: tNAA and GABA (+), tNAA and Aspartate (Asp) (−), myo-Inositol (mIns) and Asp (−), mIns and Alanine (+), mIns and Taurine (+), and mIns and tNAA (−). Conclusion: Our results suggested that repeated intermittent ethanol intoxication might result in neuronal degeneration and dysfunction, changes in the rate of GABA synthesis, and oxidative stress in the rat frontal cortex. Our ex vivo 1H high-resolution-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy results suggested some novel metabolic markers for the dose

  9. Protective effect of Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia and associated behavioural, biochemical and neurochemical changes in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishnoi, Mahendra; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Kulkarni, Shrinivas K

    2008-02-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a motor disorder of the orofacial region resulting from chronic neuroleptic treatment. A high incidence and irreversibility of this hyperkinetic disorder has been considered a major clinical issue in the treatment of schizophrenia. The molecular mechanism related to the pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia is not completely known. Various animal studies have demonstrated an enhanced oxidative stress and increased glutamatergic transmission as well as inhibition in the glutamate uptake after the chronic administration of haloperidol. The present study investigated the effect of curcumin, an antioxidant, in haloperidol-induced tardive dyskinesia by using different behavioural (orofacial dyskinetic movements, stereotypy, locomotor activity, % retention), biochemical (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione levels, antioxidant enzyme levels (SOD and catalase) and neurochemical (neurotransmitter levels) parameters. Chronic administration of haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p. for 21 days) significantly increased vacuous chewing movements (VCM's), tongue protrusions, facial jerking in rats which was dose-dependently inhibited by curcumin. Chronic administration of haloperidol also resulted in increased dopamine receptor sensitivity as evident by increased locomotor activity and stereotypy and also decreased % retention time on elevated plus maze paradigm. Pretreatment with curcumin reversed these behavioral changes. Besides, haloperidol also induced oxidative damage in all major regions of brain which was attenuated by curcumin, especially in the subcortical region containing striatum. On chronic administration of haloperidol, there was a decrease in turnover of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine in both cortical and subcortical regions which was again dose-dependently reversed by treatment with curcumin. The findings of the present study suggested for the involvement of free radicals in the development of neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia and

  10. The expression of Toll-like receptor 4, 7 and co-receptors in neurochemical sub-populations of rat trigeminal ganglion sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helley, M P; Abate, W; Jackson, S K; Bennett, J H; Thompson, S W N

    2015-12-03

    The recent discovery that mammalian nociceptors express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has raised the possibility that these cells directly detect and respond to pathogens with implications for either direct nociceptor activation or sensitization. A range of neuronal TLRs have been identified, however a detailed description regarding the distribution of expression of these receptors within sub-populations of sensory neurons is lacking. There is also some debate as to the composition of the TLR4 receptor complex on sensory neurons. Here we use a range of techniques to quantify the expression of TLR4, TLR7 and some associated molecules within neurochemically-identified sub-populations of trigeminal (TG) and dorsal root (DRG) ganglion sensory neurons. We also detail the pattern of expression and co-expression of two isoforms of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), a phospholipid remodeling enzyme previously shown to be involved in the lipopolysaccharide-dependent TLR4 response in monocytes, within sensory ganglia. Immunohistochemistry shows that both TLR4 and TLR7 preferentially co-localize with transient receptor potential vallinoid 1 (TRPV1) and purinergic receptor P2X ligand-gated ion channel 3 (P2X3), markers of nociceptor populations, within both TG and DRG. A gene expression profile shows that TG sensory neurons express a range of TLR-associated molecules. LPCAT1 is expressed by a proportion of both nociceptors and non-nociceptive neurons. LPCAT2 immunostaining is absent from neuronal profiles within both TG and DRG and is confined to non-neuronal cell types under naïve conditions. Together, our results show that nociceptors express the molecular machinery required to directly respond to pathogenic challenge independently from the innate immune system. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Group 2 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Agonist LY379268 Rescues Neuronal, Neurochemical and Motor Abnormalities in R6/2 Huntington’s Disease Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, A.; Lafferty, D.C.; Wang, H.B.; Del Mar, N.; Deng, Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    Excitotoxic injury to striatum by dysfunctional cortical input or aberrant glutamate uptake may contribute to Huntington’s Disease (HD) pathogenesis. Since corticostriatal terminals possess mGluR2/3 autoreceptors, whose activation dampens glutamate release, we tested the ability of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 to improve the phenotype in R6/2 HD mice with 120–125 CAG repeats. Daily subcutaneous injection of a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of LY379268 (20mg/kg) had no evident adverse effects in WT mice, and diverse benefits in R6/2 mice, both in a cohort of mice tested behaviorally until the end of R6/2 lifespan and in a cohort sacrificed at 10 weeks of age for blinded histological analysis. MTD LY379268 yielded a significant 11% increase in R6/2 survival, an improvement on rotarod, normalization and/or improvement in locomotor parameters measured in open field (activity, speed, acceleration, endurance, and gait), a rescue of a 15–20% cortical and striatal neuron loss, normalization of SP striatal neuron neurochemistry, and to a lesser extent enkephalinergic striatal neuron neurochemistry. Deficits were greater in male than female R6/2 mice, and drug benefit tended to be greater in males. The improvements in SP striatal neurons, which facilitate movement, are consistent with the improved movement in LY379268-treated R6/2 mice. Our data indicate that mGluR2/3 agonists may be particularly useful for ameliorating the morphological, neurochemical and motor defects observed in HD. PMID:22472187

  12. Functional and neurochemical characterization of angiotensin type 1A receptor-expressing neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, D A; Choong, Y-T; Connelly, A A; Bassi, J K; Hunter, N O; Thongsepee, N; Llewellyn-Smith, I J; Fong, A Y; McDougall, S J; Allen, A M

    2017-10-01

    Angiotensin II acts via two main receptors within the central nervous system, with the type 1A receptor (AT 1A R) most widely expressed in adult neurons. Activation of the AT 1 R in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the principal nucleus receiving central synapses of viscerosensory afferents, modulates cardiovascular reflexes. Expression of the AT 1 R occurs in high density within the NTS of most mammals, including humans, but the fundamental electrophysiological and neurochemical characteristics of the AT 1A R-expressing NTS neurons are not known. To address this, we have used a transgenic mouse, in which the AT 1A R promoter drives expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Approximately one-third of AT 1A R-expressing neurons express the catecholamine-synthetic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and a subpopulation of these stained for the transcription factor paired-like homeobox 2b (Phox2b). A third group, comprising approximately two-thirds of the AT 1A R-expressing NTS neurons, showed Phox2b immunoreactivity alone. A fourth group in the ventral subnucleus expressed neither TH nor Phox2b. In whole cell recordings from slices in vitro, AT 1A R-GFP neurons exhibited voltage-activated potassium currents, including the transient outward current and the M-type potassium current. In two different mouse strains, both AT 1A R-GFP neurons and TH-GFP neurons showed similar AT 1A R-mediated depolarizing responses to superfusion with angiotensin II. These data provide a comprehensive description of AT 1A R-expressing neurons in the NTS and increase our understanding of the complex actions of this neuropeptide in the modulation of viscerosensory processing. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    OpenAIRE

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000?y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations...

  14. A Comparative Study of the Story Events in Literary and Cinematic Narrative: A Comparison between the Story of Ashghalduni (Dustbin and the Adapted Movie, Dayere-ye Mina (The Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hayati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article tries to study the story Ašghālduni (Dustbin by Gholāmhossein Sā’edi and the adapted movie Dāyere-ye Minā (The Cycle by Dāryuš Mehrjuyi with a view to new adaptation theories. Of course, these theories have not yet been consistent and well-established; but its literature is going to evolve, especially its essentials are discussed in the study method of narratology. As an example, this proposition is discussed in theoretical subjects of adaptation that even in the loyal adapted movies, in which the structure of the literary story and the sequence of events in the movie are preserved, some of the semantic functions change because of story entry into the cinematic discourse along with the needs of medium of cinema. For example, the figurative aspect of Sā’edi's story in its adapted movie has been influenced by the scheme and sometimes realism dominates symbolism. Mehrjuyi has organized the events in the discourse of classic cinema in order to encourage the reader to persist the events during a certain time period. The way of timing a movie in terms of a three-screen structure encourages the spectator to follow the events and causes the "scheme" to dominate the "idea". Since the dominance of either scheme or idea creates different themes, it can be said that the very structural change leads somewhat to semantic change. Similarly, the change of Sā’edi's open ending narrative to a close one prevents the audience to participate in re-making the fictional fate of Ali; the sort that exists in a literary text.

  15. Clinical impact of adaptive servoventilation compared to other ventilatory modes in patients with treatment-emergent sleep apnea, central sleep apnea and Cheyne–Stokes respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Correia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adaptive servoventilation is a recent ventilatory mode initially designed to treat Cheyne–Stokes respiration (CSR. Recently, the efficacy of ASV has been discussed for the treatment of central sleep apnea (CSA and treatment-emergent central sleep apnea (treatment-emergent CSA where other forms of traditional positive airway pressure (PAP may be insufficient. Objectives: To compare the clinical impact of ASV with other forms of PAP in treating patients with treatment-emergent CSA, CSA and CSR. Methods: Medical data of all the patients who underwent polysomnography (PSG with ASV titration were evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups according to the mode of ventilation reimbursed: ASV and PAP (AutoCPAP/CPAP/BIPAP. All patients had a minimal follow-up of 6 months. Both groups were compared in terms of symptoms, apnea hypopnea index, compliance, cardiac function and cardiovascular events. Results: ASV titration was performed in 33 patients (30M/3F with a mean age of 69 ± 8 years. The majority (58% present a treatment-emergent SA and 42% a CSA and or CSR. The median initial diagnostic AHI was 46 ± 22 events/h.After the initial diagnosis, 28 patients were treated with PAP and 5 with servoventilation. All of the patients treated with PAP were posteriorly submitted to PSG and ASV titration because of suboptimal response to PAP. Despite a clear indication for ASV, due to differences in reimbursement, 15 patients continued treatment with PAP (12 with AutoCPAP, 1 with BIPAP and 2 with CPAP and 16 changed to ASV. Two patients were lost in follow-up.In both groups, most of patients present a treatment-emergent SA (53% in ASV group vs. 67% in PAP group or a CSA/CSR (29.4% in ASV group vs. 20% in PAP. After ASV titration, the mean follow-up was 25 ± 14 months. Both groups (ASV vs. PAP were similar in terms of compliance (77 ± 23% vs.88 ± 14% and in terms of Epworth sleepiness scale

  16. Neuroprotective effects of curcumin on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinsonism in rats: behavioral, neurochemical and immunohistochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuwaja, Gulrana; Khan, Mohd Moshahid; Ishrat, Tauheed; Ahmad, Ajmal; Raza, Syed Shadab; Ashafaq, Mohammad; Javed, Hayate; Khan, M Badruzzaman; Khan, Andleeb; Vaibhav, Kumar; Safhi, Mohammed M; Islam, Fakhrul

    2011-01-12

    Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric used in Indian curry is known for its antitumor, antioxidant, antiarthritic, anti-ischemic and anti-inflammatory properties and might inhibit the accumulation of destructive beta-amyloid in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. A Parkinsonian model in rats was developed by giving 6-hydroxydopamine (10 μg/2 μl in 0.1% ascorbic acid-saline) in the right striatum. After 3 weeks of lesioning, the behavior activities (rotarod, narrow beam test, grip test and contra-lateral rotations) were increased in a lesioned group as compared to a sham group and these activities were protected significantly with the pretreatment of curcumin. A significant protection on lipid peroxidation, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, tyrosine hydroxylase and D(2) receptor binding was observed in the striatum of lesioned group animals pretreated with 80 mg/kg body weight of curcumin for 21 days as compared to lesion group animals. No significant alterations on behavior and biochemical parameters were observed in sham group animals and the animals of sham group pretreated with curcumin. This study indicates that curcumin, which is an important ingredient of diet in India and also used in various systems of indigenous medicine, is helpful in preventing Parkinsonism and has therapeutic potential in combating this devastating neurologic disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Supporting Adaptive and Adaptable Hypermedia Presentation Semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); L. Rutledge (Lloyd); L. Hardman (Lynda); J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractHaving the content of a presentation adapt to the needs, resources and prior activities of a user can be an important benefit of electronic documents. While part of this adaptation is related to the encodings of individual data streams, much of the adaptation can/should be guided by the

  18. Cold-Adapted Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georlette, D.; Bentahir, M.; Claverie, P.; Collins, T.; D'amico, S.; Delille, D.; Feller, G.; Gratia, E.; Hoyoux, A.; Lonhienne, T.; Meuwis, M.-a.; Zecchinon, L.; Gerday, Ch.

    In the last few years, increased attention has been focused on enzymes produced by cold-adapted micro-organisms. It has emerged that psychrophilic enzymes represent an extremely powerful tool in both protein folding investigations and for biotechnological purposes. Such enzymes are characterised by an increased thermosensitivity and, most of them, by a higher catalytic efficiency at low and moderate temperatures, when compared to their mesophilic counterparts. The high thermosensitivity probably originates from an increased flexibility of either a selected area of the molecular edifice or the overall protein structure, providing enhanced abilities to undergo conformational changes during catalysis at low temperatures. Structure modelling and recent crystallographic data have allowed to elucidate the structural parameters that could be involved in this higher resilience. It was demonstrated that each psychrophilic enzyme adopts its own adaptive strategy. It appears, moreover, that there is a continuum in the strategy of protein adaptation to temperature, as the previously mentioned structural parameters are implicated in the stability of thermophilic proteins. Additional 3D crystal structures, site-directed and random mutagenesis experiments should now be undertaken to further investigate the stability-flexibility-activity relationship.

  19. Film Adaptation as Translation: An Analysis of Adaptation Shifts in Silver Linings Playbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Perdikaki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to approach film adaptation as a modality of translation and to provide a systematic analysis of the changes occurring in the adaptation of a novel for the big screen. These changes, i.e. adaptation shifts, are examined by means of a model that consists of a descriptive/comparative component and an interpretive component. The model is derived from combining insights from adaptation and translation studies and thus builds on the interdisciplinary nature of adaptation studies so as to offer a comprehensive methodological tool for the analysis of adaptations. As processes and products, adaptation and translation involve an act of communication between a source and a target text within a new sociocultural context. In this light, adaptation can be examined as a case of intersemiotic translation in that it involves the transfer of meaning between two different media; in the case of film adaptation, more specifically, meaning is transferred from book to film and the dynamics between the source novel and adaptation is juxtaposed with that between a source text and its translation. The adaptation model is applied to the film adaptation Silver Linings Playbook with an aim to understand the aspects in which the adaptation differs from the source novel and the rationale behind the adaptation shifts. Finally, it is argued that such an analysis from a descriptive as well as an interpretive perspective can lead to a more holistic understanding of adaptation as a cultural phenomenon in the contemporary creative industries.

  20. Early Paradoxical Increase of Dopamine: A Neurochemical Study of Olfactory Bulb in Asymptomatic and Symptomatic MPTP Treated Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pifl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disease with both motor and non-motor manifestations. Hyposmia is one of the early non-motor symptoms, which can precede motor symptoms by several years. The relationship between hyposmia and PD remains elusive. Olfactory bulb (OB pathology shows an increased number of olfactory dopaminergic cells, protein aggregates and dysfunction of neurotransmitter systems. In this study we examined tissue levels of dopamine (DA and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT and their metabolites, of noradrenaline (NA and of the amino acid neurotransmitters aspartate, glutamate, taurine and γ-aminobutyric acid in OBs of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP treated Macaca fascicularis in different stages, including monkeys who were always asymptomatic, monkeys who recovered from mild parkinsonian signs, and monkeys with stable moderate or severe parkinsonism. DA was increased compared to controls, while neither NA and 5-HT nor the amino acid neurotransmitters were significantly changed. Furthermore, DA increased before stable motor deficits appear with +51% in asymptomatic and +96% in recovered monkeys. Unchanged DA metabolites suggest a special metabolic profile of the newly formed DA neurons. Significant correlation of homovanillic acid (HVA with taurine single values within the four MPTP groups and of aspartate with taurine within the asymptomatic and recovered MPTP groups, but not within the controls suggest interactions in the OB between taurine and the DA system and taurine and the excitatory neurotransmitter triggered by MPTP. This first investigation of OB in various stages after MPTP administration suggests that the DA increase seems to be an early phenomenon, not requiring profound nigrostriatal neurodegeneration or PD symptoms.

  1. Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a recently developed nature-inspired optimization algorithm, which is based on the foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. Up to now, BFO has been applied successfully to some engineering problems due to its simplicity and ease of implementation. However, BFO possesses a poor convergence behavior over complex optimization problems as compared to other nature-inspired optimization techniques. This paper first analyzes how the run-length unit parameter of BFO controls the exploration of the whole search space and the exploitation of the promising areas. Then it presents a variation on the original BFO, called the adaptive bacterial foraging optimization (ABFO, employing the adaptive foraging strategies to improve the performance of the original BFO. This improvement is achieved by enabling the bacterial foraging algorithm to adjust the run-length unit parameter dynamically during algorithm execution in order to balance the exploration/exploitation tradeoff. The experiments compare the performance of two versions of ABFO with the original BFO, the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO and a real-coded genetic algorithm (GA on four widely-used benchmark functions. The proposed ABFO shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  2. Adaptation illustrations: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Janowiak; Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Matt St. Pierre; Linda. Parker

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate how the Adaptation Workbook (Chapter 3) can be used with the Adaptation Strategies and Approaches (Chapter 2) to develop adaptation tactics for two real-world management issues. The two illustrations in this chapter are intended to provide helpful tips to managers completing the Adaptation Workbook, as well as to show how the anticipated...

  3. Adaptive Modular Playware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the concept of adaptive modular playware, where the playware adapts to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user...

  4. Resilience through adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, ten Guus; Voorn, van George A.K.; Ligtenberg, Arend; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations

  5. Farming System Evolution and Adaptive Capacity: Insights for Adaptation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami L. Dixon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of climate impacts on agriculture and adaptation often provide current or future assessments, ignoring the historical contexts farming systems are situated within. We investigate how historical trends have influenced farming system adaptive capacity in Uganda using data from household surveys, semi-structured interviews, focus-group discussions and observations. By comparing two farming systems, we note three major findings: (1 similar trends in farming system evolution have had differential impacts on the diversity of farming systems; (2 trends have contributed to the erosion of informal social and cultural institutions and an increasing dependence on formal institutions; and (3 trade-offs between components of adaptive capacity are made at the farm-scale, thus influencing farming system adaptive capacity. To identify the actual impacts of future climate change and variability, it is important to recognize the dynamic nature of adaptation. In practice, areas identified for further adaptation support include: shift away from one-size-fits-all approach the identification and integration of appropriate modern farming method; a greater focus on building inclusive formal and informal institutions; and a more nuanced understanding regarding the roles and decision-making processes of influential, but external, actors. More research is needed to understand farm-scale trade-offs and the resulting impacts across spatial and temporal scales.

  6. Dysfunction of Rapid Neural Adaptation in Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Winter, Rebecca; Murtagh, Jack; Cyr, Abigail; Chang, Patricia; Halverson, Kelly; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-12-21

    Identification of specific neurophysiological dysfunctions resulting in selective reading difficulty (dyslexia) has remained elusive. In addition to impaired reading development, individuals with dyslexia frequently exhibit behavioral deficits in perceptual adaptation. Here, we assessed neurophysiological adaptation to stimulus repetition in adults and children with dyslexia for a wide variety of stimuli, spoken words, written words, visual objects, and faces. For every stimulus type, individuals with dyslexia exhibited significantly diminished neural adaptation compared to controls in stimulus-specific cortical areas. Better reading skills in adults and children with dyslexia were associated with greater repetition-induced neural adaptation. These results highlight a dysfunction of rapid neural adaptation as a core neurophysiological difference in dyslexia that may underlie impaired reading development. Reduced neurophysiological adaptation may relate to prior reports of reduced behavioral adaptation in dyslexia and may reveal a difference in brain functions that ultimately results in a specific reading impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Questionnaire Adapting: Little Changes Mean a Lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Vanessa E C; Matson, Jeffrey; Dunn Lopez, Karen

    2017-09-01

    Questionnaire development involves rigorous testing to ensure reliability and validity. Due to time and cost constraints of developing new questionnaires, researchers often adapt existing questionnaires to better fit the purpose of their study. However, the effect of such adaptations is unclear. We conducted cognitive interviews as a method to evaluate the understanding of original and adapted questionnaire items to be applied in a future study. The findings revealed that all subjects (a) comprehended the original and adapted items differently, (b) changed their scores after comparing the original to the adapted items, and (c) were unanimous in stating that the adapted items were easier to understand. Cognitive interviewing allowed us to assess the interpretation of adapted items in a useful and efficient manner before use in data collection.

  8. Neurochemical phenotypes of cardiorespiratory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilowsky, Paul M

    2008-12-10

    Interactions between the cardiovascular and respiratory systems have been known for many years but the functional significance of the interactions is still widely debated. Here I discuss the possible role of metabotropic receptors in regulating cardiorespiratory neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. It is clear that, although much has been discovered, cardiorespiratory regulation is certainly one area that still has a long way to go before its secrets are fully divulged and their function in controlling circulatory and respiratory function is revealed.

  9. Alternative adaptive immunity in invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrate adaptive immunity is characterized by challenge-specific long-term protection. This specific memory is achieved through the vast diversity of somatically rearranged immunological receptors such as antibodies. Whether or not invertebrates are capable of a comparable phenotypic plasticity...

  10. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  11. Rate Adaptive OFDMA Communication Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhakim, M.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the varying nature of the wireless channels, adapting the transmission parameters, such as code rate, modulation order and power, in response to the channel variations provides a significant improvement in the system performance. In the OFDM systems, Per-Frame adaptation (PFA) can be employed where the transmission variables are fixed over a given frame and may change from one frame to the other. Subband (tile) loading offers more degrees of adaptation such that each group of carriers (subband) uses the same transmission parameters and different subbands may use different parameters. Changing the code rate for each tile in the same frame, results in transmitting multiple codewords (MCWs) for a single frame. In this thesis a scheme is proposed for adaptively changing the code rate of coded OFDMA systems via changing the puncturing rate within a single codeword (SCW). In the proposed structure, the data is encoded with the lowest available code rate then it is divided among the different tiles where it is punctured adaptively based on some measure of the channel quality for each tile. The proposed scheme is compared against using multiple codewords (MCWs) where the different code rates for the tiles are obtained using separate encoding processes. For bit interleaved coded modulation architecture two novel interleaving methods are proposed, namely the puncturing dependant interleaver (PDI) and interleaved puncturing (IntP), which provide larger interleaving depth. In the PDI method the coded bits with the same rate over different tiles are grouped for interleaving. In IntP structure the interleaving is performed prior to puncturing. The performance of the adaptive puncturing technique is investigated under constant bit rate constraint and variable bit rate. Two different adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) selection methods are examined for variable bit rate adaptive system. The first is a recursive scheme that operates directly on the SNR whereas the second

  12. Validation of an Adapted French Form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in Four Francophone Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Claire S.; Broonen, Jean-Paul; Stauffer, Sarah D.; Hamtiaux, Armanda; Pouyaud, Jacques; Zecca, Gregory; Houssemand, Claude; Rossier, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the validation of a French version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale in four Francophone countries. The aim was to re-analyze the item selection and then compare this newly developed French-language form with the international form 2.0. Exploratory factor analysis was used as a tool for item selection, and confirmatory factor…

  13. Towards Comparative Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Merete Storgaard

    Globalization is the imitation and adaptation of knowledgesolutions or innovations, as they are diffused from one country to another” (Peter Jarvis 2007) Conducting comparative, educational research of school leadership that effects student achievement in an international perspective is of scient......Globalization is the imitation and adaptation of knowledgesolutions or innovations, as they are diffused from one country to another” (Peter Jarvis 2007) Conducting comparative, educational research of school leadership that effects student achievement in an international perspective...... is of scientific value in qualifying the international and national knowledgebase on effective school leadership. In a methodological perspective comparative analysis in an international setting creates specifically a scientific demand of comparability and a theory based leadership - framework to guide...... the empirical, qualitative research of effective leadership....

  14. Neuro-chemical activation of brain reward meso-limbic circuitry is associated with relapse prevention and drug hunger: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Gold, Mark S

    2011-04-01

    It is no surprise that it has taken over four decades to confirm and extend the crucial role of dopamine and related genes and gene deficits in the etiology of risk for drug dependence. Hundreds of studies, enabled by neuroscience neuroimaging and genetic advances, have been reported. While dopamine theories have been reported, confirmed, replicated and replicated again, changes have been slow to move from the bench to the bedside. Unlike penicillin used to target certain infections, addiction requires the consent, motivation and enthusiastic participation of the patient. Clearly, current treatment has not caught up with advances in the science. In-patient and out-patient treatment still relies on detoxification, abstinence and 12 step programs. Addiction is a chronic and relapsing disease. Addiction treatment can be reported as cures at 3 or 6 weeks, only to be clearly failures at 1 or 5 years. The logical standard of care should focus on detoxifying, stabilizing and returning the patient to the pre-loss of control or pre-addiction neurochemical state. Pre-clinical and clinical data on neurochemistry and neurogenetics of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) as it relates to both relapse and drug hunger has been reviewed. We are proposing herein that efforts to physiologically integrate known neural mechanisms with other psychotherapeutic treatment options to combat relapse should be encouraged. It is well known that after prolonged abstinence, recovered addicts are particularly vulnerable to relapse. Individuals who use their drug of choice after abstinence experience a powerful euphoria that can quickly precipitate a full-blown relapse. While a biological explanation for this conundrum has remained elusive, we hypothesize that this clinically observed "supersensitivity" might be the result of pre-morbid or state genetic hypodopaminergic polymorphisms. We are proposing that recent studies have indicated that genetic, personality and environmental factors are predictors of

  15. Adaptive distributional extensions to DFR ranking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Casper; Simonsen, Jakob Grue; Järvelin, Kalervo

    2016-01-01

    -fitting distribution. We call this model Adaptive Distributional Ranking (ADR) because it adapts the ranking to the statistics of the specific dataset being processed each time. Experiments on TREC data show ADR to outperform DFR models (and their extensions) and be comparable in performance to a query likelihood...

  16. Adaptive prediction applied to seismic event detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.A.; Rodgers, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    Adaptive prediction was applied to the problem of detecting small seismic events in microseismic background noise. The Widrow-Hoff LMS adaptive filter used in a prediction configuration is compared with two standard seismic filters as an onset indicator. Examples demonstrate the technique's usefulness with both synthetic and actual seismic data

  17. Adaptive prediction applied to seismic event detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.A.; Rodgers, P.W.

    1981-09-01

    Adaptive prediction was applied to the problem of detecting small seismic events in microseismic background noise. The Widrow-Hoff LMS adaptive filter used in a prediction configuration is compared with two standard seismic filters as an onset indicator. Examples demonstrate the technique's usefulness with both synthetic and actual seismic data.

  18. Professional Development to Promote Teacher Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Allison Ward; Ankrum, Julie Winneur; Morewood, Aimee

    2016-01-01

    Effective professional development (PD) follows adaptive teaching principles; it increases teacher understanding and instructional purpose, which ultimately supports and extends adaptive teaching. Through this article, we compare and contrast training models with educative models of PD (Duffy, 2004). We discuss characteristics of effective PD that…

  19. Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.

  20. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil Adger, W.; Vincent, K.

    2005-01-01

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. (authors)

  1. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval: Semantics, Context, and Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissi......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous...... submissions. The papers cover topics of state of the art contributions, features and classification, location context, language and semantics, music retrieval, and adaption and HCI....

  2. Genomics and fish adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Antunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The completion of the human genome sequencing in 2003 opened a new perspective into the importance of whole genome sequencing projects, and currently multiple species are having their genomes completed sequenced, from simple organisms, such as bacteria, to more complex taxa, such as mammals. This voluminous sequencing data generated across multiple organisms provides also the framework to better understand the genetic makeup of such species and related ones, allowing to explore the genetic changes underlining the evolution of diverse phenotypic traits. Here, recent results from our group retrieved from comparative evolutionary genomic analyses of varied fish species will be considered to exemplify how gene novelty and gene enhancement by positive selection might have been determinant in the success of adaptive radiations into diverse habitats and lifestyles.

  3. Adaptation to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmin, J.; Tierney, K.; Chu, E.; Hunter, L.M.; Roberts, J.T.; Shi, L.; Dunlap, R.E.; Brulle, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change adaptation involves major global and societal challenges such as finding adequate and equitable adaptation funding and integrating adaptation and development programs. Current funding is insufficient. Debates between the Global North and South center on how best to allocate the

  4. Adaptation and Cultural Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormrod, Richard K.

    1992-01-01

    Explores the role of adaptation in cultural diffusion. Explains that adaptation theory recognizes the lack of independence between innovations and their environmental settings. Discusses testing and selection, modification, motivation, and cognition. Suggests that adaptation effects are pervasive in cultural diffusion but require a broader, more…

  5. Adaptive user interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    This book describes techniques for designing and building adaptive user interfaces developed in the large AID project undertaken by the contributors.Key Features* Describes one of the few large-scale adaptive interface projects in the world* Outlines the principles of adaptivity in human-computer interaction

  6. Hippocampal neurochemical changes in senescent mice induced with chronic injection of D-galactose and NaNO₂: an in vitro high-resolution NMR spectroscopy study at 9.4T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lin

    Full Text Available Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS has been used to provide useful information about the neurochemical changes reflecting early pathological alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD brain. In this study, we have longitudinally measured the hippocampal neurochemical profile in vitro in senescent mice induced with chronic injection of D-Galactose and NaNO₂, at different time point from day 30 to day 70 with a 10-day interval. Pathological brain alterations induced by D-Galactose and NaNO₂ were monitored through hematoxylin and eosin (HE staining, Congo red staining and bielschowsky silver staining, and the cognition deficits were assessed via Morris Water Maze (MWM test. This D-galactose and NaNO₂ treated mouse model, characterized by an early-onset memory dysfunction, a robust neuronal loss, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in hippocampal subdivision, well mimics a prodromal Alzheimer's phenotype. Consistent with previously published in vivo ¹H MRS findings in human AD patients and AD transgenic mice, our in vitro ¹H MRS on the perchloric acid extractions of hippocampus in senescent mice observed significant decreases of N-acetylaspartate (NAA and Glutamate (Glu but an increase in Myo-inositol (mIns. Elevated mIns occurred prior to the reduction of NAA and Glu during the progression of aging. In addition, changes in mIns, NAA and Glu were found to precede pathological abnormalities. Overall, our in vitro findings in senescent mice validated the concept that hippocampal neurochemical alternations preceded the pathological changes of the brain, and could serve as potential markers of AD progression. Reductions of NAA and Glu can be interpreted in terms of neuronal degeneration and dysfunctions in glutamatergic activity that may contribute to the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying AD. Elevated mIns might be related to glial activation. Further experiments are needed to explore the potential value of mIns in the

  7. Investigación neuroquímica cerebral y aplicación preventiva para la reducción de los índices de criminalidad/Neurochemical brain research and it’s preventive application to reduce the crime statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Tieghi (Argentina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigación neuroquímica cerebral y aplicación preventiva para la reducción de los índices de criminalidad Neurochemical brain research and it’s preventive application to reduce the crime statistics

  8. Study protocol for the SMART2D adaptive implementation trial: a cluster randomised trial comparing facility-only care with integrated facility and community care to improve type 2 diabetes outcomes in Uganda, South Africa and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guwatudde, David; Absetz, Pilvikki; Delobelle, Peter; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Olmen Van, Josefien; Alvesson, Helle Molsted; Mayega, Roy William; Ekirapa Kiracho, Elizabeth; Kiguli, Juliet; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Sanders, David; Tomson, Göran; Puoane, Thandi; Peterson, Stefan; Daivadanam, Meena

    2018-03-17

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasingly contributing to the global burden of disease. Health systems in most parts of the world are struggling to diagnose and manage T2D, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, and among disadvantaged populations in high-income countries. The aim of this study is to determine the added benefit of community interventions onto health facility interventions, towards glycaemic control among persons with diabetes, and towards reduction in plasma glucose among persons with prediabetes. An adaptive implementation cluster randomised trial is being implemented in two rural districts in Uganda with three clusters per study arm, in an urban township in South Africa with one cluster per study arm, and in socially disadvantaged suburbs in Stockholm, Sweden with one cluster per study arm. Clusters are communities within the catchment areas of participating primary healthcare facilities. There are two study arms comprising a facility plus community interventions arm and a facility-only interventions arm. Uganda has a third arm comprising usual care. Intervention strategies focus on organisation of care, linkage between health facility and the community, and strengthening patient role in self-management, community mobilisation and a supportive environment. Among T2D participants, the primary outcome is controlled plasma glucose; whereas among prediabetes participants the primary outcome is reduction in plasma glucose. The study has received approval in Uganda from the Higher Degrees, Research and Ethics Committee of Makerere University School of Public Health and from the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology; in South Africa from the Biomedical Science Research Ethics Committee of the University of the Western Cape; and in Sweden from the Regional Ethical Board in Stockholm. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and scientific meetings. ISRCTN11913581; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their

  9. Behavioural strategy: Adaptability context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piórkowska Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is embedded in the following fields: strategic management in terms of behavioural strategy concept, adaptability construct, and micro-foundations realm as well as organizational theory and psychology. Moreover, the paper concerns to some extent a multi-level approach in strategic management involving individual, team, and organizational level. The aim of the paper is to contribute to extend, on one hand, the ascertainment set in the field of behavioural strategy as behavioural strategy encompasses a mindboggling diversity of topics and methods and its conceptual unity has been hard to achieve (Powell, Lovallo, Fox 2011, p. 1371, and on the other hand, to order mixed approaches to adaptability especially to gain insights on micro-level adapting processes (individual adaptability and adaptive performance in terms of the multi-level approach. The method that has been used is literature studies and the interference is mostly deductive. The structure of the manuscript is four-fold. The first part involves the considerations in the field of adaptability and adaptive performance at the individual level. The issues of adaptability and adaptive performance at the team level have been presented in the second part. The third part encompasses the organizational adaptability assertions. Finally, the conclusion, limitations of the considerations highlighted as well as the future research directions have been emphasized. The overarching key finding is that the behavioural strategy concept may constitute the boundary spanner in exploring and explaining adaptability phenomenon at different levels of analysis.

  10. Molecular evolution and thermal adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peiqiu

    2011-12-01

    In this thesis, we address problems in molecular evolution, thermal adaptation, and the kinetics of adaptation of bacteria and viruses to elevated environmental temperatures. We use a nearly neutral fitness model where the replication speed of an organism is proportional to the copy number of folded proteins. Our model reproduces the distribution of stabilities of natural proteins in excellent agreement with experiment. We find that species with high mutation rates tend to have less stable proteins compared to species with low mutation rate. We found that a broad distribution of protein stabilities observed in the model and in experiment is the key determinant of thermal response for viruses and bacteria. Our results explain most of the earlier experimental observations: striking asymmetry of thermal response curves, the absence of evolutionary trade-off which was expected but not found in experiments, correlation between denaturation temperature for several protein families and the Optimal Growth Temperature (OGT) of their carrier organisms, and proximity of bacterial or viral OGTs to their evolutionary temperatures. Our theory quantitatively and with high accuracy described thermal response curves for 35 bacterial species. The model also addresses the key to adaptation is in weak-link genes (WLG), which encode least thermodynamically stable essential proteins in the proteome. We observe, as in experiment, a two-stage adaptation process. The first stage is a Luria-Delbruck type of selection, whereby rare WLG alleles, whose proteins are more stable than WLG proteins of the majority of the population (either due to standing genetic variation or due to an early acquired mutation), rapidly rise to fixation. The second stage constitutes subsequent slow accumulation of mutations in an adapted population. As adaptation progresses, selection regime changes from positive to neutral: Selection coefficient of beneficial mutations scales as a negative power of number of

  11. Whole-Body High-Intensity Interval Training Induce Similar Cardiorespiratory Adaptations Compared With Traditional High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Z; Pinto, Stephanie S; Silva, Mariana R; Dolinski, Davi B; Alberton, Cristine L

    2018-05-07

    Schaun, GZ, Pinto, SS, Silva, MR, Dolinski, DB, and Alberton, CL. Sixteen weeks of whole-body high-intensity interval training induce similar cardiorespiratory responses compared with traditional high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols that use the body weight as resistance could be an interesting and inexpensive alternative to traditional ergometer-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT-T) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). Therefore, our aim was to compare the effects of 16 weeks of whole-body HIIT (HIIT-WB), HIIT-T, and MICT on maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), second ventilatory threshold (VT2), and running economy (RE) outcomes. Fifty-five healthy men (23.7 ± 0.7 years, 1.79 ± 0.01 m, 78.5 ± 1.7 kg) were randomized into 3 training groups (HIIT-T = 17; HIIT-WB = 19; MICT = 19) for 16 weeks (3× per week). The HIIT-T group performed eight 20-second bouts at 130% of the velocity associated to V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max) interspersed by 10-second passive recovery on a treadmill, whereas HIIT-WB group performed the same protocol but used calisthenics exercises at an all-out intensity instead of treadmill running. Finally, MICT group exercised for 30 minutes at 90-95% of the heart rate (HR) associated to VT2. After the intervention, all groups improved V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, time to exhaustion (Tmax), VT2, velocity associated with VT2 (vVT2), and time to reach VT2 (tVT2) significantly (p HIIT-T compared with HIIT-WB (p HIIT-WB can be as effective as traditional HIIT while also being time-efficient compared with MICT to improve health-related outcomes after 16 weeks of training. However, HIIT-T and MICT seem preferable to enhance performance-related outcomes compared with HIIT-WB.

  12. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  13. Adaptive protection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sitharthan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at modelling an electronically coupled distributed energy resource with an adaptive protection scheme. The electronically coupled distributed energy resource is a microgrid framework formed by coupling the renewable energy source electronically. Further, the proposed adaptive protection scheme provides a suitable protection to the microgrid for various fault conditions irrespective of the operating mode of the microgrid: namely, grid connected mode and islanded mode. The outstanding aspect of the developed adaptive protection scheme is that it monitors the microgrid and instantly updates relay fault current according to the variations that occur in the system. The proposed adaptive protection scheme also employs auto reclosures, through which the proposed adaptive protection scheme recovers faster from the fault and thereby increases the consistency of the microgrid. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive protection is studied through the time domain simulations carried out in the PSCAD⧹EMTDC software environment.

  14. Technology transfer for adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

  15. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  16. Adapting comics to storyboard language

    OpenAIRE

    Manhães Ricardo; Milton Luiz Horn Vieira; Carolina Cesar Coral

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the practical differences between the language of comics and the storyboard, in adapting a format to the other. The result of this adjustment will be applied in an animation. Graphics solutions used in each of these languages, the expression of their contents, were compared descriptively. Features such as the horizontal format, the vignette, audio, kinetic figures, visual metaphors and subtitles, when placed side by side, highlight the differences and similarities betwee...

  17. METHOD OF ADAPTIVE MAGNETOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Rudyk, Valentine Yu.; Tereshchenko, Mykola F.; Rudyk, Tatiana A.

    2016-01-01

    Practical realization of adaptive control in magnetotherapy apparatus acquires an actual importance on the modern stage of development of magnetotherapy.The structural scheme of method of adaptive impulsive magnetotherapy and algorithm of adaptive control of feed-back signal during procedure of magnetotherapy is represented.A feed-back in magnetotherapy complex will be realized with control of magnetic induction and analysis of man's physiological indexes (temperature, pulse, blood prassure, ...

  18. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Angeler

    Full Text Available The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011 data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  19. Adaptation in Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yuhai; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2018-03-01

    Adaptation refers to the biological phenomenon where living systems change their internal states in response to changes in their environments in order to maintain certain key functions critical for their survival and fitness. Adaptation is one of the most ubiquitous and arguably one of the most fundamental properties of living systems. It occurs throughout all biological scales, from adaptation of populations of species over evolutionary time to adaptation of a single cell to different environmental stresses during its life span. In this article, we review some of the recent progress made in understanding molecular mechanisms of cellular-level adaptation. We take the minimalist (or the physicist) approach and study the simplest systems that exhibit generic adaptive behaviors, namely chemotaxis in bacterium cells (Escherichia coli) and eukaryotic cells (Dictyostelium). We focus on understanding the basic biochemical interaction networks that are responsible for adaptation dynamics. By combining theoretical modeling with quantitative experimentation, we demonstrate universal features in adaptation as well as important differences in different cellular systems. Future work in extending the modeling framework to study adaptation in more complex systems such as sensory neurons is also discussed.

  20. The purpose of adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andy

    2017-10-06

    A central feature of Darwin's theory of natural selection is that it explains the purpose of biological adaptation. Here, I: emphasize the scientific importance of understanding what adaptations are for, in terms of facilitating the derivation of empirically testable predictions; discuss the population genetical basis for Darwin's theory of the purpose of adaptation, with reference to Fisher's 'fundamental theorem of natural selection'; and show that a deeper understanding of the purpose of adaptation is achieved in the context of social evolution, with reference to inclusive fitness and superorganisms.

  1. Teaching Mathematical Biology in High School Using Adapted Primary Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Stelnicki, Nathan; de Vries, Gerda

    2012-01-01

    The study compared the effect of two adaptations of a scientific article on students' comprehension and use of scientific inquiry skills. One adaptation preserved as much as possible the canonical form of the original article (APL, Adapted Primary Literature) and the other was written in a more narrative mode typical of secondary literature (SL).…

  2. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold.

  3. Time-adaptive and history-adaptive multicriterion routing in stochastic, time-dependent networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretolani, Daniele; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2009-01-01

    We compare two different models for multicriterion routing in stochastic time-dependent networks: the classic "time-adaptive'' model and the more flexible "history-adaptive'' one. We point out several properties of the sets of efficient solutions found under the two models. We also devise a method...

  4. Development of Adaptability and Value Orientations of Kazakh Students in the course of Sociocultural Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z V Boyko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the results of research of adaptability and value orientations in students from Kazakhstan. The peculiarities of adaptability and value orientations of the first and fourth courses Kazakh students in their first and fourth years at university, living in Russia, are compared in the article.

  5. Recruitment dynamics in adaptive social networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkarayev, Maxim S; Shaw, Leah B; Schwartz, Ira B

    2013-01-01

    We model recruitment in adaptive social networks in the presence of birth and death processes. Recruitment is characterized by nodes changing their status to that of the recruiting class as a result of contact with recruiting nodes. Only a susceptible subset of nodes can be recruited. The recruiting individuals may adapt their connections in order to improve recruitment capabilities, thus changing the network structure adaptively. We derive a mean-field theory to predict the dependence of the growth threshold of the recruiting class on the adaptation parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of adaptation on the recruitment level, as well as on network topology. The theoretical predictions are compared with direct simulations of the full system. We identify two parameter regimes with qualitatively different bifurcation diagrams depending on whether nodes become susceptible frequently (multiple times in their lifetime) or rarely (much less than once per lifetime). (paper)

  6. Recruitment dynamics in adaptive social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkarayev, Maxim S.; Schwartz, Ira B.; Shaw, Leah B.

    2013-06-01

    We model recruitment in adaptive social networks in the presence of birth and death processes. Recruitment is characterized by nodes changing their status to that of the recruiting class as a result of contact with recruiting nodes. Only a susceptible subset of nodes can be recruited. The recruiting individuals may adapt their connections in order to improve recruitment capabilities, thus changing the network structure adaptively. We derive a mean-field theory to predict the dependence of the growth threshold of the recruiting class on the adaptation parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of adaptation on the recruitment level, as well as on network topology. The theoretical predictions are compared with direct simulations of the full system. We identify two parameter regimes with qualitatively different bifurcation diagrams depending on whether nodes become susceptible frequently (multiple times in their lifetime) or rarely (much less than once per lifetime).

  7. Adaptive Sliding Mode Observer for a Class of Systems

    OpenAIRE

    D.Elleuch; T.Damak

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of two adaptive observers applied to interconnected systems is studied. The nonlinearity of systems can be written in a fractional form. The first adaptive observer is an adaptive sliding mode observer for a Lipchitz nonlinear system and the second one is an adaptive sliding mode observer having a filtered error as a sliding surface. After comparing their performances throughout the inverted pendulum mounted on a car system, it was shown tha...

  8. Management for adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Innes; Linda A. Joyce; Seppo Kellomaki; Bastiaan Louman; Aynslie Ogden; Ian Thompson; Matthew Ayres; Chin Ong; Heru Santoso; Brent Sohngen; Anita Wreford

    2009-01-01

    This chapter develops a framework to explore examples of adaptation options that could be used to ensure that the ecosystem services provided by forests are maintained under future climates. The services are divided into broad areas within which managers can identify specific management goals for individual forests or landscapes. Adaptation options exist for the major...

  9. Introduction: Adapting Idols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Bruin; dr. Koos Zwaan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction book Adapting Idols Since the first series of Pop Idol aired in the UK just over a decade ago, Idols television shows have been broadcast in more than forty countries all over the world. In all those countries the global Idols format has been adapted to local cultures and production

  10. Transition and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Stefan Bastholm

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses how Danish farm families adapted to harsh and changing conditions in the period after the great western agricultural crisis in the early 1980s. Drawing on Bourdieu's concepts of habitus and adaptation, I analyse the creation and consolidation of different class fractions amo...

  11. Adaptive Wavelet Transforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szu, H.; Hsu, C. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

  12. Successfully Adapting to Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes methods used to successfully adapt to reductions in budget allocations in the University of Utah's Instructional Media Services Department. Three main areas of concern are addressed: morale and staff development; adapting to change in the areas of funding, control, media priorities, and technology; and planning for the future. (LRW)

  13. Behavioral Adaptation and Acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of Intelligent Vehicles is to improve road safety, throughput, and emissions. However, the predicted effects are not always as large as aimed for. Part of this is due to indirect behavioral changes of drivers, also called behavioral adaptation. Behavioral adaptation (BA) refers to

  14. Human pathogen avoidance adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, researchers have become increasingly interested in the adaptations guiding the avoidance of disease-causing organisms. Here we discuss the latest developments in this area, including a recently developed information-processing model of the adaptations underlying pathogen

  15. Financing climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwer, L.M.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the topic of financing adaptation in future climate change policies. A major question is whether adaptation in developing countries should be financed under the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), or whether funding should come from other sources.

  16. Turbine system and adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogberg, Nicholas Alvin; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2017-05-30

    A turbine system and adapter are disclosed. The adapter includes a turbine attachment portion having a first geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a wheelpost of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion having a second geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a root portion of a non-metallic turbine bucket. Another adapter includes a turbine attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of wheelposts of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of non-metallic turbine buckets having single dovetail configuration root portions. The turbine system includes a turbine rotor wheel configured to receive metal buckets, at least one adapter secured to at least one wheelpost on the turbine rotor wheel, and at least one non-metallic bucket secured to the at least one adapter.

  17. Adaptive noise cancellation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, N.

    1999-01-01

    In this report we describe the concept of adaptive noise canceling, an alternative method of estimating signals corrupted by additive noise of interference. The method uses 'primary' input containing the corrupted signal and a 'reference' input containing noise correlated in some unknown way with the primary noise, the reference input is adaptively filtered and subtracted from the primary input to obtain the signal estimate. Adaptive filtering before subtraction allows the treatment of inputs that are deterministic or stochastic, stationary or time variable. When the reference input is free of signal and certain other conditions are met then noise in the primary input can be essentially eliminated without signal distortion. It is further shown that the adaptive filter also acts as notch filter. Simulated results illustrate the usefulness of the adaptive noise canceling technique. (author)

  18. Inhabiting Adaptive Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Schnädelbach

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive Architecture concerns buildings that are specifically designed to adapt to their inhabitants and to their environments. Work in this space has a very long history, with a number of adaptive buildings emerging during the modernist period, such as Rietveld’s Schröder house, Gaudi’s Casa Batlló and Chareau's Maison de Verre. Such early work included manual adaptivity, even if that was motor-assisted. Today, buildings have started to combine this with varying degrees of automation and designed-for adaptivity is commonplace in office buildings and eco homes, where lighting, air conditioning, access and energy generation respond to and influence the behaviour of people, and the internal and external climate.

  19. Appraising Adaptive Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai N. Lee

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive management is appraised as a policy implementation approach by examining its conceptual, technical, equity, and practical strengths and limitations. Three conclusions are drawn: (1 Adaptive management has been more influential, so far, as an idea than as a practical means of gaining insight into the behavior of ecosystems utilized and inhabited by humans. (2 Adaptive management should be used only after disputing parties have agreed to an agenda of questions to be answered using the adaptive approach; this is not how the approach has been used. (3 Efficient, effective social learning, of the kind facilitated by adaptive management, is likely to be of strategic importance in governing ecosystems as humanity searches for a sustainable economy.

  20. Adaptive signal processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, H.V.

    1980-07-01

    An experimental, general purpose adaptive signal processor system has been developed, utilizing a quantized (clipped) version of the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-square adaptive algorithm developed by Moschner. The system accommodates 64 adaptive weight channels with 8-bit resolution for each weight. Internal weight update arithmetic is performed with 16-bit resolution, and the system error signal is measured with 12-bit resolution. An adapt cycle of adjusting all 64 weight channels is accomplished in 8 ..mu..sec. Hardware of the signal processor utilizes primarily Schottky-TTL type integrated circuits. A prototype system with 24 weight channels has been constructed and tested. This report presents details of the system design and describes basic experiments performed with the prototype signal processor. Finally some system configurations and applications for this adaptive signal processor are discussed.

  1. Adaptive signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, H.V.

    1980-07-01

    An experimental, general purpose adaptive signal processor system has been developed, utilizing a quantized (clipped) version of the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-square adaptive algorithm developed by Moschner. The system accommodates 64 adaptive weight channels with 8-bit resolution for each weight. Internal weight update arithmetic is performed with 16-bit resolution, and the system error signal is measured with 12-bit resolution. An adapt cycle of adjusting all 64 weight channels is accomplished in 8 μsec. Hardware of the signal processor utilizes primarily Schottky-TTL type integrated circuits. A prototype system with 24 weight channels has been constructed and tested. This report presents details of the system design and describes basic experiments performed with the prototype signal processor. Finally some system configurations and applications for this adaptive signal processor are discussed

  2. 75 FR 57859 - Specially Adapted Housing and Special Home Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Home Adaptation AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of... specially adapted housing and special home adaptation grants. This final rule incorporates certain... regulations pertaining to eligibility for specially adapted housing (SAH) grants and special home adaptation...

  3. Hospital Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Compare has information about the quality of care at over 4,000 Medicare-certified hospitals across the country. You can use Hospital Compare to find...

  4. Introduction to adaptive arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept

  5. [Adaptive optics for ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, M

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. Adaptive optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. Adaptive optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Wenkai; Yin Fangfang

    2004-01-01

    Algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART) are iterative procedures for reconstructing objects from their projections. It is proven that ART can be computationally efficient by carefully arranging the order in which the collected data are accessed during the reconstruction procedure and adaptively adjusting the relaxation parameters. In this paper, an adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique (AART), which adopts the same projection access scheme in multilevel scheme algebraic reconstruction technique (MLS-ART), is proposed. By introducing adaptive adjustment of the relaxation parameters during the reconstruction procedure, one-iteration AART can produce reconstructions with better quality, in comparison with one-iteration MLS-ART. Furthermore, AART outperforms MLS-ART with improved computational efficiency

  7. The process of organisational adaptation through innovations, and organisational adaptability

    OpenAIRE

    Tikka, Tommi

    2010-01-01

    This study is about the process of organisational adaptation and organisational adaptability. The study generates a theoretical framework about organisational adaptation behaviour and conditions that have influence on success of organisational adaptation. The research questions of the study are: How does an organisation adapt through innovations, and which conditions enhance or impede organisational adaptation through innovations? The data were gathered from five case organisations withi...

  8. Adaptive digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms.   The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...

  9. Adaptive Trajectory Design

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Adaptive Trajectory Design (ATD) is an original concept for quick and efficient end-to-end trajectory designs using proven piece-wise dynamical methods. With ongoing...

  10. Radio-adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takaji

    1991-01-01

    An adaptive response to radiation stress was found in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells, as a suppressed induction of micronuclei (MNs) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in the cells conditioned by very low doses. The important characteristics of the novel chromosomal response, called radio-adaptive response (RAR), that have newly emerged in this study are: 1) Low doses of beta-rays from tritiated water (HTO) as well as tritiated thymidine can cause the RAR. 2) Thermal neutrons, a high LET radiation, can not act as tritium beta-rays or gamma-rays. 3) The RAR expression is suppressed by an inhibition of protein synthesis. 4) Several proteins are newly synthesized concurrently with the RAR expression after adapting doses, viewed by two-dimensional electrophoresis of cellular proteins. These results suggest that the RAR is an adaptive chromosomal DNA repair induced by very low doses of low LET radiations under restricted conditions, accompanying the inducible specific gene expression. (author)

  11. Adaptations in Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff

    2017-01-01

    2010). Such adaptations make use of different strategies for capturing the various aspects of their source. Talisman: Digital Edition (Nomad Games 2014) largely adopts the same primary mechanics of the board game Talisman (Fantasy Flight Games 2008) while StarCraft: The Board Game (Fantasy Flight Games...... from television or cinema (Woods 2012). Furthermore, since the early days of digital games, tabletop games have served as a source of inspiration for many video-game designers, and more recently we have seen the occurrence of tabletop game adaptations of popular video-games such as StarCraft (Blizzard...... similarities and differences equally and thus challenges the ‘ideology of fidelity’ that has long permeated the field of adaption studies. This presentation explores adaptations between digital and non-digital games. This analysis is inspired by intermedial studies (e.g. Elleström 2010) that distinguishes...

  12. Adaptive Processes in Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth

    2018-01-01

    , and is essential to achieve successful speech communication, correct orientation in our full environment, and eventually survival. These adaptive processes may differ in individuals with hearing loss, whose auditory system may cope via ‘‘readapting’’ itself over a longer time scale to the changes in sensory input...... induced by hearing impairment and the compensation provided by hearing devices. These devices themselves are now able to adapt to the listener’s individual environment, attentional state, and behavior. These topics related to auditory adaptation, in the broad sense of the term, were central to the 6th...... International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2017. The symposium addressed adaptive processes in hearing from different angles, together with a wide variety of other auditory and audiological topics. The papers in this special issue result from some...

  13. Adaptation and Influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    on influence. These two dimensions - adaptation and influence - result in four ideal types: business-dominated social compromise, imposed social compromise, business dominance, and political confrontation. Examples from German welfare state history illustrate these four types. The paper suggests...

  14. Adapt or Die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the role non-adaptivity plays in maintaining dynamic data structures. Roughly speaking, a data structure is non-adaptive if the memory locations it reads and/or writes when processing a query or update depend only on the query or update and not on the contents of previously...... read cells. We study such non-adaptive data structures in the cell probe model. This model is one of the least restrictive lower bound models and in particular, cell probe lower bounds apply to data structures developed in the popular word-RAM model. Unfortunately, this generality comes at a high cost......: the highest lower bound proved for any data structure problem is only polylogarithmic. Our main result is to demonstrate that one can in fact obtain polynomial cell probe lower bounds for non-adaptive data structures. To shed more light on the seemingly inherent polylogarithmic lower bound barrier, we study...

  15. Adaptive memory: the comparative value of survival processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairne, James S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S; Thompson, Sarah R

    2008-02-01

    We recently proposed that human memory systems are "tuned" to remember information that is processed for survival, perhaps as a result of fitness advantages accrued in the ancestral past. This proposal was supported by experiments in which participants showed superior memory when words were rated for survival relevance, at least relative to when words received other forms of deep processing. The current experiments tested the mettle of survival memory by pitting survival processing against conditions that are universally accepted as producing excellent retention, including conditions in which participants rated words for imagery, pleasantness, and self-reference; participants also generated words, studied words with the intention of learning them, or rated words for relevance to a contextually rich (but non-survival-related) scenario. Survival processing yielded the best retention, which suggests that it may be one of the best encoding procedures yet discovered in the memory field.

  16. Comparative study of Moore and Mealy machine models adaptation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and Communications Technology has influenced the need for automated machines that can carry out important production procedures and, automata models are among the computational models used in design and construction of industrial processes. The production process of the popular African Black Soap ...

  17. comparative study of moore and mealy machine models adaptation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    automata model was developed for ABS manufacturing process using Moore and Mealy Finite State Machines. Simulation ... The simulation results showed that the Mealy Machine is faster than the Moore ..... random numbers from MATLAB.

  18. Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye

    2014-01-01

    Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, ...

  19. Adaptive Multilevel Monte Carlo Simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, H; von Schwerin, E; Szepessy, A; Tempone, Raul

    2011-01-01

    . An adaptive algorithm for ordinary, stochastic and partial differential equations. In Recent advances in adaptive computation, volume 383 of Contemp. Math., pages 325–343. Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2005.). This form of the adaptive algorithm generates

  20. Separate Turbo Code and Single Turbo Code Adaptive OFDM Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of adaptive modulation and adaptive rate turbo coding to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM, to increase throughput on the time and frequency selective channel. The adaptive turbo code scheme is based on a subband adaptive method, and compares two adaptive systems: a conventional approach where a separate turbo code is used for each subband, and a single turbo code adaptive system which uses a single turbo code over all subbands. Five modulation schemes (BPSK, QPSK, 8AMPM, 16QAM, and 64QAM are employed and turbo code rates considered are 1/2 and 1/3. The performances of both systems with high (10−2 and low (10−4 BER targets are compared. Simulation results for throughput and BER show that the single turbo code adaptive system provides a significant improvement.

  1. Separate Turbo Code and Single Turbo Code Adaptive OFDM Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burr Alister

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper discusses the application of adaptive modulation and adaptive rate turbo coding to orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM, to increase throughput on the time and frequency selective channel. The adaptive turbo code scheme is based on a subband adaptive method, and compares two adaptive systems: a conventional approach where a separate turbo code is used for each subband, and a single turbo code adaptive system which uses a single turbo code over all subbands. Five modulation schemes (BPSK, QPSK, 8AMPM, 16QAM, and 64QAM are employed and turbo code rates considered are and . The performances of both systems with high ( and low ( BER targets are compared. Simulation results for throughput and BER show that the single turbo code adaptive system provides a significant improvement.

  2. Climate Adaptation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, M.; McGlade, J.; Verschoor, M.; Isoard, S.; Anema, K.; Boer, J.; Cowan, C.; Collins, R.; Smeets, M.

    2009-01-01

    At the Conference of Parties in Copenhagen, Denmark, December 7-18, 2009 Change Magazine will present a special issue on 'Climate Adaptation in Europe'. The magazine contains articles on climate policy strategies in European countries and cross-border studies on climate change, articles on climate adaptation in the Alps, on water quality as a bottleneck for the agricultural sector, and drought in the mediterranean countries. How will member countries in the European Union tackle the climate crisis?.

  3. Network and adaptive sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arijit

    2014-01-01

    Combining the two statistical techniques of network sampling and adaptive sampling, this book illustrates the advantages of using them in tandem to effectively capture sparsely located elements in unknown pockets. It shows how network sampling is a reliable guide in capturing inaccessible entities through linked auxiliaries. The text also explores how adaptive sampling is strengthened in information content through subsidiary sampling with devices to mitigate unmanageable expanding sample sizes. Empirical data illustrates the applicability of both methods.

  4. The Climate Adaptation Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Climate adaptation has emerged as a mainstream risk management strategy for assisting in maintaining socio-ecological systems within the boundaries of a safe operating space. Yet, there are limits to the ability of systems to adapt. Here, we introduce the concept of an adaptation frontier , which is defined as a socio-ecological system s transitional adaptive operating space between safe and unsafe domains. A number of driving forces are responsible for determining the sustainability of systems on the frontier. These include path dependence, adaptation/development deficits, values conflicts and discounting of future loss and damage. The cumulative implications of these driving forces are highly uncertain. Nevertheless, the fact that a broad range of systems already persist at the edge of their frontiers suggests a high likelihood that some limits will eventually be exceeded. The resulting system transformation is likely to manifest as anticipatory modification of management objectives or loss and damage. These outcomes vary significantly with respect to their ethical implications. Successful navigation of the adaptation frontier will necessitate new paradigms of risk governance to elicit knowledge that encourages reflexive reevaluation of societal values that enable or constrain sustainability.

  5. Learning to Adapt. Organisational Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.; Hertin, J.; Gann, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of human adaptation to climate change should be based on realistic models of adaptive behaviour at the level of organisations and individuals. The paper sets out a framework for analysing adaptation to the direct and indirect impacts of climate change in business organisations with new evidence presented from empirical research into adaptation in nine case-study companies. It argues that adaptation to climate change has many similarities with processes of organisational learning. The paper suggests that business organisations face a number of obstacles in learning how to adapt to climate change impacts, especially in relation to the weakness and ambiguity of signals about climate change and the uncertainty about benefits flowing from adaptation measures. Organisations rarely adapt 'autonomously', since their adaptive behaviour is influenced by policy and market conditions, and draws on resources external to the organisation. The paper identifies four adaptation strategies that pattern organisational adaptive behaviour

  6. Polyploidy can drive rapid adaptation in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmecki, Anna M.; Maruvka, Yosef E.; Richmond, Phillip A.; Guillet, Marie; Shoresh, Noam; Sorenson, Amber L.; de, Subhajyoti; Kishony, Roy; Michor, Franziska; Dowell, Robin; Pellman, David

    2015-03-01

    Polyploidy is observed across the tree of life, yet its influence on evolution remains incompletely understood. Polyploidy, usually whole-genome duplication, is proposed to alter the rate of evolutionary adaptation. This could occur through complex effects on the frequency or fitness of beneficial mutations. For example, in diverse cell types and organisms, immediately after a whole-genome duplication, newly formed polyploids missegregate chromosomes and undergo genetic instability. The instability following whole-genome duplications is thought to provide adaptive mutations in microorganisms and can promote tumorigenesis in mammalian cells. Polyploidy may also affect adaptation independently of beneficial mutations through ploidy-specific changes in cell physiology. Here we perform in vitro evolution experiments to test directly whether polyploidy can accelerate evolutionary adaptation. Compared with haploids and diploids, tetraploids undergo significantly faster adaptation. Mathematical modelling suggests that rapid adaptation of tetraploids is driven by higher rates of beneficial mutations with stronger fitness effects, which is supported by whole-genome sequencing and phenotypic analyses of evolved clones. Chromosome aneuploidy, concerted chromosome loss, and point mutations all provide large fitness gains. We identify several mutations whose beneficial effects are manifest specifically in the tetraploid strains. Together, these results provide direct quantitative evidence that in some environments polyploidy can accelerate evolutionary adaptation.

  7. Epidemic spreading on preferred degree adaptive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolad, Shivakumar; Liu, Wenjia; Schmittmann, B; Zia, R K P

    2012-01-01

    We study the standard SIS model of epidemic spreading on networks where individuals have a fluctuating number of connections around a preferred degree κ. Using very simple rules for forming such preferred degree networks, we find some unusual statistical properties not found in familiar Erdös-Rényi or scale free networks. By letting κ depend on the fraction of infected individuals, we model the behavioral changes in response to how the extent of the epidemic is perceived. In our models, the behavioral adaptations can be either 'blind' or 'selective'--depending on whether a node adapts by cutting or adding links to randomly chosen partners or selectively, based on the state of the partner. For a frozen preferred network, we find that the infection threshold follows the heterogeneous mean field result λ(c)/μ = / and the phase diagram matches the predictions of the annealed adjacency matrix (AAM) approach. With 'blind' adaptations, although the epidemic threshold remains unchanged, the infection level is substantially affected, depending on the details of the adaptation. The 'selective' adaptive SIS models are most interesting. Both the threshold and the level of infection changes, controlled not only by how the adaptations are implemented but also how often the nodes cut/add links (compared to the time scales of the epidemic spreading). A simple mean field theory is presented for the selective adaptations which capture the qualitative and some of the quantitative features of the infection phase diagram.

  8. Adaptive control of a Stewart platform-based manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Antrazi, Sami S.; Zhou, Zhen-Lei; Campbell, Charles E., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A joint-space adaptive control scheme for controlling noncompliant motion of a Stewart platform-based manipulator (SPBM) was implemented in the Hardware Real-Time Emulator at Goddard Space Flight Center. The six-degrees of freedom SPBM uses two platforms and six linear actuators driven by dc motors. The adaptive control scheme is based on proportional-derivative controllers whose gains are adjusted by an adaptation law based on model reference adaptive control and Liapunov direct method. It is concluded that the adaptive control scheme provides superior tracking capability as compared to fixed-gain controllers.

  9. Adaptive Reactive Rich Internet Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kay-Uwe; Stühmer, Roland; Dörflinger, Jörg; Rahmani, Tirdad; Thomas, Susan; Stojanovic, Ljiljana

    Rich Internet Applications significantly raise the user experience compared with legacy page-based Web applications because of their highly responsive user interfaces. Although this is a tremendous advance, it does not solve the problem of the one-size-fits-all approach1 of current Web applications. So although Rich Internet Applications put the user in a position to interact seamlessly with the Web application, they do not adapt to the context in which the user is currently working. In this paper we address the on-the-fly personalization of Rich Internet Applications. We introduce the concept of ARRIAs: Adaptive Reactive Rich Internet Applications and elaborate on how they are able to adapt to the current working context the user is engaged in. An architecture for the ad hoc adaptation of Rich Internet Applications is presented as well as a holistic framework and tools for the realization of our on-the-fly personalization approach. We divided both the architecture and the framework into two levels: offline/design-time and online/run-time. For design-time we explain how to use ontologies in order to annotate Rich Internet Applications and how to use these annotations for conceptual Web usage mining. Furthermore, we describe how to create client-side executable rules from the semantic data mining results. We present our declarative lightweight rule language tailored to the needs of being executed directly on the client. Because of the event-driven nature of the user interfaces of Rich Internet Applications, we designed a lightweight rule language based on the event-condition-action paradigm.2 At run-time the interactions of a user are tracked directly on the client and in real-time a user model is built up. The user model then acts as input to and is evaluated by our client-side complex event processing and rule engine.

  10. Opposition-Based Adaptive Fireworks Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chibing Gong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A fireworks algorithm (FWA is a recent swarm intelligence algorithm that is inspired by observing fireworks explosions. An adaptive fireworks algorithm (AFWA proposes additional adaptive amplitudes to improve the performance of the enhanced fireworks algorithm (EFWA. The purpose of this paper is to add opposition-based learning (OBL to AFWA with the goal of further boosting performance and achieving global optimization. Twelve benchmark functions are tested in use of an opposition-based adaptive fireworks algorithm (OAFWA. The final results conclude that OAFWA significantly outperformed EFWA and AFWA in terms of solution accuracy. Additionally, OAFWA was compared with a bat algorithm (BA, differential evolution (DE, self-adapting control parameters in differential evolution (jDE, a firefly algorithm (FA, and a standard particle swarm optimization 2011 (SPSO2011 algorithm. The research results indicate that OAFWA ranks the highest of the six algorithms for both solution accuracy and runtime cost.

  11. Adapting Activity and Participation (The ADAPT intervention program)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Cecilie

    Præsentation af et ergoterapeutisk gruppebaseret program, ADAPT programmet. ADAPT programmet er designet på baggrund af evidens samt understøttet af ergoterapeutiske teorier og modeller......Præsentation af et ergoterapeutisk gruppebaseret program, ADAPT programmet. ADAPT programmet er designet på baggrund af evidens samt understøttet af ergoterapeutiske teorier og modeller...

  12. Physician Compare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Physician Compare, which meets Affordable Care Act of 2010 requirements, helps you search for and select physicians and other healthcare professionals enrolled in...

  13. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  14. Solar Adaptive Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Thomas R; Marino, Jose

    Adaptive optics (AO) has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO) and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO) will be given. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrsp-2011-2.

  15. Solar tomography adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhao, Gang

    2014-03-10

    Conventional solar adaptive optics uses one deformable mirror (DM) and one guide star for wave-front sensing, which seriously limits high-resolution imaging over a large field of view (FOV). Recent progress toward multiconjugate adaptive optics indicates that atmosphere turbulence induced wave-front distortion at different altitudes can be reconstructed by using multiple guide stars. To maximize the performance over a large FOV, we propose a solar tomography adaptive optics (TAO) system that uses tomographic wave-front information and uses one DM. We show that by fully taking advantage of the knowledge of three-dimensional wave-front distribution, a classical solar adaptive optics with one DM can provide an extra performance gain for high-resolution imaging over a large FOV in the near infrared. The TAO will allow existing one-deformable-mirror solar adaptive optics to deliver better performance over a large FOV for high-resolution magnetic field investigation, where solar activities occur in a two-dimensional field up to 60'', and where the near infrared is superior to the visible in terms of magnetic field sensitivity.

  16. Adaptation to walking with an exoskeleton that assists ankle extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, S; Malcolm, P; Derave, W; De Clercq, D

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate adaptation to walking with bilateral ankle-foot exoskeletons with kinematic control that assisted ankle extension during push-off. We hypothesized that subjects would show a neuromotor and metabolic adaptation during a 24min walking trial with a powered exoskeleton. Nine female subjects walked on a treadmill at 1.36±0.04ms(-1) during 24min with a powered exoskeleton and 4min with an unpowered exoskeleton. Subjects showed a metabolic adaptation after 18.5±5.0min, followed by an adapted period. Metabolic cost, electromyography and kinematics were compared between the unpowered condition, the beginning of the adaptation and the adapted period. In the beginning of the adaptation (4min), a reduction in metabolic cost of 9% was found compared to the unpowered condition. This reduction was accompanied by reduced muscular activity in the plantarflexor muscles, as the powered exoskeleton delivered part of the necessary ankle extension moment. During the adaptation this metabolic reduction further increased to 16%, notwithstanding a constant exoskeleton assistance. This increased reduction is the result of a neuromotor adaptation in which subjects adapt to walking with the exoskeleton, thereby reducing muscular activity in all leg muscles. Because of the fast adaptation and the significant reductions in metabolic cost we want to highlight the potential of an ankle-foot exoskeleton with kinematic control that assists ankle extension during push-off. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Visual adaptation to thin and fat bodies transfers across identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Hummel

    Full Text Available Visual perception is highly variable and can be influenced by the surrounding world. Previous research has revealed that body perception can be biased due to adaptation to thin or fat body shapes. The aim of the present study was to show that adaptation to certain body shapes and the resulting perceptual biases transfer across different identities of adaptation and test stimuli. We designed two similar adaptation experiments in which healthy female participants adapted to pictures of either thin or fat bodies and subsequently compared more or less distorted pictures of their own body to their actual body shape. In the first experiment (n = 16 the same identity was used as adaptation and test stimuli (i.e. pictures of the participant's own body while in the second experiment (n = 16 we used pictures of unfamiliar thin or fat bodies as adaptation stimuli. We found comparable adaptation effects in both experiments: After adaptation to a thin body, participants rated a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa. We therefore assume that adaptation to certain body shapes transfers across different identities. These results raise the questions of whether some type of natural adaptation occurs in everyday life. Natural and predominant exposure to certain bodily features like body shape--especially the thin ideal in Western societies--could bias perception for these features. In this regard, further research might shed light on aspects of body dissatisfaction and the development of body image disturbances in terms of eating disorders.

  18. An Adaptive Robot Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Svenstrup, Mikael; Dalgaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal is to im......The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal...... is to improve the mental and physical state of the user by playing a physical game with the robot. Ideally, a robot game should be simple to learn but difficult to master, providing an appropriate degree of challenge for players with different skills. In order to achieve that, the robot should be able to adapt...

  19. Engineering Adaptive Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    suit the user profile the most. This paper summarizes the domain engineering framework for such adaptive web applications. The framework provides guidelines to develop adaptive web applications as members of a family. It suggests how to utilize the design artifacts as knowledge which can be used......Information and services on the web are accessible for everyone. Users of the web differ in their background, culture, political and social environment, interests and so on. Ambient intelligence was envisioned as a concept for systems which are able to adapt to user actions and needs....... With the growing amount of information and services, the web applications become natural candidates to adopt the concepts of ambient intelligence. Such applications can deal with divers user intentions and actions based on the user profile and can suggest the combination of information content and services which...

  20. Online adaptation and verification of VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crijns, Wouter, E-mail: wouter.crijns@uzleuven.be [KU Leuven Department of Oncology, Laboratory of Experimental Radiotherapy, Herestraat 49, Leuven 3000, Belgium and KU Leuven Medical Imaging Research Center, Herestraat 49, Leuven 3000 (Belgium); Defraene, Gilles; Depuydt, Tom; Haustermans, Karin [KU Leuven Department of Oncology, Laboratory of Experimental Radiotherapy, Herestraat 49, Leuven 3000 (Belgium); Van Herck, Hans [KU Leuven Medical Imaging Research Center, Herestraat 49, Leuven 3000, Belgium and KU Leuven Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), PSI, Center for Processing Speech and Images, Leuven 3000 (Belgium); Maes, Frederik [KU Leuven Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), PSI, Center for Processing Speech and Images, Leuven 3000, Belgium and KU Leuven iMinds - Medical IT Department, Leuven 3000 (Belgium); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Department of Oncology, MRC-CR-UK Gray Institute of Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: This work presents a method for fast volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) adaptation in response to interfraction anatomical variations. Additionally, plan parameters extracted from the adapted plans are used to verify the quality of these plans. The methods were tested as a prostate class solution and compared to replanning and to their current clinical practice. Methods: The proposed VMAT adaptation is an extension of their previous intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) adaptation. It follows a direct (forward) planning approach: the multileaf collimator (MLC) apertures are corrected in the beam’s eye view (BEV) and the monitor units (MUs) are corrected using point dose calculations. All MLC and MU corrections are driven by the positions of four fiducial points only, without need for a full contour set. Quality assurance (QA) of the adapted plans is performed using plan parameters that can be calculated online and that have a relation to the delivered dose or the plan quality. Five potential parameters are studied for this purpose: the number of MU, the equivalent field size (EqFS), the modulation complexity score (MCS), and the components of the MCS: the aperture area variability (AAV) and the leaf sequence variability (LSV). The full adaptation and its separate steps were evaluated in simulation experiments involving a prostate phantom subjected to various interfraction transformations. The efficacy of the current VMAT adaptation was scored by target mean dose (CTV{sub mean}), conformity (CI{sub 95%}), tumor control probability (TCP), and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). The impact of the adaptation on the plan parameters (QA) was assessed by comparison with prediction intervals (PI) derived from a statistical model of the typical variation of these parameters in a population of VMAT prostate plans (n = 63). These prediction intervals are the adaptation equivalent of the tolerance tables for couch shifts in the current clinical

  1. Online adaptation and verification of VMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crijns, Wouter; Defraene, Gilles; Depuydt, Tom; Haustermans, Karin; Van Herck, Hans; Maes, Frederik; Van den Heuvel, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This work presents a method for fast volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) adaptation in response to interfraction anatomical variations. Additionally, plan parameters extracted from the adapted plans are used to verify the quality of these plans. The methods were tested as a prostate class solution and compared to replanning and to their current clinical practice. Methods: The proposed VMAT adaptation is an extension of their previous intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) adaptation. It follows a direct (forward) planning approach: the multileaf collimator (MLC) apertures are corrected in the beam’s eye view (BEV) and the monitor units (MUs) are corrected using point dose calculations. All MLC and MU corrections are driven by the positions of four fiducial points only, without need for a full contour set. Quality assurance (QA) of the adapted plans is performed using plan parameters that can be calculated online and that have a relation to the delivered dose or the plan quality. Five potential parameters are studied for this purpose: the number of MU, the equivalent field size (EqFS), the modulation complexity score (MCS), and the components of the MCS: the aperture area variability (AAV) and the leaf sequence variability (LSV). The full adaptation and its separate steps were evaluated in simulation experiments involving a prostate phantom subjected to various interfraction transformations. The efficacy of the current VMAT adaptation was scored by target mean dose (CTV mean ), conformity (CI 95% ), tumor control probability (TCP), and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). The impact of the adaptation on the plan parameters (QA) was assessed by comparison with prediction intervals (PI) derived from a statistical model of the typical variation of these parameters in a population of VMAT prostate plans (n = 63). These prediction intervals are the adaptation equivalent of the tolerance tables for couch shifts in the current clinical practice

  2. The adaptability of teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Boer, Harry

    2006-01-01

    on the proper alignment between the structuring of the work processes and characteristics of the external context (Lawrence & Lorsch, 1967) – it provides a unique opportunity to explore the adaptation process in practice. The paper contributes to the development of contingency theory by lending support...... to the premise that “fit” between an organization’s external context and its internal structure may enhance performance, but also to the suggestion that the adaptation process may be asymmetric (Moon et al., 2004). Further, the paper contributes to practice by highlighting both the opportunities and risks...

  3. Adaptive radar resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Moo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing