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Sample records for neurobehavioral test battery

  1. Reliability and validity of neurobehavioral function on the Psychology Experimental Building Language test battery in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Brian J; Mueller, Shane T; Geerken, Alexander R; Dixon, Kyle L; Kroliczak, Gregory; Olsen, Reid H J; Miller, Jeremy K

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) software consists of over one-hundred computerized tests based on classic and novel cognitive neuropsychology and behavioral neurology measures. Although the PEBL tests are becoming more widely utilized, there is currently very limited information about the psychometric properties of these measures. Methods. Study I examined inter-relationships among nine PEBL tests including indices of motor-function (Pursuit Rotor and Dexterity), attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance and Time-Wall), working memory (Digit Span Forward), and executive-function (PEBL Trail Making Test, Berg/Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Iowa Gambling Test, and Mental Rotation) in a normative sample (N = 189, ages 18-22). Study II evaluated test-retest reliability with a two-week interest interval between administrations in a separate sample (N = 79, ages 18-22). Results. Moderate intra-test, but low inter-test, correlations were observed and ceiling/floor effects were uncommon. Sex differences were identified on the Pursuit Rotor (Cohen's d = 0.89) and Mental Rotation (d = 0.31) tests. The correlation between the test and retest was high for tests of motor learning (Pursuit Rotor time on target r = .86) and attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance response time r = .79), intermediate for memory (digit span r = .63) but lower for the executive function indices (Wisconsin/Berg Card Sorting Test perseverative errors = .45, Tower of London moves = .15). Significant practice effects were identified on several indices of executive function. Conclusions. These results are broadly supportive of the reliability and validity of individual PEBL tests in this sample. These findings indicate that the freely downloadable, open-source PEBL battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net) is a versatile research tool to study individual differences in neurocognitive performance.

  2. Reliability and validity of neurobehavioral function on the Psychology Experimental Building Language test battery in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Piper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL software consists of over one-hundred computerized tests based on classic and novel cognitive neuropsychology and behavioral neurology measures. Although the PEBL tests are becoming more widely utilized, there is currently very limited information about the psychometric properties of these measures.Methods. Study I examined inter-relationships among nine PEBL tests including indices of motor-function (Pursuit Rotor and Dexterity, attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance and Time-Wall, working memory (Digit Span Forward, and executive-function (PEBL Trail Making Test, Berg/Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Iowa Gambling Test, and Mental Rotation in a normative sample (N = 189, ages 18–22. Study II evaluated test–retest reliability with a two-week interest interval between administrations in a separate sample (N = 79, ages 18–22.Results. Moderate intra-test, but low inter-test, correlations were observed and ceiling/floor effects were uncommon. Sex differences were identified on the Pursuit Rotor (Cohen’s d = 0.89 and Mental Rotation (d = 0.31 tests. The correlation between the test and retest was high for tests of motor learning (Pursuit Rotor time on target r = .86 and attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance response time r = .79, intermediate for memory (digit span r = .63 but lower for the executive function indices (Wisconsin/Berg Card Sorting Test perseverative errors = .45, Tower of London moves = .15. Significant practice effects were identified on several indices of executive function.Conclusions. These results are broadly supportive of the reliability and validity of individual PEBL tests in this sample. These findings indicate that the freely downloadable, open-source PEBL battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net is a versatile research tool to study individual differences in neurocognitive performance.

  3. Serum neuron-specific enolase, biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function in lead-exposed workers from lead-acid battery manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravibabu, K; Barman, T; Rajmohan, H R

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function with blood lead levels in workers exposed to lead form lead-acid battery manufacturing process was not studied. To evaluate serum NSE and biogenic amino-acids (dopamine and serotonin) levels, and neurobehavioral performance among workers exposed to lead from lead-acid storage battery plant, and its relation with blood lead levels (BLLs). In a cross-sectional study, we performed biochemical and neurobehavioral function tests on 146 workers exposed to lead from lead-acid battery manufacturing process. BLLs were assessed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum NSE, dopamine and serotonin were measured by ELISA. Neurobehavioral functions were assessed by CDC-recommended tests---simple reaction time (SRT), symbol digit substitution test (SDST), and serial digit learning test (SDLT). There was a significant correlation (r 0.199, pSDLT and SRT had also a significant positive correlation (r 0.238, p<0.01). NSE had a negative correlation (r -0.194, p<0.05) with serotonin level. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both SRT and SDST had positive significant associations with BLL. SRT also had a positive significant association with age. Serum NSE cannot be used as a marker for BLL. The only domain of neurobehavioral function tests that is affected by increased BLL in workers of lead-acid battery manufacturing process is that of the "attention and perception" (SDST).

  4. Serum Neuron-Specific Enolase, Biogenic Amino-Acids and Neurobehavioral Function in Lead-Exposed Workers from Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ravibabu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The interaction between serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE, biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function with blood lead levels in workers exposed to lead form lead-acid battery manufacturing process was not studied. Objective: To evaluate serum NSE and biogenic amino-acids (dopamine and serotonin levels, and neurobehavioral performance among workers exposed to lead from lead-acid storage battery plant, and its relation with blood lead levels (BLLs. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we performed biochemical and neurobehavioral function tests on 146 workers exposed to lead from lead-acid battery manufacturing process. BLLs were assessed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum NSE, dopamine and serotonin were measured by ELISA. Neurobehavioral functions were assessed by CDC-recommended tests—simple reaction time (SRT, symbol digit substitution test (SDST, and serial digit learning test (SDLT. Results: There was a significant correlation (r 0.199, p<0.05 between SDST and BLL. SDLT and SRT had also a significant positive correlation (r 0.238, p<0.01. NSE had a negative correlation (r –0.194, p<0.05 with serotonin level. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both SRT and SDST had positive significant associations with BLL. SRT also had a positive significant association with age. Conclusion: Serum NSE cannot be used as a marker for BLL. The only domain of neurobehavioral function tests that is affected by increased BLL in workers of lead-acid battery manufacturing process is that of the “attention and perception” (SDST.

  5. Serum Neuron-Specific Enolase, Biogenic Amino-Acids and Neurobehavioral Function in Lead-Exposed Workers from Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Process

    OpenAIRE

    K Ravibabu; T Barman; HR Rajmohan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The interaction between serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function with blood lead levels in workers exposed to lead form lead-acid battery manufacturing process was not studied. Objective: To evaluate serum NSE and biogenic amino-acids (dopamine and serotonin) levels, and neurobehavioral performance among workers exposed to lead from lead-acid storage battery plant, and its relation with blood lead levels (BLLs). Methods: In a c...

  6. Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienz, Robert; Davis, Catherine; Weed, Michael; Guida, Peter; Gooden, Virginia; Brady, Joseph; Roma, Peter

    Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests INTRODUCTION Risk assessment of the biological consequences of living in the space radiation environment represents one of the highest priority areas of NASA radiation research. Of critical importance is the need for a risk assessment of damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to functional cognitive/behavioral changes during long-term space missions, and the development of effective shielding or biological countermeasures to such risks. The present research focuses on the use of an animal model that employs neurobehavioral tests identical or homologous to those currently in use in human models of risk assessment by U.S. agencies such as the Depart-ment of Defense and Federal Aviation and Federal Railroad Administrations for monitoring performance and estimating accident risks associated with such variables as fatigue and/or alcohol or drug abuse. As a first approximation for establishing human risk assessments due to exposure to space radiation, the present work provides animal performance data obtained with the rPVT (rat Psychomotor Vigilance Test), an animal analog of the human PVT that is currently employed for human risk assessments via quantification of sustained attention (e.g., 'vigilance' or 'readiness to perform' tasks). Ground-based studies indicate that radiation can induce neurobehavioral changes in rodents, including impaired performance on motor tasks and deficits in spatial learning and memory. The present study is testing the hypothesis that radiation exposure impairs motor function, performance accuracy, vigilance, motivation, and memory in adult male rats. METHODS The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was originally developed as a human cognitive neurobe-havioral assay for tracking the temporally dynamic changes in sustained attention, and has also been used to track changes in circadian rhythm. In humans the test requires responding to a small, bright

  7. Battery Post-Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Post-test diagnostics of aged batteries can provide additional information regarding the cause of performance degradation, which, previously, could be only inferred...

  8. Neurobehavioral Effects of Sodium Tungstate Exposure on Rats and Their Progeny

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mclnturf, S. M; Bekkedal, M. Y; Olabisi, A; Arfsten, D; Wilfong, E; Casavant, R; Jederberg, W; Gunasekar, P. G; Chapman, G

    2007-01-01

    ... consequences of exposure. The purpose of this study was to use a battery of tests as an initial screen for potential neurobehavioral effects that may be associated with 70 days of daily tungsten exposure via drinking water...

  9. Computer controlled testing of batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, A.C.J.; Einerhand, R.E.F.; Visscher, W.

    1989-01-01

    A computerized testing device for batteries consists of a power supply, a multiplexer circuit connected to the batteries, a protection circuit, and an IBM Data Aquisition and Control Adapter card, connected to a personal computer. The software is written in Turbo-Pascal and can be easily adapted to

  10. Open stack thermal battery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Headley, Alexander J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wong, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingersoll, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    We present selected results from a series of Open Stack thermal battery tests performed in FY14 and FY15 and discuss our findings. These tests were meant to provide validation data for the comprehensive thermal battery simulation tools currently under development in Sierra/Aria under known conditions compared with as-manufactured batteries. We are able to satisfy this original objective in the present study for some test conditions. Measurements from each test include: nominal stack pressure (axial stress) vs. time in the cold state and during battery ignition, battery voltage vs. time against a prescribed current draw with periodic pulses, and images transverse to the battery axis from which cell displacements are computed. Six battery configurations were evaluated: 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks sandwiched between 4 layers of the materials used for axial thermal insulation, either Fiberfrax Board or MinK. In addition to the results from 3, 5, and 10 cell stacks with either in-line Fiberfrax Board or MinK insulation, a series of cell-free “control” tests were performed that show the inherent settling and stress relaxation based on the interaction between the insulation and heat pellets alone.

  11. Accelerated testing of space batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccallum, J.; Thomas, R. E.; Waite, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    An accelerated life test program for space batteries is presented that fully satisfies empirical, statistical, and physical criteria for validity. The program includes thermal and other nonmechanical stress analyses as well as mechanical stress, strain, and rate of strain measurements.

  12. The relationships between pesticide metabolites and neurobehavioral test performance in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Edward F

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis was used to estimate and test for relationships between urinary pesticide metabolites and neurobehavioral test performance in adults, 20 to 59 years old, participating in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The 12 pesticide metabolites included 2 naphthols, 8 phenols, a phenoxyacetic acid, and a pyridinol. The 3 neurobehavioral tests included in the survey were simple reaction time, symbol-digit substitution, and serial digit learning. As the 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, and the pentachlorophenol concentrations increased, performance on the serial digit learning test improved. As the 2,5-dichlorophenol concentration increased, performance on the symbol-digit substitution test improved. At low concentrations, the parent compounds of these metabolites may act at acetylcholine and γ-aminobutyric acid synapses in the central nervous system to improve neurobehavioral test performance.

  13. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spangler, Scott Wilmer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  14. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  15. [Assessment for effect of low level lead-exposure on neurobehavior in workers of printing house].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Q; Dai, F; Chen, Y

    1998-11-30

    WHO Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery (NCTB) was conducted among 28 lead-exposed workers (mean age 24.84, SD2.85) in printing house and 46 controls (mean age 22.78, SD1.45), in order to assess whether low level lead exposure may be related to neurobehavioral dysfunction. The items of test were: 1. Profile of mood state(POMS), (2) Simple reaction time, (3) Digit span, (4) Santa Anna manual dexterity, (5) Digit simbol, (6) Benton visual retention; and Prusuit aiming test. In all the NCTB test values, there was no significant difference between two groups. Multiple stepwise regression analysis shows that exposure duration is related to neurobehavior scores. Mild lead exposure may affect neurobehavior in some degree but not significant.

  16. No effects of power line frequency extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on selected neurobehavior tests of workers inspecting transformers and distribution line stations versus controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xiong, De-fu; Liu, Jia-wen; Li, Zi-xin; Zeng, Guang-cheng; Li, Hua-liang

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the interference of 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) occupational exposure on the neurobehavior tests of workers performing tour-inspection close to transformers and distribution power lines. Occupational short-term "spot" measurements were carried out. 310 inspection workers and 300 logistics staff were selected as exposure and control. The neurobehavior tests were performed through computer-based neurobehavior evaluation system, including mental arithmetic, curve coincide, simple visual reaction time, visual retention, auditory digit span and pursuit aiming. In 500 kV areas electric field intensity at 71.98% of total measured 590 spots were above 5 kV/m (national occupational standard), while in 220 kV areas electric field intensity at 15.69% of total 701 spots were above 5 kV/m. Magnetic field flux density at all the spots was below 1,000 μT (ICNIRP occupational standard). The neurobehavior score changes showed no statistical significance. Results of neurobehavior tests among different age, seniority groups showed no significant changes. Neurobehavior changes caused by daily repeated ELF-EMF exposure were not observed in the current study.

  17. Accelerated battery-life testing - A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccallum, J.; Thomas, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Test program, employing empirical, statistical and physical methods, determines service life and failure probabilities of electrochemical cells and batteries, and is applicable to testing mechanical, electrical, and chemical devices. Data obtained aids long-term performance prediction of battery or cell.

  18. Testing activities at the National Battery Test Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstra, F.; Deluca, W. H.; Mulcahey, T. P.

    The National Battery Test Laboratory (NBTL) is an Argonne National Laboratory facility for testing, evaluating, and studying advanced electric storage batteries. The facility tests batteries developed under Department of Energy programs and from private industry. These include batteries intended for future electric vehicle (EV) propulsion, electric utility load leveling (LL), and solar energy storage. Since becoming operational, the NBTL has evaluated well over 1400 cells (generally in the form of three- to six-cell modules, but up to 140-cell batteries) of various technologies. Performance characterization assessments are conducted under a series of charge/discharge cycles with constant current, constant power, peak power, and computer simulated dynamic load profile conditions. Flexible charging algorithms are provided to accommodate the specific needs of each battery under test. Special studies are conducted to explore and optimize charge procedures, to investigate the impact of unique load demands on battery performance, and to analyze the thermal management requirements of battery systems.

  19. Development and Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Savitt, Adam; Moore, Tyler M; Port, Allison M; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J; Nasrini, Jad; Mollicone, Daniel J; Mott, Christopher M; McCann, Thom; Dinges, David F; Gur, Ruben C

    2015-11-01

    Sustained high-level cognitive performance is of paramount importance for the success of space missions, which involve environmental, physiological, and psychological stressors that may affect brain functions. Despite subjective symptom reports of cognitive fluctuations in spaceflight, the nature of neurobehavioral functioning in space has not been clarified. We developed a computerized cognitive test battery (Cognition) that has sensitivity to multiple cognitive domains and was specifically designed for the high-performing astronaut population. Cognition consists of 15 unique forms of 10 neuropsychological tests that cover a range of cognitive domains, including emotion processing, spatial orientation, and risk decision making. Cognition is based on tests known to engage specific brain regions as evidenced by functional neuroimaging. Here we describe the first normative and acute total sleep deprivation data on the Cognition test battery as well as several efforts underway to establish the validity, sensitivity, feasibility, and acceptability of Cognition. Practice effects and test-retest variability differed substantially between the 10 Cognition tests, illustrating the importance of normative data that both reflect practice effects and differences in stimulus set difficulty in the population of interest. After one night without sleep, medium to large effect sizes were observed for 3 of the 10 tests addressing vigilant attention (Cohen's d = 1.00), cognitive throughput (d = 0.68), and abstract reasoning (d = 0.65). In addition to providing neuroimaging-based novel information on the effects of spaceflight on a range of cognitive functions, Cognition will facilitate comparing the effects of ground-based analogues to spaceflight, increase consistency across projects, and thus enable meta-analyses.

  20. Development and Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Savitt, Adam; Moore, Tyler M.; Port, Allison M.; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J.; Nasrini, Jad; Mollicone, Daniel J.; Mott, Christopher M.; McCann, Thom; Dinges, David F.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sustained high-level cognitive performance is of paramount importance for the success of space missions, which involve environmental, physiological and psychological stressors that may affect brain functions. Despite subjective symptom reports of cognitive fluctuations in spaceflight, the nature of neurobehavioral functioning in space has not been clarified. Methods We developed a computerized cognitive test battery (Cognition) that has sensitivity to multiple cognitive domains and was specifically designed for the high-performing astronaut population. Cognition consists of 15 unique forms of 10 neuropsychological tests that cover a range of cognitive domains including emotion processing, spatial orientation, and risk decision making. Cognition is based on tests known to engage specific brain regions as evidenced by functional neuroimaging. Here we describe the first normative and acute total sleep deprivation data on the Cognition test battery as well as several efforts underway to establish the validity, sensitivity, feasibility, and acceptability of Cognition. Results Practice effects and test-retest variability differed substantially between the 10 Cognition tests, illustrating the importance of normative data that both reflect practice effects and differences in stimulus set difficulty in the population of interest. After one night without sleep, medium to large effect sizes were observed for 3 of the 10 tests addressing vigilant attention (Cohen’s d=1.00), cognitive throughput (d=0.68), and abstract reasoning (d=0.65). Conclusions In addition to providing neuroimaging-based novel information on the effects of spaceflight on a range of cognitive functions, Cognition will facilitate comparing the effects of ground-based analogs to spaceflight, increase consistency across projects, and thus enable meta-analyses. PMID:26564759

  1. Neurobehavioral effects among subjects exposed to high static and gradient magnetic fields from a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system--a case-crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, Frank; van-Wendel-de-Joode, Berna; Engels, Hans; Kromhout, Hans

    2003-10-01

    The interactive use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques is increasing in operating theaters. A study was performed on 17 male company volunteers to assess the neurobehavioral effects of exposure to magnetic fields from a 1.5 Tesla MRI system. The subjects' neurobehavioral performances on a neurobehavioral test battery were compared in four 1-hr sessions with and without exposure to magnetic fields, and with and without additional movements. Adverse effects were found for hand coordination (-4%, P Tesla MRI system may lead to neurobehavioral effects. Further research is recommended, especially in members of operating teams using interactive MRI systems. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Nickel-hydrogen battery testing for Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Randy M.; Whitt, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors identify objectives and provide data from several nickel-hydrogen battery tests designed to evaluate the possibility of launching Ni-H2 batteries on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Test results from a 14-cell battery, a 12-cell battery, and a 4-cell pack are presented. Results of a thermal vacuum test to verify the battery-module/bay heat rejection capacity are reported. A 6-battery system simulation breadboard is described, and test results are presented.

  3. Current status and perspectives of neurobehavioral approaches in guideline—oriented animal testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TakaH

    2002-01-01

    This presentation aims to overview the current status and perspective of behavioral approaches used in guideline-oriented toxicological studies for agricultural chemicals.Guidelines revised recently (MAFF,OECD,EPA) require sytematic observation of non-learning behavior using defined scales.The observational endpoints are organized into a battery (e.g.functional observational battery,FOB) and inculde home-cage and open-field observation of behavior reactivity to various stimuli(e.g.auditory,tactile,visual),grip strength,and motor activity under a novel environment.The outline of FOB will be illustrated and discussed in the first half of the presentation.One social concern in neurotoxicology is the impact of chemical exposure on cnognitive functions such as learning and memory as well as non-learning behavior.Guidelines describe the necessity of learning and memory tests when other data suggest potential effects on brain function,even though little information regarding cognitive status other than brain pathology can be obtained with FOB.This discrepancy arises from the lack of a simple method compatible with regular studies.One candidate method is fear-induced freezing of rats conditioned to context and auditory cue(Kim & Fanselow,1992).In order to evaluate this paradigm as a screening method,the effects of trimethyltin chloride (TMT) have been studied.Prior to the study,it has been characterized that oral administration of TMT to rats produces excitatory clinical signs and massive neural cell death in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions at lethal dose(8mg·kg-1),but not any abnormalities at sub-lethal doses (4mg·kg-1 or less).Oral administration of TMT at a sub-lethal dose produced a significant decrease in freezing time to the context (hippocampal-dependent measure),but not to the auditory cue.Administration of TMT at a sublethal dose significantly inhibited long-term potentiation in the CA1,but not in the dentate gyrus.These results suggest that the model can be

  4. Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vibol, Sao [United Nations University – International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Faculty of Agricultural Technology and Management, Royal University of Agriculture, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Hashim, Jamal Hisham, E-mail: jamalhas@hotmail.com [United Nations University – International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Community Health, National University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sarmani, Sukiman [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia)

    2015-02-15

    The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300–500 μg/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50–300 μg/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93 μg/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22 μg/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08 μg/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57–4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93 µg/g among those from the highly

  5. Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vibol, Sao; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2015-01-01

    The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300–500 μg/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50–300 μg/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93 μg/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22 μg/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08 μg/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57–4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93 µg/g among those from the highly

  6. Potential use of battery packs from NCAP tested vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    Several large electric vehicle batteries available to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are candidates for use in future safety testing programs. The batteries, from vehicles subjected to NCAP crashworthiness testing, are considered potentially damaged due to the nature of testing their associated vehicles have been subjected to. Criteria for safe shipping to Sandia is discussed, as well as condition the batteries must be in to perform testing work. Also discussed are potential tests that could be performed under a variety of conditions. The ultimate value of potential testing performed on these cells will rest on the level of access available to the battery pack, i.e. external access only, access to the on board monitoring system/CAN port or internal electrical access to the battery. Greater access to the battery than external visual and temperature monitoring would likely require input from the battery manufacturer.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery testing: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt, Thomas H.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) began testing the HST Ni-H2 Six Battery Test and the 'Flight Spare Battery' Tests approximately one year before the launch of the HST. These tests are operated and reported on by the MSFC, but are managed and funded by Goddard Space Flight Center in direct support of the HST program. The HST Ni-H2 batteries are built from Eagle Picher RNH-90-3 cells. The HST EPS (electrical power system) is a direct energy transfer power system. The HST Ni-H2 Six Battery Test is a breadboard of the HST EPS. The batteries in the test are composed of test module cells and packaged into three battery modules identical to the flight modules. This test is the HST EPS testbed. The 'Flight Spare Battery' Test is a simulation of one of the six battery channels on the HST. The cells in the test are from the flight spare lot of cells, which are the same lot of cells that three of the six HST flight batteries are made from. This test is the battery life test for the HST program.

  8. Characterization testing of a 40 Ahr bipolar nickel hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gahn, Randall F.

    1989-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop NiH2 bipolar technology to a point where it can be used efficiently in space flight, testing of a second 40 Ahr, 10-cell bipolar battery has begun. This battery has undergone extensive characterization testing to determine the effects of such operating parameters as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure. The fundamental design of this actively cooled bipolar battery is the same as the first battery. Most of the individual components, however, are from different manufacturers. Different testing procedures as well as certain unique battery characteristics make it difficult to directly compare the two sets of results. In general, the performance of this battery throughout characterization produced expected results. The main differences seen between the first and second batteries occurred during the high-rate discharge portion of the test matrix. The first battery also had poor high-rate discharge results, although better than those of the second battery. Minor changes were made to the battery frame design used for the first battery in an attempt to allow better gas access to the reaction sites for the second build and hopefully improve performance. The changes, however, did not improve the performance of the second battery and could have possibly contributed to the poorer performance that was observed. There are other component differences that could have contributed to the poorer performance of the second battery. The H2 electrode in the second battery was constructed with a Goretex backing which could have limited the high-rate current flow. The gas screen in the second battery had a larger mesh which again could have limited the high-rate current flow. Small scale 2 x 2 batteries are being tested to evaluate the effects of the component variations.

  9. Neurobehavioral evaluation for a community with chronic exposure to hydrogen sulfide gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inserra, S.G.; Phifer, B.L.; Anger, W.K.; Lewin, Michael; Hilsdon, Roberta; White, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2000, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry of the US government conducted a health investigation in response to community concerns regarding ambient and indoor hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), odor, and health symptoms in Dakota City, Nebraska. The objective was to determine whether adult residents in an area with repeated exposure to H 2 S showed poorer performance on neurobehavioral tests than unexposed residents. Study participants were required to meet age (≥16 years of age) and length of residency (2 years) eligibility requirements. A battery of computer-assisted standardized neurobehavioral tests was administered in English or Spanish. A questionnaire was used to collect information about participants, demographic and health status. Three hundred forty-five people agreed to participate. After the exclusion of 10 persons, analyses were conducted on 335 participants; 171 residents in the target area and 164 residents in the comparison area. The two groups were comparable in demographic characteristics and various health conditions. Overall, neurobehavioral test results for the target and comparison groups were similar. Residence in the H 2 S-exposed area was associated with marginally poorer performance on a test of memory, namely, match to sample score, and a test of grip strength. However, these differences were not significant. Deficits in overall neurobehavioral performance were not associated with exposure to H 2 S in this study

  10. Neurobehavioral impairments caused by developmental imidacloprid exposure in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Emily B; Bailey, Jordan M; Oliveri, Anthony N; Levin, Edward D

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are becoming more widely applied as organophosphate (OP) insecticides are decreasing in use. Because of their relative specificity to insect nicotinic receptors, they are thought to have reduced risk of neurotoxicity in vertebrates. However, there is scant published literature concerning the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure of vertebrates to neonicotinoids. Using zebrafish, we investigated the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure to imidacloprid, a prototypic neonicotinoid pesticide. Nicotine was also administered for comparison. Zebrafish were exposed via immersion in aqueous solutions containing 45 μM or 60 μM of imidacloprid or nicotine (or vehicle control) from 4h to 5d post fertilization. The functional effects of developmental exposure to both imidacloprid and nicotine were assessed in larvae using an activity assay and during adolescence and adulthood using a battery of neurobehavioral assays, including assessment of sensorimotor response and habituation in a tactile startle test, novel tank swimming, and shoaling behavior. In larvae, developmental imidacloprid exposure at both doses significantly decreased swimming activity. The 5D strains of zebrafish were more sensitive to both nicotine and imidacloprid than the AB* strain. In adolescent and adult fish, developmental exposure to imidacloprid significantly decreased novel tank exploration and increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli. While nicotine did not affect novel tank swimming, it increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli at the low dose. No effects of either compound were found on shoaling behavior or habituation to a startling stimulus. Early developmental exposure to imidacloprid has both early-life and persisting effects on neurobehavioral function in zebrafish. Its developmental neurotoxicity should be further investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A composite neurobehavioral test to evaluate acute functional deficits after cerebellar haemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Devin W; Nowrangi, Derek; Kaur, Harpreet; Wu, Guangyong; Huang, Lei; Lekic, Tim; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2018-03-01

    Cerebellar haemorrhage accounts for 5-10% of all intracerebral haemorrhages and leads to severe, long-lasting functional deficits. Currently, there is limited research on this stroke subtype, which may be due to the lack of a suitable composite neuroscoring system specific for cerebellar injury in rodents. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive composite neuroscore test for cerebellar injury using a rat model of cerebellar haemorrhage. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either sham surgery or cerebellar haemorrhage. Twenty-four hours post-injury, neurological behaviour was evaluated using 17 cost-effective and easy-to-perform tests, and a composite neuroscore was developed. The composite neuroscore was then used to assess functional recovery over seven days after cerebellar haemorrhage. Differences in the composite neuroscore deficits for the mild and moderate cerebellar haemorrhage models were observed for up to five days post-ictus. Until now, a composite neuroscore for cerebellar injury was not available for rodent studies. Herein, using mild and moderate cerebellar haemorrhage rat models a composite neuroscore for cerebellar injury was developed and used to assess functional deficits after cerebellar haemorrhage. This composite neuroscore may also be useful for other cerebellar injury models.

  12. Cell overcharge testing inside sodium metal halide battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutschy, Kris; Chatwin, Troy; Bull, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Testing was conducted to measure electrical performance and safety of the General Electric Durathon™ E620 battery module (600 V class 20 kWh) during cell overcharge. Data gathered from this test was consistent with SAE Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing specification J2464 [1]. After cell overcharge failure and 24 A current flow for additional 60 minutes, battery was then discharged at 7.5 KW average power to 12% state of charge (SOC) and recharged back to 100% SOC. This overcharging test was performed on two cells. No hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas was detected during front cell (B1) test, and small amount (6.2 ppm peak) was measured outside the battery after center cell (F13) overcharge. An additional overcharge test was performed per UL Standard 1973 - Batteries for Use in Light Electric Rail (LER) Applications and Stationary Applications[2]. With the battery at 11% SOC and 280 °C float temperature, an individual cell near the front (D1) was deliberately imbalanced by charging it to 62% SOC. The battery was then recharged to 100% SOC. In all three tests, the battery cell pack was stable and individual cell failure did not propagate to other cells. Battery discharge performance, charge performance, and electrical isolation were normal after all three tests.

  13. Albeit nocturnal, rats subjected to traumatic brain injury do not differ in neurobehavioral performance whether tested during the day or night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesman, Peter J; Wei, Jiahui; LaPorte, Megan J; Carlson, Lauren J; Nassau, Kileigh L; Bao, Gina C; Cheng, Jeffrey P; de la Tremblaye, Patricia; Lajud, Naima; Bondi, Corina O; Kline, Anthony E

    2018-02-05

    Behavioral assessments in rats are overwhelmingly conducted during the day, albeit that is when they are least active. This incongruity may preclude optimal performance. Hence, the goal of this study was to determine if differences in neurobehavior exist in traumatic brain injured (TBI) rats when assessed during the day vs. night. The hypothesis was that the night group would perform better than the day group on all behavioral tasks. Anesthetized adult male rats received either a cortical impact or sham injury and then were randomly assigned to either Day (1:00-3:00p.m.) or Night (7:30-9:30p.m.) testing. Motor function (beam-balance/walk) was conducted on post-operative days 1-5 and cognitive performance (spatial learning) was assessed on days 14-18. Corticosterone (CORT) levels were quantified at 24h and 21days after TBI. No significant differences were revealed between the TBI rats tested during the Day vs. Night for motor or cognition (p'sNight-tested TBI and sham groups at 24h (pday 21 (p>0.05), suggesting an initial, but transient, stress response that did not affect neurobehavioral outcome. These data suggest that the time rats are tested has no noticeable impact on their performance, which does not support the hypothesis. The finding validates the interpretations from numerous studies conducted when rats were tested during the day vs. their natural active period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  15. Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rassoul, G; El-Fateh, O Abou; Salem, M Abou; Michael, A; Farahat, F; El-Batanouny, M; Salem, E

    2007-03-01

    There is a general concern on the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations (RFR) emitted from mobile phone base station antennas on the human nervous system. To identify the possible neurobehavioral deficits among inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on (85) inhabitants living nearby the first mobile phone station antenna in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt, 37 are living in a building under the station antenna while 48 opposite the station. A control group (80) participants were matched with the exposed for age, sex, occupation and educational level. All participants completed a structured questionnaire containing: personal, educational and medical histories; general and neurological examinations; neurobehavioral test battery (NBTB) [involving tests for visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory]; in addition to Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ). The prevalence of neuropsychiatric complaints as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%), respectively (Pstation exhibited a lower performance in the problem solving test (block design) than those under the station. All inhabitants exhibited a better performance in the two tests of visuomotor speed (Digit symbol and Trailmaking B) and one test of attention (Trailmaking A) than controls. The last available measures of RFR emitted from the first mobile phone base station antennas in Menoufiya governorate were less than the allowable standard level. Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of standard guidelines for public

  16. Neurobehavioral performance impairment in insomnia: relationships with self-reported sleep and daytime functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekleton, Julia A; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Miller, Belinda; Epstein, Lawrence J; Kirsch, Douglas; Brogna, Lauren A; Burke, Liza M; Bremer, Erin; Murray, Jade M; Gehrman, Philip; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, daytime consequences of the disorder are poorly characterized. This study aimed to identify neurobehavioral impairments associated with insomnia, and to investigate relationships between these impairments and subjective ratings of sleep and daytime dysfunction. Cross-sectional, multicenter study. Three sleep laboratories in the USA and Australia. Seventy-six individuals who met the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for Primary Insomnia, Psychophysiological Insomnia, Paradoxical Insomnia, and/or Idiopathic Childhood Insomnia (44F, 35.8 ± 12.0 years [mean ± SD]) and 20 healthy controls (14F, 34.8 ± 12.1 years). N/A. Participants completed a 7-day sleep-wake diary, questionnaires assessing daytime dysfunction, and a neurobehavioral test battery every 60-180 minutes during an afternoon/evening sleep laboratory visit. Included were tasks assessing sustained and switching attention, working memory, subjective sleepiness, and effort. Switching attention and working memory were significantly worse in insomnia patients than controls, while no differences were found for simple or complex sustained attention tasks. Poorer sustained attention in the control, but not the insomnia group, was significantly associated with increased subjective sleepiness. In insomnia patients, poorer sustained attention performance was associated with reduced health-related quality of life and increased insomnia severity. We found that insomnia patients exhibit deficits in higher level neurobehavioral functioning, but not in basic attention. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral deficits in insomnia are due to neurobiological alterations, rather than sleepiness resulting from chronic sleep deficiency.

  17. An Advanced HIL Simulation Battery Model for Battery Management System Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Fleischer, Christian; Christensen, Andreas Elkjær

    2016-01-01

    Developers and manufacturers of battery management systems (BMSs) require extensive testing of controller Hardware (HW) and Software (SW), such as analog front-end and performance of generated control code. In comparison with the tests conducted on real batteries, tests conducted on a state......-of-the-art hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulator can be more cost and time effective, easier to reproduce, and safer beyond the normal range of operation, especially at early stages in the development process or during fault insertion. In this paper, an HIL simulation battery model is developed for purposes of BMS...... testing on a commercial HIL simulator. A multicell electrothermal Li-ion battery (LIB) model is integrated in a system-level simulation. Then, the LIB system model is converted to C code and run in real time with the HIL simulator. Finally, in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the setup...

  18. Double Trait Assessment Test Battery for Air Force Pilots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tarnowski, Adam

    1998-01-01

    Building on years of theoretical discussions as well as diagnostic experience in the Polish Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine, a battery of psychological tests was proposed for the assessment...

  19. Selected Test Results from the Encell Technology Nickel Iron Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Kamal Rhodes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Power Sources R& D; Baca, Wes Edmund [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Power Sources R& D; Avedikian, Kristan [Encell Technology, Alachua, FL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The performance of the Encell Nickel Iron (NiFe) battery was measured. Tests included capacity, capacity as a function of rate, capacity as a function of temperature, charge retention (28-day), efficiency, accelerated life projection, and water refill evaluation. The goal of this work was to evaluate the general performance of the Encell NiFe battery technology for stationary applications and demonstrate the chemistry's capabilities in extreme conditions. Test results have indicated that the Encell NiFe battery technology can provide power levels up to the 6C discharge rate, ampere-hour efficiency above 70%. In summary, the Encell batteries have met performance metrics established by the manufacturer. Long-term cycle tests are not included in this report. A cycle test at elevated temperature was run, funded by the manufacturer, which Encell uses to predict long-term cycling performance, and which passed their prescribed metrics.

  20. Hypervelocity Impact Testing of Nickel Hydrogen Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frate, David T.; Nahra, Henry K.

    1996-01-01

    Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni/H2) battery cells have been used on several satellites and are planned for use on the International Space Station. In January 1992, the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) conducted hypervelocity impact testing on Ni/H2 cells to characterize their failure modes. The cell's outer construction was a 24 mil-thick Inconel 718 pressure vessel. A sheet of 1.27 cm thick honeycomb was placed in front of the battery cells during testing to simulate the on-orbit box enclosure. Testing was conducted at the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). The hypervelocity gun used was a 7.6 mm (0.30 caliber) two-stage light gas gun. Test were performed at speeds of 3, 6, and 7 km/sec using aluminum 2017 spherical particles of either 4.8 or 6.4 mm diameter as the projectile. The battery cells were electrically charged to about 75 percent of capacity, then back-filled with hydrogen gas to 900 psi simulating the full charge condition. High speed film at 10,000 frames/sec was taken of the impacts. Impacts in the dome area (top) and the electrode area (middle) of the battery cells were investigated. Five tests on battery cells were performed. The results revealed that in all of the test conditions investigated, the battery cells simply vented their hydrogen gas and some electrolyte, but did not burst or generate any large debris fragments.

  1. Construction Of A Computerised Information-Processing Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann M. Schepers

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of the study was to construct a computerised information-processing test battery to measure choice reaction time for up to and including six bits of information, to measure discrimination reaction time with regard to colour patterns and form patterns, to measure rate of information processing with regard to perceptual stimuli and conceptual reasoning, and to develop a suitable scoring system for the respective tests. The battery of tests was applied to 58 pilots. Opsomming Die hoofdoel van die studie was om ‘n gerekenariseerde inligtingverwerkingstoets-battery te konstrueer om keusereaksietyd tot en met ses bis inligting te meet, om diskriminasie-reaksietyd ten opsigte van kleurpatrone en vormpatrone te meet, om tempo van inligtingverwerking ten opsigte van perseptuele stimuli en konseptuele redenering te meet en om ‘n gepaste nasienstelsel vir die onderskeie toetse te ontwikkel. Die battery toetse is op 58 vlieëniers toegepas

  2. Neurobehavioral Performance Impairment in Insomnia: Relationships with Self-Reported Sleep and Daytime Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekleton, Julia A.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Miller, Belinda; Epstein, Lawrence J.; Kirsch, Douglas; Brogna, Lauren A.; Burke, Liza M.; Bremer, Erin; Murray, Jade M.; Gehrman, Philip; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, daytime consequences of the disorder are poorly characterized. This study aimed to identify neurobehavioral impairments associated with insomnia, and to investigate relationships between these impairments and subjective ratings of sleep and daytime dysfunction. Design: Cross-sectional, multicenter study. Setting: Three sleep laboratories in the USA and Australia. Patients: Seventy-six individuals who met the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for Primary Insomnia, Psychophysiological Insomnia, Paradoxical Insomnia, and/or Idiopathic Childhood Insomnia (44F, 35.8 ± 12.0 years [mean ± SD]) and 20 healthy controls (14F, 34.8 ± 12.1 years). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants completed a 7-day sleep-wake diary, questionnaires assessing daytime dysfunction, and a neurobehavioral test battery every 60-180 minutes during an afternoon/evening sleep laboratory visit. Included were tasks assessing sustained and switching attention, working memory, subjective sleepiness, and effort. Switching attention and working memory were significantly worse in insomnia patients than controls, while no differences were found for simple or complex sustained attention tasks. Poorer sustained attention in the control, but not the insomnia group, was significantly associated with increased subjective sleepiness. In insomnia patients, poorer sustained attention performance was associated with reduced health-related quality of life and increased insomnia severity. Conclusions: We found that insomnia patients exhibit deficits in higher level neurobehavioral functioning, but not in basic attention. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral deficits in insomnia are due to neurobiological alterations, rather than sleepiness resulting from chronic sleep deficiency. Citation: Shekleton JA; Flynn-Evans EE; Miller B; Epstein LJ; Kirsch D; Brogna LA; Burke LM; Cremer E; Murray JM; Gehrman P; Lockley SW; Rajaratnam SMW

  3. Aging evaluation of class 1E batteries: Seismic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, J.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a seismic testing program on naturally aged class 1E batteries obtained from a nuclear plant. The testing program is a Phase 2 activity resulting from a Phase 1 aging evaluation of class 1E batteries in safety systems of nuclear power plants, performed previously as a part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program and reported in NUREG/CR-4457. The primary purpose of the program was to evaluate the seismic ruggedness of naturally aged batteries to determine if aged batteries could have adequate electrical capacity, as determined by tests recommended by IEEE Standards, and yet have inadequate seismic ruggedness to provide needed electrical power during and after a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event. A secondary purpose of the program was to evaluate selected advanced surveillance methods to determine if they were likely to be more sensitive to the aging degradation that reduces seismic ruggedness. The program used twelve batteries naturally aged to about 14 years of age in a nuclear facility and tested them at four different seismic levels representative of the levels of possible earthquakes specified for nuclear plants in the United States. Seismic testing of the batteries did not cause any loss of electrical capacity. 19 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs

  4. A test battery measuring auditory capabilities of listening panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghani, Jody; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Karin

    2005-01-01

    a battery of tests covering a larger range of auditory capabilities in order to assess individual listeners. The format of all tests is kept as 'objective' as possible by using a three-alternative forced-choice paradigm in which the subject must choose which of the sound samples is different, thus keeping...... the instruction to the subjects simple and common for all tests. Both basic (e.g. frequency discrimination) and complex (e.g. profile analysis) psychoacoustic tests are covered in the battery and a threshold of discrimination or detection is obtained for each test. Data were collected on 24 listeners who had been...... recruited for participation in an expert listening panel for evaluating the sound quality of hi-fi audio systems. The test battery data were related to the actual performance of the listeners when judging the degradation in quality produced by audio codecs....

  5. Test Report : GS Battery, EPC power HES RESCU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Borneo, Daniel R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. GS Battery and EPC Power have developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the GS Battery, EPC Power HES RESCU.

  6. Neurobehavioral effects of aspartame consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindseth, Glenda N; Coolahan, Sonya E; Petros, Thomas V; Lindseth, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    Despite its widespread use, the artificial sweetener aspartame remains one of the most controversial food additives, due to mixed evidence on its neurobehavioral effects. Healthy adults who consumed a study-prepared high-aspartame diet (25 mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days and a low-aspartame diet (10 mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 days, with a 2-week washout between the diets, were examined for within-subject differences in cognition, depression, mood, and headache. Measures included weight of foods consumed containing aspartame, mood and depression scales, and cognitive tests for working memory and spatial orientation. When consuming high-aspartame diets, participants had more irritable mood, exhibited more depression, and performed worse on spatial orientation tests. Aspartame consumption did not influence working memory. Given that the higher intake level tested here was well below the maximum acceptable daily intake level of 40-50 mg/kg body weight/day, careful consideration is warranted when consuming food products that may affect neurobehavioral health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Improvement of bench life-tests for automotive batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, G.

    A common method for rating the endurance of automotive batteries is the bench life-test according to DIN, IEC, SAE or JIS. With an increasing number of maintenance-free batteries on the market, the application of these tests becomes more problematic. This is due to a step-by-step capacity decline during cycling if the content of autimony in the grid-alloy is decreased. The degradation in performance is caused by the phenomenon of acid stratification. Because this debilitating effect occurs only rarely in service (vehicle movement) if charging and discharging is well balanced, there is a need for a new bench life-test with conditions that are more representative of practical conditions. Research has shown that the main changes should be: (i) an accelerated (moved) battery during cycling; (ii) slightly lower charging or discharging capacity amplitude, also with a lower mean value.

  8. The effect of one night's sleep deprivation on adolescent neurobehavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, Mia; Short, Michelle A

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effects of one night's sleep deprivation on neurobehavioral functioning in adolescents. Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery measuring sustained attention, reaction speed, cognitive processing speed, sleepiness, and fatigue every 2 h during wakefulness. Baseline performance (defined as those test bouts between 09:00 and 19:00 on days 2 and 3, following two 10-h sleep opportunities) were compared to performance at the same clock time the day following total sleep deprivation. The sleep laboratory at the Centre for Sleep Research. Twelve healthy adolescents (6 male), aged 14-18 years (mean = 16.17, standard deviation = 0.83). Sustained attention, reaction speed, cognitive processing speed, and subjective sleepiness were all significantly worse following one night without sleep than following 10-h sleep opportunities (all main effects of day, P Sleep deprivation led to increased variability on objective performance measures. There were between-subjects differences in response to sleep loss that were task-specific, suggesting that adolescents may not only vary in terms of the degree to which they are affected by sleep loss but also the domains in which they are affected. These findings suggest that one night of total sleep deprivation has significant deleterious effects upon neurobehavioral performance and subjective sleepiness. These factors impair daytime functioning in adolescents, leaving them at greater risk of poor academic and social functioning and accidents and injuries.

  9. Cholinergic Modulation of Restraint Stress Induced Neurobehavioral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The involvement of the cholinergic system in restraint stress induced neurobehavioral alterations was investigated in rodents using the hole board, elevated plus maze, the open field and the light and dark box tests. Restraint stress (3h) reduced significantly (p<0.05) the number of entries and time spent in the open arm, ...

  10. A Chronic Longitudinal Characterization of Neurobehavioral and Neuropathological Cognitive Impairment in a Mouse Model of Gulf War Agent Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, Zuchra; Crynen, Gogce; Hassan, Samira; Abdullah, Laila; Horne, Lauren; Mathura, Venkatarajan; Crawford, Fiona; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania

    2016-01-01

    Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multisymptom illness with a central nervous system component that includes memory impairment as well as neurological and musculoskeletal deficits. Previous studies have shown that in the First Persian Gulf War conflict (1990–1991) exposure to Gulf War (GW) agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and permethrin (PER), were key contributors to the etiology of GWI. For this study, we used our previously established mouse model of GW agent exposure (10 days PB+PER) and undertook an extensive lifelong neurobehavioral characterization of the mice from 11 days to 22.5 months post exposure in order to address the persistence and chronicity of effects suffered by the current GWI patient population, 24 years post-exposure. Mice were evaluated using a battery of neurobehavioral testing paradigms, including Open Field Test (OFT), Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), Three Chamber Testing, Radial Arm Water Maze (RAWM), and Barnes Maze (BM) Test. We also carried out neuropathological analyses at 22.5 months post exposure to GW agents after the final behavioral testing. Our results demonstrate that PB+PER exposed mice exhibit neurobehavioral deficits beginning at the 13 months post exposure time point and continuing trends through the 22.5 month post exposure time point. Furthermore, neuropathological changes, including an increase in GFAP staining in the cerebral cortices of exposed mice, were noted 22.5 months post exposure. Thus, the persistent neuroinflammation evident in our model presents a platform with which to identify novel biological pathways, correlating with emergent outcomes that may be amenable to therapeutic targeting. Furthermore, in this work we confirmed our previous findings that GW agent exposure causes neuropathological changes, and have presented novel data which demonstrate increased disinhibition, and lack of social preference in PB+PER exposed mice at 13 months after exposure. We also extended upon our previous work to

  11. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  12. Bidirectional converter interface for a battery energy storage test bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Thomas, Stephan; Blank, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the bidirectional converter interface for a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. The power electronic interface consists a two stage converter topology having a low voltage dc-ac grid connected converter and a new dual active bridge dc-dc converter with high transformation...

  13. Exploratory battery technology development and testing report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnani, N.J.; Diegle, R.B.; Braithwaite, J.W.; Bush, D.M.; Freese, J.M.; Akhil, A.A.; Lott, S.E.

    1990-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, has been designated as Lead Center for the Exploratory Battery Technology Development and Testing Project, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering development of advanced rechargeable batteries for both mobile and stationary energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized in pursuit of the Lead Center's goals during calendar year 1989. 4 refs., 84 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. Life cycle test results of a bipolar nickel hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A history is given of low Earth orbit (LEO) laboratory test data on a 6.5 ampere-hour bipolar nickel hydrogen battery designed and built at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The bipolar concept is a means of achieving the goal of producing an acceptable battery, of higher energy density, able to withstand the demands of low-Earth-orbit regimes. Over 4100 LEO cycles were established on a ten cell battery. It seems that any perturbation on normal cycling effects the cells performance. Explanations and theories of the battery's behavior are varied and widespread among those closely associated with it. Deep discharging does provide a reconditioning effect and further experimentation is planned in this area. The battery watt-hour efficiency is about 75 percent and the time averaged, discharge voltage is about 1.26 volts for all cells at both the C/4 and LEO rate. Since a significant portion of the electrode capacity has degraded, the LEO cycle discharges are approaching depths of 90 to 100 percent of the high rate capacity. Therefore, the low end-of-discharge voltages occur precipitously after the knee of the discharge curve and is more an indication of electrode capacity and is a lesser indicator of overall cell performance.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery and cell testing - An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Whitt, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    NASA's HST uses Ni-H2 batteries. NASA-Marshall has been conducting developmental tests of such batteries in both six-battery and 22-cell single battery arrays. Tests have recently been conducted on such batteries with a view to the possible need to free additional memory in the HST onboard computer; the electrical power system could contribute to this end by eliminating its software control charge mode capability, which requires significant computer memory capacity.

  16. 75 Ah and 10 boilerplate nickel-hydrogen battery designs and test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman, M. E.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Chang, R.; Cruz, E.

    1992-01-01

    The results of initial characterization testing of 75 Ah actively cooled bipolar battery designs and 10 boilerplate nickel-hydrogen battery designs are presented. The results demonstrate the extended cycle life capability of the Ah batteries and the high capacity utilizations at various discharge rates of the nickel-hydrogen batteries.

  17. Inner ear test battery in guinea pig models - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Yi-Ho

    2018-06-01

    This study reviewed the development of the inner ear test battery comprising auditory brainstem response (ABR), and caloric, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) tests in guinea pig models at our laboratory over the last 20 years. Detailed description of the methodology for testing the small animals is also included. Inner ear disorders, i.e. ototoxicity, noise exposure, or perilymph fistula were established in guinea pig models first. One to four weeks after operation, each animal underwent ABR, oVEMP, cVEMP, and caloric tests. Then, animals were sacrificed for morphological study in the temporal bones. Inner ear endorgans can be comprehensively evaluated in guinea pig models via an inner ear test battery, which provides thorough information on the cochlea, saccule, utricle, and semicircular canal function of guinea pigs. Coupled with morphological study in the temporal bones of the animals may help elucidate the mechanism of inner ear disorders in humans. The inner ear test battery in guinea pig models may encourage young researchers to perform basic study in animals and stimulate the progress of experimental otology which is in evolution.

  18. Battery Test Manual For 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Lee Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    This manual details the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium and U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program goals, test methods, and analysis techniques for a 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle system. The test methods are outlined stating with characterization tests, followed by life tests. The final section details standardized analysis techniques for 48 V systems that allow for the comparison of different programs that use this manual. An example test plan is included, along with guidance to filling in gap table numbers.

  19. Battery Test Manual For 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Lee Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This manual details the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium and U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program goals, test methods, and analysis techniques for a 48 Volt Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle system. The test methods are outlined stating with characterization tests, followed by life tests. The final section details standardized analysis techniques for 48 V systems that allow for the comparison of different programs that use this manual. An example test plan is included, along with guidance to filling in gap table numbers.

  20. Radiation-induced neurobehavioral dysfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manda, Kailash

    2013-01-01

    There is a lacuna between sparsely reported immediate effects and the well documented delayed effects on cognitive functions seen after ionizing radiation exposure. We reported the radiation-dose dependent incongruity in the early cognitive changes and its correlation with the structural aberration as reported by imaging study. The delayed effect of radiation was investigated to understand the role of hippocampal neurogenesis in the functional recovery of cognition. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to different doses of γ-radiation and 24 hrs after exposure, the stress and anxiety levels were examined in the Open Field Exploratory Paradigms (OFT). 48hrs after irradiation, the hippocampal dependent recognition memory was observed by the Novel Object Recognition Test (NORT) and the cognitive function related to memory processing and recall was tested using the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM). Visualization of damage to the brain was done by diffusion tensor imaging at 48 hours post-irradiation. Results indicate a complex dose independent effect on the cognitive functions immediately after exposure to gamma rays. Radiation exposure caused short term memory dysfunctions at lower doses which were seen to be abrogated at higher doses, but the long term memory processing was disrupted at higher doses. The Hippocampus emerged as one of the sensitive regions to be affected by whole body exposure to gamma rays, which led to profound immediate alterations in cognitive functions. Furthermore, the results indicate a cognitive recovery process, which might be dependent on the extent of damage to the hippocampal region. While evaluating the delayed effect of radiation on the hippocampal neurogenesis, we observed that higher doses groups showed comparatively more adaptive regenerative neurogenic potential which they could not sustain at later stages. Our studies reported an important hitherto uncovered phenomenon of neurobehavioral dysfunctions in relation to radiation dose. Nevertheless, a

  1. Critical Duration of Exposure for Developmental Chlorpyrifos-Induced Neurobehavioral Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sledge, Damiyon; Yen, Jerry; Morton, Terrell; Dishaw, Laura; Petro, Ann; Donerly, Susan; Linney, Elwood; Levin, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental exposure of rats to the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) causes persistent neurobehavioral impairment. In a parallel series of studies with zebrafish, we have also found persisting behavioral dysfunction after developmental CPF exposure. We have developed a battery of measures of zebrafish behavior, which are reliable and sensitive to toxicant-induced damage. This study determined the critical duration of developmental CPF exposure for causing persisting neurobehavioral effects. Tes...

  2. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) Battery Test Operations User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the ESTA Battery Test Operations. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  3. The DiaNAH test battery for visual perceptual disorders : Validity and efficacy in rehabilitation practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, Jochem; de Vries, Stefanie; Melis, Bart; Vrijling, Anne; Tucha, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    We developed the DiaNAH test battery for the screening of mid-level and higher-order visual perceptual disorders in clinical practice. The DiaNAH battery comprises 11 different tests and can be administered in 30-60 minutes. Important feature of the DiaNAH battery is that it is administered on a 24”

  4. Development of a battery of functional tests for low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Bradley E; Martin, Scott R; Kelly, Corey B; Jones, Lisa A; Raasch, Thomas W; Bullimore, Mark A

    2009-08-01

    We describe the development and evaluation of a battery of tests of functional visual performance of everyday tasks intended to be suitable for assessment of low vision patients. The functional test battery comprises-Reading rate: reading aloud 20 unrelated words for each of four print sizes (8, 4, 2, & 1 M); Telephone book: finding a name and reading the telephone number; Medicine bottle label: reading the name and dosing; Utility bill: reading the due date and amount due; Cooking instructions: reading cooking time on a food package; Coin sorting: making a specified amount from coins placed on a table; Playing card recognition: identifying denomination and suit; and Face recognition: identifying expressions of printed, life-size faces at 1 and 3 m. All tests were timed except face and playing card recognition. Fourteen normally sighted and 24 low vision subjects were assessed with the functional test battery. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and quality of life (National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 [NEI-VFQ 25]) were measured and the functional tests repeated. Subsequently, 23 low vision patients participated in a pilot randomized clinical trial with half receiving low vision rehabilitation and half a delayed intervention. The functional tests were administered at enrollment and 3 months later. Normally sighted subjects could perform all tasks but the proportion of trials performed correctly by the low vision subjects ranged from 35% for face recognition at 3 m, to 95% for the playing card identification. On average, low vision subjects performed three times slower than the normally sighted subjects. Timed tasks with a visual search component showed poorer repeatability. In the pilot clinical trial, low vision rehabilitation produced the greatest improvement for the medicine bottle and cooking instruction tasks. Performance of patients on these functional tests has been assessed. Some appear responsive to low vision rehabilitation.

  5. Microprocessor controlled pulse charge and testing of batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerezov, A.; Gishin, S.; Ivanov, Ratcho; Savov, S.

    2002-01-01

    The principle of the developed new method for pulse charge of batteries with microprocessor control of the electrochemical processes is the use of current pulses with microprocessor control of the period and the amplitude according to the dynamically changing state of the electrochemical system. In order to realize the method described above a programmable current source was developed. It is connected with a Personal Computer via RS232 standard serial interface in order to control the electrochemical processes. The parameters to be set, the graphical presentation of the pulse current and tension, the used quantity of electricity and electrical energy for every pulse and for the process as a hole are shown on the PC display. In order to test dry-charged and wet-charged batteries a specialized current generator was developed. It is connected also with a Personal Computer via R5232 standard serial interface in order to con-trol the testing of the starting capability of the batteries according to the requirements of the Bulgarian State Standard Ell 60095-1. (Author)

  6. Parametric tests of a 40-Ah bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A series of tests were performed to characterize battery performance relating to certain operating parameters which include charge current, discharge current, temperature, and pressure. The parameters were varied to confirm battery design concepts and to determine optimal operating conditions.

  7. Parameters of Emotional Processing in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Conceptual Issues and a Battery of Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borod, Joan C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Components of emotional processing (communication channel, processing mode, and emotional valence) were examined in psychiatric and neurological populations, using an experimental affect battery. The test battery exhibited good psychometric properties and discriminated among diagnostic groups. (Author/JDD)

  8. Novel Field Test Equipment for Lithium-Ion Batteries in Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Lindbergh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lifetime testing of batteries for hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV is usually performed in the lab, either at the cell, module or battery pack level. Complementary field tests of battery packs in vehicles are also often performed. There are, however, difficulties related to field testing of battery-packs. Some examples are cost issues and the complexity of continuously collecting battery performance data, such as capacity fade and impedance increase. In this paper, a novel field test equipment designed primarily for lithium-ion battery cell testing is presented. This equipment is intended to be used on conventional vehicles, not hybrid vehicles, as a cheaper and faster field testing method for batteries, compared to full scale HEV testing. The equipment emulates an HEV environment for the tested battery cell by using real time vehicle sensor information and the existing starter battery as load and source. In addition to the emulated battery cycling, periodical capacity and pulse testing capability are implemented as well. This paper begins with presenting some background information about hybrid electrical vehicles and describing the limitations with today’s HEV battery testing. Furthermore, the functionality of the test equipment is described in detail and, finally, results from verification of the equipment are presented and discussed.

  9. Battery of behavioral tests in mice to study postoperative delirium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mian; Zhang, Ce; Dong, Yuanlin; Zhang, Yiying; Nakazawa, Harumasa; Kaneki, Masao; Zheng, Hui; Shen, Yuan; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Xie, Zhongcong

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative delirium is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and cost. However, its neuropathogenesis remains largely unknown, partially owing to lack of animal model(s). We therefore set out to employ a battery of behavior tests, including natural and learned behavior, in mice to determine the effects of laparotomy under isoflurane anesthesia (Anesthesia/Surgery) on these behaviors. The mice were tested at 24 hours before and at 6, 9 and 24 hours after the Anesthesia/Surgery. Composite Z scores were calculated. Cyclosporine A, an inhibitor of mitochondria permeability transient pore, was used to determine potential mitochondria-associated mechanisms of these behavioral changes. Anesthesia/Surgery selectively impaired behaviors, including latency to eat food in buried food test, freezing time and time spent in the center in open field test, and entries and duration in the novel arm of Y maze test, with acute onset and various timecourse. The composite Z scores quantitatively demonstrated the Anesthesia/Surgery-induced behavior impairment in mice. Cyclosporine A selectively ameliorated the Anesthesia/Surgery-induced reduction in ATP levels, the increases in latency to eat food, and the decreases in entries in the novel arm. These findings suggest that we could use a battery of behavior tests to establish a mouse model to study postoperative delirium. PMID:27435513

  10. Galileo battery testing and the impact of test automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertuch, W. T.; Dils, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    Test complexity, changes of test specifications, and the demand for tight control of tests led to the development of automated testing used for Galileo and other projects. The use of standardized interfacing, i.e., IEEE-488, with desktop computers and test instruments, resulted in greater reliability, repeatability, and accuracy of both control and data reporting. Increased flexibility of test programming has reduced costs by permitting a wide spectrum of test requirements at one station rather than many stations.

  11. Testing and development of electric vehicle batteries for EPRI Electric Transportation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an electric-vehicle battery testing and development program for the Electric Power Research Institute. As part of this program, eighteen battery modules previously developed by Johnson Controls, Inc. were tested. This type of battery (EV-2300 - an improved state-of-the-art lead-acid battery) was designed specifically for improved performance, range, and life in electric vehicles. In order to obtain necessary performance data, the batteries were tested under various duty cycles typical of normal service. This program, supported by the Electric Power Research Institute, consisted of three tasks: determination of the effect of cycle life vs peak power and rest period, determination of the impact of charge method on cycle life, and evaluation of the EV-2300 battery system. Two supporting studies were also carried out: one on thermal management of electric-vehicle batteries and one on enhanced utilization of active material in lead-acid batteries.

  12. Auditory tests for characterizing individual hearing deficits: The BEAR test battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez Lopez, Raul; Fereczkowski, Michal; Bianchi, Federica

    deficits can be complex. Therefore, one aim of the BEAR project is to design a hearing test battery for classification of listeners into a small number of auditory profiles. If successful, this BEAR test battery may be refined and reduced to form the basis for improved profile-based hearing-aid fitting......BACKGROUND The Better hEAring Rehabilitation (BEAR) project seeks to develop and assess new clinically feasible strategies for individualized hearing-loss diagnosis and hearing-aid fitting. The aim is to improve current clinical practice, where the fitting process relies on the pure-tone audiogram...... protocols. METHOD Based on the reanalysis of existing auditory profiling data and on criteria of their feasibility, time efficiency, and evidence from the literature, eleven potential tests for inclusion in a clinical test battery were selected. The proposed tests were divided into six categories...

  13. Neurobehavioral evaluation of Venezuelan workers exposed to organic solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, E; Yanes, L; Feo, O; Maizlish, N

    1995-01-01

    To assess the applicability of the World Health Organization (WHO) Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery (NCTB), we evaluated 53 male and 29 female Venezuelan workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents in an adhesive factory, and 56 male and 11 female workers unexposed to any type of neurotoxic chemical. The average age of unexposed workers was 30 years and 33 years for those exposed, average schooling for both groups was 8 years, and the mean duration of exposure was 7 years. The NCTB, which assesses central nervous system functions, is composed of seven tests that measure simple motor function, short-term memory, eye-hand coordination, affective behavior, and psychomotor perception and speed. The battery includes: profile of mood states (POMS); Simple Reaction Time for attention and response speed; Digit Span for auditory memory; Santa Ana manual dexterity; Digit-Symbol for perceptual motor speed; the Benton visual retention for visual perception and memory; and Pursuit Aiming II for motor steadiness. In each of 13 subtests, the exposed group had a poorer performance than the nonexposed group. The range of differences in mean performance was between 5% and 89%, particularly in POMS (tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, depression-rejection, fatigue-inertia, confusion-bewilderment), Simple Reaction Time, Digit-Symbol, and Santa Ana Pegboard (p memory, confusion, paresthesias in upper and lower extremities, and sleep disturbances. We conclude that the methodology is applicable to the population studied. The tests of the NCTB were accepted by the subjects and were administered satisfactorily, except for occasional difficulties in verbal comprehension in subtests of POMS, which is the only test that requires more demanding verbal skills. The magnitude of the behavioral deficits is consistent with the probable high level of exposure and with the range of deficits previously reported in workers with long-term solvent exposures.

  14. Battery algorithm verification and development using hardware-in-the-loop testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yongsheng [General Motors Global Research and Development, 30500 Mound Road, MC 480-106-252, Warren, MI 48090 (United States); Liu, Wei; Koch, Brain J. [General Motors Global Vehicle Engineering, Warren, MI 48090 (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Battery algorithms play a vital role in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), extended-range electric vehicles (EREVs), and electric vehicles (EVs). The energy management of hybrid and electric propulsion systems needs to rely on accurate information on the state of the battery in order to determine the optimal electric drive without abusing the battery. In this study, a cell-level hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system is used to verify and develop state of charge (SOC) and power capability predictions of embedded battery algorithms for various vehicle applications. Two different batteries were selected as representative examples to illustrate the battery algorithm verification and development procedure. One is a lithium-ion battery with a conventional metal oxide cathode, which is a power battery for HEV applications. The other is a lithium-ion battery with an iron phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}) cathode, which is an energy battery for applications in PHEVs, EREVs, and EVs. The battery cell HIL testing provided valuable data and critical guidance to evaluate the accuracy of the developed battery algorithms, to accelerate battery algorithm future development and improvement, and to reduce hybrid/electric vehicle system development time and costs. (author)

  15. Battery algorithm verification and development using hardware-in-the-loop testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongsheng; Liu, Wei; Koch, Brain J.

    Battery algorithms play a vital role in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), extended-range electric vehicles (EREVs), and electric vehicles (EVs). The energy management of hybrid and electric propulsion systems needs to rely on accurate information on the state of the battery in order to determine the optimal electric drive without abusing the battery. In this study, a cell-level hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system is used to verify and develop state of charge (SOC) and power capability predictions of embedded battery algorithms for various vehicle applications. Two different batteries were selected as representative examples to illustrate the battery algorithm verification and development procedure. One is a lithium-ion battery with a conventional metal oxide cathode, which is a power battery for HEV applications. The other is a lithium-ion battery with an iron phosphate (LiFePO 4) cathode, which is an energy battery for applications in PHEVs, EREVs, and EVs. The battery cell HIL testing provided valuable data and critical guidance to evaluate the accuracy of the developed battery algorithms, to accelerate battery algorithm future development and improvement, and to reduce hybrid/electric vehicle system development time and costs.

  16. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective ...

  17. Parametric and cycle tests of a 40-AH bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of a 12 V, 40 ampere-hour bipolar battery during various charge current, discharge current, temperature, and pressure operating conditions is investigated. The cell voltages, temperatures, ampere-hours, and watt-hours derived from the charge/discharge cycle tests are studied. Consideration is given to battery voltage and discharge capacity as a function of discharge current, the correlation between energy delivered on a discharge and battery temperature, battery voltage response to pulse discharges, and the voltage-temperature relationship. The data reveal that the bipolar Ni-H battery is applicable to high power systems.

  18. Neurobehavioral and Cardiovascular Effects of Potassium Cyanide Administered Orally to Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Michael A; Ritchie, Glenn D; Henderson, Kim A; Knostman, Katherine A B; Roche, Brian M; Ma, Zhenxu J; Matthews, Claire M; Sabourin, Carol L; Wakayama, Edward J; Sabourin, Patrick J

    2016-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule requires evaluation of cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS) effects of new therapeutics. To characterize an adult and juvenile mouse model, neurobehavioral and cardiovascular effects and pathology of a single sublethal but toxic, 8 mg/kg, oral dose of potassium cyanide (KCN) for up to 41 days postdosing were investigated. This study describes the short- and long-term sensory, motor, cognitive, and behavioral changes associated with oral dosing of a sublethal but toxic dose of KCN utilizing functional observation battery and Tier II CNS testing in adult and juvenile mice of both sexes. Selected tissues (histopathology) were evaluated for changes associated with KCN exposure with special attention to brain regions. Telemetry (adult mice only) was used to evaluate cardiovascular and temperature changes. Neurobehavioral capacity, sensorimotor responsivity or spontaneous locomotor activity, and rectal temperature were significantly reduced in adult and juvenile mice at 30 minutes post-8 mg/kg KCN dose. Immediate effects of cyanide included bradycardia, adverse electrocardiogram arrhythmic events, hypotension, and hypothermia with recovery by approximately 1 hour for blood pressure and heart rate effects and by 2 hours for body temperature. Lesions consistent with hypoxia, such as mild acute tubular necrosis in the kidneys corticomedullary junction, were the only histopathological findings and occurred at a very low incidence. The mouse KCN intoxication model indicates rapid and completely reversible effects in adult and juvenile mice following a single oral 8 mg/kg dose. Neurobehavioral and cardiovascular measurements can be used in this animal model as a trigger for treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Decision Dependability of Subtests, Tests, and the Overall TOEFL Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean; Ross, Jacqueline A.

    This study investigates the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), in particular the relative contributions to score dependability (analogous to classical theory reliability) of various numbers of items and subtests as well as the decision dependability at different cut points. Research questions that apply to the overall TOEFL battery and…

  20. Development of a Test Battery to Select Navy Recruiters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Penney, Lisa M; Borman, Walter C; Bearden, Ronald M

    2007-01-01

    .... the students were administered a trial predictor battery while at the school, and performance ratings and production data were collected after participants had been assigned to recruiting duty...

  1. Battery Test Facility- Electrochemical Analysis and Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrochemical Analysis and Diagnostics Laboratory (EADL) provides battery developers with reliable, independent, and unbiased performance evaluations of their...

  2. Empirical Modeling of Lithium-ion Batteries Based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadani, Ehsan; Farhad, Siamak; Scott, William; Mastali, Mehrdad; Gimenez, Leonardo E.; Fowler, Michael; Fraser, Roydon A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two commercial Lithium-ion batteries are studied through HPPC and EIS tests. • An equivalent circuit model is developed for a range of operating conditions. • This model improves the current battery empirical models for vehicle applications • This model is proved to be efficient in terms of predicting HPPC test resistances. - ABSTRACT: An empirical model for commercial lithium-ion batteries is developed based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. An equivalent circuit is established according to EIS test observations at various battery states of charge and temperatures. A Laplace transfer time based model is developed based on the circuit which can predict the battery operating output potential difference in battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles at various operating conditions. This model demonstrates up to 6% improvement compared to simple resistance and Thevenin models and is suitable for modeling and on-board controller purposes. Results also show that this model can be used to predict the battery internal resistance obtained from hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) tests to within 20 percent, making it suitable for low to medium fidelity powertrain design purposes. In total, this simple battery model can be employed as a real-time model in electrified vehicle battery management systems

  3. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Main Battery Thermal Runaway Propagation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; North, Tim

    2017-01-01

    In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the aging Ni-H2 batteries on the primary Electric Power System (EPS). After the Boeing 787 Li-Ion battery fires, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Power Technical Discipline Team was tasked by ISS to investigate the possibility of Thermal Runaway Propagation (TRP) in all Li-Ion batteries used on the ISS. As part of that investigation, NESC funded a TRP test of an ISS EPS non-flight Li-Ion battery. The test was performed at NASA White Sands Test Facility in October 2016. This paper will discuss the work leading up to the test, the design of the test article, and the test results.

  4. Accelerated test program for sealed nickel-cadmium spacecraft batteries/cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility was examined of inducing an accelerated test on sealed Nickel-Cadmium batteries or cells as a tool for spacecraft projects and battery users to determine: (1) the prediction of life capability; (2) a method of evaluating the effect of design and component changes in cells; and (3) a means of reducing time and cost of cell testing.

  5. Age effects and normative data on a Dutch test battery for auditory processing disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, C.A.M.; Snik, A.F.M.; Priester, G.; Kordenoordt, S. van; Broek, P. van den

    2002-01-01

    A test battery compiled to diagnose auditory processing disorders (APDs) in an adult population was used on a population of 9-16-year-old children. The battery consisted of eight tests (words -in noise, filtered speech, binaural fusion, dichotic digits, frequency and duration patterns, backward

  6. Modified performance test of vented lead acid batteries for stationary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, K.W.; Fletcher, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of a modified performance test for vented lead acid batteries in stationary applications has been developed by the IEEE Battery Working Group. The modified performance test is defined as a test in the ''as found'' condition of the battery capacity and its ability to provide a high rate, short duration load (usually the highest rate of the duty cycle) that will confirm the battery's ability to meet the critical period of the load duty cycle, in addition to determining its percentage of rated capacity. This paper will begin by reviewing performance and service test requirements and concerns associated with both types of tests. The paper will then discuss the rationale for developing a modified performance test along with the benefits that can be derived from performing a modified performance test in lieu of a capacity test and/or a service test. The paper will conclude with an example on how to apply a modified performance test and test acceptance criteria

  7. Cross-cultural comparison of neurobehavioral performance in Asian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jong-Hak; Sakong, Joon; Kang, Pock-Soo; Kim, Chang-Yoon; Lee, Kyeong-Soo; Jeon, Man-Joong; Sung, Nak-Jung; Ahn, Sang-Ho; Won, Kyu-Chang

    2003-08-01

    Widely-used neurobehavioral tests have been developed and standardized on Western populations, but studies on subject factors for Asian populations have been very limited. For the effective application and interpretation of neurobehavioral tests in Asian populations, an evaluation of the effects of subject factors, including cultural background, is necessary. A cross-cultural study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cultural background and the interaction between cultural background and education on neurobehavioral tests in Asian populations. The Korean version of the Swedish Performance Evaluation System (Simple Reaction Time, Symbol Digit, and Finger Tapping Speed) and a pegboard test were administered to 537 workers who were not exposed to chemicals at work from Fareast (Korea and Chinese), Central (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan), and South Asia (Sri Lanka and Indonesia). The Fareast Asian group exhibited better performance in adjusted test scores than other Asian groups, achieving significance for Symbol Digit and Finger Tapping Speed in both genders. The magnitude of the effect of cultural background on Symbol Digit was comparable to the effect of about 10 years of education. Cultural background did not modify the relation between years of education and Symbol Digit in either males or females. This study may provide the first evidence that cultural background has a large impact on neurobehavioral test performance, even within Asian populations, and suggests that cultural background is a critical confounding factor that must be controlled in epidemiologic studies which include Asian populations in the sample.

  8. Charge retention test experiences on Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Dave E.; Driscoll, J. R.; Armantrout, J. D.; Baker, R. C.; Wajsgras, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) nickel-hydrogen battery module was designed by Lockheed Missile & Space Co (LMSC) and manufactured by Eagle-Picher Ind. (EPI) for the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) for the nickel-cadmium batteries originally selected for this low earth orbit mission. The design features of the HST nickel hydrogen battery are described and the results of an extended charge retention test are summarized.

  9. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sally (Xiaolei) Sun; Tyler Gray; Pattie Hovorka; Jeffrey Wishart; Donald Karner; James Francfort

    2012-08-01

    The UltraBattery Retrofit Project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched Project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are established to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). A profile, termed the “Simulated Honda Civic HEV Profile” (SHCHEVP) has been developed in Project DP1.8 in order to provide reproducible laboratory evaluations of different battery types under real-world HEV conditions. The cycle is based on the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles and simulates operation of a battery pack in a Honda Civic HEV. One pass through the SHCHEVP takes 2,140 seconds and simulates 17.7 miles of driving. A complete nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack was removed from a Honda Civic HEV and operated under SHCHEVP to validate the profile. The voltage behavior and energy balance of the battery during this operation was virtually the same as that displayed by the battery when in the Honda Civic operating on the dynamometer under the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycles, thus confirming the efficacy of the simulated profile. An important objective of the project has been to benchmark the performance of the UltraBatteries manufactured by both Furukawa Battery Co., Ltd., Japan (Furakawa) and East Penn Manufacturing Co., Inc. (East Penn). Accordingly, UltraBattery packs from both Furakawa and East Penn have been characterized under a range of conditions. Resistance measurements and capacity tests at various rates show that both battery types are very similar in performance. Both technologies, as well as a standard lead-acid module (included for baseline data), were evaluated under a simple HEV screening test. Both Furakawa and East Penn UltraBattery packs operated for over 32,000 HEV cycles, with minimal loss in performance; whereas the

  10. Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/carbon microspheres (Fe3O4/C were prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction using cellulose and ferric trichloride as precursors. The resultant composite spheres have been investigated as anode materials for the lithium-ion batteries, and they show high capacity and good cycle stability (830mAhg−1 at a current density of 0.1C up to 70 cycles, as well as enhanced rate capability. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the high structural stability and high rate of ionic/electronic conduction arising from the porous character and the synergetic effect of the carbon coated Fe3O4 structure and conductive carbon coating.

  11. Reference Performance Test Methodology for Degradation Assessment of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Purkayastha, Rajlakshmi

    2018-01-01

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) is an emerging battery technology receiving a growing amount of attention due to its potentially high gravimetric energy density, safety, and low production cost. However, there are still some obstacles preventing its swift commercialization. Li-S batteries are driven...... by different electrochemical processes than commonly used Lithium-ion batteries, which often results in very different behavior. Therefore, the testing and modeling of these systems have to be adjusted to reflect their unique behavior and to prevent possible bias. A methodology for a Reference Performance Test...... (RPT) for the Li-S batteries is proposed in this study to point out Li-S battery features and provide guidance to users how to deal with them and possible results into standardization. The proposed test methodology is demonstrated for 3.4 Ah Li-S cells aged under different conditions....

  12. Continuous Improvement in Battery Testing at the NASA/JSC Energy System Test Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William; Cook, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA) at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas conducts development and qualification tests to fulfill Energy System Division responsibilities relevant to ASA programs and projects. EST A has historically called upon a variety of fluid, mechanical, electrical, environmental, and data system capabilities spread amongst five full-service facilities to test human and human supported spacecraft in the areas of propulsion systems, fluid systems, pyrotechnics, power generation, and power distribution and control systems. Improvements at ESTA are being made in full earnest of offering NASA project offices an option to choose a thorough test regime that is balanced with cost and schedule constraints. In order to continue testing of enabling power-related technologies utilized by the Energy System Division, an especially proactive effort has been made to increase the cost effectiveness and schedule responsiveness for battery testing. This paper describes the continuous improvement in battery testing at the Energy Systems Test Area being made through consolidation, streamlining, and standardization.

  13. A cost effective battery bank for I2t testing and evaluation of electrical switchgear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reass, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the electrical design and mechanical construction of a 50 kA ''step switched'' battery bank. Individual fuses protect each of the forty parallel isolated strings of three series (12 V) batteries. Step current waveforms of 12.5 kA, 25 kA, 37.5 kA, and 50 kA are produced by 8 sets of pneumatically driven 20 pole step switches and current limiting stainless steel ''trombone'' resistors. Inexpensive, yet conservatively designed, Group 65 Motorcraft car batteries are used to give an I 2 t capability of better than 5 x 10 9 . The battery bank has well over 1500 shots, with testing of commercial switchgear continuing. In addition to the battery bank engineering data, results of repetitive testing of vacuum interrupters at their I 2 t limit will be provided. 8 figs

  14. Analyse Factorielle d'une Batterie de Tests de Comprehension Orale et Ecrite (Factor Analysis of a Battery of Tests of Listening and Reading Comprehension). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonchamp, F.

    This is a presentation of the results of a factor analysis of a battery of tests intended to measure listening and reading comprehension in English as a second language. The analysis sought to answer the following questions: (1) whether the factor analysis method yields results when applied to tests which are not specifically designed for this…

  15. Safety modelling and testing of lithium-ion batteries in electrified vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Bae, Chulheung; Marcicki, James; Masias, Alvaro; Miller, Theodore

    2018-04-01

    To optimize the safety of batteries, it is important to understand their behaviours when subjected to abuse conditions. Most early efforts in battery safety modelling focused on either one battery cell or a single field of interest such as mechanical or thermal failure. These efforts may not completely reflect the failure of batteries in automotive applications, where various physical processes can take place in a large number of cells simultaneously. In this Perspective, we review modelling and testing approaches for battery safety under abuse conditions. We then propose a general framework for large-scale multi-physics modelling and experimental work to address safety issues of automotive batteries in real-world applications. In particular, we consider modelling coupled mechanical, electrical, electrochemical and thermal behaviours of batteries, and explore strategies to extend simulations to the battery module and pack level. Moreover, we evaluate safety test approaches for an entire range of automotive hardware sets from cell to pack. We also discuss challenges in building this framework and directions for its future development.

  16. High shock load testing of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, J.; Marincic, N.

    1983-10-01

    Low rate cylindrical cells have been developed, capable of withstanding mechanical shocks up to 23,000 g's for one millisecond. The cells were based on the lithium-thionyl chloride battery system and totally hermetic stainless steel hardware incorporating a glass sealed positive terminal. Four cells in series were required to deliver 25 mA pulses at a minimum voltage of 10 V before and after such exposure to one mechanical shock. Batteries were contained in a hardened steel housing and mounted within a projectile accelerated by means of a gas gun. The velocity of the projectile was measured with electronic probes immediately before impact and the deceleration was effected using a special aluminum honeycomb structure from which the g values were calculated. A high survival rate for the cells was achieved in spite of some mechanical damage to the battery housing still present.

  17. 3-D CFD modeling and experimental testing of thermal behavior of a Li-Ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gümüşsu, Emre; Ekici, Özgür; Köksal, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermally fully predictive 3-D CFD model is developed for Li-Ion batteries. • Complete flow field around the battery and conduction inside the battery are solved. • Macro-scale thermophysical properties and the entropic term are investigated. • Discharge rate and usage history of the battery are systematically investigated. • Reliability of the model was tested through experimental measurements. - Abstract: In this study, a 3-D computational fluid dynamics model was developed for investigating the thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries under natural convection. The model solves the complete flow field around the battery as well as conduction inside the battery using the well-known heat generation model of Bernardi et al. (1985). The model is thermally fully predictive so it requires only electrical performance parameters of the battery to calculate its temperature during discharging. Using the model, detailed investigation of the effects of the variation of the macro-scale thermophysical properties and the entropic term of the heat generation model was carried out. Results show that specific heat is a critical property that has a significant impact on the simulation results whereas thermal conductivity has relatively minor importance. Moreover, the experimental data can be successfully predicted without taking the entropic term into account in the calculation of the heat generation. The difference between the experimental and predicted battery surface temperature was less than 3 °C for all discharge rates and regardless of the usage history of the battery. The developed model has the potential to be used for the investigation of the thermal behavior of Li-Ion batteries in different packaging configurations under natural and forced convection.

  18. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part II. Test proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A.O. [BMW Group, 80788 Muenchen (Germany); Albers, J. [Johnson Controls Power Solutions EMEA, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Weirather-Koestner, D. [ZSW Ulm, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Kabza, H. [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Energiewandlung und -speicherung, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-02-01

    In the first part of this work selected key parameters for applying lead-acid (LA) batteries in micro-hybrid power systems (MHPS) were investigated. Main results are integrated in an accelerated, comprehensive test proposal presented here. The test proposal aims at a realistic representation of the pSoC operation regime, which is described in Refs. The test is designed to be sensitive with respect to dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at partially discharged state (critical for regenerative braking) and the internal resistance at high-rate discharge (critical for idling stop applications). First results are presented for up-to-date valve-regulated LA batteries with absorbent glass mat (AGM) separators. The batteries are close to the limits of the first proposal of pass/fail-criteria. Also flooded batteries were tested; the first out of ten units failed already. (author)

  19. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part II. Test proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Albers, J.; Weirather-Koestner, D.; Kabza, H.

    In the first part of this work [1] selected key parameters for applying lead-acid (LA) batteries in micro-hybrid power systems (MHPS) were investigated. Main results are integrated in an accelerated, comprehensive test proposal presented here. The test proposal aims at a realistic representation of the pSoC operation regime, which is described in Refs. [1,6]. The test is designed to be sensitive with respect to dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at partially discharged state (critical for regenerative braking) and the internal resistance at high-rate discharge (critical for idling stop applications). First results are presented for up-to-date valve-regulated LA batteries with absorbent glass mat (AGM) separators. The batteries are close to the limits of the first proposal of pass/fail-criteria. Also flooded batteries were tested; the first out of ten units failed already.

  20. Parametric and cycle tests of a 40-A-hr bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A series of tests was performed to characterize battery performance relating to certain operating parameters which included charge current, discharge current, temperature and pressure. The parameters were varied to confirm battery design concepts and to determine optimal operating conditions. Spacecraft power requirements are constantly increasing. Special spacecraft such as the Space Station and platforms will require energy storage systems of 130 and 25 kWh, respectively. The complexity of these high power systems will demand high reliability, and reduced mass and volume. A system that uses batteries for storage will require a cell count in excess of 400 units. These cell units must then be assembled into several batteries with over 100 cells in a series connected string. In an attempt to simplify the construction of conventional cells and batteries, the NASA Lewis Research Center battery systems group initiated work on a nickel-hydrogen battery in a bipolar configuration in early 1981. Features of the battery with this bipolar construction show promise in improving both volumetric and gravimetric energy densities as well as thermal management. Bipolar construction allows cooling in closer proximity to the cell components, thus heat removal can be accomplished at a higher rejection temperature than conventional cell designs. Also, higher current densities are achievable because of low cell impedance. Lower cell impedance is achieved via current flow perpendicular to the electrode face, thus reducing voltage drops in the electrode grid and electrode terminals tabs.

  1. Systematic review and proposal of a field-based physical fitness-test battery in preschool children: the PREFIT battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Guillermo; Mora-González, José; Martínez-Téllez, Borja; Artero, Enrique G; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Labayen, Idoia; Chillón, Palma; Löf, Marie; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2015-04-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful health marker in childhood and adolescence, and it is reasonable to think that it might be just as important in younger children, i.e. preschoolers. At the moment, researchers, clinicians and sport practitioners do not have enough information about which fitness tests are more reliable, valid and informative from the health point of view to be implemented in preschool children. Our aim was to systematically review the studies conducted in preschool children using field-based fitness tests, and examine their (1) reliability, (2) validity, and (3) relationship with health outcomes. Our ultimate goal was to propose a field-based physical fitness-test battery to be used in preschool children. PubMed and Web of Science. Studies conducted in healthy preschool children that included field-based fitness tests. When using PubMed, we included Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms to enhance the power of the search. A set of fitness-related terms were combined with 'child, preschool' [MeSH]. The same strategy and terms were used for Web of Science (except for the MeSH option). Since no previous reviews with a similar aim were identified, we searched for all articles published up to 1 April 2014 (no starting date). A total of 2,109 articles were identified, of which 22 articles were finally selected for this review. Most studies focused on reliability of the fitness tests (n = 21, 96%), while very few focused on validity (0 criterion-related validity and 4 (18%) convergent validity) or relationship with health outcomes (0 longitudinal and 1 (5%) cross-sectional study). Motor fitness, particularly balance, was the most studied fitness component, while cardiorespiratory fitness was the least studied. After analyzing the information retrieved in the current systematic review about fitness testing in preschool children, we propose the PREFIT battery, field-based FITness testing in PREschool children. The PREFIT battery is composed of the following

  2. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Increased Blood Pressure in School-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Barr, Dana; Bellinger, David C.; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. Objectives In northern Ecuador, where floriculture is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children’s neurobehavioral functions at 6–8 years of age. Methods We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children’s current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. Results Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed to pesticides during pregnancy via maternal occupational exposure, and 23 had indirect exposure from paternal work. Twenty-two children had detectable current exposure irrespective of their prenatal exposure status. Only children with prenatal exposure from maternal greenhouse work showed consistent deficits after covariate adjustment, which included stunting and socioeconomic variables. Exposure-related deficits were the strongest for motor speed (Finger Tapping Task), motor coordination (Santa Ana Form Board), visuospatial performance (Stanford-Binet Copying Test), and visual memory (Stanford-Binet Copying Recall Test). These associations corresponded to a developmental delay of 1.5–2 years. Prenatal pesticide exposure was also significantly associated with an average increase of 3.6 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in body mass index of 1.1 kg/m2. Inclusion of the pilot data strengthened these results. Conclusions These findings support the notion that prenatal exposure to pesticides—at levels not producing adverse health outcomes in the mother

  3. Psychometric evaluation of a motor control test battery of the craniofacial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Piekartz, H; Stotz, E; Both, A; Bahn, G; Armijo-Olivo, S; Ballenberger, N

    2017-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the structural and known-group validity as well as the inter-rater reliability of a test battery to evaluate the motor control of the craniofacial region. Seventy volunteers without TMD and 25 subjects with TMD (Axes I) per the DC/TMD were asked to execute a test battery consisting of eight tests. The tests were video-taped in the same sequence in a standardised manner. Two experienced physical therapists participated in this study as blinded assessors. We used exploratory factor analysis to identify the underlying component structure of the eight tests. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α), inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient) and construct validity (ie, hypothesis testing-known-group validity) (receiver operating curves) were also explored for the test battery. The structural validity showed the presence of one factor underlying the construct of the test battery. The internal consistency was excellent (0.90) as well as the inter-rater reliability. All values of reliability were close to 0.9 or above indicating very high inter-rater reliability. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.93 for rater 1 and 0.94 for rater two, respectively, indicating excellent discrimination between subjects with TMD and healthy controls. The results of the present study support the psychometric properties of test battery to measure motor control of the craniofacial region when evaluated through videotaping. This test battery could be used to differentiate between healthy subjects and subjects with musculoskeletal impairments in the cervical and oro-facial regions. In addition, this test battery could be used to assess the effectiveness of management strategies in the craniofacial region. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Model studies for evaluating the acute neurobehavioral effects of complex hydrocarbon solvents. I. Validation of methods with ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKee, R.H.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Hoogendijk, E.M.G.; Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Barsotti, D.A.; Owen, D.E.; Kulig, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    As a preliminary step to evaluating the acute neurobehavioral effects of hydrocarbon solvents and to establish a working model for extrapolating animal test data to humans, joint neurobehavioral/toxicokinetic studies were conducted which involved administering ethanol to rats and volunteers. The

  5. Age- and gender-dependent impairments of neurobehaviors in mice whose mothers were exposed to lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Ning, Huan; Zhao, Xian-Feng; Wang, Qun; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Gui-Hai; Xu, De-Xiang

    2010-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intrauterine infection has been associated with neurodevelopmental injury in rodents. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the dynamic changes of neurobehaviors in mice whose mothers were exposed to LPS during pregnancy. The pregnant mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with LPS (8 microg/kg) daily from gestational day (gd) 8 to gd 15. A battery of neurobehavioral tasks was performed in mice at postnatal day (PND) 70, 200, 400 and 600. Results showed that the spatial learning and memory ability, determined by radial six-arm water maze (RAWM), were obviously impaired in two hundred-day-old female mice and four hundred-day-old male mice whose mothers were exposed to LPS during pregnancy. Open field test showed that the number of squares crossed and peripheral time, a marker of anxiety and exploration activity, were markedly increased in two hundred-day-old female mice following prenatal LPS exposure. In addition, prenatal LPS exposure significantly shortened the latency to the first grid crossing in six hundred-day-old female offspring. Moreover, sensorimotor impairment in the beam walking was observed in two hundred-day-old female mice whose mothers were exposed to LPS during pregnancy. Species-typical behavior examination showed that prenatal LPS exposure markedly increased weight burrowed in seventy-day-old male offspring and six hundred-day-old female offspring. Correspondingly, prenatal LPS exposure significantly reduced weight hoarded in two hundred-day-old female offspring. Taken together, these results suggest that prenatal LPS exposure induces neurobehavioral impairments at adulthood in an age- and gender-dependent manner. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sleep disturbance and neurobehavioral performance among postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insana, Salvatore P; Williams, Kayla B; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbances cause neurobehavioral performance and daytime functioning impairments. Postpartum women experience high levels of sleep disturbance. Thus, the study objective was to describe and explore the relation between neurobehavioral performance and sleep among women during the early postpartum period. Longitudinal field-based study. There were 70 primiparous women and nine nulliparous women in a control group. None. During their first 12 postpartum weeks, 70 primiparous women wore continuous wrist actigraphy to objectively monitor their sleep. Each morning they self-administered the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) to index their neurobehavioral performance. Nine nulliparous women in a control group underwent the same protocol for 12 continuous weeks. Postpartum PVT mean reciprocal (1/RT) reaction time did not differ from that of women in the control group at postpartum week 2, but then worsened over time. Postpartum slowest 10% 1/RT PVT reaction time was significantly worse than that of women in the control group at all weeks. Despite improvements in postpartum sleep, neurobehavioral performance continued to worsen from week 2 through the end of the study. Across the first 12 postpartum weeks, PVT measures were more frequently associated with percent sleep compared with total sleep time, highlighting the deleterious consequences of sleep disruption on maternal daytime functioning throughout the early postpartum period. Worsened maternal neurobehavioral performance across the first 12 postpartum weeks may have been influenced by the cumulative effects of sleep disturbance. These results can inform future work to identify the particular sleep profiles that could be primary intervention targets to improve daytime functioning among postpartum women, and indicate need for further research on the effectiveness of family leave policies. The time when postpartum women return to control-level daytime functioning is unknown.

  7. Lithium-ion batteries for hearing aid applications. II. Pulse discharge and safety tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passerini, S.; Coustier, F.; Owens, B. B.

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries were designed to meet the power requirements of hearing aid devices (HADs). The batteries were designed in a 312-button cell size, compatible with existing hearing aids. The batteries were tested to evaluate the design and the electrochemical performance, as they relate to a typical hearing aid application. The present report covers the pulse capabilities, cycle life and preliminary safety tests. The results are compared with other battery chemistries: secondary lithium-alloy and nickel-metal hydride batteries and primary Zn-air batteries. The cell AC impedance was stable over the frequency range between 1 and 50 kHz, ranging between 5 Ω at the higher frequency and 12 Ω at the lower extreme. Pulse tests were consistent with these values, as the cells were capable of providing a series of 100 mA pulses of 10-s duration. The safety tests suggest that the design is intrinsically safe with respect to the most common types of abuse conditions.

  8. Performance Model for High-Power Lithium Titanate Oxide Batteries based on Extended Characterization Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are found nowadays not only in portable/consumer electronics but also in more power demanding applications, such as stationary renewable energy storage, automotive and back-up power supply, because of their superior characteristics in comparison to other energy...... storage technologies. Nevertheless, prior to be used in any of the aforementioned application, a Li-ion battery cell must be intensively characterized and its behavior needs to be understood. This can be realized by performing extended laboratory characterization tests and developing Li-ion battery...... performance models. Furthermore, accurate performance models are necessary in order to analyze the behavior of the battery cell under different mission profiles, by simulation; thus, avoiding time and cost demanding real life tests. This paper presents the development and the parametrization of a performance...

  9. 78 FR 15753 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ...-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft...-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The draft guide describes methods that the NRC staff..., testing, and replacement of vented lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit...

  10. Characterization testing of a 40 ampere hour bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gemeiner, Russel P.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive characterization testing has been done on a second 40-ampere hour (A h), 10-cell, bipolar nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery, to study the effects of operating parameters such as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure on capacity, A h and watt hour (W h) efficiencies, and end-of-charge and midpoint discharge voltages. Testing to date has produced many interesting results, with the battery performing well throughout the test matrix except during the high-rate (5 C and 10 C) discharges, where poorer than expected results were observed. The exact cause of this poor performance is, as yet, unknown. Small scale 2 in. x 2 in. battery tests are to be used in studying this problem. Low earth orbit cycle life testing at a 40-percent depth of discharge and 10 C is scheduled to follow the characterization testing.

  11. Characterization testing of a 40 AHR bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gemeiner, Russel P.

    1989-01-01

    Extensive characterization testing has been done on a second 40 amp-hour (Ahr), 10-cell bipolar nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery to study the effects of such operating parameters as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure, on capacity, Ahr and watt-hour (Whr) efficiencies, end-of-charge (EOC) and mid-point discharge voltages. Testing to date has produced many interesting results, with the battery performing well throughout all of the test matrix except during the high-rate (5C and 10C) discharges, where poorer than expected results were observed. The exact cause of this poor performance is, as yet, unknown. Small scale 2 x 2 inch battery tests are to be used in studying this problem. Low earth orbit (LEO) cycle life testing at a 40 percent depth of discharge (DOD) and 10 C is scheduled to follow the characterization testing.

  12. LEO life tests on a 75 Ah bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, S.; Koehler, C.; Applewhite, A.

    1988-01-01

    The design, building, and testing of an actively cooled 10-cell 75-Ah bipolar nickel/hydrogen battery are discussed. During the last 1000 cycles, the battery has shown some evidence of elecrical performance degradation. In particular, EOC and EOD voltages have increased and decreased by several millivolts, respectively, and deep discharge capacities to a 1.0 V/cell average cutoff voltage have decreased.

  13. Neurobehavioral approach for evaluation of office workers' productivity: The effects of room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Li; Lian, Zhiwei; Pan, Li [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ye, Qian [Shanghai Research Institute of Building Science, Shanghai 200041 (China)

    2009-08-15

    Indoor environment quality has great influence on worker's productivity, and how to assess the effect of indoor environment on productivity remains to be the major challenge. A neurobehavioral approach was proposed for evaluation of office workers' productivity in this paper. The distinguishing characteristic of neurobehavioral approach is its emphasis on the identification and measurement of behavioral changes, for the influence of environment on brain functions manifests behaviorally. Therefore worker's productivity can be comprehensively evaluated by testing the neurobehavioral functions. Four neurobehavioral functions, including perception, learning and memory, thinking, and executive functions were measured with nine representative psychometric tests. The effect of room temperature on performance of neurobehavioral tests was investigated in the laboratory. Four temperatures (19 C, 24 C, 27 C, and 32 C) were investigated based on the thermal sensation from cold to hot. Signal detection theory was utilized to analyze response bias. It was found that motivated people could maintain high performance for a short time under adverse (hot or cold) environmental conditions. Room temperature affected task performance differentially, depending on the type of tasks. The proposed neurobehavioral approach could be worked to quantitatively and systematically evaluate office workers' productivity. (author)

  14. Test Series 4: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Exide EMP-13 battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1985-03-01

    This report, the fourth in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of a 27-year old lead-antimony Exide EMP-13 cells from the recently decommissioned Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; and multicell (five-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of nine electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations. None of the nine cells failed during the actual seismic tests when a range of ZPAs up to 1.5 g was imposed. Subsequent discharge capacity tests of five of the cells showed, however, that none of the cells could deliver the accepted standard of 80% of their rated electrical capacity for 3 hours. In fact, none of the 5 cells could deliver more than a 33% capacity. Two of the seismically tested cells and one untested, low capacity cell were disassembled for examination and metallurgical analyses. The inspection showed the cells to be in poor condition. The negative plates in the vicinity of the bus connections were extremely weak, the positive buses were corroded and brittle, negative and positive active material utilization was extremely uneven, and corrosion products littered the cells

  15. Toxicity assessment of sediments from three European river basins using a sediment contact test battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuikka, A.I.; Schmitt, C.; Hoess, S.; Bandow, N; von der Ohe, P.; de Zwart, D.; de Deckere, E.; Streck, G.; Mothes, S.; van Hattum, A.G.M.; Kocan, A.; Brix, R.; Brack, W.; Barcelo, D.; Sormunen, A.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of four polluted sediments and their corresponding reference sediments from three European river basins were investigated using a battery of six sediment contact tests representing three different trophic levels. The tests included were chronic tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus

  16. Fireworks Assembler (Fireworks) 737.887 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  17. The re-emergence of sodium ion batteries: testing, processing, and manufacturability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Samuel; Kendrick, Emma

    2018-01-01

    With the re-emergence of sodium ion batteries (NIBs), we discuss the reasons for the recent interests in this technology and discuss the synergies between lithium ion battery (LIB) and NIB technologies and the potential for NIB as a “drop-in” technology for LIB manufacturing. The electrochemical testing of sodium materials in sodium metal anode arrangements is reviewed. The performance, stability, and polarization of the sodium in these test cells lead to alternative testing in three-electrode and alternative anode cell configurations. NIB manufacturability is also discussed, together with the impact that the material stability has upon the electrodes and coating. Finally, full-cell NIB technologies are reviewed, and literature proof-of-concept cells give an idea of some of the key differences in the testing protocols of these batteries. For more commercially relevant formats, safety, passive voltage control through cell balancing and cell formation aspects are discussed. PMID:29910609

  18. Experimental Testing Procedures and Dynamic Model Validation for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baccino, Francesco; Marinelli, Mattia; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at characterizing the electrochemical and thermal parameters of a 15 kW/320 kWh vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) installed in the SYSLAB test facility of the DTU Risø Campus and experimentally validating the proposed dynamic model realized in Matlab-Simulink. The adopted testing...... efficiency of the battery system. The test procedure has general validity and could also be used for other storage technologies. The storage model proposed and described is suitable for electrical studies and can represent a general model in terms of validity. Finally, the model simulation outputs...

  19. Modeling a constant power load for nickel-hydrogen battery testing using SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Douglas B.; Lollar, Louis F.; Nelms, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effort to design and model a constant power load for the HST (Hubble Space Telescope) nickel-hydrogen battery tests is described. The constant power load was designed for three different simulations on the batteries: life cycling, reconditioning, and capacity testing. A dc-dc boost converter was designed to act as this constant power load. A boost converter design was chosen because of the low test battery voltage (4 to 6 VDC) generated and the relatively high power requirement of 60 to 70 W. The SPICE model was shown to consistently predict variations in the actual circuit as various designs were attempted. It is concluded that the confidence established in the SPICE model of the constant power load ensures its extensive utilization in future efforts to improve performance in the actual load circuit.

  20. Interpreting in vitro developmental toxicity test battery results: The consideration of toxicokinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosgra, S.; Westerhout, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the EU collaborative project ChemScreen an alternative, in vitro assay-based test strategy was developed to screen compounds for reproductive toxicity. A toxicokinetic modeling approach was used to allow quantitative comparison between effective concentrations in the in vitro test battery and

  1. Evaluation of an alternative in vitro test battery for detecting reproductive toxicants in a grouping context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, E.D.; Bosgra, S.; Buist, H.E.; Lewin, G.; Linden, S.C. van der; Man, H.Y.; Piersma, A.H.; Rorije, E.; Schulpen, S.H.W.; Schwarz, M.; Uibel, F.; Vugt-Lussenburg, B.M.A. van; Wolterbeek, A.P.M.; Burg, B. van der

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed a battery consisting of CALUX transcriptional activation assays, the ReProGlo assay, and the embryonic stem cell test, and zebrafish embryotoxicity assay as 'apical' tests to correctly predict developmental toxicity for 11 out of 12 compounds, and to explain the one false

  2. The NEWMEDS rodent touchscreen test battery for cognition relevant to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvoslef-Eide, M; Mar, A C; Nilsson, S R O; Alsiö, J; Heath, C J; Saksida, L M; Robbins, T W; Bussey, T J

    2015-11-01

    The NEWMEDS initiative (Novel Methods leading to New Medications in Depression and Schizophrenia, http://www.newmeds-europe.com ) is a large industrial-academic collaborative project aimed at developing new methods for drug discovery for schizophrenia. As part of this project, Work package 2 (WP02) has developed and validated a comprehensive battery of novel touchscreen tasks for rats and mice for assessing cognitive domains relevant to schizophrenia. This article provides a review of the touchscreen battery of tasks for rats and mice for assessing cognitive domains relevant to schizophrenia and highlights validation data presented in several primary articles in this issue and elsewhere. The battery consists of the five-choice serial reaction time task and a novel rodent continuous performance task for measuring attention, a three-stimulus visual reversal and the serial visual reversal task for measuring cognitive flexibility, novel non-matching to sample-based tasks for measuring spatial working memory and paired-associates learning for measuring long-term memory. The rodent (i.e. both rats and mice) touchscreen operant chamber and battery has high translational value across species due to its emphasis on construct as well as face validity. In addition, it offers cognitive profiling of models of diseases with cognitive symptoms (not limited to schizophrenia) through a battery approach, whereby multiple cognitive constructs can be measured using the same apparatus, enabling comparisons of performance across tasks. This battery of tests constitutes an extensive tool package for both model characterisation and pre-clinical drug discovery.

  3. Study of the fire behavior of high-energy lithium-ion batteries with full-scale burning test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Ping; Wang, QingSong; Huang, PeiFeng; Li, Ke; Sun, JinHua; Kong, DePeng; Chen, ChunHua

    2015-07-01

    A full-scale burning test is conducted to evaluate the safety of large-size and high-energy 50 Ah lithium-iron phosphate/graphite battery pack, which is composed of five 10 Ah single cells. The complex fire hazards associated with the combustion process of the battery are presented. The battery combustion behavior can be summarized into the following stages: battery expansion, jet flame, stable combustion, a second cycle of a jet flame followed by stable combustion, a third cycle of a jet flame followed by stable combustion, abatement and extinguishment. The multiple jets of flame indicate serious consequences for the battery and pose a challenge for battery safety. The battery ignites when the battery temperature reaches approximately 175-180 °C. This critical temperature is related to an internal short circuit of the battery, which results from the melting of the separator. The maximum temperature of the flame can reach 1500 °C. The heat release rate (HRR) varies based on the oxygen generated by the battery and the Joule effect of the internal short circuit. The HRR and heat of combustion can reach 49.4 kW and 18,195.1 kJ, respectively. The state of charge of the battery has a significant effect on the maximum HRR, the overall heat generation and the mass loss of the battery.

  4. The minimum test battery to screen for binocular vision anomalies: report 3 of the BAND study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Rakshit, Archayeeta; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Swaminathan, Meenakshi; George, Ronnie; Kapur, Suman; Scheiman, Mitchell; Ramani, Krishna Kumar

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to report the minimum test battery needed to screen non-strabismic binocular vision anomalies (NSBVAs) in a community set-up. When large numbers are to be screened we aim to identify the most useful test battery when there is no opportunity for a more comprehensive and time-consuming clinical examination. The prevalence estimates and normative data for binocular vision parameters were estimated from the Binocular Vision Anomalies and Normative Data (BAND) study, following which cut-off estimates and receiver operating characteristic curves to identify the minimum test battery have been plotted. In the receiver operating characteristic phase of the study, children between nine and 17 years of age were screened in two schools in the rural arm using the minimum test battery, and the prevalence estimates with the minimum test battery were found. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed that near point of convergence with penlight and red filter (> 7.5 cm), monocular accommodative facility ( 1.25 prism dioptres) were significant factors with cut-off values for best sensitivity and specificity. This minimum test battery was applied to a cohort of 305 children. The mean (standard deviation) age of the subjects was 12.7 (two) years with 121 males and 184 females. Using the minimum battery of tests obtained through the receiver operating characteristic analyses, the prevalence of NSBVAs was found to be 26 per cent. Near point of convergence with penlight and red filter > 10 cm was found to have the highest sensitivity (80 per cent) and specificity (73 per cent) for the diagnosis of convergence insufficiency. For the diagnosis of accommodative infacility, monocular accommodative facility with a cut-off of less than seven cycles per minute was the best predictor for screening (92 per cent sensitivity and 90 per cent specificity). The minimum test battery of near point of convergence with penlight and red filter, difference between distance and near

  5. The testing of batteries linked to supercapacitors with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy: A comparison between Li-ion and valve regulated lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferg, Ernst; Rossouw, Claire; Loyson, Peter

    2013-03-01

    For electric vehicles, a supercapacitor can be coupled to the electrical system in order to increase and optimize the energy and power densities of the drive system during acceleration and regenerative breaking. This study looked at the charge acceptance and maximum discharge ability of a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) and a Li-ion battery connected in parallel to supercapacitors. The test procedure evaluated the advantage of using a supercapacitor at a 2 F:1 Ah ratio with the battery types at various states of charge (SoC). The results showed that about 7% of extra charge was achieved over a 5-s test time for a Li-ion hybrid system at 20% SoC, whereas at the 80% SoC the additional capacity was approximately 16%. While for the VRLA battery hybrid system, an additional charge of up to 20% was achieved when the battery was at 80% SoC, with little or no benefit at the 20% SoC. The advantage of the supercapacitor in parallel with a VRLA battery was noticeable on its discharge ability, where significant extra capacity was achieved for short periods of time for a battery at the 60% and 40% SoC when compared to the Li-ion hybrid system. The study also made use of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) with a suitable equivalent circuit model to explain, in particular, the internal resistance and capacitance differences observed between the different battery chemistries with and without a supercapacitor.

  6. Accuracy statistics in predicting Independent Activities of Daily Living (IADL) capacity with comprehensive and brief neuropsychological test batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzmark, Peter; Deutsch, Gayle K

    2018-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine the predictive accuracy of a comprehensive neuropsychological and brief neuropsychological test battery with regard to the capacity to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Accuracy statistics that included measures of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicted power and positive likelihood ratio were calculated for both types of batteries. The sample was drawn from a general neurological group of adults (n = 117) that included a number of older participants (age >55; n = 38). Standardized neuropsychological assessments were administered to all participants and were comprised of the Halstead Reitan Battery and portions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. A comprehensive test battery yielded a moderate increase over base-rate in predictive accuracy that generalized to older individuals. There was only limited support for using a brief battery, for although sensitivity was high, specificity was low. We found that a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery provided good classification accuracy for predicting IADL capacity.

  7. 76 FR 31749 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Consumer Appliances: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... cellular telephones and portable media players such as MP3 players. D. Multiple-Voltage External Power... solid base for performing battery charger testing. (PG&E, Pub. Mtg. Tran., No. 2 at p. 14) PG&E, Delta-Q...

  8. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module

  9. Evaluation of the preliminary auditory profile test battery in an international multi-centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, T.E.M.; Kollmeier, B.; Vormann, M.; Lijzenga, J.; Houtgast, T.; Hallgren, M.; Larsby, B.; Athalye, S.P.; Lutman, M.E.; Dreschler, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes the composition and international multi-centre evaluation of a battery of tests termed the preliminary auditory profile. It includes measures of loudness perception, listening effort, speech perception, spectral and temporal resolution, spatial hearing, self-reported

  10. Fast Charging and Smart Charging Tests for Electric Vehicles Batteries Using Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forero Camacho, Oscar Mauricio; Mihet-Popa, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EV) technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend, there is an outstanding need for common platforms and sharing of knowledge and core technologies. This paper presents......, and forced and pulsed power. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of smart charging and fast charging on the power system, on the battery state of health and degradation, and to find out the limitations of the batteries for a Smart Grid. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages...

  11. Identification of conductive hearing loss using air conduction tests alone: reliability and validity of an automatic test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convery, Elizabeth; Keidser, Gitte; Seeto, Mark; Freeston, Katrina; Zhou, Dan; Dillon, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a combination of automatically administered pure-tone audiometry and a tone-in-noise detection task, both delivered via an air conduction (AC) pathway, could reliably and validly predict the presence of a conductive component to the hearing loss. The authors hypothesized that performance on the battery of tests would vary according to hearing loss type. A secondary objective was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a novel automatic audiometry algorithm to assess its suitability for inclusion in the test battery. Participants underwent a series of hearing assessments that were conducted in a randomized order: manual pure-tone air conduction audiometry and bone conduction audiometry; automatic pure-tone air conduction audiometry; and an automatic tone-in-noise detection task. The automatic tests were each administered twice. The ability of the automatic test battery to: (a) predict the presence of an air-bone gap (ABG); and (b) accurately measure AC hearing thresholds was assessed against the results of manual audiometry. Test-retest conditions were compared to determine the reliability of each component of the automatic test battery. Data were collected on 120 ears from normal-hearing and conductive, sensorineural, and mixed hearing-loss subgroups. Performance differences between different types of hearing loss were observed. Ears with a conductive component (conductive and mixed ears) tended to have normal signal to noise ratios (SNR) despite impaired thresholds in quiet, while ears without a conductive component (normal and sensorineural ears) demonstrated, on average, an increasing relationship between their thresholds in quiet and their achieved SNR. Using the relationship between these two measures among ears with no conductive component as a benchmark, the likelihood that an ear has a conductive component can be estimated based on the deviation from this benchmark. The sensitivity and

  12. Orbital simulation life tests of nickel hydrogen batteries with additional non-eclipse cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. J.; Donley, S. W.; Verrier, D. C.

    Nickel-hydrogen battery technology has established itself as the system of choice to provide energy storage on board Earth orbiting satellites. In addition to providing electrical power for the satellite during the periods the satellite's solar arrays are eclipsed by the Earth, applications are evolving (such as ion propulsion) where the battery is required to supplement the power supplied to the spacecraft by the solar panels in order to meet the peak power demands. In this paper, the results of a four-year accelerated life test programme, equivalent to more than 20 years in orbit, are reported. Additional non-eclipse cycles were added to both the eclipse and solstice seasons of each simulated spacecraft year. The results show that the additional discharges do not significantly effect the rates of performance degradation of the batteries.

  13. Simulated earthquake testing of naturally aged C and D LCU-13 station battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulk, J.D.; Black, D.A.; Janis, W.J.; Royce, C.J.

    1985-03-01

    A sample of 10-year-old lead-acid storage batteries from the North Anna Nuclear Power Station (Virginia Electric and Power Company) were tested on a shaker table. Seven cells were subjected to simulated earthquakes with a ZPA of approximately 1.5 g. All seven delivered uninterrupted power during the shaker tests and were able to pass a post-seismic capacity test. Two cells were shaken to higher intensities (ZPA approximately equal to 2 g). These cells provided uninterrupted power during the shaker tests, but had post-seismic capacities that were below the required level for Class1E battery cells. After the tests, several cells were disassembled and examined. Internal components were in good condition with limited oxidization and plate cracking

  14. Recharging the battery: placement tests for ESP students

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Isabel Azevedo Cunha; Márcia do Amaral Peixoto Martins; Inés Kayon de Miller; Lucia Pacheco de Oliveira; James Dean Brown

    2001-01-01

    This paper first reviews key concepts in language testing and discusses the use of the English Language Placement Test administered at the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro to computer science students, who are required t o take one of the two ESP courses offered by the English program. The analysis of the scores on two versions of a test administered to two different groups of computer science students who took the examination in sequential semesters is presented. For the origin...

  15. Recharging the battery: placement tests for ESP students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Azevedo Cunha

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper first reviews key concepts in language testing and discusses the use of the English Language Placement Test administered at the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro to computer science students, who are required t o take one of the two ESP courses offered by the English program. The analysis of the scores on two versions of a test administered to two different groups of computer science students who took the examination in sequential semesters is presented. For the original test, it em facility and it em discrimination were calculated, then overall test reliability was estimated. The statistics were carefully examined and a number of t he test items were eliminated, revamped or replaced in creating a revised version of the test. This modified and improved version of the test was then administered to a second group of students and the same statistics were applied once more. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of item analysis and revision for providing more consistent and accurate language testing instruments.

  16. Performance norms for a rhesus monkey neuropsychological testing battery: acquisition and long-term performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, M R; Taffe, M A; Polis, I; Roberts, A C; Robbins, T W; Koob, G F; Bloom, F E; Gold, L H

    1999-10-25

    A computerized behavioral battery based upon human neuropsychological tests (CANTAB, CeNeS, Cambridge, UK) has been developed to assess cognitive behaviors of rhesus monkeys. Monkeys reliably performed multiple tasks, providing long-term assessment of changes in a number of behaviors for a given animal. The overall goal of the test battery is to characterize changes in cognitive behaviors following central nervous system (CNS) manipulations. The battery addresses memory (delayed non-matching to sample, DNMS; spatial working memory, using a self-ordered spatial search task, SOSS), attention (intra-/extra-dimensional shift, ID/ED), motivation (progressive-ratio, PR), reaction time (RT) and motor coordination (bimanual task). As with human neuropsychological batteries, different tasks are thought to involve different neural substrates, and therefore performance profiles should assess function in particular brain regions. Monkeys were tested in transport cages, and responding on a touch sensitive computer monitor was maintained by food reinforcement. Parametric manipulations of several tasks demonstrated the sensitivity of performance to increases in task difficulty. Furthermore, the factors influencing difficulty for rhesus monkeys were the same as those shown to affect human performance. Data from this study represent performance of a population of healthy normal monkeys that will be used for comparison in subsequent studies of performance following CNS manipulations such as infection with simian immunodeficiency virus (NeuroAIDS) or drug administration.

  17. Accelerated lifetime testing methodology for lifetime estimation of Lithium-ion batteries used in augmented wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    The development of lifetime estimation models for Lithium-ion battery cells, which are working under highly variable mission profiles characteristic for wind power plant applications, requires a lot of expenditures and time resources. Therefore, batteries have to be tested under accelerated...... lifetime ageing conditions. This paper presents a three-stage methodology used for accelerated lifetime testing of Lithium-ion batteries. The results obtained at the end of the accelerated ageing process can be used for the parametrization of a performance-degradation lifetime model. In the proposed...... methodology both calendar and cycling lifetime tests are considered since both components are influencing the lifetime of Lithium-ion batteries. The methodology proposes also a lifetime model verification stage, where Lithium-ion battery cells are tested at normal operating conditions using an application...

  18. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  19. The Construction of a Muscular Strength Test Battery for Girls in the Primary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNucci, James M.; Pelton, Elois B.

    This study was designed to construct a gross muscular strength test battery for girls 6-9 years of age in grades 1-3. The subjects for this investigation were a random sample of 183 girls in grades 1-3 of the public schools of Natchitoches, Louisiana. The variables selected were 22 cable tension strength tests developed by Clarke and associates.…

  20. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Cell Life Test Program Update for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2000-01-01

    NASA and Boeing North America are responsible for constructing the electrical power system for the International Space Station (ISS), which circles the Earth every 90 minutes in a low Earth orbit (LEO). For approximately 55 minutes of this orbit, the ISS is in sunlight, and for the remaining 35 minutes, the ISS is in the Earth s shadow (eclipse). The electrical power system must not only provide power during the sunlight portion by means of the solar arrays, but also store energy for use during the eclipse. Nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) battery cells were selected as the energy storage systems for ISS. Each battery Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) comprises 38 individual series-connected Ni/H2 battery cells, and there are 48 battery ORU s on the ISS. On the basis of a limited Ni/H2 LEO data base on life and performance characteristics, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field commenced testing through two test programs: one in-house and one at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Crane, Indiana.

  1. Test series 1: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Gould NCX-2250 battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.S.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1984-09-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged, nuclear station, safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds; and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the end-of-life of a battery, given a seismic event. This report covers the first test series of an extensive program using 12-year old, lead-calcium, Gould NCX-2250 cells, from the James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Station operated by the New York Power Authority. Seismic tests with three cell configurations were performed using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; multi-cell (three) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack; and single-cell tests specifically aimed towards examining propagation of pre-existing case cracks. In general the test philosophy was to monitor the electrical properties including discharge capacity of cells through a graduated series of g-level step increases until either the shake-table limits were reached or until electrical failure of the cells occurred. Of nine electrically active cells, six failed during seismic testing over a range of imposed g-level loads in excess of a 1-g ZPA. Post-test examination revealed a common failure mode, the cracking at the abnormally brittle, positive lead bus-bar/post interface; further examination showed that the failure zone was extremely coarse grained and extensively corroded. Presently accepted accelerated-aging methods for qualifying batteries, per IEEE Std. 535-1979, are based on plate growth, but these naturally-aged 12-year old cells showed no significant plate growth

  2. Model studies for evaluating the neurobehavioral effects of complex hydrocarbon solvents. II. Neurobehavioral effects of white spirit in rat and human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Hoogendijk, E.M.G.; McKee, R.H.; Owen, D.E.; Kulig, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of hydrocarbon solvents and to establish a working model for extrapolating animal test data to humans, studies were conducted which involved inhalation exposure of rats and humans to white spirit (WS). The specific objectives of these studies were to evaluate

  3. Reliability of a Test Battery Designed for Quickly and Safely Assessing Diverse Indices of Neuromuscular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Barry A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bentley, Jason, R.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Lawrence, Emily L.; Sinka, Joseph; Guilliams, Mark E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Spaceflight affects nearly every physiological system. Spaceflight-induced alterations in physiological function translate to decrements in functional performance. Purpose: To develop a test battery for quickly and safely assessing diverse indices of neuromuscular performance. I. Quickly: Battery of tests can be completed in approx.30-40 min. II. Safely: a) No eccentric muscle actions or impact forces. b) Tests present little challenge to postural stability. III. Diverse indices: a) Strength: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) b) Central activation: Very good reliability (ICC = 0.87) c) Power: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) d) Endurance: Total work has excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) e) Force steadiness: Poor reliability (ICC = 0.20 - 0.60) National

  4. Accelerated Lifetime Testing Methodology for Lifetime Estimation of Lithium-ion Batteries used in Augmented Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    The development of lifetime estimation models for Lithium-ion battery cells, which are working under highly variable mission profiles characteristic for wind power plant applications, requires a lot of expenditures and time resources. Therefore, batteries have to be tested under accelerated...... lifetime ageing conditions. This paper presents a three-stage methodology used for accelerated lifetime testing of Lithium ion batteries. The results obtained at the end of the accelerated ageing process were used for the parametrization of a performance-degradation lifetime model, which is able to predict...... both the capacity fade and the power capability decrease of the selected Lithium-ion battery cells. In the proposed methodology both calendar and cycling lifetime tests were considered since both components are influencing the lifetime of Lithium-ion batteries. Furthermore, the proposed methodology...

  5. Test-retest reliability of the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bégel, Valentin; Verga, Laura; Benoit, Charles-Etienne; Kotz, Sonja A; Bella, Simone Dalla

    2018-01-01

    Perceptual and sensorimotor timing skills can be comprehensively assessed with the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA). The battery has been used for testing rhythmic skills in healthy adults and patient populations (e.g., with Parkinson disease),

  6. Development of USES Specific Aptitude Test Battery for Waiter/Waitress, Informal (hotel & rest.) 311.477-030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Human Resources, Salem.

    The United States Employment Service (USES) Specific Aptitude Test Battery (SATB) for Waiter/Waitress (Informal) is evaluated from three points of view: (1) technical adequacy of the research, (2) fairness to minorities, and (3) usefulness of the battery to Employment Service staff and employers in selecting individuals for training as…

  7. Effects of repeated asenapine in a battery of tests for anxiety-like behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Hila M; Kara, Nirit Z; Barak, Noa; Reshef Ben-Mordechai, Tal; Einat, Haim

    2016-04-01

    A number of atypical antipsychotic drugs were demonstrated to have anxiolytic effects in patients and in animal models. These effects were mostly suggested to be the consequence of the drugs' affinity to the serotonin system and its receptors. Asenapine is a relatively new atypical antipsychotic that is prescribed for schizophrenia and for bipolar mania. Asenapine has a broad pharmacological profile with significant effects on serotonergic receptors, hence it is reasonable to expect that asenapine may have some anxiolytic effects. The present study was therefore designed to examine possible effects of asenapine on anxiety-like behaviour of mice. Male ICR mice were repeatedly treated with 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg injections of asenapine and then tested in a battery of behavioural tests related to anxiety including the open-field test, elevated plus-maze (EPM), defensive marble burying and hyponeophagia tests. In an adjunct experiment, we tested the effects of acute diazepam in the same test battery. The results show that diazepam reduced anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM, the defensive marble burying test and the hyponeophagia test but not in the open field. Asenapine has anxiolytic-like effects in the EPM and the defensive marble burying tests but had no effects in the open-field or the hyponeophagia tests. Asenapine had no effects on locomotor activity. The results suggest that asenapine may have anxiolytic-like properties and recommends that clinical trials examining such effects should be performed.

  8. Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight in a Sample of Highly Educated Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tyler M; Basner, Mathias; Nasrini, Jad; Hermosillo, Emanuel; Kabadi, Sushila; Roalf, David R; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J; Ruparel, Kosha; Port, Allison M; Jackson, Chad T; Dinges, David F; Gur, Ruben C

    2017-10-01

    Neuropsychological changes that may occur due to the environmental and psychological stressors of prolonged spaceflight motivated the development of the Cognition Test Battery. The battery was designed to assess multiple domains of neurocognitive functions linked to specific brain systems. Tests included in Cognition have been validated, but not in high-performing samples comparable to astronauts, which is an essential step toward ensuring their usefulness in long-duration space missions. We administered Cognition (on laptop and iPad) and the WinSCAT, counterbalanced for order and version, in a sample of 96 subjects (50% women; ages 25-56 yr) with at least a Master's degree in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM). We assessed the associations of age, sex, and administration device with neurocognitive performance, and compared the scores on the Cognition battery with those of WinSCAT. Confirmatory factor analysis compared the structure of the iPad and laptop administration methods using Wald tests. Age was associated with longer response times (mean β = 0.12) and less accurate (mean β = -0.12) performance, women had longer response times on psychomotor (β = 0.62), emotion recognition (β = 0.30), and visuo-spatial (β = 0.48) tasks, men outperformed women on matrix reasoning (β = -0.34), and performance on an iPad was generally faster (mean β = -0.55). The WinSCAT appeared heavily loaded with tasks requiring executive control, whereas Cognition assessed a larger variety of neurocognitive domains. Overall results supported the interpretation of Cognition scores as measuring their intended constructs in high performing astronaut analog samples.Moore TM, Basner M, Nasrini J, Hermosillo E, Kabadi S, Roalf DR, McGuire S, Ecker AJ, Ruparel K, Port AM, Jackson CT, Dinges DF, Gur RC. Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for spaceflight in a sample of highly educated adults. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):937-946.

  9. An alcohol withdrawal test battery measuring multiple behavioral symptoms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metten, Pamela; Schlumbohm, Jason P; Huang, Lawrence C; Greenberg, Gian D; Hack, Wyatt R; Spence, Stephanie E; Crabbe, John C

    2018-05-01

    Despite acceptance that risk for alcohol-use disorder (AUD) has a large genetic component, the identification of genes underlying various components of risk for AUD has been hampered in humans, in part by the heterogeneity of expression of the phenotype. One aspect of AUD is physical dependence. Alcohol withdrawal is a serious consequence of alcohol dependence with multiple symptoms, many of which are seen in multiple species, and can be experienced over a wide-ranging time course. In the present three studies, we developed a battery of withdrawal tests in mice, examining behavioral symptoms from multiple domains that could be measured over time. To permit eventual use of the battery in different strains of mice, we used male and female mice of a genetically heterogeneous stock developed from intercrossing eight inbred strains. Withdrawal symptoms were assessed using commonly used tests after administration of ethanol in vapor for 72 continuous hours. We found significant effects of ethanol withdrawal versus air-breathing controls on nearly all symptoms, spanning 4 days following ethanol vapor inhalation. Withdrawal produced hypothermia, greater neurohyperexcitability (seizures and tremor), anxiety-like behaviors using an apparatus (such as reduced transitions between light and dark compartments), anhedonia (reduced sucrose preference), Straub tail, backward walking, and reductions in activity; however, there were no changes in thermal pain sensitivity, hyper-reactivity to handling, or anxiety-like emergence behaviors in other apparatus. Using these data, we constructed a refined battery of withdrawal tests. Individual differences in severity of withdrawal among different tests were weakly correlated at best. This battery should be useful for identifying genetic influences on particular withdrawal behaviors, which should reflect the influences of different constellations of genes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Impaired Neurobehavioural Performance in Untreated Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients Using a Novel Standardised Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela L. D'Rozario

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective/BackgroundAlthough polysomnography (PSG is the gold-standard measure for assessing disease severity in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, it has limited value in identifying individuals experiencing significant neurobehavioural dysfunction. This study used a brief and novel computerised test battery to examine neurobehavioural function in adults with and without OSA.Patients/Methods204 patients with untreated OSA [age 49.3 (12.5 years; body mass index, [BMI] 33.6 (8.0 kg/m2; Epworth sleepiness scale 12 (4.9/24; apnea hypopnea index 33.6 (25.8/h] and 50 non-OSA participants [age 39.2 (14.0 years; BMI 25.8 (4.2 kg/m2, ESS 3.6 (2.3/24]. All participants completed a computerised neurobehavioural battery during the daytime in the sleep clinic. The OSA group subsequently underwent an overnight PSG. The 30 min test battery assessed cognitive domains of visual spatial scanning and selective attention (Letter Cancellation Test, executive function (Stroop task and working memory (2- and 3-Back tasks, and a validated sustained attention task (psychomotor vigilance task, PVT. Group differences in performance were compared. Associations between disease severity and performance were examined in the OSA group.ResultsAfter controlling for age, gender and education, OSA patients demonstrated impaired performance on the Stroop-Text, 2 and 3-Back tasks, and the PVT compared with the non-OSA group. OSA patients had worse performance on the LCT with fewer average hits albeit with better accuracy. Some OSA polysomnographic disease severity measures were weakly correlated with performance.ConclusionsThis brief test battery may provide a sensitive, standardised method of assessing daytime dysfunction in OSA.

  11. Maternal methadone dosing schedule and fetal neurobehavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Lauren M.; DiPietro, Janet A.; Velez, Martha; Elko, Andrea; Knauer, Heather; Kivlighan, Katie T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Daily methadone maintenance is the standard of care for opiate dependency during pregnancy. Previous research has indicated that single-dose maternal methadone administration significantly suppresses fetal neurobehaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine if split-dosing would have less impact on fetal neurobehavior than single-dose administration. Methods Forty methadone-maintained women were evaluated at peak and trough maternal methadone levels on single- and split-dosing schedules. Monitoring sessions occurred at 36 and 37 weeks gestation in a counterbalanced study design. Fetal measures included heart rate, variability, accelerations, motor activity and fetal movement-heart rate coupling (FM-FHR). Maternal measures included heart period, variability, skin conductance, respiration and vagal tone. Repeated measure analysis of variance was used to evaluate within-subject changes between split- and single-dosing regimens. Results All fetal neurobehavioral parameters were suppressed by maternal methadone administration, regardless of dosing regimen. Fetal parameters at peak were significantly lower during single vs. split methadone administration. FM-FHR coupling was less suppressed from trough to peak during split-dosing vs. single-dosing. Maternal physiologic parameters were generally unaffected by dosing condition. Conclusion Split- dosed fetuses displayed less neurobehavioral suppression from trough to peak maternal methadone levels as compared to single-dosed fetuses. Split-dosing may be beneficial for methadone-maintained pregnant women. PMID:19085624

  12. Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial Issues in Klinefelter Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschwind, Daniel H.; Dykens, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) is a relatively common (1/500 to 1/1,000) genetic syndrome caused by an extra X chromosome in males, leading to an XXY karyotype. In most cases, the physical and neurobehavioral characteristics of KS are relatively mild, and KS is not usually associated with moderate or severe mental retardation. However, KS is often…

  13. Reliability of a Functional Test Battery Evaluating Functionality, Proprioception and Strength of the Ankle Joint

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIZ, Yavuz; ŞEKİR, Ufuk; HAZNECİ, Bülent

    2009-01-01

    Aim: In contrast to the one-sided evaluation methods used in the past, combining multiple tests allows one to obtain a global assessment of the ankle joint. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy male volunteers participated in this study. One component of the test battery included five different functional ability tests, which included: single limb hopping course, one-legged and triple-legged hop for distance, and six-meter (6-m) and cross 6-m hop for time. Ankle joint position sense and on...

  14. Battery designs the testing physical of skills for selecting talented taekwondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mustafa Bakr

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to design a battery test physical of skill for the selection of talented young taekwondo Egyptian national project for may have a practical importance of overseeing the selection of young people as well as in the planning of the training process to reach high levels. Applied study on a sample of (750 Individual clubs and youth centers in 14 countries in the Arab Republic of Egypt, and the average age of (11.11 ± 1.06 years, height (143.50 ± 11,09 cm and weight (42.53 ±10,74kg. Tests were conducted in the period from 17/11/2012 to 29/12/2012. Physical tests following (Ability, Hinge flexibility basin, Agility, Kinetics speed in a level trunk, Kinetics speed in the level face, Endure Performance. Scientific transactions testing laboratories account sincerity and consistency of the tests used in the study. Where the value of the coefficient of sincerity d statistically at the level of the significance of 0.05 is a sign the two sides between the high level and the low level as the value of the coefficient of sincerity between (0.682, 0.932, which indicates that the tests measure what it was made. It was also correlation coefficient d statistically at the level of an indication (0.01 and (0.05 is a sign of the two parties, where the value of P < 0.05 in all tests as they ranged between (0.964-0.998, pointing to a flat these tests. The researcher used the descriptive survey method. Calculated using the weight of the medical balance and use a tape measure to the nearest (0.5 cm. The statistical analysis SPSS was used to apply formulas statistical by calculating: average, standard deviation, correlation, Factor analysis, Six Sigma Score, percentile scores. The results of the standard levels the battery test of physical skills extracted the selection of talented taekwondo sports in the factors of grace the second factor is the dynamic speed. The study concluded that this study concluded to a battery physical of skill tests for

  15. Seismic-fragility tests of new and accelerated-aged Class 1E battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged nuclear station safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the potential survivability of a battery given a seismic event. Prior reports in this series discussed the seismic-fragility tests and results for three specific naturally-aged cell types: 12-year old NCX-2250, 10-year old LCU-13, and 10-year old FHC-19. This report focuses on the complementary approach, namely, the seismic-fragility response of accelerated-aged batteries. Of particular interest is the degree to which such approaches accurately reproduce the actual failure modes and thresholds. In these tests the significant aging effects observed, in terms of seismic survivability, were: embrittlement of cell cases, positive bus material and positive plate grids; and excessive sulphation of positive plate active material causing hardening and expansion of positive plates. The IEEE Standard 535 accelerated aging method successfully reproduced seismically significant aging effects in new cells but accelerated grid embrittlement an estimated five years beyond the conditional age of other components

  16. Behavioural analysis of four mouse strains in an anxiety test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gaalen, M M; Steckler, T

    2000-10-01

    Differences in locomotor activity, exploratory activity and anxiety-like behaviour of C57BL/6ChR,C57BL/6J, Swiss Webster/J and A/J strain were investigated in an anxiety battery. The battery consisted of paradigms studying spontaneous behaviour after a mild stressor, tasks of innate anxiety (light-dark box, elevated plus maze, novel object exploration), response to a conflict situation (Vogel conflict), conditioned fear and response to inescapable swim stress. Locomotor activity was studied in an open field and compared with locomotion in the other tests. Exploratory behaviour was studied in a 16-hole board task. The data confirm previous studies suggesting that A/J mice are a relatively anxious strain. Also, the data indicated that locomotor activity was independent of the paradigm employed, while the rank order of strain-dependent effects on anxiety-related behaviour changed as a function of the task under study. Our data provide further support for the notion that choice of strain is essential in studies of anxiety-related behaviour. Influence of strain should be considered in pharmacological and lesion studies, as well as in studies with mutant mice. In addition, the data indicate that different anxiety paradigms tax different aspects of anxiety, suggesting that a battery of different tests should be used in studies of anxiety-related behaviour.

  17. Test and data reduction algorithm for the evaluation of lead-acid battery packs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, D.

    1986-01-15

    Experience from the DOE Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project indicated severe battery problems associated with driving electric cars in temperature extremes. The vehicle batteries suffered from a high module failure rate, reduced capacity, and low efficiency. To assess the nature and the extent of the battery problems encountered at various operating temperatures, a test program was established at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). A test facility was built that is based on Propel cycling equipment, the Hewlett Packard 3497A Data Acquisition System, and the HP85F and HP87 computers. The objective was to establish a cost effective facility that could generate the engineering data base needed for the development of thermal management systems, destratification systems, central watering systems and proper charge algorithms. It was hoped that the development and implementation of these systems by EV manufacturers and fleet operators of EVs would eliminate the most pressing problems that occurred in the DOE EV Demonstration Project. The data reduction algorithm is described.

  18. Neurobehavioral effects during experimental exposure to 1-octanol and isopropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Thriel, Christoph; Kiesswetter, Erns; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Golka, Klaus; Seeber, Andreas

    2003-04-01

    The study examined acute neurobehavioral effects provoked by controlled exposure to 1-octanol and isopropanol among male volunteers. In a 29-m3 exposure laboratory, 24 male students (mean age 25.8 years) were exposed to 1-octanol and isopropanol. Each substance was used in two concentrations (0.1 and 6.4 ppm for 1-octanol; 34.9 and 189.9 ppm for isopropanol:). In a crossover design, each subject was exposed for 4 hours to the conditions. Twelve subjects reported enhanced chemical sensitivity; the other 12 were age-matched controls. At the onset and end of the exposures neurobehavioral tests were administered and symptoms were rated. At the end of the high and low isopropanol exposures the tiredness ratings were elevated, but no dose-dependence could be confirmed. For both substances and concentrations, the annoyance ratings increased during the exposure, but only for isopropanol did the increase show a dose-response relation. The subjects reported olfactory symptoms during the exposure to the high isopropanol and both 1-octanol concentrations. Isopropanol provoked no sensory irritation, whereas high 1-octanol exposure slightly enhanced it. Only among the subjects with enhanced chemical sensitivity were both 1-octanol concentrations associated with a stronger increase in annoyance, and lower detection rates were observed in a divided attention task. Previous studies reporting no neurobehavioral effects for isopropanol (up to 400 ppm) were confirmed. The results obtained for 1-octanol lacked dose-dependency, and their evaluation, is difficult. The annoying odor of 1-octanol may mask sensory irritation and prevent subjects with enhanced chemical sensitivity from concentrating on performance in a demanding task.

  19. Reliability and validity of a talent identification test battery for seated and standing Paralympic throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spathis, Jemima Grace; Connick, Mark James; Beckman, Emma Maree; Newcombe, Peter Anthony; Tweedy, Sean Michael

    2015-01-01

    Paralympic throwing events for athletes with physical impairments comprise seated and standing javelin, shot put, discus and seated club throwing. Identification of talented throwers would enable prediction of future success and promote participation; however, a valid and reliable talent identification battery for Paralympic throwing has not been reported. This study evaluates the reliability and validity of a talent identification battery for Paralympic throws. Participants were non-disabled so that impairment would not confound analyses, and results would provide an indication of normative performance. Twenty-eight non-disabled participants (13 M; 15 F) aged 23.6 years (±5.44) performed five kinematically distinct criterion throws (three seated, two standing) and nine talent identification tests (three anthropometric, six motor); 23 were tested a second time to evaluate test-retest reliability. Talent identification test-retest reliability was evaluated using Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots (Limits of Agreement). Spearman's correlation assessed strength of association between criterion throws and talent identification tests. Reliability was generally acceptable (mean ICC = 0.89), but two seated talent identification tests require more extensive familiarisation. Correlation strength (mean rs = 0.76) indicated that the talent identification tests can be used to validly identify individuals with competitively advantageous attributes for each of the five kinematically distinct throwing activities. Results facilitate further research in this understudied area.

  20. Between-Day Reliability and Usefulness of a Fitness Testing Battery in Youth Sport Athletes: Reference Data for Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawczuk, Thomas; Jones, Ben; Scantlebury, Sean; Weakley, Jonathan; Read, Dale; Costello, Nessan; Darrall-Jones, Joshua David; Stokes, Keith; Till, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the between-day reliability and usefulness of a fitness testing battery in a group of youth sport athletes. Fifty-nine youth sport athletes (age = 17.3 ± 0.7 years) undertook a fitness testing battery including the isometric mid-thigh pull, counter-movement jump, 5-40 m sprint splits, and the 5-0-5 change of direction…

  1. Validation of a Paper and Pencil Test Battery for the Diagnosis of Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Yoon; Jun, Dae Won; Bai, Daiseg; Kim, Ji Yean; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Ahn, Sang Bong; Kim, Sang Gyune; Kim, Tae Yeob; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jeong, Soung Won; Cho, Yong Kyun; Song, Do Seon; Kim, Hee Yeon; Jung, Young Kul; Yoon, Eileen L

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a new paper and pencil test battery to diagnose minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in Korea. A new paper and pencil test battery was composed of number connection test-A (NCT-A), number connection test-B (NCT-B), digit span test (DST), and symbol digit modality test (SDMT). The norm of the new test was based on 315 healthy individuals between the ages of 20 and 70 years old. Another 63 healthy subjects (n = 31) and cirrhosis patients (n = 32) were included as a validation cohort. All participants completed the new paper and pencil test, a critical flicker frequency (CFF) test and computerized cognitive function test (visual continuous performance test [CPT]). The scores on the NCT-A and NCT-B increased but those of DST and SDMT decreased according to age. Twelve of the cirrhotic patients (37.5%) were diagnosed with MHE based on the new paper and pencil test battery. The total score of the paper and pencil test battery showed good positive correlation with the CFF (r = 0.551, P cognitive function test. Also, this score was lower in patients with MHE compared to those without MHE (P cognitive test decreased significantly in patients with MHE compared to those without MHE. Test-retest reliability was comparable. In conclusion, the new paper and pencil test battery including NCT-A, NCT-B, DST, and SDMT showed good correlation with neuropsychological tests. This new paper and pencil test battery could help to discriminate patients with impaired cognitive function in cirrhosis (registered at Clinical Research Information Service [CRIS], https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris, KCT0000955). © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  2. Development, content validity and test-retest reliability of the Lifelong Physical Activity Skills Battery in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulteen, Ryan M; Barnett, Lisa M; Morgan, Philip J; Robinson, Leah E; Barton, Christian J; Wrotniak, Brian H; Lubans, David R

    2018-03-28

    Numerous skill batteries assess fundamental motor skill (e.g., kick, hop) competence. Few skill batteries examine lifelong physical activity skill competence (e.g., resistance training). This study aimed to develop and assess the content validity, test-retest and inter-rater reliability of the "Lifelong Physical Activity Skills Battery". Development of the skill battery occurred in three stages: i) systematic reviews of lifelong physical activity participation rates and existing motor skill assessment tools, ii) practitioner consultation and iii) research expert consultation. The final battery included eight skills: grapevine, golf swing, jog, push-up, squat, tennis forehand, upward dog and warrior I. Adolescents (28 boys, 29 girls; M = 15.8 years, SD = 0.4 years) completed the Lifelong Physical Activity Skills Battery on two occasions two weeks apart. The skill battery was highly reliable (ICC = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.72-0.90) with individual skill reliability scores ranging from moderate (warrior I; ICC = 0.56) to high (tennis forehand; ICC = 0.82). Typical error (4.0; 95% CI 3.4-5.0) and proportional bias (r = -0.21, p = .323) were low. This study has provided preliminary evidence for the content validity and reliability of the Lifelong Physical Activity Skills Battery in an adolescent population.

  3. Cycle life test. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells. [performance tests on silver zinc batteries, silver cadmium batteries, and nickel cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Considerable research is being done to find more efficient and reliable means of starting electrical energy for orbiting satellites. Rechargeable cells offer one such means. A test program is described which has been established in order to further the evaluation of certain types of cells and to obtain performance and failure data as an aid to their continued improvement. The purpose of the program is to determine the cycling performance capabilities of packs of cells under different load and temperature conditions. The various kinds of cells tested were nickel-cadmium, silver-cadmium, and silver-zinc sealed cells. A summary of the results of the life cycling program is given in this report.

  4. Test Results of a Ten Cell Bipolar Nickel-hydrogen Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    A study was initiated to design and evaluate a new design concept for nickel-hydrogen cells. This concept involved constructing a battery in a bipolar stack with cells consisting of a one plate for each nickel and hydrogen electrode. Preliminary designs at the system level of this concept promised improvements in both volumetric and gravimetric energy densities, thermal management, life extension, costs, and peak power capability over more conventional designs. Test results were most encouraging. This preprototype battery, built with less than ideal components and hardware, exceeded expectations. A total of 2000 LEO cycles at 80 percent depth of discharge were accrued. A cycle life goal of 30,000 cycles appears achievable with minor design changes. These improvements include advanced technology nickel electrodes, insulated bipolar plates and specifically designed frames to minimize shunt currents. The discharge rate capability of this design exceeds 25C. At the 10C discharge rate, 80% of the battery capacity can be withdrawn in six minutes. This data shows that the bipolar design is well suited for those applications requiring high peak power pulses.

  5. Nickel - iron battery. Nikkel - jern batteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, H. A.

    1989-03-15

    A newer type of nickel-iron battery, (SAFT 6v 230 Ah monobloc), which could possibly be used in relation to electrically driven light road vehicles, was tested. The same test methods used for lead batteries were utilized and results compared favourably with those reached during other testings carried out, abroad, on a SAFT nickle-iron battery and a SAB-NIFE nickel-iron battery. Description (in English) of the latter-named tests are included in the publication as is also a presentation of the SAFT battery. Testing showed that this type of battery did not last as long as had been expected, but the density of energy and effect was superior to lead batteries. However energy efficiency was rather poor in comparison to lead batteries and it was concluded that nickel-iron batteries are not suitable for stationary systems where recharging under a constant voltage is necessary. (AB).

  6. Early Malnutrition and Child Neurobehavioral Development: Insights from the Study of Children of Diabetic Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Thomas A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Studied whether disturbances in mothers' metabolism (N=139) during pregnancy may exert long-range effects on neurobehavioral development of singleton progeny. Examined detailed pregnancy and perinatal records of mothers who experienced diabetes in pregnancy and intelligence tests of their offspring, administered at ages 7 to 11 years. All…

  7. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB): list sorting test to measure working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Kisala, Pamela A; Mungas, Dan; Conway, Kevin; Gershon, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The List Sorting Working Memory Test was designed to assess working memory (WM) as part of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. List Sorting is a sequencing task requiring children and adults to sort and sequence stimuli that are presented visually and auditorily. Validation data are presented for 268 participants ages 20 to 85 years. A subset of participants (N=89) was retested 7 to 21 days later. As expected, the List Sorting Test had moderately high correlations with other measures of working memory and executive functioning (convergent validity) but a low correlation with a test of receptive vocabulary (discriminant validity). Furthermore, List Sorting demonstrates expected changes over the age span and has excellent test-retest reliability. Collectively, these results provide initial support for the construct validity of the List Sorting Working Memory Measure as a measure of working memory. However, the relationship between the List Sorting Test and general executive function has yet to be determined.

  8. Sleep disturbances and neurobehavioral functioning in children with and without juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Teresa M; Ringold, Sarah; Metz, Jonika; Archbold, Kristen; Lentz, Martha; Wallace, Carol A; Landis, Carol A

    2011-07-01

    To compare sleep disturbances and neurobehavioral function in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) to age- and sex-matched control children. Children (n = 116) ages 6-11 years with (n = 70) and without (n = 46) JIA and their parents participated. Parents completed questionnaires on sleep habits, sleep behavior, and school competence of their children; children completed computerized neurobehavioral performance tests. Compared to control children, children with JIA had a statistically significant (P sleep disturbance score and higher scores on 6 of 8 subscales (all P Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). There were no group differences on neurobehavioral performance test scores. However, regardless of group, children with an overall CSHQ score above an established cutoff for clinically significant sleep disturbances had slower mean simple reaction time (t = -2.2, P sleep disturbance score predicted reaction time (P sleep disturbances, but performed as well as control children on a series of standardized computer tests of neurobehavioral performance. Children with more disturbed sleep had slower reaction times. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Targeting as the basis for pre-test market of lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniaristanto, Zakaria, R.; Saputri, V. H. L.; Sutopo, W.; Kadir, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses about market segmentation and targeting as a first step in pre-test market of a new technology. The benefits of targeting towards pre-test market are pre-test market can be conducted to focus on selected target markets so there is no bias during the pre-test market. In determining the target market then do some surveys to identify the state of market in the future, so that the marketing process is not misplaced. Lithium ion battery which is commercialized through start-up companies is the case study. This start-up companies must be able to respond the changes and bring in customers as well as maintain them so that companies can survive and evolve to achieve its objectives. The research aims to determine market segments and target market effectively. Marketing strategy (segmentation and targeting) is used to make questionnaire and cluster analysis in data processing. Respondents were selected by purposive sampling and have obtained data as many as 80 samples. As the results study, there are three segments for lithium ion battery with their own distinguished characteristics and there are two segments that can be used as the target market for the company.

  10. US Department of Energy Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery and Fuel Economy Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Donald; Francfort, James

    The advanced vehicle testing activity (AVTA), part of the US Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modelling, and research and development programs. The AVTA has tested over 200 advanced technology vehicles including full-size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and internal combustion engine vehicles powered by hydrogen. Currently, the AVTA is conducting a significant evaluation of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) produced by major automotive manufacturers. The results are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory. Through the course of this testing, the fuel economy of HEV fleets has been monitored and analyzed to determine the 'real world' performance of their hybrid energy systems, particularly the battery. The initial fuel economy of these vehicles has typically been less than that determined by the manufacturer and also varies significantly with environmental conditions. Nevertheless, the fuel economy and, therefore, battery performance, has remained stable over the life of a given vehicle (160 000 miles).

  11. Influence of different open circuit voltage tests on state of charge online estimation for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Fangdan; Xing, Yinjiao; Jiang, Jiuchun; Sun, Bingxiang; Kim, Jonghoon; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two common tests for observing battery open circuit voltage performance are compared. • The temperature dependency of the OCV-SOC relationship is investigated. • Two estimators are evaluated in terms of accuracy and robustness for estimating battery SOC. • The incremental OCV test is better to predetermine the OCV-SOCs for SOC online estimation. - Abstract: Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is a crucial function of battery management systems (BMSs), since accurate estimated SOC is critical to ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicles. A widely used technique for SOC estimation is based on online inference of battery open circuit voltage (OCV). Low-current OCV and incremental OCV tests are two common methods to observe the OCV-SOC relationship, which is an important element of the SOC estimation technique. In this paper, two OCV tests are run at three different temperatures and based on which, two SOC estimators are compared and evaluated in terms of tracking accuracy, convergence time, and robustness for online estimating battery SOC. The temperature dependency of the OCV-SOC relationship is investigated and its influence on SOC estimation results is discussed. In addition, four dynamic tests are presented, one for estimator parameter identification and the other three for estimator performance evaluation. The comparison results show that estimator 2 (based on the incremental OCV test) has higher tracking accuracy and is more robust against varied loading conditions and different initial values of SOC than estimator 1 (based on the low-current OCV test) with regard to ambient temperature. Therefore, the incremental OCV test is recommended for predetermining the OCV-SOCs for battery SOC online estimation in BMSs.

  12. A virtual reality test battery for assessment and screening of spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordell, H; Bodin, K; Bucht, G; Malm, J

    2011-03-01

    There is a need for improved screening methods for spatial neglect. To construct a VR-test battery and evaluate its accuracy and usability in patients with acute stroke. VR-DiSTRO consists of a standard desktop computer, a CRT monitor and eye shutter stereoscopic glasses, a force feedback interface, and software, developed to create an interactive and immersive 3D experience. VR-tests were developed and validated to the conventional Star Cancellation test, Line bisection, Baking Tray Task (BTT), and Visual Extinction test. A construct validation to The Rivermead Behavioral Inattention Test, used as criterion of visuospatial neglect, was made. Usability was assessed according to ISO 9241-11. Thirty-one patients with stroke were included, 9/31 patients had neglect. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 82% for the VR-DiSTRO to correctly identify neglect. VR-BTT and VR-Extinction had the highest correlation (r² = 0.64 and 0.78), as well as high sensitivity and specificity. The kappa values describing the agreement between traditional neglect tests and the corresponding virtual reality test were between 0.47-0.85. Usability was assessed by a questionnaire; 77% reported that the VR-DiSTRO was 'easy' to use. Eighty-eight percent reported that they felt 'focused', 'pleased' or 'alert'. No patient had adverse symptoms. The test session took 15 min. The VR-DiSTRO quickly and with a high accuracy identified visuospatial neglect in patients with stroke in this construct validation. The usability among elderly patients with stroke was high. This VR-test battery has the potential to become an important screening instrument for neglect and a valuable adjunct to the neuropsychological assessment. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. The use of the bi-factor model to test the uni-dimensionality of a battery of reasoning tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primi, Ricardo; Rocha da Silva, Marjorie Cristina; Rodrigues, Priscila; Muniz, Monalisa; Almeida, Leandro S

    2013-02-01

    The Battery of Reasoning Tests 5 (BPR-5) aims to assess the reasoning ability of individuals, using sub-tests with different formats and contents that require basic processes of inductive and deductive reasoning for their resolution. The BPR has three sequential forms: BPR-5i (for children from first to fifth grade), BPR-5 - Form A (for children from sixth to eighth grade) and BPR-5 - form B (for high school and undergraduate students). The present study analysed 412 questionnaires concerning BPR-5i, 603 questionnaires concerning BPR-5 - Form A and 1748 questionnaires concerning BPR-5 - Form B. The main goal was to test the uni-dimensionality of the battery and its tests in relation to items using the bi-factor model. Results suggest that the g factor loadings (extracted by the uni-dimensional model) do not change when the data is adjusted for a more flexible multi-factor model (bi-factor model). A general reasoning factor underlying different contents items is supported.

  14. Functional Assessment of Battery Management System Tested on Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    . The BMS under test is interacting in real-time with the emulated battery pack and several of its functions such as current, voltage and State of Charge (SOC) estimation are evaluated. Also, passive balancing experiments are conducted during charging in order to assess different balancing settings...... of the BMS as far as their respective balancing times and deviations in SOC are concerned. Finally, the energy efficiency of the BMS is accurately measured which, depending on the requirements, can achieve more than 99% of efficiency. In general, it is demonstrated that the HIL setup can provide...... representative outcomes at minimum resources and time requirements....

  15. Cyclic performance tests of Sn/MWCNT composite lithium ion battery anodes at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tocoglu, U., E-mail: utocoglu@sakarya.edu.tr; Cevher, O.; Akbulut, H. [Sakarya University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Esentepe Campus 54187 (Turkey)

    2016-04-21

    In this study tin-multi walled carbon nanotube (Sn-MWCNT) lithium ion battery anodes were produced and their electrochemical galvanostatic charge/discharge tests were conducted at various (25 °C, 35 °C, 50 °C) temperatures to determine the cyclic behaviors of anode at different temperatures. Anodes were produced via vacuum filtration and DC magnetron sputtering technique. Tin was sputtered onto buckypapers to form composite structure of anodes. SEM analysis was conducted to determine morphology of buckypapers and Sn-MWCNT composite anodes. Structural and phase analyses were conducted via X-ray diffraction and Raman Spectroscopy technique. CR2016 coin cells were assembled for electrochemical tests. Cyclic voltammetry test were carried out to determine the reversibility of reactions between anodes and reference electrode between 0.01-2.0 V potential window. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests were performed to determine cycle performance of anodes at different temperatures.

  16. Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA Lithium-Ion 18650 Battery Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Hooper

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a study undertaken to determine if the electrical performance of Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA 3.1 Ah 18650 battery cells can be degraded by road induced vibration typical of an electric vehicle (EV application. This study investigates if a particular cell orientation within the battery assembly can result in different levels of cell degradation. The 18650 cells were evaluated in accordance with Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE J2380 standard. This vibration test is synthesized to represent 100,000 miles of North American customer operation at the 90th percentile. This study identified that both the electrical performance and the mechanical properties of the NCA lithium-ion cells were relatively unaffected when exposed to vibration energy that is commensurate with a typical vehicle life. Minor changes observed in the cell’s electrical characteristics were deemed not to be statistically significant and more likely attributable to laboratory conditions during cell testing and storage. The same conclusion was found, irrespective of cell orientation during the test.

  17. Lead paste recycling based on conversion into battery grade oxides. Electrochemical tests and industrial production of new batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusillo, G.; Rosestolato, D.; Scura, F.; Cattarin, S.; Mattarozzi, L.; Guerriero, P.; Gambirasi, A.; Brianese, N.; Staiti, P.; Guerriero, R.; La Sala, G.

    2018-03-01

    We present the preparation and characterization of pure lead monoxide obtained through recycling of the lead paste recovered from exhausted lead acid batteries. The recycling is based on a hydrometallurgical procedure reported in a STC Patent, that includes simple chemical operations (desulphurisation, leaching, precipitation, filtration) and a final thermal conversion. Materials obtained by treatment at 600 °C consist predominantly of β-PbO. The electrochemical behaviour of Positive Active Mass (PAM) prepared from different materials (or mixtures) is then investigated and compared. An optimized oxide material, obtained by prolonged (8 h) thermal treatment at 600 °C, consists of pure β-PbO and appears suitable for preparation of battery elements, alone or in mixture with a small fraction (10%-30%) of traditional industrial leady oxide. The resulting battery performances are similar to those obtained from pure leady oxide. In comparison with traditional recycling processes, the proposed method guarantees lower energy consumption, limited environmental impact and reduced operating risk for industry workers.

  18. Power Lawn Mower Assembler (agric. equip.) 6-94.352--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  19. Tomato Peeler (can. & preserv.) 529.887 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  20. Autoclave Operator (chem.) 4-52.711--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  1. Turret-Lathe Operator 4-78.021 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  2. Room Clerk (hotel and rest.) 1-07.60--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  3. Various Occupations in the Iron and Steel Industry. Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  4. Cutting-and-Creasing Pressman (paper goods) 649.782--Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  5. Peeling-and-Coring-Machine Operator 529.886 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  6. Bilingualism and performance on two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Linda C; Soveri, Anna; Räsänen, Pekka; Kärnä, Antti; Delatte, Sonia; Lagerström, Emma; Mård, Lena; Steffansson, Mikaela; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use.

  7. Design and Construction of a Test Bench to Characterize Efficiency and Reliability of High Voltage Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Tobias; Thomas, Stephan; Roggendorf, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    system efficiency. High voltage batteries may be advantageous for future medium voltage DC-grids as well. In all cases, high availability and reliability is indispensable. Investigations on the operating behavior of such systems are needed. For this purpose, a test bench for high voltage storage systems...... was built to analyze these processes for different battery technologies. A special safety infrastructure for the test bench was developed due to the high voltage and the storable energy of approximately 120 kWh. This paper presents the layout of the test bench for analyzing high voltage batteries with about...... 4,300 volts including all components, the safety requirements with the resultant safety circuit and the aim of the investigations to be performed with the test bench....

  8. Development and Testing of an UltraBattery-Equipped Honda Civic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Karner

    2012-04-01

    The UltraBattery retrofit project DP1.8 and Carbon Enriched project C3, performed by ECOtality North America (ECOtality) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), are to demonstrate the suitability of advanced lead battery technology in Hybrid Electrical Vehicles (HEVs).

  9. Influence of Dopamine-Related Genes on Neurobehavioral Recovery after Traumatic Brain Injury during Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Wade, Shari L; Martin, Lisa J; Pilipenko, Valentina; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Kurowski, Brad G

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined the association of dopamine-related genes with short- and long-term neurobehavioral recovery, as well as neurobehavioral recovery trajectories over time, in children who had sustained early childhood traumatic brain injuries (TBI) relative to children who had sustained orthopedic injuries (OI). Participants were recruited from a prospective, longitudinal study evaluating outcomes of children who sustained a TBI (n = 68) or OI (n = 72) between the ages of 3 and 7 years. Parents completed ratings of child executive function and behavior at the immediate post-acute period (0-3 months after injury); 6, 12, and 18 months after injury; and an average of 3.5 and 7 years after injury. Thirty-two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in dopamine-related genes (dopamine receptor D2 [DRD2], solute carrier family 6 member 3 [SLC6A3], solute carrier family 18 member A2 [SLC18A2], catechol-o-methyltransferase [COMT], and ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 [ANKK1]) were examined in association with short- and long-term executive function and behavioral adjustment, as well as their trajectories over time. After controlling for premorbid child functioning, genetic variation within the SLC6A3 (rs464049 and rs460000) gene was differentially associated with neurobehavioral recovery trajectories over time following TBI relative to OI, with rs464049 surviving multiple testing corrections. In addition, genetic variation within the ANKK1 (rs1800497 and rs2734849) and SLC6A3 (rs464049, rs460000, and rs1042098) genes was differentially associated with short- and long-term neurobehavioral recovery following TBI, with rs460000 and rs464049 surviving multiple testing corrections. The findings provide preliminary evidence that genetic variation in genes involved in DRD2 expression and density (ANKK1) and dopamine transport (SLC6A3) plays a role in neurobehavioral recovery following pediatric TBI.

  10. Sensitivity of the Halstead and Wechsler Test Batteries to brain damage: Evidence from Reitan's original validation sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W; Larrabee, Glenn J

    2006-06-01

    The Halstead-Reitan Battery has been instrumental in the development of neuropsychological practice in the United States. Although Reitan administered both the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale and Halstead's test battery when evaluating Halstead's theory of biologic intelligence, the relative sensitivity of each test battery to brain damage continues to be an area of controversy. Because Reitan did not perform direct parametric analysis to contrast group performances, we reanalyze Reitan's original validation data from both Halstead (Reitan, 1955) and Wechsler batteries (Reitan, 1959a) and calculate effect sizes and probability levels using traditional parametric approaches. Eight of the 10 tests comprising Halstead's original Impairment Index, as well as the Impairment Index itself, statistically differentiated patients with unequivocal brain damage from controls. In addition, 13 of 14 Wechsler measures including Full-Scale IQ also differed statistically between groups (Brain Damage Full-Scale IQ = 96.2; Control Group Full Scale IQ = 112.6). We suggest that differences in the statistical properties of each battery (e.g., raw scores vs. standardized scores) likely contribute to classification characteristics including test sensitivity and specificity.

  11. Reliability of a functional test battery evaluating functionality, proprioception, and strength in recreational athletes with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekir, U; Yildiz, Y; Hazneci, B; Ors, F; Saka, T; Aydin, T

    2008-12-01

    In contrast to the single evaluation methods used in the past, the combination of multiple tests allows one to obtain a global assessment of the ankle joint. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the different tests in a functional test battery. Twenty-four male recreational athletes with unilateral functional ankle instability (FAI) were recruited for this study. One component of the test battery included five different functional ability tests. These tests included a single limb hopping course, single-legged and triple-legged hop for distance, and six and cross six meter hop for time. The ankle joint position sense and one leg standing test were used for evaluation of proprioception and sensorimotor control. The isokinetic strengths of the ankle invertor and evertor muscles were evaluated at a velocity of 120 degrees /s. The reliability of the test battery was assessed by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Each subject was tested two times, with an interval of 3-5 days between the test sessions. The ICCs for ankle functional and proprioceptive ability showed high reliability (ICCs ranging from 0.94 to 0.98). Additionally, isokinetic ankle joint inversion and eversion strength measurements represented good to high reliability (ICCs between 0.82 and 0.98). The functional test battery investigated in this study proved to be a reliable tool for the assessment of athletes with functional ankle instability. Therefore, clinicians may obtain reliable information from the functional test battery during the assessment of ankle joint performance in patients with functional ankle instability.

  12. Internal Structure and Partial Invariance across Gender in the Spanish Version of the Reasoning Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosua, Paula; Mujika, Josu

    2015-10-13

    The Reasoning Test Battery (BPR) is an instrument built on theories of the hierarchical organization of cognitive abilities and therefore consists of different tasks related with abstract, numerical, verbal, practical, spatial and mechanical reasoning. It was originally created in Belgium and later adapted to Portuguese. There are three forms of the battery consisting of different items and scales which cover an age range from 9 to 22. This paper focuses on the adaptation of the BPR to Spanish, and analyzes different aspects of its internal structure: (a) exploratory item factor analysis was applied to assess the presence of a dominant factor for each partial scale; (b) the general underlined model was evaluated through confirmatory factor analysis, and (c) factorial invariance across gender was studied. The sample consisted of 2624 Spanish students. The results concluded the presence of a general factor beyond the scales, with equivalent values for men and women, and gender differences in the factorial structure which affect the numerical reasoning, abstract reasoning and mechanical reasoning scales.

  13. 10 CFR Appendix Y to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements,” append this sentence to the end: “The test equipment must be capable of accounting for crest factor and frequency spectrum in its measurement of the UUT input current.” 4. Test Measurement: (a) Inactive Mode Energy Consumption Measurement. The measurement of the battery charger energy ratio shall...

  14. Battery Usage and Thermal Performance of the Toyota Prius and Honda Insight for Various Chassis Dynamometer Test Procedures: Preprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, K. J.; Mihalic, M.; Zolot, M.

    2001-01-01

    This study describes the results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) chassis dynamometer testing of a 2000 model year Honda Insight and 2001 model year Toyota Prius. The tests were conducted for the purpose of evaluating the battery thermal performance, assessing the impact of air conditioning on fuel economy and emissions, and providing information for NREL's Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

  15. JPL's electric and hybrid vehicles project: Project activities and preliminary test results. [power conditioning and battery charge efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    Efforts to achieve a 100 mile urban range, to reduce petroleum usage 40% to 70%, and to commercialize battery technology are discussed with emphasis on an all plastic body, four passenger car that is flywheel assisted and battery powered, and on an all metal body, four passenger car with front wheel drive and front motor. For the near term case, a parallel hybrid in which the electric motor and the internal combustion engine may directly power the drive wheels, is preferred to a series design. A five passenger car in which the electric motor and the gasoline engine both feed into the same transmission is discussed. Upgraded demonstration vehicles were tested using advanced lead acid, nickel zinc, nickel iron, and zinc chloride batteries to determine maximum acceleration, constant speed, and battery behavior. The near term batteries demonstrated significant improvement relative to current lead acid batteries. The increase in range was due to improved energy density, and ampere hour capacity, with relatively 1 small weight and volume differences.

  16. Testing for developmental neurotoxicity using a battery of in vitro assays for key cellular events in neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrill, Joshua A; Freudenrich, Theresa; Wallace, Kathleen; Ball, Kenneth; Shafer, Timothy J; Mundy, William R

    2018-04-05

    Medium- to high-throughput in vitro assays that recapitulate the critical processes of nervous system development have been proposed as a means to facilitate rapid testing and identification of chemicals which may affect brain development. In vivo neurodevelopment is a complex progression of distinct cellular processes. Therefore, batteries of in vitro assays that model and quantify effects on a variety of neurodevelopmental processes have the potential to identify chemicals which may affect brain development at different developmental stages. In the present study, the results of concentration-response screening of 67 reference chemicals in a battery of high content imaging and microplate reader-based assays that evaluate neural progenitor cell proliferation, neural proginitor cell apoptosis, neurite initiation/outgrowth, neurite maturation and synaptogenesis are summarized and compared. The assay battery had a high degree of combined sensitivity (87%) for categorizing chemicals known to affect neurodevelopment as active and a moderate degree of combined specificity (71%) for categorizing chemicals not associated with affects on neurodevelopment as inactive. The combined sensitivity of the assay battery was higher compared to any individual assay while the combined specificity of the assay battery was lower compared to any individual assay. When selectivity of effects for a neurodevelopmental endpoint as compared to general cytotoxicity was taken into account, the combined sensitivity of the assay battery decreased (68%) while the combined specificity increased (93%). The identity and potency of chemicals identified as active varied across the assay battery, underscoring the need for use of a combination of diverse in vitro models to comprehensively screen chemicals and identify those which potentially affect neurodevelopment. Overall, these data indicate that a battery of assays which address many different processes in nervous system development may be used to

  17. Identification and quantification of gases emitted during abuse tests by overcharge of a commercial Li-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Y.; Bry, A.; de Persis, S.

    2018-06-01

    As hazardous situations can occur during the life of a Li-ion battery, it is of great importance to understand its behavior under abusive conditions (mechanical, thermal or electrical). In particular, the study of overcharge, which consists of forcing a current through the cell, can be very helpful in improving battery safety. Very few studies in the literature have focused on the chemical reaction mechanism responsible for failure during overcharge. This is, however, of great interest because a Li-ion battery can produce reactions in a sealed container and is thus a highly reactive system. Here, experimental approaches are employed to understand the reaction mechanisms that occur during overcharge testing. Experiments consist of studying the overcharge kinetics of a commercial battery at an initial state of charge of 100%. The battery is maintained in a known volume and gaseous samples are withdrawn both at the end of the test and continuously during the test. The main gaseous species are then identified and quantified by gas phase chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and FTIR spectroscopy. This experimental study is completed by a numerical investigation to determine the combustion parameters of the exhaust gases using a detailed reaction mechanism associated with a numerical code.

  18. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophersen, Jon P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  19. Low temperature (-15°C operational test of the battery package in the Antarctic penetrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Shibuya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform seismic explosion experiments in the crevassed area of the Antarctic ice sheet, a seismometer deployable from the air is desired. We have developed such a helicopter-deployable system (called the Antarctic penetrator, which consists of a Ground System Segment (GSS and an Automatic Data Collection Segment (ADCS. Its test operation by the 43rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-43 was, however, not successful. The reason was found to be leakage of 3.6mA current from the battery package during transportation. In order to re-examine the life time of the battery package under an operational environment at -15°C , we tested the lithium thionyl chloride batteries in a laboratory cryostat. The operational scenario is as follows. After initialization of the GSS, it enters into a sleep mode of 20days duration. At the 21st day, the GSS becomes awake and enters into the switching stage of 12 hours-awake and 12 hours-sleep modes for the following 20-30days. During the awake-period, the radio-telemeter module becomes active and transmits commands and/or recovers stored data to the ADCS once or twice a day. The current consumption in the sleep-mode was 60mA, while it was 135mA during the awake-mode. The current consumption attained about 230mA during the active mode, with an associated voltage fall of 0.5V. With 8 TL5930 cells in parallel and 2 in serial (cell capacity 19 Ah; Tadiran Co., Ltd., operation was successful with a life time of more than 50days. The life limit can be predicted from the time when the voltage becomes lower than 4.8V in the active mode. It was possible to recover the GSS-stored 4 event data (48Kbytes to the ADCS in about 40 s fifty times during the above 50days.

  20. Modeling and Operational Testing of an Isolated Variable Speed PMSG Wind Turbine with Battery Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAROTE, L.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling and operational testing of an isolated permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG, driven by a small wind turbine with a battery energy storage system during wind speed and load variations. The whole system is initially modeled, including the PMSG, the boost converter and the storage system. The required power for the connected loads can be effectively delivered and supplied by the proposed wind turbine and energy storage systems, subject to an appropriate control method. Energy storage devices are required for power balance and power quality in stand alone wind energy systems. The main purpose is to supply 230 V / 50 Hz domestic appliances through a single-phase inverter. The experimental waveforms, compared to the simulation results, show a good prediction of the electrical variable parameters. Furthermore, it can be seen that the results validate the stability of the supply.

  1. Evaluation of genotoxicity through micronuclei test in workers of car and battery repair garages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino-Roth M.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the micronuclei test (MNT was applied in exfoliated cells of buccal mucosa, in order to evaluate the genotoxic risk associated with occupational exposure of mechanics, storage battery renovation workers, and car painters. For each individual, 3000 exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed. There was a significantly higher frequency of micronucleated cells (MNC in the exposed workers than in controls. Smoking and drinking habits, age, and working time did not represent significant factors in terms of increasing the production of micronuclei (MN, when the control and the exposed groups were compared. These results allowed to conclude that the studied individuals belong to a risk group and should periodically undergo biological monitoring and proper care.

  2. Test battery for measuring the perception and recognition of facial expressions of emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Oliver; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Manske, Karsten; Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of perceiving and recognizing facial expressions in everyday life, there is no comprehensive test battery for the multivariate assessment of these abilities. As a first step toward such a compilation, we present 16 tasks that measure the perception and recognition of facial emotion expressions, and data illustrating each task's difficulty and reliability. The scoring of these tasks focuses on either the speed or accuracy of performance. A sample of 269 healthy young adults completed all tasks. In general, accuracy and reaction time measures for emotion-general scores showed acceptable and high estimates of internal consistency and factor reliability. Emotion-specific scores yielded lower reliabilities, yet high enough to encourage further studies with such measures. Analyses of task difficulty revealed that all tasks are suitable for measuring emotion perception and emotion recognition related abilities in normal populations. PMID:24860528

  3. Neurobehavioral toxicology of pyrethroid insecticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crofton, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are classified as either Type I or Type II based upon in vivo toxic signs, and neurophysiological and biochemical data. Both axonal sodium channels and the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor complex have been proposed as the major site of action of the Type II pyrethroids. This investigation characterized the behavior and biochemical effects of low dosages of pyrethroids in rats. Type I and II pyrethroids were tested for effects on figure-eight maze activity and the acoustic startle response (ASR). All compounds decreased figure-eight maze activity. Interactions of Type I and II pyrethroids with the three major binding sites on the GABA complex were determined in vivo. Radioligand binding experiments assessed in vitro interactions of pyrethroids with the three major GABA-complex binding sites. None of the pyrethroids competed for [ 3 H]-muscimol or [ 3 H]-flunitrazepam binding. Only Type II pyrethroids inhibited binding of [ 35 S]-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) in cortical synaptosome preparations with K/sub i/ values of 5 to 10 μM. The [ 35 S]-TBPS data implicate the TBPS/picrotoxinin binding site in the mechanism of Type II pyrethroid toxicity. The results of these experiments support the classification of pyrethroids into two classes, and demonstrate the utility of the figure-eight maze and the ASR in studies to elucidate neurotoxic mechanisms. The interaction of the Type II pyrethroids is probably restricted to the TBPS/picrotoxinin binding domain on the GABA complex as shown by both the in vivo and in vitro studies

  4. Testing ESL sociopragmatics development and validation of a web-based test battery

    CERN Document Server

    Roever, Carsten; Elder, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Testing of second language pragmatics has grown as a research area but still suffers from a tension between construct coverage and practicality. In this book, the authors describe the development and validation of a web-based test of second language pragmatics for learners of English. The test has a sociopragmatic orientation and strives for a broad coverage of the construct by assessing learners'' metapragmatic judgments as well as their ability to co-construct discourse. To ensure practicality, the test is delivered online and is scored partially automatically and partially by human raters.

  5. Cognitive Screening Tests Versus Comprehensive Neuropsychological Test Batteries: A National Academy of Neuropsychology Education Paper†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Glen, Tannahill; Puente, Antonio E; Denney, Robert L; Ruff, Ronald M; Hostetter, Gayle; Bianchini, Kevin J

    2017-06-01

    The American Medical Association Current Procedural Panel developed a new billing code making behavioral health screening a reimbursable healthcare service. The use of computerized testing as a means for cognitive screening and brief cognitive testing is increasing at a rapid rate. The purpose of this education paper is to provide information to clinicians, healthcare administrators, and policy developers about the purpose, strengths, and limitations of cognitive screening tests versus comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. Screening tests are generally brief and narrow in scope, they can be administered during a routine clinical visit, and they can be helpful for identifying individuals in need of more comprehensive assessment. Some screening tests can also be helpful for monitoring treatment outcomes. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments are multidimensional in nature and used for purposes such as identifying primary and secondary diagnoses, determining the nature  and severity of a person's cognitive difficulties, determining functional limitations, and planning treatment and rehabilitation. Cognitive screening tests are expected to play an increasingly important role in identifying individuals with cognitive impairment and in determining which individuals should be referred for further neuropsychological assessment. However, limitations of existing cognitive screening tests are present and cognitive screening tests should not be used as a replacement for comprehensive neuropsychological testing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effects of perinatal asphyxia on the neurobehavioral and retinal development of newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Peter; Szogyi, Donat; Reglodi, Dora; Horvath, Gabor; Farkas, Jozsef; Lubics, Andrea; Tamas, Andrea; Atlasz, Tamas; Szabadfi, Krisztina; Babai, Norbert; Gabriel, Robert; Koppan, Miklos

    2009-02-19

    Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits and represents a major problem in both neonatal and pediatric care. Several morphological, biochemical and behavioral changes have been described in rats exposed to perinatal asphyxia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how perinatal asphyxia affects the complex early neurobehavioral development and retinal structure of newborn rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by cesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily during the first 3 weeks, and motor coordination tests were performed on postnatal weeks 3-5. After completion of the testing procedure, retinas were removed for histological analysis. We found that in spite of the fast catch-up-growth of asphyctic pups, nearly all examined reflexes were delayed by 1-4 days: negative geotaxis, sensory reflexes, righting reflexes, development of fore- and hindlimb grasp and placing, gait and auditory startle reflexes. Time to perform negative geotaxis, surface righting and gait reflexes was significantly longer during the first few weeks in asphyctic pups. Among the motor coordination tests, a markedly weaker performance was observed in the grid walking and footfault test and in the walk initiation test. Retinal structure showed severe degeneration in the layer of the photoreceptor and bipolar cell bodies. In summary, our present study provided a detailed description of reflex and motor development following perinatal asphyxia, showing that asphyxia led to a marked delay in neurobehavioral development and a severe retinal degeneration.

  7. Testing of a naturally aged nuclear power plant inverter and battery charger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, W.E.

    1988-09-01

    A naturally aged inverter and battery charger were obtained from the Shippingport facility. This equipment was manufactured in 1974, and was installed at Shippingport in 1975 as part of a major plant modification. Testing was performed on this equipment under the auspices of the NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program to evaluate the type and extent of degradation due to aging, and to determine the effectiveness of condition monitoring techniques which could be used to detect aging effects. Steady state testing was conducted over the equipment's entire operating range. Step load changes were also initiated in order to monitor the electrical response. During this testing, component temperatures were monitored and circuit waveforms analyzed. Results indicated that aging had not substantially affected equipment operation. On the other hand, when compared with original acceptance test data, the monitoring techniques employed were sensitive to changes in measurable component and equipment parameters indicating the viability of detecting degradation prior to catastrophic failure. 7 refs., 34 figs., 12 tabs

  8. Visual Working Memory and Perception Speed of 3- to 6-Year-Old Children Tested with a Matrix Film Battery Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittorf, Martin L.; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Huckauf, Anke

    2014-01-01

    In this study the visual working memory (VWM) and perception speed of 60 children between the ages of three and six years were tested with an age-based, easy-to-handle Matrix Film Battery Test (reliability R?=?0.71). It was thereby affirmed that the VWM is age dependent (correlation coefficient r?=?0.66***) as expected. Furthermore, a significant…

  9. [The battery of tests for behavioral phenotyping of aging animals in the experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorina, Ya V; Komleva, Yu K; Lopatina, O L; Volkova, V V; Chernykh, A I; Shabalova, A A; Semenchukov, A A; Olovyannikova, R Ya; Salmina, A B

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a battery of tests to study social and cognitive impairments for behavioral phenotyping of aging experimental animals with physiological neurodegeneration. Object of the study were outbred CD1 mice in the following groups: 1st group - 12-month old male mice (physiological aging); 2nd group - 2-month old male mice (control group). Social recognition test, elevated plus maze test (EPM), open field test, light-dark box test, and Fear conditioning protocol were used to estimate the neurological status of experimental animals. We found that aging male mice in a contrast to young ones have demonstrated lower social interest to female mice in the social recognition task. EPM and light-dark box tests showed increased level of anxiety in the group of aged mice comparing to the control group. Fear conditioning protocol revealed impairment of associative learning and memory in the group of aged mice, particularly, fear memory consolidation was dramatically suppressed. Analysis of behavioral factors, social interactions and anxiety level in the experimental mice has confirmed age-related neurodegeneration in the 1st group. We found that the most informative approach to identifying neurological impairments in aging mice (social interaction deficit, limitation of interests, increased level of anxiety) should be based on the open field test light-dark box test, and Fear conditioning protocol. Such combination allows obtaining new data on behavioral alterations in the age-associated of neurodegeneration and to develop novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of age-related brain pathology.

  10. Antimony-Induced Neurobehavioral and Biochemical Perturbations in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanu, Tanzina; Anjum, Adiba; Jahan, Momotaj; Nikkon, Farjana; Hoque, Mominul; Roy, Apurba Kumar; Haque, Azizul; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled; Saud, Zahangir Alam

    2018-03-08

    Groundwater used for drinking has been contaminated with naturally occurring inorganic arsenic and other metals, and metal-contaminated drinking water is the biggest threat to public health in Bangladesh. Toxic metals present in the drinking water have a strong relationship with chronic diseases in humans. Antimony (Sb), a naturally occurring metal, has been reported to be present in the drinking water along with other heavy metals in Bangladesh. Although Sb is present in the environment, very little attention has been given to the toxic effects of Sb. The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of Sb on neurobehavioral changes like anxiety, learning and memory impairment, and blood indices related to organ dysfunction. Mice exposed to antimony potassium-tartrate hydrate (Sb) (10 mg/kg body weight) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the time spent in open arms while increased the time spent in closed arms compared to the control mice in elevated plus maze. The mean latency time of control group to find the platform decreased (p < 0.05) significantly during 7 days learning as compared to Sb-treated group in Morris water maze test, and Sb-exposed group spent significantly (p < 0.05) less time in the desired quadrant as compared to the control group in probe trial. Sb treatment also significantly altered blood indices related to liver and kidney dysfunction. Additionally, Sb-induced biochemical alterations were associated with significant perturbations in histological architecture of liver and kidney of Sb-exposed mice. These data suggest that Sb has a toxic effect on neurobehavioral and biochemical changes in mice.

  11. Development of a Physical Employment Testing Battery for Infantry Soldiers: 11B Infantryman and 11C Infantryman - Indirect Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    quickly as possible and ran around the course in the direction indicated, without knocking over the cones. Time to complete the course was recorded (14...in order to reduce the cost of collecting equipment. Additionally, all the tests used may be readily purchased at a sporting goods store. The third...a sporting goods store. The third model resulted in a test battery that included the medicine ball put, squat lift, Illinois agility test (lower

  12. Multidimensional Aptitude Battery-Second Edition Intelligence Testing of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Training Candidates Compared with Manned Airframe Training Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    assessing the general intelligence and neuropsychological aptitudes of USAF RPA pilot training candidates. Chappelle et al. obtained comprehensive...computer-based intelligence testing (Multidimensional Aptitude Battery-Second Edition [MAB-II]) and neuropsychological screening (MicroCog) on USAF MQ-1... schizophrenia , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorders) and not on very high functioning populations such as aviators

  13. Characteristics of Pediatric Performance on a Test Battery Commonly Used in the Diagnosis of Central Auditory Processing Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihing, Jeffrey; Guenette, Linda; Chermak, Gail; Brown, Mallory; Ceruti, Julianne; Fitzgerald, Krista; Geissler, Kristin; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Brenneman, Lauren; Musiek, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Although central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) test battery performance has been examined in adults with neurologic lesions of the central auditory nervous system (CANS), similar data on children being referred for CAPD evaluations are sparse. This study characterizes CAPD test battery performance in children using tests commonly administered to diagnose the disorder. Specifically, this study describes failure rates for various test combinations, relationships between CAPD tests used in the battery, and the influence of cognitive function on CAPD test performance and CAPD diagnosis. A comparison is also made between the performance of children with CAPD and data from patients with neurologic lesions of the CANS. A retrospective study. Fifty-six pediatric patients were referred for CAPD testing. Participants were administered four CAPD tests, including frequency patterns (FP), low-pass filtered speech (LPFS), dichotic digits (DD), and competing sentences (CS). In addition, they were given the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). Descriptive analyses examined the failure rates of various test combinations, as well as how often children with CAPD failed certain combinations when compared with adults with CANS lesions. A principal components analysis was performed to examine interrelationships between tests. Correlations and regressions were conducted to determine the relationship between CAPD test performance and the WISC. Results showed that the FP and LPFS tests were most commonly failed by children with CAPD. Two-test combinations that included one or both of these two tests and excluded DD tended to be failed more often. Including the DD and CS test in a battery benefited specificity. Tests thought to measure interhemispheric transfer tended to be correlated. Compared with adult patients with neurologic lesions, children with CAPD tended to fail LPFS more frequently and DD less frequently. Both groups failed FP with relatively equal frequency

  14. Development, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the resistance training skills battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Harries, Simon K; Barnett, Lisa M; Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the development and assess test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Resistance Training Skills Battery (RTSB) for adolescents. The RTSB provides an assessment of resistance training skill competency and includes 6 exercises (i.e., body weight squat, push-up, lunge, suspended row, standing overhead press, and front support with chest touches). Scoring for each skill is based on the number of performance criteria successfully demonstrated. An overall resistance training skill quotient (RTSQ) is created by adding participants' scores for the 6 skills. Participants (44 boys and 19 girls, mean age = 14.5 ± 1.2 years) completed the RTSB on 2 occasions separated by 7 days. Participants also completed the following fitness tests, which were used to create a muscular fitness score (MFS): handgrip strength, timed push-up, and standing long jump tests. Intraclass correlation (ICC), paired samples t-tests, and typical error were used to assess test-retest reliability. To assess construct validity, gender and RTSQ were entered into a regression model predicting MFS. The rank order repeatability of the RTSQ was high (ICC = 0.88). The model explained 39% of the variance in MFS (p ≤ 0.001) and RTSQ (r = 0.40, p ≤ 0.001) was a significant predictor. This study has demonstrated the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the RTSB in a sample of adolescents. The RTSB can reliably rank participants in regards to their resistance training competency and has the necessary sensitivity to detect small changes in resistance training skill proficiency.

  15. Test results of a 60 volt bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, Olga; Gahn, Randall F.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gemeiner, Russel P.

    1987-01-01

    In July 1986, a high-voltage nickel-hydrogen battery was assembled at the NASA Lewis Research Center. This battery incorporated bipolar construction techniques to build a 50-cell stack with approximately 1.0 A-hr capacity (C) and an open-circuit voltage of 65 V. The battery was characterized at both low and high current rates prior to pulsed and nonpulsed discharges. Pulse discharges at 5 and 10 C were performed before placing the battery on over 1400, 40-percent depth-of-discharge, low-earth-orbit cycles. The successful demonstration of a high-voltage bipolar battery in one containment vessel has advanced the technology to where nickel-hydrogen high-voltage systems can be constructed of several modules instead of hundreds of individual cells.

  16. Neurobehavioral assessment of rats exposed to pristine polystyrene nanoplastics upon oral exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Mohammad; Dargahi, Leila; Eslami, Akbar; Beirami, Elmira; Jahangiri-Rad, Mahsa; Sabour, Siamak; Amereh, Fatemeh

    2018-02-01

    The increasing use of plastics has raised concerns about pollution of freshwater by these polymeric materials. Knowledge about their potential effects on environmental and public health is limited. Recent publications have suggested that the degradation of plastics will result in the release of nano-sized plastic particles to the environment. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to gain knowledge about whether and how nanoplastics affect living organisms. The present study aimed to analyse potential neurobehavioral effects of polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NPs) after long-term exposure on rat. Potential effects of PS-NPs were investigated using four test dosages (1, 3, 6, and 10 mg PS-NPs/kg of body weight/day) administrated orally with adult Wistar male rats for five weeks. Neurobehavioral tests were chosen to assess a variety of behavioral domains. Particle diameters in test suspensions were determined through dynamic light scattering and showed an average hydrodynamic diameter of approximately 38.92 nm. No statistically significant behavioral effects were observed in all tests performed (p > 0.05). In the elevated plus maze, PS-NPs-exposed rats showed greater number of entries into open arms compared to controls. Also, PS-NPs had no significant influence on body weight of animals. Taking into account the subtle and transient nature of neurobehavioral consequences, however, these results underline the possibility of even pristine plastic nanoparticles to induce behavioral alteration in the rest of the food web, including for marine biota and humans. Indeed even though studied neurobehavioral effects in our study was not statistically significant, the observed subtle effects may be clinically considerable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Post-test analysis of lithium-ion battery materials at Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareno, Javier; Dietz-Rago, Nancy; Bloom, Ira

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical performance is often limited by surface and interfacial reactions at the electrodes. However, routine handling of samples can alter the very surfaces that are the object of study. Our approach combines standardized testing of batteries with sample harvesting under inert atmosphere conditions. Cells of different formats are disassembled inside an Argon glove box with controlled water and oxygen concentrations below 2 ppm. Cell components are characterized in situ, guaranteeing that observed changes in physicochemical state are due to electrochemical operation, rather than sample manipulation. We employ a complementary set of spectroscopic, microscopic, electrochemical and metallographic characterization to obtain a complete picture of cell degradation mechanisms. The resulting information about observed degradation mechanisms is provided to materials developers, both academic and industrial, to suggest new strategies and speed up the Research & Development cycle of Li-ion and related technologies. This talk will describe Argonne's post-test analysis laboratory, with an emphasis on capabilities and opportunities for collaboration. Cell disassembly, sample harvesting procedures and recent results will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies, Hybrid and Electric Systems, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  18. Strain-specific battery of tests for domains of mania: effects of valproate, lithium and imipramine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomit Flaisher-Grinberg

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The lack of efficient animal models for bipolar disorder (BPD, especially for the manic pole, is a major factor hindering the research of its pathophysiology and the development of improved drug treatments. The present study was designed to identify an appropriate mouse strain for modeling some behavioral domains of mania and to evaluate the effects of drugs using this strain. The study compared the behavior of four strains: Black Swiss, C57Bl/6, CBA/J and A/J mice in a battery of tests that included spontaneous activity; sweet solution preference; light/dark box; resident-intruder; forced-swim and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity. Based on the ‘manic-like’ behavior demonstrated by the Black Swiss strain, the study evaluated the effects of the mood stabilizers valproate and lithium and of the antidepressant imipramine in the same tests using this strain. Results indicated that lithium and valproate attenuate the ‘manic-like’ behavior of Black Swiss mice whereas imipramine had no effects. These findings suggest that Black Swiss mice might be a good choice for modeling several domains of mania and distinguishing the effects of drugs on these specific domains. However, the relevance of the behavioral phenotype of Black Swiss mice to the biology of BPD is unknown at this time and future studies will investigate molecular differences between Black Swiss mice and other strains and asess the interaction between strain and mood stabilizing treatment.

  19. Comparison of Physical Fitness Parameters with EUROFIT Test Battery of Male Adolescent Soccer Players and Sedentary Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür ERİKOĞLU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare physical fitness parameters of male adolescent soccer players and sedentary counterparts. A total of 26 male adolescents participated in this study voluntarily: Active soccer players (n: 3, age x : 13,00 ± 0,00 and sedentary counterparts (n: 13, age x :12,92 ± 0,75. The EUROFIT test battery was used to determine physical fitness. The test battery includes body height and weight measurements, touching the discs, flamingo balan ce, throwing health ball, vertical jumping, sit and reach, sit - up for 30 s, 20 meter sprint run, and 20 meter shuttle run tests. Data were analyzed by Mann Whitney U test. Significance was defined as p.05. In conclusion, children who do sports are more successful on most of the fitness parameters than sedentary children.

  20. Neurobehavioral effects of ambient air pollution on cognitive performance in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Schwartz, Joel

    2009-03-01

    In vivo animal experiments demonstrate neurotoxicity of exposures to particulate matter (PM) and ozone, but only one small epidemiological study had linked ambient air pollution with central nervous system (CNS) functions in children. To examine the neurobehavioral effects associated with long-term exposure to ambient PM and ozone in adults. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System-2 (NES2) data (including a simple reaction time test [SRTT] measuring motor response speed to a visual stimulus; a symbol-digit substitution test [SDST] for coding ability; and a serial-digit learning test [SDLT] for attention and short-term memory) from 1764 adult participants (aged 37.5+/-10.9 years) of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 1988-1991. Based on ambient PM(10) (PM with aerodynamic diameter SDLT, but not in SRTT. Each 10-ppb increase in annual ozone was associated with increased SDST and SDLT scores by 0.16 (95%CI: 0.01, 0.23) and 0.56 (95%CI: 0.07, 1.05), equivalent to 3.5 and 5.3 years of aging-related decline in cognitive performance. Our study provides the first epidemiological data supporting the adverse neurobehavioral effects of ambient air pollutants in adults.

  1. Indoor mold exposure associated with neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairment: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Kaye H

    2003-07-01

    Recently, patients who have been exposed indoors to mixed molds, spores, and mycotoxins have reported asthma, airway irritation and bleeding, dizziness, and impaired memory and concentration, all of which suggest the presence of pulmonary and neurobehavioral problems. The author evaluated whether such patients had measurable pulmonary and neurobehavioral impairments by comparing consecutive cases in a series vs. a referent group. Sixty-five consecutive outpatients exposed to mold in their respective homes in Arizona, California, and Texas were compared with 202 community subjects who had no known mold or chemical exposures. Balance, choice reaction time, color discrimination, blink reflex, visual fields, grip, hearing, problem-solving, verbal recall, perceptual motor speed, and memory were measured. Medical histories, mood states, and symptom frequencies were recorded with checklists, and spirometry was used to measure various pulmonary volumes and flows. Neurobehavioral comparisons were made after individual measurements were adjusted for age, educational attainment, and sex. Significant differences between groups were assessed by analysis of variance; a p value of less than 0.05 was used for all statistical tests. The mold-exposed group exhibited decreased function for balance, reaction time, blink-reflex latency, color discrimination, visual fields, and grip, compared with referents. The exposed group's scores were reduced for the following tests: digit-symbol substitution, peg placement, trail making, verbal recall, and picture completion. Twenty-one of 26 functions tested were abnormal. Airway obstructions were found, and vital capacities were reduced. Mood state scores and symptom frequencies were elevated. The author concluded that indoor mold exposures were associated with neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairments that likely resulted from the presence of mycotoxins, such as trichothecenes.

  2. Acquisition of Co metal from spent lithium-ion battery using emulsion liquid membrane technology and emulsion stability test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Wulandari, P. T.; Amiliana, R. A.; Huda, M.; Kusumadewi, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are the most common type to be used as energy source in mobile phone. The amount of lithium-ion battery wastes is approximated by 200 – 500 ton/year. In one lithium-ion battery, there are 5 – 20% of cobalt metal, depend on the manufacturer. One of the way to recover a valuable metal from waste is leaching process then continued with extraction, which is the aim of this study. Spent lithium-ion batteries will be characterized with EDX and AAS, the result will show the amount of cobalt metal with form of LiCoO2 in the cathode. Hydrochloric acid concentration used is 4 M, temperature 80°C, and reaction time 1 hour. This study will discuss the emulsion stability test on emulsion liquid membrane. The purpose of emulsion stability test in this study was to determine optimum concentration of surfactant and extractant to produce a stable emulsion. Surfactant and extractant used were SPAN 80 and Cyanex 272 respectively with both concentrations varied. Membrane and feed phase ratios used in this experiment was 1 : 2. The optimum results of this study were SPAN 80 concentrations of 10% w/v and Cyanex 272 0.7 M.

  3. Verification test for an electric vehicle using capacitor-battery series connection for battery load levelling; Denchi no fuka heijunka no tame no kyapashita to denchi no chokuretsu setsuzoku hoshiki wo saiyoshita denki jidosha no jissho shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaoka, K.; Takehara, J.; Kato, S. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1998-03-25

    For the prolongation of the distance that an electric vehicle (EV) can cover on a single charge and of the service life of the EV battery unit, a system is developed, in which the battery unit and the capacitor unit are connected in series for the levelling-off of battery peak loads, and the system is tested aboard a running real vehicle. Installed on the real vehicle is a battery unit that is a series connection of 20 12V-38Ah seal-type lead-acid batteries, each battery consisting of two cells connected in parallel. Driving the vehicle is a DC brushless motor capable of a maximum operation of 9000rpm. Also installed is a capacitor unit that is a parallel connection of 40 2.3V-1800F capacitors, each capacitor consisting of two capacitors connected in parallel. Findings are described below. In a 0-400m acceleration test, 22.5 seconds is recorded with the capacitor unit in operation, meaning an improvement of 0.7 seconds. The maximum speed remains unchanged at 110km/h, which agrees with the pre-calculated value. Although the battery peak load reduction rate in a 15-mode drive pattern marks 23%, the distances covered on a single charge in this drive pattern turn out to be almost the same whether the capacitor unit is in operation or not. 3 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Modafinil and cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia and healthy volunteers: the effects of test battery in a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, J; Michalopoulou, P G; Lewis, S W; Preston, S; Bamford, C; Collier, T; Kalpakidou, A; Wykes, T; Emsley, R; Pandina, G; Kapur, S; Drake, R J

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have major functional impacts. Modafinil is a cognitive enhancer whose effect in healthy volunteers is well-described, but whose effects on the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia appear to be inconsistent. Two possible reasons for this are that cognitive test batteries vary in their sensitivity, or that the phase of illness may be important, with patients early in their illness responding better. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled single-dose crossover study of modafinil 200 mg examined this with two cognitive batteries [MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)] in 46 participants with under 3 years' duration of DSM-IV schizophrenia, on stable antipsychotic medication. In parallel, the same design was used in 28 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy volunteers. Uncorrected p values were calculated using mixed effects models. In patients, modafinil significantly improved CANTAB Paired Associate Learning, non-significantly improved efficiency and significantly slowed performance of the CANTAB Stockings of Cambridge spatial planning task. There was no significant effect on any MCCB domain. In healthy volunteers, modafinil significantly increased CANTAB Rapid Visual Processing, Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shifting and verbal recall accuracy, and MCCB social cognition performance. The only significant differences between groups were in MCCB visual learning. As in earlier chronic schizophrenia studies, modafinil failed to produce changes in cognition in early psychosis as measured by MCCB. CANTAB proved more sensitive to the effects of modafinil in participants with early schizophrenia and in healthy volunteers. This confirms the importance of selecting the appropriate test battery in treatment studies of cognition in schizophrenia.

  5. Neurobehavioral Management of Behavioral Anomalies in Frontal Lobe Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Shahzadi; Rajender, Gaurav; Sharma, Vibha; Singh, Tej Bahadur

    2009-01-01

    Neurobehavioral approach uses behavioral paradigm towards comprehensive rehabilitation by identifying the neurological or neuropsychological constraints that can interfere with learning and behavior of an individual. The present case study highlights the role of functional skills approach in neurobehavioral management towards cognitive rehabilitation to manage behavioral deficits in a 55-year-old man with nicotine dependence having frontal lobe lesions owing to gliosis of fronto-temporal brai...

  6. Cognitive and Neurobehavioral Profile in Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Rudaina; Smile, Sharon; Yoon, Grace; Dupuis, Annie; Mosleh, Maureen; Snider, Andrea; McAdam, Laura

    2015-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a progressive neuromuscular condition that has a high rate of cognitive and learning disabilities as well as neurobehavioral disorders, some of which have been associated with disruption of dystrophin isoforms. Retrospective cohort of 59 boys investigated the cognitive and neurobehavioral profile of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Full-scale IQ of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Analisis Teoritis dan Empiris Uji Craps dari Diehard Battery of Randomness Test untuk Pengujian Pembangkit Bilangan Acaksemu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Agustini Hafman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Kerchoffs (1883, the security system should only rely on cryptographic keys which is used in that system. Generally, the key sequences are generated by a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG or Random Number Generator (RNG. There are three types of randomness sequences that generated by the RNG and PRNG i.e. pseudorandom sequence, cryptographically secure pseudorandom sequences, and real random sequences. Several statistical tests, including diehard battery of tests of randomness, is used to check the type of randomness sequences that generated by PRNG or RNG. Due to its purpose, the principle on taking the testing parameters and the test statistic are associated with the validity of the conclusion produced by a statistical test, then the theoretical analysis is performed by applying a variety of statistical theory to evaluate craps test, one of the test included in the diehard battery of randomness tests. Craps test, inspired by craps game, aims to examine whether a PRNG produces an independent and identically distributed (iid pseudorandom sequences. To demonstrate the process to produce a test statistics equation and to show how craps games applied on that test, will be carried out theoretical analysis by applying a variety of statistical theory. Furthermore, empirical observations will be done by applying craps test on a PRNG in order to check the test effectiveness in detecting the distribution and independency of sequences which produced by PRNG

  8. Functional Observational Battery Testing for Nervous System Effects of Drugs and Other Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for behavioral toxicity, or neurotoxicity, has become standard practice in preclinical safety pharmacology and toxicology. Behavior represents the integrated sum of activities mediated by the nervous system. Current screening batteries, such as the functional observat...

  9. Qualification and Life Testing of Li-Ion Ves16 Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remy Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Up to the present time, Saft batteries have been mainly utilizing for space applications high capacity cells, like the 45 Ah VES180 and the 35 Ah VES140 cells, targeting predominantly space missions in Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO. However following the qualification and commercialization of the Saft 4.5 Ah VES16 cell in October 2011 [1] & [2], Saft has been developing and qualifying in the frame of this ESA GSTP 5.2 contract, VES 16 batteries for space missions, targeting both GEO and Low Earth Orbit (LEO satellite missions. The electrochemistry of the VES16 cells used for the battery modules under the ESA qualification program is not novel. For VES16 cells, the Saft knowhow from large capacity space cells used for space applications, since SMART 1 mission in 2003, has been tailored for a cell with smaller capacity in order to facilitate the modular philosophy that has been deployed in this battery range.

  10. Lead/acid batteries for photovoltaic applications. Test results and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copetti, J B [CIEMAT, Inst. de Energias Renovables, Madrid (Spain); Chenlo, F [CIEMAT, Inst. de Energias Renovables, Madrid (Spain)

    1994-01-01

    This work presents the results of experiments carried out on lead/acid batteries during charge and discharge processes at different currents and temperatures, selected to a cover a large range of operating conditions, including those encountered in photovoltaic (PV) system applications. The results allow us to verify the relations among the battery external parameters (voltage, current, state-of-charge and temperature), the behaviour of the internal resistance, and to deduce a model that represents the discharge and charge processes, including the overcharge. Finally, normalized equations with respect to the battery capacity are proposed, which allow us to fix the values of parameters and hence the model is valid for any type and size of lead/acid battery. (orig.)

  11. Old world monkeys compare to apes in the primate cognition test battery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Schmitt

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolution of intelligence rests on comparative analyses of brain sizes as well as the assessment of cognitive skills of different species in relation to potential selective pressures such as environmental conditions and social organization. Because of the strong interest in human cognition, much previous work has focused on the comparison of the cognitive skills of human toddlers to those of our closest living relatives, i.e. apes. Such analyses revealed that apes and children have relatively similar competencies in the physical domain, while human children excel in the socio-cognitive domain; in particular in terms of attention sharing, cooperation, and mental state attribution. To develop a full understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of primate intelligence, however, comparative data for monkeys are needed. We tested 18 Old World monkeys (long-tailed macaques and olive baboons in the so-called Primate Cognition Test Battery (PCTB (Herrmann et al. 2007, Science. Surprisingly, our tests revealed largely comparable results between Old World monkeys and the Great apes. Single comparisons showed that chimpanzees performed only better than the macaques in experiments on spatial understanding and tool use, but in none of the socio-cognitive tasks. These results question the clear-cut relationship between cognitive performance and brain size and--prima facie--support the view of an accelerated evolution of social intelligence in humans. One limitation, however, is that the initial experiments were devised to tap into human specific skills in the first place, thus potentially underestimating both true nonhuman primate competencies as well as species differences.

  12. Using the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) 7 Nonverbal Battery to Identify the Gifted/Talented: An Investigation of Demographic Effects and Norming Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Carol A.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Bartsch, Robert A.

    2018-01-01

    The nonverbal battery of the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) is one of the two most common nonverbal measures used in gifted identification, yet the relationships between demographic variables and CogAT7 performance has not yet been fully examined. Additionally, the effect of using the CogAT7 nonverbal battery on the identification of diverse…

  13. Neurobehavioral and Antioxidant Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Yellow Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Cristina Sousa de Menezes da Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a resin produced by bees from raw material collected from plants, salivary secretions, and beeswax. New therapeutic properties for the Central Nervous System have emerged. We explored the neurobehavioral and antioxidant effects of an ethanolic extract of yellow propolis (EEYP rich in triterpenoids, primarily lupeol and β-amyrin. Male Wistar rats, 3 months old, were intraperitoneally treated with Tween 5% (control, EEYP (1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg, or diazepam, fluoxetine, and caffeine (positive controls 30 min before the assays. Animals were submitted to open field, elevated plus maze, forced swimming, and inhibitory avoidance tests. After behavioral tasks, blood samples were collected through intracardiac pathway, to evaluate the oxidative balance. The results obtained in the open field and in the elevated plus maze assay showed spontaneous locomotion preserved and anxiolytic-like activity. In the forced swimming test, EEYP demonstrated antidepressant-like activity. In the inhibitory avoidance test, EEYP showed mnemonic activity at 30 mg/kg. In the evaluation of oxidative biochemistry, the extract reduced the production of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde without changing level of total antioxidant, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, induced by behavioral stress. Our results highlight that EEYP emerges as a promising anxiolytic, antidepressant, mnemonic, and antioxidant natural product.

  14. The concurrent validity of the technical test battery as an indicator of work performance in a telecommunications company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marelize Barnard

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the Technical Test Battery (TTB in a South African telecommunications institution. The Technical Test Battery (TTB was administered to a sample of 107 technical officers. Their test scores were compared to the scores obtained from a job performance rating scale specifically designed for this position on the basis of a thorough job analysis. The TTB demonstrated high concurrent validity as an indicator of work performance for technical posts in the telecommunications environment. These results suggest that the TTB may have a high predictive validity for performance in technical positions. The findings and implications of the study are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was om die samevallende geldigheid van die “Technical Test Battery (TTB�? in ’n Suid-Afrikaanse telekommunikasie instansie te bepaal. Die TTB is op ’n steekproef van 107 tegniese personeel toegepas. Die toetstellings is in verband gebring met die tellings van ’n werksprestasiemaatstaf wat spesifiek vir die pos ontwikkel is op grond van ’n deeglike posanalise. Daar is bevind dat die TTB ’n hoë samevallende geldigheid as aanduider van werksprestasie vir tegniese poste in the telekommunikasiebedryf toon. Dié resultate dui op ’n sterk moontlikheid dat die TTB ’n goeie voorspeller van werksprestasie vir tegniese beroepe kan wees. Die bevindinge en implikasies van die studie word bespreek.

  15. Electroacupuncture improves neurobehavioral function and brain injury in rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Deng, Li; Tang, Huajun; Gao, Xiaoqing; Wang, Youhua; Guo, Kan; Kong, Jiming; Yang, Chaoxian

    2017-05-01

    Acupuncture has been widely used as a treatment for stroke in China for a long time. Recently, studies have demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA) can accelerate intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced angiogenesis in rats. In the present study, we investigated the effect of EA on neurobehavioral function and brain injury in ICH rats. ICH was induced by stereotactic injection of collagenase type I and heparin into the right caudate putamen. Adult ICH rats were randomly divided into the following three groups: model control group (MC), EA at non-acupoint points group (non-acupoint EA) and EA at Baihui and Dazhui acupoints group (EA). The neurobehavioral deficits of ICH rats were assessed by modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and gait analysis. The hemorrhage volume and glucose metabolism of hemorrhagic foci were detected by PET/CT. The expression levels of MBP, NSE and S100-B proteins in serum were tested by ELISA. The histopathological features were examined by haematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. Apoptosis-associated proteins in the perihematomal region were observed by immunohistochemistry. EA treatment significantly promoted the recovery of neurobehavioral function in ICH rats. Hemorrhage volume reduced in EA group at day 14 when compared with MC and non-acupoint EA groups. ELISA showed that the levels of MBP, NSE and S100-B in serum were all down-regulated by EA treatment. The brain tissue of ICH rat in the EA group was more intact and compact than that in the MC and non-acupoint groups. In the perihematomal regions, the expression of Bcl-2 protein increased and expressions of Caspase-3 and Bax proteins decreased in the EA group vs MC and non-acupoint EA groups. Our data suggest that EA treatment can improve neurobehavioral function and brain injury, which were likely connected with the absorption of hematoma and regulation of apoptosis-related proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect profile of paracetamol, Δ9-THC and promethazine using an evoked pain test battery in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amerongen, G; Siebenga, P; de Kam, M L; Hay, J L; Groeneveld, G J

    2018-04-10

    A battery of evoked pain tasks (PainCart) was developed to investigate the pharmacodynamic properties of novel analgesics in early-phase clinical research. As part of its clinical validation, compounds with different pharmacological mechanisms of actions are investigated. The aim was to investigate the analgesic effects of classic and nonclassic analgesics compared to a sedating negative control in a randomized placebo-controlled crossover study in 24 healthy volunteers using the PainCart. The PainCart consisted of pain tasks eliciting electrical, pressure, heat, cold and inflammatory pain. Subjective scales for cognitive functioning and psychotomimetic effects were included. Subjects were administered each of the following oral treatments: paracetamol (1000 mg), Δ9-THC (10 mg), promethazine (50 mg) or matching placebo. Pharmacodynamic measurements were performed at baseline and repeated up to 10 h postdose. Paracetamol did not show a significant reduction in pain sensation or subjective cognitive functioning compared to placebo. Promethazine induced a statistically significant reduction in PTT for cold pressor and pressure stimulation. Furthermore, reduced subjective alertness was observed. Δ9-THC showed a statistically significant decrease in PTT for electrical and pressure stimulation. Δ9-THC also demonstrated subjective effects, including changes in alertness and calmness, as well as feeling high and psychotomimetic effects. This study found a decreased pain tolerance due to Δ9-THC and promethazine, or lack thereof, using an evoked pain task battery. Pain thresholds following paracetamol administration remained unchanged, which may be due to insufficient statistical power. We showed that pain thresholds determined using this pain test battery are not driven by sedation. The multimodal battery of evoked pain tasks utilized in this study may play an important role in early-phase clinical drug development. This battery of pain tasks is not sensitive to the

  17. Metacognitive control of categorial neurobehavioral decision systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC. The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive functions that engender classes normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but, a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally-demanding, sequential processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling.

  18. Reconceptualizing antisocial deviance in neurobehavioral terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher J; Durbin, C Emily; Moser, Jason S

    2012-08-01

    We propose that neuroscientific understanding of antisocial behavior can be advanced by focusing programmatic efforts on neurobehavioral trait constructs, that is, individual difference constructs with direct referents in neurobiology as well as behavior. As specific examples, we highlight inhibitory control and defensive reactivity as two such constructs with clear relevance for understanding antisocial behavior in the context of development. Variations in inhibitory control are theorized to reflect individual differences in the functioning of brain systems that operate to guide and inhibit behavior and regulate emotional response in the service of nonimmediate goals. Variations in defensive reactivity are posited to reflect individual differences in the sensitivity of the brain's aversive motivational (fear) system. We describe how these constructs have been conceptualized in the adult and child literatures and review work pertaining to traditional psychometric (rating and behaviorally based) assessment of these constructs and their known physiological correlates at differing ages as well as evidence linking these constructs to antisocial behavior problems in children and adults. We outline a psychoneurometric approach, which entails systematic development of neurobiological measures of target trait constructs through reference to psychological phenotypes, as a paradigm for linking clinical disorders to neurobiological systems. We provide a concrete illustration of this approach in the domain of externalizing proneness and discuss its broader implications for research on conduct disorder, antisocial personality, and psychopathy.

  19. Psychometric properties and convergent and predictive validity of an executive function test battery for two-year-olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eMulder

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF is an important predictor of numerous developmental outcomes, such as academic achievement and behavioral adjustment. Although a plethora of measurement instruments exists to assess executive function in children, only few of these are suitable for toddlers, and even fewer have undergone psychometric evaluation. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties and validity of an assessment battery for measuring EF in two-year-olds. A sample of 2437 children were administered the assessment battery at a mean age of 2;4 years (SD = 0;3 years in a large-scale field study. Measures of both hot EF (snack and gift delay tasks and cool EF (six boxes, memory for location, and visual search task were included. Confirmatory Factor Analyses showed that a two-factor hot and cool EF model fitted the data better than a one-factor model. Measurement invariance was supported across groups differing in age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES, home language, and test setting. Criterion and convergent validity were evaluated by examining relationships between EF and age, gender, SES, home language, and parent and teacher reports of children’s attention and inhibitory control. Predictive validity of the test battery was investigated by regressing children’s pre-academic skills and behavioral problems at age three on the latent hot and cool EF factors at age two years. The test battery showed satisfactory psychometric quality and criterion, convergent, and predictive validity. Whereas cool EF predicted both pre-academic skills and behavior problems one year later, hot EF predicted behavior problems only. These results show that EF can be assessed with psychometrically sound instruments in children as young as two years, and that EF tasks can be reliably applied in large scale field research. The current instruments offer new opportunities for investigating EF in early childhood, and for evaluating interventions targeted at improving

  20. Seismic fragility testing of naturally-aged, safety-related, class 1E battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.S.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1984-01-01

    The concern over seismic susceptibility of naturally-aged lead-acid batteries used for safety-related emergency power in nuclear power stations was brought about by battery problems that periodically had been reported in Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The Turkey Point Station had reported cracked and buckled plates in several cells in October 1974 (LER 75-5). The Fitzpatrick Station had reported cracked battery cell cases in October 1977 (LER 77-55) and again in September 1979 (LER 79-59). The Browns Ferry Station had reported a cracked cell leaking a small quantity of electrolyte in July 1981 (LER 81-42). The Indian Point Station had reported cracked and leaking cells in both February (LER 82-7) and April 1982 (LER 82-16); both of these LERs indicated the cracked cells were due to expansion (i.e., growth) of the positive plates

  1. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallowing batteries ... These devices use button batteries: Calculators Cameras Hearing aids Penlights Watches ... If a person puts the battery up their nose and breathes it further in, ... problems Cough Pneumonia (if the battery goes unnoticed) ...

  2. Performance in normal subjects on a novel battery of driving-related sensory-motor and cognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Carrie R H; Jones, Richard D; Anderson, Tim J; Hollobon, Susan G; Dalrymple-Alford, John C

    2009-05-01

    Currently, there is no international standard for the assessment of fitness to drive for cognitively or physically impaired persons. A computerized battery of driving-related sensory-motor and cognitive tests (SMCTests) has been developed, comprising tests of visuoperception, visuomotor ability, complex attention, visual search, decision making, impulse control, planning, and divided attention. Construct validity analysis was conducted in 60 normal, healthy subjects and showed that, overall, the novel cognitive tests assessed cognitive functions similar to a set of standard neuropsychological tests. The novel tests were found to have greater perceived face validity for predicting on-road driving ability than was found in the equivalent standard tests. Test-retest stability and reliability of SMCTests measures, as well as correlations between SMCTests and on-road driving, were determined in a subset of 12 subjects. The majority of test measures were stable and reliable across two sessions, and significant correlations were found between on-road driving scores and measures from ballistic movement, footbrake reaction, hand-control reaction, and complex attention. The substantial face validity, construct validity, stability, and reliability of SMCTests, together with the battery's level of correlation with on-road driving in normal subjects, strengthen our confidence in the ability of SMCTests to detect and identify sensory-motor and cognitive deficits related to unsafe driving and increased risk of accidents.

  3. Electrical Vehicle Batteries Testing in a Distribution Network Using Sustainable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forero Camacho, Oscar Mauricio; Nørgård, Per Bromand; Rao, Ningling

    2014-01-01

    EV technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Many different designs and choices of technologies have been pursued by the automotive OEMs, battery industry and EV research centers. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend, there is ......EV technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Many different designs and choices of technologies have been pursued by the automotive OEMs, battery industry and EV research centers. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend...

  4. Normative data for a battery of free recall, cued recall and recognition tests in the elderly Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccia, Emanuele; Gamboz, Nadia; Brandimonte, Maria A

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to provide normative data on a large sample of the elderly Italian population (N = 464; range of age = 49-94; range of education = 3-25) on both the word and the picture versions of a battery of free recall, cued recall, and recognition tests of memory. Results from multiple regression analyses showed that both age and education were significant predictors of performance. Therefore, norms were calculated taking into account these demographic variables. The availability of normative data based on a large sample will allow a more reliable use of the battery for clinical assessment in Italian-speaking dementia population.

  5. Effect of pretreatment female lactating rats with albendazole on preventing developmental and neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin in suckling pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Shindala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluated the effect of treated female lactating rats with enrofloxacin alone and itsinteraction with albendazole on the occurrence of developmental and neurobehavioral toxicity in suckling pups by usingpercentage of survival of pups to weaning as well as neurobehavioral test (surface righting reflex. The exposure of sucklingpups to enrofloxacin alone through the milk caused sever toxic effects manifested by significant decrease in percentage ofsurvival in pups to weaning to (0% as result from death all pups from dams were treated with enrofloxacin at high dose (480mg/kg, i.m. during the first 5 days of lactation. Whereas, treated lactating female rats with albendazole at (300 mg/kg, orally,1 hour before enrofloxacin (480 mg/kg, i.m. during the first 5 days of lactation protected suckling pups from developmentaltoxic effects of enrofloxacin which mainly appeared as a significant increase in percentage of survival of pups to 100% asresult from survival all suckling pups to weaning, accompanied by preventing the neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin insuckling pups manifested by highly significant decreased response time to surface righting reflex to (2.64 ± 0.57 minuets inthe postnatal day 3 in compared with pups from dams that treated with enrofloxacin alone which reached to (15.82 ± 0.27minuets. In conclusion, our results suggest that pretreatment of female lactating rats with albendazole protecte suckling pupsfrom developme-ntal and neurobehavioral toxicity of enrofloxacin.

  6. Depression during gestation in adolescent mothers interferes with neonatal neurobehavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carvalho de Moraes Barros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the neurobehavior of neonates born to adolescent mothers with and without depression during gestation. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included healthy term neonates born to adolescent mothers with untreated depression during gestation, without exposure to legal or illicit drugs, and compared them with infants born to adolescent mothers without psychiatric disorders. Maternal psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1 and neonatal neurobehavior by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS at 24 to 72 hours of life. Neurobehavioral outcomes were analyzed by ANOVA adjusted for confounders. Results: 37 infants born to mothers with depression during gestation were compared to 332 infants born to mothers without psychiatric disorders. Infants of mothers with depression had smaller head circumferences. Significant interactions of maternal depression and male gender, gestational age > 40 weeks, regional anesthesia during delivery, vaginal delivery, and infant head circumference ≥ 34 cm were found. Worse performance was noted in the following neonatal neurobehavioral parameters: arousal, excitability, lethargy, hypotonicity, and signs of stress and abstinence. Conclusion: Infants born to adolescent mothers with depression exhibit some behavioral changes in the first days of life. These changes are associated with infant sex, gestational age, type of anesthesia, mode of delivery, and head circumference.

  7. The Revised Neurobehavioral Severity Scale (NSS-R) for Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Angela M; Barry, Erin S; Mountney, Andrea; Shear, Deborah; Tortella, Frank; Grunberg, Neil E

    2016-04-08

    Motor and sensory deficits are common following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although rodent models provide valuable insight into the biological and functional outcomes of TBI, the success of translational research is critically dependent upon proper selection of sensitive, reliable, and reproducible assessments. Published literature includes various observational scales designed to evaluate post-injury functionality; however, the heterogeneity in TBI location, severity, and symptomology can complicate behavioral assessments. The importance of choosing behavioral outcomes that can be reliably and objectively quantified in an efficient manner is becoming increasingly important. The Revised Neurobehavioral Severity Scale (NSS-R) is a continuous series of specific, sensitive, and standardized observational tests that evaluate balance, motor coordination, and sensorimotor reflexes in rodents. The tasks follow a specific order designed to minimize interference: balance, landing, tail raise, dragging, righting reflex, ear reflex, eye reflex, sound reflex, tail pinch, and hindpaw pinch. The NSS-R has proven to be a reliable method differentiating brain-injured rodents from non-brain-injured rodents across many brain injury models. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Report of NPSAT1 Battery Thermal Contact Resistance Testing, Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    interface through use of the Siemens NX I-DEAS thermal model generator ( TMG ) software. Once the orbital parameters are defined, the appropriate interface...I-DEAS TMG software. For the case when the battery is mounted to the boundary condition plate an additional ‘null’ element was created to work

  9. Evaluation of animal models of neurobehavioral disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordquist Rebecca E

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal models play a central role in all areas of biomedical research. The process of animal model building, development and evaluation has rarely been addressed systematically, despite the long history of using animal models in the investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders and behavioral dysfunctions. An iterative, multi-stage trajectory for developing animal models and assessing their quality is proposed. The process starts with defining the purpose(s of the model, preferentially based on hypotheses about brain-behavior relationships. Then, the model is developed and tested. The evaluation of the model takes scientific and ethical criteria into consideration. Model development requires a multidisciplinary approach. Preclinical and clinical experts should establish a set of scientific criteria, which a model must meet. The scientific evaluation consists of assessing the replicability/reliability, predictive, construct and external validity/generalizability, and relevance of the model. We emphasize the role of (systematic and extended replications in the course of the validation process. One may apply a multiple-tiered 'replication battery' to estimate the reliability/replicability, validity, and generalizability of result. Compromised welfare is inherent in many deficiency models in animals. Unfortunately, 'animal welfare' is a vaguely defined concept, making it difficult to establish exact evaluation criteria. Weighing the animal's welfare and considerations as to whether action is indicated to reduce the discomfort must accompany the scientific evaluation at any stage of the model building and evaluation process. Animal model building should be discontinued if the model does not meet the preset scientific criteria, or when animal welfare is severely compromised. The application of the evaluation procedure is exemplified using the rat with neonatal hippocampal lesion as a proposed model of schizophrenia. In a manner congruent to

  10. Reliability and validity of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based test battery for assessing cognition across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy Lawson; Miller, Terissa M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based battery of tests measuring short-term memory, long-term memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, visual processing, as well as auditory processing and word attack skills. This study included 2,737 participants aged 5-85 years. A series of studies was conducted to examine the validity and reliability using the test performance of the entire norming group and several subgroups. The evaluation of the technical properties of the test battery included content validation by subject matter experts, item analysis and coefficient alpha, test-retest reliability, split-half reliability, and analysis of concurrent validity with the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement. Results indicated strong sources of evidence of validity and reliability for the test, including internal consistency reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.98, test-retest reliability coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 0.91, split-half reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.91, and concurrent validity coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.93. The Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills-2 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing cognition in the general population across the lifespan.

  11. Executive functioning in three groups of pupils in D-KEFS: Selected issues in adapting the test battery for Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjenčík Ján

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the adaptation of a D-KEFS test battery for Slovakia. Drawing on concrete examples, it describes and illustrates the key issues relating to the transfer of test items from one socio-cultural environment to another. The standardisation sample of the population of Slovak pupils in the fourth year of primary school included 250 children with an average age of 9.7 years. The two comparative samples of the same age range were analysed at the same time. They included pupils from classes for gifted children (n = 55 and Roma children from socially disadvantaging environments (n = 50.

  12. Test-retest reliability of the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégel, Valentin; Verga, Laura; Benoit, Charles-Etienne; Kotz, Sonja A; Bella, Simone Dalla

    2018-04-27

    Perceptual and sensorimotor timing skills can be comprehensively assessed with the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA). The battery has been used for testing rhythmic skills in healthy adults and patient populations (e.g., with Parkinson disease), showing sensitivity to timing and rhythm deficits. Here we assessed the test-retest reliability of the BAASTA in 20 healthy adults. Participants were tested twice with the BAASTA, implemented on a tablet interface, with a 2-week interval. They completed 4 perceptual tasks, namely, duration discrimination, anisochrony detection with tones and music, and the Beat Alignment Test (BAT). Moreover, they completed motor tasks via finger tapping, including unpaced and paced tapping with tones and music, synchronization-continuation, and adaptive tapping to a sequence with a tempo change. Despite high variability among individuals, the results showed stable test-retest reliability in most tasks. A slight but significant improvement from test to retest was found in tapping with music, which may reflect a learning effect. In general, the BAASTA was found a reliable tool for evaluating timing and rhythm skills. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  14. Neurobehavioral toxicity of cadmium sulfate to the planarian Dugesia dorotocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebe, E.; Schaeffer, D.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The authors are developing bioassays which use planarians (free-living platyhelminthes) for the rapid determination of various types of toxicity, including acute mortality, tumorigenicity, and short-term neurobehavioral responses. Their motivation for using these animals is due to their importance as components of the aquatic ecology of unpolluted streams their sensitivity to low concentrations of environmental toxicants and the presence of a sensitive neurological system with a true brain which allows for complex social behavior. A previous paper described the results of a neurobehavioral bioassay using phenol in a crossover study. This paper reports a similar crossover study using cadmium sulfate.

  15. Developmental and neurobehavioral effects of perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Norio; Nakai, Kunihiko; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Ohba, Takashi; Suzuki, Keita; Kameo, Satomi; Satoh, Chieko; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    Because behavioral deficits associated with gestational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been a concern, we studied the developmental and neurobehavioral effects of perinatal exposure to Aroclor 1254 (A1254), a commercial mixture of PCBs, in mice. The PCB mixture (A1254; 0, 6, 18, and 54 mg/kg body weight) was administered to pregnant mice (C57BL/6Cr) every 3 days by gavage from gestational day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 20. Compared with the control, treatment with A1254 did not alter the maternal body weight during the gestation and lactation periods. The body weight of the offspring did not differ among treatments. To assess the effects on offspring following such exposure, physical and neurobehavioral development (i.e., pinna detachment, hair growth, eye opening, incisor eruption, grasp reflex, righting reflex, walking, negative geotaxis, and cliff avoidance) was observed before weaning. At PND 7, poor adult-like responses in negative geotaxis were observed in all exposed groups. When the offspring were at 8-week old, the PCB-treated (18 mg/kg body weight) mice showed a decreased walking speed in the open-field test, and a prolonged time to reach the platform in the water maze test. Spontaneous locomotion activity was not affected by PCB exposure at 9 weeks . These results showed that perinatal exposure to PCBs produces several behavioral alterations in mice. Although dose-dependent changes were not observed, the neurobehavioral effects such as a decreased walking speed in the open-field test and a prolonged time to reach the platform in the water maze test remained in adulthood after the seeming recovery from the transient delay in development before weaning.

  16. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Charge efficiencies were determined by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state of charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  17. Transitioning the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA) to Operational Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Shipboard (USS George Washington during high seas in the Western Pacific) TABLE I. DANA Test Batteries* DANA Rapid (5 Minutes) DANA Brief (15 Minutes) DANA...approximately 3,000 m) — Desert (U.S. Marine Corps Desert Warfare Training Center—Twentynine Palms, CA, in the summer) — Shipboard (USS George Washington...Halpern, E. L., Reeves, D., & Daniel, J. C. Future Directions of Neuropsychological Assessment in Sports Concussion. In, Bleiberg, J., Cantor , I. V

  18. Exposure to Enriched Environment Decreases Neurobehavioral Deficits Induced by Neonatal Glutamate Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kiss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment is a popular strategy to enhance motor and cognitive performance and to counteract the effects of various harmful stimuli. The protective effects of enriched environment have been shown in traumatic, ischemic and toxic nervous system lesions. Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a commonly used taste enhancer causing excitotoxic effects when given in newborn animals. We have previously demonstrated that MSG leads to a delay in neurobehavioral development, as shown by the delayed appearance of neurological reflexes and maturation of motor coordination. In the present study we aimed at investigating whether environmental enrichment is able to decrease the neurobehavioral delay caused by neonatal MSG treatment. Newborn pups were treated with MSG subcutaneously on postnatal days 1, 5 and 9. For environmental enrichment, we placed rats in larger cages, supplemented with different toys that were altered daily. Normal control and enriched control rats received saline treatment only. Physical parameters such as weight, day of eye opening, incisor eruption and ear unfolding were recorded. Animals were observed for appearance of reflexes such as negative geotaxis, righting reflexes, fore- and hindlimb grasp, fore- and hindlimb placing, sensory reflexes and gait. In cases of negative geotaxis, surface righting and gait, the time to perform the reflex was also recorded daily. For examining motor coordination, we performed grid walking, footfault, rope suspension, rota-rod, inclined board and walk initiation tests. We found that enriched environment alone did not lead to marked alterations in the course of development. On the other hand, MSG treatment caused a slight delay in reflex development and a pronounced delay in weight gain and motor coordination maturation. This delay in most signs and tests could be reversed by enriched environment: MSG-treated pups kept under enriched conditions showed no weight retardation, no reflex delay in

  19. A preclinical cognitive test battery to parallel the National Institute of Health Toolbox in humans: bridging the translational gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snigdha, Shikha; Milgram, Norton W; Willis, Sherry L; Albert, Marylin; Weintraub, S; Fortin, Norbert J; Cotman, Carl W

    2013-07-01

    A major goal of animal research is to identify interventions that can promote successful aging and delay or reverse age-related cognitive decline in humans. Recent advances in standardizing cognitive assessment tools for humans have the potential to bring preclinical work closer to human research in aging and Alzheimer's disease. The National Institute of Health (NIH) has led an initiative to develop a comprehensive Toolbox for Neurologic Behavioral Function (NIH Toolbox) to evaluate cognitive, motor, sensory and emotional function for use in epidemiologic and clinical studies spanning 3 to 85 years of age. This paper aims to analyze the strengths and limitations of animal behavioral tests that can be used to parallel those in the NIH Toolbox. We conclude that there are several paradigms available to define a preclinical battery that parallels the NIH Toolbox. We also suggest areas in which new tests may benefit the development of a comprehensive preclinical test battery for assessment of cognitive function in animal models of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Carpet Layer (ret. tr.) 7-59.220; Linoleum Layer (const.; ret. tr.) 5-32.732--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  1. Asparagus Sorter (agric.; can. & preserv.; whole tr.) 529.687 (8-04.10)--Technical Report on Development of USES Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  2. Ornamental-Iron Worker (const.) 4-84.020; Structural-Steel Worker (const.) 4-84-010--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  3. Pressman (rubber goods; rubber tire & tube) 559.885; Pressman, O-Rings (rubber goods) 559.885--Technical Report on Development of the USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  4. Test-retest reliability of evoked BOLD signals from a cognitive-emotive fMRI test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plichta, Michael M; Schwarz, Adam J; Grimm, Oliver; Morgen, Katrin; Mier, Daniela; Haddad, Leila; Gerdes, Antje B M; Sauer, Carina; Tost, Heike; Esslinger, Christine; Colman, Peter; Wilson, Frederick; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2012-04-15

    Even more than in cognitive research applications, moving fMRI to the clinic and the drug development process requires the generation of stable and reliable signal changes. The performance characteristics of the fMRI paradigm constrain experimental power and may require different study designs (e.g., crossover vs. parallel groups), yet fMRI reliability characteristics can be strongly dependent on the nature of the fMRI task. The present study investigated both within-subject and group-level reliability of a combined three-task fMRI battery targeting three systems of wide applicability in clinical and cognitive neuroscience: an emotional (face matching), a motivational (monetary reward anticipation) and a cognitive (n-back working memory) task. A group of 25 young, healthy volunteers were scanned twice on a 3T MRI scanner with a mean test-retest interval of 14.6 days. FMRI reliability was quantified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) applied at three different levels ranging from a global to a localized and fine spatial scale: (1) reliability of group-level activation maps over the whole brain and within targeted regions of interest (ROIs); (2) within-subject reliability of ROI-mean amplitudes and (3) within-subject reliability of individual voxels in the target ROIs. Results showed robust evoked activation of all three tasks in their respective target regions (emotional task=amygdala; motivational task=ventral striatum; cognitive task=right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortices) with high effect sizes (ES) of ROI-mean summary values (ES=1.11-1.44 for the faces task, 0.96-1.43 for the reward task, 0.83-2.58 for the n-back task). Reliability of group level activation was excellent for all three tasks with ICCs of 0.89-0.98 at the whole brain level and 0.66-0.97 within target ROIs. Within-subject reliability of ROI-mean amplitudes across sessions was fair to good for the reward task (ICCs=0.56-0.62) and, dependent on the particular ROI

  5. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A.O.; Hockgeiger, E. [BMW Group, Powertrain Development, Energy Storage, Hufelandstrasse 4, 80788 Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-05-01

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 C and at 3 C battery temperature. (author)

  6. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  7. MR brain volumetric measurements are predictive of neurobehavioral impairment in the HIV-1 transgenic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Rafael; Muthusamy, Siva; Wakim, Paul G; Sinharay, Sanhita; Lentz, Margaret R; Reid, William C; Hammoud, Dima A

    2018-01-01

    HIV infection is known to be associated with brain volume loss, even in optimally treated patients. In this study, we assessed whether dynamic brain volume changes over time are predictive of neurobehavorial performance in the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat, a model of treated HIV-positive patients. Cross-sectional brain MRI imaging was first performed comparing Tg and wild type (WT) rats at 3 and 19 months of age. Longitudinal MRI and neurobehavioral testing of another group of Tg and WT rats was then performed from 5 to 23 weeks of age. Whole brain and subregional image segmentation was used to assess the rate of brain growth over time. We used repeated-measures mixed models to assess differences in brain volumes and to establish how predictive the volume differences are of specific neurobehavioral deficits. Cross-sectional imaging showed smaller whole brain volumes in Tg compared to WT rats at 3 and at 19 months of age. Longitudinally, Tg brain volumes were smaller than age-matched WT rats at all time points, starting as early as 5 weeks of age. The Tg striatal growth rate delay between 5 and 9 weeks of age was greater than that of the whole brain. Striatal volume in combination with genotype was the most predictive of rota-rod scores and in combination with genotype and age was the most predictive of total exploratory activity scores in the Tg rats. The disproportionately delayed striatal growth compared to whole brain between 5 and 9 weeks of age and the role of striatal volume in predicting neurobehavioral deficits suggest an important role of the dopaminergic system in HIV associated neuropathology. This might explain problems with motor coordination and executive decisions in this animal model. Smaller brain and subregional volumes and neurobehavioral deficits were seen as early as 5 weeks of age, suggesting an early brain insult in the Tg rat. Neuroprotective therapy testing in this model should thus target this early stage of development, before brain

  8. Reliability and validity of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based test battery for assessing cognition across the lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore AL

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Amy Lawson Moore, Terissa M Miller Gibson Institute of Cognitive Research, Colorado Springs, CO, USA Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based battery of tests measuring short-term memory, long-term memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, visual processing, as well as auditory processing and word attack skills.Methods: This study included 2,737 participants aged 5–85 years. A series of studies was conducted to examine the validity and reliability using the test performance of the entire norming group and several subgroups. The evaluation of the technical properties of the test battery included content validation by subject matter experts, item analysis and coefficient alpha, test–retest reliability, split-half reliability, and analysis of concurrent validity with the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement.Results: Results indicated strong sources of evidence of validity and reliability for the test, including internal consistency reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.98, test–retest reliability coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 0.91, split-half reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.91, and concurrent validity coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.93.Conclusion: The Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills-2 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing cognition in the general population across the lifespan. Keywords: testing, cognitive skills, memory, processing speed, visual processing, auditory processing

  9. Norms for a neuropsychological test battery to diagnose dementia in the elderly: A study from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To pilot a neuropsychological battery for diagnosing dementia and provide normative scores in an elderly Sri Lankan sample. Materials and Methods: Consecutive subjects over the age of 60 yrs were administered tests assessing the individual domains of language, verbal episodic memory, visual perceptuospatial skills and executive functions in the Sinhala language. Results: There were a total of 230 subjects in the final sample. The mean age of the entire sample was 69 years, mean education level was 12 years and the sample comprised 53% female. One-month test-retest reliability ranged from 0.71 to 0.85 for the various tests. Most tests were significantly influenced by age and education level but not gender. The exceptions to this were some language subtests (repetition, grammar comprehension and word picture matching and two tests of executive functioning (maze completion and alternate target cancellation, which were uninfluenced by age. The subtests where ceiling performance was attained by almost all subjects were repetition, grammar comprehension and word picture matching from the language domain, dot position discrimination from the visuospatial domain and maze completion test from the executive function domain. Scores for various tests after stratifying subjects by age and educational level are given. Conclusions: The tests were well received and could provide a basis for cognitive profiling in similar settings elsewhere.

  10. Energy Management of a Hybrid AC–DC Micro-Grid Based on a Battery Testing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy Recovery Battery Testing Systems (ERBTS plays an important role in battery manufacture. The conventional ERBTS configuration contains a fundamental transformer, and a bidirectional Direct Current (DC–DC and Alternating Current (AC–DC converter. All ERBTS are connected in parallel, thus constituting a special and complicated AC micro-grid system. Aiming at addressing their low energy recovery efficiency, complex grid-connected control algorithm issues for islanded detection, and complicated power circuit topology issues, a hierarchical DC-link voltage hybrid AC–DC micro-grid that contains composite energy storing devices is proposed. Moreover, an energy management optimal scheme for the proposed scheme is put forward. The system configuration of the proposed scheme is described in detail. Compared to the conventional scheme, the proposed scheme has the merits of simplified power circuit topology, no need for phase synchronous control, and much higher energy recovery efficiency and reliability. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed technique is verified through numerous experimental results.

  11. Content Validity Index and Intra- and Inter-Rater Reliability of a New Muscle Strength/Endurance Test Battery for Swedish Soldiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Larsson

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the content validity of commonly used muscle performance tests in military personnel and to investigate the reliability of a proposed test battery. For the content validity investigation, thirty selected tests were those described in the literature and/or commonly used in the Nordic and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO countries. Nine selected experts rated, on a four-point Likert scale, the relevance of these tests in relation to five different work tasks: lifting, carrying equipment on the body or in the hands, climbing, and digging. Thereafter, a content validity index (CVI was calculated for each work task. The result showed excellent CVI (≥0.78 for sixteen tests, which comprised of one or more of the military work tasks. Three of the tests; the functional lower-limb loading test (the Ranger test, dead-lift with kettlebells, and back extension, showed excellent content validity for four of the work tasks. For the development of a new muscle strength/endurance test battery, these three tests were further supplemented with two other tests, namely, the chins and side-bridge test. The inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC2,1 0.99 for all five tests. The intra-rater reliability was good to high (ICC3,1 0.82-0.96 with an acceptable standard error of mean (SEM, except for the side-bridge test (SEM%>15. Thus, the final suggested test battery for a valid and reliable evaluation of soldiers' muscle performance comprised the following four tests; the Ranger test, dead-lift with kettlebells, chins, and back extension test. The criterion-related validity of the test battery should be further evaluated for soldiers exposed to varying physical workload.

  12. Environmental enrichment decreases asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Peter; Vadasz, Gyongyver; Kiss-Illes, Blanka; Horvath, Gabor; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Koppan, Miklos

    2013-11-13

    Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia.

  13. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  14. Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional thin-film lithium batteries for a variety of technological applications. These batteries have high essentially any size and shape. Recently, Teledyne licensed this technology from ORNL to make batteries for

  15. Test Series 3: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E C and D LCU-13 battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1985-03-01

    This report, the third in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of 10-year old lead-calcium C and D LCU-13 cells from the North Anna Nuclear Power Station operated by the Virginia Electric and Power Company. The C and D cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, both rigidly and loosely mounted; and multicell (three-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of seven electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations. None of the seven cells failed in the first stage tests during the actual seismic test up to the 1.5 g ZPAs imposed. Subsequent discharge capacity tests showed that while these cells suffered some loss of discharge capacity, all cells could deliver the accepted standard of 80% of their rated electrical capacity for 3 hours. When two of the same cells were exposed to the second stage, higher g-level tests, both cells again provided instantaneous uninterrupted power. Subsequent capacity tests showed both of these cells to have capacities well below the accepted standard of 80%. Four of the cells were disassembled for examination and metallurgical analyses. The examination showed that all plates and separators were in very good condition

  16. Research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated in a test-bed bus. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-30

    This project, the research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated into test-bed buses, began as a multi-phase U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project in 1989. Phase I had a goal of developing two competing half-scale (25 kW) brassboard phosphoric acid fuel cell systems. An air-cooled and a liquid-cooled fuel cell system were developed and tested to verify the concept of using a fuel cell and a battery in a hybrid configuration wherein the fuel cell supplies the average power required for operating the vehicle and a battery supplies the `surge` or excess power required for acceleration and hill-climbing. Work done in Phase I determined that the liquid-cooled system offered higher efficiency.

  17. Evaluating and treating neurobehavioral symptoms in professional American football players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possin, Katherine L.; Hess, Christopher P.; Huang, Eric J.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Nolan, Amber L.; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I.; Ghosh, Pia M.; Lanata, Serggio; Merrilees, Jennifer; Kramer, Joel H.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Miller, Bruce L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Rabinovici, Gil D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the aftermath of multiple high-profile cases of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional American football players, physicians in clinical practice are likely to face an increasing number of retired football players seeking evaluation for chronic neurobehavioral symptoms. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of these patients are sparse. Clinical criteria for a diagnosis of CTE are under development. The contribution of CTE vs other neuropathologies to neurobehavioral symptoms in these players remains unclear. Here we describe the experience of our academic memory clinic in evaluating and treating a series of 14 self-referred symptomatic players. Our aim is to raise awareness in the neurology community regarding the different clinical phenotypes, idiosyncratic but potentially treatable symptoms, and the spectrum of underlying neuropathologies in these players. PMID:26336629

  18. Functional and operational requirements document : building 1012, Battery and Energy Storage Device Test Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, William H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report provides an overview of information, prior studies, and analyses relevant to the development of functional and operational requirements for electrochemical testing of batteries and energy storage devices carried out by Sandia Organization 2546, Advanced Power Sources R&D. Electrochemical operations for this group are scheduled to transition from Sandia Building 894 to a new Building located in Sandia TA-II referred to as Building 1012. This report also provides background on select design considerations and identifies the Safety Goals, Stakeholder Objectives, and Design Objectives required by the Sandia Design Team to develop the Performance Criteria necessary to the design of Building 1012. This document recognizes the Architecture-Engineering (A-E) Team as the primary design entity. Where safety considerations are identified, suggestions are provided to provide context for the corresponding operational requirement(s).

  19. Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments using the species sensitivity distribution from a soil organisms test battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domene, Xavier; Ramirez, Wilson; Mattana, Stefania; Alcaniz, Josep Maria; Andres, Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Safe amendment rates (the predicted no-effect concentration or PNEC) of seven organic wastes were estimated from the species sensitivity distribution of a battery of soil biota tests and compared with different realistic amendment scenarios (different predicted environmental concentrations or PEC). None of the wastes was expected to exert noxious effects on soil biota if applied according either to the usual maximum amendment rates in Europe or phosphorus demands of crops (below 2 tonnes DM ha -1 ). However, some of the wastes might be problematic if applied according to nitrogen demands of crops (above 2 tonnes DM ha -1 ). Ammonium content and organic matter stability of the studied wastes are the most influential determinants of the maximum amendment rates derived in this study, but not pollutant burden. This finding indicates the need to stabilize wastes prior to their reuse in soils in order to avoid short-term impacts on soil communities. - Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments

  20. The Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT): a battery for assessing beat perception and production and their dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shinya; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Humans have the abilities to perceive, produce, and synchronize with a musical beat, yet there are widespread individual differences. To investigate these abilities and to determine if a dissociation between beat perception and production exists, we developed the Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT), a new battery that assesses beat perception and production abilities. H-BAT consists of four subtests: (1) music tapping test (MTT), (2) beat saliency test (BST), (3) beat interval test (BIT), and (4) beat finding and interval test (BFIT). MTT measures the degree of tapping synchronization with the beat of music, whereas BST, BIT, and BFIT measure perception and production thresholds via psychophysical adaptive stair-case methods. We administered the H-BAT on thirty individuals and investigated the performance distribution across these individuals in each subtest. There was a wide distribution in individual abilities to tap in synchrony with the beat of music during the MTT. The degree of synchronization consistency was negatively correlated with thresholds in the BST, BIT, and BFIT: a lower degree of synchronization was associated with higher perception and production thresholds. H-BAT can be a useful tool in determining an individual's ability to perceive and produce a beat within a single session. PMID:24324421

  1. The Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT): a battery for assessing beat perception and production and their dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shinya; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Humans have the abilities to perceive, produce, and synchronize with a musical beat, yet there are widespread individual differences. To investigate these abilities and to determine if a dissociation between beat perception and production exists, we developed the Harvard Beat Assessment Test (H-BAT), a new battery that assesses beat perception and production abilities. H-BAT consists of four subtests: (1) music tapping test (MTT), (2) beat saliency test (BST), (3) beat interval test (BIT), and (4) beat finding and interval test (BFIT). MTT measures the degree of tapping synchronization with the beat of music, whereas BST, BIT, and BFIT measure perception and production thresholds via psychophysical adaptive stair-case methods. We administered the H-BAT on thirty individuals and investigated the performance distribution across these individuals in each subtest. There was a wide distribution in individual abilities to tap in synchrony with the beat of music during the MTT. The degree of synchronization consistency was negatively correlated with thresholds in the BST, BIT, and BFIT: a lower degree of synchronization was associated with higher perception and production thresholds. H-BAT can be a useful tool in determining an individual's ability to perceive and produce a beat within a single session.

  2. Animal Models of Virus-Induced Neurobehavioral Sequelae: Recent Advances, Methodological Issues, and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bortolato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Converging lines of clinical and epidemiological evidence suggest that viral infections in early developmental stages may be a causal factor in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism-spectrum disorders. This etiological link, however, remains controversial in view of the lack of consistent and reproducible associations between viruses and mental illness. Animal models of virus-induced neurobehavioral disturbances afford powerful tools to test etiological hypotheses and explore pathophysiological mechanisms. Prenatal or neonatal inoculations of neurotropic agents (such as herpes-, influenza-, and retroviruses in rodents result in a broad spectrum of long-term alterations reminiscent of psychiatric abnormalities. Nevertheless, the complexity of these sequelae often poses methodological and interpretational challenges and thwarts their characterization. The recent conceptual advancements in psychiatric nosology and behavioral science may help determine new heuristic criteria to enhance the translational value of these models. A particularly critical issue is the identification of intermediate phenotypes, defined as quantifiable factors representing single neurochemical, neuropsychological, or neuroanatomical aspects of a diagnostic category. In this paper, we examine how the employment of these novel concepts may lead to new methodological refinements in the study of virus-induced neurobehavioral sequelae through animal models.

  3. Effects of melatonin on aluminium-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allagui, M S; Feriani, A; Saoudi, M; Badraoui, R; Bouoni, Z; Nciri, R; Murat, J C; Elfeki, A

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of melatonin (Mel) against aluminium-induced neurodegenerative changes in aging Wistar rats (24-28months old). Herein, aluminium chloride (AlCl3) (50mg/kg BW/day) was administered by gavage, and melatonin (Mel) was co-administered to a group of Al-treated rats by an intra-peritoneal injection at a daily dose of 10mg/kg BW for four months. The findings revealed that aluminium administration induced a significant decrease in body weight associated with marked mortality for the old group of rats, which was more pronounced in old Al-treated rats. Behavioural alterations were assessed by 'open fields', 'elevated plus maze' and 'Radial 8-arms maze' tests. The results demonstrated that Mel co-administration alleviated neurobehavioral changes in both old and old Al-treated rats. Melatonin was noted to play a good neuroprotective role, reducing lipid peroxidation (TBARs), and enhancing enzymatic (SOD, CAT and GPx) activities in the brain organs of old control and old Al-treated rats. Mel treatment also reversed the decrease of AChE activity in the brain tissues, which was confirmed by histological sections. Overall, the results showed that Mel administration can induce beneficial effects for the treatment of Al-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in the central nervous system (CNS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changing delay discounting in the light of the competing neurobehavioral decision systems theory: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Jarmolowicz, David P; Mueller, E Terry; Bickel, Warren K

    2013-01-01

    Excessively devaluing delayed reinforcers co-occurs with a wide variety of clinical conditions such as drug dependence, obesity, and excessive gambling. If excessive delay discounting is a trans-disease process that underlies the choice behavior leading to these and other negative health conditions, efforts to change an individual's discount rate are arguably important. Although discount rate is often regarded as a relatively stable trait, descriptions of interventions and environmental manipulations that successfully alter discount rate have begun to appear in the literature. In this review, we compare published examples of procedures that change discount rate and classify them into categories of procedures, including therapeutic interventions, direct manipulation of the executive decision-making system, framing effects, physiological state effects, and acute drug effects. These changes in discount rate are interpreted from the perspective of the competing neurobehavioral decision systems theory, which describes a combination of neurological and behavioral processes that account for delay discounting. We also suggest future directions that researchers could take to identify the mechanistic processes that allow for changes in discount rate and to test whether the competing neurobehavioral decision systems view of delay discounting is correct. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. Evaluation of a new computerized psychometric test battery: Effects of zolpidem and caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Raveendranadh Pilli; MUR Naidu; Usharani Pingali; J C Shobha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of centrally active drugs using a new indigenously developed automated psychometric test system and compare the results with that obtained using pencil- and paper-based techniques. Materials and Methods: The tests were standardized in 24 healthy participants. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by performing the tests by a single experimenter on two occasions (interday reproducibility). To evaluate the sensitivity of the tests, the effects of...

  6. The Facial Expression Action Stimulus Test. A test battery for the assessment of face memory, face and object perception, configuration processing and facial expression recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice eDe Gelder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to assess face perception skills. In this study, we describe a novel task battery FEAST (Facial Expression Action Stimulus Test developed to test recognition of identity and expressions of human faces as well as stimulus control categories. The FEAST consists of a neutral and emotional face memory task, a face and object identity matching task, a face and house part-to-whole matching task, and a human and animal facial expression matching task. The identity and part-to-whole matching tasks contain both upright and inverted conditions. The results provide reference data of a healthy sample of controls in two age groups for future users of the FEAST.

  7. Dynamic Circadian Modulation in a Biomathematical Model for the Effects of Sleep and Sleep Loss on Waking Neurobehavioral Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Peter; Kalachev, Leonid V.; Mollicone, Daniel J.; Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David F.; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental observations and theoretical advances have indicated that the homeostatic equilibrium for sleep/wake regulation—and thereby sensitivity to neurobehavioral impairment from sleep loss—is modulated by prior sleep/wake history. This phenomenon was predicted by a biomathematical model developed to explain changes in neurobehavioral performance across days in laboratory studies of total sleep deprivation and sustained sleep restriction. The present paper focuses on the dynamics of neurobehavioral performance within days in this biomathematical model of fatigue. Without increasing the number of model parameters, the model was updated by incorporating time-dependence in the amplitude of the circadian modulation of performance. The updated model was calibrated using a large dataset from three laboratory experiments on psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) performance, under conditions of sleep loss and circadian misalignment; and validated using another large dataset from three different laboratory experiments. The time-dependence of circadian amplitude resulted in improved goodness-of-fit in night shift schedules, nap sleep scenarios, and recovery from prior sleep loss. The updated model predicts that the homeostatic equilibrium for sleep/wake regulation—and thus sensitivity to sleep loss—depends not only on the duration but also on the circadian timing of prior sleep. This novel theoretical insight has important implications for predicting operator alertness during work schedules involving circadian misalignment such as night shift work. Citation: McCauley P; Kalachev LV; Mollicone DJ; Banks S; Dinges DF; Van Dongen HPA. Dynamic circadian modulation in a biomathematical model for the effects of sleep and sleep loss on waking neurobehavioral performance. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1987-1997. PMID:24293775

  8. Dynamic circadian modulation in a biomathematical model for the effects of sleep and sleep loss on waking neurobehavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Peter; Kalachev, Leonid V; Mollicone, Daniel J; Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David F; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2013-12-01

    Recent experimental observations and theoretical advances have indicated that the homeostatic equilibrium for sleep/wake regulation--and thereby sensitivity to neurobehavioral impairment from sleep loss--is modulated by prior sleep/wake history. This phenomenon was predicted by a biomathematical model developed to explain changes in neurobehavioral performance across days in laboratory studies of total sleep deprivation and sustained sleep restriction. The present paper focuses on the dynamics of neurobehavioral performance within days in this biomathematical model of fatigue. Without increasing the number of model parameters, the model was updated by incorporating time-dependence in the amplitude of the circadian modulation of performance. The updated model was calibrated using a large dataset from three laboratory experiments on psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) performance, under conditions of sleep loss and circadian misalignment; and validated using another large dataset from three different laboratory experiments. The time-dependence of circadian amplitude resulted in improved goodness-of-fit in night shift schedules, nap sleep scenarios, and recovery from prior sleep loss. The updated model predicts that the homeostatic equilibrium for sleep/wake regulation--and thus sensitivity to sleep loss--depends not only on the duration but also on the circadian timing of prior sleep. This novel theoretical insight has important implications for predicting operator alertness during work schedules involving circadian misalignment such as night shift work.

  9. A music quality rating test battery for cochlear implant users to compare the FSP and HDCIS strategies for music appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Valerie; Winter, Philip; Anderson, Ilona; Sucher, Catherine

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a music quality rating test battery (MQRTB) and pilot test it by comparing appraisal ratings from cochlear implant (CI) recipients using the fine-structure processing (FSP) and high-definition continuous interleaved sampling (HDCIS) speech processing strategies. The development of the MQRTB involved three stages: (1) Selection of test items for the MQRTB; (2) Verification of its length and complexity with normally-hearing individuals; and (3) Pilot testing with CI recipients. Part 1 involved 65 adult listeners, Part 2 involved 10 normally-hearing adults, and Part 3 involved five adult MED-EL CI recipients. The MQRTB consisted of ten songs, with ratings made on scales assessing pleasantness, naturalness, richness, fullness, sharpness, and roughness. Results of the pilot study, which compared FSP and HDCIS for music, indicated that acclimatization to a strategy had a significant effect on ratings (p genre on ratings. Overall the results suggest that the use of FSP as the default strategy for MED-EL recipients would have a positive effect on music appreciation, and that the MQRTB is an effective tool for assessing music sound quality.

  10. Evaluation of a new computerized psychometric test battery: Effects of zolpidem and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli, Raveendranadh; Naidu, Mur; Pingali, Usharani; Shobha, Jc

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of centrally active drugs using a new indigenously developed automated psychometric test system and compare the results with that obtained using pencil- and paper-based techniques. The tests were standardized in 24 healthy participants. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by performing the tests by a single experimenter on two occasions (interday reproducibility). To evaluate the sensitivity of the tests, the effects of zolpidem (5 mg) and caffeine (500 mg) versus placebo were studied in 24 healthy participants in a randomized, double-blind three-way crossover design. Psychometric tests were performed at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 h after administration of study medication. The effects of zolpidem and caffeine on the psychomotor performance were most pronounced 1 h after administration. At this time, a significant impairment of performance in the simple reaction test (SRT), choice discrimination test (CDT), digit symbol substitution test (DSST), digit vigilance test (DVT), and card sorting test (CST) was observed with zolpidem. In contrast, caffeine showed a significant improvement in performance in CDT and DVT only. The results suggest that the tests of the computerized system are more sensitive and reliable then the pencil and paper tests in detecting the effects of central acting agents and are suitable for use in clinical areas to conduct studies with patients.

  11. Cerebral oxygenation in patients undergoing shoulder surgery in beach chair position: comparing general to regional anesthesia and the impact on neurobehavioral outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, J; Borgeat, A; Trachsel, T; Cobo Del Prado, I; De Andrés, J; Bühler, P

    2014-02-01

    Ischemic brain damage has been reported in healthy patients after beach chair position for surgery due to cerebral hypoperfusion. Near-infrared spectroscopy has been described as a non-invasive, continuous method to monitor cerebral oxygen saturation. However, its impact on neurobehavioral outcome comparing different anesthesia regimens has been poorly described. In this prospective, assessor-blinded study, 90 patients undergoing shoulder surgery in beach chair position following general (G-group, n=45) or regional anesthesia (R-group; n=45) were enrolled to assess the prevalence of cerebral desaturation events comparing anesthesia regimens and their impact on neurobehavioral and neurological outcome. Anesthesiologists were blinded to regional cerebral oxygen saturation values. Baseline data assessed the day before surgery included neurological and neurobehavioral tests, which were repeated the day after surgery. The baseline data for regional cerebral oxygen saturation/bispectral index and invasive blood pressure both at heart and auditory meatus levels were taken prior to anesthesia, 5 min after induction of anesthesia, 5 min after beach chair positioning, after skin incision and thereafter all 20 min until discharge. Patients in the R-group showed significantly less cerebral desaturation events (psurgery (pshoulder surgery in beach chair position influencing neurobehavioral test results at 24h. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Fabrication and test of inorganic/organic separators. [for silver zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smatko, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Completion of testing and failure analysis of MDC 40 Ahr silver zinc cells containing largely inorganic separators was accomplished. The results showed that the wet stand and cycle life objectives of the silver zinc cell development program were accomplished. Building, testing and failure analysis of two plate cells employing three optimum separators selected on the basis of extensive screening tests, was performed. The best separator material as a result of these tests was doped calcium zirconate.

  13. Neuro-behavioral pattern of sleep bruxism in wakefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marila Rezende Azevedo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Sleep Bruxism (SB is a non-functional rhythmic movement of the mandible with multifactorial aetiology and complex diagnose. It has been the subject of various studies over the past decades and it is considered a result of actions of the Central Nervous System modulated by Autonomous Nervous System. In this work, we test the hypothesis that SB subjects present a typical and defined neurobehavioral pattern that can be distinct from that of non-bruxers subjects and can be measured during wakefulness. Methods Fifteen sleep bruxers (experimental-group EG and fifteen non-bruxers (control-group CG took part in the experiments. To verify the presence and severity of SB, clinical examinations, anamneses and questionnaires, including Visual Analogic Scale - faces (VAS-f and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI were applied. To legitimate the diagnoses of SB, a disposable instrument (Bitestrip® to assess the masseter activity during sleep was employed. All subjects were submitted to a set of experiments for measuring various visual evoked responses during the presentation of visual stimuli (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral images. Events in Visual Evoked Potential (VEP were used to compare the neural responses of both CG and EG. Results VAS-f showed EG with higher perception of stress than CG (trait: p=0.05, and lower quality of life for (state: p=0.007. STAI I and II showed significant differences of anxiety between CG and EG (p=0.013 and p=0.004, respectively, being EG the highest. The EG Bitestrip scores confirmed that 100% of subjects were sleep bruxers. Significant differences were found between EG and CG for events associated with emotional (pleasant and unpleasant images in the first 250 ms after stimulation. In general, EG subjects showed higher amplitude and shorter latency of VEP events. Conclusion It is possible to distinguish between SB and non-bruxers subjects during wakefulness, based on differences in amplitude and

  14. Identification of an abbreviated test battery for detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment in an early-managed HIV-infected cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Moore

    Full Text Available HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND remain prevalent despite improved antiretroviral treatment (ART, and it is essential to have a sensitive and specific HAND screening tool.Participants were 200 HIV-infected US military beneficiaries, managed early in the course of HIV infection, had few comorbidities, and had open access to ART. Participants completed a comprehensive, seven-domain (16-test, neuropsychological battery (∼120 min; neurocognitive impairment (NCI was determined using a standardized score derived from demographically adjusted T-scores (global deficit score ≥0.5. Restricting the estimated administration time of the screening battery to < = 20 minutes, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of detecting NCI for all possible combinations of 2-, 3-, and 4- tests from the comprehensive battery.Participants were relatively healthy (median CD4 count: 546 cells/mm(3 with 64% receiving ART. Prevalence of NCI was low (19%. The best 2-test screener included the Stroop Color Test and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (11 min; sensitivity = 73%; specificity = 83%; the best 3-test screener included the above measures plus the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT; 16 min; sensitivity = 86%; specificity = 75%. The addition of Action Fluency to the above three tests improved specificity (18 min; sensitivity = 86%; specificity = 87%.Combinations of widely accepted neuropsychological tests with brief implementation time demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity compared to a time intensive neuropsychological test battery. Tests of verbal learning, attention/working memory, and processing speed are particularly useful in detecting NCI. Utilizing validated, easy to administer, traditional neuropsychological tests with established normative data may represent an excellent approach to screening for NCI in HIV.

  15. Cognitive Dysfunction after On-Pump Operations: Neuropsychological Characteristics and Optimal Core Battery of Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G. Polunina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD is a mild form of perioperative ischemic brain injury, which emerges as memory decline, decreased attention, and decreased concentration during several months, or even years, after surgery. Here we present results of our three neuropsychological studies, which overall included 145 patients after on-pump operations. We found that the auditory memory span test (digit span was more effective as a tool for registration of POCD, in comparison with the word-list learning and story-learning tests. Nonverbal memory or visuoconstruction tests were sensitive to POCD in patients after intraoperative opening of cardiac chambers with increased cerebral air embolism. Psychomotor speed tests (digit symbol, or TMT A registered POCD, which was characteristic for elderly atherosclerotic patients. Finally, we observed that there were significant effects of the order of position of a test on the performance on this test. For example, the postoperative performance on the core tests (digit span and digit symbol showed minimal impairment when either of these tests was administered at the beginning of testing. Overall, our data shows that the selection of tests, and the order of which these tests are administered, may considerably influence the results of studies of POCD.

  16. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ...-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The guide describes methods that the NRC staff considers acceptable for... replacement of vented lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to Docket...

  17. Pesticide exposure and stunting as independent predictors of neurobehavioral deficits in Ecuadorian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Harari, Raul; Barr, Dana B; Debes, Frodi

    2006-03-01

    To examine possible effects on blood pressure, neurological function, and neurobehavioral tests in school-aged children with and without prenatal pesticide exposure in an area where stunting is common. In a community of Northern Ecuador with intensive floriculture and a high female employment rate, we invited 79 children attending the 2 lowest grades of a public school for clinical examinations. In addition to a thorough physical examination, we administered simple reaction time, Santa Ana dexterity test, Stanford-Binet copying, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Digit Spans forward. Maternal interview included detailed assessment of occupational history to determine pesticide exposure during pregnancy. Recent and current pesticide exposure was assessed by erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity and urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites. All eligible children participated in the study, but 7 children were excluded from data analysis due to other disease or age >9 years. A total of 31 of the remaining 72 children were classified as stunted based on their height for age. Maternal occupational history revealed that 37 children had been exposed to pesticides during development. After confounder adjustment, prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with a higher systolic blood pressure than in the controls. On neurological examination, 14 exposed children and 9 controls showed > or =1 abnormalities. Of 5 neurobehavioral tests, the Stanford-Binet copying test showed a lower drawing score for copying designs in exposed children than in controls. Stunting was associated with a lower score on this test only, and both risk factors remained statistically significant in a multiple regression analysis with adjustment for demographic and social confounders. Increased excretion of dimethyl and diethyl metabolites of organophosphates was associated with increased reaction time and no other outcomes. Prenatal pesticide exposure may cause lasting

  18. GALEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, P.-J.; Burbach, G.; Heinzerling, L. M.; Edenharter, G.; Bachert, C.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bonini, S.; Bousquet-Rouanet, L.; Demoly, P.; Bresciani, M.; Bruno, A.; Gjomarkaj, M.; Canonica, G. W.; Darsow, U.; Durham, S.; Fokkens, W. J.; Giavi, S.; Gramiccioni, C.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Haahtela, T.; Kowalski, M. L.; Magyar, P.; Muraközi, G.; Orosz, M.; Röhnelt, C.; Stingl, G.; Todo-Bom, A.; von Mutius, E.; Wiesner, A.; Wöhrl, S.; Bousquet, J.; Zuberbier, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. Objective: To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify a patient

  19. Testing ESL pragmatics development and validation of a web-based assessment battery

    CERN Document Server

    Roever, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Although second language learners' pragmatic competence (their ability to use language in context) is an essential part of their general communicative competence, it has not been a part of second language tests. This book helps fill this gap by describing the development and validation of a web-based test of ESL pragmalinguistics. The instrument assesses learners' knowledge of routine formulae, speech acts, and implicature in 36 multiple-choice and brief-response items. The test's quantitative and qualitative validation with 300 learners showed high reliability and provided strong evidence of

  20. Effects of Caffeinated Gum on a Battery of Soccer-Specific Tests in Trained University-Standard Male Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; King, George; Russell, Mitchell; Lynn, Anthony; Russell, Mark

    2018-03-27

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether caffeinated gum influenced performance in a battery of soccer-specific tests used in the assessment of performance in soccer players. In a double blind, randomised, cross-over design, ten male university-standard soccer players (age 19 ± 1 y, stature 1.80 ± 0.10 m, body mass 75.5 ± 4.8 kg) masticated a caffeinated (200 mg; caffeine) or control (0 mg; placebo) gum on two separate occasions. After a standardised warm-up, gum was chewed for 5 min and subsequently expectorated 5 min before players performed a maximal countermovement jump, a 20 m sprint test and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1). Performance on 20 m sprints were not different between trials (caffeine: 3.2 ± 0.3 s, placebo: 3.1 ± 0.3 s; p = 0.567; small effect size: d = 0.33), but caffeine did allow players to cover 2.0% more distance during Yo-YoIR1 (caffeine: 1754 ± 156 m, placebo: 1719 ± 139 m; p = 0.016; small effect size: d = 0.24) and increase maximal countermovement jump height by 2.2% (caffeine: 47.1 ± 3.4 cm, placebo: 46.1 ± 3.2 cm; p = 0.008; small effect size: d = 0.30). Performance on selected physical tests (Yo-YoIR1 and countermovement jump) was improved by the chewing of caffeinated gum in the immediate period before testing in university-standard soccer players but the sizes of such effects were small. Such findings may have implications for the recommendations made to soccer players about to engage with subsequent exercise performance.

  1. Design and Control of a Multi-Functional Energy Recovery Power Accumulator Battery Pack Testing System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, aiming at the energy loss and harmonic problems in the conventional power accumulator battery pack testing system (PABPTS, an improved multi-functional energy recovery PABPTS (ERPABPTS for electric vehicles (EVs was proposed. The improved system has the functions of harmonic detection, suppression, reactive compensation and energy recovery. The ERPABPTS, which contains a bi-directional buck-boost direct current (DC-DC converter and a bi-directional alternating current (AC-DC converter with an inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL type filter interfacing to the AC-grid, is proposed. System configuration and operation principle of the combined system are discussed first, then, the reactive compensation and harmonic suppression controller under balanced grid-voltage condition are presented. Design of a fourth order band-pass Butterworth filter for current harmonic detection is put forward, and the reactive compensator design procedure considering the non-linear load is also illustrated. The proposed scheme is implemented in a 175-kW prototype in the laboratory. Simulation and experimental results show that the combined configuration can effectively realize energy recovery for high accuracy current test requirement, meanwhile, can effectively achieve reactive compensation and current harmonic suppression.

  2. The Effect of Presentation Medium on Pilot Selection Test Battery Scores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biggerstaff, S

    1998-01-01

    .... The American Psychological Association (APA) has set guidelines to be followed to ensure both qualitative and quantitative equivalence of new test formats prior to their use in applied settings...

  3. Development of a Physical Employment Testing Battery for Armor Soldiers: 19D Cavalry Scout and 19K M1 Armor Crewman

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    around the course in the direction indicated, without knocking the cones. Time to complete the course was recorded (14). Standing Long Jump...easily purchased at a sporting goods store (as requested by Mr. Brinkley, G3/5/7 TRADOC). This model excluded the arm ergometer, handgrip, upright...purchased at a sporting goods store (R2 = 0.84). This model resulted in a test battery consisting of four tests: squat lift, standing long jump, beep

  4. The neurobehavioral teratology of retinoids: a 50-year history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jane

    2010-10-01

    This review of the central nervous system (CNS) and behavioral teratology of the retinoids over the last 50 years is a commemorative retrospective organized by decade to show the prominent research focus within each period and the most salient findings. In the 1960s, research focused on the gross CNS malformations associated with exposure and the delineation of dose-response and stage-specific responses in rodent models. Relevant scientific events before and during the 1960s are also discussed to provide the zeitgeist in which the field of neurobehavioral teratology emerged in the 1970s. During this period, studies demonstrated that adverse effects on postnatal behavior could be produced in animals exposed to doses of vitamin A lower than those that were teratogenic or impacted growth. Work during the 1980s showed an overrepresentation of behavioral studies focused on the reliability of screening methods, while the marked effects of human exposure were illustrated in children born to women treated with isotretinoin during pregnancy. The human catastrophe invigorated research during the 1990s, a period when technological advances allowed more elegant examinations of the developing CNS, of biochemical, cellular, and molecular developmental events and regulatory actions, and of the effects of direct genetic manipulations. Likewise, research in the 1990s reflected a reinvigoration of research in neurobehavioral teratology evinced in studies that used animal models to try to better understand human vulnerability. These foci continued in the 2000-2010 period while examinations of the role of retinoids in brain development and lifelong functioning became increasingly sophisticated and broader in scope. This review of the work on retinoids also provides a lens on the more general ontogeny of the field of neurobehavioral teratology. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Using aquatic macroinvertebrate species traits to build test batteries for sediment toxicity assessment: accounting for the diversity of potential biological responses to toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe; Péry, T Alexandre R R; Mouthon, Jacques; Lafont, Michel; Roger, Marie-Claude; Garric, Jeanne; Férard, Jean-François

    2005-09-01

    An original species-selection method for the building of test batteries is presented. This method is based on the statistical analysis of the biological and ecological trait patterns of species. It has been applied to build a macroinvertebrate test battery for the assessment of sediment toxicity, which efficiently describes the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrate biological responses to toxicants in a large European lowland river. First, 109 potential representatives of benthic communities of European lowland rivers were selected from a list of 479 taxa, considering 11 biological traits accounting for the main routes of exposure to a sediment-bound toxicant and eight ecological traits providing an adequate description of habitat characteristics used by the taxa. Second, their biological and ecological trait patterns were compared using coinertia analysis. This comparison allowed the clustering of taxa into groups of organisms that exhibited similar life-history characteristics, physiological and behavioral features, and similar habitat use. Groups exhibited various sizes (7-35 taxa), taxonomic compositions, and biological and ecological features. Main differences among group characteristics concerned morphology, substrate preferendum and habitat utilization, nutritional features, maximal size, and life-history strategy. Third, the best representatives of the mean biological and ecological characteristics of each group were included in the test battery. The final selection was composed of Chironomus riparius (Insecta: Diptera), Branchiura sowerbyi (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae), Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta: Lumbriculidae), Valvata piscinalis (Gastropoda: Valvatidae), and Sericostoma personatum (Trichoptera: Sericostomatidae). This approach permitted the biological and ecological variety of the battery to be maximized. Because biological and ecological traits of taxa determine species sensitivity, such maximization should permit the battery to better account

  6. High performance Li3V2(PO4)3/C composite cathode material for lithium ion batteries studied in pilot scale test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhenyu; Dai Changsong; Wu Gang; Nelson, Mark; Hu Xinguo; Zhang Ruoxin; Liu Jiansheng; Xia Jicai

    2010-01-01

    Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C composite cathode material was synthesized via carbothermal reduction process in a pilot scale production test using battery grade raw materials with the aim of studying the feasibility for their practical applications. XRD, FT-IR, XPS, CV, EIS and battery charge-discharge tests were used to characterize the as-prepared material. The XRD and FT-IR data suggested that the as-prepared Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C material exhibits an orderly monoclinic structure based on the connectivity of PO 4 tetrahedra and VO 6 octahedra. Half cell tests indicated that an excellent high-rate cyclic performance was achieved on the Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C cathodes in the voltage range of 3.0-4.3 V, retaining a capacity of 95% (96 mAh/g) after 100 cycles at 20C discharge rate. The low-temperature performance of the cathode was further evaluated, showing 0.5C discharge capacity of 122 and 119 mAh/g at -25 and -40 o C, respectively. The discharge capacity of graphite//Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 batteries with a designed battery capacity of 14 Ah is as high as 109 mAh/g with a capacity retention of 92% after 224 cycles at 2C discharge rates. The promising high-rate and low-temperature performance observed in this work suggests that Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C is a very strong candidate to be a cathode in a next-generation Li-ion battery for electric vehicle applications.

  7. The developmental neurobehavioral effects of fenugreek seeds on prenatally exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalki, Loubna; Bennis, Mohamed; Sokar, Zahra; Ba-M'hamed, Saâdia

    2012-01-31

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum (L.)), is a medicinal plant whose seeds and leaves are widely used in Moroccan traditional medicine. Consumption of fenugreek seeds during pregnancy has been associated with a range of congenital malformations, including hydrocephalus, anencephaly and spina bifida. In previous work we have shown that exposure of pregnant mice to aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds (AEFS) leads to reduced litter size, intrauterine growth retardation, and malformations. However, there have been no studies to date of its longer-term neurobehavioral effects. We investigated these effects in prenatally exposed mice. Pregnant females were exposed to 0, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day AEFS, by gavage, for the whole period of gestation. Pups body weight was measured at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 day of age. Behavior of progeny was evaluated three weeks after birth using the open field, the rotarod test and the continuous alternation task by the T-maze. At 28 postnatal day age, brain of progeny was removed and cut for histological evaluation. The progeny of exposed mice displayed reduced body weight at birth (1000 mg/kg group: 27%; 500 mg/kg group: 32%) and reduced brain weight (10% in both treated groups). Both males and females mice prenatally exposed to AEFS displayed a significant decrease in the locomotor activity, in the boli deposits during the open field test and in motor coordination. These results seem to show that exposure to AEFS induces a depressive effect in the offspring. Assessment on a continuous alternation T-maze test showed a significant reduction in successful spontaneous alternations in males and females but only in the 1000 mg/kg group. These results suggest that prenatal exposure of mice to high dose of fenugreek seeds causes growth retardation and altered neurobehavioral performance in the post-weaning period in both male and female. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Executive Functions as Endophenotypes in ADHD: Evidence from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Shang, Chi-Yung

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about executive functions among unaffected siblings of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and there is lack of such information from non-Western countries. We examined verbal and nonverbal executive functions in adolescents with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls to test whether executive…

  9. Development of Software and Strategies for Battery Management System Testing on HIL Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Barreras, Jorge Varela

    2016-01-01

    of complexity of the tests, the higher the demands for ad hoc development of SW and strategies. With regard to the latter, there is not a universal definition and there are different points of view. Therefore different strategies may be followed, which can be classified into many different ways according...

  10. Neurobehavioral Effects of Levetiracetam in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared F Benge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of acquired epilepsy. Prophylaxis for seizures is the standard of care for individuals with moderate to severe injuries at risk for developing seizures, though relatively limited comparative data is available to guide clinicians in their choice of agents. There have however been experimental studies which demonstrate potential neuroprotective qualities of levetiracetam after TBI, and in turn there is hope that eventually such agents may improve neurobehavioral outcomes post-TBI. This mini-review summarizes the available studies and suggests areas for future studies.

  11. Development and application of an actively controlled hybrid proton exchange membrane fuel cell - Lithium-ion battery laboratory test-bed based on off-the-shelf components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yufit, V.; Brandon, N.P. [Dept. Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The use of commercially available components enables rapid prototyping and assembling of laboratory scale hybrid test-bed systems, which can be used to evaluate new hybrid configurations. The development of such a test-bed using an off-the-shelf PEM fuel cell, lithium-ion battery and DC/DC converter is presented here, and its application to a hybrid configuration appropriate for an unmanned underwater vehicle is explored. A control algorithm was implemented to regulate the power share between the fuel cell and the battery with a graphical interface to control, record and analyze the electrochemical and thermal parameters of the system. The results demonstrate the applicability of the test-bed and control algorithm for this application, and provide data on the dynamic electrical and thermal behaviour of the hybrid system. (author)

  12. A field operational test on valve-regulated lead-acid absorbent-glass-mat batteries in micro-hybrid electric vehicles. Part I. Results based on kernel density estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Karspeck, T.; Ott, C.; Weckler, M.; Stoermer, A. O.

    2011-03-01

    In March 2007 the BMW Group has launched the micro-hybrid functions brake energy regeneration (BER) and automatic start and stop function (ASSF). Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology are applied in vehicles with micro-hybrid power system (MHPS). In both part I and part II of this publication vehicles with MHPS and AGM batteries are subject to a field operational test (FOT). Test vehicles with conventional power system (CPS) and flooded batteries were used as a reference. In the FOT sample batteries were mounted several times and electrically tested in the laboratory intermediately. Vehicle- and battery-related diagnosis data were read out for each test run and were matched with laboratory data in a data base. The FOT data were analyzed by the use of two-dimensional, nonparametric kernel estimation for clear data presentation. The data show that capacity loss in the MHPS is comparable to the CPS. However, the influence of mileage performance, which cannot be separated, suggests that battery stress is enhanced in the MHPS although a battery refresh function is applied. Anyway, the FOT demonstrates the unsuitability of flooded batteries for the MHPS because of high early capacity loss due to acid stratification and because of vanishing cranking performance due to increasing internal resistance. Furthermore, the lack of dynamic charge acceptance for high energy regeneration efficiency is illustrated. Under the presented FOT conditions charge acceptance of lead-acid (LA) batteries decreases to less than one third for about half of the sample batteries compared to new battery condition. In part II of this publication FOT data are presented by multiple regression analysis (Schaeck et al., submitted for publication [1]).

  13. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R): a brief cognitive test battery for dementia screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mioshi, Eneida; Dawson, Kate; Mitchell, Joanna; Arnold, Robert; Hodges, John R

    2006-11-01

    There is a clear need for brief, but sensitive and specific, cognitive screening instruments as evidenced by the popularity of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE). We aimed to validate an improved revision (the ACE-R) which incorporates five sub-domain scores (orientation/attention, memory, verbal fluency, language and visuo-spatial). Standard tests for evaluating dementia screening tests were applied. A total of 241 subjects participated in this study (Alzheimer's disease=67, frontotemporal dementia=55, dementia of Lewy Bodies=20; mild cognitive impairment-MCI=36; controls=63). Reliability of the ACE-R was very good (alpha coefficient=0.8). Correlation with the Clinical Dementia Scale was significant (r=-0.321, pcognitive dysfunction. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Hairy carbon electrodes studied by cyclic voltammetry and battery discharge testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Deborah D. L.; Shui, Xiaoping; Frysz, Christine A.

    1993-01-01

    Hairy carbon is a new material developed by growing submicron carbon filaments on conventional carbon substrates. Typical substrate materials include carbon black, graphite powder, carbon fibers, and glassy carbon. A catalyst is used to initiate hair growth with carbonaceous gases serving as the carbon source. To study the electrochemical behavior of hairy carbons, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and discharge testing were conducted. In both cases, hairy carbon results surpassed those of the substrate material alone.

  15. Development of a Physical Employment Testing Battery for 12B Combat Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-10

    3/4" Interlocking Diamond Plate Tiles, Kodiak Sports , Plano, TX) for the casualty drag. This allowed for a standardized surface for testing, which...around the course in the direction indicated, without knocking the cones. Time to complete the course was recorded (12). Standing Long Jump...calibrated equipment and omitted any equipment that would not be easily purchased at a sporting goods store (as requested by Mr. Brinkley, G3/5n TRADOC

  16. System design considerations for implementing performance and service tests on Class 1E batteries in accordance with IEEE 450-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagan, E.J.; Weronick, R.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive electrical system design considerations are required to implement performance and service tests on Class 1E in accordance iwth IEEE 450-1980 ''Recommended Practice For Maintenance Testing and Replacement of Large Lead Storage Batteries For Generating Stations and Substations''. Class 1E is the safety classification of the electric equipment and systems that are essential to emergency reactor shutdown, cotainment isolation, reactor core cooling, and containment and reactor heat removal, or are otherwise essential to emergency reactor shutdown, containment isolation, reactor core cooling, and containment and reactor heat removal, or are otherwise essential in preventing significant release of radioactive material to the environment. The paper discusses alternatives which merit investigating to determine a feasible method for performing these tests at operating nuclear power plants, or plants nearing completion, which may lack provisions for incorporating such tests. The scope of each alternative presented includes a description and critique of the test circuit configuration and the auxiliary equipment required to isolate the battery and connect it to a Battery Capacity Tester (BCT). 6 refs

  17. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  18. Specific Features of Executive Dysfunction in Alzheimer-Type Mild Dementia Based on Computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmickienė, Jurgita; Kaubrys, Gintaras

    2016-10-08

    BACKGROUND The primary manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is decline in memory. Dysexecutive symptoms have tremendous impact on functional activities and quality of life. Data regarding frontal-executive dysfunction in mild AD are controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and specific features of executive dysfunction in mild AD based on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) results. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fifty newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve, mild, late-onset AD patients (MMSE ≥20, AD group) and 25 control subjects (CG group) were recruited in this prospective, cross-sectional study. The CANTAB tests CRT, SOC, PAL, SWM were used for in-depth cognitive assessment. Comparisons were performed using the t test or Mann-Whitney U test, as appropriate. Correlations were evaluated by Pearson r or Spearman R. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. RESULTS AD and CG groups did not differ according to age, education, gender, or depression. Few differences were found between groups in the SOC test for performance measures: Mean moves (minimum 3 moves): AD (Rank Sum=2227), CG (Rank Sum=623), p<0.001. However, all SOC test time measures differed significantly between groups: SOC Mean subsequent thinking time (4 moves): AD (Rank Sum=2406), CG (Rank Sum=444), p<0.001. Correlations were weak between executive function (SOC) and episodic/working memory (PAL, SWM) (R=0.01-0.38) or attention/psychomotor speed (CRT) (R=0.02-0.37). CONCLUSIONS Frontal-executive functions are impaired in mild AD patients. Executive dysfunction is highly prominent in time measures, but minimal in performance measures. Executive disorders do not correlate with a decline in episodic and working memory or psychomotor speed in mild AD.

  19. GALEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, P-J; Burbach, G; Heinzerling, L M

    2009-01-01

    Background: The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. Objective: To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify a patient...... the allergens selection. Result: Among the 3034 patients involved, 1996 (68.2%) were sensitized to at least one allergen. Overall, eight allergens (grass pollen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, birch pollen, cat dander, Artemisia, olive pollen, Blatella and Alternaria) allowed to identified more than 95......% of sensitized subjects. However, differences were observed between countries, two allergens being sufficient for Switzerland (grass pollen and cat dander) as opposed to nine for France (grass pollen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, olive pollen, cat dander, Blatella, cypress, dog dander, alder and [Artemisia...

  20. Deterioration of neurobehavioral performance in resident physicians during repeated exposure to extended duration work shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Clare; Sullivan, Jason P; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Cade, Brian E; Czeisler, Charles A; Lockley, Steven W

    2012-08-01

    Although acute sleep loss during 24- to 30-h extended duration work shifts (EDWS) has been shown to impair the performance of resident physicians, little is known about the effects of cumulative sleep deficiency on performance during residency training. Chronic sleep restriction induces a gradual degradation of neurobehavioral performance and exacerbates the effects of acute sleep loss in the laboratory, yet the extent to which this occurs under real-world conditions is unknown. In this study, the authors quantify the time course of neurobehavioral deterioration due to repeated exposure to EDWS during a 3-week residency rotation. A prospective, repeated-measures, within-subject design. Medical and cardiac intensive care units, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA. Thirty-four postgraduate year one resident physicians (23 males; age 28.0 ± 1.83 (standard deviation) years) Residents working a 3-week Q3 schedule (24- to 30-h work shift starts every 3(rd) day), consisting of alternating 24- to 30-h (EDWS) and approximately 8-h shifts, underwent psychomotor vigilance testing before, during, and after each work shift. Mean response time, number of lapses, and slowest 10% of responses were calculated for each test. Residents also maintained daily sleep/wake/work logs. EDWS resulted in cumulative sleep deficiency over the 21-day rotation (6.3 h sleep obtained per day; average 2.3 h sleep obtained per extended shift). Response times deteriorated over a single 24- to 30-h shift (P Performance on the fifth and sixth shift was significantly worse than on the first shift (P performance and exacerbated the effects of acute sleep loss inherent in the 24- to 30-h EDWS that are commonly used in resident schedules.

  1. Identification of medically relevant Nocardia species with an abbreviated battery of tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiska, Deanna L; Hicks, Karen; Pettit, David J

    2002-04-01

    Identification of Nocardia to the species level is useful for predicting antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and defining the pathogenicity and geographic distribution of these organisms. We sought to develop an identification method which was accurate, timely, and employed tests which would be readily available in most clinical laboratories. We evaluated the API 20C AUX yeast identification system as well as several biochemical tests and Kirby-Bauer susceptibility patterns for the identification of 75 isolates encompassing the 8 medically relevant Nocardia species. There were few biochemical reactions that were sufficiently unique for species identification; of note, N. nova were positive for arylsulfatase, N. farcinica were positive for opacification of Middlebrook 7H11 agar, and N. brasiliensis and N. pseudobrasiliensis were the only species capable of liquefying gelatin. API 20C sugar assimilation patterns were unique for N. transvalensis, N. asteroides IV, and N. brevicatena. There was overlap among the assimilation patterns for the other species. Species-specific patterns of susceptibility to gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and erythromycin were obtained for N. nova, N. farcinica, and N. brevicatena, while there was overlap among the susceptibility patterns for the other isolates. No single method could identify all Nocardia isolates to the species level; therefore, a combination of methods was necessary. An algorithm utilizing antibiotic susceptibility patterns, citrate utilization, acetamide utilization, and assimilation of inositol and adonitol accurately identified all isolates. The algorithm was expanded to include infrequent drug susceptibility patterns which have been reported in the literature but which were not seen in this study.

  2. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Developmental Alcohol-Induced Neurobehavioral Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balapal S. Basavarajappa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and its damaging consequences on the developing infant brain are significant public health, social, and economic issues. The major distinctive features of prenatal alcohol exposure in humans are cognitive and behavioral dysfunction due to damage to the central nervous system (CNS, which results in a continuum of disarray that is collectively called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Many rodent models have been developed to understand the mechanisms of and to reproduce the human FASD phenotypes. These animal FASD studies have provided several molecular pathways that are likely responsible for the neurobehavioral abnormalities that are associated with prenatal alcohol exposure of the developing CNS. Recently, many laboratories have identified several immediate, as well as long-lasting, epigenetic modifications of DNA methylation, DNA-associated histone proteins and microRNA (miRNA biogenesis by using a variety of epigenetic approaches in rodent FASD models. Because DNA methylation patterns, DNA-associated histone protein modifications and miRNA-regulated gene expression are crucial for synaptic plasticity and learning and memory, they can therefore offer an answer to many of the neurobehavioral abnormalities that are found in FASD. In this review, we briefly discuss the current literature of DNA methylation, DNA-associated histone proteins modification and miRNA and review recent developments concerning epigenetic changes in FASD.

  3. Neurobehavioral Abnormalities Associated with Executive Dysfunction after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodger Ll. Wood

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article will address how anomalies of executive function after traumatic brain injury (TBI can translate into altered social behavior that has an impact on a person’s capacity to live safely and independently in the community.Method: Review of literature on executive and neurobehavioral function linked to cognitive ageing in neurologically healthy populations and late neurocognitive effects of serious TBI. Information was collated from internet searches involving MEDLINE, PubMed, PyscINFO and Google Scholar as well as the authors’ own catalogs.Conclusions: The conventional distinction between cognitive and emotional-behavioral sequelae of TBI is shown to be superficial in the light of increasing evidence that executive skills are critical for integrating and appraising environmental events in terms of cognitive, emotional and social significance. This is undertaken through multiple fronto-subcortical pathways within which it is possible to identify a predominantly dorsolateral network that subserves executive control of attention and cognition (so-called cold executive processes and orbito-frontal/ventro-medial pathways that underpin the hot executive skills that drive much of behavior in daily life. TBI frequently involves disruption to both sets of executive functions but research is increasingly demonstrating the role of hot executive deficits underpinning a wide range of neurobehavioral disorders that compromise relationships, functional independence and mental capacity in daily life.

  4. A behavioural test battery to investigate tic-like symptoms, stereotypies, attentional capabilities, and spontaneous locomotion in different mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti Onori, Martina; Ceci, Chiara; Laviola, Giovanni; Macrì, Simone

    2014-07-01

    The preclinical study of human disorders associated with comorbidities and for which the aetiology is still unclear may substantially benefit from multi-strain studies conducted in mice. The latter can help isolating experimental populations (strains) exhibiting distinct facets in the parameters isomorphic to the symptoms of a given disorder. Through a reverse-translation approach, multi-strain studies can inform both natural predisposing factors and environmental modulators. Thus, mouse strains selected for a particular trait may be leveraged to generate hypothesis-driven studies aimed at clarifying the potential role played by the environment in modulating the exhibition of the symptoms of interest. Tourette's syndrome (TS) constitutes a paradigmatic example whereby: it is characterized by a core symptom (tics) often associated with comorbidities (attention-deficit-hyperactivity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms); it has a clear genetic origin though specific genes are, as yet, unidentified; its course (exacerbations and remissions) is under the influence of environmental factors. Based on these considerations, we tested four mouse strains (ABH, C57, CD1, and SJL) - varying along a plethora of behavioural, neurochemical, and immunological parameters - on a test battery tailored to address the following domains: tics (through the i.p. administration of the selective 5-HT2 receptor agonist DOI, 5mg/kg); locomotion (spontaneous locomotion in the home-cage); perseverative responding in an attentional set shifting task; and behavioural stereotypies in response to a single amphetamine (10mg/kg, i.p.) injection. Present data demonstrate that while ABH and SJL mice respectively exhibit selective increments in amphetamine-induced sniffing behaviour and DOI-induced tic-like behaviours, C57 and CD1 mice show a distinct phenotype, compared to other strains, in several parameters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender differences in performance of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2nd edition test in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtr Ludvík

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2nd edition (MABC-2 is used for the assessment of motor proficiency and identification of motor impairments in 3-16 year old children. Although there are some gender differences in the motor development of children, in the MABC-2 test the same tasks and norms are used for both genders. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine gender differences in performance of motor tasks involved in the MABC-2 test in adolescents aged 15 to 16. Methods: Participants (N = 121, 50 boys and 71 girls, mean age 16.0 ± 0.5 years randomly recruited from schools were assessed using the MABC-2 test. The Mann-Whitney U test and effect size r were used to analyse gender differences in performance outcome in the particular motor tasks of the MABC-2 test. Results: As compared to the boys, the girls achieved a significantly shorter time of completion of the unimanual coordination task executed with their preferred hand (p < .001, r = .33 and significantly fewer errors in the graphomotor task (p = .001, r = .29. On the other hand, the boys achieved significantly better results than the girls in the aiming and catching tasks (p ≤ .030, r = .20-.33. Performance in the dynamic balance tasks was not significantly different between genders. The girls demonstrated a significantly longer duration of static balance in one-leg standing as compared to the boys (p = .011, r = .23. For the motor tasks some statistical differences were found, however the effect size of the gender on performance was small or medium. Conclusions: The findings of the study suggest that gender could be a significant factor of performance in the motor tasks associated with object control such as aiming and catching. Other domains, such as manual dexterity and balance, seem to be influenced by gender to a small extent.

  6. A systematic review to determine reliability and usefulness of the field-based test batteries for the assessment of physical fitness in adolescents – The ASSO Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Bianco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review is to investigate the main field-based tests, used alone or included in sport or fitness batteries, for the assessment of health- and skill-related physical fitness components in adolescents. Different scientific databases were searched through using the selected key words related to physical fitness and its components for adolescence. The search focused on original articles and reviews/meta-analyses using valid, reproducible and feasible tests that fit within the school environment. A total of 100 scientific manuscripts were included in the qualitative synthesis. The present systematic review pointed out 5 fitness tests that well adapt to the evaluation of the components of physical fitness of adolescents within a school environment: the 20 m shuttle run test for cardio-respiratory endurance; the handgrip strength test for upper body maximal strength; the standing broad jump test for lower body maximal strength; the sit-up test to exhaustion for muscular endurance and the 4×10 m shuttle run test for speed, agility and coordination. These fitness tests have been finally selected and incorporated into the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity prevention – Fitness Test Battery (ASSO-FTB, and will be adopted within the ASSO Project for evaluation purposes. This instrument could be also provided to teachers and people working in schools in order to assess physical fitness of adolescents over time and prevent obesity and related diseases.

  7. Impact of Sleep Restriction on Neurobehavioral Functioning of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Wiebe, Sabrina; Montecalvo, Lisa; Brunetti, Bianca; Amsel, Rhonda; Carrier, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the cumulative impact of 1 hour of nightly sleep restriction over the course of 6 nights on the neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls. Design: Following 6 nights of actigraphic monitoring of sleep to determine baseline sleep duration, children were asked to restrict sleep duration by 1 hour for 6 consecutive nights. NBF was assessed at baseline (Day 6) and following sleep manipulation (Day 12). Setting: A quiet location within their home environments. Participants: Forty-three children (11 ADHD, 32 Controls, mean age = 8.7 years, SD = 1.3) between the ages of 7 and 11 years. Interventions: NA Measurements: Sleep was monitored using actigraphy. In addition, parents were asked to complete nightly sleep logs. Sleepiness was evaluated using a questionnaire. The Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) was used to assess NBF. Results: Restricted sleep led to poorer CPT scores on two-thirds of CPT outcome measures in both healthy controls and children with ADHD. The performance of children with ADHD following sleep restriction deteriorated from subclinical levels to the clinical range of inattention on two-thirds of CPT outcome measures. Conclusions: Moderate sleep restriction leads to a detectable negative impact on the NBF of children with ADHD and healthy controls, leading to a clinical level of impairment in children with ADHD. Citation: Gruber R; Wiebe S; Montecalvo L; Brunetti B; Amsel R; Carrier J. Impact of sleep restriction on neurobehavioral functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. SLEEP 2011;34(3):315-323. PMID:21358848

  8. Technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery as a substitute dry battery for motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniyati, Indah; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Zakaria, Roni; Kadir, Evizal Abdul

    2017-11-01

    Dry battery on a motorcycle has a rapid rate of voltage drop, life time is not too long, and a long charging time. These are problems for users of dry battery for motorcycle. When the rate in the voltage decreases, the energy storage in the battery is reduced, then at the age of one to two years of battery will be dead and cannot be used, it makes the user should replace the battery. New technology development of a motorcycle battery is lithium ion battery. Lithium ion battery has a specification that has been tested and possible to replace dry battery. Characteristics of lithium ion battery can answer the question on the dry battery service life, the rate of decrease in voltage and charging time. This paper discusses about the technical feasibility for commercialization of lithium ion battery for motorcycle battery. Our proposed methodology of technical feasibility by using a goldsmith commercialization model of the technical feasibility and reconfirm the technical standard using the national standard of motorcycle battery. The battery has been through all the stages of the technical feasibility of the goldsmith model. Based on the results of the study, lithium ion batteries have the minimum technical requirements to be commercialized and has been confirmed in accordance with the standard motorcycle battery. This paper results that the lithium ion battery is visible to commercialized by the technical aspect.

  9. Development of a Standard Test Scenario to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Portable Fire Extinguishers on Lithium-ion Battery Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susan A.; Hirsch, David B.; Carriere, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Many sources of fuel are present aboard current spacecraft, with one especially hazardous source of stored energy: lithium ion batteries. Lithium ion batteries are a very hazardous form of fuel due to their self-sustaining combustion once ignited, for example, by an external heat source. Batteries can become extremely energetic fire sources due to their high density electrochemical energy content that may, under duress, be violently converted to thermal energy and fire in the form of a thermal runaway. Currently, lithium ion batteries are the preferred types of batteries aboard international spacecraft and therefore are routinely installed, collectively forming a potentially devastating fire threat to a spacecraft and its crew. Currently NASA is developing a fine water mist portable fire extinguisher for future use on international spacecraft. As its development ensues, a need for the standard evaluation of various types of fire extinguishers against this potential threat is required to provide an unbiased means of comparing between fire extinguisher technologies and ranking them based on performance.

  10. Selecting chemical and ecotoxicological test batteries for risk assessment of trace element-contaminated soils (phyto)managed by gentle remediation options (GRO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Bert, Valérie; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Eriksson, Jan; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Galazka, Rafal; Herzig, Rolf; Janssen, Jolien; Kidd, Petra; Mench, Michel; Müller, Ingo; Neu, Silke; Oustriere, Nadège; Puschenreiter, Markus; Renella, Giancarlo; Roumier, Pierre-Hervé; Siebielec, Grzegorz; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Manier, Nicolas

    2014-10-15

    During the past decades a number of field trials with gentle remediation options (GRO) have been established on trace element (TE) contaminated sites throughout Europe. Each research group selects different methods to assess the remediation success making it difficult to compare efficacy between various sites and treatments. This study aimed at selecting a minimum risk assessment battery combining chemical and ecotoxicological assays for assessing and comparing the effectiveness of GRO implemented in seven European case studies. Two test batteries were pre-selected; a chemical one for quantifying TE exposure in untreated soils and GRO-managed soils and a biological one for characterizing soil functionality and ecotoxicity. Soil samples from field studies representing one of the main GROs (phytoextraction in Belgium, Sweden, Germany and Switzerland, aided phytoextraction in France, and aided phytostabilization or in situ stabilization/phytoexclusion in Poland, France and Austria) were collected and assessed using the selected test batteries. The best correlations were obtained between NH4NO3-extractable, followed by NaNO3-extractable TE and the ecotoxicological responses. Biometrical parameters and biomarkers of dwarf beans were the most responsive indicators for the soil treatments and changes in soil TE exposures. Plant growth was inhibited at the higher extractable TE concentrations, while plant stress enzyme activities increased with the higher TE extractability. Based on these results, a minimum risk assessment battery to compare/biomonitor the sites phytomanaged by GROs might consist of the NH4NO3 extraction and the bean Plantox test including the stress enzyme activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurobehavioral dysfunction in ALS has a negative effect on outcome and use of PEG and NIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiò, A; Ilardi, A; Cammarosano, S; Moglia, C; Montuschi, A; Calvo, A

    2012-04-03

    To assess the effect of neurobehavioral dysfunction on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) survival and on the use of life-prolonging therapies in a population-based setting. Of the 132 patients diagnosed with ALS in the province of Torino, Italy, between January 1, 2007, and June 30, 2008, 128 participated in the study. Neurobehavioral dysfunction was assessed with the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), using the Family Rating forms, administered within 4 months from diagnosis. The 128 patients included 71 men and 57 women, with a mean age at onset of 64.7 (SD 11) years. Forty-one patients (32.0%) had a neurobehavioral dysfunction and 9 (7.0%) an isolated dysexecutive behavior. Enteral nutrition (EN) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) were performed with similar frequencies in patients with and without neurobehavioral dysfunction. Patients with neurobehavioral dysfunction had a significantly shorter survival than those with a normal FrSBe score (median survival, 3.3 vs 4.3 years; p = 0.02). Patients with isolated dysexecutive behavior had a shorter survival than those without neurobehavioral dysfunction (median survival, 2.5 vs 4.5 years; p = 0.03). Patients with neurobehavioral dysfunction had a shorter survival after EN and NIV, while patients with isolated dysexecutive behavior had a shorter survival after NIV but not after EN. The negative effect of comorbid neurobehavioral dysfunction and of isolated dysexecutive behavior on survival persisted under the Cox multivariate model. The presence of neurobehavioral dysfunction or of isolate dysexecutive behavior in ALS at diagnosis is a strong predictor of a poor outcome, partially related to a reduced efficacy of life-prolonging therapies.

  12. Crystallization of aluminum hydroxide in the aluminum-air battery: Literature review, crystallizer design and results of integrated system tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, A.

    1988-03-01

    The literature on aluminum trihydroxide crystallization is reviewed and the implications of crystallization on the design and performance of the aluminum-air battery are illustrated. Results of research on hydrargillite crystallization under battery operating conditions at Alcoa Laboratories, Alcan Kingston Laboratories, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are summarized and are applied to the design of an electrolyte management system using lamella settlers for clarification of the electrolyte and product separation. The design principles were validated in a series of experiments that, for the first time in the aluminum-air program, demonstrated continuous operation of an integrated system consisting of cells, crystallizer, and a product-removal system.

  13. Behavioural profiles in the mouse defence test battery suggest anxiolytic potential of 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, G; Rodgers, R J; Perrault, G; Sanger, D J

    1999-05-01

    Compounds varying in selectivity as 5-HT1A receptor antagonists have recently been reported to produce anxiolytic-like effects comparable to those of benzodiazepines in the mouse elevated plus-maze procedure. In view of the potential clinical significance of these findings, the present experiments compared the behavioural effects of diazepam (0.5-3.0 mg/kg) with those of several non-selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonists [NAN-190, 0.1-3.0 mg/kg, MM-77, 0.03-1.0 mg/kg, (S)-UH-301, 0.3-3.0 mg/kg and pindobind-5-HT1A, 0.03-1.0 mg/kg], and three selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonists (WAY100635, 0.01-3.0 mg/kg, p-MPPI, 0.1-3.0 mg/kg and SL88.0338, 0.3-3.0 mg/kg) in the mouse defence test battery (MDTB). In this well-validated anxiolytic screening test, Swiss mice are directly confronted with a natural threat (a rat) as well as situations associated with this threat. Primary measures taken during and after rat confrontation were flight, risk assessment (RA), defensive threat/attack and escape attempts. Diazepam significantly decreased flight reactions after the rat was introduced into the runway, reduced RA activities of mice chased by the rat, increased RA responses displayed when subjects were constrained in a straight alley and reduced defensive upright postures and biting upon forced contact. All the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonists and NAN-190 also reduced flight, RA in the chase test, and defensive threat and attack behaviours. (S)-UH-301 and pindobind-5-HT1A reduced RA in the chase test, but only partially modified defensive threat and attack. Unlike the other drugs tested, MM-77 produced significant effects only at doses which also markedly reduced spontaneous locomotor activity, suggesting a behaviourally non-specific action. In contrast to diazepam, the 5-HT1A receptor ligands failed to affect RA in the straight alley test. Following removal of the rat from the test area, only diazepam and (S)-UH-301 reduced escape behaviour (contextual defence) at doses

  14. Ethylbenzene-induced hearing loss, neurobehavioral function, and neurotransmitter alterations in petrochemical workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Yanrang; Wang, Qian; Yang, Deyi; Zhang, Jingshu; Wang, Fengshan; Gu, Qing

    2013-09-01

    To estimate hearing loss, neurobehavioral function, and neurotransmitter alteration induced by ethylbenzene in petrochemical workers. From two petrochemical plants, 246 and 307 workers exposed to both ethylbenzene and noise were recruited-290 workers exposed to noise only from a power station plant and 327 office personnel as control group, respectively. Hearing and neurobehavioral functions were evaluated. Serum neurotransmitters were also determined. The prevalence of hearing loss was much higher in petrochemical groups than that in power station and control groups (P workers (P hearing loss, neurobehavioral function impairment, and imbalance of neurotransmitters.

  15. Neurobehavioral toxicity in progeny of rat mothers exposed to methylmercury during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh N. Gandhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Methylmercury (MeHg is recognized as one of the most hazardous environmental pollutants. This may be a concern to long-term consumption of contaminated fish and seafood for health risk to pregnant women and their children. AIM: An animal study was conducted to assess the effect of MeHg exposure on rodent offspring following in utero exposure. METHODS: Pregnant Wister rats were treated by gavage with MeHg at dose levels of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg/day from gestation day (GD 5 till parturition, and then were allowed to deliver. RESULTS: Dams treated with 2.0 mg/kg/day MeHg group showed signs of toxicity such as gait alterations and hyperactivity resulting in the failure to deliver sustainable viable pups. MeHg had significant effects on body weight gain of dams during GD 5 till parturition. MeHg had no significant effects on the ages of physical developments such as pinna detachment, incisor eruptions or eye opening as well as alter cliff avoidance, surface righting, swimming ontogeny, startle reflex, pivoting, negative geotaxis, or forelimb and hindlimb grip strength in either sex. Exposure to 1.0 mg/kg/day MeHg treatment group prolonged gestation period, retard mid-air righting in male pups, shortened forelimb grip strength measured on rotating rod in either sex and enhanced open field behaviour in male pups. Data obtained from Functional Observation Battery (FOB also revealed impairment of neuromotor performance in male pups. The male pups appeared to be more susceptible than the female pups. CONCLUSION. Overall, the dose level of MeHg in the present study produced a few adverse effects on the neurobehavioral parameters, and it may alter neuromotor performance of the male pups.

  16. Development of a lifetime prediction model for lithium-ion batteries based on extended accelerated aging test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Madeleine; Gerschler, Jochen B.; Vogel, Jan; Käbitz, Stefan; Hust, Friedrich; Dechent, Philipp; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2012-10-01

    Battery lifetime prognosis is a key requirement for successful market introduction of electric and hybrid vehicles. This work aims at the development of a lifetime prediction approach based on an aging model for lithium-ion batteries. A multivariable analysis of a detailed series of accelerated lifetime experiments representing typical operating conditions in hybrid electric vehicle is presented. The impact of temperature and state of charge on impedance rise and capacity loss is quantified. The investigations are based on a high-power NMC/graphite lithium-ion battery with good cycle lifetime. The resulting mathematical functions are physically motivated by the occurring aging effects and are used for the parameterization of a semi-empirical aging model. An impedance-based electric-thermal model is coupled to the aging model to simulate the dynamic interaction between aging of the battery and the thermal as well as electric behavior. Based on these models different drive cycles and management strategies can be analyzed with regard to their impact on lifetime. It is an important tool for vehicle designers and for the implementation of business models. A key contribution of the paper is the parameterization of the aging model by experimental data, while aging simulation in the literature usually lacks a robust empirical foundation.

  17. National Field Testing of the "Mini" Version of the Transition Competence Battery for Adolescents and Young Adults Who Are Deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Reiman, John W.; Davis, Cheryl; Reid, Chris

    1997-01-01

    A study involving 593 students (ages 15-29) with deafness investigated the validity of a shortened version of the Transition Competence Battery for Deaf Adolescents and Young Adults (TCB). Overall results suggest that the "Mini" TCB is a viable assessment tool that can be used in transition assessment. (Author/CR)

  18. Quality Control of Lead-Acid Battery according to Its Condition Test for UPS Supplier and Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chih Hsiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of insufficient petroleum resources has forced human beings to emphasize the acquisition and storage of energy. To avoid such situation, this study tends to explore the effective management of lead-acid batteries for effective utilization conforming to the industrial requirements.

  19. Preliminary clinical study in patients with hemispatial neglect after stroke by neglect test battery and 99mTc-ECD single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Yafu; Li Xuena; Li Yaming; Gu Hui; Han Chunqi; Liu Hao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the presence, clinical characteristics, anatomical foci in image and mechanism of hemispatial neglect (HSN), neglect test battery and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) imaging were performed on patients with stroke. Methods: Thirty dextromanual patients who were diagnosed as having unilateral stroke clinically were recruited. A neglect test battery including line bisection test, star cancellation test and drawing test was performed on the subjects. The severity of neglect was measured on neglect tests. The lowest rCBF, the range with decreased rCBF, number of the foci with decreased rCBF, the flow deficit size and the total number of pixels in the foci were measured on SPECT rCBF imaging. Results: Twenty-five patients were diagnosed as having HSN by the neglect test battery. Contralateral neglect (CN) and ipsilateral neglect (IN) were observed in both right and left hemisphere strokes. On SPECT imaging, the patients with neglect had decreased rCBF in the frontal cortex most often; followed by the parietal, occipital and temporal cortices; and basal ganglia and thalamus in some cases. The patients who had two or more regions damaged showed neglect more often and severity. The correlation coefficients between rCBF in the foci, the decreased percentage of rCBF of the foci and the severity of neglect were -0.119 (P>.05) and 0.221 (P>.05). The correlation coefficients between the range, number of foci, the flow deficit size, the total number of pixels of the foci and the severity of neglect were 0.537 (P<.05), 0.493 (P<.05), 0.561 (P<.05), 0.466 (P<.05), respectively. No difference between CN and IN on SPECT images reached statistical significance. Conclusions: The severity of neglect did not correlate with rCBF and the decreased percentage of rCBF in the foci, while it was significantly correlated with the range, number of foci, the flow deficit size and the total numbers of pixels of the foci

  20. Predicting the neurobehavioral side effects of dexamethasone in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warris, Lidewij T.; van den Akker, Erica L. T.; Aarsen, Femke K.; Bierings, Marc B.; van den Bos, Cor; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Sassen, Sebastiaan D. T.; Veening, Margreet A.; Zwaan, Christian M.; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2016-01-01

    Although dexamethasone is an effective treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), it can induce a variety of serious neurobehavioral side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity at the tissue level. We therefore prospectively studied

  1. Practical Methods in Li-ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela

    This thesis presents, as a collection of papers, practical methods in Li-ion batteries for simplified modeling (Manuscript I and II), battery electric vehicle design (III), battery management system testing (IV and V) and balancing system control (VI and VII). • Manuscript I tackles methodologies...... to parameterize battery models based solely on manufacturer’s datasheets • Manuscript II presents a parameterization method for battery models based on the notion of direct current resistance • Manuscript III proposes a battery electric vehicle design that combines fixed and swappable packs • Manuscript IV...... develops a battery system model for battery management system testing on a hardware-in-the-loop simulator • Manuscript V extends the previous work, introducing theoretical principles and presenting a practical method to develop ad hoc software and strategies for testing • Manuscript VI presents...

  2. The Functional Fitness MOT Test Battery for Older Adults: Protocol for a Mixed-Method Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Lex D; Peters, Andy; Hooper, Julie; Chalmers, Nina; Henderson, Claire; Laventure, Robert Me; Skelton, Dawn A

    2016-06-20

    Increasing physical activity (PA) brings many health benefits, but engaging people in higher levels of PA after their 60s is not straightforward. The Functional Fitness MOT (FFMOT) is a new approach which aims to raise awareness about the importance of components of fitness (strength, balance, flexibility), highlight benefits of PA, engages older people in health behavior change discussions, and directs them to local activity resources. This battery of tests combined with a brief motivational interview has not been tested in terms of feasibility or effectiveness. To assess whether the FFMOT, provided in a health care setting, is appealing to older patients of a community physiotherapy service and to understand the views and perceptions of the older people undergoing the FFMOT regarding the intervention, as well as the views of the physiotherapy staff delivering the intervention. Secondary aims are to assess the feasibility of carrying out a phase 2 pilot randomized controlled trial of the FFMOT, in the context of a community physiotherapy service, by establishing whether enough patients can be recruited and retained in the study, and enough outcome data can be generated. A mixed-methods feasibility study will be conducted in two physiotherapy outpatient clinics in the United Kingdom. A total of 30 physically inactive, medically stable older adults over the age of 60 will be provided with an individual FFMOT, comprising a set of six standardized, validated, age-appropriate tests aimed at raising awareness of the different components of fitness. The results of these tests will be used to provide the participants with feedback on performance in comparison to sex and age-referenced norms. This will be followed by tailored advice on how to become more active and improve fitness, including advice on local opportunities to be more active. Subsequently, participants will be invited to attend a focus group to discuss barriers and motivators to being more active, health

  3. Long-lasting neurobehavioral effects of prenatal exposure to xylene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.

    1997-01-01

    The persistence of neurobehavioral effects in female rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) for 6 hours per day on days 7-20 of prenatal development was studied. The dose level was selected so as not to induce maternal toxicity or decreased viabili...... are planned to investigate whether neurobehavioral effects resulting from prenatal xylene exposure can interact with neurophysiological aging processes. (C) 1997 Inter Press, Inc....

  4. Cerebral oxygenation in the beach chair position for shoulder surgery in regional anesthesia: impact on cerebral blood flow and neurobehavioral outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, José A; Märzendorfer, Olivia; Brada, Muriel; Saporito, Andrea; Borgeat, Alain; Bühler, Philipp

    2016-12-01

    Beach chair position is considered a potential risk factor for central neurological events particularly if combined with low blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of regional anesthesia on cerebral blood flow and neurobehavioral outcome. This is a prospective, assessor-blinded observational study evaluating patients in the beach chair position undergoing shoulder surgery under regional anesthesia. University hospital operating room. Forty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists classes I-II physical status scheduled for elective shoulder surgery. Cerebral saturation and blood flow of the middle cerebral artery were measured prior to anesthesia and continued after beach chair positioning until discharge to the postanesthesia care unit. The anesthesiologist was blinded for these values. Controlled hypotension with systolic blood pressure≤100mm Hg was maintained during surgery. Neurobehavioral tests and values of regional cerebral saturation, bispectral index, the mean maximal blood flow of the middle cerebral artery, and invasive blood pressure were measured prior to regional anesthesia, and measurements were repeated after placement of the patient on the beach chair position and every 20 minutes thereafter until discharge to postanesthesia care unit. The neurobehavioral tests were repeated the day after surgery. The incidence of cerebral desaturation events was 5%. All patients had a significant blood pressure drop 5 minutes after beach chair positioning, measured at the heart as well as the acoustic meatus levels, when compared with baseline values (Psurgery (Pshoulder surgery had no major impact on cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygenation. However, some impact on neurobehavioral outcome 24 hours after surgery was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of vanadium flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project 'Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  6. A VRLA battery simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoe, Phillip E.; Anbuky, Adnan H.

    2004-01-01

    A valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery simulation model is an invaluable tool for the standby power system engineer. The obvious use for such a model is to allow the assessment of battery performance. This may involve determining the influence of cells suffering from state of health (SOH) degradation on the performance of the entire string, or the running of test scenarios to ascertain the most suitable battery size for the application. In addition, it enables the engineer to assess the performance of the overall power system. This includes, for example, running test scenarios to determine the benefits of various load shedding schemes. It also allows the assessment of other power system components, either for determining their requirements and/or vulnerabilities. Finally, a VRLA battery simulation model is vital as a stand alone tool for educational purposes. Despite the fundamentals of the VRLA battery having been established for over 100 years, its operating behaviour is often poorly understood. An accurate simulation model enables the engineer to gain a better understanding of VRLA battery behaviour. A system level multipurpose VRLA battery simulation model is presented. It allows an arbitrary battery (capacity, SOH, number of cells and number of strings) to be simulated under arbitrary operating conditions (discharge rate, ambient temperature, end voltage, charge rate and initial state of charge). The model accurately reflects the VRLA battery discharge and recharge behaviour. This includes the complex start of discharge region known as the coup de fouet

  7. A low pressure bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golben, M.; Nechev, K.; DaCosta, D.H.; Rosso, M.J.

    1997-12-01

    Ergenics is developing a low pressure high power rechargeable battery for electric vehicles and other large battery applications. The Hy-Stor{trademark} battery couples a bipolar nickel-hydrogen electrochemical system with the high energy storage density of metal hydride technology. In addition to its long cycle life, high specific power, and energy density, this battery offers safety and economic advantages over other rechargeable batteries. Results from preliminary testing of the first Hy-Stor battery are presented.

  8. Neurobehavioral morbidity associated with disordered breathing during sleep in children: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Dean W

    2006-09-01

    To comprehensively review research on the association between childhood sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and neurobehavioral functioning. Qualitative and quantitative literature review. N/A. N/A. N/A. The findings of 61 studies of the relationship between childhood SDB and neurobehavioral functioning were critically evaluated and synthesized. There is strong evidence that childhood SDB is associated with deficits in behavior and emotion regulation, scholastic performance, sustained attention, selective attention, and alertness. There is also evidence that SDB has minimal association with a child's typical mood, expressive language skills, visual perception, and working memory. Findings have been insufficient to draw conclusions about intelligence, memory, and some aspects of executive functioning. Mechanisms by which SDB might result in neurobehavioral morbidity are being explored, but clinical symptoms such as chronic snoring remain the best predictors of morbidity. Short-term SDB treatment outcome studies are encouraging, but the long-term outcomes are not known. Failing to treat SDB appears to leave children at risk for long-term neurobehavioral deficits. Childhood SDB is associated with neurobehavioral morbidity. Applying commonly used guidelines for causal inference, even in the absence of a much-needed randomized clinical trial, there is strong evidence of association, consistent findings, and specificity of effect. There is suggestive evidence that this association fits the expected temporal pattern and that SDB is a biologically plausible cause of neurobehavioral deficits. Clinicians should be alert to the coexistence of SDB symptoms and concerns about a child's academic progress, attention, arousal, or behavior or emotion regulation.

  9. Effects of perinatal coexposure to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls on neurobehavioral development in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Norio [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Environmental Health Sciences, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki (Japan); Ohba, Takashi; Nakai, Kunihiko; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Keita; Kameo, Satomi; Shimada, Miyuki; Kurokawa, Naoyuki; Satoh, Chieko; Satoh, Hiroshi [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Environmental Health Sciences, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Kakita, Akiyoshi [Niigata University, Department of Pathological Neuroscience, Resource Branch for Brain Disease Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants that cause neurobehavioral deficits in humans. Because exposures to MeHg and PCBs occur through fish consumption, it is necessary to clarify the effects of the interaction of the two pollutants. Therefore, we investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to MeHg and PCBs on the neurobehavioral development in mice. Female mice (C57BL/6Cr) were divided into four groups according to the type of exposure: (1) vehicle control, (2) MeHg alone, (3) PCBs alone, and (4) MeHg + PCBs. The MeHg-exposed groups were fed with a diet containing 5 ppm MeHg (as Hg), from 4 weeks before mating, throughout pregnancy, and lactation. The PCB-exposed groups were given a commercial mixture of PCBs, Aroclor 1254, at 18 mg/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage every 3 days from day 5 after breeding and continued until postnatal day (PND) 20. Before weaning, an assessment of eye opening showed the interactive effects between MeHg and PCBs on PND 12: The coexposure group showed a similar response to the control group, whereas the MeHg- and PCB-exposed groups showed a high response than the former two groups. We also observed delay in development of grasp reflex by MeHg exposure on PNDs 12 and 14. When the offspring mice were 8 weeks old, the group exposed to PCBs alone showed increases in the frequencies of excrement defecation and urine traces in an open-field test. Analysis of the latency revealed the antagonistic interaction between the MeHg and PCBs: The latency increased by either MeHg or PCB exposure was decreased by coexposure. Treatment with MeHg decreased the distance walked by the mice, and MeHg interacted with PCBs. Moris' water maze test showed that the MeHg-treated mice took a long time to reach the submerged platform; however, this MeHg exposure showed no interaction with PCB exposure. The spontaneous locomotion activity of the mice was not affected by the chemical exposure at 9 weeks of

  10. Gasoline-Engine Assembler (engine & turbine) 806.781; Internal-Combustion-Engine-Assembler (engine & turbine) 806.781; Outboard-Motor Assembler (engine & turbine) 806.781--Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  11. Neurobehavioral, reflexological and physical development of Wistar rat offspring exposed to ayahuasca during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage prepared by the decoction of plants native to the Amazon Basin region. The beverage has been used throughout the world by members of some syncretic religious movements. Despite the recent legalization of ayahuasca in Brazil for religious purposes, there is little pre-clinical and clinical information attesting to its safety, particularly in relation to the use during pregnancy. The aim of the current work was to determine the effects of perinatal exposure to ayahuasca (from the 6th day of pregnancy to the 10th day of lactation on physical, reflexology and neurobehavioral parameters of the Wistar rat offspring. The offspring showed no statistically significant changes in the physical and reflexology parameters evaluated. However, in adult rats, perinatally exposed to ayahuasca, an increase in frequency of entries in open arms in elevated plus-maze test, a decrease in total time of interaction in social interaction test, a decrease in time of latency for the animal to start swimming and a decrease of the minimum convulsant dose induced by pentylenetetrazol were observed. In conclusion, our results showed that the use of ayahuasca by mothers during pregnancy and lactation reduced the general anxiety and social motivation of the rat offspring. Besides, it promoted a higher sensitivity for initiation and spread of seizure activity.

  12. Neurobehavioral, reflexological and physical development of Wistar rat offspring exposed to ayahuasca during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage prepared by the decoction of plants native to the Amazon Basin region. The beverage has been used throughout the world by members of some syncretic religious movements. Despite the recent legalization of ayahuasca in Brazil for religious purposes, there is little pre-clinical and clinical information attesting to its safety, particularly in relation to the use during pregnancy. The aim of the current work was to determine the effects of perinatal exposure to ayahuasca (from the 6th day of pregnancy to the 10th day of lactation on physical, reflexology and neurobehavioral parameters of the Wistar rat offspring. The offspring showed no statistically significant changes in the physical and reflexology parameters evaluated. However, in adult rats, perinatally exposed to ayahuasca, an increase in frequency of entries in open arms in elevated plus-maze test, a decrease in total time of interaction in social interaction test, a decrease in time of latency for the animal to start swimming and a decrease of the minimum convulsant dose induced by pentylenetetrazol were observed. In conclusion, our results showed that the use of ayahuasca by mothers during pregnancy and lactation reduced the general anxiety and social motivation of the rat offspring. Besides, it promoted a higher sensitivity for initiation and spread of seizure activity.

  13. Neurobehavioral development of CD-1 mice after combined gestational and postnatal exposure to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell` Omo, G [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Fiore, M [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Petruzzi, S [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Alleva, E [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Bignami, G [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    Outbred CD-1 mice were exposed continuously to ozone (O{sub 3}, 0.6 ppm) from 6 days prior to the formation of breeding pairs to the time of weaning of the offspring on postnatal day 22 (PND 22) or to PND 26. One half of the mice in each of eight O{sub 3} and eight control litters were subjected on PND 24 to a 20-min open-field test after IP treatment by either saline or scopolamine (2 mg/kg). The remaining mice (those exposed until PND 26) were subjected on PNDs 28-31 to a conditioned place preference (CPP) test, using a short schedule with a single IP injection on PND 29 of either d-amphetamine (3.3 mg/kg) or saline. Subsequently, the saline mice of the open-field experiment were used on PND 59 for an activity test in one of the CPP apparatus compartments after IP treatment by either d-amphetamine (same dose) or saline. In addition, the saline mice of the CPP experiment underwent a multitrial, step-through passive avoidance (PA) acquisition test on PND 59 or 60, followed 24 h later by a single-trial retention test. In the absence of effects on reproductive performance (proportion of successful pregnancies, litter size, offspring viability, and sex ratio), O{sub 3} offspring showed a long-lasting reduction in body weight without modification of sec differences. Ozone effects on neurobehavioral development were not large and quite selective, including: attenuation of the sex differences in several responses (rearing and sniffing in the open-field, activity in the final CPP test session); a change in response choices in the final CPP test, in the absence of a main effect on conditioning; a reduction of grooming in the activity test on PND 29; and impairment of PA acquisition limited to the initial period of training. (orig.)

  14. Neurobehavioral development of CD-1 mice after combined gestational and postnatal exposure to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Omo, G; Fiore, M; Petruzzi, S; Alleva, E; Bignami, G

    1995-01-01

    Outbred CD-1 mice were exposed continuously to ozone (O3, 0.6 ppm) from 6 days prior to the formation of breeding pairs to the time of weaning of the offspring on postnatal day 22 (PND 22) or to PND 26. One half of the mice in each of eight O3 and eight control litters were subjected on PND 24 to a 20-min open-field test after IP treatment by either saline or scopolamine (2 mg/kg). The remaining mice (those exposed until PND 26) were subjected on PNDs 28-31 to a conditioned place preference (CPP) test, using a short schedule with a single IP injection on PND 29 of either d-amphetamine (3.3 mg/kg) or saline. Subsequently, the saline mice of the open-field experiment were used on PND 59 for an activity test in one of the CPP apparatus compartments after IP treatment by either d-amphetamine (same dose) or saline. In addition, the saline mice of the CPP experiment underwent a multi-trial, step-through passive avoidance (PA) acquisition test on PND 59 or 60, followed 24 h later by a single-trial retention test. In the absence of effects on reproductive performance (proportion of successful pregnancies, litter size, offspring viability, and sex ratio), O3 offspring showed a long-lasting reduction in body weight without modification of sex differences. Ozone effects on neurobehavioral development were not large and quite selective, including: attenuation of the sex differences in several responses (rearing and sniffing in the open-field, activity in the final CPP test session); a change in response choices in the final CPP test, in the absence of a main effect on conditioning; a reduction of grooming in the activity test on PND 29; and impairment of PA acquisition limited to the initial period of training.

  15. Slim Battery Modelling Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Prevot, D.

    2011-10-01

    Saft has developed a life prediction model for VES and MPS cells and batteries. The Saft Li-ion Model (SLIM) is a macroscopic electrochemical model based on energy (global at cell level). The main purpose is to predict the battery performances during the life for GEO, MEO and LEO missions. This model is based on electrochemical characteristics such as Energy, Capacity, EMF, Internal resistance, end of charge voltage. It uses fading and calendar law effects on energy and internal impedance vs. time, temperature, End of Charge voltage. Based on the mission profile, satellite power system characteristics, the model proposes the various battery configurations. For each configuration, the model gives the battery performances using mission figures and profiles: power, duration, DOD, end of charge voltages, temperatures during eclipses and solstices, thermal dissipations and cell failures. For the GEO/MEO missions, eclipse and solstice periods can include specific profile such as plasmic propulsion fires and specific balancing operations. For LEO missions, the model is able to simulate high power peaks to predict radar pulses. Saft's main customers have been using the SLIM model available in house for two years. The purpose is to have the satellite builder power engineers able to perform by themselves in the battery pre-dimensioning activities their own battery simulations. The simulations can be shared with Saft engineers to refine the power system designs. This model has been correlated with existing life and calendar tests performed on all the VES and MPS cells. In comparing with more than 10 year lasting life tests, the accuracy of the model from a voltage point of view is less than 10 mV at end Of Life. In addition, thethe comparison with in-orbit data has been also done. b This paper will present the main features of the SLIM software and outputs comparison with real life tests. b0

  16. Branched-chain amino acids alter neurobehavioral function in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Anna; Wenner, Brett R.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Stevens, Robert D.; Maggioni, Mauro; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Levin, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we have described a strong association of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and aromatic amino acids (AAA) with obesity and insulin resistance. In the current study, we have investigated the potential impact of BCAA on behavioral functions. We demonstrate that supplementation of either a high-sucrose or a high-fat diet with BCAA induces anxiety-like behavior in rats compared with control groups fed on unsupplemented diets. These behavioral changes are associated with a significant decrease in the concentration of tryptophan (Trp) in brain tissues and a consequent decrease in serotonin but no difference in indices of serotonin synaptic function. The anxiety-like behaviors and decreased levels of Trp in the brain of BCAA-fed rats were reversed by supplementation of Trp in the drinking water but not by administration of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, suggesting that the behavioral changes are independent of the serotonergic pathway of Trp metabolism. Instead, BCAA supplementation lowers the brain levels of another Trp-derived metabolite, kynurenic acid, and these levels are normalized by Trp supplementation. We conclude that supplementation of high-energy diets with BCAA causes neurobehavioral impairment. Since BCAA are elevated spontaneously in human obesity, our studies suggest a potential mechanism for explaining the strong association of obesity and mood disorders. PMID:23249694

  17. Perspectives on stress resilience and adolescent neurobehavioral function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Russell D

    2015-01-01

    Interest in adolescence as a crucial stage of neurobehavioral maturation is growing, as is the concern of how stress may perturb this critical period of development. Though it is well recognized that stress-related vulnerabilities increase during adolescence, not all adolescent individuals are uniformly affected by stress nor do stressful experiences inevitability lead to negative outcomes. Indeed, many adolescents show resilience to stress-induced dysfunctions. However, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms that may mediate resilience to stress in adolescence. The goal of this brief review is to bring together a few separate, yet related lines of research that highlight specific variables that may influence stress resilience during adolescence, including early life programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, stress inoculation, and genetic predisposition. Though we are far from a clear understanding of the factors that mediate resistance to stress-induced dysfunctions, it is imperative that we identify and delineate these aspects of resilience to help adolescents reach their full potential, even in the face of adversity.

  18. Perspectives on stress resilience and adolescent neurobehavioral function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell D. Romeo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in adolescence as a crucial stage of neurobehavioral maturation is growing, as is the concern of how stress may perturb this critical period of development. Though it is well recognized that stress-related vulnerabilities increase during adolescence, not all adolescent individuals are uniformly affected by stress nor do stressful experiences inevitability lead to negative outcomes. Indeed, many adolescents show resilience to stress-induced dysfunctions. However, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms that may mediate resilience to stress in adolescence. The goal of this brief review is to bring together a few separate, yet related lines of research that highlight specific variables that may influence stress resilience during adolescence, including early life programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, stress inoculation, and genetic predisposition. Though we are far from a clear understanding of the factors that mediate resistance to stress-induced dysfunctions, it is imperative that we identify and delineate these aspects of resilience to help adolescents reach their full potential, even in the face of adversity.

  19. Assessment of cognition using the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests on a group of Brazilian patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the cognition of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS using the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRB-N. METHOD: BRB-N was translated and adapted for control subjects. Subsequently, it was applied to a group of patients with relapsing-remitting (RR MS. RESULTS: The assessment on the healthy controls (n=47 showed that the correlation between tests on the same cognitive domain was high and that there was a five-factor solution that explained 90% of the total variance. Except for the Word List Generation subset of tests, the performance of patients with RRMS (n=39 was worse than that of the healthy controls. CONCLUSION: BRB-N is a relatively simple method to assess cognition of patients with MS in the daily clinic. It does not take long to apply and does not require special skills or equipment.

  20. Pediatric neurobehavioral diseases in Nevada counties with respect to perchlorate in drinking water: an ecological inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Soju; Crothers, Carol; Lai, Shenghan; Lamm, Steven

    2003-10-01

    Contamination of drinking water with perchlorate, a known thyrotropic agent, has been demonstrated in areas in the western United States. The health consequences of that exposure have been studied, particularly in the State of Nevada. Previous studies in Nevada, comparing the area with perchlorate in the drinking water and the areas without perchlorate in the drinking water, have found no difference in neonatal thyroxine (T(4)) or thyrotropin (TSH) levels, or in the prevalences of thyroid diseases and thyroid cancer. This same study design has now been applied to the major neurobehavioral diseases of childhood (i.e., attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism) and to school performance in order to determine whether those conditions are more frequent in the area with perchlorate-contaminated water. Medical services data on ADHD and autism were obtained from the Nevada Medicaid system for the period of January 1, 1996, to December 31, 2000, with county of residence used as the basis for residential information. Analyses of fourth-grade school performance results for two recent time periods came from the state government. Perchlorate concentrations in drinking water had been determined by local water authorities. ADHD and autism rates for the area with perchlorate in the drinking water (Clark County) were calculated and compared with the rates for the other areas in the state, as were fourth-grade school performances. Analysis of the data from the Nevada Medicaid program shows that the rates for ADHD and for autism in the area where perchlorate was in the drinking water did not exceed the rates in those areas where there was no perchlorate contamination in the drinking water. Fourth-grade standardized test results for students in Clark County were not different from those of the remainder of the state. This ecological study of children in the exposure area did not find evidence of an increased risk of either ADHD or of autism caused by perchlorate

  1. Battery of Pedagogical Test to evaluate the preparation of the boxers (1st category of the Academy of Havana during the 2016 ATR structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Liuban Alvarado Castillo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the technical-methodological experiences in the application of a battery of Pedagogical Test to the provincial selection of boxing of the first category belonging to the Academy of Havana during the Macrocycle 2016. Theoretical, empirical and statistical methods were used., as were the logical historical method, inductive deductive, synthesis analysis, observation, interview, measurement, pre experiment and descriptive statistics. In addition, we worked with 100% of the population. The dates of the fundamental competitions, both national and international, in which the team was called to obtain positive results in the "Roberto Balado" International Cup, the National Boxing League and the National Tournament, were taken into consideration for said investigation. "Playa Girón", fundamental events of the season. The studied population was 28 boxers belonging to the Provincial Seniors Selection. Due to the application of the Pedagogical Test battery, it was possible to evaluate the level of preparation achieved by the sample investigated during the development of the ATR structure (Accumulation-Transformation-Realization. All of which allowed to have more control and precision during the planning of each of the training directions during the stage of the investigation.

  2. Development of an in vitro test battery for assessing chemical effects on bovine germ cells under the ReProTect umbrella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzari, Giovanna; Tessaro, Irene; Crotti, Gabriella; Galli, Cesare; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Bremer, Susanne; Pellizzer, Cristian

    2008-01-01

    Current European legislation for the registration and authorisation of chemicals (REACH) will require a dramatic increase in the use of animals for reproductive toxicity testing. Since one objective of REACH is to use vertebrates only as last resort, the development and validation of alternative methods is urgently needed. For this purpose ReProTect, an integrated research project funded by the European Union, joining together 33 partners with complementary expertise in reproductive toxicology, was designed. The study presented here describes a battery of two tests developed within ReProTect. The objective of these tests is the detection of chemical effects during the processes of oocyte maturation and fertilisation in a bovine model. The corresponding toxicological endpoints are the reaching of metaphase II and the formation of the pronuclei respectively. Fifteen chemicals have been tested (Benzo[a]pyrene, Busulfan, Butylparaben, Cadmium Chloride, Carbendazim, Cycloheximide, Diethylstilbestrol, Genistein, Ionomycin, Ketoconazole, Lindane, Methylacetoacetate, Mifepristone, Nocodazole and DMSO as solvent) demonstrating high intra-laboratory reproducibility of the tests. Furthermore, the responses obtained in both tests, for several substances, had a good correlation with the available in vivo and in vitro data. These tests therefore, could predictably become part of an integrated testing strategy that combines the bovine models with additional in vitro tests, in order to predict chemical hazards on mammalian fertility

  3. Performance of middle-aged and elderly European minority and majority populations on a Cross-Cultural Neuropsychological Test Battery (CNTB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Segers, Kurt; Vanderaspoilden, Valérie; Bekkhus-Wetterberg, Peter; Minthon, Lennart; Pissiota, Anna; Bjørkløf, Guro Hanevold; Beinhoff, Ulrike; Tsolaki, Magda; Gkioka, Mara; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2018-01-24

    The aim of this study was to examine test performance on a cross-cultural neuropsychological test battery for assessment of middle-aged and elderly ethnic minority and majority populations in western Europe, and to present preliminary normative data. The study was a cross-sectional multi-center study. Tests in the European Cross-Cultural Neuropsychological Test Battery (CNTB) cover several cognitive domains, including global cognitive function, memory, executive functions, and visuospatial functions. A total of 330 participants were included: 14 Moroccan, 45 Pakistani/Indian Punjabi, 41 Polish, 66 Turkish, and 19 former Yugoslavian minority participants, and 145 western European majority participants. Significant differences between ethnic groups were found on most CNTB measures. However, ethnic groups differed greatly in demographic characteristics and differences in test scores were mainly related to educational differences, explaining an average of 15% of the variance. Preliminary multicultural CNTB normative data dichotomized by education and age were constructed using overlapping cells. Applying this normative data across the whole sample resulted in an acceptable number of participants scoring in the impaired range across all ethnic groups. Factor analyses found the CNTB to have a stable and clinically meaningful factor structure. The CNTB represents the first European joint effort to establish neuropsychological measures appropriate for ethnic minority populations in western Europe. The CNTB can be applied in approximately 60 min, covers several cognitive domains, and appears appropriate for assessment of the targeted populations. However, due to the small sample size in some ethnic groups further studies are needed replicate and support this.

  4. Reliability Assessment of the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA) in Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    multiple automated cognitive tests, data management and reporting capabilities, and executive menu. The DANA battery was given on a Trimble NOMAD ...handheld computing device using a stylus for consistency. The NOMAD runs a custom version of the Android Operating System and has a color 3.5 inch... digit pairs are shown below a key, & the participant indicates it matches the one in the key. PRO This test targets decision-making capabilities

  5. Neurobehavioral observation and hearing impairment in children at school age in eastern Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovcikova, E.; Trnovec, T.; Petrik, J.; Kocan, A.; Drobna, B.; Wimmerova, S.; Wsolova, L. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Hustak, M. [Air Force Military Hospital, Kosice (Slovakia)

    2004-09-15

    Neurotoxicity of PCBs has been reported in humans and confirmed in animal studies. It was shown that PCBs can alter a number of developmental physiological processes in which the thyroid plays an essential role. In children, the prenatal exposure to PCBs was associated with reduced birth weight and poor recognition memory. In children with longer duration of breast feeding implying higher PCB exposure, altered behavior, lengthening of psychomotor activities, worse attention, and worse memory performance were found. The so far published data on the association between PCBs exposure and hearing were based mainly on animal observations. Low-frequency auditory impairments have been documented in PCB exposed rats, including elevated behavioral auditory thresholds, decreased amplitude and prolonged latency auditory evoked brain stem responses. Two papers were related to humans only. The first one reported PCB-associated increased thresholds at two out of eight frequencies on audiometry, but only on the left side, and no deficits on evoked potentials or contrast sensitivity in 7-year-old children prenatally exposed to seafood neurotoxicants. The other paper was focused on hearing impairments in boys of fish-eating mothers, but no individual PCB exposure data were available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between exposure to PCBs and health outcomes assessed, as performance in neurobehavioral tests, thyroid hormones production and hearing status. Selected confounder factors such as heavy metals and health/social background of development in children were also taken into consideration.

  6. Relationship Between Iodine Concentration in Maternal Colostrum and Neurobehavioral Development of Infants in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meiqin; Wu, Deqing; Wu, Wei; Li, Hui; Cao, Lulu; Xu, Jian; Yu, Xiaodan; Bian, Xiaoyan; Yan, Chonghuai; Wang, Weiye

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that iodine plays an important role in the process of early growth and development of most organs, especially the brain. However, iodine concentration in the colostrum and its association with the neurobehavioral development of infants remains unclear. Colostrums from 150 women were collected, and their iodine concentrations were measured. The median colostrum iodine level was 187.8 μg/L. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III test was performed when the infants were about 18 months. The mean cognitive, language, and motor composite scores were 105.3 ± 9.8, 105.2 ± 11.1, and 104.6 ± 6.7, respectively. And the mean scores of the 5 subtests were 11.1 ± 2.0, 9.3 ± 2.0, 12.4 ± 2.3, 11.1 ± 1.2, and 10.4 ± 1.2, respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed in the cognition, language, or motor development of infants across different levels of colostrum iodine. After adjusting for a range of confounding factors, colostrum iodine concentration was a predictor of motor development, specifically gross motor development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Effects of maternal separation on the neurobehavioral development of newborn Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Jozsef; Reglodi, Dora; Gaszner, Balazs; Szogyi, Donat; Horvath, Gabor; Lubics, Andrea; Tamas, Andrea; Frank, Falko; Besirevic, Dario; Kiss, Peter

    2009-05-29

    Animal models of neonatal stress, like maternal separation, may provide important correlation with human stress-related disorders. Early maternal deprivation has been shown to cause several short- and long-term neurochemical and behavioral deficits. Little is known about the early neurobehavioral development after postnatal stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the development of reflexes and motor coordination in male and female pups subjected to maternal deprivation. Pups were removed from their mothers from postnatal day 1-14, for 3h daily. Somatic development (weight gain, eye opening, ear unfolding, incisor eruption) and reflex development was tested during the first 3 weeks. The appearance of the following reflexes was investigated: crossed extensor, grasping, placing, gait, righting and sensory reflexes, and negative geotaxis. Timely performance of negative geotaxis, righting and gait were also tested daily during the first 3 weeks. Motor coordination and open-field tests were performed on postnatal weeks 3-5 (rotarod, elevated grid-walk, footfault, rope suspension, inclined board and walk initiation tests). The results revealed that a 3-h-long daily maternal separation did not lead to a marked delay or enhancement in reflex development and motor coordination. A subtle enhancement was observed in the appearance of hindlimb grasp and gait reflexes, and a better performance in footfault test in male rats suffering from maternal deprivation. In contrast, female maternally deprived (MD) rats displayed a slight delay in forelimb grasp and air righting reflex appearance, and surface righting performance. Open-field activity was not changed in maternally deprived rats. In summary, our present observations indicate that maternal deprivation does not induce drastic changes in early neurodevelopment, therefore, further research is needed to determine the onset of behavioral alterations in subject with maternal deprivation history. Gender differences

  8. The BEVPS: A new test battery to assess visual perceptual and spatial processing abilities in 5-14 year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmetz, Emilie; Rousselle, Laurence; Ballaz, Cécile; Detraux, Jean-Jacques; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2017-06-20

    This study aims to examine the different levels of visual perceptual object recognition (early, intermediate, and late) defined in Humphreys and Riddoch's model as well as basic visual spatial processing in children using a new test battery (BEVPS). It focuses on the age sensitivity, internal coherence, theoretical validity, and convergent validity of this battery. French-speaking, typically developing children (n = 179; 5 to 14 years) were assessed using 15 new computerized subtests. After selecting the most age-sensitive tasks though ceiling effect and correlation analyses, an exploratory factorial analysis was run with the 12 remaining subtests to examine the BEVPS' theoretical validity. Three separate factors were identified for the assessment of the stimuli's basic features (F1, four subtests), view-dependent and -independent object representations (F2, six subtests), and basic visual spatial processing (F3, two subtests). Convergent validity analyses revealed positive correlations between F1 and F2 and the Beery-VMI visual perception subtest, while no such correlations were found for F3. Children's performances progressed until the age of 9-10 years in F1 and in view-independent representations (F2), and until 11-12 years in view-dependent representations (F2). However, no progression with age was observed in F3. Moreover, the selected subtests, present good-to-excellent internal consistency, which indicates that they provide reliable measures for the assessment of visual perceptual processing abilities in children.

  9. Effect of lead acetate on neurobehavioral development of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello C.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of lead exposure during the pre- and postnatal period on the neurobehavioral development of female Wistar rats (70-75 days of age, 120-150 g using a protocol of lead intoxication that does not affect weight gain. Wistar rats were submitted to lead acetate intoxication by giving their dams 1.0 mM lead acetate. Control dams received deionized water. Growth and neuromotor development were assessed by monitoring daily the following parameters in 20 litters: body weight, ear unfolding, incisor eruption, eye opening, righting, palmar grasp, negative geotaxis, cliff avoidance and startle reflex. Spontaneous alternation was assessed on postnatal day 17 using a T maze. The animals' ability to equilibrate on a beaker rim was measured on postnatal day 19. Lead intoxication was confirmed by measuring renal, hepatic and cerebral lead concentration in dams and litters. Lead treatment hastened the day of appearance of the following parameters: eye opening (control: 13.5 ± 0.6, N = 88; lead: 12.9 ± 0.6, N = 72; P<0.05, startle reflex (control: 13.0 ± 0.8, N = 88; lead: 12.0 ± 0.7, N = 72; P<0.05 and negative geotaxis. On the other hand, spontaneous alternation performance was hindered in lead-exposed animals (control: 37.6 ± 19.7; lead: 57.5 ± 28.3% of alternating animals; P<0.05. These results suggest that lead exposure without concomitant undernutrition alters rat development, affecting specific subsets of motor skills.

  10. A comparative, developmental and clinical perspective of neurobehavioral sexual dimorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Paz eViveros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological mechanisms involved in sexual differentiation of the central nervous system will be presented with a comparative view across vertebrates. Women and men differ in a wide variety of behavioral traits and in the probabilities of developing certain mental disorders. A brief overview of sex-chromosome pathways underlying sexual dimorphisms will be provided. We will describe most common brain phenotypes derived in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging, discuss the challenges in interpreting these phenotypes vis-à-vis the underlying neurobiology and revise the known sex differences in brain structure from birth, through adolescence, to adulthood. Clinical and epidemiological data indicate important sex differences in the prevalence, course, and expression of psychopathologies such as schizophrenia, and mood disorders including major depression and bipolar illness. Recent evidence implies that mood disorders and psychosis share some common genetic predispositions, as well as some neurobiological basis. Therefore, modern research is emphasizing dimensional representation of mental disorders and conceptualization of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression as a continuum of cognitive deficits and neurobiological abnormalities. Herein, we have examined available evidence on cerebral sexual dimorphism in all three conditions to verify if sex differences vary quantitatively and/or qualitatively along the psychoses-depression continuum. Sex differences in posttraumatic disorders prevalence have also been described, thus data on differences at genomic and molecular levels will be considered. Finally, we will discuss the important contribution - advantages and limitations - of animal models in the investigation of underlying mechanisms of neurobehavioral sex differences in neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug dependence, with special emphasis in experimental models based on the neurodevelopmental and three hits hypotheses.

  11. Aging investigations of a lithium-ion battery electrolyte from a field-tested hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützke, Martin; Kraft, Vadim; Hoffmann, Björn; Klamor, Sebastian; Diekmann, Jan; Kwade, Arno; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    The electrolyte of a used lithium-ion battery from a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) was investigated. The liquid electrolyte was collected through the pressure valve of these 5 Ah cells. It consists of (29.8 ± 0.2) wt.% dimethyl carbonate (DMC), (21.7 ± 0.1) wt.% ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), (30.3 ± 0.3) wt.% ethylene carbonate (EC) and (2.2 ± 0.1) wt.% cyclohexyl benzene (CHB) which were identified with GC-MS and quantified with GC-FID. Li+ (1.29 ± 0.04) mol L-1 and PF6- were determined with IC as the main ionic species in the solution. Furthermore, BF4- was clearly identified with IC-ESI-MS, IC-ICP-MS and 11B NMR and quantified to a concentration of (120.8 ± 8.3) mg L-1 with ICP-OES. The presence of POF3 (detected with GC-MS), F-, PO2F2-, HPO3F- and H2PO4- (determined with IC-ESI-MS) can be attributed to the reaction of the conducting salt LiPF6 via PF5 with traces of water. HPO3F- and H2PO4- could only be observed in cells which were opened in a laboratory hood under exposure of air humidity. This experiment was done to simulate escaping electrolyte from an HEV battery pack. Furthermore, several alkyl phosphates (identified with GC-MS and IC-ESI-MS) are present in the solution due to further reaction of the different fluorinated phosphates with organic carbonates.

  12. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  13. [Discriminatory validity and association of the mini-mental test (MMSE) and the memory alteration test (M@T) with a neuropsychological battery in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami, L; Bosch, B; Valls-Pedret, C; Caprile, C; Sánchez-Valle Díaz, R; Molinuevo, J L

    To establish the discriminatory validity of the mini-mental test (MMSE) and the memory alteration test (M@T) for the diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), and also to study the association between the results obtained in screening tests, a neuropsychological battery and a functional questionnaire in healthy persons and in patients with aMCI and AD. We evaluated 27 normal controls, 27 patients with aMCI and 35 patients with AD using the MMSE and a memory screening test, the M@T, a neuropsychological battery and a questionnaire on functional activities of daily living. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the relations between the scores on the M@T and the MMSE and the neuropsychological tests. The area below the curve, the sensitivity and the specificity were calculated for the screening tests. In patients with aMCI, the scores on the M@T and the MMSE were strongly associated with the performance in the episodic memory tests in frontal tests and with the scores on the functional questionnaire, but not with tests that evaluated praxias and perceptive functions. In patients with AD, the scores on the M@T and the MMSE were associated with results in semantic memory, language, executive functions and praxias, but not with perceptive tests and functional questionnaires. In patients with aMCI and AD, the association between MMSE and M@T only correlate with some cognitive functions, without there being any association with other cognitive functions. Therefore, screening tests cannot be used as the only instrument for evaluating the cognitive status in patients with suspected dementia.

  14. Validação da bateria "Beck" de testes de habilidades para atletas brasileiros de "rugby" em cadeira de rodas Validation of beck battery of skills tests to Brazilian players of wheelchair rugby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Irineu Gorla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O "Rugby" em Cadeira de Rodas é uma modalidade praticada por sujeitos com tetraplegia ou tetra-equivalência, desde 2005 no Brasil, onde existem aproximadamente 10 equipes em atividade. A avaliação motora é um dos meios de controle do treinamento que possibilita conquistar avanços no planejamento. A bateria "Beck" de testes de habilidades (manejo de bola, precisão de passes, bloqueio, velocidade e passes de longa distância para atletas da modalidade foi desenvolvida nos EUA por Yilla e Sherrill (1998. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os critérios de autenticidade científica da bateria para a população de atletas brasileiros. Os resultados de duas avaliações com a bateria (teste e re-teste realizadas com 11 atletas (média de idade 27,59 ± 5,37 anos, tempo de lesão 8,19 ± 3,83 anos, foram registrados por três avaliadores, o que possibilitou a análise de objetividade, fidedignidade e consistência interna. Foram utilizadas as ferramentas ANOVA para análise de objetividade e, coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e teste t para análise de fidedignidade e consistência. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os resultados dos diferentes avaliadores (valores de p variando de 0,45 a 1,00 e os valores de correlação intraclasse encontrados (variação de r de 0,78 a 0,99 permitem concluir que a bateria é consistente e fidedigna. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo são evidências de que os critérios de autenticidade científica para a bateria são satisfeitos e a bateria pode ser considerada um instrumento válido para avaliação motora de atletas brasileiros de "rugby" em cadeira de rodas.The Wheelchair Rugby is a sport practiced by subjects with tetraplegia or tetra-equivalence, since 2005 in Brazil, where there are approximately 10 teams in business. The motricity evaluation is a means of training control that allows achieve real progress in planning. The BECK battery of skills tests (ball handling, precision

  15. The Earth Observing System (EOS) nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles W.

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Earth Observing System (EOS) nickel hydrogen battery. Information is given on the life evaluation test, cell characteristics, acceptance and characterization tests, and the battery system description.

  16. NIH EXAMINER: conceptualization and development of an executive function battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Joel H; Mungas, Dan; Possin, Katherine L; Rankin, Katherine P; Boxer, Adam L; Rosen, Howard J; Bostrom, Alan; Sinha, Lena; Berhel, Ashley; Widmeyer, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Executive functioning is widely targeted when human cognition is assessed, but there is little consensus on how it should be operationalized and measured. Recognizing the difficulties associated with establishing standard operational definitions of executive functioning, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke entered into a contract with the University of California-San Francisco to develop psychometrically robust executive measurement tools that would be accepted by the neurology clinical trials and clinical research communities. This effort, entitled Executive Abilities: Measures and Instruments for Neurobehavioral Evaluation and Research (EXAMINER), resulted in a series of tasks targeting working memory, inhibition, set shifting, fluency, insight, planning, social cognition and behavior. We describe battery conceptualization and development, data collection, scale construction based on item response theory, and lay the foundation for studying the battery's utility and validity for specific assessment and research goals.

  17. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  18. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Power Systems Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Cindy H.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides a detailed description of the Johnson Space Center's Power Systems Facility located in the Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Facilities and the resources used to support power and battery systems testing are also shown. The contents include: 1) Power Testing; 2) Power Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 3) Source/Load; 4) Battery Facilities; 5) Battery Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 6) Battery Testing; 7) Performance Test Equipment; 8) Battery Test Environments; 9) Battery Abuse Chambers; 10) Battery Abuse Capabilities; and 11) Battery Test Area Resources.

  19. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  20. Exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide during pregnancy and lactation induces neurobehavioral alterations in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Cristina E; Bartos, Mariana; Bras, Cristina; Gumilar, Fernanda; Antonelli, Marta C; Minetti, Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    The impact of sub-lethal doses of herbicides on human health and the environment is a matter of controversy. Due to the fact that evidence particularly of the effects of glyphosate on the central nervous system of rat offspring by in utero exposure is scarce, the purpose of the present study was to assess the neurobehavioral effects of chronic exposure to a glyphosate-containing herbicide during pregnancy and lactation. To this end, pregnant Wistar rats were exposed through drinking water to 0.2% or 0.4% of a commercial formulation of glyphosate (corresponding to a concentration of 0.65 or 1.30g/L of glyphosate, respectively) during pregnancy and lactation and neurobehavioral alterations in offspring were analyzed. The postnatal day on which each pup acquired neonatal reflexes (righting, cliff aversion and negative geotaxis) and that on which eyes and auditory canals were fully opened were recorded for the assessment of sensorimotor development. Locomotor activity and anxiety levels were monitored via open field test and plus maze test, respectively, in 45- and 90-day-old offspring. Pups exposed to a glyphosate-based herbicide showed early onset of cliff aversion reflex and early auditory canal opening. A decrease in locomotor activity and in anxiety levels was also observed in the groups exposed to a glyphosate-containing herbicide. Findings from the present study reveal that early exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide affects the central nervous system in rat offspring probably by altering mechanisms or neurotransmitter systems that regulate locomotor activity and anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Paradoxical Neurobehavioral Rescue by Memories of Early-Life Abuse: The Safety Signal Value of Odors Learned during Abusive Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood—in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70–90 Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320

  2. Paradoxical neurobehavioral rescue by memories of early-life abuse: the safety signal value of odors learned during abusive attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-03-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90 Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation.

  3. Battery model for electrical power system energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A model to simulate nickel-cadmium battery performance and response in a spacecraft electrical power system energy balance calculation was developed. The voltage of the battery is given as a function of temperature, operating depth-of-charge (DOD), and battery state-of-charge. Also accounted for is charge inefficiency. A battery is modeled by analysis of the results of a multiparameter battery cycling test at various temperatures and DOD's.

  4. Lithium-thionyl chloride batteries - past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, J.F.; Lund, T.J.; Sturgeon, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    Lithium based batteries have the highest theoretical energy density of known battery types. Of the lithium batteries, the lithium-thionyl chloride electrochemistry has the highest energy density of those which have been reduced to practice. The characteristics, development status, and performance of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are treated in this paper. Safety aspects of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are discussed along with impressive results of hazard/safety tests of these batteries. An orderly development plan of a minimum family of standard cells to avoid a proliferation of battery sizes and discharge rates is presented.

  5. Effect of methylphenidate on neurocognitive test battery: an evaluation according to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Sibel; Ercan, Eyup Sabri; Ardic, Ulku Akyol; Yuce, Deniz; Ercan, Elif; Ipci, Melis

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the neuropsychological characteristics of the restrictive (R) subtype according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition and the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined (CB) type and predominantly inattentive (PI) type subtypes and to evaluate whether methylphenidate (MPH) affects neurocognitive test battery scores according to these subtypes. This study included 360 children and adolescents (277 boys, 83 girls) between 7 and 15 years of age who had been diagnosed with ADHD and compared the neuropsychological characteristics and MPH treatment responses of patients with the R subtype-which has been suggested for inclusion among the ADHD subtypes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-with those of patients with the PI and CB subtypes. They did not differ from the control subjects in the complex attention domain, which includes Continuous Performance Test, Stroop test, and Shifting Attention Test, which suggests that the R subtype displayed a lower level of deterioration in these domains compared with the PI and CB subtypes. The patients with the CB and PI subtypes did not differ from the control subjects in the Continuous Performance Test correct response domain, whereas those with the R subtype presented a poorer performance than the control subjects. The R subtype requires a more detailed evaluation because it presented similar results in the remaining neuropsychological evaluations and MPH responses.

  6. Nickel-hydrogen battery; Nikkeru/suiso batteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwajima, S. [National Space Development Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    In artificial satellites, electric power is supplied from batteries loaded on them, when sun light can not be rayed on the event of equinoxes. Thus, research and development was started as early as 1970s for light and long-life batteries. Nickel-hydrogen batteries have been used on practical satellites since middle of 1980s. Whereas the cathode reaction of this battery is the same as that of a conventional nickel-cadmium battery, the anode reaction is different in that it involves decomposition and formation of water, generating hydrogen and consuming it. Hydrogen is stored in a state of pressurized gas within the battery vessel. The shape of this vessel is of a bomb, whose size for the one with capacity of 35 Ah is 8cm in diameter and 18cm in length. On a satellite, this one is assembled into a set of 16 ones. National Space Development Agency of Japan has been conducting the evaluation test for nickel-hydrogen batteries in a long term range. It was made clear that the life-determinant factor is related to the inner electrode, not to the vessel. Performance data on long-term endurance of materials to be used have been accumulated also in the agency. 2 figs.

  7. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  8. Effects of perinatal exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals on neurobehavioral development in Japanese children: IV. Thyroid hormones and neonatal neurobehavioral status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Nakai, K.; Oka, T.; Kurokawa, N.; Satoh, H. [Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Hosokawa, T. [Dept. of Human Development, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Okamura, K. [Dept. of Obstetrics, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Sakai, T. [Miyagi Childrens Hospital, Sendai (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    From several epidemiological studies, it has been reported that there are some associations between perinatal exposures to PCBs, dioxins and heavy metals, and neurobehavioral defects such as postnatal growth delay and poorer cognitive function. We have started a prospective cohort study to examine the effects of perinatal exposures to environmentally persistent organic pollutants on neurobehavioral development in Japanese children. Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal brain development. A lack of THs in pregnancy can result in congenital hypothyroidism, which causes moderate to severe intellectual defects. It has been reported that perinatal exposure to PCBs adversely affects on children's intellectual functions. The chemical structures of some PCBs resembles thyroxine (T4), and therefore, it is suspected that the action mechanism of PCBs is disruption of TH function. Some PCBs and their metabolites are thought to bind with transthyretine (TTR), which is necessary for the transfer of T4 into the brain, and this may cause a shortage of T4 in the developing brain. To examine the effects of perinatal exposure to PCBs on children's development, it is essential to evaluate the functions of THs at a fundamental level. In this report, we examined the correlations of THs in maternal peripheral blood and cord blood, and the association between THs and neonatal neurobehavioral status.

  9. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Reconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Erik L.

    1997-01-01

    Reconditioning has traditionally been used as a means of maintaining the performance of normal cells and batteries. This paper describes methods and results in which reconditioning was used to improve the performance of nickel-hydrogen batteries. The following method are discussed: (1) SS/L reconditioning implementation; (2) Superbird reconditioning - pressure/capacity growth; (3) INTELSAT 7/7A reconditioning - cell voltage plateaus and life testing; and (4) N-Star reconditioning - cell voltage plateaus (capacity fading and recovery).

  10. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  11. FY2016 Advanced Batteries R&D Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-08-31

    The Advanced Batteries research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for projects focusing on batteries for plug-in electric vehicles. Program targets focus on overcoming technical barriers to enable market success including: (1) significantly reducing battery cost, (2) increasing battery performance (power, energy, durability), (3) reducing battery weight & volume, and (4) increasing battery tolerance to abusive conditions such as short circuit, overcharge, and crush. This report describes the progress made on the research and development projects funded by the Battery subprogram in 2016. This section covers the Vehicle Technologies Office overview; the Battery subprogram R&D overview; Advanced Battery Development project summaries; and Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design project summaries. It also includes the cover and table of contents.

  12. Development of a Test Battery to Assess Mental Flexibility Based on Sternberg’s Theory of Successful Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    on such tests as the Embedded Figures Test ( EFT ) (Witkin et al., 1971) or the Rod and Frame Test (RFT) (Witkin, Dyk, Faterson, Goodenough, & Karp...one starts to tap sources of individual differences measured little or not at all by such tests. Thus, when assessing intelligence, it is important to...in requiring verbal skills or the ability to analyze one’s own ideas-Sternberg & Lubart, 1995) but also tap skills beyond those measured even by

  13. Relationship between Air Traffic Selection and Training (AT-SAT)) Battery Test Scores and Composite Scores in the Initial en Route Air Traffic Control Qualification Training Course at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ronald Scott

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This study focused on the development and use of the AT-SAT test battery and the Initial En Route Qualification training course for the selection, training, and evaluation of air traffic controller candidates. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used to measure the linear relationship between the…

  14. Influence of prenatal cocaine exposure on full-term infant neurobehavioral functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, C E; Bandstra, E S; Anthony, J C; Ofir, A Y; Xue, L; Reyes, M L

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated infant neurobehavioral functioning during the newborn period in 334 full-term, African American neonates (187 cocaine exposed, 147 non-cocaine exposed) enrolled prospectively at birth, with documentation of drug exposure status through maternal interview and urine and meconium toxicology assays. Infants were assessed using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS) during the newborn period (0-6 postnatal days). Findings from multivariate profile analyses support a consistent, modest effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on neurobehavioral functioning in full-term neonates. All of the BNBAS cluster scores, with the exception of abnormal reflexes, were similarly affected, sharing a common slope (D=-0.14; 95% CI=-0.27, -0.003; P=.046) representing a -0.14 point difference between cocaine-exposed and non-cocaine-exposed infants after controlling for prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana (ATM); maternal age, education, employment, primigravida status, and prenatal care visits; and infant sex and postnatal age in days. Fetal growth was also related to neurobehavioral functioning and, in part, mediated the relationship between cocaine exposure and the BNBAS cluster scores. Cocaine exposure during each trimester similarly influenced infant neurobehavioral profiles, with cocaine-associated deficits most pronounced in infants with exposure in all three trimesters. Results from qualitative and quantitative urine and meconium bioassay indicators further substantiated these results. Findings, while significant, represent modest effect sizes in full-term infants.

  15. Fetal Neurobehavioral Development and the Role of Maternal Nutrient Intake and Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Marisa; Smerling, Jennifer; Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Foss, Sophie; Monk, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Measuring and understanding fetal neurodevelopment provides insight regarding the developing brain. Maternal nutrient intake and psychological stress during pregnancy each impact fetal neurodevelopment and influence childhood outcomes and are thus important factors to consider when studying fetal neurobehavioral development. The authors provide an…

  16. Childhood Fears, Neurobehavioral Functioning and Behavior Problems in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The objective is to examine underlying associations between childhood fears, behavior problems and neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) in school-age children. Healthy, regular school children (N = 135), from second, fourth and sixth grade classes were assessed. Data regarding children's fears and behavioral problems were obtained with the Revised…

  17. Impact of Tactile Stimulation on Neurobehavioral Development of Premature Infants in Assiut City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Atyat Mohammed Hassan; Youssef, Magda Mohamed E.; Hassanein, Farouk El-Sayed; Mobarak, Amal Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess impact of tactile stimulation on neurobehavioral development of premature infants in Assiut City. Design: Quasi-experimental research design. Setting: The study was conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Assiut University Children Hospital, Assiut General Hospital, Health Insurance Hospital (ElMabarah Hospital) and…

  18. Relations Between the Intelligibility of Speech in Noise and Psychophysical Measures of Hearing Measured in Four Languages Using the Auditory Profile Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. M. Van Esch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the relations between the intelligibility of speech in noise and measures of auditory resolution, loudness recruitment, and cognitive function. The analyses were based on data published earlier as part of the presentation of the Auditory Profile, a test battery implemented in four languages. Tests of the intelligibility of speech, resolution, loudness recruitment, and lexical decision making were measured using headphones in five centers: in Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Correlations and stepwise linear regression models were calculated. In sum, 72 hearing-impaired listeners aged 22 to 91 years with a broad range of hearing losses were included in the study. Several significant correlations were found with the intelligibility of speech in noise. Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that pure-tone average, age, spectral and temporal resolution, and loudness recruitment were significant predictors of the intelligibility of speech in fluctuating noise. Complex interrelationships between auditory factors and the intelligibility of speech in noise were revealed using the Auditory Profile data set in four languages. After taking into account the effects of pure-tone average and age, spectral and temporal resolution and loudness recruitment had an added value in the prediction of variation among listeners with respect to the intelligibility of speech in noise. The results of the lexical decision making test were not related to the intelligibility of speech in noise, in the population studied.

  19. Electrothermal impedance spectroscopy measurement on high power LiMO2/Li4Ti5O12 battery cell with low bandwidth test setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    2015-01-01

    be executed on-line (e.g. in the electric vehicle Battery Management System). The Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy (ETIS) can be used as a relatively simple and fast method for non-destructive parametrization of the battery thermal models. However, the ETIS requires expensive galvanostat with high...

  20. Radioactive battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive battery is described that is comprised of a container housing an electrolyte, two electrodes immersed in the electrolyte and insoluble radioactive material disposed adjacent one electrode. Insoluble radioactive material of different intensity of radioactivity may be disposed adjacent the second electrode. If hydrobromic acid is used as the electrolyte, Br 2 will be generated by the radioactivity and is reduced at the cathode: Br 2 + 2e = 2 Br - . At the anode Br - is oxidized: 2Br - = Br 2 + 2e. (U.S.)

  1. Developmental Research in Space: Predicting Adult Neurobehavioral Phenotypes via Metabolomic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Julia M.; Moyer, Eric L.; Lowe, Moniece M.; Morgan, Jonathan; Tulbert, Christina D.; Olson, John; Olson, John; Horita, David A.; Kleven, Gale A.

    2017-01-01

    As human habitation and eventual colonization of space becomes an inevitable reality, there is a necessity to understand how organisms develop over the life span in the space environment. Microgravity, altered CO2, radiation and psychological stress are some of the key factors that could affect mammalian reproduction and development in space, however there is a paucity of information on this topic. Here we combine early (neonatal) in vivo spectroscopic imaging with an adult emotionality assay following a common obstetric complication (prenatal asphyxia) likely to occur during gestation in space. The neural metabolome is sensitive to alteration by degenerative changes and developmental disorders, thus we hypothesized that that early neonatal neurometabolite profiles can predict adult response to novelty. Late gestation fetal rats were exposed to moderate asphyxia by occluding the blood supply feeding one of the rats pair uterine horns for 15min. Blood supply to the opposite horn was not occluded (within-litter cesarean control). Further comparisons were made with vaginal (natural) birth controls. In one-week old neonates, we measured neurometabolites in three brain areas (i.e., striatum, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus). Adult perinatally-asphyxiated offspring exhibited greater anxiety-like behavioral phenotypes (as measured the composite neurobehavioral assay involving open field activity, responses to novel object, quantification of fecal droppings, and resident-intruder tests of social behavior). Further, early neurometabolite profiles predicted adult responses. Non-invasive MRS screening of mammalian offspring is likely to advance ground-based space analogue studies informing mammalian reproduction in space, and achieving high-priority.

  2. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  3. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  4. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Darcy, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    This requirements document is applicable to all batteries on crewed spacecraft, including vehicle, payload, and crew equipment batteries. It defines the specific provisions required to design a battery that is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and/or operate during all applicable phases of crewed missions, safe for use in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle, and safe for use in launch vehicles, as well as in unpressurized spaces adjacent to the habitable portion of a space vehicle. The required provisions encompass hazard controls, design evaluation, and verification. The extent of the hazard controls and verification required depends on the applicability and credibility of the hazard to the specific battery design and applicable missions under review. Evaluation of the design and verification program results shall be completed prior to certification for flight and ground operations. This requirements document is geared toward the designers of battery systems to be used in crewed vehicles, crew equipment, crew suits, or batteries to be used in crewed vehicle systems and payloads (or experiments). This requirements document also applies to ground handling and testing of flight batteries. Specific design and verification requirements for a battery are dependent upon the battery chemistry, capacity, complexity, charging, environment, and application. The variety of battery chemistries available, combined with the variety of battery-powered applications, results in each battery application having specific, unique requirements pertinent to the specific battery application. However, there are basic requirements for all battery designs and applications, which are listed in section 4. Section 5 includes a description of hazards and controls and also includes requirements.

  5. An averaging battery model for a lead-acid battery operating in an electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A battery model is developed based on time averaging the current or power, and is shown to be an effective means of predicting the performance of a lead acid battery. The effectiveness of this battery model was tested on battery discharge profiles expected during the operation of an electric vehicle following the various SAE J227a driving schedules. The averaging model predicts the performance of a battery that is periodically charged (regenerated) if the regeneration energy is assumed to be converted to retrievable electrochemical energy on a one-to-one basis.

  6. Optimization of station battery replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauskas, J.R.; Shook, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability of quickly analyze proposed modifications and response to internal and external audits

  7. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries for the Mars Pathfinder Microrover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deligiannis, F.; Frank, H.; Staniewicz, R.J.; Willson, J. [SAFT America, Inc., Cockeysville, MD (United States)

    1996-02-01

    A discussion of the power requirements for the Mars Pathfinder Mission is given. Topics include: battery requirements; cell design; battery design; test descriptions and results. A summary of the results is also included.

  8. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries for the Mars Pathfinder Microrover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, Frank; Frank, Harvey; Staniewicz, R. J.; Willson, John

    1996-01-01

    A discussion of the power requirements for the Mars Pathfinder Mission is given. Topics include: battery requirements; cell design; battery design; test descriptions and results. A summary of the results is also included.

  9. A battery of tests for assessing cognitive function in U.S. Chinese older adults--findings from the PINE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E-Shien; Dong, XinQi

    2014-11-01

    Existing methodological challenges in aging research has dampened our assessment of cognitive function among minority older adults. We aim to report the composite scores of five cognitive function tests among U.S. Chinese older adults, and examine the association between cognitive function and key sociodemographic characteristics. The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago Study enrolled an epidemiological cohort of 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults. We administered five cognitive function tests, including the Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination, the immediate and delayed recall of the East Boston Memory Test, the Digit Span Backwards assessment, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. We used Spearman correlation coefficients to examine the correlation between cognitive function and sociodemographic variables. Linear regression models were used to report the effect of sociodemographic and health variables including age, sex, education on cognitive function. Our multivariate analysis suggested that performance in each domain of cognitive function was inversely associated with age and positively related to education. With respect to sex, after adjusted for age, education and all key variables presented in the model, being male was positively related to global cognitive score and working memory. Being married, having fewer children, having been in the United States for fewer years, having been in the community for fewer years, and better self-reported health were positively correlated with all cognitive function domains. This population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults is among the first to examine a battery of five cognitive function tests, which in aggregate enables researchers to capture a wide range of cognitive performance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Optimal Switching Table-Based Sliding Mode Control of an Energy Recovery Li-Ion Power Accumulator Battery Pack Testing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil To Chong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is to apply a sliding mode controller (SMC to medium voltage and high power output energy recovery Li-ion power accumulator battery pack testing systems (ERLPABTSs, which are composed of a three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI and a two-level buck-boost converter without an isolating transformer. An inner current decoupled control scheme for the aforementioned system is proposed and two sliding mode planes for active and reactive current control are designed based on the control scheme. An optimized switching table for current convergence is used according to the error sign of the equivalent input voltage and feedback voltage. The proposed ERLPABTS could be used to integrate discharging energy into the power grid when performing high accuracy current testing. The active and reactive power references for the grid-connected inverter are determined based on the discharging energy from the DC-DC converter. Simulations and experiments on a laboratory hardware platform using a 175 kW insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT-based ERLPABTS have been implemented and verified, and the performance is found satisfactory and superior to conventional ERLPABPTS.

  11. Koumine exhibits anxiolytic properties without inducing adverse neurological effects on functional observation battery, open-field and Vogel conflict tests in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Jie; Zhong, Zhi-Feng; Xin, Zhi-Ming; Hong, Long-Hui; Su, Yan-Ping; Yu, Chang-Xi

    2017-04-01

    Koumine, an active alkaloid of neurotoxic plant Gelsemium, has been focused on its therapeutic uses, especially in central nervous system. Nevertheless, less is known about the neurological effects of koumine, which hampers its potential therapeutic exploitation. Moreover, as the anxiolytic potential of Gelsemium has raised many critical issues, its active principles on the anxiolytic and other neurological effects need to be further investigated. Here, we used functional observation battery (FOB) of mice to systematically measure the neurological effects of koumine at the effective doses, and then further confirmed its anxiolytic properties in open-field test (OFT) of mice and Vogel conflict test (VCT) of rats. Koumine exhibited anxiolytic-like activities but did not affect other autonomic, neurological and physical functions in FOB. Furthermore, koumine released anxiolytic responses and anti-punishment action in a manner similar to diazepam in OFT and VCT, respectively. The results constitutes solid set of fundamental data further demonstrating anxiolytic properties of koumine at the therapeutic doses without inducing adverse neurological effects, which supports the perspectives for the development of safe and effective koumine medicine against pathological anxiety.

  12. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Brad [Denso International America, Incorporated, Southfield, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  13. From battery modeling to battery management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, P.H.L.; Danilov, D.

    2011-01-01

    The principles of rechargeable battery operation form the basis of the electronic network models developed for Nickel-based aqueous battery systems, including Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH), and non-aqueous battery systems, such as the well-known Li-ion. These electronic network models are based on

  14. Evaluation of a new battery of toxicity tests for boreal forest soils: assessment of the impact of hydrocarbons and salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princz, Juliska I; Moody, Mary; Fraser, Christopher; Van der Vliet, Leana; Lemieux, Heather; Scroggins, Rick; Siciliano, Steven D

    2012-04-01

    The ability to assess the toxic potential of soil contamination within boreal regions is currently limited to test species representative of arable lands. This study evaluated the use of six boreal plant species (Pinus banksiana, Picea glauca, Picea mariana, Populus tremuloides, Calamagrostis Canadensis, and Solidago canadensis) and four invertebrate species (Dendrodrilus rubidus, Folsomia nivalis, Proisotoma minuta, and Oppia nitens) and compared their performance to a suite of standard agronomic soil test species using site soils impacted by petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) and salt contamination. To maintain horizon-specific differences, individual soil horizons were collected from impacted sites and relayered within the test vessels. Use of the boreal species was directly applicable to the assessment of the contaminated forest soils and, in the case of the hydrocarbon-impacted soil, demonstrated greater overall sensitivity (25th percentile of estimated species sensitivity distribution [ESSD25] = 5.6% contamination: 10,600 mg/kg fraction 3 [F3; equivalent hydrocarbon range of >C16 to C34] Of/Oh horizon, and 270 mg/kg F3 Ahg horizon) relative to the standard test species (ESSD25 = 23% contamination: 44,000 mg/kg F3 Of/Oh horizon, and 1,100 mg/kg F3 Ahg horizon). For salinity, there was no difference between boreal and standard species with a combined ESSD25 = 2.3%, equating to 0.24 and 0.25 dS/m for the Ah and Ck horizons. The unequal distribution of soil invertebrates within the layered test vessels can confound test results and the interpretation of the toxic potential of a site. The use of test species relevant to boreal eco-zones strengthens the applicability of the data in support of realistic ecological risk assessments applicable to the boreal regions. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  15. Characterization of vanadium flow battery. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2011-02-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project ''Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries'' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The efficiency was not influenced by the cycling of the battery. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. The battery was operated together with a 11kW stall-regulated Gaia wind turbine to smooth the output of the wind turbine and during the tests the battery proved capable of firming the output of the wind turbine. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  16. Test of hybrid power system for electrical vehicles using a lithium-ion battery pack and a reformed methanol fuel cell range extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Ashworth, Leanne; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2014-01-01

    is delivered by a lithium ion battery pack. In order to increase the run time of the application connected to this battery pack, a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack acts as an on-board charger able to charge a vehicle during operation as a series hybrid. Because of the high tolerance to carbon...... a down-sized version of the battery pack used in the Mitsubishi iMiEV, which is subjected to power cycles derived from simulations of the vehicle undergoing multiple New European Drive Cycles (NEDC)....

  17. High performance Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C composite cathode material for lithium ion batteries studied in pilot scale test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhenyu [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Dai Changsong, E-mail: changsd@hit.edu.c [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wu Gang; Nelson, Mark [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hu Xinguo [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang Ruoxin; Liu Jiansheng; Xia Jicai [Battery Material Business Division, Guangzhou Tinci Materials Technology Co., Ltd., Guangzhou 510760 (China)

    2010-12-01

    Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C composite cathode material was synthesized via carbothermal reduction process in a pilot scale production test using battery grade raw materials with the aim of studying the feasibility for their practical applications. XRD, FT-IR, XPS, CV, EIS and battery charge-discharge tests were used to characterize the as-prepared material. The XRD and FT-IR data suggested that the as-prepared Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C material exhibits an orderly monoclinic structure based on the connectivity of PO{sub 4} tetrahedra and VO{sub 6} octahedra. Half cell tests indicated that an excellent high-rate cyclic performance was achieved on the Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C cathodes in the voltage range of 3.0-4.3 V, retaining a capacity of 95% (96 mAh/g) after 100 cycles at 20C discharge rate. The low-temperature performance of the cathode was further evaluated, showing 0.5C discharge capacity of 122 and 119 mAh/g at -25 and -40 {sup o}C, respectively. The discharge capacity of graphite//Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} batteries with a designed battery capacity of 14 Ah is as high as 109 mAh/g with a capacity retention of 92% after 224 cycles at 2C discharge rates. The promising high-rate and low-temperature performance observed in this work suggests that Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C is a very strong candidate to be a cathode in a next-generation Li-ion battery for electric vehicle applications.

  18. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  19. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Specific Deficits in a Test Battery of Motor Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfré, Giuseppe; Clemensson, Erik K H; Kyriakou, Elisavet I; Clemensson, Laura E; van der Harst, Johanneke E; Homberg, Judith R; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2017-01-01

    Rationale : Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. HD is usually diagnosed by the appearance of motor deficits, resulting in skilled hand use disruption, gait abnormality, muscle wasting and choreatic movements. The BACHD transgenic rat model for HD represents a well-established transgenic rodent model of HD, offering the prospect of an in-depth characterization of the motor phenotype. Objective : The present study aims to characterize different aspects of motor function in BACHD rats, combining classical paradigms with novel high-throughput behavioral phenotyping. Methods : Wild-type (WT) and transgenic animals were tested longitudinally from 2 to 12 months of age. To measure fine motor control, rats were challenged with the pasta handling test and the pellet reaching test. To evaluate gross motor function, animals were assessed by using the holding bar and the grip strength tests. Spontaneous locomotor activity and circadian rhythmicity were assessed in an automated home-cage environment, namely the PhenoTyper. We then integrated existing classical methodologies to test motor function with automated home-cage assessment of motor performance. Results : BACHD rats showed strong impairment in muscle endurance at 2 months of age. Altered circadian rhythmicity and locomotor activity were observed in transgenic animals. On the other hand, reaching behavior, forepaw dexterity and muscle strength were unaffected. Conclusions : The BACHD rat model exhibits certain features of HD patients, like muscle weakness and changes in circadian behavior. We have observed modest but clear-cut deficits in distinct motor phenotypes, thus confirming the validity of this transgenic rat model for treatment and drug discovery purposes.

  20. Sensitivity, reliability and the effects of diurnal variation on a test battery of field usable upper limb fatigue measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Marcus; Wells, Richard P

    2017-07-01

    Fatigue has been linked to deficits in production quality and productivity and, if of long duration, work-related musculoskeletal disorders. It may thus be a useful risk indicator and design and evaluation tool. However, there is limited information on the test-retest reliability, the sensitivity and the effects of diurnal fluctuation on field usable fatigue measures. This study reports on an evaluation of 11 measurement tools and their 14 parameters. Eight measures were found to have test-retest ICC values greater than 0.8. Four measures were particularly responsive during an intermittent fatiguing condition. However, two responsive measures demonstrated rhythmic behaviour, with significant time effects from 08:00 to mid-afternoon and early evening. Action tremor, muscle mechanomyography and perceived fatigue were found to be most reliable and most responsive; but additional analytical considerations might be required when interpreting daylong responses of MMG and action tremor. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents findings from test-retest and daylong reliability and responsiveness evaluations of 11 fatigue measures. This paper suggests that action tremor, muscle mechanomyography and perceived fatigue were most reliable and most responsive. However, mechanomyography and action tremor may be susceptible to diurnal changes.

  1. Incorporation of gypsum waste in ceramic block production: Proposal for a minimal battery of tests to evaluate technical and environmental viability of this recycling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Testolin, Renan C; Janke, Leandro; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2012-01-01

    Civil engineering-related construction and demolition debris is an important source of waste disposed of in municipal solid waste landfills. After clay materials, gypsum waste is the second largest contributor to the residential construction waste stream. As demand for sustainable building practices grows, interest in recovering gypsum waste from construction and demolition debris is increasing, but there is a lack of standardized tests to evaluate the technical and environmental viability of this solid waste recycling process. By recycling gypsum waste, natural deposits of gypsum might be conserved and high amounts of the waste by-product could be reused in the civil construction industry. In this context, this paper investigates a physical property (i.e., resistance to axial compression), the chemical composition and the ecotoxicological potential of ceramic blocks constructed with different proportions of clay, cement and gypsum waste, and assesses the feasibility of using a minimal battery of tests to evaluate the viability of this recycling process. Consideration of the results for the resistance to axial compression tests together with production costs revealed that the best formulation was 35% of plastic clay, 35% of non-plastic clay, 10% of Portland cement and 20% of gypsum waste, which showed a mean resistance of 4.64MPa. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry showed calcium and sulfur to be the main elements, while quartz, gypsum, ettringite and nacrite were the main crystalline compounds found in this formulation. Ecotoxicity tests showed that leachate from this formulation is weakly toxic toward daphnids and bacteria (EC(20%)=69.0 and 75.0, respectively), while for algae and fish the leachate samples were not toxic at the EC(50%) level. Overall, these results show that the addition of 20% of gypsum waste to the ceramic blocks could provide a viable substitute for clay in the ceramics industry and the tests applied in this study proved to be a useful tool

  2. Biochemical effects of lead exposure and toxicity on battery manufacturing workers of Western Maharashtra (India): with respect to liver and kidney function tests

    OpenAIRE

    Mandakini Kshirsagar; Jyotsna Patil; Arun Patil; Ganesh Ghanwat; Ajit Sontakke; R.K. Ayachit

    2015-01-01

    Background: The battery recycling and manufacturing involves the use of metallic lead for making grids, bearing and solder. The process results in release of lead particles and lead oxide causing environmental pollution and severe lead poisoning. Aims and Objectives: To know the present scenario of the blood lead level and its biochemical effects on occupational lead-exposed population, mainly battery manufacturing workers in Western Maharashtra (India) with respect to liver and kidney functi...

  3. Field tests experience from 1.6MW/400kWh Li-ion battery energy storage system providing primary frequency regulation service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems (BESSs) represent suitable alternatives to conventional generating units for providing primary frequency regulation on the Danish market. This paper presents aspects concerning the operation of the BESSs in the Danish energy market while providing upwards...... on the BESS demonstrator located in Western Denmark and initial results are introduced and discussed. These measurements can be used to validate models for battery ageing during realistic operation or to develop the diagnostic tools for the BESS....

  4. Battery waste management status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, B.M.; Sabatini, J.C.; Wolsky, S.

    1993-01-01

    The paper consists of a series of slides used in the conference presentation. The topics outlined in the slides are: an overview of battery waste management; waste management of lead acid batteries; lead acid recycling; typical legislation for battery waste; regulatory status in European countries; mercury use in cells; recent trends in Hg and Cd use; impact of batteries to air quality at MSW incinerators; impact of electric vehicles; new battery technologies; and unresolved issues

  5. P2-29: Comparing the Other-Race-Effect and Congenital Prosopagnosia Using a Three-Experiment Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Esins

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Congenital prosopagnosia, an innate impairment in recognizing faces, as well as the other-race-effect, the disadvantage in recognizing faces of foreign races, both influence face recognition abilities. Here we compared both phenomena by testing three groups: German congenital prosopagnosics (cPs, unimpaired German, and unimpaired South Korean participants (n = 23 per group, on three tests with Caucasian faces. First we ran the Cambridge Face Memory Test (Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006 Neuropsychologia 44 576–585. Participants had to recognize Caucasian target faces in a 3AFC task. German controls performed better than Koreans (p = .009 who performed better than prosopagnosics (p = .0001. Variation of the individual performances was larger for cPs than for Koreans (p = .028. In the second experiment, participants rated the similarity of Caucasian faces (in-house 3D face-database which differed parametrically in features or second order relations (configuration. We found differences between sensitivities to change type (featural or configural, p = 0 and between groups (p = .005 and an interaction between both factors (p = .019. During the third experiment, participants had to learn exemplars of artificial objects (greebles, natural objects (shells, and faces and recognize them among distractors. The results showed an interaction (p = .005 between stimulus type and participant group: cPs where better for non-face stimuli and worse for face stimuli than the other groups. Our results suggest that congenital prosopagnosia and the other-race-effect affect face perception in different ways. The broad range in performance for the cPs directs the focus of our future research towards looking for different forms of congenital prosopagnosia.

  6. Motor competence assessment in children: convergent and discriminant validity between the BOT-2 Short Form and KTK testing batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Job; D'Hondt, Eva; Bourgois, Jan; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated convergent and discriminant validity between two motor competence assessment instruments in 2485 Flemish children: the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 Short Form (BOT-2 Short Form) and the KörperKoördinationsTest für Kinder (KTK). A Pearson correlation assessed the relationship between BOT-2 Short Form total, gross and fine motor composite scores and KTK Motor Quotient in three age cohorts (6-7, 8-9, 10-11 years). Crosstabs were used to measure agreement in classification in children scoring below percentile 5 and 15 and above percentile 85 and 95. Moderately strong positive (r=0.44-0.64) associations between BOT-2 total and gross motor composite scores and KTK Motor Quotient and weak positive correlations between BOT-2 Short Form fine motor composite and KTK Motor Quotient scores (r=0.25-0.37) were found. Levels of agreement were fair to moderate. Therefore, some proof of convergent and discriminant validity between BOT-2 Short Form and KTK was established in this study, underlining the notion that the evaluation of motor competence should not be based upon a single assessment instrument. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Racial and ethnic disparities in functional, psychosocial, and neurobehavioral outcomes after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Kreutzer, Jeffrey S

    2010-01-01

    Because of the growing minority population in the past 3 decades in the United States and the increasing numbers of individuals who sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI), researchers and clinicians have started to pay more attention to the role of race and ethnicity in outcomes after TBI, with the goal of better serving this population. The aim of this article is to review the literature on the influence of race/ethnicity on functional, psychosocial, and neurobehavioral outcomes after TBI. Specifically, the following 8 areas of outcomes will be examined: (1) treatment outcomes, (2) neuropsychological outcomes, (3) employment/productivity, (4) functional outcomes, (5) community integration, (6) marital status, (7) quality of life/life satisfaction, and (8) emotional/neurobehavioral outcomes. To conclude this review, suggestions for improvements in professional competency, research, systems of care, and training are proposed.

  8. APPLICATION OF THE BATTERY OF TESTS IN EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL, SOCIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOMOTOR STATUS OF THE WATER POLO PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A huge international success of the Montenegrin national water polo team incre- ased the interest rate for this sport among the young people in our country. Announced construction of at least five pools in Podgorica, as well as reconstruction of already exi- sting ones in Niksic and some of the coastal cities will offer a new perspective for the de- velopment of this sport in Montenegro. Water Polo World League Super Final which is, according to announcements, to be held at the pools in Podgorica will probably enhance the interest in this sport even more. Due to the reasons mentioned above, the intensifying of the expert selection is more popular than ever. This paper lists some of the tests for the evaluation of psychological, sociological and anthropomotor status of younger age categories that are adequate in the process of systematic selection for doing water polo

  9. Mercury-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of abnormal neurobehavior is correlated with sperm epimutations in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Carvan

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a ubiquitous environmental neurotoxicant, with human exposures predominantly resulting from fish consumption. Developmental exposure of zebrafish to MeHg is known to alter their neurobehavior. The current study investigated the direct exposure and transgenerational effects of MeHg, at tissue doses similar to those detected in exposed human populations, on sperm epimutations (i.e., differential DNA methylation regions [DMRs] and neurobehavior (i.e., visual startle and spontaneous locomotion in zebrafish, an established human health model. F0 generation embryos were exposed to MeHg (0, 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 nM for 24 hours ex vivo. F0 generation control and MeHg-exposed lineages were reared to adults and bred to yield the F1 generation, which was subsequently bred to the F2 generation. Direct exposure (F0 generation and transgenerational actions (F2 generation were then evaluated. Hyperactivity and visual deficit were observed in the unexposed descendants (F2 generation of the MeHg-exposed lineage compared to control. An increase in F2 generation sperm epimutations was observed relative to the F0 generation. Investigation of the DMRs in the F2 generation MeHg-exposed lineage sperm revealed associated genes in the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and actin-cytoskeleton pathways being effected, which correlate to the observed neurobehavioral phenotypes. Developmental MeHg-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of abnormal neurobehavior is correlated with sperm epimutations in F2 generation adult zebrafish. Therefore, mercury can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease in zebrafish, which significantly impacts its environmental health considerations in all species including humans.

  10. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  11. Construct Validity of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition Test in Preschool Children with Respect to Age and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kokštejn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe Movement Assessment Battery for Children-second edition (MABC-2 Age Band 1 is widely used to identify preschoolers with motor difficulties. Despite unsatisfactory construct validity of the original three-factor model, MABC-2 (manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance, previous research has not considered possible age and gender differences throughout the entire preschool period.AimThe aim of this study was to verify the construct validity of the MABC-2 Age Band 1 in a population of Czech preschoolers with respect to age and gender.MethodsUsing data from 510 Czech preschoolers (3–6 years; 4.9 ± 1.1 years, confirmatory factor analyses (CFA were used for each age category and gender.ResultsThe goodness-of-fit indices of CFA supported the original three-factor model of the MABC-2 only in 3- and 4-year-old children, and in boys (3–6 years. Low factor loadings and ceiling effects of several test items (Drawing Trail, Walking Heels Raised, and Jumping on Mats seem to be a probable cause of weak fit indices in 5- and 6-year-old children and in girls (3–6 years.ConclusionThese results suggest that the MABC-2 can be a valid tool for assessing motor development and identifying motor difficulties among 3- to 4-year olds, and generally fits better for preschool boys in the Czech Republic. However, in 5- to 6-year olds, ceiling effects and a low power of discrimination was found for the Drawing Trail, Walking Heels Raised, and Jumping on Mats tests. Therefore, the three-factor model is not appropriate for all preschoolers, and separate norms should be established for each age and gender.

  12. Patch test study of 90 patients with tattoo reactions: negative outcome of allergy patch test to baseline batteries and culprit inks suggests allergen(s) are generated in the skin through haptenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Jørgen; Hutton Carlsen, Katrina

    2014-11-01

    Tattoo reactions, especially in red tattoos, are often suggested as allergic in nature, however, systematic evaluation by patch testing has not performed in the past. To report the results of patch testing in 90 patients with non-infectious chronic tattoo reactions. From 2009 to 2013 at the 'Tattoo Clinic', Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg University Hospital, 90 patients were patch tested with batteries of baseline allergens, disperse dyes/textile allergens, and a selection of tattoo ink stock products, which, according to case observations, were problematic, supplemented with individual culprit inks when accessible. Patients with reactions to the tattoo colour red, the most predominant colour associated with skin reactions, showed negative patch test results with common allergens. Outcomes were also negative in patients who had experienced concomitant reactions in another hitherto tolerated tattoo of the same colour as the problematic tattoo. The allergen or allergens responsible for tattoo reactions are not present directly in tattoo ink stock products. This is despite the fact that clinical histories suggest that the vast majority of clinical reactions, especially reactions to red and red nuances, are likely to be allergic events caused by the injected inks. We suggest that the responsible allergen results from a complicated and slow process of haptenization, which may even include photochemical cleavage of red azo pigment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Simulation and experimental study on lithium ion battery short circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rui; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Both external and internal short circuit tests were performed on Li-ion batteries. • An electrochemical–thermal model with an additional nail site heat source is presented. • The model can accurately simulate the temperature variations of non-venting batteries. • The model is reliable in predicting the occurrence and start time of thermal runaway. • A hydrogel cooling system proves its strength in preventing battery thermal runaway. - Abstract: Safety is the first priority in lithium ion (Li-ion) battery applications. A large portion of electrical and thermal hazards caused by Li-ion battery is associated with short circuit. In this paper, both external and internal short circuit tests are conducted. Li-ion batteries and battery packs of different capacities are used. The results indicate that external short circuit is worse for smaller size batteries due to their higher internal resistances, and this type of short can be well managed by assembling fuses. In internal short circuit tests, higher chance of failure is found on larger capacity batteries. A modified electrochemical–thermal model is proposed, which incorporates an additional heat source from nail site and proves to be successful in depicting temperature changes in batteries. Specifically, the model is able to estimate the occurrence and approximate start time of thermal runaway. Furthermore, the effectiveness of a hydrogel based thermal management system in suppressing thermal abuse and preventing thermal runaway propagation is verified through the external and internal short tests on batteries and battery packs.

  14. Maternal smoking, drinking or cannabis use during pregnancy and neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in human offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizink, Anja C; Mulder, Eduard J H

    2006-01-01

    Teratological investigations have demonstrated that agents that are relatively harmless to the mother may have significant negative consequences to the fetus. Among these agents, prenatal alcohol, nicotine or cannabis exposure have been related to adverse offspring outcomes. Although there is a relatively extensive body of literature that has focused upon birth and behavioral outcomes in newborns and infants after prenatal exposure to maternal smoking, drinking and, to a lesser extent, cannabis use, information on neurobehavioral and cognitive teratogenic findings beyond these early ages is still quite limited. Furthermore, most studies have focused on prenatal exposure to heavy levels of smoking, drinking or cannabis use. Few recent studies have paid attention to low or moderate levels of exposure to these substances. This review endeavors to provide an overview of such studies, and includes animal findings and potential mechanisms that may explain the mostly subtle effects found on neurobehavioral and cognitive outcomes. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to either maternal smoking, alcohol or cannabis use is related to some common neurobehavioral and cognitive outcomes, including symptoms of ADHD (inattention, impulsivity), increased externalizing behavior, decreased general cognitive functioning, and deficits in learning and memory tasks.

  15. Transgenerational Inheritance of Paternal Neurobehavioral Phenotypes: Stress, Addiction, Ageing and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Li, Ang; Sun, Xin; Ouyang, Huan; Campos, Carlos; Rocha, Nuno B F; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Machado, Sergio; Hou, Gonglin; So, Kwok Fai

    2016-11-01

    Epigenetic modulation is found to get involved in multiple neurobehavioral processes. It is believed that different types of environmental stimuli could alter the epigenome of the whole brain or related neural circuits, subsequently contributing to the long-lasting neural plasticity of certain behavioral phenotypes. While the maternal influence on the health of offsprings has been long recognized, recent findings highlight an alternative way for neurobehavioral phenotypes to be passed on to the next generation, i.e., through the male germ line. In this review, we focus specifically on the transgenerational modulation induced by environmental stress, drugs of abuse, and other physical or mental changes (e.g., ageing, metabolism, fear) in fathers, and recapitulate the underlying mechanisms potentially mediating the alterations in epigenome or gene expression of offsprings. Together, these findings suggest that the inheritance of phenotypic traits through male germ-line epigenome may represent the unique manner of adaptation during evolution. Hence, more attention should be paid to the paternal health, given its equivalently important role in affecting neurobehaviors of descendants.

  16. Neurobehavioral Outcomes 11 Years After Neonatal Caffeine Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürner-Lavanchy, Ines M; Doyle, Lex W; Schmidt, Barbara; Roberts, Robin S; Asztalos, Elizabeth V; Costantini, Lorrie; Davis, Peter G; Dewey, Deborah; D'Ilario, Judy; Grunau, Ruth E; Moddemann, Diane; Nelson, Harvey; Ohlsson, Arne; Solimano, Alfonso; Tin, Win; Anderson, Peter J

    2018-05-01

    Caffeine is effective in the treatment of apnea of prematurity. Although caffeine therapy has a benefit on gross motor skills in school-aged children, effects on neurobehavioral outcomes are not fully understood. We aimed to investigate effects of neonatal caffeine therapy in very low birth weight (500-1250 g) infants on neurobehavioral outcomes in 11-year-old participants of the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial. Thirteen academic hospitals in Canada, Australia, Great Britain, and Sweden participated in this part of the 11-year follow-up of the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Measures of general intelligence, attention, executive function, visuomotor integration and perception, and behavior were obtained in up to 870 children. The effects of caffeine therapy were assessed by using regression models. Neurobehavioral outcomes were generally similar for both the caffeine and placebo group. The caffeine group performed better than the placebo group in fine motor coordination (mean difference [MD] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7 to 5.1; P = .01), visuomotor integration (MD = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.0 to 3.7; P prematurity improved visuomotor, visuoperceptual, and visuospatial abilities at age 11 years. General intelligence, attention, and behavior were not adversely affected by caffeine, which highlights the long-term safety of caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity in very low birth weight neonates. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. How does sex matter? Behavior, stress and animal models of neurobehavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    Many aspects of brain functioning exhibit important sex differences that affect behavior, mental health and mental disorders. However, most translational neuroscience research related to animal models of neurobehavioral disorders are carried out in male animals only. Based on published data from our laboratory on the House mouse, we discuss the following issues: (1) sex differences in social behavior of wild-derived mice; (2) artificial selection of laboratory strains and its consequences on social and reproductive competition; (3) sex-dependent effects of common experimental procedures; (4) differential effects of developmental events: the case of endocrine disruption; (5) implications for female models of stress and neurobehavioral disorders. Altogether, this review of data outline the marked differences of male and female responses to different social challenges and evinces the current lack of a relevant female mouse model of social stress. Whilst animal modelling is an important approach towards understanding mechanisms of neurobehavioral disorders, it is evident that data obtained in males may be irrelevant for inferring psychopathology and efficacy of pharmacological treatments for females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neonatal neurobehavioral organization after exposure to maternal epidural analgesia in labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Aleeca F; White-Traut, Rosemary; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    To explore relationships between maternal epidural analgesia and two measures of neurobehavioral organization in infants at the initial feeding 1 hour after birth. Prospective comparative design. Inner-city community hospital, Chicago, Illinois. Convenience sample of 52 low-risk, mainly Black and Latino, mother/infant dyads. Mothers self-selected to labor with epidural or no labor pain medication. Neonatal neurobehavioral organization was measured in term infants at the initial feeding 1 hour after birth. A nutritive sucking apparatus generated data on total number of sucks and sucking pressure. Video recordings of infants (before and after the initial feeding) were coded for behavioral states, with analysis on frequency of alertness. Total number of sucks and sucking pressure were not related to epidural exposure, although an epidural drug dosage effect on total number of sucks was evident when gender was a factor. Unmedicated girls demonstrated more sucks than girls in the high-dosage epidural group (p=.027). Overall, girls exhibited stronger sucking pressure than boys (p=.042). Frequency of alertness was not related to epidural exposure, although longer labor was related to greater alertness (p=.003), and Latino infants were more alert than Black infants (p=.002). Results suggest attenuated neonatal nutritive sucking organization in girls after exposure to high maternal epidural dosages. In comparison to boys, girls may have enhanced neurobehavioral organization at birth. Race/ethnicity and alertness may have spurious associations in which hidden factors drive the relationship.

  19. The battery market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    The worldwide battery market is estimated to be $21 billion annually at present. The geographical distribution of this market is shown in this paper. The American (North and South), Western Europe and Africa, and Asian and Australia represent equal markets of $6 billion each. The communist block countries (including Russia and China) are estimated to represent a $3 billion market. Automotive and consumer batteries constitute more than 80% of the world battery market. Industrial batteries make up the rest. Secondary (rechargeable) batteries (automotive, for example) have only 60% share of the world battery consumption. Primary batteries (most toy batteries that are the throw away type) exceed rechargeables by far in units. However, the larger size of rechargeable batteries makes their total value larger despite the small number of units

  20. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smithrick, J.J.; Odonnell, P.M.

    1995-05-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market.

  1. Adult neurobehavioral outcome of hyperbilirubinemia in full term neonates-a 30 year prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokkanen, Laura; Launes, Jyrki; Michelsson, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (HB) may cause severe neurological damage, but serious consequences are effectively controlled by phototherapy and blood exchange transfusion. HB is still a serious health problem in economically compromised parts of the world. The long term outcome has been regarded favorable based on epidemiological data, but has not been confirmed in prospective follow-up studies extending to adulthood. Methods. We studied the long term consequences of HB in a prospective birth cohort of 128 HB cases and 82 controls. The cases are part of a neonatal at-risk cohort (n = 1196) that has been followed up to 30 years of age. HB cases were newborns ≥ 2500 g birth weight and ≥ 37 weeks of gestation who had bilirubin concentrations > 340 µmol/l or required blood exchange transfusion. Subjects with HB were divided into subgroups based on the presence (affected HB) or absence (unaffected HB) of diagnosed neurobehavioral disorders in childhood, and compared with healthy controls. Subjects were seen at discharge, 5, 9 and 16 years of life and parent's and teacher's assessments were recorded. At 30 years they filled a questionnaire about academic and occupational achievement, life satisfaction, somatic and psychiatric symptoms including a ADHD self-rating score. Cognitive functioning was tested using ITPA, WISC, and reading and writing tests at 9 years of life. Results. Compared to controls, the odds for a child with HB having neurobehavioral symptoms at 9 years was elevated (OR = 4.68). Forty-five per cent of the HB group were affected by cognitive abnormalities in childhood and continued to experience problems in adulthood. This was apparent in academic achievement (p mathematics. Childhood symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity (p < 0.0001) and inattention (p < 0.02) were more common in HB groups, but in adulthood the symptoms were equal. The affected HB had lower scores in parameters reflecting life satisfaction, less controlled drinking, but

  2. Quick charge battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  3. Biomedical applications of batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, Roger [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Linford, Roger [The Research Office, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Schlindwein, Walkiria [School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-31

    An overview is presented of the many ways in which batteries and battery materials are used in medicine and in biomedical studies. These include the use of batteries as power sources for motorised wheelchairs, surgical tools, cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators, dynamic prostheses, sensors and monitors for physiological parameters, neurostimulators, devices for pain relief, and iontophoretic, electroporative and related devices for drug administration. The various types of battery and fuel cell used for this wide range of applications will be considered, together with the potential harmful side effects, including accidental ingestion of batteries and the explosive nature of some of the early cardiac pacemaker battery systems.

  4. Working hours, sleep, salivary cortisol, fatigue and neuro-behavior during Mars analog mission: five crews study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Balwant; Foing, Bernard H; Kaur, Jasdeep

    2012-05-16

    The buoyancy of humans in exploring extreme space environments has been established during missions to the moon. Long duration missions like mission to Mars however, requires humans to adapt to systemic and complex environments beyond the human body's capacity. Astronauts will encounter both physiological and psychological extremes during this trip. Very few studies are conducted on effect of long duration work and sleepiness on cognitive performance. So, this study was planned to find out effects of leadership responsibility, sleepiness and long duration working hours on cognitive performance. The 30 members (leadership: normal; 10:20) were selected from MDRS crews (Mars Desert Research Station, USA). Neurobehavioral test performance, self-ratings of fatigue and sleepiness, and salivary cortisol levels were evaluated during first day, mid and end day of mission. The leadership group did not show any signs of reduced test performance, even in elevated fatigue and sleepiness. The leadership group had faster reaction times on end of mission as compared to first and after 7 day of mission. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly higher in leadership group as compared to normal group. The results suggest that long duration work and sleepiness does not affect the cognitive performance of crew member. Further study is required while taking into account all factors and large sample size to prove this fact. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  6. Micro Calorimeter for Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As battery technology forges ahead and consumer demand for safer, more affordable, high-performance batteries grows, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has added a patented Micro Calorimeter to its existing family of R&D 100 Award-winning Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs). The Micro Calorimeter examines the thermal signature of battery chemistries early on in the design cycle using popular coin cell and small pouch cell designs, which are simple to fabricate and study.

  7. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  8. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when

  9. Optimization of batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Jeffrey Robb

    This thesis presents a method to quickly determine the optimal battery for an electric vehicle given a set of vehicle characteristics and desired performance metrics. The model is based on four independent design variables: cell count, cell capacity, state-of-charge window, and battery chemistry. Performance is measured in seven categories: cost, all-electric range, maximum speed, acceleration, battery lifetime, lifetime greenhouse gas emissions, and charging time. The performance of each battery is weighted according to a user-defined objective function to determine its overall fitness. The model is informed by a series of battery tests performed on scaled-down battery samples. Seven battery chemistries were tested for capacity at different discharge rates, maximum output power at different charge levels, and performance in a real-world automotive duty cycle. The results of these tests enable a prediction of the performance of the battery in an automobile. Testing was performed at both room temperature and low temperature to investigate the effects of battery temperature on operation. The testing highlighted differences in behavior between lithium, nickel, and lead based batteries. Battery performance decreased with temperature across all samples with the largest effect on nickel-based chemistries. Output power also decreased with lead acid batteries being the least affected by temperature. Lithium-ion batteries were found to be highly efficient (>95%) under a vehicular duty cycle; nickel and lead batteries have greater losses. Low temperatures hindered battery performance and resulted in accelerated failure in several samples. Lead acid, lead tin, and lithium nickel alloy batteries were unable to complete the low temperature testing regime without losing significant capacity and power capability. This is a concern for their applicability in electric vehicles intended for cold climates which have to maintain battery temperature during long periods of inactivity

  10. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  11. Lifetime modelling of lead acid batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Cronin, T.; Lundsager, P.

    2005-01-01

    The performance and lifetime of energy storage in batteries are an important part of many renewable based energy systems. Not only do batteries impact on the system performance but they are also a significant expenditure when considering the whole lifecycle costs. Poor prediction of lifetime can......, therefore, lead to uncertainty in the viability of the system in the long term. This report details the work undertaken to investigate and develop two different battery life prediction methodologies withspecific reference to their use in hybrid renewable energy systems. Alongside this, results from battery...... tests designed to exercise batteries in similar modes to those that they experience in hybrid systems have also been analysed. These have yieldedbattery specific parameters for use in the prediction software and the first results in the validation process of the software are also given. This work has...

  12. Effects of in utero and lactational exposure to SbV on rat neurobehavioral development and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Deise R; De-Carvalho, Rosangela R; Rocha, Rafael C C; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Paumgartten, Francisco J R

    2014-12-01

    Meglumine antimoniate (MA) is a pentavalent antimony drug used to treat leishmaniases. We investigated the neurobehavioral development, sexual maturation and fertility of the offspring of MA-treated rats. Dams were administered MA (0, 75, 150, 300 mg Sb(V)/kg body wt/d, sc) from gestation day 0, throughout parturition and lactation, until weaning. At the highest dose, MA reduced the birth weight and the number of viable newborns. In the male offspring, MA did not impair development (somatic, reflex maturation, weight gain, puberty onset, open field test), sperm count, or reproductive performance. Except for a minor effect on body weight gain and vertical exploration in the open field, MA also did not affect the development of female offspring. Measurements of the Sb levels (ICP-MS) in the blood of MA-treated female rats and their offspring demonstrated that Sb is transferred to the fetuses via the placenta and to the suckling pups via milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurobehavioral teratogenic effects of clomipramine and alpha-methyldopa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirmiran, M; Van Haaren, F; Louwerse, A; van de Poll, N E; de Boer, Sietse

    1989-01-01

    Neonatal treatment of rats with centrally acting drugs such as clomipramine was shown to affect adult body and brain weight, behavior and sleep. We made a further study of the effects of clomipramine and tested one dose of alpha-methyldopa. Male rats were treated twice daily with saline, 7.5 or 15

  14. Early life trauma and attachment: Immediate and enduring effects on neurobehavioral and stress axis development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millie eRincón-Cortés

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups’ sensory systems (i.e. olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory embedded in mother-infant interactions. This stimulation provides hidden regulators of pups’ behavioral, physiological and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological early life experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology and increase risk for later life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant attachment relationships program later life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups’ immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning and rearing with an abusive mother, that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups’ immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in early life that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver.

  15. Neurobehavioral Grand Rounds introduction: Does near drowning in ice water prevent anoxic induced brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Ramona O

    2008-07-01

    Cold water near-drowning is often thought to be neuroprotective in individuals with anoxia of a longer duration than that usually required to produce irreversible neurologic damage. There is a paucity of data in adults with cold water near-drowning that assess neuropsychological outcomes. Information regarding long-term effects of near cold water near-drowning on neuropathology, neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcomes are uncommon. This paper provides an introduction to two cases of cold water near-drowning reported in this issue of JINS by Sameulson and colleagues and provides background information for interpretation of the findings of these cases in the context of outcomes following anoxia.

  16. Development of battery management system for nickel-metal hydride batteries in electric vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Do Yang; Lee, Baek Haeng; Kim, Sun Wook

    Electric vehicle (EV) performance is very dependent on traction batteries. For developing electric vehicles with high performance and good reliability, the traction batteries have to be managed to obtain maximum performance under various operating conditions. Enhancement of battery performance can be accomplished by implementing a battery management system (BMS) that plays an important role in optimizing the control mechanism of charge and discharge of the batteries as well as monitoring the battery status. In this study, a BMS has been developed for maximizing the use of Ni-MH batteries in electric vehicles. This system performs several tasks: the control of charging and discharging, overcharge and over-discharge protection, the calculation and display of state-of-charge (SOC), safety, and thermal management. The BMS is installed in and tested in a DEV5-5 electric vehicle developed by Daewoo Motor Co. and the Institute for Advanced Engineering in Korea. Eighteen modules of a Panasonic nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery, 12 V, 95 A h, are used in the DEV5-5. High accuracy within a range of 3% and good reliability are obtained. The BMS can also improve the performance and cycle-life of the Ni-MH battery peak, as well as the reliability and the safety of the electric vehicles.

  17. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F; Castillo, S; Laberty- Robert, C; Pellizon-Birelli, M [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France); and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  18. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 1, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 1 - Volume I: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, and Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop).

  19. Prevalence of Neurobehavioral, Social, and Emotional Dysfunction in Patients Treated for Childhood Craniopharyngioma: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zada, Gabriel; Kintz, Natalie; Pulido, Mario; Amezcua, Lilyana

    2013-01-01

    Background Craniopharyngiomas (CP) are locally invasive and frequently recurring neoplasms often resulting in neurological and endocrinological dysfunction in children. In addition, social-behavioral impairment is commonly reported following treatment for childhood CP, yet remains to be fully understood. The authors aimed to further characterize the prevalence of neurobehavioral, social, and emotional dysfunction in survivors of childhood craniopharyngiomas. Materials and Methods A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed to identify studies formally assessing neurobehavioral, social, and emotional outcomes in patients treated for CP prior to 18 years of age. Studies published between the years 1990-2012 that reported the primary outcome (prevalence of neurobehavioral, social, emotional/affective dysfunction, and/or impaired quality of life (QoL)) in ≥10 patients were included. Results Of the 471 studies screened, 11 met inclusion criteria. Overall neurobehavioral dysfunction was reported in 51 of 90 patients (57%) with available data. Social impairment (i.e. withdrawal, internalizing behavior) was reported in 91 of 222 cases (41%). School dysfunction was reported in 48 of 136 patients (35%). Emotional/affective dysfunction was reported in 58 of 146 patients (40%), primarily consisting of depressive symptoms. Health related quality of life was affected in 49 of 95 patients (52%). Common descriptors of behavior in affected children included irritability, impulsivity, aggressiveness, and emotional outbursts. Conclusions Neurobehavioral, social, and emotional impairment is highly prevalent in survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma, and often affects quality of life. Thorough neurobehavioral/emotional screening and appropriate counseling is recommended in this population. Additional research is warranted to identify risk factors and treatment strategies for these disorders. PMID:24223703

  20. Prevalence of neurobehavioral, social, and emotional dysfunction in patients treated for childhood craniopharyngioma: a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Zada

    Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas (CP are locally invasive and frequently recurring neoplasms often resulting in neurological and endocrinological dysfunction in children. In addition, social-behavioral impairment is commonly reported following treatment for childhood CP, yet remains to be fully understood. The authors aimed to further characterize the prevalence of neurobehavioral, social, and emotional dysfunction in survivors of childhood craniopharyngiomas.A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed to identify studies formally assessing neurobehavioral, social, and emotional outcomes in patients treated for CP prior to 18 years of age. Studies published between the years 1990-2012 that reported the primary outcome (prevalence of neurobehavioral, social, emotional/affective dysfunction, and/or impaired quality of life (QoL in ≥ 10 patients were included.Of the 471 studies screened, 11 met inclusion criteria. Overall neurobehavioral dysfunction was reported in 51 of 90 patients (57% with available data. Social impairment (i.e. withdrawal, internalizing behavior was reported in 91 of 222 cases (41%. School dysfunction was reported in 48 of 136 patients (35%. Emotional/affective dysfunction was reported in 58 of 146 patients (40%, primarily consisting of depressive symptoms. Health related quality of life was affected in 49 of 95 patients (52%. Common descriptors of behavior in affected children included irritability, impulsivity, aggressiveness, and emotional outbursts.Neurobehavioral, social, and emotional impairment is highly prevalent in survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma, and often affects quality of life. Thorough neurobehavioral/emotional screening and appropriate counseling is recommended in this population. Additional research is warranted to identify risk factors and treatment strategies for these disorders.

  1. Clinical and Neurobehavioral Features of Three Novel Kabuki Syndrome Patients with Mosaic KMT2D Mutations and a Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepri, Francesca Romana; Cocciadiferro, Dario; Augello, Bartolomeo; Alfieri, Paolo; Pes, Valentina; Vancini, Alessandra; Caciolo, Cristina; Squeo, Gabriella Maria; Malerba, Natascia; Adipietro, Iolanda; Novelli, Antonio; Sotgiu, Stefano; Gherardi, Renzo; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Merla, Giuseppe

    2017-12-28

    Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and variable intellectual disability caused by mutations in KMT2D/MLL2 and KDM6A/UTX , two interacting chromatin modifier responsible respectively for 56-75% and 5-8% of the cases. To date, three KS patients with mosaic KMT2D deletions in blood lymphocytes have been described. We report on three additional subjects displaying KMT2D gene mosaics including one in which a single nucleotide change results in a new frameshift mutation (p.L1199HfsX7), and two with already-known nonsense mutations (p.R4484X and p.R5021X). Consistent with previously published cases, mosaic KMT2D mutations may result in mild KS facial dysmorphisms and clinical and neurobehavioral features, suggesting that these characteristics could represent the handles for genetic testing of individuals with slight KS-like traits.

  2. Clinical and Neurobehavioral Features of Three Novel Kabuki Syndrome Patients with Mosaic KMT2D Mutations and a Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Romana Lepri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kabuki syndrome (KS is a rare disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and variable intellectual disability caused by mutations in KMT2D/MLL2 and KDM6A/UTX, two interacting chromatin modifier responsible respectively for 56–75% and 5–8% of the cases. To date, three KS patients with mosaic KMT2D deletions in blood lymphocytes have been described. We report on three additional subjects displaying KMT2D gene mosaics including one in which a single nucleotide change results in a new frameshift mutation (p.L1199HfsX7, and two with already-known nonsense mutations (p.R4484X and p.R5021X. Consistent with previously published cases, mosaic KMT2D mutations may result in mild KS facial dysmorphisms and clinical and neurobehavioral features, suggesting that these characteristics could represent the handles for genetic testing of individuals with slight KS-like traits.

  3. Zebrafish neurobehavioral phenomics for aquatic neuropharmacology and toxicology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, Allan V; Echevarria, David J; Homechaudhuri, Sumit; Stewart, Adam Michael; Collier, Adam D; Kaluyeva, Aleksandra A; Li, Shaomin; Liu, Yingcong; Chen, Peirong; Wang, JiaJia; Yang, Lei; Mitra, Anisa; Pal, Subharthi; Chaudhuri, Adwitiya; Roy, Anwesha; Biswas, Missidona; Roy, Dola; Podder, Anupam; Poudel, Manoj K; Katare, Deepshikha P; Mani, Ruchi J; Kyzar, Evan J; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Nguyen, Michael; Song, Cai

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly emerging as an important model organism for aquatic neuropharmacology and toxicology research. The behavioral/phenotypic complexity of zebrafish allows for thorough dissection of complex human brain disorders and drug-evoked pathological states. As numerous zebrafish models become available with a wide spectrum of behavioral, genetic, and environmental methods to test novel drugs, here we discuss recent zebrafish phenomics methods to facilitate drug discovery, particularly in the field of biological psychiatry. Additionally, behavioral, neurological, and endocrine endpoints are becoming increasingly well-characterized in zebrafish, making them an inexpensive, robust and effective model for toxicology research and pharmacological screening. We also discuss zebrafish behavioral phenotypes, experimental considerations, pharmacological candidates and relevance of zebrafish neurophenomics to other 'omics' (e.g., genomic, proteomic) approaches. Finally, we critically evaluate the limitations of utilizing this model organism, and outline future strategies of research in the field of zebrafish phenomics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smithrick, J.J.; O`Donnell, P.M. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (>30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4,000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft.

  5. Design of steady-state positron emission tomography protocols for neurobehavioral studies: CO15O and 19Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearfott, K.J.; Rottenberg, D.A.; Volpe, B.T.

    1983-01-01

    Although the [ 18 F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomographic technique for measuring regional glucose metabolic rate has been successfully employed for neurobehavioral studies, the long (greater than 30 min) equilibration time required may complicate the interpretation of experimental results. Positron emission tomography neurobehavioral protocols employing the continuous inhalation of CO 15 O and 19 Ne were developed for measuring regional cerebral blood flow during multiple control and stimulation periods. Timing, lung absorbed dose, statistical accuracy, and resolution were considered. Studies with 19 Ne require shorter equilibration and stimulation times than do CO 15 O studies but entail higher absorbed doses and yield poorer imaging statistics

  6. The Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, D. E.; Armantrout, J. D.; Standlee, D. J.; Baker, R. C.; Lanier, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Details are presented of the HST (Hubble Space Telescope) battery cell, battery package, and module mechanical and electrical designs. Also included are a summary of acceptance, qualification, and vibration tests and thermal vacuum testing. Unique details of battery cell charge retention performance characteristics associated with prelaunch hold conditions are discussed. Special charge control methods to minimize thermal dissipation during pad charging operations are summarized. This module design meets all NASA fracture control requirements for manned missions.

  7. Development and field test of psychophysical tests for DWI arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Administration and scoring procedures were standardized for a sobriety test battery consisting of the walk-and-turn test, the one leg stand test, and horizontal gaze nystagmus. The effectiveness of the standardized battery was then evaluated in the l...

  8. Bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, C. W.; Applewhite, A. Z.; Kuo, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The initial design for the NASA-Lewis advanced nickel-hydrogen battery is discussed. Fabrication of two 10-cell boilerplate battery stacks will soon begin. The test batteries will undergo characterization testing and low Earth orbit life cycling. The design effectively deals with waste heat generated in the cell stack. Stack temperatures and temperature gradients are maintained to acceptable limits by utilizing the bipolar conduction plate as a heat path to the active cooling fluid panel external to the edge of the cell stack. The thermal design and mechanical design of the battery stack together maintain a materials balance within the cell. An electrolyte seal on each cell frame prohibits electrolyte bridging. An oxygen recombination site and electrolyte reservoir/separator design does not allow oxygen to leave the cell in which it was generated.

  9. Mindfulness Training among Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease: Neurobehavioral Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pickut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate possible neurobehavioral changes secondary to a mindfulness based intervention (MBI training for individuals living with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Background. In the context of complementary medicine, MBIs are increasingly being used for stress reduction and in patient populations coping with chronic illness. The use of alternative and complementary medicine may be higher in patients with chronic conditions such as PD. However, behavioral effects of mindfulness training in PD have not yet been reported in the literature and this points to an unmet need and warrants further examination. Methods. A total of 27 out of 30 PD patients completed a randomized controlled longitudinal trial. Questionnaires and the UPDRS I–IV were obtained at baseline and 8-week follow-up. Results. Significant changes after the MBI were found including a 5.5 point decrease on the UPDRS motor score, an increase of 0.79 points on Parkinson’s disease questionnaire (PDQ-39 pain item, and a 3.15 point increase in the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire observe facet. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative analysis of neurobehavioral effects of MBI in PD.

  10. Reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of clothianidin administered to mice in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toyohito

    2012-04-01

    Clothianidin was given in the diet to provide levels of 0% (control), 0.003%, 0.006%, and 0.012% from 5 weeks of age of the F(0) generation to 11 weeks of age of the F(1) generation in mice. Selected reproductive and neurobehavioral parameters were measured. In exploratory behavior in the F(0) generation, average time of movement, number of rearing, and rearing time of adult males increased significantly in a dose-related manner. There was no adverse effect of clothianidin on litter size, litter weight, or sex ratio at birth. The average body weight of male and female offspring was increased significantly in a dose-related manner during the early lactation period. With respect to behavioral developmental parameters, swimming head angle at postnatal day (PND) 7 of male offspring was accelerated significantly in a dose-related manner. Negative geotaxis at PND 7 of female offspring was accelerated significantly in a dose-related manner. For movement activity of exploratory behavior in the F(1) generation, number of rearing of female offspring increased significantly in a dose-related manner. Movement time of adult males increased significantly in a dose-related manner. The dose levels of clothianidin in the present study produced several adverse effects in neurobehavioral parameters in mice. Nevertheless, it would appear that the levels of the actual dietary intake of clothianidin are unlikely to produce adverse effects in humans. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Parenting behavior is associated with the early neurobehavioral development of very preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Anderson, Vicki A; Howard, Kelly; Bear, Merilyn; Hunt, Rod W; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie E; Woodward, Lianne; Anderson, Peter J

    2009-02-01

    There is an increasing focus on social and environmental factors that promote and support the early development of highly vulnerable children such as those born very preterm. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between parenting behavior, parent-child synchrony, and neurobehavioral development in very preterm children at 24 months of age. Participants were 152 very preterm children (Cognitive and motor development was assessed by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II, and the Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment was used to assess socioemotional development (social-emotional competence and internalizing and externalizing behavior). fter controlling for social risk, most parenting domains were associated with cognitive development, with parent-child synchrony emerging as the most predictive. Greater parent-child synchrony was also associated with greater social-emotional competence, as was parenting that was positive, warm, and sensitive. Parents who displayed higher levels of negative affect were more likely to rate their children as withdrawn, anxious, and inhibited, but, unexpectedly, higher negative affect was also associated with more optimal psychomotor development. Parenting was not associated with externalizing behaviors at this age. Specific parenting behaviors, particularly parent-child synchrony, were associated with neurobehavioral development. These findings have implications for the development of targeted parent-based interventions to promote positive outcomes across different developmental domains during the first 2 years of life for very preterm children.

  12. Enriched environment palliates nicotine-induced addiction and associated neurobehavioral deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Amber; Batool, Zehra; Ahmed, Saara; Tabassum, Saiqa; Khaliq, Saima; Mehdi, Bushra Jabeen; Sajid, Irfan; Ahmad, Shoaib; Saleem, Sadia; Naqvi, Fizza; Naqvi, Faizan; Haider, Saida

    2017-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of enriched environment in preventing and/or reducing the neurobehavioral deficits produced after nicotine administration in albino Wistar rats. Equal numbers of rat in two groups were either placed in social environment (control group) or social along with physically enriched environment for four weeks before the administration of nicotine. Exposure to different environmental conditions was followed by the intraperitoneal injection of nicotine at the dose of 0.6 mg/kg for seven consecutive days during which addictive behavior was monitored using conditioned placed preference paradigm. Behavioral responses to locomotor activity, anxiety and retention of short term memory were investigated in control and nicotine injected groups exposed to different environments. Results of this study showed that the rats pre-exposed to physical along with social enrichment exhibited a decrease in drug seeking behavior, hyper locomotion, anxiogenic effects along with improvement of working memory as compared to control and nicotine injected groups that were kept in social environment alone. This behavioral study suggests that the exposure to physical enrichment along with socialization in young age can later reduce the chances of compulsive dependence on nicotine and related neurobehavioral deficits.

  13. Third International Conference on Batteries for Utility Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-18

    This is a collection of essays presented at the above-named conference held at Kobe, Japan, from March 18 through 22, 1991. At the utility energy storage session, a power research program plan, operational and economic benefits of BESP (battery energy storage plant), the Moonlight Project, etc., were presented, respectively, by EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) of the U.S., BEWAG Corporation of Germany, and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) of Japan, etc. At the improved lead-acid batteries session, the characteristics of improved lead-acid batteries, load levelling and life cycle, problems in BESP, comparisons and tests, etc., were presented by Japan, Italy, the U.S., etc. At the advanced batteries session, presentations were made about the sodium-sulfur battery, zinc-bromine battery, redox battery, etc. Furthermore, there were sessions on consumer energy systems, control and power conditioning technology, and commercialization and economic studies. A total 53 presentations were made. (NEDO)

  14. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  15. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  16. Countermeasures to Neurobehavioral Deficits from Cumulative Partial Sleep Deprivation During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, David F.

    1999-01-01

    This project is concerned with identifying ways to prevent neurobehavioral and physical deterioration due to inadequate sleep in astronauts during long-duration manned space flight. The performance capability of astronauts during extended-duration space flight depends heavily on achieving recovery through adequate sleep. Even with appropriate circadian alignment, sleep loss can erode fundamental elements of human performance capability including vigilance, cognitive speed and accuracy, working memory, reaction time, and physiological alertness. Adequate sleep is essential during manned space flight not only to ensure high levels of safe and effective human performance, but also as a basic regulatory biology critical to healthy human functioning. There is now extensive objective evidence that astronaut sleep is frequently restricted in space flight to averages between 4 hr and 6.5 hr/day. Chronic sleep restriction during manned space flight can occur in response to endogenous disturbances of sleep (motion sickness, stress, circadian rhythms), environmental disruptions of sleep (noise, temperature, light), and curtailment of sleep due to the work demands and other activities that accompany extended space flight operations. The mechanism through which this risk emerges is the development of cumulative homeostatic pressure for sleep across consecutive days of inadequate sleep. Research has shown that the physiological sleepiness and performance deficits engendered by sleep debt can progressively worsen (i.e., accumulate) over consecutive days of sleep restriction, and that sleep limited to levels commonly experienced by astronauts (i.e., 4 - 6 hr per night) for as little as 1 week, can result in increased lapses of attention, degradation of response times, deficits in complex problem solving, reduced learning, mood disturbance, disruption of essential neuroendocrine, metabolic, and neuroimmune responses, and in some vulnerable persons, the emergence of uncontrolled

  17. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D.; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. A desalination battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  19. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. The Walter Reed performance assessment battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, D R; Genser, S G; Sing, H C; Hegge, F W

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes technical details of a computerized psychological test battery designed for examining the effects of various state-variables on a representative sample of normal psychomotor, perceptual and cognitive tasks. The duration, number and type of tasks can be customized to different experimental needs, and then administered and analyzed automatically, at intervals as short as one hour. The battery can be run on either the Apple-II family of computers or on machines compatible with the IBM-PC.

  1. Bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, C. W.; Applewhite, A. Z.; Hall, A. M.; Russell, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the bipolar Ni-H2 battery with other energy systems to be used in future high-power space systems is presented. The initial design for the battery under the NASA-sponsored program is described and the candidate stack components are evaluated, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte reservoir plate, and recombination sites. The compressibility of the cell elements, electrolyte activation, and thermal design are discussed. Manufacturing and prototype test results are summarized.

  2. SOLID STATE BATTERIES WITH CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bénière , F.; Boils , D.; Cánepa , H.; Franco , J.; Le Corre , A.; Louboutin , J.

    1983-01-01

    The conducting polymers like (CH)x are very interesting materials for electrodes in electrochemical cells. We have combined such electrodes with solid electrolytes to build "all solid-state" batteries. The first prototypes using a silver anode and a silver conducting electrolyte have been working satisfactorily since two years. The performances have been tested with many batteries to study the electrical properties as well as the thermodynamical parameters. A number of cycles of charge-discha...

  3. Influence of Battery Parametric Uncertainties on the State-of-Charge Estimation of Lithium Titanate Oxide-Based Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Meng, Jinhao; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan

    2018-01-01

    to describe the battery dynamics. The SOC estimation method proposed in this paper is based on an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and nonlinear battery model which was parameterized using extended laboratory tests performed on several 13 Ah lithium titanate oxide (LTO)-based lithium-ion batteries. The developed......State of charge (SOC) is one of the most important parameters in battery management systems, as it indicates the available battery capacity at every moment. There are numerous battery model-based methods used for SOC estimation, the accuracy of which depends on the accuracy of the model considered...... a sensitivity analysis it was showed that the SOC and voltage estimation error are only slightly dependent on the variation of the battery model parameters with the SOC....

  4. Effect of early postnatal exposure to valproate on neurobehavioral development and regional BDNF expression in two strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Kevin G; Pimentel, Tiare

    2017-05-01

    Valproate has been used for over 30years as a first-line treatment for epilepsy. In recent years, prenatal exposure to valproate has been associated with teratogenic effects, limiting its use in women that are pregnant or of childbearing age. However, despite its potential detrimental effects on development, valproate continues to be prescribed at high rates in pediatric populations in some countries. Animal models allow us to test hypotheses regarding the potential effects of postnatal valproate exposure on neurobehavioral development, as well as identify potential mechanisms mediating observed effects. Here, we tested the effect of early postnatal (P4-P11) valproate exposure (100mg/kg and 200mg/kg) on motor and affective development in two strains of mice, SVE129 and C57Bl/6N. We also assessed the effect of early valproate exposure on regional BDNF protein levels, a potential target of valproate, and mediator of neurodevelopmental outcomes. We found that early life valproate exposure led to significant motor impairments in both SVE129 and C57Bl/6N mice. Both lines of mice showed significant delays in weight gain, as well as impairments in the righting reflex (P7-8), wire hang (P17), open field (P12 and P21), and rotarod (P25 and P45) tasks. Interestingly, some of the early locomotor effects were strain- and dose-dependent. We observed no effects of valproate on early markers of anxiety-like behavior. Importantly, early life valproate exposure had significant effects on regional BDNF expression, leading to a near 50% decrease in BDNF levels in the cerebellum of both strains of mice, while not impacting hippocampal BDNF protein levels. These observations indicate that postnatal exposure to valproate may have significant, and region-specific effects, on neural and behavioral development, with specific consequences for cerebellar development and motor function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical utility of the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory validity scales to screen for symptom exaggeration following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Brickell, Tracey A; Lippa, Sara M; French, Louis M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical utility of three recently developed validity scales (Validity-10, NIM5, and LOW6) designed to screen for symptom exaggeration using the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI). Participants were 272 U.S. military service members who sustained a mild, moderate, severe, or penetrating traumatic brain injury (TBI) and who were evaluated by the neuropsychology service at Walter Reed Army Medical Center within 199 weeks post injury. Participants were divided into two groups based on the Negative Impression Management scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory: (a) those who failed symptom validity testing (SVT-fail; n = 27) and (b) those who passed symptom validity testing (SVT-pass; n = 245). Participants in the SVT-fail group had significantly higher scores (pscales (range: d = 0.76 to 2.34). Similarly high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power (PPP), and negative predictive (NPP) values were found when using all three validity scales to differentiate SVT-fail versus SVT-pass groups. However, the Validity-10 scale consistently had the highest overall values. The optimal cutoff score for the Validity-10 scale to identify possible symptom exaggeration was ≥19 (sensitivity = .59, specificity = .89, PPP = .74, NPP = .80). For the majority of people, these findings provide support for the use of the Validity-10 scale as a screening tool for possible symptom exaggeration. When scores on the Validity-10 exceed the cutoff score, it is recommended that (a) researchers and clinicians do not interpret responses on the NSI, and (b) clinicians follow up with a more detailed evaluation, using well-validated symptom validity measures (e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form, MMPI-2-RF, validity scales), to seek confirmatory evidence to support an hypothesis of symptom exaggeration.

  6. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  7. Lifetime modelling of lead acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Cronin, T.; Lundsager, P.

    2005-04-01

    The performance and lifetime of energy storage in batteries are an important part of many renewable based energy systems. Not only do batteries impact on the system performance but they are also a significant expenditure when considering the whole life cycle costs. Poor prediction of lifetime can, therefore, lead to uncertainty in the viability of the system in the long term. This report details the work undertaken to investigate and develop two different battery life prediction methodologies with specific reference to their use in hybrid renewable energy systems. Alongside this, results from battery tests designed to exercise batteries in similar modes to those that they experience in hybrid systems have also been analysed. These have yielded battery specific parameters for use in the prediction software and the first results in the validation process of the software are also given. This work has been part of the European Union Benchmarking research project (ENK6-CT-2001-80576), funded by the European Union, the United States and Australian governments together with other European states and other public and private financing bodies. The project has concentrated on lead acid batteries as this technology is the most commonly used. Through this work the project partner institutions have intended to provide useful tools to improve the design capabilities of organizations, private and public, in remote power systems. (au)

  8. Gelled-electrolyte batteries for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuphorn, H. (Accumulatorenfabrik Sonnenschein GmbH, Buedingen (Germany))

    1992-09-15

    Increasing problems of air pollution have pushed activities of electric vehicle projects world-wide and in spite of projects for developing new battery systems for high energy densities, today lead/acid batteries are almost the single system, ready for technical usage in this application. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries with gelled electrolyte have the advantage that no maintenance is required and because the gel system does not cause problems with electrolyte stratification, no additional appliances for central filling or acid addition are required, which makes the system simple. Those batteries with high density active masses indicate high endurance results and field tests with 40 VW-CityStromers, equipped with 96 V/160 A h gel batteries with thermal management show good results during four years. In addition, gelled lead acid batteries possess superior high rate performance compared with conventional lead/acid batteries, which guarantees good acceleration results of the car and which makes the system recommendable for application in electric vehicles. (orig.).

  9. Gelled-electrolyte batteries for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuphorn, Hans

    Increasing problems of air pollution have pushed activities of electric vehicle projects worldwide and in spite of projects for developing new battery systems for high energy densities, today lead/acid batteries are almost the single system, ready for technical usage in this application. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries with gelled electrolyte have the advantage that no maintenance is required and because the gel system does not cause problems with electrolyte stratification, no additional appliances for central filling or acid addition are required, which makes the system simple. Those batteries with high density active masses indicate high endurance results and field tests with 40 VW-CityStromers, equipped with 96 V/160 A h gel batteries with thermal management show good results during four years. In addition, gelled lead/acid batteries possess superior high rate performance compared with conventional lead/acid batteries, which guarantees good acceleration results of the car and which makes the system recommendable for application in electric vehicles.

  10. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  11. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  12. Data-driven battery product development: Turn battery performance into a competitive advantage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal [Voltaiq, Inc.

    2016-04-19

    Poor battery performance is a primary source of user dissatisfaction across a broad range of applications, and is a key bottleneck hindering the growth of mobile technology, wearables, electric vehicles, and grid energy storage. Engineering battery systems is difficult, requiring extensive testing for vendor selection, BMS programming, and application-specific lifetime testing. This work also generates huge quantities of data. This presentation will explain how to leverage this data to help ship quality products faster using fewer resources while ensuring safety and reliability in the field, ultimately turning battery performance into a competitive advantage.

  13. VRLA automotive batteries for stop&go and dual battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, G. J.; Calasanzio, D.; Aliberti, R.

    The electrical power requirements for vehicles are continuing to increase and evolve. A substantial amount of effort has been directed towards the development of 36/42 V systems as a route to higher power with reduced current levels but high implementation costs have resulted in the introduction of these systems becoming deferred. In the interim, however, alternator power outputs at 14 V are being increased substantially and at the same time the requirements for batteries are becoming more intensive. In particular, stop&go systems and wire-based vehicle systems are resulting in new demands. For stop&go, the engine is stopped each time the vehicle comes to rest and is restarted when the accelerator is pressed again. This results in an onerous duty cycle with many shallow discharge cycles. Flooded lead-acid batteries cannot meet this duty cycle and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are needed to meet the demands that are applied. For wire-based systems, such as brake-by-wire or steer-by-wire, electrical power has become more critical and although the alternator and battery provide double redundancy, triple redundancy with a small reserve battery is specified. In this case, a small VRLA battery can be used and is optimised for standby service rather than for repeated discharges. The background to these applications is considered and test results under simulated operating conditions are discussed. Good performance can be obtained in batteries adapted for both applications. Battery management is also critical for both applications: in stop&go service, the state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) need to be monitored to ensure that the vehicle can be restarted; for reserve or back-up batteries, the SOC and SOH are monitored to verify that the battery is always capable of carrying out the duty cycle if required. Practical methods of battery condition monitoring will be described.

  14. [Effect of selenium deficiency on the F344 inbred line offspring rats' neuro-behavior, ability of learning and memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liang-Li; Tian, Dong-Ping; Su, Min; Shen, Xiu-Na; Gao, Yuxia

    2006-01-01

    To establish the selenium (Se) deficient animal model on F344 inbred line rats and observe the effects of a long-term Se-deficiency on the offspring's neuro-behavior, abilities of learning and memory. Feeding F344 inbred line rats on Se-deficient diet to establish Se-deficient animal model. For the offspring, the body weight, physiological indexes nervous reflections for growth and development were monitored during the early postnatal period. The Se-deficient diet contained less than 0.01 mg/kg and the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in blood of the Se-deficient group rats is lower than the Se-normal group after feeding on Se-deficient diet for 4 weeks. For the offspring, the birth weight and the body weight of Se-deficient group were obviously lower than the Se-normal group before weaning. Se-deficient offspring rats differed from Se-normal controls in lower scores in surface righting reflex (RR) test at postnatal 4th day after delivery, cliff avoidance test at postnatal 7th day and auditory acuity trial at postnatal 10th day respectively. But these differences disappear after a few days in the same tests. In addition, no significant differences between two groups in suspending test and walking ability test at postnatal 12th and 14th day. In open field test, Se-deficient male offspring stayed less time in the middle grid and moved less. In Morris water maze test, the Se-deficient offspring spent more time to find the hidden platform at the 6th and 9th training tests in the place navigation trial. Furthermore, the Se-deficient group spent less time in target quadrant when giving the spatial probe trial. A Se-deficient animal model have been established on F344 inbred line rats successfully. A long-term Se deficiency could retard the development of the offspring in uterus and after delivery. Se deficiency also decreased the offspring's abilities of spatial learning and memory in Morris water maze test and resulted in the male offspring's nervousness to new

  15. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The operating temperature is critical in achieving the right balance between performance, cost, and life for both Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. The chemistries of advanced energy-storage devices - such as lithium-based batteries - are very sensitive to operating temperature. High temperatures degrade batteries faster while low temperatures decrease their power and capacity, affecting vehicle range, performance, and cost. Understanding heat generation in battery systems - from the individual cells within a module, to the inter-connects between the cells, and across the entire battery system - is imperative for designing effective thermal-management systems and battery packs. At NREL, we have developed unique capabilities to measure the thermal properties of cells and evaluate thermal performance of battery packs (air or liquid cooled). We also use our electro-thermal finite element models to analyze the thermal performance of battery systems in order to aid battery developers with improved thermal designs. NREL's tools are used to meet the weight, life, cost, and volume goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy for electric drive vehicles.

  16. Advanced solid state batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, A; Delmas, C; Menetrier, M; Hagenmuller, P

    1984-01-01

    Direct electrochemical storage of electricity is attractive because of its adaptability to vehicle traction as well as to stationary applications. Important advancements are necessary to improve primary or secondary batteries so far used. The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize materials for the next generation of advanced, rechargeable solid state batteries for vehicle transport and stationary storage applications. One of the best electricity storage systems was the lithium/intercalation compound secondary battery, though up to now the behavior of liquid organic electrolytes did not allow for good recycling in such systems. The research program for these batteries is described.

  17. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  18. Stationary battery guide: Design, application, and maintenance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This guide has been prepared to assist a variety of users with stationary battery design, application, and maintenance. The following battery-related topics are discussed in detail: (1) fundamentals--how batteries are designed and how they work; (2) aging, degradation, and failures with an emphasis on how various maintenance tasks can prevent, detect, or repair certain degradation mechanisms; (3) applications--how batteries are designed for a specific purpose and how the battery industry has evolved; (4) sizing for different applications; (5) protection and charging; (6) periodic inspections and checks; (7) capacity discharge testing; (8) installation and replacement considerations; and (9) problems that can occur with battery systems. Since the original guide was published, new IEEE Recommended Practices related to stationary battery applications have been issued. This revision addresses those industry changes as well as some of the emerging issues related to the development of other industry documents. This guide has been prepared as a comprehensive reference source for stationary batteries and is intended to address the design, application, and maintenance needs of users. The technical discussions are at the application level. Fundamentals of battery design are covered in greater detail in this revision. More details related to internal cell materials, their operational relationship, and performance over the expected life of the battery cell are provided. This information has been included because many changes in battery cell materials, manufacturing and design processes are not always communicated to the user

  19. Evaluation of submarine atmospheres: effects of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxygen on general toxicology, neurobehavioral performance, reproduction and development in rats. I. Subacute exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Daniel J; James, R Arden; Gut, Ches