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Sample records for neurobehavioral functioning preliminary

  1. Sleep deprivation and neurobehavioral functioning in children.

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    Maski, Kiran P; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2013-08-01

    Sleep deprivation can result in significant impairments in daytime neurobehavioral functioning in children. Neural substrates impacted by sleep deprivation include the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and amygdala and result in difficulties with executive functioning, reward anticipation and emotional reactivity respectively. In everyday life, such difficulties contribute to academic struggles, challenging behaviors and public health concerns of substance abuse and suicidality. In this article, we aim to review 1) core neural structures impacted by sleep deprivation; 2) neurobehavioral problems associated with sleep deprivation; 3) specific mechanisms that may explain the relationship between sleep disturbances and neurobehavioral dysfunction; and 4) sleep problems reported in common neurodevelopmental disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Neurobehavioral functioning in adolescents with and without obesity and obstructive sleep apnea.

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    Xanthopoulos, Melissa S; Gallagher, Paul R; Berkowitz, Robert I; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Bradford, Ruth; Marcus, Carole L

    2015-03-01

    Children and adults with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) exhibit neurobehavioral abnormalities, but few studies have evaluated the transitional stage of adolescence. Obesity is also associated with neurobehavioral abnormalities, and many patients with OSAS are obese. However, the confounding effect of obesity on neurobehavioral abnormalities in adolescents with OSAS has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that obese adolescents with OSAS would exhibit more neurobehavioral abnormalities than obese and lean adolescents without OSAS. Cross-sectional, case control. Sleep Center and community. Obese adolescents with OSAS compared to (1) nonsnoring, obese controls without OSAS, and (2) nonobese, nonsnoring controls. Neurobehavioral evaluation. Obese adolescents with OSAS had significantly worse executive function and attention compared to both obese (P depression (P = 0.004) and externalizing symptoms than lean controls (P = 0.008). A higher percentage of participants in the OSAS group scored in the clinically abnormal range on executive functioning, attention, sleepiness, and behavioral functioning than lean controls. Mediation analyses indicated that level of sleep apnea significantly mediated the effect of body mass on executive functioning, attention, and behavior. Obese adolescents with OSAS show impaired executive and behavioral function compared to obese and lean controls, and are more likely to score in the clinically abnormal range on measures of neurobehavioral functioning. These results are especially concerning given that the frontal lobe is still developing during this critical age period. We speculate that untreated OSAS during adolescence may lead to significant neurobehavioral deficits in adulthood. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  3. Association between exposure to electromagnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines and neurobehavioral function in children.

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    Jiongli Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for a possible causal relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF emitted by high voltage transmission (HVT lines and neurobehavioral dysfunction in children is insufficient. The present study aims to investigate the association between EMF exposure from HVT lines and neurobehavioral function in children. METHODS: Two primary schools were chosen based on monitoring data of ambient electromagnetic radiation. A cross-sectional study with 437 children (9 to 13 years old was conducted. Exposure to EMF from HVT lines was monitored at each school. Information was collected on possible confounders and relevant exposure predictors using standardized questionnaires. Neurobehavioral function in children was evaluated using established computerized neurobehavioral tests. Data was analyzed using multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders. RESULTS: After controlling for potential confounding factors, multivariable regression revealed that children attending a school near 500 kV HVT lines had poorer performance on the computerized neurobehavioral tests for Visual Retention and Pursuit Aiming compared to children attending a school that was not in close proximity to HVT lines. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest long-term low-level exposure to EMF from HVT lines might have a negative impact on neurobehavioral function in children. However, because of differences in results only for two of four tests achieved statistical significance and potential limitations, more studies are needed to explore the effects of exposure to extremely low frequency EMF on neurobehavioral function and development in children.

  4. Association between exposure to electromagnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines and neurobehavioral function in children.

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    Huang, Jiongli; Tang, Tiantong; Hu, Guocheng; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Yuyu; Wang, Qiang; Su, Jing; Zou, Yunfeng; Peng, Xiaowu

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for a possible causal relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by high voltage transmission (HVT) lines and neurobehavioral dysfunction in children is insufficient. The present study aims to investigate the association between EMF exposure from HVT lines and neurobehavioral function in children. Two primary schools were chosen based on monitoring data of ambient electromagnetic radiation. A cross-sectional study with 437 children (9 to 13 years old) was conducted. Exposure to EMF from HVT lines was monitored at each school. Information was collected on possible confounders and relevant exposure predictors using standardized questionnaires. Neurobehavioral function in children was evaluated using established computerized neurobehavioral tests. Data was analyzed using multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders. After controlling for potential confounding factors, multivariable regression revealed that children attending a school near 500 kV HVT lines had poorer performance on the computerized neurobehavioral tests for Visual Retention and Pursuit Aiming compared to children attending a school that was not in close proximity to HVT lines. The results suggest long-term low-level exposure to EMF from HVT lines might have a negative impact on neurobehavioral function in children. However, because of differences in results only for two of four tests achieved statistical significance and potential limitations, more studies are needed to explore the effects of exposure to extremely low frequency EMF on neurobehavioral function and development in children.

  5. Branched-chain amino acids alter neurobehavioral function in rats

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    Coppola, Anna; Wenner, Brett R.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Stevens, Robert D.; Maggioni, Mauro; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Levin, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we have described a strong association of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and aromatic amino acids (AAA) with obesity and insulin resistance. In the current study, we have investigated the potential impact of BCAA on behavioral functions. We demonstrate that supplementation of either a high-sucrose or a high-fat diet with BCAA induces anxiety-like behavior in rats compared with control groups fed on unsupplemented diets. These behavioral changes are associated with a significant decrease in the concentration of tryptophan (Trp) in brain tissues and a consequent decrease in serotonin but no difference in indices of serotonin synaptic function. The anxiety-like behaviors and decreased levels of Trp in the brain of BCAA-fed rats were reversed by supplementation of Trp in the drinking water but not by administration of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, suggesting that the behavioral changes are independent of the serotonergic pathway of Trp metabolism. Instead, BCAA supplementation lowers the brain levels of another Trp-derived metabolite, kynurenic acid, and these levels are normalized by Trp supplementation. We conclude that supplementation of high-energy diets with BCAA causes neurobehavioral impairment. Since BCAA are elevated spontaneously in human obesity, our studies suggest a potential mechanism for explaining the strong association of obesity and mood disorders. PMID:23249694

  6. Neuropsychological and neurobehavioral functioning in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a review.

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    Snow, Wanda M; Anderson, Judy E; Jakobson, Lorna S

    2013-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic condition affecting predominantly boys that is characterized by fatal muscle weakness. While there is no cure, recent therapeutic advances have extended the lifespan of those with DMD considerably. Although the physiological basis of muscle pathology is well-documented, less is known regarding the cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial functioning of those afflicted. Several lines of evidence point to central nervous system involvement as an organic feature of DMD, challenging our view of the disorder as strictly neuromuscular. This report provides a review of the literature on neuropsychological and neurobehavioral functioning in DMD. Recent research identifying associations with DMD and neuropsychiatric disorders is also discussed. Lastly, the review presents implications of findings related to nonmotor aspects of DMD for improving the quality of life in those affected. While the literature is often contradictory in nature, this review highlights some key findings for consideration by clinicians, educators and parents when developing therapeutic interventions for this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pesticide poisoning and neurobehavioral function among farm workers in Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

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    Zhang, Xujun; Wu, Ming; Yao, Hongyan; Yang, Yaming; Cui, Mengjing; Tu, Zhibin; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides remain an integral part of agricultural activities worldwide. Although there have been a number of studies over the last two decades concerning the adverse effects of pesticide poisoning and chronic long term exposures on neurobehavioral function, the impact of recent pesticide poisoning and long term pesticide exposure on neurobehavioral function in Chinese farm workers has not been reported. China is the largest user of pesticides worldwide and figures suggest 53,300-123,000 Chinese people are poisoned every year. A case control study was conducted to examine the impact of recent pesticide poisoning on neurobehavioral function and the relationship between years worked in agriculture and lower performance on neurobehavioral tests. A total of 121 farm workers who self-reported recent pesticide poisonings within the previous 12 months (case group) and 80 farm workers who reported no pesticide poisoning in the previous 12 months (control group) were recruited from three areas of Jiangsu Province, China. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended neurobehavioral core test battery (NCTB) was used to assess neurobehavioral functioning among cases and controls. Student's t tests and two-way covariance analysis (ANCOVA) were used to test for significant differences in the neurobehavioral test results between the groups. Scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in the recently poisoned group were significantly higher for anger-hostility, depression-dejection, tension-anxiety and lower for vigor-activity compared to controls (p poisoned group compared to the controls (p poisoned group and those who had worked for more than 30 years in agriculture (p pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral functioning in Chinese farm workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of Traffic-Related Air Pollution with Children’s Neurobehavioral Functions in Quanzhou, China

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    Wang, Shunqin; Zhang, Jinliang; Zeng, Xiaodong; Zeng, Yimin; Wang, Shengchun; Chen, Shuyun

    2009-01-01

    Background With the increase of motor vehicles, ambient air pollution related to traffic exhaust has become an important environmental issue in China. Because of their fast growth and development, children are more susceptible to ambient air pollution exposure. Many chemicals from traffic exhaust, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead, have been reported to show adverse effects on neurobehavioral functions. Several studies in China have suggested that traffic exhaust might affect neurobehavioral functions of adults who have occupational traffic exhaust exposure. However, few data have been reported on the effects on neurobehavioral function in children. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the association between traffic-related air pollution exposure and its effects on neurobehavioral function in children. Methods This field study was conducted in Quanzhou, China, where two primary schools were chosen based on traffic density and monitoring data of ambient air pollutants. School A was located in a clear area and school B in a polluted area. We monitored NO2 and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm as indicators for traffic-related air pollution on the campuses and in classrooms for 2 consecutive days in May 2005. The children from second grade (8–9 years of age) and third grade (9–10 years of age) of the two schools (n = 928) participated in a questionnaire survey and manual-assisted neurobehavioral testing. We selected 282 third-grade children (school A, 136; school B, 146) to participate in computer-assisted neurobehavioral testing. We conducted the fieldwork between May and June 2005. We used data from 861 participants (school A, 431; school B, 430) with manual neurobehavioral testing and from all participants with computerized testing for data analyses. Results Media concentrations of NO2 in school A and school B campus were 7 μg/m3 and 36 μg/m3, respectively (p polluted area showed poor performance on

  9. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Hypertension in Adolescents: Effect on Neurobehavioral and Cognitive Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Madaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are limited published data in regard to the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and hypertension and neurobehavioral and mental status in adolescence. The aim of our study was to evaluate neurobehavioral patterns and cognitive functions in adolescents with hypertension according to absence or presence of OSA. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study completed at the Scientific Center for Family Health and Human Reproduction Problems. Participants included adolescents aged 14–17 years and referred for 24-hour ambulance blood pressure monitoring (ABPM and polysomnographic (PSG studies between 2007 and 2009, inclusive. Results. 18 hypertensive OSA (the 1st group and 20 hypertensive non-OSA adolescents (the 2nd group were included in the study. Significant changes of neurobehavioral functioning in OSA patients were shown. Cognitive abilities also were impaired. Verbal and visual memory indexes and attention index were 2.1 and 2.2 times lower, accordingly, in the 1st group than in the 2nd group (P<0.05. Speech index was significantly 2.8 times lower in OSA patients than in non-OSA patients (P<0.05. In hypertensive OSA adolescents more significant Spearman correlations between classic sleep parameters and cognitive measures were found compared to patients without OSA. Conclusions. These results suggest that OSA is closely associated with neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in hypertensive adolescents.

  10. Perspectives on stress resilience and adolescent neurobehavioral function

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    Russell D. Romeo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in adolescence as a crucial stage of neurobehavioral maturation is growing, as is the concern of how stress may perturb this critical period of development. Though it is well recognized that stress-related vulnerabilities increase during adolescence, not all adolescent individuals are uniformly affected by stress nor do stressful experiences inevitability lead to negative outcomes. Indeed, many adolescents show resilience to stress-induced dysfunctions. However, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms that may mediate resilience to stress in adolescence. The goal of this brief review is to bring together a few separate, yet related lines of research that highlight specific variables that may influence stress resilience during adolescence, including early life programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, stress inoculation, and genetic predisposition. Though we are far from a clear understanding of the factors that mediate resistance to stress-induced dysfunctions, it is imperative that we identify and delineate these aspects of resilience to help adolescents reach their full potential, even in the face of adversity.

  11. Neurobehavioral performance impairment in insomnia: relationships with self-reported sleep and daytime functioning.

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    Shekleton, Julia A; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Miller, Belinda; Epstein, Lawrence J; Kirsch, Douglas; Brogna, Lauren A; Burke, Liza M; Bremer, Erin; Murray, Jade M; Gehrman, Philip; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, daytime consequences of the disorder are poorly characterized. This study aimed to identify neurobehavioral impairments associated with insomnia, and to investigate relationships between these impairments and subjective ratings of sleep and daytime dysfunction. Cross-sectional, multicenter study. Three sleep laboratories in the USA and Australia. Seventy-six individuals who met the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for Primary Insomnia, Psychophysiological Insomnia, Paradoxical Insomnia, and/or Idiopathic Childhood Insomnia (44F, 35.8 ± 12.0 years [mean ± SD]) and 20 healthy controls (14F, 34.8 ± 12.1 years). N/A. Participants completed a 7-day sleep-wake diary, questionnaires assessing daytime dysfunction, and a neurobehavioral test battery every 60-180 minutes during an afternoon/evening sleep laboratory visit. Included were tasks assessing sustained and switching attention, working memory, subjective sleepiness, and effort. Switching attention and working memory were significantly worse in insomnia patients than controls, while no differences were found for simple or complex sustained attention tasks. Poorer sustained attention in the control, but not the insomnia group, was significantly associated with increased subjective sleepiness. In insomnia patients, poorer sustained attention performance was associated with reduced health-related quality of life and increased insomnia severity. We found that insomnia patients exhibit deficits in higher level neurobehavioral functioning, but not in basic attention. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral deficits in insomnia are due to neurobiological alterations, rather than sleepiness resulting from chronic sleep deficiency.

  12. Neurobehavioral Performance Impairment in Insomnia: Relationships with Self-Reported Sleep and Daytime Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekleton, Julia A.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Miller, Belinda; Epstein, Lawrence J.; Kirsch, Douglas; Brogna, Lauren A.; Burke, Liza M.; Bremer, Erin; Murray, Jade M.; Gehrman, Philip; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, daytime consequences of the disorder are poorly characterized. This study aimed to identify neurobehavioral impairments associated with insomnia, and to investigate relationships between these impairments and subjective ratings of sleep and daytime dysfunction. Design: Cross-sectional, multicenter study. Setting: Three sleep laboratories in the USA and Australia. Patients: Seventy-six individuals who met the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for Primary Insomnia, Psychophysiological Insomnia, Paradoxical Insomnia, and/or Idiopathic Childhood Insomnia (44F, 35.8 ± 12.0 years [mean ± SD]) and 20 healthy controls (14F, 34.8 ± 12.1 years). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants completed a 7-day sleep-wake diary, questionnaires assessing daytime dysfunction, and a neurobehavioral test battery every 60-180 minutes during an afternoon/evening sleep laboratory visit. Included were tasks assessing sustained and switching attention, working memory, subjective sleepiness, and effort. Switching attention and working memory were significantly worse in insomnia patients than controls, while no differences were found for simple or complex sustained attention tasks. Poorer sustained attention in the control, but not the insomnia group, was significantly associated with increased subjective sleepiness. In insomnia patients, poorer sustained attention performance was associated with reduced health-related quality of life and increased insomnia severity. Conclusions: We found that insomnia patients exhibit deficits in higher level neurobehavioral functioning, but not in basic attention. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral deficits in insomnia are due to neurobiological alterations, rather than sleepiness resulting from chronic sleep deficiency. Citation: Shekleton JA; Flynn-Evans EE; Miller B; Epstein LJ; Kirsch D; Brogna LA; Burke LM; Cremer E; Murray JM; Gehrman P; Lockley SW; Rajaratnam SMW

  13. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

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    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  14. Metabolite profiles correlate closely with neurobehavioral function in experimental spinal cord injury in rats.

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    Yusuke Fujieda

    Full Text Available Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI results in direct physical damage and the generation of local factors contributing to secondary pathogenesis. Untargeted metabolomic profiling was used to uncover metabolic changes and to identify relationships between metabolites and neurobehavioral functions in the spinal cord after injury in rats. In the early metabolic phase, neuronal signaling, stress, and inflammation-associated metabolites were strongly altered. A dynamic inflammatory response consisting of elevated levels of prostaglandin E2 and palmitoyl ethanolamide as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed. N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA were significantly decreased possibly reflecting neuronal cell death. A second metabolic phase was also seen, consistent with membrane remodeling and antioxidant defense response. These metabolomic changes were consistent with the pathology and progression of SCI. Several metabolites, including NAA, NAAG, and the ω-3 fatty acids docosapentaenoate and docosahexaenoate correlated greatly with the established Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotive score (BBB score. Our findings suggest the possibility of a biochemical basis for BBB score and illustrate that metabolites may correlate with neurobehavior. In particular the NAA level in the spinal cord might provide a meaningful biomarker that could help to determine the degree of injury severity and prognosticate neurologic recovery.

  15. Neurobehavioral Function in School-Age Children Exposed to Manganese in Drinking Water

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    Oulhote, Youssef; Mergler, Donna; Barbeau, Benoit; Bellinger, David C.; Bouffard, Thérèse; Brodeur, Marie-Ève; Saint-Amour, Dave; Legrand, Melissa; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Background: Manganese neurotoxicity is well documented in individuals occupationally exposed to airborne particulates, but few data are available on risks from drinking-water exposure. Objective: We examined associations of exposure from concentrations of manganese in water and hair with memory, attention, motor function, and parent- and teacher-reported hyperactive behaviors. Methods: We recruited 375 children and measured manganese in home tap water (MnW) and hair (MnH). We estimated manganese intake from water ingestion. Using structural equation modeling, we estimated associations between neurobehavioral functions and MnH, MnW, and manganese intake from water. We evaluated exposure–response relationships using generalized additive models. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, a 1-SD increase in log10 MnH was associated with a significant difference of –24% (95% CI: –36, –12%) SD in memory and –25% (95% CI: –41, –9%) SD in attention. The relations between log10 MnH and poorer memory and attention were linear. A 1-SD increase in log10 MnW was associated with a significant difference of –14% (95% CI: –24, –4%) SD in memory, and this relation was nonlinear, with a steeper decline in performance at MnW > 100 μg/L. A 1-SD increase in log10 manganese intake from water was associated with a significant difference of –11% (95% CI: –21, –0.4%) SD in motor function. The relation between log10 manganese intake and poorer motor function was linear. There was no significant association between manganese exposure and hyperactivity. Conclusion: Exposure to manganese in water was associated with poorer neurobehavioral performances in children, even at low levels commonly encountered in North America. Citation: Oulhote Y, Mergler D, Barbeau B, Bellinger DC, Bouffard T, Brodeur ME, Saint-Amour D, Legrand M, Sauvé S, Bouchard MF. 2014. Neurobehavioral function in school-age children exposed to manganese in drinking water. Environ Health

  16. Impact of Sleep Restriction on Neurobehavioral Functioning of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Gruber, Reut; Wiebe, Sabrina; Montecalvo, Lisa; Brunetti, Bianca; Amsel, Rhonda; Carrier, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the cumulative impact of 1 hour of nightly sleep restriction over the course of 6 nights on the neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls. Design: Following 6 nights of actigraphic monitoring of sleep to determine baseline sleep duration, children were asked to restrict sleep duration by 1 hour for 6 consecutive nights. NBF was assessed at baseline (Day 6) and following sleep manipulation (Day 12). Setting: A quiet location within their home environments. Participants: Forty-three children (11 ADHD, 32 Controls, mean age = 8.7 years, SD = 1.3) between the ages of 7 and 11 years. Interventions: NA Measurements: Sleep was monitored using actigraphy. In addition, parents were asked to complete nightly sleep logs. Sleepiness was evaluated using a questionnaire. The Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) was used to assess NBF. Results: Restricted sleep led to poorer CPT scores on two-thirds of CPT outcome measures in both healthy controls and children with ADHD. The performance of children with ADHD following sleep restriction deteriorated from subclinical levels to the clinical range of inattention on two-thirds of CPT outcome measures. Conclusions: Moderate sleep restriction leads to a detectable negative impact on the NBF of children with ADHD and healthy controls, leading to a clinical level of impairment in children with ADHD. Citation: Gruber R; Wiebe S; Montecalvo L; Brunetti B; Amsel R; Carrier J. Impact of sleep restriction on neurobehavioral functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. SLEEP 2011;34(3):315-323. PMID:21358848

  17. Acute Total and Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation: Effects on Neurobehavioral Functions, Waking EEG and Renin-Angiotensin System

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    Dijk, Derk-Jan

    1999-01-01

    Total sleep deprivation leads to decrements in neurobehavioral performance and changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations as well as the incidence of slow eye movements ad detected in the electro-oculogram (EOG) during wakefulness. Although total sleep deprivation is a powerful tool to investigate the association of EEG/EOG and neurobehavioral decrements, sleep loss during space flight is usual only partial. Furthermore exposure to the microgravity environment leads to changes in sodium and volume homeostasis and associated renal and cardio-endocrine responses. Some of these changes can be induced in head down tilt bedrest studies. We integrate research tools and research projects to enhance the fidelity of the simulated conditions of space flight which are characterized by complexity and mutual interactions. The effectiveness of countermeasures and physiologic mechanisms underlying neurobehavioral changes and renal-cardio endocrine changes are investigated in Project 3 of the Human Performance Team and Project 3 of the Cardiovascular Alterations Team respectively. Although the. specific aims of these two projects are very different, they employ very similar research protocols. Thus, both projects investigate the effects of posture/bedrest and sleep deprivation (total or partial) on outcome measures relevant to their specific aims. The main aim of this enhancement grant is to exploit the similarities in research protocols by including the assessment of outcome variables relevant to the Renal-Cardio project in the research protocol of Project 3 of the Human Performance Team and by including the assessment of outcome variables relevant to the Quantitative EEG and Sleep Deprivation Project in the research protocols of Project 3 of the Cardiovascular Alterations team. In particular we will assess Neurobehavioral Function and Waking EEG in the research protocols of the renal-cardio endocrine project and renin-angiotensin and cardiac function in the research

  18. Neurobehavioral function and low-level exposure to brominated flame retardants in adolescents: a cross-sectional study

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    Kiciński Michał

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal and in vitro studies demonstrated a neurotoxic potential of brominated flame retardants, a group of chemicals used in many household and commercial products to prevent fire. Although the first reports of detrimental neurobehavioral effects in rodents appeared more than ten years ago, human data are sparse. Methods As a part of a biomonitoring program for environmental health surveillance in Flanders, Belgium, we assessed the neurobehavioral function with the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES-3, and collected blood samples in a group of high school students. Cross-sectional data on 515 adolescents (13.6-17 years of age was available for the analysis. Multiple regression models accounting for potential confounders were used to investigate the associations between biomarkers of internal exposure to brominated flame retardants [serum levels of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE congeners 47, 99, 100, 153, 209, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD, and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA] and cognitive performance. In addition, we investigated the association between brominated flame retardants and serum levels of FT3, FT4, and TSH. Results A two-fold increase of the sum of serum PBDE’s was associated with a decrease of the number of taps with the preferred-hand in the Finger Tapping test by 5.31 (95% CI: 0.56 to 10.05, p = 0.029. The effects of the individual PBDE congeners on the motor speed were consistent. Serum levels above the level of quantification were associated with an average decrease of FT3 level by 0.18 pg/mL (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.34, p = 0.020 for PBDE-99 and by 0.15 pg/mL (95% CI: 0.004 to 0.29, p = 0.045 for PBDE-100, compared with concentrations below the level of quantification. PBDE-47 level above the level of quantification was associated with an average increase of TSH levels by 10.1% (95% CI: 0.8% to 20.2%, p = 0.033, compared with concentrations below the level of quantification. We did not

  19. Functional Polymorphisms in Dopaminergic Genes Modulate Neurobehavioral and Neurophysiological Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

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    Holst, Sebastian C.; Müller, Thomas; Valomon, Amandine; Seebauer, Britta; Berger, Wolfgang; Landolt, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs cognitive performance and reliably alters brain activation in wakefulness and sleep. Nevertheless, the molecular regulators of prolonged wakefulness remain poorly understood. Evidence from genetic, behavioral, pharmacologic and imaging studies suggest that dopaminergic signaling contributes to the behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) consequences of sleep loss, although direct human evidence thereof is missing. We tested whether dopamine neurotransmission regulate sustained attention and evolution of EEG power during prolonged wakefulness. Here, we studied the effects of functional genetic variation in the dopamine transporter (DAT1) and the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) genes, on psychomotor performance and standardized waking EEG oscillations during 40 hours of wakefulness in 64 to 82 healthy volunteers. Sleep deprivation consistently enhanced sleepiness, lapses of attention and the theta-to-alpha power ratio (TAR) in the waking EEG. Importantly, DAT1 and DRD2 genotypes distinctly modulated sleep loss-induced changes in subjective sleepiness, PVT lapses and TAR, according to inverted U-shaped relationships. Together, the data suggest that genetically determined differences in DAT1 and DRD2 expression modulate functional consequences of sleep deprivation, supporting the hypothesis that striato-thalamo-cortical dopaminergic pathways modulate the neurobehavioral and neurophysiological consequences of sleep loss in humans. PMID:28393838

  20. Neurobehavioral Deficits in Progressive Experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Departments of 1Anatomy and 2Neurological Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Summary: Hydrocephalus is usually associated with functional deficits which can be assessed by neurobehavioral tests. This study characterizes the neurobehavioral deficits occurring with increasing duration and ...

  1. Impact of sleep restriction on neurobehavioral functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Wiebe, Sabrina; Montecalvo, Lisa; Brunetti, Bianca; Amsel, Rhonda; Carrier, Julie

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cumulative impact of 1 hour of nightly sleep restriction over the course of 6 nights on the neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls. Following 6 nights of actigraphic monitoring of sleep to determine baseline sleep duration, children were asked to restrict sleep duration by 1 hour for 6 consecutive nights. NBF was assessed at baseline (Day 6) and following sleep manipulation (Day 12). A quiet location within their home environments. Forty-three children (11 ADHD, 32 Controls, mean age = 8.7 years, SD = 1.3) between the ages of 7 and 11 years. NA. Sleep was monitored using actigraphy. In addition, parents were asked to complete nightly sleep logs. Sleepiness was evaluated using a questionnaire. The Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) was used to assess NBF. Restricted sleep led to poorer CPT scores on two-thirds of CPT outcome measures in both healthy controls and children with ADHD. The performance of children with ADHD following sleep restriction deteriorated from subclinical levels to the clinical range of inattention on two-thirds of CPT outcome measures. Moderate sleep restriction leads to a detectable negative impact on the NBF of children with ADHD and healthy controls, leading to a clinical level of impairment in children with ADHD.

  2. Neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of beneficial effects of prenatal omega-3 fatty acid intake on memory function at school age.

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    Boucher, Olivier; Burden, Matthew J; Muckle, Gina; Saint-Amour, Dave; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Nelson, Charles A; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2011-05-01

    The beneficial effects of prenatal and early postnatal intakes of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on cognitive development during infancy are well recognized. However, few studies have examined the extent to which these benefits continue to be evident in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine the relation of n-3 PUFAs and seafood-contaminant intake with memory function in school-age children from a fish-eating community. In a prospective, longitudinal study in Arctic Quebec, we assessed Inuit children (n = 154; mean age: 11.3 y) by using a continuous visual recognition task to measure 2 event-related potential components related to recognition memory processing: the FN400 and the late positive component (LPC). Children were also examined by using 2 well-established neurobehavioral assessments of memory: the Digit span forward from Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, 4th edition, and the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version. Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that children with higher cord plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is an important n-3 PUFA, had a shorter FN400 latency and a larger LPC amplitude; and higher plasma DHA concentrations at the time of testing were associated with increased FN400 amplitude. Cord DHA-related effects were observed regardless of seafood-contaminant amounts. Multiple regression analyses also showed positive associations between cord DHA concentrations and performance on neurobehavioral assessments of memory. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of long-term beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA intake in utero on memory function in school-age children.

  3. [Long-term effect of hypertension on neurobehavioral and cardiac function in the apparently healthy community-dwelling elderly: a 5-year follow-up study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Tomio; Chikamori, Taishiro; Nishinaga, Masanori; Doi, Yoshinori

    2003-07-01

    Recently, it has been reported that hypertension causes not only cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, but also a decline of cognitive function in the elderly. However, it is not clear whether or not aging and hypertension have a latent effect on the cognitive-neurobehavioral and cardiac functions in healthy elderly whose scores of basic activities of daily living (ADL) are fully maintained. We evaluated the effect of aging and hypertension on cognitive-neurobehavioral and cardiac functions in 25 healthy community-dwelling elderly subjects (mean age: 69 y.o.) whose scores of basic ADL were fully maintained. Subjects were followed over a 5-year period, and the following examinations were performed before and after a 5-year follow-up: echocardiography, 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and cognitive-neurobehavioral function test. Left ventricular mass index was significantly increased in the hypertensive (HT) subjects relative to the normotensive (NT) subjects over the 5 years (% change: 3% for HT vs. -0.8% for NT, p = 0.03). The number of non-dippers significantly increased over the 5 years in the HT group (initially: 20% [2/10] vs. follow-up: 58% [7/12], p = 0.04). Visuospatial cognitive performance scale scores for evaluation of higher cognitive-neurobehavioral functions significantly deteriorated in the HT subjects (initially; 2,344 +/- 110 vs. 2,380 +/- 102, ns, and follow-up: 2,149 +/- 181 vs. 2,356 +/- 159, p = 0.04). Hypertension contributes to the impairment of the cognitive-neurobehavioral function in the elderly by latently affecting the functions of multiple organs. This occurs even if basic ADL is maintained for 5 years. Therefore, it is important to control BP not only to prevent cardiovascular events, but also to preserve the neurobehavioral function.

  4. Cannabidiol administration after hypoxia-ischemia to newborn rats reduces long-term brain injury and restores neurobehavioral function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, M R; Cinquina, V; Gómez, A; Layunta, R; Santos, M; Fernández-Ruiz, J; Martínez-Orgado, José

    2012-10-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) demonstrated short-term neuroprotective effects in the immature brain following hypoxia-ischemia (HI). We examined whether CBD neuroprotection is sustained over a prolonged period. Newborn Wistar rats underwent HI injury (10% oxygen for 120 min after left carotid artery electrocoagulation) and then received vehicle (HV, n = 22) or 1 mg/kg CBD (HC, n = 23). Sham animals were similarly treated (SV, n = 16 and SC, n = 16). The extent of brain damage was determined by magnetic resonance imaging, histological evaluation (neuropathological score, 0-5), magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Western blotting. Several neurobehavioral tests (RotaRod, cylinder rear test[CRT],and novel object recognition[NOR]) were carried out 30 days after HI (P37). CBD modulated brain excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation seven days after HI. We observed that HI led to long-lasting functional impairment, as observed in all neurobehavioral tests at P37, whereas the results of HC animals were similar to those of sham animals (all p < 0.05 vs. HV). CBD reduced brain infarct volume by 17% (p < 0.05) and lessened the extent of histological damage. No differences were observed between the SV and SC groups in any of the experiments. In conclusion, CBD administration after HI injury to newborn rats led to long-lasting neuroprotection, with the overall effect of promoting greater functional rather than histological recovery. These effects of CBD were not associated with any side effects. These results emphasize the interest in CBD as a neuroprotective agent for neonatal HI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum Neuron-Specific Enolase, Biogenic Amino-Acids and Neurobehavioral Function in Lead-Exposed Workers from Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ravibabu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The interaction between serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE, biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function with blood lead levels in workers exposed to lead form lead-acid battery manufacturing process was not studied. Objective: To evaluate serum NSE and biogenic amino-acids (dopamine and serotonin levels, and neurobehavioral performance among workers exposed to lead from lead-acid storage battery plant, and its relation with blood lead levels (BLLs. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we performed biochemical and neurobehavioral function tests on 146 workers exposed to lead from lead-acid battery manufacturing process. BLLs were assessed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum NSE, dopamine and serotonin were measured by ELISA. Neurobehavioral functions were assessed by CDC-recommended tests—simple reaction time (SRT, symbol digit substitution test (SDST, and serial digit learning test (SDLT. Results: There was a significant correlation (r 0.199, p<0.05 between SDST and BLL. SDLT and SRT had also a significant positive correlation (r 0.238, p<0.01. NSE had a negative correlation (r –0.194, p<0.05 with serotonin level. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both SRT and SDST had positive significant associations with BLL. SRT also had a positive significant association with age. Conclusion: Serum NSE cannot be used as a marker for BLL. The only domain of neurobehavioral function tests that is affected by increased BLL in workers of lead-acid battery manufacturing process is that of the “attention and perception” (SDST.

  6. Neurobehavioral deficits in progressive experimental hydrocephalus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocephalus is usually associated with functional deficits which can be assessed by neurobehavioral tests. This study characterizes the neurobehavioral deficits occurring with increasing duration and severity of ventriculomegaly in an experimental neonatal hydrocephalic rat model. Hydrocephalus was induced in three ...

  7. Association of aryl hydrocarbon receptor gene polymorphism with the neurobehavioral function and autonomic nervous system function changes induced by benzo[a]pyrene exposure in coke oven workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Nie, Jisheng; Li, Xin; Niu, Qiao

    2013-03-01

    To analyze the association of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) gene polymorphism and the neurotoxicity induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in coke oven workers. Subjects, 214 coke oven workers and 81 controls, were detected for neurobehavioral function and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Airborne B[a]P concentration, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene level, and AhR gene polymorphisms were determined and analyzed for their association with B[a]P neurotoxicity. Neurobehavioral function and ANS function were significantly decreased and dependent on B[a]P dose. The AhR GG, GA, and AA genotypes in G1661A fitted the Hardy-Weinberg equation, whereas C1549T and G1708A gene mutants were not detected. Indices indicating neurotoxicity showed no significant difference among individuals with AA, GG, or GA genotype except for the confusion-bewilderment (P > 0.05). The AhR gene polymorphism is not thought to correlate with B[a]P neurotoxicity among coke oven workers.

  8. Osthole, a natural coumarin, improves neurobehavioral functions and reduces infarct volume and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuexuan; Yin, Wei; Liu, Mengfei; Ye, Minzhong; Liu, Peiqing; Liu, Jianxin; Lian, Qishen; Xu, Suowen; Pi, Rongbiao

    2011-04-18

    Previously we demonstrated that Osthole, a natural coumarin, protects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury in rats. In the present study, the effects of Osthole on neurobehavioral functions, infarct volume and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in a rat 2h focal cerebral ischemia model were investigated. Osthole (100mg/kg per dose) was administrated intraperitoneally 30min before ischemic insult and immediately after reperfusion. Osthole treatment significantly reduced neurological deficit score and infarct volume by 38.5% and 33.8%, respectively, as compared with the untreated animals. Osthole reversed ischemia-reperfusion-induced increase in MMP-9 protein level/activity as evidenced by Western blotting and gelatin zymography. Taken together, these results for the first time demonstrate that Osthole reduces infarct volume, restores neurobehavioral functions and downregulates MMP-9 protein level/activity in ischemia/reperfused brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Multimodal assessments of the hippocampal formation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Evidences from neurobehavioral measures and functional and structural MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Knöchel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential clinical and etiological overlap between schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD has long been a subject of discussion. Imaging studies imply functional and structural alterations of the hippocampus in both diseases. Thus, imaging this core memory region could provide insight into the pathophysiology of these disorders and the associated cognitive deficits. To examine possible shared alterations in the hippocampus, we conducted a multi-modal assessment, including functional and structural imaging as well as neurobehavioral measures of memory performance in BD and SZ patients compared with healthy controls. We assessed episodic memory performance, using tests of verbal and visual learning (HVLT, BVMT in three groups of participants: BD patients (n = 21, SZ patients (n = 21 and matched (age, gender, education healthy control subjects (n = 21. In addition, we examined hippocampal resting state functional connectivity, hippocampal volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM and fibre integrity of hippocampal connections using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. We found memory deficits, changes in functional connectivity within the hippocampal network as well as volumetric reductions and altered white matter fibre integrity across patient groups in comparison with controls. However, SZ patients when directly compared with BD patients were more severely affected in several of the assessed parameters (verbal learning, left hippocampal volumes, mean diffusivity of bilateral cingulum and right uncinated fasciculus. The results of our study suggest a graded expression of verbal learning deficits accompanied by structural alterations within the hippocampus in BD patients and SZ patients, with SZ patients being more strongly affected. Our findings imply that these two disorders may share some common pathophysiological mechanisms. The results could thus help to further advance and integrate current pathophysiological models of SZ and BD.

  10. Effects of low lead exposure on neuro-behavioral function in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, R. (Sapporo Medical College, Japan); Ikeda, T.; Miyake, H.; Uchino, E.; Tsuzuki, T.; Inoue, K.

    1983-01-01

    Small doses (45-180 ..mu..g/g) of lead acetate were administered to male rats by gavage every day during the first 3 wk of life. A blood concentration of approximately 59 ..mu..g/100 ml blood produced signs of disturbances in reflex development and some changes in emotional behavior. Larger doses resulted in subtle changes in the neuromotor coordination function. The effect of low levels of lead exposure on the cognitive function in operant conditioning could not clearly be observed. Brain lead concentration tended to be higher than in other tissues examined. At approximately 10 months following cessation of lead acetate administration, the brain lead concentration had decreased to almost the same level found in control rats, and no distinguishable differences were observed between the lead-treated rats and controls in emotional behavior and neuromotor coordination.

  11. A composite neurobehavioral test to evaluate acute functional deficits after cerebellar haemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Devin W; Nowrangi, Derek; Kaur, Harpreet; Wu, Guangyong; Huang, Lei; Lekic, Tim; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2017-01-01

    Cerebellar haemorrhage accounts for 5-10% of all intracerebral haemorrhages and leads to severe, long-lasting functional deficits. Currently, there is limited research on this stroke subtype, which may be due to the lack of a suitable composite neuroscoring system specific for cerebellar injury in rodents. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive composite neuroscore test for cerebellar injury using a rat model of cerebellar haemorrhage. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either sham surgery or cerebellar haemorrhage. Twenty-four hours post-injury, neurological behaviour was evaluated using 17 cost-effective and easy-to-perform tests, and a composite neuroscore was developed. The composite neuroscore was then used to assess functional recovery over seven days after cerebellar haemorrhage. Differences in the composite neuroscore deficits for the mild and moderate cerebellar haemorrhage models were observed for up to five days post-ictus. Until now, a composite neuroscore for cerebellar injury was not available for rodent studies. Herein, using mild and moderate cerebellar haemorrhage rat models a composite neuroscore for cerebellar injury was developed and used to assess functional deficits after cerebellar haemorrhage. This composite neuroscore may also be useful for other cerebellar injury models.

  12. Effect of oral appliance therapy on neurobehavioral functioning in obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Sharon L; Winter, Virginia R; Hickie, Ian B; Cistulli, Peter A

    2005-10-15

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a custom-made mandibular advancement splint for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with respect to neuropsychological functioning and mood state. A randomized controlled crossover design was used in which 73 participants (mean age = 48.4, SD = 11.0, % men = 80.8) with at least 2 symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea and an apnea hypopnea index > or = 10 per hour underwent treatment with both mandibular advancement splint and an inactive oral device. Polysomnographic, neuropsychological and self-report measures were conducted at baseline and repeated after each of the two 4-week treatment phases. MAS treatment was associated with improvements on the somatic component of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Vigor-Activity and Fatigue-Inertia scales of the Profile of Mood States. While there were no improvements within the neuropsychological domains of attention/working memory, verbal memory, visuospatial or executive functioning, treatment with the mandibular advancement splint was associated with faster performance on a test of vigilance/psychomotor speed. These changes, however, did not correspond to the improved subjective sleepiness or apnea-hypopnea index during treatment. Treatment with the mandibular advancement splint results in improvements in self-reported sleepiness, fatigue/energy levels and vigilance/psychomotor speed in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  13. Insulin Treatment Prevents Neuroinflammation and Neuronal Injury with Restored Neurobehavioral Function in Models of HIV/AIDS Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamik, Manmeet K; Asahchop, Eugene L; Chan, Wing F; Zhu, Yu; Branton, William G; McKenzie, Brienne A; Cohen, Eric A; Power, Christopher

    2016-10-12

    HIV-1 infection of the brain causes the neurodegenerative syndrome HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), for which there is no specific treatment. Herein, we investigated the actions of insulin using ex vivo and in vivo models of HAND. Increased neuroinflammatory gene expression was observed in brains from patients with HIV/AIDS. The insulin receptor was detected on both neurons and glia, but its expression was unaffected by HIV-1 infection. Insulin treatment of HIV-infected primary human microglia suppressed supernatant HIV-1 p24 levels, reduced CXCL10 and IL-6 transcript levels, and induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expression. Insulin treatment of primary human neurons prevented HIV-1 Vpr-mediated cell process retraction and death. In feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infected cats, daily intranasal insulin treatment (20.0 IU/200 μl for 6 weeks) reduced CXCL10, IL-6, and FIV RNA detection in brain, although PPAR-γ in glia was increased compared with PBS-treated FIV+ control animals. These molecular changes were accompanied by diminished glial activation in cerebral cortex and white matter of insulin-treated FIV+ animals, with associated preservation of cortical neurons. Neuronal counts in parietal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus were higher in the FIV+/insulin-treated group compared with the FIV+/PBS-treated group. Moreover, intranasal insulin treatment improved neurobehavioral performance, including both memory and motor functions, in FIV+ animals. Therefore, insulin exerted ex vivo and in vivo antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects in models of HAND, representing a new therapeutic option for patients with inflammatory or infectious neurodegenerative disorders including HAND. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) represent a spectrum disorder of neurocognitive dysfunctions resulting from HIV-1 infection. Although the exact mechanisms causing HAND are unknown, productive HIV-1 infection

  14. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Assess the Neurobehavioral Impact of Dysphotopsia with Multifocal Intraocular Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Andreia M; Miranda, Ângela C; Patrício, Miguel; McAlinden, Colm; Silva, Fátima L; Murta, Joaquim N; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the association between dysphotopsia and neural responses in visual and higher-level cortical regions in patients who recently received multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implants. Cross-sectional study. Thirty patients 3 to 4 weeks after bilateral cataract surgery with diffractive IOL implantation and 15 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed when participants viewed low-contrast grating stimuli. A light source surrounded the stimuli in half of the runs to induce disability glare. Visual acuity, wavefront analysis, Quality of Vision (QoV) questionnaire, and psychophysical assessment were performed. Cortical activity (blood oxygen level dependent [BOLD] signal) in the primary visual cortex and in higher-level brain areas, including the attention network. When viewing low-contrast stimuli under glare, patients showed significant activation of the effort-related attention network in the early postoperative period, involving the frontal, middle frontal, parietal frontal, and postcentral gyrus (multisubject random-effects general linear model (GLM), P < 0.03). In contrast, controls showed only relative deactivation (due to lower visibility) of visual areas (occipital lobe and middle occipital gyrus, P < 0.03). Patients also had relatively stronger recruitment of cortical areas involved in learning (anterior cingulate gyrus), task planning, and solving (caudate body). Patients reporting greater symptoms induced by dysphotic symptoms showed significantly increased activity in several regions in frontoparietal circuits, as well as cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus (q < 0.05). We found no correlation between QoV questionnaire scores and optical properties (total and higher order aberration, modulation transfer function, and Strehl ratio). This study shows the association between patient-reported subjective difficulties and fMRI outcomes, independent of optical parameters and psychophysical

  15. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A.; Maislin, Greg; Mullington, Janet M.; Dinges, David F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To inform the debate over whether human sleep can be chronically reduced without consequences, we conducted a dose-response chronic sleep restriction experiment in which waking neurobehavioral and sleep physiological functions were monitored and compared to those for total sleep deprivation. DESIGN: The chronic sleep restriction experiment involved randomization to one of three sleep doses (4 h, 6 h, or 8 h time in bed per night), which were maintained for 14 consecutive days. The total sleep deprivation experiment involved 3 nights without sleep (0 h time in bed). Each study also involved 3 baseline (pre-deprivation) days and 3 recovery days. SETTING: Both experiments were conducted under standardized laboratory conditions with continuous behavioral, physiological and medical monitoring. PARTICIPANTS: A total of n = 48 healthy adults (ages 21-38) participated in the experiments. INTERVENTIONS: Noctumal sleep periods were restricted to 8 h, 6 h or 4 h per day for 14 days, or to 0 h for 3 days. All other sleep was prohibited. RESULTS: Chronic restriction of sleep periods to 4 h or 6 h per night over 14 consecutive days resulted in significant cumulative, dose-dependent deficits in cognitive performance on all tasks. Subjective sleepiness ratings showed an acute response to sleep restriction but only small further increases on subsequent days, and did not significantly differentiate the 6 h and 4 h conditions. Polysomnographic variables and delta power in the non-REM sleep EEG-a putative marker of sleep homeostasis--displayed an acute response to sleep restriction with negligible further changes across the 14 restricted nights. Comparison of chronic sleep restriction to total sleep deprivation showed that the latter resulted in disproportionately large waking neurobehavioral and sleep delta power responses relative to how much sleep was lost. A statistical model revealed that, regardless of the mode of sleep deprivation, lapses in behavioral alertness

  16. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated With Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Joseph F.; Balachova, Tatiana; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Chasnoff, Ira; Dang, Elizabeth; Fernandez-Baca, Daniel; Kable, Julie; Kosofsky, Barry; Senturias, Yasmin N.; Singh, Natasha; Sloane, Mark; Weitzman, Carol; Zubler, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Children and adolescents affected by prenatal exposure to alcohol who have brain damage that is manifested in functional impairments of neurocognition, self-regulation, and adaptive functioning may most appropriately be diagnosed with neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal exposure. This Special Article outlines clinical implications and guidelines for pediatric medical home clinicians to identify, diagnose, and refer children regarding neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal exposure. Emphasis is given to reported or observable behaviors that can be identified as part of care in pediatric medical homes, differential diagnosis, and potential comorbidities. In addition, brief guidance is provided on the management of affected children in the pediatric medical home. Finally, suggestions are given for obtaining prenatal history of in utero exposure to alcohol for the pediatric patient. PMID:27677572

  17. Model studies for evaluating the acute neurobehavioral effects of complex hydrocarbon solvents. I. Validation of methods with ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKee, R.H.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Hoogendijk, E.M.G.; Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Barsotti, D.A.; Owen, D.E.; Kulig, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    As a preliminary step to evaluating the acute neurobehavioral effects of hydrocarbon solvents and to establish a working model for extrapolating animal test data to humans, joint neurobehavioral/toxicokinetic studies were conducted which involved administering ethanol to rats and volunteers. The

  18. Reliability and validity of neurobehavioral function on the Psychology Experimental Building Language test battery in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Shane T.; Geerken, Alexander R.; Dixon, Kyle L.; Kroliczak, Gregory; Olsen, Reid H.J.; Miller, Jeremy K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) software consists of over one-hundred computerized tests based on classic and novel cognitive neuropsychology and behavioral neurology measures. Although the PEBL tests are becoming more widely utilized, there is currently very limited information about the psychometric properties of these measures. Methods. Study I examined inter-relationships among nine PEBL tests including indices of motor-function (Pursuit Rotor and Dexterity), attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance and Time-Wall), working memory (Digit Span Forward), and executive-function (PEBL Trail Making Test, Berg/Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Iowa Gambling Test, and Mental Rotation) in a normative sample (N = 189, ages 18–22). Study II evaluated test–retest reliability with a two-week interest interval between administrations in a separate sample (N = 79, ages 18–22). Results. Moderate intra-test, but low inter-test, correlations were observed and ceiling/floor effects were uncommon. Sex differences were identified on the Pursuit Rotor (Cohen’s d = 0.89) and Mental Rotation (d = 0.31) tests. The correlation between the test and retest was high for tests of motor learning (Pursuit Rotor time on target r = .86) and attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance response time r = .79), intermediate for memory (digit span r = .63) but lower for the executive function indices (Wisconsin/Berg Card Sorting Test perseverative errors = .45, Tower of London moves = .15). Significant practice effects were identified on several indices of executive function. Conclusions. These results are broadly supportive of the reliability and validity of individual PEBL tests in this sample. These findings indicate that the freely downloadable, open-source PEBL battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net) is a versatile research tool to study individual differences in neurocognitive performance. PMID:26713233

  19. Reliability and validity of neurobehavioral function on the Psychology Experimental Building Language test battery in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Piper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL software consists of over one-hundred computerized tests based on classic and novel cognitive neuropsychology and behavioral neurology measures. Although the PEBL tests are becoming more widely utilized, there is currently very limited information about the psychometric properties of these measures.Methods. Study I examined inter-relationships among nine PEBL tests including indices of motor-function (Pursuit Rotor and Dexterity, attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance and Time-Wall, working memory (Digit Span Forward, and executive-function (PEBL Trail Making Test, Berg/Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Iowa Gambling Test, and Mental Rotation in a normative sample (N = 189, ages 18–22. Study II evaluated test–retest reliability with a two-week interest interval between administrations in a separate sample (N = 79, ages 18–22.Results. Moderate intra-test, but low inter-test, correlations were observed and ceiling/floor effects were uncommon. Sex differences were identified on the Pursuit Rotor (Cohen’s d = 0.89 and Mental Rotation (d = 0.31 tests. The correlation between the test and retest was high for tests of motor learning (Pursuit Rotor time on target r = .86 and attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance response time r = .79, intermediate for memory (digit span r = .63 but lower for the executive function indices (Wisconsin/Berg Card Sorting Test perseverative errors = .45, Tower of London moves = .15. Significant practice effects were identified on several indices of executive function.Conclusions. These results are broadly supportive of the reliability and validity of individual PEBL tests in this sample. These findings indicate that the freely downloadable, open-source PEBL battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net is a versatile research tool to study individual differences in neurocognitive performance.

  20. Creative music therapy to promote brain structure, function, and neurobehavioral outcomes in preterm infants: a randomized controlled pilot trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslbeck, Friederike Barbara; Bucher, Hans-Ulrich; Bassler, Dirk; Hagmann, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with increased risk of neurological impairment and deficits in cognition, motor function, and behavioral problems. Limited studies indicate that multi-sensory experiences support brain development in preterm infants. Music appears to promote neurobiological processes and neuronal learning in the human brain. Creative music therapy (CMT) is an individualized, interactive therapeutic approach based on the theory and methods of Nordoff and Robbins. CMT may promote brain development in preterm infants via concurrent interaction and meaningful auditory stimulation. We hypothesize that preterm infants who receive creative music therapy during neonatal intensive care admission will have developmental benefits short- and long-term brain function. A prospective, randomized controlled single-center pilot trial involving 60 clinically stable preterm infants under 32 weeks of gestational age is conducted in preparation for a multi-center trial. Thirty infants each are randomized to either standard neonatal intensive care or standard care with CMT. Music therapy intervention is approximately 20 min in duration three times per week. A trained music therapist sings for the infants in lullaby style, individually entrained and adjusted to the infant's rhythm and affect. Primary objectives of this study are feasibility of protocol implementation and investigating the potential mechanism of efficacy for this new intervention. To examine the effect of this new intervention, non-invasive, quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods at corrected age and standardized neurodevelopmental assessments using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development third edition at a corrected age of 24 months and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children at 5 years will be performed. All assessments will be performed and analyzed by blinded experts. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled clinical trial to systematically examine possible

  1. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    London, L.; Beseler, C.; Bouchard, M.F.; Bellinger, D.C.; Colosio, C.; Grandjean, P.; Harari, R.; Kootbodien, T.; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Little, F.; Meijster, T.; Moretto, A.; Rohlman, D.S.; Stallones, L.

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and

  2. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective ...

  3. Neurobehavioral impairments caused by developmental imidacloprid exposure in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Emily B; Bailey, Jordan M; Oliveri, Anthony N; Levin, Edward D

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are becoming more widely applied as organophosphate (OP) insecticides are decreasing in use. Because of their relative specificity to insect nicotinic receptors, they are thought to have reduced risk of neurotoxicity in vertebrates. However, there is scant published literature concerning the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure of vertebrates to neonicotinoids. Using zebrafish, we investigated the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure to imidacloprid, a prototypic neonicotinoid pesticide. Nicotine was also administered for comparison. Zebrafish were exposed via immersion in aqueous solutions containing 45 μM or 60 μM of imidacloprid or nicotine (or vehicle control) from 4h to 5d post fertilization. The functional effects of developmental exposure to both imidacloprid and nicotine were assessed in larvae using an activity assay and during adolescence and adulthood using a battery of neurobehavioral assays, including assessment of sensorimotor response and habituation in a tactile startle test, novel tank swimming, and shoaling behavior. In larvae, developmental imidacloprid exposure at both doses significantly decreased swimming activity. The 5D strains of zebrafish were more sensitive to both nicotine and imidacloprid than the AB* strain. In adolescent and adult fish, developmental exposure to imidacloprid significantly decreased novel tank exploration and increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli. While nicotine did not affect novel tank swimming, it increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli at the low dose. No effects of either compound were found on shoaling behavior or habituation to a startling stimulus. Early developmental exposure to imidacloprid has both early-life and persisting effects on neurobehavioral function in zebrafish. Its developmental neurotoxicity should be further investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurobehavioral Impairments Caused by Developmental Imidacloprid Exposure in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Emily B.; Bailey, Jordan M.; Oliveri, Anthony N.; Levin, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Neonicotinoid insecticides are becoming more widely applied as organophosphate (OP) insecticides are decreasing in use. Because of their relative specificity to insect nicotinic receptors, they are thought to have reduced risk of neurotoxicity in vertebrates. However, there is scant published literature concerning the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure of vertebrates to neonicotinoids. METHODS Using zebrafish, we investigated the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure to imidacloprid, a prototypic neonicotinoid pesticide. Nicotine was also administered for comparison. Zebrafish were exposed via immersion in aqueous solutions containing 45 μM or 60 μM of imidacloprid or nicotine (or vehicle control) from 4 h to 5 d post fertilization. The functional effects of developmental exposure to both imidacloprid and nicotine were assessed in larvae using an activity assay and during adolescence and adulthood using a battery of neurobehavioral assays, including assessment of sensorimotor response and habituation in a tactile startle test, novel tank swimming, and shoaling behavior. RESULTS In larvae, developmental imidacloprid exposure at both doses significantly decreased swimming activity. The 5D strain of zebrafish were more sensitive to both nicotine and imidacloprid than the AB* strain. In adolescent and adult fish, developmental exposure to imidacloprid significantly decreased novel tank exploration and increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli. While nicotine did not affect novel tank swimming, it increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli at the low dose. No effects of either compound were found on shoaling behavior or habituation to a startling stimulus. DISCUSSION Early developmental exposure to imidacloprid has both early-life and persisting effects on neurobehavioral function in zebrafish. Its developmental neurotoxicity should be further investigated. PMID:25944383

  5. Visuospatial function in early Alzheimer's disease: Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Bezerra Mota Quental

    Full Text Available Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most frequent cause of dementia, accounting for 55% of all cases. AD patients gradually lose functional capacity, manifesting deficits in attention, language, temporal and direction orientation, mood, socialization and visuospatial function. The visuospatial function entails identification of a stimulus and its location. AD patients can present deficits in visuo-spatial skills during initial stages of the disease, but in the course of clinical evolution this function can become severely impaired. One of the neuropsychological tests indicated to evaluate the visuospatial function is the VOSP (The Visual Object and Space Perception Battery. Objectives: The aim of this preliminary study was to detect visuospatial dysfunction in early AD patients using the VOSP, and assess its sensitivity in a Brazilian sample. Results: Controls outperformed AD patients on all neuropsychological evaluations, except the Corsi block tapping task and cancellation task-errors. The AD patients performed significantly worse on all object perception and two space perception (Number Location and Cube Analyses subtests of the VOSP. Conclusion: The AD patients demonstrated impaired visuospatial function in several aspects. The subtests of the VOSP were found to be sensitive for detecting this impairment in mild cases.

  6. Genetic polymorphisms of catechol-O-methyltransferase modify the neurobehavioral effects of mercury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, James S; Heyer, Nicholas J; Russo, Joan E; Martin, Michael D; Pillai, Pradeep B; Bammler, Theodor K; Farin, Federico M

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is neurotoxic and children may be particularly susceptible to this effect. A current major challenge is identification of children who may be uniquely susceptible to Hg toxicity because of genetic disposition. This study examined the hypothesis that genetic variants of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) that are reported to alter neurobehavioral functions that are also affected by Hg in adults might modify the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg exposure in children. Five hundred and seven children, 8-12 yr of age at baseline, participated in a clinical trial to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of Hg from dental amalgam tooth fillings. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and at seven subsequent annual intervals for neurobehavioral performance and urinary Hg levels. Following the clinical trial, genotyping assays were performed for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of COMT rs4680, rs4633, rs4818, and rs6269 on biological samples provided by 330 of the trial participants. Regression-modeling strategies were employed to evaluate associations between allelic status, Hg exposure, and neurobehavioral test outcomes. Similar analysis was performed using haplotypes of COMT SNPs. Among girls, few interactions for Hg exposure and COMT variants were found. In contrast, among boys, numerous gene-Hg interactions were observed between individual COMT SNPs, as well as with a common COMT haplotype affecting multiple domains of neurobehavioral function. These findings suggest increased susceptibility to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg among children with common genetic variants of COMT, and may have important implications for strategies aimed at protecting children from the potential health risks associated with Hg exposure.

  7. Neurobehavioral consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N; Li, Ting-Kai; Jacobson, Sandra W; Coles, Claire D; Kodituwakku, P W; Adnams, Colleen M; Korkman, Marit I

    2003-02-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 Research Society on Alcoholism/International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism meeting in San Francisco, CA. The organizers were Edward P. Riley and Sarah N. Mattson, and the chairperson was Edward P. Riley. The presentations were (1) Neurobehavioral deficits in alcohol-exposed South African infants: preliminary findings, by Sandra W. Jacobson, Christopher D. Molteno, Denis Viljoen, and Joseph L. Jacobson; (2) A pilot study of classroom intervention for learners with fetal alcohol syndrome in South Africa, by Colleen Adnams, M. W. Rossouw, M. D. Perold, P. W. Kodituwakku, and W. Kalberg; (3) Differential effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on fluid versus crystallized intelligence, by P. W. Kodituwakku, W. Kalberg, L. Robinson, and P. A. May; (4) Neurobehavioral outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure: early identification of alcohol effects, by Claire D. Coles; (5) Fetal alcohol syndrome in Moscow, Russia: neuropsychology test performance, by Sarah N. Mattson, E. P. Riley, A. Matveeva, and G. Marintcheva; and (6) Long-term follow-up of Finnish children exposed to alcohol in utero in various durations, by Marit I. Korkman and I. Autti-Rämö. The discussant was Ting-Kai Li.

  8. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  9. Towards trans-diagnostic mechanisms in psychiatry: neurobehavioral profile of rats with a loss-of-function point mutation in the dopamine transporter gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Vengeliene

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research domain criteria (RDoC matrix has been developed to reorient psychiatric research towards measurable behavioral dimensions and underlying mechanisms. Here, we used a new genetic rat model with a loss-of-function point mutation in the dopamine transporter (DAT gene (Slc6a3_N157K to systematically study the RDoC matrix. First, we examined the impact of the Slc6a3_N157K mutation on monoaminergic signaling. We then performed behavioral tests representing each of the five RDoC domains: negative and positive valence systems, cognitive, social and arousal/regulatory systems. The use of RDoC may be particularly helpful for drug development. We studied the effects of a novel pharmacological approach metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR2/3 antagonism, in DAT mutants in a comparative way with standard medications. Loss of DAT functionality in mutant rats not only elevated subcortical extracellular dopamine concentration but also altered the balance of monoaminergic transmission. DAT mutant rats showed deficits in all five RDoC domains. Thus, mutant rats failed to show conditioned fear responses, were anhedonic, were unable to learn stimulus-reward associations, showed impaired cognition and social behavior, and were hyperactive. Hyperactivity in mutant rats was reduced by amphetamine and atomoxetine, which are well-established medications to reduce hyperactivity in humans. The mGluR2/3 antagonist LY341495 also normalized hyperactivity in DAT mutant rats without affecting extracellular dopamine levels. We systematically characterized an altered dopamine system within the context of the RDoC matrix and studied mGluR2/3 antagonism as a new pharmacological strategy to treat mental disorders with underlying subcortical dopaminergic hyperactivity.

  10. Neurobehavioral phenotyping of Gaq knockout mice reveals impairments in motor functions and spatial working memory without changes in anxiety or behavioral despair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya L Frederick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many neurotransmitters, hormones and sensory stimuli elicit their cellular responses through the targeted activation of receptors coupled to Gq family heterotrimeric G proteins. Nevertheless, we still understand little about the consequences of loss of this signaling activity on brain function. We therefore examined the effects of genetic inactivation of Gnaq on responsiveness in a battery of behavioral tests in order to assess the contribution of Gaq signaling capacity in the brain circuits mediating expression of affective behaviors (anxiety and behavioral despair, spatial working memory and locomotor output (coordination, strength, spontaneous activity and drug-induced responses. First, we replicated and extended findings showing clear motor deficits in Gaq knockout mice as assessed on an accelerating rotarod and the inverted screen test. We then assessed the contribution of the basal ganglia motor loops to these impairments, using open field testing and analysis of drug-induced locomotor responses to the psychostimulant cocaine, the benzazepine D1 receptor agonists SKF83822 and SKF83959, and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. We observed significant increases in drug-induced locomotor activity in Gaq knockout mice from the dopaminergic agonists but not MK-801, indicating that basal ganglia locomotor circuitry is largely intact in the absence of Gaq. Additionally, we observed normal phenotypes in both the elevated zero maze and the forced swim test indicating that anxiety and depression-related circuitry appears to be largely intact after loss of Gnaq expression. Lastly, use of the Y-maze revealed spatial memory deficits in Gaq knockout mice, indicating that receptors signaling through Gaq are necessary in these circuits for proficiency in this task.

  11. Neurobehavioral phenotyping of Gαq knockout mice reveals impairments in motor functions and spatial working memory without changes in anxiety or behavioral despair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Aliya L.; Saborido, Tommy P.; Stanwood, Gregg D.

    2012-01-01

    Many neurotransmitters, hormones, and sensory stimuli elicit their cellular responses through the targeted activation of receptors coupled to the Gαq family of heterotrimeric G proteins. Nevertheless, we still understand little about the consequences of loss of this signaling activity on brain function. We therefore examined the effects of genetic inactivation of Gnaq, the gene that encode for Gαq, on responsiveness in a battery of behavioral tests in order to assess the contribution of Gαq signaling capacity in the brain circuits mediating expression of affective behaviors (anxiety and behavioral despair), spatial working memory, and locomotor output (coordination, strength, spontaneous activity, and drug-induced responses). First, we replicated and extended findings showing clear motor deficits in Gαq knockout mice as assessed on an accelerating rotarod and the inverted screen test. We then assessed the contribution of the basal ganglia motor loops to these impairments, using open field testing and analysis of drug-induced locomotor responses to the psychostimulant cocaine, the benzazepine D1 receptor agonists SKF83822 and SKF83959, and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. We observed significant increases in drug-induced locomotor activity in Gαq knockout mice from the dopaminergic agonists but not MK-801, indicating that basal ganglia locomotor circuitry is largely intact in the absence of Gαq. Additionally, we observed normal phenotypes in both the elevated zero maze and the forced swim test indicating that anxiety and depression-related circuitry appears to be largely intact after loss of Gnaq expression. Lastly, use of the Y-maze revealed spatial memory deficits in Gαq knockout mice, indicating that receptors signaling through Gαq are necessary in these circuits for proficiency in this task. PMID:22723772

  12. Neurobehavioral phenotyping of G(αq) knockout mice reveals impairments in motor functions and spatial working memory without changes in anxiety or behavioral despair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Aliya L; Saborido, Tommy P; Stanwood, Gregg D

    2012-01-01

    Many neurotransmitters, hormones, and sensory stimuli elicit their cellular responses through the targeted activation of receptors coupled to the G(αq) family of heterotrimeric G proteins. Nevertheless, we still understand little about the consequences of loss of this signaling activity on brain function. We therefore examined the effects of genetic inactivation of Gnaq, the gene that encode for G(αq), on responsiveness in a battery of behavioral tests in order to assess the contribution of G(αq) signaling capacity in the brain circuits mediating expression of affective behaviors (anxiety and behavioral despair), spatial working memory, and locomotor output (coordination, strength, spontaneous activity, and drug-induced responses). First, we replicated and extended findings showing clear motor deficits in G(αq) knockout mice as assessed on an accelerating rotarod and the inverted screen test. We then assessed the contribution of the basal ganglia motor loops to these impairments, using open field testing and analysis of drug-induced locomotor responses to the psychostimulant cocaine, the benzazepine D(1) receptor agonists SKF83822 and SKF83959, and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. We observed significant increases in drug-induced locomotor activity in G(αq) knockout mice from the dopaminergic agonists but not MK-801, indicating that basal ganglia locomotor circuitry is largely intact in the absence of G(αq). Additionally, we observed normal phenotypes in both the elevated zero maze and the forced swim test indicating that anxiety and depression-related circuitry appears to be largely intact after loss of Gnaq expression. Lastly, use of the Y-maze revealed spatial memory deficits in G(αq) knockout mice, indicating that receptors signaling through G(αq) are necessary in these circuits for proficiency in this task.

  13. Neurobehavioral Abnormalities Associated with Executive Dysfunction after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodger Ll. Wood

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article will address how anomalies of executive function after traumatic brain injury (TBI can translate into altered social behavior that has an impact on a person’s capacity to live safely and independently in the community.Method: Review of literature on executive and neurobehavioral function linked to cognitive ageing in neurologically healthy populations and late neurocognitive effects of serious TBI. Information was collated from internet searches involving MEDLINE, PubMed, PyscINFO and Google Scholar as well as the authors’ own catalogs.Conclusions: The conventional distinction between cognitive and emotional-behavioral sequelae of TBI is shown to be superficial in the light of increasing evidence that executive skills are critical for integrating and appraising environmental events in terms of cognitive, emotional and social significance. This is undertaken through multiple fronto-subcortical pathways within which it is possible to identify a predominantly dorsolateral network that subserves executive control of attention and cognition (so-called cold executive processes and orbito-frontal/ventro-medial pathways that underpin the hot executive skills that drive much of behavior in daily life. TBI frequently involves disruption to both sets of executive functions but research is increasingly demonstrating the role of hot executive deficits underpinning a wide range of neurobehavioral disorders that compromise relationships, functional independence and mental capacity in daily life.

  14. Cholinergic Modulation of Restraint Stress Induced Neurobehavioral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The involvement of the cholinergic system in restraint stress induced neurobehavioral alterations was investigated in rodents using the hole board, elevated plus maze, the open field and the light and dark box tests. Restraint stress (3h) reduced significantly (p<0.05) the number of entries and time spent in the open arm, ...

  15. Epigenetic Regulation of Placental NR3C1: Mechanism Underlying Prenatal Programming of Infant Neurobehavior by Maternal Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Laura R; Papandonatos, George D; Salisbury, Amy L; Phipps, Maureen G; Huestis, Marilyn A; Niaura, Raymond; Padbury, James F; Marsit, Carmen J; Lester, Barry M

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of the placental glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) was investigated as a mechanism underlying links between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and infant neurobehavior in 45 mother-infant pairs (49% MSDP-exposed; 52% minorities; ages 18-35). The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Network Neurobehavioral Scale was administered 7 times over the 1st postnatal month; methylation of placental NR3C1 was assessed via bisulfite pyrosequencing. Increased placental NR3C1 methylation was associated with increased infant attention and self-regulation, and decreased lethargy and need for examiner soothing over the 1st postnatal month. A causal steps approach revealed that NR3C1 methylation and MSDP were independently associated with lethargic behavior. Although preliminary, results highlight the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in elucidating pathways to neurobehavioral alterations from MSDP. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Neurobehavioral Characteristics of Older Veterans With Remote Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, Carrie B; Gardner, Raquel C; Kenney, Kimbra; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Kramer, Joel H; Yaffe, Kristine

    While traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common across the life span, the detailed neurobehavioral characteristics of older adults with prior TBI remain unclear. Our goal was to compare the clinical profile of older independently living veterans with and without prior TBI. Two veterans' retirement communities. Seventy-five participants with TBI and 71 without (mean age = 78 years). Cross-sectional. TBI history was determined by the Ohio State University TBI Questionnaire. We assessed psychiatric and medical history via interviews and chart review and conducted measures assessing functional/lifestyle, psychiatric, and cognitive outcomes. Regression analyses (adjusted for demographics, diabetes, prior depression, substance abuse, and site) were performed to compare between TBI and non-TBI participants. Compared with veterans without TBI, those with TBI had greater functional impairment (adjusted P = .05), endorsed more current depressive (adjusted P = .04) and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (adjusted P = .01), and had higher rates of prior depression and substance abuse (both adjusted Ps < .01). While composite memory and language scores did not differ between groups, participants with TBI performed worse on tests of executive functioning/processing speed (adjusted P = .01). Our results suggest that TBI may have adverse long-term neurobehavioral consequences and that TBI-exposed adults may require careful screening and follow-up.

  17. Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rassoul, G; El-Fateh, O Abou; Salem, M Abou; Michael, A; Farahat, F; El-Batanouny, M; Salem, E

    2007-03-01

    There is a general concern on the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations (RFR) emitted from mobile phone base station antennas on the human nervous system. To identify the possible neurobehavioral deficits among inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on (85) inhabitants living nearby the first mobile phone station antenna in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt, 37 are living in a building under the station antenna while 48 opposite the station. A control group (80) participants were matched with the exposed for age, sex, occupation and educational level. All participants completed a structured questionnaire containing: personal, educational and medical histories; general and neurological examinations; neurobehavioral test battery (NBTB) [involving tests for visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory]; in addition to Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ). The prevalence of neuropsychiatric complaints as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%), respectively (Pmemory [Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)]. Also, the inhabitants opposite the station exhibited a lower performance in the problem solving test (block design) than those under the station. All inhabitants exhibited a better performance in the two tests of visuomotor speed (Digit symbol and Trailmaking B) and one test of attention (Trailmaking A) than controls. The last available measures of RFR emitted from the first mobile phone base station antennas in Menoufiya governorate were less than the allowable standard level. Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions

  18. The neurobehavioral teratology of retinoids: a 50-year history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jane

    2010-10-01

    This review of the central nervous system (CNS) and behavioral teratology of the retinoids over the last 50 years is a commemorative retrospective organized by decade to show the prominent research focus within each period and the most salient findings. In the 1960s, research focused on the gross CNS malformations associated with exposure and the delineation of dose-response and stage-specific responses in rodent models. Relevant scientific events before and during the 1960s are also discussed to provide the zeitgeist in which the field of neurobehavioral teratology emerged in the 1970s. During this period, studies demonstrated that adverse effects on postnatal behavior could be produced in animals exposed to doses of vitamin A lower than those that were teratogenic or impacted growth. Work during the 1980s showed an overrepresentation of behavioral studies focused on the reliability of screening methods, while the marked effects of human exposure were illustrated in children born to women treated with isotretinoin during pregnancy. The human catastrophe invigorated research during the 1990s, a period when technological advances allowed more elegant examinations of the developing CNS, of biochemical, cellular, and molecular developmental events and regulatory actions, and of the effects of direct genetic manipulations. Likewise, research in the 1990s reflected a reinvigoration of research in neurobehavioral teratology evinced in studies that used animal models to try to better understand human vulnerability. These foci continued in the 2000-2010 period while examinations of the role of retinoids in brain development and lifelong functioning became increasingly sophisticated and broader in scope. This review of the work on retinoids also provides a lens on the more general ontogeny of the field of neurobehavioral teratology. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Neurobehavioral Mutants Identified in an ENU Mutagenesis Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Dunning, Jonathan P [University of Memphis; Wiley, Ronald G [Vanderbilt University and Veterans Administration, Nashville, TN; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis

    2007-01-01

    We report on a behavioral screening test battery that successfully identified several neurobehavioral mutants among a large-scale ENU-mutagenized mouse population. Large numbers of ENU mutagenized mice were screened for abnormalities in central nervous system function based on abnormal performance in a series of behavior tasks. We developed and employed a high-throughput screen of behavioral tasks to detect behavioral outliers. Twelve mutant pedigrees, representing a broad range of behavioral phenotypes, have been identified. Specifically, we have identified two open field mutants (one displaying hyper-locomotion, the other hypo-locomotion), four tail suspension mutants (all displaying increased immobility), one nociception mutant (displaying abnormal responsiveness to thermal pain), two prepulse inhibition mutants (displaying poor inhibition of the startle response), one anxiety-related mutant (displaying decreased anxiety in the light/dark test), and one learning and memory mutant (displaying reduced response to the conditioned stimulus) These findings highlight the utility of a set of behavioral tasks used in a high throughput screen to identify neurobehavioral mutants. Further analysis (i.e., behavioral and genetic mapping studies) of mutants is in progress with the ultimate goal of identification of novel genes and mouse models relevant to human disorders as well as the identification of novel therapeutic targets.

  20. A survey of neurobehavioral symptoms of welders exposed to manganese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hassani

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: Welders’ exposure to manganese and its potential health effects should be evaluated periodically and effective control measures should be applied in order to to prevent neurobehavioral symptoms.

  1. Effects of perinatal exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals on neurobehavioral development in Japanese children: IV. Thyroid hormones and neonatal neurobehavioral status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Nakai, K.; Oka, T.; Kurokawa, N.; Satoh, H. [Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Hosokawa, T. [Dept. of Human Development, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Okamura, K. [Dept. of Obstetrics, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Sakai, T. [Miyagi Childrens Hospital, Sendai (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    From several epidemiological studies, it has been reported that there are some associations between perinatal exposures to PCBs, dioxins and heavy metals, and neurobehavioral defects such as postnatal growth delay and poorer cognitive function. We have started a prospective cohort study to examine the effects of perinatal exposures to environmentally persistent organic pollutants on neurobehavioral development in Japanese children. Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal brain development. A lack of THs in pregnancy can result in congenital hypothyroidism, which causes moderate to severe intellectual defects. It has been reported that perinatal exposure to PCBs adversely affects on children's intellectual functions. The chemical structures of some PCBs resembles thyroxine (T4), and therefore, it is suspected that the action mechanism of PCBs is disruption of TH function. Some PCBs and their metabolites are thought to bind with transthyretine (TTR), which is necessary for the transfer of T4 into the brain, and this may cause a shortage of T4 in the developing brain. To examine the effects of perinatal exposure to PCBs on children's development, it is essential to evaluate the functions of THs at a fundamental level. In this report, we examined the correlations of THs in maternal peripheral blood and cord blood, and the association between THs and neonatal neurobehavioral status.

  2. Reliability of Neurobehavioral Assessments from Birth to Term Equivalent Age in Preterm and Term Born Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeles, Abbey L; Olsen, Joy E; Walsh, Jennifer M; McInnes, Emma K; Molesworth, Charlotte M L; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Spittle, Alicia J

    2017-02-01

    Neurobehavioral assessments provide insight into the functional integrity of the developing brain and help guide early intervention for preterm (term equivalent age. Few neurobehavioral assessments used in the preterm period have established interrater reliability. To evaluate the interrater reliability of the Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Examination (HNNE) and the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS), when used both preterm and at term (>36 weeks). Thirty-five preterm infants and 11 term controls were recruited. Five assessors double-scored the HNNE and NNNS administered either preterm or at term. A one-way random effects, absolute, single-measures interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to determine interrater reliability. Interrater reliability for the HNNE was excellent (ICC > 0.74) for optimality scores, and good (ICC 0.60-0.74) to excellent for subtotal scores, except for 'Tone Patterns' (ICC 0.54). On the NNNS, interrater reliability was predominantly excellent for all items. Interrater agreement was generally excellent at both time points. Overall, the HNNE and NNNS neurobehavioral assessments demonstrated mostly excellent interrater reliability when used prior to term and at term.

  3. Mining Association Rules for Neurobehavioral and Motor Disorders in Children Diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chihwen; Burns, T G; Wang, May D

    2013-09-01

    Children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP) appear to be at high risk for developing neurobehavioral and motor disorders. The most common disorders for these children are impaired visual-perception skills and motor planning. Besides, they often have impaired executive functions, which can contribute to problematic emotional adjustment such as depression. Additionally, literature suggests that the tendency to develop these cognitive impairments and emotional abnormalities in pediatric CP is influenced by age and IQ. Because there are many other medical co-morbidities that can occur with CP (e.g., seizures and shunt placement), prediction of what percentages of patients will incur cognitive impairment and emotional abnormality is a difficult task. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between possible factors mentioned above, and neurobehavioral and motor disorders from a clinical database of pediatric subjects diagnosed with CP. The study resulted in 22 rules that can predict negative outcomes. These rules reinforced the growing body of literature supporting a link between CP, executive dysfunction, and subsequent neurobehavioral problems. The antecedents and consequents of some association rules were single factors, while other statistical associations were interactions of factor combinations. Further research is needed to include children's comprehensive treatment and medication history in order to determine additional impacts on their neurobehavioral and motor disorders.

  4. Organophosphorus pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral performance in Latino children living in an orchard community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Dawson, Jaime; Galvin, Kit; Thorne, Peter S.; Rohlman, Diane S.

    2016-01-01

    Children living in agricultural communities have a greater risk from pesticides due to para-occupational pathways. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides on the neurobehavioral performance of school-aged Latino children over time. Two exposure measures were used to estimate children’s pesticide exposure: parent’s occupation (agricultural or non-agricultural) and organophosphate residues in home carpet dust samples. During 2008–2011, 206 school-aged children completed a battery of neurobehavioral tests two times, approximately one year apart. The associations between both exposure measures and neurobehavioral performance were examined. Pesticide residues were detected in dust samples from both agricultural and non-agricultural homes, however, pesticides were detected more frequently and in higher concentrations in agricultural homes compared to non-agricultural homes. Although few differences were found between agricultural and non-agricultural children at both visits, deficits in learning from the first visit to the second visit, or less improvement, was found in agricultural children relative to non-agricultural children. These differences were significant for the Divided Attention and Purdue Pegboard tests. These findings are consistent with previous research showing deficits in motor function. A summary measure of organophosphate residues was not associated with neurobehavioral performance. Results from this study indicate that children in agricultural communities are at increased risk from pesticides as a result of a parent working in agricultural. Our findings suggest that organophosphate exposure may be associated with deficits in learning on neurobehavioral performance, particularly in tests of with motor function. In spite of regulatory phasing out of organophosphates in the U.S., we still see elevated levels and higher detection rates of several organophosphates in agricultural households than non

  5. Neurobehavioral effects of developmental methylmercury exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, S.G.; Grant-Webster, K.S. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global environmental problem and is listed by the International Program of Chemical Safety as one of the six most dangerous chemicals in the world`s environment. Human exposure to MeHg primarily occurs through the consumption of contaminated food such as fish, although catastrophic exposures due to industrial pollution have occurred. The fetus is particularly sensitive to MeHg exposure and adverse effects on infant development have been associated with levels of exposure that result in few, if any, signs of maternal clinical illness or toxicity. High levels of prenatal exposure in humans result in neurobehavioral effects such as cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation. Prenatal exposure to MeHg in communities with chronic low-level exposure is related to decreased birthweight and early sensorimotor dysfunction such as delayed onset of walking. Neurobehavioral alterations have also been documented in studies with non human primates and rodents. Available information on the developmental neurotoxic effects of MeHg, particularly the neurobehavioral effects, indicates that the fetus and infant are more sensitive to adverse effects of MEHg. It is therefore recommended that pregnant women and women of childbearing age be strongly advised to limit their exposure to potential sources of MeHg. Based on results from human and animal studies on the developmental neurotoxic effects of methylmercury, the accepted reference dose should be lowered to 0.025 to 0.06 MeHg {mu}g/kg/day. Continued research on the neurotoxic effects associated with low level developmental exposure is needed. 107 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Maternal buprenorphine treatment and fetal neurobehavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Lauren M; Velez, Martha; McConnell, Krystle; Spencer, Nancy; Tuten, Michelle; Jones, Hendree E; King, Van L; Gandotra, Neeraj; Milio, Lorraine A; Voegtline, Kristin; DiPietro, Janet A

    2017-05-01

    Gestational opioid use/misuse is escalating in the United States; however, little is understood about the fetal effects of medications used to treat maternal opioid use disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of maternal buprenorphine administration on longitudinal fetal neurobehavioral development. Forty-nine buprenorphine-maintained women who attended a substance use disorder treatment facility with generally uncomplicated pregnancies underwent fetal monitoring for 60 minutes at times of trough and peak maternal buprenorphine levels. Data were collected at 24, 28, 32, and 36 weeks gestation. Fetal neurobehavioral indicators (ie, heart rate, motor activity, and their integration [fetal movement-fetal heart rate coupling]) were collected via an actocardiograph, digitized and quantified. Longitudinal data analysis relied on hierarchic linear modeling. Fetal heart rate, heart rate variability, and heart rate accelerations were significantly reduced at peak vs trough maternal buprenorphine levels. Effects were significant either by or after 28 weeks gestation and tended to intensify with advancing gestation. Fetal motor activity and fetal movement-fetal heart rate coupling were depressed from peak to trough at 36 weeks gestation. Polysubstance exposure did not significantly affect fetal neurobehavioral parameters, with the exception that fetuses of heavier smokers moved significantly less than those of lighter smokers at 36 weeks gestation. By the end of gestation, higher maternal buprenorphine dose was related to depression of baseline fetal cardiac measures at trough. Maternal buprenorphine administration has acute suppressive effects on fetal heart rate and movement, and the magnitude of these effects increases as gestation progresses. Higher dose (≥13 mg) appears to exert greater depressive effects on measures of fetal heart rate and variability. These findings should be balanced against comparisons to gestational methadone effects

  7. Predictive Capabilities of Neurobehavioral Diagnostics in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramova, Oxana

    2016-05-01

    Modern world experiences annual increase in the number of children born with neurological problems, which in the future may stipulate the development of their neurobehavioral and neuropsychological aberrations. Specific functional features of a child's brain development depend on many factors, but there is a strong need for early clinical and psychological identification of a child's development with a view to elaborate preventive measures, which are often more effective than the treatment or correction of dysfunction, already complicated by compensatory bonds. One should note that despite a high interest in the possibility of predicting the future development of the child in the early ontogenesis, few studies have so far been devoted to the search for indicators that could be meaningful for neuropsychology, neurology, and educational, special, and clinical psychology. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Pulmonary functions in plastic factory workers: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Farah; Singh, Pawan; Chandra, Prakash; Gupta, Keshav; Vaney, Neelam

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to long term air pollution in the work environment may result in decreased lung functions and various other health problems. A significant occupational hazard to lung functions is experienced by plastic factory workers. The present study is planned to assess the pulmonary functions of workers in the plastic factory where recycling of pastic material was done. These workers were constantly exposed to fumes of various chemicals throughout the day. Thirty one workers of plastic factory were assessed for their pulmonary functions. Parameters were compared with 31 age and sex matched controls not exposed to the same environment. The pulmonary function tests were done using Sibelmed Datospir 120 B portable spirometer. A significant decrease in most of the flow rates (MEF 25%, MEF 50%, MEF 75% and FEF 25-75%) and most of the lung volumes and capacities (FVC, FEV1, VC, TV, ERV, MVV) were observed in the workers. Smoking and duration of exposure were not affecting the lung functions as the non smokers also showed a similar decrement in pulmonary functions. Similarly the workers working for less than 5 years also had decrement in pulmonary functions indicating that their lungs are being affected even if they have worked for one year. Exposure to the organic dust in the work environment should be controlled by adequate engineering measures, complemented by effective personal respiratory protection.

  9. Parent-Directed Intervention for Children With Cancer-Related Neurobehavioral Late Effects: A Randomized Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Paula; Cuevas, Michelle; Turk, Anne; Kim, Heeyoung; Lo, Tracy T. Y.; Wong, Lennie F.; Bhatia, Smita

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an intervention directed at parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) with neurobehavioral late effects to improve targeted parenting skills, and thus to indirectly benefit the child’s educational functioning. Methods 44 CCSs and their parents were randomized. Intervention-arm parents participated in eight individual training sessions augmented by a 3-month telephone support period. Pre- and postparent measures and child performance on Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II and School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory assessed intervention effects. Results 90% of intervention parents completed the program with high adherence/perceived benefit. Between-group effect sizes ranged from d = 0.77 to d = 1.45 for parent knowledge, efficacy, frequency of pro-learning behaviors, and d = 0.21 to d = 0.76 for child academic scores. Parental time spent in intervention activities was associated with academic change. Conclusions A parent-directed intervention to indirectly promote academic functioning in CCSs appears feasible and effective in improving targeted parenting outcomes and for selected child academic outcomes. PMID:24966398

  10. Parent-directed intervention for children with cancer-related neurobehavioral late effects: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sunita K; Ross, Paula; Cuevas, Michelle; Turk, Anne; Kim, Heeyoung; Lo, Tracy T Y; Wong, Lennie F; Bhatia, Smita

    2014-10-01

    OBJECTIVE : To evaluate feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an intervention directed at parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) with neurobehavioral late effects to improve targeted parenting skills, and thus to indirectly benefit the child's educational functioning.  METHODS : 44 CCSs and their parents were randomized. Intervention-arm parents participated in eight individual training sessions augmented by a 3-month telephone support period. Pre- and postparent measures and child performance on Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II and School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory assessed intervention effects.  RESULTS : 90% of intervention parents completed the program with high adherence/perceived benefit. Between-group effect sizes ranged from d = 0.77 to d = 1.45 for parent knowledge, efficacy, frequency of pro-learning behaviors, and d = 0.21 to d = 0.76 for child academic scores. Parental time spent in intervention activities was associated with academic change.  CONCLUSIONS : A parent-directed intervention to indirectly promote academic functioning in CCSs appears feasible and effective in improving targeted parenting outcomes and for selected child academic outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Gender Differences in Bed Rest: Preliminary Analysis of Vascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Martin, David S.; Freeman-Perez, Sondra A.; Phillips, Tiffany; Ribeiro, L. Christine

    2008-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is a recognized consequence of spaceflight. Numerous studies have shown that women are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight as well as bed rest, the most commonly used ground-based analog for spaceflight. One of the possible mechanisms proposed to account for this is a difference in vascular responsiveness between genders. We hypothesized that women and men would have differing vascular responses to 90 days of 6-degree head down tilt bed rest. Additionally, we hypothesized that vessels in the upper and lower body would respond differently, as has been shown in the animal literature. Thirteen subjects were placed in bedrest for 90 days (8 men, 5 women) at the Flight Analogs Unit, UTMB. Direct arterial and venous measurements were made with ultrasound to evaluate changes in vascular structure and function. Arterial function was assessed, in the arm and leg, during a reactive hyperemia protocol and during sublingual nitroglycerin administration to gauge the contributions of endothelial dependent and independent dilator function respectively. Venous function was assessed in dorsal hand and foot veins during the administration of pharmaceuticals to assess constrictor and dilator function. Both gender and day effects are seen in arterial dilator function to reactive hyperemia, but none are seen with nitroglycerin. There are also differences in the wall thickness in the arm vs the leg during bed rest, which return toward pre-bed rest levels by day 90. More subjects are required, especially females as there is not sufficient power to properly analyze venous function. Day 90 data are most underpowered.

  12. Isolation and preliminary function analysis of a Na + /H + antiporter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    genome. Northern blot analysis showed negligible expression of the gene in roots, but expression was detected in stems and leaves. To test the function of ... plants from NCBI revealed that MzNHX1 shared high identity (>86%) with vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporters, including RhNHX1 from rose, cNHX1 from citrus, and AtNHX1 ...

  13. Functional Communication Training in Rett Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Dimian, Adele; Symons, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is associated with a range of serious neurodevelopmental consequences including severe communicative impairments. Currently, no evidence-based communication interventions exist for the population (Sigafoos et al., 2009). The purpose of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of functional assessment (FA) and…

  14. ADAPTATION OF THE BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT AND RESEARCH SYSTEM (BARS) FOR EVALUATING NEUROBEHAVIORAL PERFORMANCE IN FILIPINO CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Rohlman, Diane S.; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Ramos, Essie Ann M.; Mateo, Patrocinio C.; Bielawski, Dawn M.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Delaney-Black, Virginia; McCauley, Linda; Ostrea, Enrique M.

    2007-01-01

    Neurobehavioral tests have long been used to assess health effects in exposed working adult populations. The heightened concern over the potential impact of environmental exposures on neurological functioning in children has led to the development of test batteries for use with children. There is a need for reliable, easy-to-administer batteries to assess neurotoxic exposure in children. One such test battery previously validated with Spanish- and English-speaking children ages 4 and older, c...

  15. Neurobehavioral Dynamics Following Chronic Sleep Restriction: Dose-Response Effects of One Night for Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Siobhan; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Maislin, Greg; Dinges, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Establish the dose-response relationship between increasing sleep durations in a single night and recovery of neurobehavioral functions following chronic sleep restriction. Design: Intent-to-treat design in which subjects were randomized to 1 of 6 recovery sleep doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 h TIB) for 1 night following 5 nights of sleep restriction to 4 h TIB. Setting: Twelve consecutive days in a controlled laboratory environment. Participants: N = 159 healthy adults (aged 22-45 y), median = 29 y). Interventions: Following a week of home monitoring with actigraphy and 2 baseline nights of 10 h TIB, subjects were randomized to either sleep restriction to 4 h TIB per night for 5 nights followed by randomization to 1 of 6 nocturnal acute recovery sleep conditions (N = 142), or to a control condition involving 10 h TIB on all nights (N = 17). Measurements and Results: Primary neurobehavioral outcomes included lapses on the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), subjective sleepiness from the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), and physiological sleepiness from a modified Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT). Secondary outcomes included psychomotor and cognitive speed as measured by PVT fastest RTs and number correct on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST), respectively, and subjective fatigue from the Profile of Mood States (POMS). The dynamics of neurobehavioral outcomes following acute recovery sleep were statistically modeled across the 0 h-10 h recovery sleep doses. While TST, stage 2, REM sleep and NREM slow wave energy (SWE) increased linearly across recovery sleep doses, best-fitting neurobehavioral recovery functions were exponential across recovery sleep doses for PVT and KSS outcomes, and linear for the MWT. Analyses based on return to baseline and on estimated intersection with control condition means revealed recovery was incomplete at the 10 h TIB (8.96 h TST) for PVT performance, KSS sleepiness, and POMS fatigue. Both TST and SWE were elevated

  16. The effect of one night's sleep deprivation on adolescent neurobehavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, Mia; Short, Michelle A

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effects of one night's sleep deprivation on neurobehavioral functioning in adolescents. Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery measuring sustained attention, reaction speed, cognitive processing speed, sleepiness, and fatigue every 2 h during wakefulness. Baseline performance (defined as those test bouts between 09:00 and 19:00 on days 2 and 3, following two 10-h sleep opportunities) were compared to performance at the same clock time the day following total sleep deprivation. The sleep laboratory at the Centre for Sleep Research. Twelve healthy adolescents (6 male), aged 14-18 years (mean = 16.17, standard deviation = 0.83). Sustained attention, reaction speed, cognitive processing speed, and subjective sleepiness were all significantly worse following one night without sleep than following 10-h sleep opportunities (all main effects of day, P Sleep deprivation led to increased variability on objective performance measures. There were between-subjects differences in response to sleep loss that were task-specific, suggesting that adolescents may not only vary in terms of the degree to which they are affected by sleep loss but also the domains in which they are affected. These findings suggest that one night of total sleep deprivation has significant deleterious effects upon neurobehavioral performance and subjective sleepiness. These factors impair daytime functioning in adolescents, leaving them at greater risk of poor academic and social functioning and accidents and injuries.

  17. Sexual functioning in military personnel: preliminary estimates and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sherrie L; Redmond, Sarah; Hassan, Anthony M

    2014-10-01

    Although the military is a young and vigorous force, service members and veterans may experience sexual functioning problems (SFPs) as a result of military service. Sexual functioning can be impaired by physical, psychological, and social factors and can impact quality of life (QOL) and happiness. This study aims to estimate rates and correlates of SFPs in male military personnel across demographic and psychosocial characteristics, to examine the QOL concomitants, and to evaluate barriers for treatment seeking. This exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted using data from a larger nationwide study conducted between October 2013 and November 2013. This sample consists of 367 male active duty service members and recent veterans (military personnel) age 40 or younger. Erectile dysfunction (ED) was determined using the five-item International Index of Erectile Function, sexual dysfunction (SD) was determined using the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale, Male, and QOL was determined using the World Health Organization Quality of Life, Brief. SFPs were associated with various demographic, physical, and psychosocial risk factors. The rates of SD and ED were 8.45% and 33.24%, respectively, for male military personnel aged 21-40. Those who were 36-40, nonmarried, nonwhite, and of lower educational attainment reported the highest rates of SFPs. Male military personnel with poor physical and psychosocial health presented the greatest risk for ED and SD. SFPs were associated with reduced QOL and lower happiness, and barriers for treatment were generally related to social barriers. SFPs in young male military personnel are an important public health concern that can severely impact QOL and happiness. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Risk for Neurobehavioral Disinhibition in Prenatal Methamphetamine-Exposed Young Children with Positive Hair Toxicology Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Sarah K.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Grotta, Sheri A. Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Abar, Beau; Neal, Charles R.; Lester, Barry M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective was to evaluate effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and postnatal drug exposures identified by child hair analysis on neurobehavioral disinhibition at 6.5 years of age. Methods Mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study in Los Angeles, Honolulu, Tulsa and Des Moines. PME was determined by maternal self-report and/or positive meconium results. At the 6.5-year follow-up visit, hair was collected and analyzed for methamphetamine, tobacco, cocaine, and cannabinoid markers. Child behavioral and executive function test scores were aggregated to evaluate child neurobehavioral disinhibition. Hierarchical linear regression models assessed the impact of PME, postnatal substances, and combined PME with postnatal drug exposures on the child’s neurobehavioral disinhibition aggregate score. Past year caregiver substance use was compared to child hair results. Results A total of 264 children were evaluated. Significantly more PME children (n=133) had hair positive for methamphetamine/amphetamine (27.1% versus 8.4%) and nicotine/cotinine (38.3% versus 25.2%) than children without PME (n=131). Overall, no significant differences in analyte hair concentrations were noted between groups. Significant differences in behavioral and executive function were observed between children with and without PME. No independent effects of postnatal methamphetamine or tobacco exposure, identified by positive hair test, were noted and no additional neurobehavioral disinhibition was observed in PME children with postnatal drug exposures, as compared to PME children without postnatal exposure. Conclusions Child hair testing offered a non-invasive means to evaluate postnatal environmental drug exposure, although no effects from postnatal drug exposure alone were seen. PME, alone and in combination with postnatal drug exposures, was associated with behavioral and executive function deficits at 6.5 years

  19. Risk of neurobehavioral disinhibition in prenatal methamphetamine-exposed young children with positive hair toxicology results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Sarah K; LaGasse, Linda L; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Smith, Lynne M; Arria, Amelia M; Della Grotta, Sheri A; Dansereau, Lynne M; Abar, Beau; Neal, Charles R; Lester, Barry M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-08-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and postnatal drug exposures identified by child hair analysis on neurobehavioral disinhibition at 6.5 years of age. Mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study in Los Angeles, Honolulu, Tulsa, and Des Moines. PME was determined by maternal self-report and/or positive meconium results. At the 6.5-year follow-up visit, hair was collected and analyzed for methamphetamine, tobacco, cocaine, and cannabinoid markers. Child behavioral and executive function test scores were aggregated to evaluate child neurobehavioral disinhibition. Hierarchical linear regression models assessed the impact of PME, postnatal substances, and combined PME with postnatal drug exposures on the child's neurobehavioral disinhibition aggregate score. Past year caregiver substance use was compared with child hair results. A total of 264 children were evaluated. Significantly more PME children (n = 133) had hair positive for methamphetamine/amphetamine (27.1% versus 8.4%) and nicotine/cotinine (38.3% versus 25.2%) than children without PME (n = 131). Overall, no significant differences in analyte hair concentrations were noted between groups. Significant differences in behavioral and executive function were observed between children with and without PME. No independent effects of postnatal methamphetamine or tobacco exposure, identified by positive hair test, were noted and no additional neurobehavioral disinhibition was observed in PME children with postnatal drug exposures, as compared with PME children without postnatal exposure. Child hair testing offered a noninvasive means to evaluate postnatal environmental drug exposure, although no effects from postnatal drug exposure alone were seen. PME, alone and in combination with postnatal drug exposures, was associated with behavioral and executive function deficits at 6.5 years.

  20. The parental reflective functioning questionnaire: Development and preliminary validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Luyten

    Full Text Available This paper reports on three studies on the development and validation of the Parental Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (PRFQ, a brief, multidimensional self-report measure that assesses parental reflective functioning or mentalizing, that is, the capacity to treat the infant as a psychological agent. Study 1 investigated the factor structure, reliability, and relationships of the PRFQ with demographic features, symptomatic distress, attachment dimensions, and emotional availability in a socially diverse sample of 299 mothers of a child aged 0-3. In Study 2, the factorial invariance of the PRFQ in mothers and fathers was investigated in a sample of 153 first-time parents, and relationships with demographic features, symptomatic distress, attachment dimensions, and parenting stress were investigated. Study 3 investigated the relationship between the PRFQ and infant attachment classification as assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP in a sample of 136 community mothers and their infants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested three theoretically consistent factors assessing pre-mentalizing modes, certainty about the mental states of the infant, and interest and curiosity in the mental states of the infant. These factors were generally related in theoretically expected ways to parental attachment dimensions, emotional availability, parenting stress, and infant attachment status in the SSP. Yet, at the same time, more research on the PRFQ is needed to further establish its reliability and validity.

  1. Preliminary Design of Critical Function Monitoring System of PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    A PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is under development at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. A critical function monitoring system of the PGSFR is preliminarily studied. The functions of CFMS are to display critical plant variables related to the safety of the plant during normal and accident conditions and guide the operators corrective actions to keep the plant in a safe condition and mitigate the consequences of accidents. The minimal critical functions of the PGSFR are composed of reactivity control, reactor core cooling, reactor coolant system integrity, primary heat transfer system(PHTS) heat removal, sodium water reaction mitigation, radiation control and containment conditions. The variables and alarm legs of each critical function of the PGSFR are as follows; - Reactivity control: The variables of reactivity control function are power range neutron flux instrumentation, intermediate range neutron flux instrumentation, source range neutron flux instrumentation, and control rod bottom contacts. The alarm leg to display the reactivity controls consists of status of control drop malfunction, high post trip power and thermal reactivity addition. - Reactor core cooling: The variables are PHTS sodium level, hot pool temperature of PHTS, subassembly exit temperature, cold pool temperature of the PHTS, PHTS pump current, and PHTS pump breaker status. The alarm leg consists of high core delta temperature, low sodium level of the PHTS, high subassembly exit temperature, and low PHTS pump load. - Reactor coolant system integrity: The variables are PHTS sodium level, cover gas pressure, and safeguard vessel sodium level. The alarm leg is composed of low sodium level of PHTS, high cover gas pressure and high sodium level of the safety guard vessel. - PHTS heat removal: The variables are PHTS sodium level, hot pool temperature of PHTS, core exit temperature, cold pool temperature of the PHTS, flow rate of passive residual heat removal system

  2. A Preliminary Exposé of Systemic Functional Theory Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeek Olaiwola Dalamu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study attempted to explain fundamentals of Systemic Functional Theory as textual analytical instruments. The basis was to demonstrate the applications of Ideational, Interpersonal and Textual Metafunctions as alternative semiotic resources that provide composite meaning potential to the structure of the clause. For illustration, six clauses in the advert of Premium Pension Limited were used as textual elements which the three metafunctions were applied. The study revealed conditionality, sensitizationality, judgmentality as well as integrity as the nuggets of the message. In addition, the ad tends to propound solutions to the financial security of the future of the people. The solution is for the recipients to negotiate and begin savings with Premium Pension Limited whose concern is how to care for the people in their old age. Above all, the study concluded that Halliday’s theory as a very practicable tool of textual analysis for researchers.

  3. Dynamic density functional theory of solid tumor growth: Preliminary models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Chauviere

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a disease that can be seen as a complex system whose dynamics and growth result from nonlinear processes coupled across wide ranges of spatio-temporal scales. The current mathematical modeling literature addresses issues at various scales but the development of theoretical methodologies capable of bridging gaps across scales needs further study. We present a new theoretical framework based on Dynamic Density Functional Theory (DDFT extended, for the first time, to the dynamics of living tissues by accounting for cell density correlations, different cell types, phenotypes and cell birth/death processes, in order to provide a biophysically consistent description of processes across the scales. We present an application of this approach to tumor growth.

  4. Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienz, Robert; Davis, Catherine; Weed, Michael; Guida, Peter; Gooden, Virginia; Brady, Joseph; Roma, Peter

    Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests INTRODUCTION Risk assessment of the biological consequences of living in the space radiation environment represents one of the highest priority areas of NASA radiation research. Of critical importance is the need for a risk assessment of damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to functional cognitive/behavioral changes during long-term space missions, and the development of effective shielding or biological countermeasures to such risks. The present research focuses on the use of an animal model that employs neurobehavioral tests identical or homologous to those currently in use in human models of risk assessment by U.S. agencies such as the Depart-ment of Defense and Federal Aviation and Federal Railroad Administrations for monitoring performance and estimating accident risks associated with such variables as fatigue and/or alcohol or drug abuse. As a first approximation for establishing human risk assessments due to exposure to space radiation, the present work provides animal performance data obtained with the rPVT (rat Psychomotor Vigilance Test), an animal analog of the human PVT that is currently employed for human risk assessments via quantification of sustained attention (e.g., 'vigilance' or 'readiness to perform' tasks). Ground-based studies indicate that radiation can induce neurobehavioral changes in rodents, including impaired performance on motor tasks and deficits in spatial learning and memory. The present study is testing the hypothesis that radiation exposure impairs motor function, performance accuracy, vigilance, motivation, and memory in adult male rats. METHODS The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was originally developed as a human cognitive neurobe-havioral assay for tracking the temporally dynamic changes in sustained attention, and has also been used to track changes in circadian rhythm. In humans the test requires responding to a small, bright

  5. Assessment and evaluation of the high risk neonate: the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M; Andreozzi-Fontaine, Lynne; Tronick, Edward; Bigsby, Rosemarie

    2014-08-25

    There has been a long-standing interest in the assessment of the neurobehavioral integrity of the newborn infant. The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) was developed as an assessment for the at-risk infant. These are infants who are at increased risk for poor developmental outcome because of insults during prenatal development, such as substance exposure or prematurity or factors such as poverty, poor nutrition or lack of prenatal care that can have adverse effects on the intrauterine environment and affect the developing fetus. The NNNS assesses the full range of infant neurobehavioral performance including neurological integrity, behavioral functioning, and signs of stress/abstinence. The NNNS is a noninvasive neonatal assessment tool with demonstrated validity as a predictor, not only of medical outcomes such as cerebral palsy diagnosis, neurological abnormalities, and diseases with risks to the brain, but also of developmental outcomes such as mental and motor functioning, behavior problems, school readiness, and IQ. The NNNS can identify infants at high risk for abnormal developmental outcome and is an important clinical tool that enables medical researchers and health practitioners to identify these infants and develop intervention programs to optimize the development of these infants as early as possible. The video shows the NNNS procedures, shows examples of normal and abnormal performance and the various clinical populations in which the exam can be used.

  6. Neurobehavioral Impact of Successive Cycles of Sleep Restriction With and Without Naps in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Lee, Su Mei; Teo, Lydia M; Lim, Julian; Gooley, Joshua J; Chee, Michael W L

    2017-02-01

    To characterize adolescents' neurobehavioral changes during two cycles of restricted and recovery sleep and to examine the effectiveness of afternoon naps in ameliorating neurobehavioral deficits associated with multiple nights of sleep restriction. Fifty-seven healthy adolescents (aged 15-19 years; 31 males) participated in a parallel group study. They underwent two cycles of sleep restriction (5-hr time in bed [TIB] for five and three nights in the first and the second cycles, respectively; 01:00-06:00) and recovery (9-hr TIB for two nights per cycle; 23:00-08:00) intended to simulate the weekday sleep loss and weekend attempt to "catch up" on sleep. Half of the participants received a 1-hr nap opportunity at 14:00 following each sleep-restricted night, while the other half stayed awake. Sustained attention, sleepiness, speed of processing, executive function, and mood were assessed 3 times each day. Participants who were not allowed to nap showed progressive decline in sustained attention that did not return to baseline after two nights of recovery sleep. Exposure to the second period of sleep restriction increased the rate of vigilance deterioration. Similar patterns were found for other neurobehavioral measures. Napping attenuated but did not eliminate performance decline. These findings contrasted with the stable performance of adolescents, given 9-hr TIB each night in our recent study. Adolescents' neurobehavioral functions may not adapt to successive cycles of sleep curtailment and recovery. In sleep-restricted adolescents, weekend "catch-up sleep," even when combined with napping during weekdays, is inferior to receiving a 9-hr sleep opportunity each night.

  7. Cognitive and Neurobehavioral Profile in Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Rudaina; Smile, Sharon; Yoon, Grace; Dupuis, Annie; Mosleh, Maureen; Snider, Andrea; McAdam, Laura

    2015-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a progressive neuromuscular condition that has a high rate of cognitive and learning disabilities as well as neurobehavioral disorders, some of which have been associated with disruption of dystrophin isoforms. Retrospective cohort of 59 boys investigated the cognitive and neurobehavioral profile of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Full-scale IQ of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. The Effect of One Night's Sleep Deprivation on Adolescent Neurobehavioral Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, Mia; Short, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of one night's sleep deprivation on neurobehavioral functioning in adolescents. Design: Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery measuring sustained attention, reaction speed, cognitive processing speed, sleepiness, and fatigue every 2 h during wakefulness. Baseline performance (defined as those test bouts between 09:00 and 19:00 on days 2 and 3, following two 10-h sleep opportunities) were compared to performance at the same clock time the day following total sleep deprivation. Setting: The sleep laboratory at the Centre for Sleep Research. Participants: Twelve healthy adolescents (6 male), aged 14-18 years (mean = 16.17, standard deviation = 0.83). Measurements and Results: Sustained attention, reaction speed, cognitive processing speed, and subjective sleepiness were all significantly worse following one night without sleep than following 10-h sleep opportunities (all main effects of day, P Louca M, Short MA. The effect of one night's sleep deprivation on adolescent neurobehavioral performance. SLEEP 2014;37(11):1799-1807. PMID:25364075

  9. Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodek, Arie [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal ($\\sigma_L$) and transverse ($\\sigma_T$) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= $\\sigma_L / \\sigma_T$ for nuclei ($R_A$) and for deuterium ($R_D$) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, $R_A< R_D$.

  10. Neurobehavioral development in children with potential exposure to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Alexis J; Lozoff, Betsy; Breilh, Jaime; Harlow, Siobán D

    2007-05-01

    Children may be at higher risk than adults from pesticide exposure, due to their rapidly developing physiology, unique behavioral patterns, and interactions with the physical environment. This preliminary study conducted in Ecuador examines the association between household and environmental risk factors for pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral development. We collected data over 6 months in the rural highland region of Cayambe, Ecuador (2003-2004). Children age 24-61 months residing in 3 communities were assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire and the Visual Motor Integration Test. We gathered information on maternal health and work characteristics, the home and community environment, and child characteristics. Growth measurements and a hemoglobin finger-prick blood test were obtained. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Current maternal employment in the flower industry was associated with better developmental scores. Longer hours playing outdoors were associated with lower gross and fine motor and problem solving skills. Children who played with irrigation water scored lower on fine motor skills (8% decrease; 95% confidence interval = -9.31 to -0.53), problem-solving skills (7% decrease; -8.40 to -0.39), and Visual Motor Integration test scores (3% decrease; -12.00 to 1.08). These results suggest that certain environmental risk factors for exposure to pesticides may affect child development, with contact with irrigation water of particular concern. However, the relationships between these risk factors and social characteristics are complex, as corporate agriculture may increase risk through pesticide exposure and environmental contamination, while indirectly promoting healthy development by providing health care, relatively higher salaries, and daycare options.

  11. Cognitive and neurobehavioral symptoms in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy or observation: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lisa M; Tanenbaum, Molly L; Dijkers, Marcel P J M; Amidi, Ali; Hall, Simon J; Penedo, Frank J; Diefenbach, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have investigated prostate cancer patients' experiences of cognitive functioning or neurobehavioral symptoms (i.e., behavioral changes associated with neurological dysfunction) following androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Semi-structured interviews conducted from the US by phone and in-person were used to explore and characterize the: 1) experience of cognitive and neurobehavioral functioning in non-metastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT (n = 19) compared with patients who had not undergone ADT (n = 20); 2) perceived causes of cognitive and neurobehavioral symptoms; 3) impact of these symptoms on quality of life; and 4) strategies used to cope with or compensate for these symptoms. Neuropsychological performance was assessed to characterize the sample. Overall, ADT patients experienced marginally more cognitive problems than non-ADT (nADT) patients even though there were no significant differences between groups in neuropsychological performance. ADT patients also experienced more declines in prospective memory and multi-tasking than nADT patients. Significant proportions of participants in both groups also experienced retrospective memory, attention and concentration, and information processing difficulties. With respect to neurobehavioral symptoms, more ADT patients experienced emotional lability and impulsivity (both aspects of disinhibition) than nADT patients. Among the causes to which participants attributed declines, both groups attributed them primarily to aging. A majority of ADT patients also attributed declines to ADT. For both groups, increased cognitive and neurobehavioral symptoms negatively impacted quality of life, and most participants developed strategies to ameliorate these problems. ADT patients are more vulnerable to experiencing specific cognitive and neurobehavioral symptoms than nADT patients. This study highlights the importance of capturing: a) cognitive symptoms not easily detected using neuropsychological

  12. Neurobehavioral dynamics following chronic sleep restriction: dose-response effects of one night for recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Siobhan; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Maislin, Greg; Dinges, David F

    2010-08-01

    Establish the dose-response relationship between increasing sleep durations in a single night and recovery of neurobehavioral functions following chronic sleep restriction. Intent-to-treat design in which subjects were randomized to 1 of 6 recovery sleep doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 h TIB) for 1 night following 5 nights of sleep restriction to 4 h TIB. Twelve consecutive days in a controlled laboratory environment. N = 159 healthy adults (aged 22-45 y), median = 29 y). Following a week of home monitoring with actigraphy and 2 baseline nights of 10 h TIB, subjects were randomized to either sleep restriction to 4 h TIB per night for 5 nights followed by randomization to 1 of 6 nocturnal acute recovery sleep conditions (N = 142), or to a control condition involving 10 h TIB on all nights (N = 17). Primary neurobehavioral outcomes included lapses on the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), subjective sleepiness from the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), and physiological sleepiness from a modified Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT). Secondary outcomes included psychomotor and cognitive speed as measured by PVT fastest RTs and number correct on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST), respectively, and subjective fatigue from the Profile of Mood States (POMS). The dynamics of neurobehavioral outcomes following acute recovery sleep were statistically modeled across the 0 h-10 h recovery sleep doses. While TST, stage 2, REM sleep and NREM slow wave energy (SWE) increased linearly across recovery sleep doses, best-fitting neurobehavioral recovery functions were exponential across recovery sleep doses for PVT and KSS outcomes, and linear for the MWT. Analyses based on return to baseline and on estimated intersection with control condition means revealed recovery was incomplete at the 10 h TIB (8.96 h TST) for PVT performance, KSS sleepiness, and POMS fatigue. Both TST and SWE were elevated above baseline at the maximum recovery dose of 10 h TIB. Neurobehavioral deficits

  13. Managing neurobehavioral capability when social expediency trumps biological imperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Andrea M.; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep, which is evolutionarily conserved across species, is a biological imperative that cannot be ignored or replaced. However, the percentage of habitually sleep-restricted adults has increased in recent decades. Extended work hours and commutes, shift work schedules, and television viewing are particularly potent social factors that influence sleep duration. Chronic partial sleep restriction, a product of these social expediencies, leads to the accumulation of sleep debt over time and consequently increases sleep propensity, decreases alertness, and impairs critical aspects of cognitive functioning. Significant interindividual variability in the neurobehavioral responses to sleep restriction exists—this variability is stable and phenotypic—suggesting a genetic basis. Identifying vulnerability to sleep loss is essential as many adults cannot accurately judge their level of impairment in response to sleep restriction. Indeed, the consequences of impaired performance and the lack of insight due to sleep loss can be catastrophic. In order to cope with the effects of social expediencies on biological imperatives, identification of biological (including genetic) and behavioral markers of sleep loss vulnerability as well as development of technological approaches for fatigue management are critical. PMID:22877676

  14. Coloboma hyperactive mutant exhibits delayed neurobehavioral developmental milestones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyser, C J; Wilson, M C; Gold, L H

    1995-11-21

    The coloboma mutation (Cm) is a neutron-irradiation induced gene deletion located on the distal portion of mouse chromosome 2. This deletion region includes a gene encoding the synaptic vesicle docking fusion protein, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25). The resulting mutation is semi-dominant with heterozygote mice exhibiting a triad of phenotypic abnormalities that comprise profound spontaneous hyperactivity, head bobbing and a prominent eye dysmorphology. Because the expression pattern of two SNAP-25 isoforms begins to change during the first postnatal week, neurobehavioral developmental milestones were examined in order to determine if the expression of the coloboma behavioral phenotype could be detected during this period of postnatal development. The early classification of coloboma mutant offspring may help to further describe the penetrance of this mutation as well as the contribution of developmental changes to the adult behavioral phenotype. The coloboma mutation resulted in delays in some tests of complex motor skills including righting reflex and bar holding. In addition, coloboma mutants were characterized by body weight differences (first appearance day 7) and hyperreactivity to touch (day 11) and head bobbing (day 14). These data demonstrate disruptions in the time course of attaining developmental milestones in coloboma mutants and provide further evidence supporting the hypotheses that alterations in Snap gene expression are associated with functional behavioral consequences in developing offspring.

  15. Depression during gestation in adolescent mothers interferes with neonatal neurobehavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carvalho de Moraes Barros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the neurobehavior of neonates born to adolescent mothers with and without depression during gestation. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included healthy term neonates born to adolescent mothers with untreated depression during gestation, without exposure to legal or illicit drugs, and compared them with infants born to adolescent mothers without psychiatric disorders. Maternal psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1 and neonatal neurobehavior by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS at 24 to 72 hours of life. Neurobehavioral outcomes were analyzed by ANOVA adjusted for confounders. Results: 37 infants born to mothers with depression during gestation were compared to 332 infants born to mothers without psychiatric disorders. Infants of mothers with depression had smaller head circumferences. Significant interactions of maternal depression and male gender, gestational age > 40 weeks, regional anesthesia during delivery, vaginal delivery, and infant head circumference ≥ 34 cm were found. Worse performance was noted in the following neonatal neurobehavioral parameters: arousal, excitability, lethargy, hypotonicity, and signs of stress and abstinence. Conclusion: Infants born to adolescent mothers with depression exhibit some behavioral changes in the first days of life. These changes are associated with infant sex, gestational age, type of anesthesia, mode of delivery, and head circumference.

  16. Neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome following childhood arterial ischemic stroke: attention deficits, emotional dysregulation, and executive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Fiadhnait; Liégeois, Frédérique; Eve, Megan; Ganesan, Vijeya; King, John; Murphy, Tara

    2014-01-01

    To investigate neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome in children with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Childhood stroke can have consequences on motor, cognitive, and behavioral development. We present a cross-sectional study of neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome at least one year poststroke in a uniquely homogeneous sample of children who had experienced AIS. Forty-nine children with AIS aged 6 to 18 years were recruited from a specialist clinic. Neuropsychological measures of intelligence, reading comprehension, attention, and executive function were administered. A triangulation of data collection included questionnaires completed by the children, their parents, and teachers, rating behavior, executive functions, and emotions. Focal neuropsychological vulnerabilities in attention (response inhibition and dual attention) and executive function were found, beyond general intellectual functioning, irrespective of hemispheric side of stroke. Difficulties with emotional and behavioral regulation were also found. Consistent with an "early plasticity" hypothesis, earlier age of stroke was associated with better performance on measures of executive function. A significant proportion of children poststroke are at long-term risk of difficulties with emotional regulation, executive function, and attention. Data also suggest that executive functions are represented in widespread networks in the developing brain and are vulnerable to unilateral injury.

  17. Neurobehavioral toxicity of carbon nanotubes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamine, Babak; Karimi, Isaac; Salimi, Amir; Mazdarani, Parisa; Becker, Lora A

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate neurobehavioral toxicity of single-walled (SWNTs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in mice. Male NMRI mice were randomized into 5 groups ( n = 10 each): Normal control (NC) group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution (pH 7.8; ca. 1 mL), MW80 and MW800 groups were injected with either i.p. 80 or 800 mg kg-1 MWNTs suspended in 1 mL of PBS and SW80 and SW800 groups were injected with either i.p. 80 or 800 mg kg-1 SWNTs suspended in 1 mL of PBS. After 2 weeks, five mice from each group were evaluated for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) messenger RNA expression and protein content of brain tissues. Locomotion, anxiety, learning and memory, and depression were measured by open field test (OFT), elevated plus-maze (EPM), object recognition test (ORT), and forced swimming test (FST), respectively. Ambulation time and center arena time in the OFT did not change among groups. In the EPM paradigm, SWNTs (800 mg kg-1) and MWNTs (80 and 800 mg kg-1) showed an anxiogenic effect. In ORT, MWNTs (80 mg kg-1) increased the discrimination ratio while in FST, MWNTs showed a depressant effect as compared to vehicle. The BDNF gene expression in mice treated with 80 and 800 mg kg-1 SWNTs or 80 mg kg-1 MWNTs decreased as compared to NC mice although BDNF gene expression increased in mice that were treated with 800 mg kg-1 MWNTs. The whole brain BDNF protein content did not change among groups. Our study showed that i.p. exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may result in behavioral toxicity linked with expression of depression or anxiety that depends on the type of CNTs. In addition, exposure to CNTs changed BDNF gene expression.

  18. Neurobehavioral toxicity of cadmium sulfate to the planarian Dugesia dorotocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebe, E.; Schaeffer, D.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The authors are developing bioassays which use planarians (free-living platyhelminthes) for the rapid determination of various types of toxicity, including acute mortality, tumorigenicity, and short-term neurobehavioral responses. Their motivation for using these animals is due to their importance as components of the aquatic ecology of unpolluted streams their sensitivity to low concentrations of environmental toxicants and the presence of a sensitive neurological system with a true brain which allows for complex social behavior. A previous paper described the results of a neurobehavioral bioassay using phenol in a crossover study. This paper reports a similar crossover study using cadmium sulfate.

  19. Neuropsychological presentation and adaptive skills in high-functioning adolescents with visual impairment: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, R; Pring, L; Schepers, A; Isaacs, D P; Dale, N J

    2017-01-01

    Studies in infants and young children with congenital visual impairment (VI) have indicated early developmental vulnerabilities, conversely research with older children and adults have highlighted areas of cognitive strength. A minimal amount is known, however, about the possible combination of strengths and weaknesses in adolescence, and this present study therefore aims to explore the neuropsychological presentation and adaptive behavior profile in high-functioning adolescents with congenital VI. Participants completed a battery of commonly used neuropsychological measures assessing memory, executive function, and attention. The measures utilized focused on auditory neuropsychological function, because only subtests that could be completed with auditory administration were suitable for this sample. Parents completed standardized measures of adaptive behavior, executive function, and social communication. Compared to aged-based norms for normal sight, adolescents with VI demonstrated strengths in aspects of working memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, performance across the neuropsychological battery was within or above the average range for the majority of the sample. In contrast, parent-report measures indicated areas of weakness in adaptive functioning, social communication, and behavioral executive functioning. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence that relative to fully sighted peers, high-functioning adolescents with VI present with an uneven profile of cognitive and adaptive skills, which has important implications for assessment and intervention.

  20. Early life trauma and attachment: Immediate and enduring effects on neurobehavioral and stress axis development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millie eRincón-Cortés

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups’ sensory systems (i.e. olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory embedded in mother-infant interactions. This stimulation provides hidden regulators of pups’ behavioral, physiological and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological early life experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology and increase risk for later life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant attachment relationships program later life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups’ immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning and rearing with an abusive mother, that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups’ immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in early life that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver.

  1. Managing temptation in obesity treatment: A neurobehavioral model of intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; French, Simone A; Pagoto, Sherry L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2016-01-01

    Weight loss outcomes in lifestyle interventions for obesity are primarily a function of sustained adherence to a reduced-energy diet, and most lapses in diet adherence are precipitated by temptation from palatable food. The high nonresponse and relapse rates of lifestyle interventions suggest that current temptation management approaches may be insufficient for most participants. In this conceptual review, we discuss three neurobehavioral processes (attentional bias, temporal discounting, and the cold-hot empathy gap) that emerge during temptation and contribute to lapses in diet adherence. Characterizing the neurobehavioral profile of temptation highlights an important distinction between temptation resistance strategies aimed at overcoming temptation while it is experienced, and temptation prevention strategies that seek to avoid or minimize exposure to tempting stimuli. Many temptation resistance and temptation prevention strategies heavily rely on executive functions mediated by prefrontal systems that are prone to disruption by common occurrences such as stress, insufficient sleep, and even exposure to tempting stimuli. In contrast, commitment strategies are a set of devices that enable individuals to manage temptation by constraining their future choices, without placing heavy demands on executive functions. These concepts are synthesized in a conceptual model that categorizes temptation management approaches based on their intended effects on reward processing and degree of reliance on executive functions. We conclude by discussing the implications of our model for strengthening temptation management approaches in future lifestyle interventions, tailoring these approaches based on key individual difference variables, and suggesting high-priority topics for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Myrtle McGraw's Neurobehavioral Theory of Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Thomas C.

    1998-01-01

    Maintains that McGraw conducted a more complex analysis of neurobehavior than acknowledged by those characterizing her position as maturationist; that she advanced a unique analysis of brain development and consciousness, singling out the reciprocal relationship between neural growth processes and early experience; and that her studies of the role…

  3. Neurobehavioral and histological effects of Akaki extract on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Neurobehavioral and histological effect of akaki extract on the temporal lobe of wister rats was carried out. In the study we evaluate a traditional prescription method for the treatment of mental illness using the akaki extract on the temporal lobe. Material and Methods: Twenty rats of average weight 200 g were ...

  4. Neurobehavioral effects of cyclohexane in rat and human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Hoogendijk, E.M.G.; McKee, R.H.; Owen, D.E.; Kulig, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    The neurobehavioral effects of inhaled cyclohexane in rats and humans are investigated to define relationships between internal doses and acute central nervous system effects. Rats are exposed for 3 consecutive days at target concentrations of 0, 1.4, 8, and 28 g/m3, 8 h/d. Measurements include

  5. Neuropsychological assessment of language functions during functional magnetic resonance imaging: development of new tasks. Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersten, Ewa; Jakuciński, Maciej; Kuliński, Radosław; Koziara, Henryk; Mroziak, Barbara; Nauman, Paweł

    2011-01-01

    Due to the complex and extended cerebral organization of language functions, the brain regions crucial for speech and language, i.e. eloquent areas, have to be affected by neurooncological surgery. One of the techniques that may be helpful in pre-operative planning of the extent of tumour removal and estimating possible complications seems to be functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The aim of the study was to develop valid procedures for neuropsychological assessment of various language functions visualisable by fMRI in healthy individuals. In this fMRI study, 10 healthy (with no CNS pathology), right-handed volunteers aged 25-35 were examined using four tasks designed to measure different language functions, and one for short-term memory assessment. A 1.5-T MRI scanner performing ultrafast functional (EPI) sequences with 4-mm slice thickness and 1-mm interslice gap was used to detect the BOLD response to stimuli present-ed in a block design (30-second alternating blocks of activity and rest). The analyses used the SPM software running in a MATLAB environment, and the obtained data were interpreted by means of colour-coded maps superimposed on structural brain scans. For each of the tasks developed for particular language functions, a different area of increased neuronal activity was found. The differential localization of function-related neuronal activity seems interesting and the research worth continuing, since verbal communication failure may result from impairment of any of various language functions, and studies reported in the literature seem to focus on verbal expression only.

  6. A preliminary investigation of sleep quality in functional neurological disorders: Poor sleep appears common, and is associated with functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Christopher D; Kyle, Simon D

    2017-07-15

    Functional neurological disorders (FND) are disabling conditions for which there are few empirically-supported treatments. Disturbed sleep appears to be part of the FND context; however, the clinical importance of sleep disturbance (extent, characteristics and impact) remains largely unknown. We described sleep quality in two samples, and investigated the relationship between sleep and FND-related functional impairment. We included a sample recruited online via patient charities (N=205) and a consecutive clinical sample (N=20). Participants completed validated measures of sleep quality and sleep characteristics (e.g. total sleep time, sleep efficiency), mood, and FND-related functional impairment. Poor sleep was common in both samples (89% in the clinical range), which was characterised by low sleep efficiency (M=65.40%) and low total sleep time (M=6.05h). In regression analysis, sleep quality was negatively associated with FND-related functional impairment, accounting for 16% of the variance and remaining significant after the introduction of mood variables. These preliminary analyses suggest that subjective sleep disturbance (low efficiency, short sleep) is common in FND. Sleep quality was negatively associated with the functional impairment attributed to FND, independent of depression. Therefore, sleep disturbance may be a clinically important feature of FND. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Neurobehavioral Phenotype in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB: an Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, E; King, K; Ahmed, A; Rudser, K; Rumsey, R; Yund, B; Delaney, K; Nestrasil, I; Whitley, C; Potegal, M

    2016-03-01

    Our goal was to describe the neurobehavioral phenotype in mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB (MPS IIIB). Parents report that behavioral abnormalities are a major problem in MPS III posing serious challenges to parenting and quality-of-life for both patient and parent. Our previous research on MPS IIIA identified autistic symptoms, and a Klüver-Bucy-type syndrome as indicated by reduced startle and loss of fear associated with amygdala atrophy. We hypothesized that MPS IIIB would manifest similar attributes when assessed with the same neurobehavioral protocol. Ten patients with MPS IIIB were compared with 9 MPS IIIA patients, all older than 6. 8 younger children with Hurler syndrome (1H) were chosen as a comparison group for the Risk Room procedure; MPS IH does not directly affect social/emotional function and these younger children were closer to the developmental level of the MPS IIIB group. To examine disease severity, cognitive ability was assessed. Four evaluations were used: the Risk Room procedure (to measure social-emotional characteristics, especially fear and startle responses), the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), the Sanfilippo Behavior Rating Scale (SBRS), and amygdala brain volumes calculated from manually-traced MRI images. The two groups are equivalent in severity and show severe cognitive impairment. On the ADOS, the MPS IIIB patients exhibited the same autistic features as IIIA. The IIIB means differed from MPS IH means on most measures. However, the IIIB group did not approach the Risk Room stranger, like the MPS IH group who kept their distance, but unlike the IIIA group who showed no fear of the stranger. On the SBRS, the MPS IIIB patients were described as more inattentive and more fearful, especially of new people than the MPS IIIA. Onsets of some disease characteristics appeared more closely spaced and slightly earlier in MPS IIIB than IIIA. On most behavioral measures, MPS IIIB patients did not differ substantially from MPS IIIA

  8. Neurobehavioral consequences of chronic intrauterine opioid exposure in infants and preschool children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, Alex; Arbuckle, Kathleen; Petrie, Dennis J; McCowan, Colin

    2014-04-08

    It is assumed within the accumulated literature that children born of pregnant opioid dependent mothers have impaired neurobehavioral function as a consequence of chronic intrauterine opioid use. Quantitative and systematic review of the literature on the consequences of chronic maternal opioid use during pregnancy on neurobehavioral function of children was conducted using the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched Cinahl, EMBASE, PsychINFO and MEDLINE between the periods of January 1995 to January 2012. There were only 5 studies out of the 200 identified that quantitatively reported on neurobehavioral function of children after maternal opioid use during pregnancy. All 5 were case control studies with the number of exposed subjects within the studies ranging from 33-143 and 45-85 for the controls. This meta-analysis showed no significant impairments, at a non-conservative significance level of p opioid using mothers. The magnitude of all possible effects was small according to Cohen's benchmark criteria. Chronic intra-uterine opioid exposed infants and pre-school children experienced no significant impairment in neurobehavioral outcomes when compared to non-exposed peers, although in all domains there was a trend to poorer outcomes. The findings of this review are limited by the small number of studies analysed, the heterogenous populations and small numbers within the individual studies. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if any neuropsychological impairments appear after the age of 5 years and to help investigate further the role of environmental risk factors on the effect of 'core' phenotypes.

  9. Receiver function analysis and preliminary body wave tomography of the MACOMO network in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, M. J.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D. A.; Nyblade, A.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Shore, P.; Rambolamana, G.; Sy Tanjona Andriampenomanana ny Ony, F.; Rakotondraibe, T.

    2013-12-01

    We present results from a set of seismological studies of the continental island of Madagascar using new seismic data from the NSF-funded MACOMO (MAdagascar, COmores, and MOzambique) IRIS PASSCAL broadband seismometer array. MACOMO involved the deployment during 2011-2013 of 26 broadband seismometers in Madagascar and 6 seismometers in Mozambique, providing the first seismic imaging across the world's 4th-largest island. We present preliminary crustal structure variations from receiver function analyses and body wave tomography results. We calculate radial receiver functions for all Madagascar stations and use the weighted linear regression methodology of Herrmann and Ammon [2002] to invert for shear velocity. Upper mantle and crustal structures from the receiver function analyses are used to help determine starting models for the teleseismic travel-time tomography. The tectonic structure of Madagascar is generally divided into four crustal blocks. Initial seismic imaging shows that the Archean Antongil block that runs along the east of the island has the thickest crust (>40 km) and three Proterozoic terranes that make up the central highlands and are bounded by fault and shear zones are closer to the average crustal thickness (35 km). There has been late Cenozoic intraplate volcanism in northern and central Madagascar (as recently as 1 million years ago), and different hypotheses for its origin will be evaluated by the preliminary results from the three different seismic studies. Complete analyses will be done incorporating seismic data from simultaneous and complementary array of both land- and ocean-based seismometers from French and German deployments.

  10. Preliminary data from a randomized pilot study of web-based functional analytic psychotherapy therapist training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Tsai, Mavis; Holman, Gareth; Koerner, Kelly

    2013-06-01

    Therapists of many persuasions emphasize the therapy relationship in their work, a priority backed by strong empirical evidence. Training in how to maximize the power and potential of the therapy relationship, however, has lagged behind. A novel approach to using the therapy relationship and to training therapists in its use is provided by Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP). FAP training involves eight 2-hr weekly training sessions conducted online using web-conferencing technology. The training integrates behavioral principles with a focus on trainee-trainer and trainee-trainee relationships in a highly structured course that evokes the desirable FAP therapist-trainee behaviors and collectively shapes the behaviors through reinforcement by the trainer and other trainees. In a preliminary study, 16 therapist-trainees were randomly assigned to receive either immediate FAP training or training after a waitlist period. Significant and large effects of training were found on both self-reported and observer-assessed measures for the first training group, and the waitlist training group replicated the first training group with significant within-subject change over the course of training. Finally, qualitative feedback from therapists indicated high satisfaction with the primary elements of the training protocol. Several important limitations to this preliminary study are discussed.

  11. [Do the structure and functioning of the elderly's social network influence functional health: a preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Marie; Swine, Christian

    2015-06-01

    We examined structural and functional characteristics of social networks related to health and well-being among community-dwelling older adults. A survey was performed in Brussels, using an original name-generating network inventory, to explore the structure and types of social ties (e.g. children, friends, neighbors) which forms the elderly's network. Different kinds of support (instrumental, emotional, social) were assessed due to the multiple contents of social exchanges between the elderly and their network's members. Our results highlighted some important social network resources. Especially, social participation, contacts with friends of the same age and reciprocity of social relationships are likely to promote functional health and well-being in later life. We discuss our findings in relation to major social network's typologies referring to older adults.

  12. Three-dimensional functional unit analysis of hemifacial microsomia mandible-a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Wook; Kim, Byung Hoon; Kim, Hyung Soo; Yu, Tae Hoon; Kim, Bong Chul; Lee, Sang-Hwy

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to present three-dimensional (3D) structural characteristics of the mandible in the hemifacial microsomia. The mandible has six distinct functional units, and its architecture is the sum of balanced growth of each functional unit and surrounding matrix. In order to characterize the mandibular 3D architecture of hemifacial microsomia, we analyzed the mandibular functional units of four hemifacial microsomia patients using the 3D reconstructed computed tomography (CT) images. And we compared the functional unit size between affected and non-affected side. The length of condyle and angle showed significant differences between affected and non-affected sides. However, the length of mandibular body showed insignificant differences. The size differences between affected and non-affected side were observed at the condyle, angle, and body in descending order. This preliminary study suggests that the main etiopathogenic units are condyle and angle in the hemifacial microsomia mandible. Further investigation with the increased number of subjects will be helpful to establish treatment modality by etiopathogenic targeting of hemifacial microsomia.

  13. Neuroepidemiologic and Neurobehavioral Characteristics of Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome in an Old-Old Population: The Kurihara Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Kumai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, the concept of motoric cognitive risk (MCR syndrome was proposed, where slow gait is considered a risk factor for conversion to dementia. Aim: To retrospectively investigate the characteristics of MCR among a population aged 75+ years, focusing on the aspects of epidemiology and neurobehavioral characteristics. Method: The participants were 590 residents aged 75+ years living in Kurihara who underwent MRI and neurobehavioral assessments including walking velocity. The prevalence of MCR and conversion to dementia (AD8 Dementia Screening Interview cutoff 2/8, together with the neurobehavioral characteristics of the MCR group, were analyzed. Results: The prevalence was 11.1%, and the conversion ratio in the MCR group was higher than that in the non-MCR group (OR = 1.38. The MCR group had lower scores on the executive function test as well as gait velocity. Conclusions: The MCR syndrome increases the rate of conversion to dementia, and both slow gait and lower scores in executive tests, which are ‘frontal-based' functions, are predictive of higher rates of conversion to dementia.

  14. A preliminary measurement of the b quark fragmentation function in hadronic Z{sup 0} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The SLD Collaboration

    1996-06-01

    We present a measurement of the {ital b} quark fragmentation function from a sample of semi-leptonic {bold B} decays collected between 1993 and 1995 in the SLD experiment at SLAC. The energy of each tagged {bold B} hadron was reconstructed using information from the lepton and a partially reconstructed charm decay vertex. A comparison of the scaled energy distribution with several phenomenological models of heavy quark fragmentation was made, using the same model in each case to correct the data. The average scaled energy was found to be {l_angle}{chi}{sub E}{r_angle} = 0.697{+-}0.012({ital stat}){sup +0. 028}{sub -0.024} ({ital syst})(preliminary).

  15. Neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairment in 105 adults with indoor exposure to molds compared to 100 exposed to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Kaye H

    2009-01-01

    Patients exposed at home to molds and mycotoxins and those exposed to chemicals (CE) have many similar symptoms of eye, nose, and throat irritation and poor memory, concentration, and other neurobehavioral dysfunctions. To compare the neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairments associated with indoor exposures to mold and to chemicals. 105 consecutive adults exposed to molds (ME) indoors at home and 100 patients exposed to other chemicals were compared to 202 community referents without mold or chemical exposure. To assess brain functions, we measured 26 neurobehavioral functions. Medical and exposure histories, mood states score, and symptoms frequencies were obtained. Vital capacity and flows were measured by spirometry. Groups were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA) after adjusting for age, educational attainment, and sex, by calculating predicted values (observed/predicted x 100 = % predicted). And p mold had a total of 6.1 abnormalities and those exposed to chemicals had 7.1 compared to 1.2 abnormalities in referents. Compared to referents, the exposed groups had balance decreased, longer reaction times, and blink reflex latentcies lengthened. Also, color discrimination errors were increased and visual field performances and grip strengths were reduced. The cognitive and memory performance measures were abnormal in both exposed groups. Culture Fair scores, digit symbol substitution, immediate and delayed verbal recall, picture completion, and information were reduced. Times for peg-placement and trail making A and B were increased. One difference was that chemically exposed patients had excess fingertip number writing errors, but the mold-exposed did not. Mood State scores and symptom frequencies were greater in both exposed groups than in referents. Vital capacities were reduced in both groups. Neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairments associated with exposures to indoor molds and mycotoxins were not different from those with various chemical exposures.

  16. Development and preliminary validation of the First Episode Social Functioning Scale for early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Tania; Corbière, Marc; Ehmann, Tom; Addington, Jean; Abdel-Baki, Amal; Macewan, Bill

    2014-05-30

    The current study aimed at developing and conducting a preliminary validation a novel social functioning measure for people with early psychosis. The First Episode Social Functioning Scale (FESFS) was developed to cover many domains specific to this population in their contemporary reality. The self-report version of the FESFS was administered to 203 individuals receiving services in first episode clinics. Scores of the GAF, SOFAS, Social Functioning Scale and BPRS were also obtained for parts of the sample to calculate convergent and discriminant validity. A subgroup also answered the FESFS at several time points during treatment in order to determine sensibility to change. Principal component factor analyses and internal consistency analyses revealed the following nine factors with alphas ranging from 0.63 to 0.80: Friendships and social activities, Independent living skills, Interacting with people, Family, Intimacy, Relationships and social activities at work, Work abilities, Relationships and social activities at school, Educational abilities. Convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated, as well as sensitivity to change. Clinical and research utility of the FESFS are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interhemispheric Functional Brain Connectivity in Neonates with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kirsten A; Ipser, Jonathan C; Howells, Fleur M; Roos, Annerine; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Riley, Edward P; Koen, Nastassja; Woods, Roger P; Biswal, Bharat; Zar, Heather J; Narr, Katherine L; Stein, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Children exposed to alcohol in utero demonstrate reduced white matter microstructural integrity. While early evidence suggests altered functional brain connectivity in the lateralization of motor networks in school-age children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), the specific effects of alcohol exposure on the establishment of intrinsic connectivity in early infancy have not been explored. Sixty subjects received functional imaging at 2 to 4 weeks of age for 6 to 8 minutes during quiet natural sleep. Thirteen alcohol-exposed (PAE) and 14 age-matched control (CTRL) participants with usable data were included in a multivariate model of connectivity between sensorimotor intrinsic functional connectivity networks. Seed-based analyses of group differences in interhemispheric connectivity of intrinsic motor networks were also conducted. The Dubowitz neurological assessment was performed at the imaging visit. Alcohol exposure was associated with significant increases in connectivity between somatosensory, motor networks, brainstem/thalamic, and striatal intrinsic networks. Reductions in interhemispheric connectivity of motor and somatosensory networks did not reach significance. Although results are preliminary, findings suggest PAE may disrupt the temporal coherence in blood oxygenation utilization in intrinsic networks underlying motor performance in newborn infants. Studies that employ longitudinal designs to investigate the effects of in utero alcohol exposure on the evolving resting-state networks will be key in establishing the distribution and timing of connectivity disturbances already described in older children. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; John Forester; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Heather Medema; Julius Persensky; April Whaley

    2013-04-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation in to the development of new models and guidance for concepts of operations (ConOps) in advanced small modular reactor (aSMR) designs. In support of this objective, three important research areas were included: operating principles of multi-modular plants, functional allocation models and strategies that would affect the development of new, non-traditional concept of operations, and the requiremetns for human performance, based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements. As part of the approach for this report, we outline potential functions, including the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a new functional allocation model and the identification of specific regulatory requirements that will influence the development of future concept of operations. The report also highlights changes in research strategy prompted by confirmationof the importance of applying the work domain analysis methodology to a reference aSMR design. It is described how this methodology will enrich the findings from this phase of the project in the subsequent phases and help in identification of metrics and focused studies for the determination of human performance criteria that can be used to support the design process.

  19. Preliminary functional MRI neural correlates of executive functioning and empathy in children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Yoder, Keith; Kulkarni, Richa; Gozal, David; Decety, Jean

    2014-03-01

    Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with neurocognitive deficits. However, the neural substrates underlying such deficits remain unknown. To examine executive control and emotional processing in OSA, 10 children age 7 to 11 y with polysomnographically diagnosed OSA and 7 age- and sex-matched controls underwent a color-word Stroop task and an empathy task consisting of dynamic visual scenarios depicting interpersonal harm or neutral actions in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Functional MRI data were processed using MATLAB 7.12 with SPM8 for region of interest (ROI) analyses, and a general linear model was used with regressors for each trial type in each task. For the Stroop task, accuracy was similar in the two groups, with no differences in the effect of incongruency on success rates. OSA showed greater neural activity than controls in eight ROI clusters for incongruent versus congruent trials (P sleep apnea (OSA) in children. Children with OSA show greater neural recruitment of regions implicated in cognitive control, conflict monitoring, and attentional allocation in order to perform at the same level as children without OSA. When viewing empathy-eliciting scenarios, the severity of OSA predicted less sensitivity to harm in the left amygdala.

  20. The pig as a model animal for studying cognition and neurobehavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieling, Elise T; Schuurman, Teun; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, F Josef

    2011-01-01

    In experimental animal research, a short phylogenetic distance, i.e., high resemblance between the model species and the species to be modeled is expected to increase the relevance and generalizability of results obtained in the model species. The (mini)pig shows multiple advantageous characteristics that have led to an increase in the use of this species in studies modeling human medical issues, including neurobehavioral (dys)functions. For example, the cerebral cortex of pigs, unlike that of mice or rats, has cerebral convolutions (gyri and sulci) similar to the human neocortex. We expect that appropriately chosen pig models will yield results of high translational value. However, this claim still needs to be substantiated by research, and the area of pig research is still in its infancy. This chapter provides an overview of the pig as a model species for studying cognitive dysfunctions and neurobehavioral disorders and their treatment, along with a discussion of the pros and cons of various tests, as an aid to researchers considering the use of pigs as model animal species in biomedical research.

  1. Acute minocycline treatment prevents neurobehavioral impairment in a rat model of mild blast traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsebet eKovesdi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild blast induced traumatic brain injury (mbTBI and its associated memory impairment and anxiety elevation currently represent one of the major military health challenges. Our earlier work using a rodent model of mbTBI indicated that the pathology underlying the observed neurobehavioral abnormalities includes neuroinflammation. The aim of our present study was to determine the effect of acute treatment with minocycline, an FDA approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on the functional and molecular outcomes of mbTBI. Beginning four hours after a single exposure to mild blast overpressure, animals received a daily dose of minocycline (50 mg/kg or physiological saline intraperitoneally (i.p. for 4 days. Physiological parameters (arterial blood O2 saturation, heart and breath rates, and pulse distension and neurobehavior (locomotor activity, anxiety, and spatial memory were monitored at multiple time points. At the termination of the experiment (51 days post-injury, we analyzed sera and select brain regions for changes in protein markers of inflammation as well as vascular, neuronal, and glial integrity. We found that acute treatment with minocycline completely prevented memory impairment and anxiety development by ameliorating the inflammatory response to injury and substantially reducing neuronal and glial cell loss. Based on our findings, we urge testing the effect of minocycline treatment in human mbTBI.

  2. Effects of maternal administration of vitamins C and E on ethanol neurobehavioral teratogenicity in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Christopher M; Ibram, Ferda; Dringenberg, Hans C; Reynolds, James N; Brien, James F

    2007-12-01

    Consumption of ethanol during human pregnancy can produce a wide spectrum of teratogenic effects, including neurobehavioral dysfunction. This study, in the guinea pig, tested the hypothesis that chronic maternal administration of antioxidant vitamins C plus E, together with ethanol, mitigates ethanol neurobehavioral teratogenicity. Pregnant guinea pigs received one of the following four chronic oral regimens: ethanol and vitamins C plus E; ethanol and vitamin vehicle; isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding and vitamins C plus E; or isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding and vehicle. Vitamins C (250 mg) plus E (100mg) or vehicle were given daily, and ethanol (4 g/kg maternal body weight/day) (E) or isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding was given for 5 consecutive days followed by 2 days of no treatment each week throughout gestation. One neonate from selected litters was studied on postnatal day (PD) 0. Neurobehavioral function was determined by measuring task acquisition and task retention using an 8-day moving-platform version of the Morris water-maze task, starting on PD 45. Thereafter, in vivo electrophysiologic assessment of changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity was conducted. There was an ethanol-induced decrease in neonatal brain weight compared with sucrose. The vitamins C plus E regimen protected hippocampal weight relative to brain weight in ethanol offspring, and mitigated the ethanol-induced deficit in the task-retention component of the water-maze task. However, in the sucrose group, this Vit regimen produced deficits in both task acquisition and task retention. The vitamins C plus E regimen did not mitigate the ethanol-induced impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation. These results indicate that maternal administration of this high-dose vitamins C plus E regimen throughout gestation has limited efficacy and potential adverse effects as a therapeutic intervention for E neurobehavioral teratogenicity.

  3. Repeated exposure of rats to JP-4 vapor induces changes in neurobehavioral capacity and 5-HT/5-HIAA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholm, A F; Rossi, J; Ritchie, G D; McInturf, S; Hulme, M E; McCool, C; Narayanan, L; MacMahon, K L; Eggers, J; Leahy, H F; Wolfe, R E

    1999-04-09

    Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 6 h/d for 14 consecutive days to JP-4 jet fuel vapor (2 mg/L) or room air control conditions. Following a 14- or 60-d recovery period, rats completed a battery of 8 tests selected from the Navy Neurobehavioral Toxicity Assessment Battery (NTAB) to evaluate changes in performance capacity. Exposure to JP-4 vapor resulted in significant changes in neurobehavioral capacity on several tests that varied as a function of the duration of the recovery period. Rats were evaluated for major neurotransmitter and metabolite levels in five brain regions and in the blood serum. Levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were shown to be significantly elevated in several brain regions as well as in the blood serum in the vapor-exposed groups. Results of the rat study are compared to previously reported neurobehavioral evaluations of European manufacturing personnel exposed chronically to jet fuel vapor.

  4. Multilevel Analysis of Air Pollution and Early Childhood Neurobehavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Chun; Yang, Shih-Kuan; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Ho, Wen-Chao; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and hydrocarbons, was measured at air quality monitoring stations in the towns where the subjects lived. Multilevel analyses were applied to assess the association between air pollution and childhood neurobehavioral development during pregnancy and when the children were 0 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 18 months old. At 18 months, poor subclinical neurodevelopment in early childhood is associated with the average SO2 exposure of prenatal, during all trimesters of pregnancy and at postnatal ages up to 12 months (first trimester β = −0.083, se = 0.030; second and third trimester β = −0.114, se = 0.045; from birth to 12 months of age β = −0.091, se = 0.034). Furthermore, adverse gross motor below average scores at six months of age were associated with increased average non-methane hydrocarbon, (NMHC) levels during the second and third trimesters (β = −8.742, se = 3.512). Low-level SO2 exposure prenatally and up to twelve months postnatal could cause adverse neurobehavioral effects at 18 months of age. Maternal NMHC exposure during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy would be also associated with poor gross motor development in their children at 6 months of age. PMID:24992486

  5. The neurobehavioral phenotype in mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, E; King, K; A Ahmed; Rudser, K.; Rumsey, R.; Yund, B; Delaney, K.; Nestrasil, I.; C. Whitley; M. Potegal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Our goal was to describe the neurobehavioral phenotype in mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB (MPS IIIB). Parents report that behavioral abnormalities are a major problem in MPS III posing serious challenges to parenting and quality-of-life for both patient and parent. Our previous research on MPS IIIA identified autistic symptoms, and a Klüver-Bucy-type syndrome as indicated by reduced startle and loss of fear associated with amygdala atrophy. We hypothesized that MPS IIIB would mani...

  6. Evaluating and treating neurobehavioral symptoms in professional American football players

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, RC; Possin, KL; Hess, CP; Huang, EJ; Grinberg, LT; Nolan, AL; Cohn-Sheehy, BI; Ghosh, PM; Lanata, S; Merrilees, J; Kramer, JH; Berger, MS; Miller, BL; Yaffe, K; Rabinovici, GD

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Academy of Neurology. Summary In the aftermath of multiple high-profile cases of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional American football players, physicians in clinical practice are likely to face an increasing number of retired football players seeking evaluation for chronic neurobehavioral symptoms. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of these patients are sparse. Clinical criteria for a diagnosis of CTE are under development. The contribution of CTE...

  7. Processing of different types of social threat in shyness: Preliminary findings of distinct functional neural connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Alva; Beaton, Elliott A; Tatham, Erica; Schulkin, Jay; Hall, Geoffrey B; Schmidt, Louis A

    2016-01-01

    Current theory suggests that the processing of different types of threat is supported by distinct neural networks. Here we tested whether there are distinct neural correlates associated with different types of threat processing in shyness. Using fMRI and multivariate techniques, we compared neural responses and functional connectivity during the processing of imminent (i.e., congruent angry/angry face pairs) and ambiguous (i.e., incongruent angry/neutral face pairs) social threat in young adults selected for high and low shyness. To both types of threat processing, non-shy adults recruited a right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) network encompassing nodes of the default mode network involved in automatic emotion regulation, whereas shy adults recruited a right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) network encompassing nodes of the frontoparietal network that instantiate active attentional and cognitive control. Furthermore, in shy adults, the mPFC interacted with the dACC network for ambiguous threat, but with a distinct network encompassing nodes of the salience network for imminent threat. These preliminary results expand our understanding of right mPFC function associated with temperamental shyness. They also provide initial evidence for differential neural networks associated with shy and non-shy profiles in the context of different types of social threat processing.

  8. Immediate function in the atrophic maxilla using zygoma implants: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davo, Ruben; Malevez, Chantal; Rojas, Juliana

    2007-06-01

    Oral rehabilitation of the edentulous atrophic maxilla to allow placement of a fixed dental prosthesis remains a challenge, especially if immediate function is provided. The aim of this retrospective, preliminary study was to evaluate, after a period of a 6 to 29 months' follow-up of prosthetic loading, the survival rate of 36 immediately loaded zygomatic implants placed in 18 atrophied maxillae. Eighteen consecutive patients (6 men and 12 women), with an average age of 58 years (range of 44-74 years), were followed up to 29 months (average of 14 months). The clinical criteria included stability of the implants and the prosthesis, resonance frequency analysis (RFA), and evaluation of swelling, pain, or discomfort. Radiographic analysis was completed for conventional implants, but not for zygoma implants. All patients had a fixed prosthesis screwed onto implants within 48 hours after implant placement. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. No zygomatic implants were lost over the observation period. Survival rate was 100% over an average 14-month observation period. Three conventional implants were lost, resulting in a survival rate of 95.6%. All the provisional prostheses were stable, and no relevant complications were noted. The use of zygoma implants, together with conventional implants, in severely resorbed maxilla, appears to be a reliable technique for providing immediate function to patients.

  9. A quantitative approach to measure women?s sexual function using electromyography: A preliminary study of the Kegel exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Mohktar, Mas Sahidayana; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Rozi, Nur Farahana Mohd; Yusof, Juhaida Mohd; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Yen, Khong Su; Omar, Siti Zawiah

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently, the reference standard used to clinically assess sexual function among women is a qualitative questionnaire. Hence, a generalised and quantitative measurement tool needs to be available as an alternative. This study investigated whether an electromyography (EMG) measurement tecnique could be used to help quantify women?s sexual function. Material/Methods A preliminary intervention study was conducted on 12 female subjects, who were randomised into a control (n=6) and an ...

  10. Preliminary results of receiver function analyses at three sites across the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Arévalo, C.; Mancilla, F.; Almendros, J.; Aznarte, J. L.; Alguacil, G.

    2009-04-01

    In February 2008, in the framework of the International Polar Year 2008-2009 under grant POL2006-08663 of the spanish Ministry of Education, we deployed three broadband seismometers at points forming a N-S profile across the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica, in the region between the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula. This region is very interesting from a tectonic point of view, due to the opening of the rift of the Bransfield and the presence of the South Shetland microplate. For logistic reasons, our instruments where located in the vicinity of the Antarctic bases Juan Carlos I (Livingston Island), Gabriel de Castilla (Deception Island), and Primavera (Antarctic Peninsula). Each seismic station consisted of a broad-band, three-component electrolitic seismometer equiped with a 24-bit data acquisition system. The energy was provided by wind generators and solar panels connected to a battery bank, a combination that has been able to provide enough power at all sites, even during the Antarctic winter. All components were designed to function under the extreme conditions of the Antarctic weather. The main objective of this experiment was to use receiver function techniques on teleseism data to investigate the structure of the crust under the sites, in order to compare with other studies and shed light on the structure and tectonics of the region. During this past year, we have recorded several tens of teleseisms at distances appropriate for receiver function analyses. Preliminary results will add information on critical issues regarding the structure of the Bransfield Strait region. Although the Earth models obtained will contain extra information, we are specially interested in the determination of the depth of the Moho at each site, a controversial point in this area. These results will be compared with estimates obtained by different techniques. We are also interested in the determination of the vertical extent of the magma chamber recently imaged by

  11. A preliminary study of the effects of working memory training on brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael C; Gaynor, Alexandra; Bessette, Katie L; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2016-06-01

    Working memory (WM) training improves WM ability in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but its efficacy for non-cognitive ADHD impairments ADHD has been sharply debated. The purpose of this preliminary study was to characterize WM training-related changes in ADHD brain function and see if they were linked to clinical improvement. We examined 18 adolescents diagnosed with DSM-IV Combined-subtype ADHD before and after 25 sessions of WM training using a frequently employed approach (Cogmed™) using a nonverbal Sternberg WM fMRI task, neuropsychological tests, and participant- and parent-reports of ADHD symptom severity and associated functional impairment. Whole brain SPM8 analyses identified ADHD activation deficits compared to 18 non-ADHD control participants, then tested whether impaired ADHD frontoparietal brain activation would increase following WM training. Post hoc tests examined the relationships between neural changes and neurocognitive or clinical improvements. As predicted, WM training increased WM performance, ADHD clinical functioning, and WM-related ADHD brain activity in several frontal, parietal and temporal lobe regions. Increased left inferior frontal sulcus region activity was seen in all Encoding, Maintenance, and Retrieval Sternberg task phases. ADHD symptom severity improvements were most often positively correlated with activation gains in brain regions known to be engaged for WM-related executive processing; improvement of different symptom types had different neural correlates. The responsiveness of both amodal WM frontoparietal circuits and executive process-specific WM brain regions was altered by WM training. The latter might represent a promising, relatively unexplored treatment target for researchers seeking to optimize clinical response in ongoing ADHD WM training development efforts.

  12. Preliminary results of pre-stack reverse time migration of teleseismic receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Zhu, L.; Huang, R.; Luo, S.

    2016-12-01

    The pre-stack reverse time migration (RTM) method, with robust anti-interference capability in complex structure of the Earth interior, has been successfully used in active-source seismic imaging for decades. In this study, we tested feasibility of adopting this method in passive-source seismic imaging. The receiver function (RF) technical is considered to be one of the most efficient ways in passive seismology to detect interfaces of subsurface and the common conversion point (CCP) stacking scheme has often been used to image the Moho discontinuity and mantle transition zone. However, the conventional CCP scheme uses 1D layered background velocity model, which can lead to distorted image in cases of dipping or step interfaces. The RTM method, on the other hand, can easily handle velocity structures of strong lateral variation. We first calculated forward wavefield due to an incident plane wave and its reverse-time wavefield using a 6th-order staggered-grid finite-difference method. We then tested the imaging condition by cross-correlating the two wavefields. Various laterally heterogeneous background velocity models were used with dipping and offset interfaces. We compared the images with the input models and those of CCP imaging. Preliminary results shows that the RTM method is promising for imaging subsurface structures using RFs. Application to real data will be presented at the meeting too.

  13. Setting up and functioning of an Emergency Medicine Department: Lessons learned from a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Asish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Tertiary care teaching hospitals remain referral centres for victims of trauma and mass casualty. Often specialists from various disciplines manage these crowded casualty areas. These age old casualty areas are being replaced, throughout the country by Emergency Medicine Departments (EMDs, presumed to be better planned to confront a crisis. We aimed to gather basic data contributive in setting up of an EMD at a tertiary care teaching hospital from the lessons learned from functioning existent systems. Methods: This is primarily a questionnaire-based descriptive study at tertiary care referral centres across the country, which was purposively selected.The study models included one from a hospital without designated EMD and the other four from hospitals with established EMDs. Direct observation and focus group meetings with experienced informants at these hospitals contributed to the data. In the absence of a validated hospital preparedness assessment scale, comparison was done with regard to quantitative, qualitative and corroborative parameters using descriptive analysis. Results: The EMDs at best practice models were headed by specialist in Emergency Medicine assisted by organised staff, had protocols for managing mass casualty incident (MCI, separate trauma teams, ergonomic use of infrastructure and public education programmes. In this regard, these hospitals seemed well organised to manage MCIs and disasters. Conclusion: The observation may provide a preliminary data useful in setting up an EMD. In the absence of published Indian literature, this may facilitate further research in this direction. Anaesthesiologists, presently an approved Faculty in Emergency Medicine training can provide creative input with regard to its initial organisation and functioning, thus widening our horizons in a country where there is a severe dearth of trained emergency physicians.

  14. Setting up and functioning of an Emergency Medicine Department: Lessons learned from a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asish, K; Suresh, Varun

    2016-02-01

    Tertiary care teaching hospitals remain referral centres for victims of trauma and mass casualty. Often specialists from various disciplines manage these crowded casualty areas. These age old casualty areas are being replaced, throughout the country by Emergency Medicine Departments (EMDs), presumed to be better planned to confront a crisis. We aimed to gather basic data contributive in setting up of an EMD at a tertiary care teaching hospital from the lessons learned from functioning existent systems. This is primarily a questionnaire-based descriptive study at tertiary care referral centres across the country, which was purposively selected. The study models included one from a hospital without designated EMD and the other four from hospitals with established EMDs. Direct observation and focus group meetings with experienced informants at these hospitals contributed to the data. In the absence of a validated hospital preparedness assessment scale, comparison was done with regard to quantitative, qualitative and corroborative parameters using descriptive analysis. The EMDs at best practice models were headed by specialist in Emergency Medicine assisted by organised staff, had protocols for managing mass casualty incident (MCI), separate trauma teams, ergonomic use of infrastructure and public education programmes. In this regard, these hospitals seemed well organised to manage MCIs and disasters. The observation may provide a preliminary data useful in setting up an EMD. In the absence of published Indian literature, this may facilitate further research in this direction. Anaesthesiologists, presently an approved Faculty in Emergency Medicine training can provide creative input with regard to its initial organisation and functioning, thus widening our horizons in a country where there is a severe dearth of trained emergency physicians.

  15. NEUROBEHAVIORAL RELATIONSHIPS AFTER THE ONSET OF PUBERTY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOORANILUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    The behavioural and cognitive development were studied of 68 children with and 259 without minor neurological function (MND) at 14 years, when the majority of children showed three or more physical signs of puberty. MND was differentiated into fine manipulative disability, co-ordination problems,

  16. CE Neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome following childhood arterial ischemic stroke: Attention deficits, emotional dysregulation, and executive dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Frédérique; Eve, Megan; Ganesan, Vijeya; King, John; Murphy, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome in children with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Background Childhood stroke can have consequences on motor, cognitive, and behavioral development. We present a cross-sectional study of neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome at least one year poststroke in a uniquely homogeneous sample of children who had experienced AIS. Method Forty-nine children with AIS aged 6 to 18 years were recruited from a specialist clinic. Neuropsychological measures of intelligence, reading comprehension, attention, and executive function were administered. A triangulation of data collection included questionnaires completed by the children, their parents, and teachers, rating behavior, executive functions, and emotions. Key Findings Focal neuropsychological vulnerabilities in attention (response inhibition and dual attention) and executive function were found, beyond general intellectual functioning, irrespective of hemispheric side of stroke. Difficulties with emotional and behavioral regulation were also found. Consistent with an “early plasticity” hypothesis, earlier age of stroke was associated with better performance on measures of executive function. Conclusions A significant proportion of children poststroke are at long-term risk of difficulties with emotional regulation, executive function, and attention. Data also suggest that executive functions are represented in widespread networks in the developing brain and are vulnerable to unilateral injury. PMID:24028185

  17. Kangaroo-mother care method and neurobehavior of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Margareth Gurgel de Castro; Barros, Marina Carvalho de Moraes; Pessoa, Úrsula Maria Lima; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of kangaroo-mother care (KMC) in preterm (PT) neurobehavior between 36 and 41 weeks post-conceptual age (PCA). A prospective cohort of 61 preterm infants with gestational age (GA) of 28-32 w evaluated by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS), with 36-41 w PCA. Infants with clinical instability were excluded. They were analyzed in 2 groups: - Kangaroo (KAN): KMC for 7 or more days; Conventional (CON): did not receive KMC. Scores of the 13 NNNS variables were compared between groups and the effect of KMC in the scores of the variables of NNNS were evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for confounders. The KAN groups (n=24) and CON (n=37) were similar regarding main demographic and clinical maternal and neonatal characteristics. Mean GA was 30.3 w; and birth weight was 1170 g for both groups. PT of KAN group were admitted in KMC with PCA of 35.8 w (38.5 days of life) and remained with this care for 14.3 days. The NNNS was applied 13 days after the start of KMC. PT submitted to KMC showed higher quality of movements (KAN: 4.98 ± 0.53 vs CON: 4.53 ± 0.47; p=0.001) and lower scores on Signs of stress and abstinence (KAN: 0.03 ± 0.03 vs CON: 0.05 ± 0.03; p=0.001). Controlling for confounders, the KMC was associated with higher scores on the variables Attention, Quality of movements, and lower scores on Asymmetry and Signs of stress and abstinence. PT submitted to the KMC, compared to those non-submitted, have better neurobehavior performance between 36 and 41 weeks of post-conceptual age. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE): Proposed DSM-5 Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Julie A; O'Connor, Mary J; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Paley, Blair; Mattson, Sarah N; Anderson, Sally M; Riley, Edward P

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 40 years, a significant body of animal and human research has documented the teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Neurobehavioral Disorder associated with PAE is proposed as a new clarifying term, intended to encompass the neurodevelopmental and mental health symptoms associated with PAE. Defining this disorder is a necessary step to adequately characterize these symptoms and allow clinical assessment not possible using existing physically-based diagnostic schemes. Without appropriate diagnostic guidelines, affected individuals are frequently misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately (often to their considerable detriment) by mental health, educational, and criminal justice systems. Three core areas of deficits identified from the available research, including neurocognitive, self-regulation, and adaptive functioning impairments, are discussed and information regarding associated features and disorders, prevalence, course, familial patterns, differential diagnosis, and treatment of the proposed disorder are also provided.

  19. The PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scales: preliminary reliability and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varni James W

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scales (PedsQL™ VAS were designed as an ecological momentary assessment (EMA instrument to rapidly measure present or at-the-moment functioning in children and adolescents. The PedsQL™ VAS assess child self-report and parent-proxy report of anxiety, sadness, anger, worry, fatigue, and pain utilizing six developmentally appropriate visual analogue scales based on the well-established Varni/Thompson Pediatric Pain Questionnaire (PPQ Pain Intensity VAS format. Methods The six-item PedsQL™ VAS was administered to 70 pediatric patients ages 5–17 and their parents upon admittance to the hospital environment (Time 1: T1 and again two hours later (Time 2: T2. It was hypothesized that the PedsQL™ VAS Emotional Distress Summary Score (anxiety, sadness, anger, worry and the fatigue VAS would demonstrate moderate to large effect size correlations with the PPQ Pain Intensity VAS, and that patient" parent concordance would increase over time. Results Test-retest reliability was demonstrated from T1 to T2 in the large effect size range. Internal consistency reliability was demonstrated for the PedsQL™ VAS Total Symptom Score (patient self-report: T1 alpha = .72, T2 alpha = .80; parent proxy-report: T1 alpha = .80, T2 alpha = .84 and Emotional Distress Summary Score (patient self-report: T1 alpha = .74, T2 alpha = .73; parent proxy-report: T1 alpha = .76, T2 alpha = .81. As hypothesized, the Emotional Distress Summary Score and Fatigue VAS were significantly correlated with the PPQ Pain VAS in the medium to large effect size range, and patient and parent concordance increased from T1 to T2. Conclusion The results demonstrate preliminary test-retest and internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the PedsQL™ Present Functioning VAS instrument for both pediatric patient self-report and parent proxy-report. Further field testing is required to extend these initial

  20. The PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scales: preliminary reliability and validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Sandra A; Eisen, Sarajane; Burwinkle, Tasha M; Varni, James W

    2006-01-01

    Background The PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scales (PedsQL™ VAS) were designed as an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) instrument to rapidly measure present or at-the-moment functioning in children and adolescents. The PedsQL™ VAS assess child self-report and parent-proxy report of anxiety, sadness, anger, worry, fatigue, and pain utilizing six developmentally appropriate visual analogue scales based on the well-established Varni/Thompson Pediatric Pain Questionnaire (PPQ) Pain Intensity VAS format. Methods The six-item PedsQL™ VAS was administered to 70 pediatric patients ages 5–17 and their parents upon admittance to the hospital environment (Time 1: T1) and again two hours later (Time 2: T2). It was hypothesized that the PedsQL™ VAS Emotional Distress Summary Score (anxiety, sadness, anger, worry) and the fatigue VAS would demonstrate moderate to large effect size correlations with the PPQ Pain Intensity VAS, and that patient" parent concordance would increase over time. Results Test-retest reliability was demonstrated from T1 to T2 in the large effect size range. Internal consistency reliability was demonstrated for the PedsQL™ VAS Total Symptom Score (patient self-report: T1 alpha = .72, T2 alpha = .80; parent proxy-report: T1 alpha = .80, T2 alpha = .84) and Emotional Distress Summary Score (patient self-report: T1 alpha = .74, T2 alpha = .73; parent proxy-report: T1 alpha = .76, T2 alpha = .81). As hypothesized, the Emotional Distress Summary Score and Fatigue VAS were significantly correlated with the PPQ Pain VAS in the medium to large effect size range, and patient and parent concordance increased from T1 to T2. Conclusion The results demonstrate preliminary test-retest and internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the PedsQL™ Present Functioning VAS instrument for both pediatric patient self-report and parent proxy-report. Further field testing is required to extend these initial findings to other

  1. Neurobehavioral Effects of Levetiracetam in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Jared F Benge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of acquired epilepsy. Prophylaxis for seizures is the standard of care for individuals with moderate to severe injuries at risk for developing seizures, though relatively limited comparative data is available to guide clinicians in their choice of agents. There have however been experimental studies which demonstrate potential neuroprotective qualities of levetiracetam after TBI, and in turn there is hope that eventually such agents may improve neurobehavioral outcomes post-TBI. This mini-review summarizes the available studies and suggests areas for future studies.

  2. Adaptation of the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) for evaluating neurobehavioral performance in Filipino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlman, Diane S; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Ramos, Essie Ann M; Mateo, Patrocinio C; Bielawski, Dawn M; Chiodo, Lisa M; Delaney-Black, Virginia; McCauley, Linda; Ostrea, Enrique M

    2008-01-01

    Neurobehavioral tests have long been used to assess health effects in exposed working adult populations. The heightened concern over the potential impact of environmental exposures on neurological functioning in children has led to the development of test batteries for use with children. There is a need for reliable, easy-to-administer batteries to assess neurotoxic exposure in children. One such test battery previously validated with Spanish- and English-speaking children ages 4 and older, combines computerized tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) with non-computerized tests. The goal of the present study was to determine the feasibility of using standardized neurobehavioral tests in preschool and school-aged Filipino children. Test instructions were translated into the vernacular, Tagalog or Tagalog-English ("Taglish") and some instructions and materials were modified to be appropriate for the target populations. The battery was administered to 4-6-year-old Filipino children (N=50). The performance of the Filipino children was compared to data previously collected from Spanish- and English-speaking children tested in the US. The majority of children had no difficulty completing the tests in the battery with the exception of the Symbol-Digit test and Digit Span-reverse. The three groups showed similar patterns of performance on the tests and the older children performed better than the younger children on all of the tests. The findings from this study demonstrate the utility of using this test battery to assess cognitive and motor performance in Filipino children. Tests in the battery assess a range of functions and the measures are sensitive to age differences. The current battery has been utilized in several cultures and socio-economic status classes, with only minor modifications needed. This study demonstrates the importance of pilot testing the methods before use in a new population, to ensure that the test is valid for that culture.

  3. Health in relation to occupational exposure to pesticides in the Dutch flower bulb culture : Part 3A : neurobehavioral assessment of workers occupationally exposed to pesticides in the bulb growing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, H.H.; Hooisma, J.; Kullig, B.M.; Brouwer, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the possible effects of occupational exposure to pesticides on central nervous system (CNS) function. A variety of neurobehavioral functions were assessed in a group of 129 workers in the bulb growing industry with at least ten years occupational

  4. Mindfulness Training among Individuals with Parkinson's Disease: Neurobehavioral Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickut, Barbara; Hirsch, Mark A.; Van Hecke, Wim; Mariën, Peter; Parizel, Paul M.; Crosiers, David; Cras, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate possible neurobehavioral changes secondary to a mindfulness based intervention (MBI) training for individuals living with Parkinson's disease (PD). Background. In the context of complementary medicine, MBIs are increasingly being used for stress reduction and in patient populations coping with chronic illness. The use of alternative and complementary medicine may be higher in patients with chronic conditions such as PD. However, behavioral effects of mindfulness training in PD have not yet been reported in the literature and this points to an unmet need and warrants further examination. Methods. A total of 27 out of 30 PD patients completed a randomized controlled longitudinal trial. Questionnaires and the UPDRS I–IV were obtained at baseline and 8-week follow-up. Results. Significant changes after the MBI were found including a 5.5 point decrease on the UPDRS motor score, an increase of 0.79 points on Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39) pain item, and a 3.15 point increase in the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire observe facet. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative analysis of neurobehavioral effects of MBI in PD. PMID:26101690

  5. Neurobehavioral effects of acute styrene exposure in fiberglass boatbuilders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letz, R.; Mahoney, F.C.; Hershman, D.L.; Woskie, S.; Smith, T.J. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A field investigation of the effects of acute exposure to styrene among fiberglass boatbuilders was performed. Personal samples of styrene in breathing zone air and postshift urinary mandelic acid were collected for 105 workers exposed and not exposed to styrene in 6 fiberglass boatbuilding companies in New England. Three tests from the computerized Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES) were performed by the subjects in the morning before exposure to styrene, near midday, and at the end of the work day. Duration of exposure averaged 2.9 years (SD = 4.6), 8-hour TWA styrene exposure averaged 29.9 ppm (SD = 36.2), and urinary mandelic acid averaged 347 mg/g creatinine (SD = 465). Regression analyses indicated a statistically significant relationship between postshift performance on the Symbol-Digit test and both acute styrene exposure and mandelic acid. Other analyses comparing workers exposed to less than 50 ppm and greater than 50 ppm styrene also showed a significant effect on Symbol-Digit performance. All three NES tests showed test-retest correlation coefficients above .80, and ease of use for collection of neurobehavioral data under field conditions was demonstrated.

  6. Validation of a neurobehavioral test system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letz, R.

    1990-03-09

    The study attempted to validate tests from the computerized Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES) for use in field investigations where repeated testing of the same subjects is required. Personal samples of styrene (100425) in the breathing zone air and post shift urinary mandelic-acid (90642) were collected for 116 workers in six fiberglass boat building companies located in New England. The average exposure to styrene was 4.6 years with an 8 hour time weighted average styrene exposure of 29.9 parts per million (ppm) and urinary mandelic-acid averaging 490 milligrams/gram creatinine. A statistically significant relationship was found between post shift performance on the Symbol/Digit test and both acute styrene exposure and mandelic-acid concentration. Other analyses comparing workers exposed to less than 50 ppm and greater than 50ppm styrene also showed a significant difference in Symbol/Digit performance. All three NES tests showed test/retest correlation coefficients above 0.80, and ease of use for collection of neurobehavioral data under field conditions was demonstrated.

  7. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Developmental Alcohol-Induced Neurobehavioral Deficits

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    Balapal S. Basavarajappa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and its damaging consequences on the developing infant brain are significant public health, social, and economic issues. The major distinctive features of prenatal alcohol exposure in humans are cognitive and behavioral dysfunction due to damage to the central nervous system (CNS, which results in a continuum of disarray that is collectively called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Many rodent models have been developed to understand the mechanisms of and to reproduce the human FASD phenotypes. These animal FASD studies have provided several molecular pathways that are likely responsible for the neurobehavioral abnormalities that are associated with prenatal alcohol exposure of the developing CNS. Recently, many laboratories have identified several immediate, as well as long-lasting, epigenetic modifications of DNA methylation, DNA-associated histone proteins and microRNA (miRNA biogenesis by using a variety of epigenetic approaches in rodent FASD models. Because DNA methylation patterns, DNA-associated histone protein modifications and miRNA-regulated gene expression are crucial for synaptic plasticity and learning and memory, they can therefore offer an answer to many of the neurobehavioral abnormalities that are found in FASD. In this review, we briefly discuss the current literature of DNA methylation, DNA-associated histone proteins modification and miRNA and review recent developments concerning epigenetic changes in FASD.

  8. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Increased Blood Pressure in School-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Barr, Dana; Bellinger, David C.; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. Objectives In northern Ecuador, where floriculture is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children’s neurobehavioral functions at 6–8 years of age. Methods We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children’s current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. Results Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed to pesticides during pregnancy via maternal occupational exposure, and 23 had indirect exposure from paternal work. Twenty-two children had detectable current exposure irrespective of their prenatal exposure status. Only children with prenatal exposure from maternal greenhouse work showed consistent deficits after covariate adjustment, which included stunting and socioeconomic variables. Exposure-related deficits were the strongest for motor speed (Finger Tapping Task), motor coordination (Santa Ana Form Board), visuospatial performance (Stanford-Binet Copying Test), and visual memory (Stanford-Binet Copying Recall Test). These associations corresponded to a developmental delay of 1.5–2 years. Prenatal pesticide exposure was also significantly associated with an average increase of 3.6 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in body mass index of 1.1 kg/m2. Inclusion of the pilot data strengthened these results. Conclusions These findings support the notion that prenatal exposure to pesticides—at levels not producing adverse health outcomes in the mother

  9. Neurobehavioral alterations and histopathological changes in brain and spinal cord of rats intoxicated with acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangir, Babu Lal; Mahaprabhu, R; Rahangadale, Santosh; Bhandarkar, Arun G; Kurkure, Nitin V

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this project was to study the clinical manifestations, neurobehavioral, hematobiochemical, oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and histopathological changes during acrylamide toxicity in rats. A total of 30 adult male Wistar rats were divided in 5 equal groups and received 0, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg body weight acrylamide as oral gavage, while group 5 was micronucleus (MN) control. Functional observational battery (FOB) parameters were studied at the 28th day of post treatment. Toxicological manifestations were evident in acrylamide-treated rats from 14th day onward. FOB revealed a significant change in central nervous system, neuromuscular, and autonomic domains. The hematological changes include significant decrease in concentration of hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, and mean corpuscular volume. The biochemical parameters aspartate aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, and albumin showed significant increase, while the levels of serum globulin and glucose were found to decrease significantly. The MN assay revealed the significant increase in frequencies of micronuclei and number of polychromatic erythrocytes. The oxidative stress parameters revealed no significant difference as compared to control rats. Histopathological changes observed in brain include neuronal degeneration, edema, and congestion, while spinal cord revealed demyelination in low-dose group and bilateral necrosis with malacia, liquefaction of white matter, and loss of myelin from gray matter in high-dose groups. The result indicates pathological alterations in brain and spinal cord and is responsible for neurobehavioral changes in rats. The FOB changes and histopathological alterations in spinal cord are in dose dependent to acrylamide intoxication. Various toxicological effects observed in experiment direct us to focus on a deep study and evaluate the possible causes pertaining to toxicity of this chemical. It would furnish the scientists with better options that

  10. Division III Collision Sports Are Not Associated with Neurobehavioral Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P; Taylor, Alex M; Berkner, Paul; Sandstrom, Noah J; Peluso, Mark W; Kurtz, Matthew M; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Mannix, Rebekah

    2016-01-15

    We sought to determine whether the exposure to the sub-concussive blows that occur during division III collegiate collision sports affect later life neurobehavioral quality-of-life measures. We conducted a cross-sectional study of alumni from four division III colleges, targeting those between the ages of 40-70 years, using several well-validated quality-of-life measures for executive function, general concerns, anxiety, depression, emotional and behavior dyscontrol, fatigue, positive affect, sleep disturbance, and negative consequences of alcohol use. We used multivariable linear regression to assess for associations between collision sport participation and quality-of-life measures while adjusting for covariates including age, gender, race, annual income, highest educational degree, college grades, exercise frequency, and common medical conditions. We obtained data from 3702 alumni, more than half of whom (2132) had participated in collegiate sports, 23% in collision sports, 23% in non-contact sports. Respondents with a history of concussion had worse self-reported health on several measures. When subjects with a history of concussion were removed from the analyses in order to assess for any potential effect of sub-concussive blows alone, negative consequences of alcohol use remained higher among collision sport athletes (β-coefficient 1.957, 95% CI 0.827-3.086). There were, however, no other significant associations between exposure to collision sports during college and any other quality-of-life measures. Our results suggest that, in the absence of a history of concussions, participation in collision sports at the Division III collegiate level is not a risk factor for worse long-term neurobehavioral outcomes, despite exposure to repeated sub-concussive blows.

  11. Early Hyperandrogenism Affects the Development of Hippocampal Function: Preliminary Evidence from a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Boys with Familial Male Precocious Puberty

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Sven C.; Mandell, Darcy; Leschek, Ellen W.; Pine, Daniel S.; Merke, Deborah P; Ernst, Monique

    2009-01-01

    The way in which sex hormones influence cognitive and affective brain development is poorly understood. Despite increasing knowledge in the area of pediatric mood disorders, little is known about the influence of sex hormones on the regulation of emotion. Animal studies and preliminary human studies suggest a strong impact of testosterone on limbic structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine emotional processing in familial ...

  12. A preliminary study targeting neuronal pathways activated following environmental enrichment by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Deborah M; Foxely, Sean; Lazarov, Orly

    2012-01-01

    We have shown that experience of transgenic mice harboring familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD)-linked AβPPswe/PS1ΔE9 in an enriched environment enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity and attenuates neuropathology. Nevertheless, the neuronal pathways activated following environmental enrichment underlying this effect are unknown. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we present preliminary evidence to show that transgenic mice, which had been housed in an enriched environment, show increased connectivity between CA1 and cortical areas compared to mice from standard housing. This is the first preliminary demonstration of live-activated neuronal pathways following environmental enrichment in FAD mice. Understanding the activated pathways may unravel the molecular mechanism underlying environmental enrichment-enhanced neuroplasticity in FAD.

  13. Early life bisphenol A exposure and neurobehavior at 8years of age: Identifying windows of heightened vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Shaina L; Papandonatos, George D; Calafat, Antonia M; Chen, Aimin; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P; Braun, Joseph M

    2017-10-01

    Early life BPA exposure could affect neurobehavior, but few studies have investigated whether there are developmental periods when the fetus or child is more vulnerable to these potential effects. We explored windows of vulnerability to BPA exposure in a multiethnic cohort of 228 mothers and their children from Cincinnati, Ohio. We measured urinary BPA concentrations at up to two prenatal and six postnatal time points from the 2nd trimester of pregnancy until the child was age 8years. At age 8years, we administered the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV. We estimated covariate-adjusted differences in composite scores from each instrument using a multiple informant model designed to identify heightened windows of vulnerability. Among all children, there was not strong evidence that the associations between BPA and neurobehavior varied by the timing of exposure (Visit x BPA p-values≥0.16). However, child sex modified the associations of repeated BPA measures with BASC-2 scores (Visit x Sex x BPA p-values=0.02-0.23). For example, each 10-fold increase in prenatal BPA was associated with more externalizing behaviors in girls (β=6.2, 95% CI: 0.8, 11.6), but not boys (β=-0.8, 95% CI: -5.0, 3.4). In contrast, a 10-fold increase in 8-year BPA was associated with more externalizing behaviors in boys (β=3.9, 95% CI: 0.6, 7.2), but not girls (β=0.3, 95% CI: -3.5, 4.1). We found that sex-dependent associations between BPA and child neurobehavior may depend on the timing of BPA exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-invasive 3D facial analysis and surface electromyography during functional pre-orthodontic therapy: a preliminary report

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    Gianluca M. Tartaglia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Functional orthodontic devices can modify oral function thus permitting more adequate growth processes. The assessment of their effects should include both facial morphology and muscle function. This preliminary study investigated whether a preformed functional orthodontic device could induce variations in facial morphology and function along with correction of oral dysfunction in a group of orthodontic patients in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 facial landmarks (forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, mouth, jaw and ears were collected in 10 orthodontic male patients aged 8-13 years, and in 89 healthy reference boys of the same age. Soft tissue facial angles, distances, and ratios were computed. Surface electromyography of the masseter and temporalis muscles was performed, and standardized symmetry, muscular torque and activity were calculated. Soft-tissue facial modifications were analyzed non-invasively before and after a 6-month treatment with a functional device. Comparisons were made with z-scores and paired Student's t-tests. RESULTS: The 6-month treatment stimulated mandibular growth in the anterior and inferior directions, with significant variations in three-dimensional facial divergence and facial convexity. The modifications were larger in the patients than in reference children. In several occasions, the discrepancies relative to the norm became not significant after treatment. No significant variations in standardized muscular activity were found. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results showed that the continuous and correct use of the functional device induced measurable intraoral (dental arches and extraoral (face morphological modifications. The device did not modify the functional equilibrium of the masticatory muscles.

  15. NON-INVASIVE 3D FACIAL ANALYSIS AND SURFACE ELECTROMYOGRAPHY DURING FUNCTIONAL PRE-ORTHODONTIC THERAPY: A PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Gianluca M.; Grandi, Gaia; Mian, Fabrizio; Sforza, Chiarella; Ferrario, Virgilio F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Functional orthodontic devices can modify oral function thus permitting more adequate growth processes. The assessment of their effects should include both facial morphology and muscle function. This preliminary study investigated whether a preformed functional orthodontic device could induce variations in facial morphology and function along with correction of oral dysfunction in a group of orthodontic patients in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. Material and Methods: The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 facial landmarks (forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, mouth, jaw and ears) were collected in 10 orthodontic male patients aged 8-13 years, and in 89 healthy reference boys of the same age. Soft tissue facial angles, distances, and ratios were computed. Surface electromyography of the masseter and temporalis muscles was performed, and standardized symmetry, muscular torque and activity were calculated. Soft-tissue facial modifications were analyzed non-invasively before and after a 6-month treatment with a functional device. Comparisons were made with z-scores and paired Student's t-tests. Results: The 6-month treatment stimulated mandibular growth in the anterior and inferior directions, with significant variations in three-dimensional facial divergence and facial convexity. The modifications were larger in the patients than in reference children. In several occasions, the discrepancies relative to the norm became not significant after treatment. No significant variations in standardized muscular activity were found. Conclusions: Preliminary results showed that the continuous and correct use of the functional device induced measurable intraoral (dental arches) and extraoral (face) morphological modifications. The device did not modify the functional equilibrium of the masticatory muscles. PMID:19936531

  16. The intersection of risk assessment and neurobehavioral toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B.; Elsner, J.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Neurobehavioral toxicology is now established as a core discipline of the environmental health sciences. Despite its recognized scientific prowess, stemming from its deep roots in psychology and neuroscience and its acknowledged successes, it faces additional demands and challenges. The latter, in fact, are a product of its achievements because success at one level leads to new and higher expectations. Now the discipline is counted upon to provide more definitive and extensive risk assessments than in the past. These new demands are the basis for the appraisals presented in the SGOMSEC 11 workshop. They extend beyond what would be offered in a primer of methodology. Instead, these appraisals are framed as issues into which what are usually construed as methodologies have been embedded.

  17. Neurobehavioral, neurologic, and neuroimaging characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can have deleterious consequences for the fetus, including changes in central nervous system development leading to permanent neurologic alterations and cognitive and behavioral deficits. Individuals affected by prenatal alcohol exposure, including those with and without fetal alcohol syndrome, are identified under the umbrella of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). While studies of humans and animal models confirm that even low to moderate levels of exposure can have detrimental effects, critical doses of such exposure have yet to be specified and the most clinically significant and consistent consequences occur following heavy exposure. These consequences are pervasive, devastating, and can result in long-term dysfunction. This chapter summarizes the neurobehavioral, neurologic, and neuroimaging characteristics of FASD, focusing primarily on clinical research of individuals with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, although studies of lower levels of exposure, particularly prospective, longitudinal studies, will be discussed where relevant. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Neurobehavioral adaptations to methylphenidate: the issue of early adolescent exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Eva M; Adriani, Walter; Ruocco, Lucia A; Canese, Rossella; Sadile, Adolfo G; Laviola, Giovanni

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to psychostimulants, including both abused and therapeutic drugs, can occur first during human adolescence. Animal modeling is useful not only to reproduce adolescent peculiarities but also to study neurobehavioral adaptations to psychostimulant consumption. Human adolescence (generally considered as the period between 9/12 and 18 years old) has been compared with the age window between postnatal days (pnd) 28/35 and 50 in rats and mice. These adolescent rodents display basal hyperlocomotion and higher rates of exploration together with a marked propensity for sensation-seeking and risk-taking behaviors. Moreover, peculiar responses to psychostimulants, including enhanced locomotor sensitization, no drug-induced stereotypy and reduced place conditioning have been described in adolescent rodents. During this age window, forebrain dopamine systems undergo profuse remodeling, thus providing a neuro-biological substrate to explain behavioral peculiarities observed during adolescence, as well as the reported vulnerabilities to several drugs. Further, methylphenidate (MPH, better known as Ritalin®), a psychostimulant extensively prescribed to children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), raises concerns for its long-term safety. Using magnetic resonance techniques, MPH-induced acute effects appear to be different in adolescent rats compared to adult animals. Moreover, adolescent exposure to MPH seems to provoke persistent neurobehavioral consequences: long-term modulation of self-control abilities, decreased sensitivity to natural and drug reward, enhanced stress-induced emotionality, together with an enhanced cortical control over sub-cortical dopamine systems and an enduring up-regulation of Htr7 gene expression within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In summary, additional studies in animal models are necessary to better understand the long-term consequences of adolescent MPH, and to further investigate the safety of

  19. Deficiency of Lipoprotein Lipase in Neurons Decreases AMPA Receptor Phosphorylation and Leads to Neurobehavioral Abnormalities in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yu

    Full Text Available Alterations in lipid metabolism have been found in several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL hydrolyzes triacylglycerides in lipoproteins and regulates lipid metabolism in multiple organs and tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS. Though many brain regions express LPL, the functions of this lipase in the CNS remain largely unknown. We developed mice with neuron-specific LPL deficiency that became obese on chow by 16 wks in homozygous mutant mice (NEXLPL-/- and 10 mo in heterozygous mice (NEXLPL+/-. In the present study, we show that 21 mo NEXLPL+/- mice display substantial cognitive function decline including poorer learning and memory, and increased anxiety with no difference in general motor activities and exploratory behavior. These neurobehavioral abnormalities are associated with a reduction in the 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl propanoic acid (AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 and its phosphorylation, without any alterations in amyloid β accumulation. Importantly, a marked deficit in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the hippocampus precedes the development of the neurobehavioral phenotype of NEXLPL+/- mice. And, a diet supplemented with n-3 PUFA can improve the learning and memory of NEXLPL+/- mice at both 10 mo and 21 mo of age. We interpret these findings to indicate that LPL regulates the availability of PUFA in the CNS and, this in turn, impacts the strength of synaptic plasticity in the brain of aging mice through the modification of AMPA receptor and its phosphorylation.

  20. Predicting the neurobehavioral side effects of dexamethasone in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warris, Lidewij T.; van den Akker, Erica L. T.; Aarsen, Femke K.; Bierings, Marc B.; van den Bos, Cor; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Sassen, Sebastiaan D. T.; Veening, Margreet A.; Zwaan, Christian M.; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2016-01-01

    Although dexamethasone is an effective treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), it can induce a variety of serious neurobehavioral side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity at the tissue level. We therefore prospectively studied

  1. Neurobehavioral Effects of Sodium Tungstate Exposure on Rats and Their Progeny

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mclnturf, S. M; Bekkedal, M. Y; Olabisi, A; Arfsten, D; Wilfong, E; Casavant, R; Jederberg, W; Gunasekar, P. G; Chapman, G

    2007-01-01

    ... consequences of exposure. The purpose of this study was to use a battery of tests as an initial screen for potential neurobehavioral effects that may be associated with 70 days of daily tungsten exposure via drinking water...

  2. PRELIMINARY STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION OF SOME FUMONISIN METABOLITES BY DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Bors

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is often contaminated with Fusarium verticillioides. This harmful fungus produces fumonisins as secondary metabolites. These fumonisins can appear both free and hidden form in planta. The hidden form is usually bound covalently to cereal starch. From the hidden fumonisins, during enzymatic degradation, glycosides are formed, and the fumonisin is further decomposed during a de-esterification step. In this short communication some preliminary DFT calculated structural results which could be useful in the future to help to understand the van der Waals force controlled molecular interactions between these kinds of mycotoxin molecules and enzymes are demonstrated.

  3. Long-lasting neurobehavioral effects of prenatal exposure to xylene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.

    1997-01-01

    The persistence of neurobehavioral effects in female rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) for 6 hours per day on days 7-20 of prenatal development was studied. The dose level was selected so as not to induce maternal toxicity or decreased viabili...... are planned to investigate whether neurobehavioral effects resulting from prenatal xylene exposure can interact with neurophysiological aging processes. (C) 1997 Inter Press, Inc....

  4. Another step closer to measuring the Ghosts in the Nursery: Preliminary Validation of the Trauma Reflective Functioning Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eEnsink

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine preliminary evidence of the validity of the Trauma Reflective Functioning Scale and to investigate reflective functioning and attachment in pregnant women with histories of trauma, with a particular focus on the capacity to mentalize regarding trauma and its implications for adaptation to pregnancy and couple functioning. The Adult Attachment Interview was used to assess attachment, unresolved trauma and mentalization (measured as reflective function; RF regarding relationships with attachment figures (RF-G and trauma (RF-T in 100 pregnant women with histories of abuse and neglect. The majority (63% of women had insecure attachment states of mind and approximately half were unresolved regarding trauma. Furthermore, the majority of women manifested deficits specific to RF-T. Their RF-T was significantly lower than their RF-G; the findings indicate that women with histories of childhood abuse and neglect do not manifest a generic inhibition of reflectiveness, but a collapse of mentalization specific to trauma. Low RF-T, indicative of difficulty in considering traumatic experiences in mental state terms, was associated with difficulty in investment in the pregnancy and lack of positive feelings about the baby and motherhood. In addition, low RF-T was also associated with difficulties in intimate relationships. Results of a regression analysis with RF indicated that RF-T was the best predictor of investment in pregnancy and couple functioning. In sum, the study provides preliminary evidence that RF-T can be reliably measured and is a valid construct that has potential usefulness for research and clinical practice. It highlights the importance of mentalization specifically about trauma and suggests that it is not the experience of trauma per se, but the absence of mentalization regarding trauma that is associated with difficulties in close relationships and in making the transition to parenthood.

  5. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Forester, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gertman, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Medema, Heather [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Persensky, Julius [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Whaley, April [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation into the development of new models and guidance for Concepts of Operations in advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) designs. AdvSMRs are nuclear power plants (NPPs), but unlike conventional large NPPs that are constructed on site, AdvSMRs systems and components will be fabricated in a factory and then assembled on site. AdvSMRs will also use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. Some AdvSMR designs also propose to be operated in a multi-unit configuration with a single central control room as a way to be more cost-competitive with existing NPPs. These differences from conventional NPPs not only pose technical and operational challenges, but they will undoubtedly also have regulatory compliance implications, especially with respect to staffing requirements and safety standards.

  6. Relationship Between Resilience, Adjustment, and Psychological Functioning After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukow, Herman R; Godwin, Emilie E; Marwitz, Jennifer H; Mills, Ana; Hsu, Nancy H; Kreutzer, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between resilience, psychological distress, adjustment, and community participation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Large university health system. Adult survivors of mild to severe TBI (N = 96). Descriptive, preliminary. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item version) was used to assess resilience, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18) was used to characterize psychological distress, and the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Index (MPAI-4) was used to measure ability, adjustment, and participation. Resilience scores were substantially lower than those of the general population. Significant relationships were found between resilience, psychological distress, and adjustment. Partial correlations (adjusting for the other MPAI-4 indices) showed significant correlation (P resilience. Partial correlations (adjusting for the other BSI-18 scales) also showed significance for Depression (P resilience. Resilience scores differed significantly (P resilience, which was found to correlate with psychological distress and psychosocial maladjustment. Developing interventions to strengthen resilience skills has the potential to improve postinjury psychosocial adjustment, an important area for future research.

  7. Apolipoprotein E4 and sex affect neurobehavioral performance in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Summer F; Piper, Brian J; Craytor, Michael J; Benice, Ted S; Raber, Jacob

    2010-03-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) and female sex are risk factors for developing Alzheimer's disease. It is unclear whether apoE4 contributes to behavioral function at younger ages. Standard neuropsychological assessments [intelligence quotient (IQ), attention, and executive function] and a test developed in this laboratory (Memory Island test of spatial learning and memory) were used to determine whether E4 and sex affect neuropsychological performance in healthy primary school children (age 7-10). A medical history was also obtained from the mother to determine whether negative birth outcomes were associated with apoE4. Mothers of apoE4+ children were more likely to report that their newborn was placed in an intensive care unit. A sex difference in birth weight was noted among apoE4- (males > females), but not apoE4+, offspring. Conversely, among apoE4+, but not apoE4- children, there was a sex difference in the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) vocabulary score favoring boys. ApoE4- girls had better visual recall than apoE4+ girls or apoE4- boys on the Family Pictures test. Finally, apoE4+, unlike apoE4-, children did not show spatial memory retention during the Memory Island probe trial. Thus, apoE4 may affect neurobehavioral performance, particularly spatial memory, and antenatal health decades before any clinical expression of neurodegenerative processes.

  8. Lung Function Status of Workers Exposed to Welding Fume: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyana Mulyana

    2016-04-01

    CONCLUSION: Lung function parameters status were significantly lower in welder than non-welder, and working period was the most important indicator for lung function status evaluation among welder. KEYWORDS: vital capacity, VC, forced vital capacity, FCV, forced expiratory volume in one second, FEV1, lung function, ratio of FEV1/FVC, working period

  9. The Efficacy of Adapted MBCT on Core Symptoms and Executive Functioning in Adults With ADHD: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepark, Sevket; Janssen, Lotte; de Vries, Alicia; Schoenberg, Poppy L A; Donders, Rogier; Kan, Cornelis C; Speckens, Anne E M

    2015-11-20

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness as a treatment for adults diagnosed with ADHD. A 12-week-adapted mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) program is compared with a waiting list (WL) group. Adults with ADHD were randomly allocated to MBCT (n = 55) or waitlist (n = 48). Outcome measures included investigator-rated ADHD symptoms (primary), self-reported ADHD symptoms, executive functioning, depressive and anxiety symptoms, patient functioning, and mindfulness skills. MBCT resulted in a significant reduction of ADHD symptoms, both investigator-rated and self-reported, based on per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses. Significant improvements in executive functioning and mindfulness skills were found. Additional analyses suggested that the efficacy of MBCT in reducing ADHD symptoms and improving executive functioning is partially mediated by an increase in the mindfulness skill "Act With Awareness." No improvements were observed for depressive and anxiety symptoms, and patient functioning. This study provides preliminary support for the effectiveness of MBCT for adults with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Virtual reality functional capacity assessment in schizophrenia: Preliminary data regarding feasibility and correlations with cognitive and functional capacity performance

    OpenAIRE

    Stacy A. Ruse; Philip D. Harvey; Vicki G. Davis; Alexandra S. Atkins; Kolleen H. Fox; Richard S.E. Keefe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Assessment of functional capacity is an intrinsic part of determining the functional relevance of response to treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Existing methods are highly and consistently correlated with performance on neuropsychological tests, but most current assessments of functional capacity are still paper and pencil simulations. We developed a computerized virtual reality assessment that contains all of the components of a shopping trip. Methods: We a...

  11. Model studies for evaluating the neurobehavioral effects of complex hydrocarbon solvents. II. Neurobehavioral effects of white spirit in rat and human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Hoogendijk, E.M.G.; McKee, R.H.; Owen, D.E.; Kulig, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of hydrocarbon solvents and to establish a working model for extrapolating animal test data to humans, studies were conducted which involved inhalation exposure of rats and humans to white spirit (WS). The specific objectives of these studies were to evaluate

  12. Three-dimensional functional unit analysis of hemifacial microsomia mandible—a preliminary report

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ji Wook; Kim, Byung Hoon; Kim, Hyung Soo; Yu, Tae Hoon; Kim, Bong Chul; Lee, Sang-Hwy

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to present three-dimensional (3D) structural characteristics of the mandible in the hemifacial microsomia. The mandible has six distinct functional units, and its architecture is the sum of balanced growth of each functional unit and surrounding matrix. Methods In order to characterize the mandibular 3D architecture of hemifacial microsomia, we analyzed the mandibular functional units of four hemifacial microsomia patients using the 3D reconstructed comput...

  13. Early Environment and Neurobehavioral Development Predict Adult Temperament Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Eliza; Service, Susan; Wessman, Jaana; Seppänen, Jouni K.; Schönauer, Stefan; Miettunen, Jouko; Turunen, Hannu; Koiranen, Markku; Joukamaa, Matti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Veijola, Juha; Mannila, Heikki; Paunio, Tiina; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Investigation of the environmental influences on human behavioral phenotypes is important for our understanding of the causation of psychiatric disorders. However, there are complexities associated with the assessment of environmental influences on behavior. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a series of analyses using a prospective, longitudinal study of a nationally representative birth cohort from Finland (the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort). Participants included a total of 3,761 male and female cohort members who were living in Finland at the age of 16 years and who had complete temperament scores. Our initial analyses (Wessman et al., in press) provide evidence in support of four stable and robust temperament clusters. Using these temperament clusters, as well as independent temperament dimensions for comparison, we conducted a data-driven analysis to assess the influence of a broad set of life course measures, assessed pre-natally, in infancy, and during adolescence, on adult temperament. Results Measures of early environment, neurobehavioral development, and adolescent behavior significantly predict adult temperament, classified by both cluster membership and temperament dimensions. Specifically, our results suggest that a relatively consistent set of life course measures are associated with adult temperament profiles, including maternal education, characteristics of the family’s location and residence, adolescent academic performance, and adolescent smoking. Conclusions Our finding that a consistent set of life course measures predict temperament clusters indicate that these clusters represent distinct developmental temperament trajectories and that information about a subset of life course measures has implications for adult health outcomes. PMID:22815688

  14. The neurobehavioral and molecular phenotype of Angelman Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Logan K; Fitzpatrick, Sarah; Shaffer, Rebecca; Melnyk, Sophia; Begtrup, Amber H; Fox, Emma; Schaefer, Tori L; Mathieu-Frasier, Lauren; Ray, Balmiki; Lahiri, Debomoy; Horn, Paul A; Erickson, Craig A

    2015-11-01

    Angelman Syndrome (AS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder associated with developmental delay, speech impairment, gait ataxia, and a unique behavioral profile. AS is caused by loss of maternal expression of the paternally imprinted UBE3A gene. In this study we aim to contribute to understanding of the neurobehavioral phenotype of AS with particular focus on the neuropsychiatric presentation of the disorder. We also undertake initial exploration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma levels in AS. Twelve individuals ages 3 years or older with a confirmed genetic diagnosis of AS underwent detailed medical history, phenotypic characterization, and BDNF plasma sampling. The results of this study demonstrate that individuals with AS suffer from significant developmental delay, impaired adaptive behavior, and sleep disruption. Additionally, hyperactivity/impulsivity appears to be the primary behavioral domain noted in these individuals. The majority of individuals in this project met criteria for autism spectrum disorder on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS); however, a negative correlation was noted between ADOS score and developmental age. BDNF plasma levels in AS individuals were significantly elevated compared to neurotypical controls. This is the first report of abnormal BDNF levels in AS, and one that necessitates larger future studies. The results provide a clue to understanding abnormal neuronal development in AS and may help guide future AS research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Does neuropsychological performance impact on real-life functional achievements in obsessive-compulsive disorder? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Giampaolo; Cavedini, Paolo; Harvey, Philip D; Di Chiaro, Nunzia Valentina; Daccò, Silvia; Caldirola, Daniela

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the association between neuropsychological performance and real-life functioning in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). As a secondary aim, we investigated the association between neuropsychological performance and self-reported quality of life (QoL). We retrospectively selected 68 of 240 inpatients with OCD, who had been hospitalised for a 4-week psychiatric rehabilitation programme. We used clinical information recorded in the patients' electronic medical records. We considered the following variables: neuropsychological performance (verbal/visual memory, sustained attention, visual-constructive ability, and language fluency; in a sub-sample of 37 subjects, divided attention, working memory, and attentional shifting were also available); real-life functional achievements (social/vocational outcomes and independent living); subjectively reported QoL (WHOQOL-BREF); obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms severity (DY-BOCS). We found significant associations between poorer neuropsychological performance and poorer achievements in independent living and vocational outcomes. Among the different neuropsychological tests, we found significant associations between language fluency/executive processing and independent living, and between divided attention, attentional shifting, working memory and vocational outcome. We found no significant associations between neuropsychological performance and subjectively reported QoL. OC symptoms severity was not associated with real-life functional achievements. Our preliminary results suggest that poorer neuropsychological performance may be associated with impaired real-life functioning in subjects with OCD.

  16. Culturally Appropriate Assessment of Functioning in Diverse Children: Development and Preliminary Validation of the FX-II Scale in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Lauren M; Araujo, Eva A

    2017-09-01

    We sought to develop and provide preliminary validation for a questionnaire evaluating functioning related to ADHD (i.e., the FX-II) with a particularly underserved group (i.e., Mexican youth). 191 Mexican raters completed the FX-II alongside measures of ADHD symptoms, impairment, cultural values, and demographics: 127 raters were caregivers of treatment-naïve youth (i.e., community sample); 32 raters were caregivers and 32 raters were teachers of youth participating in a school-based program for attention/behavior concerns (i.e., clinical sample). We created the 52-item FX-II Scale by adapting a culturally appropriate and psychometrically sound measure of impairment (i.e., the ADHD-FX) to assess functioning most relevant to Spanish-speaking families of children with ADHD (i.e., academic, social/emotional, and familial functioning). The FX-II demonstrated strong reliability, convergent and divergent construct validity, and predictive validity. The FX-II appears to be a beneficial tool for evaluating functioning related to ADHD in Mexican children and future validation efforts in broader populations are warranted.

  17. Examining the Function of Problem Behavior in Fragile X Syndrome: Preliminary Experimental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lang, Russell; Machalicek, Wendy; Chan, Jeffrey Michael; Rispoli, Mandy

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited cause of intellectual and developmental disability. The influence of environmental variables on behaviors associated with the syndrome has received only scant attention. The current study explored the function served by problem behavior in fragile X syndrome by using experimental functional analysis…

  18. Trait-affect, depressed mood, and male sexual functioning: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2012-08-01

    The relationship between trait-affect, depressed mood, and sexual functioning has been studied; however, the nature of that relation is not yet well established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mediator role that depressed mood plays in the relation between trait-affect and sexual functioning in men. A total of 205 men from the general population participated in the study and completed self-reported measures assessing trait-affect, depressed mood, and sexual functioning. Trait-affect was measured by the Positive Affect-Negative Affect Scale-Expanded Version, depressed mood was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory, and male sexual function was measured by the International Index of Erectile Function. Regression analysis showed that negative trait-affect and depressed mood were significant predictors of sexual functioning. Moreover, mediation analyses indicated that depressed mood partially mediate the relationship between negative trait-affect and sexual functioning in men. Findings support the role of negative trait-affect and depressed mood on male sexual functioning. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment In Schizophrenia: Preliminary Data Regarding Feasibility and Correlations with Cognitive and Functional Capacity Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Stacy A; Harvey, Philip D; Davis, Vicki G; Atkins, Alexandra S; Fox, Kolleen H; Keefe, Richard S E

    2014-03-01

    Assessment of functional capacity is an intrinsic part of determining the functional relevance of response to treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Existing methods are highly and consistently correlated with performance on neuropsychological tests, but most current assessments of functional capacity are still paper and pencil simulations. We developed a computerized virtual reality assessment that contains all of the components of a shopping trip. We administered the Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT) to 54 healthy controls and to 51 people with schizophrenia to test its feasibility. Dependent variables for the VRFCAT included time to completion and errors on 12 objectives and the number of times that an individual failed to complete an objective. The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and a standard functional capacity measure, the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief (UPSA-B) were administered to the patients with schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia performed more poorly than healthy controls on 10/11 of the time variables, as well as 2/12 error scores and 2/12 failed objectives. Pearson correlations for 7 of 15 VRFCAT variables with MCCB composite scores were statistically significant. These results provide support for the possibility of computerized functional capacity assessment, but more substantial studies are required.

  20. Environmental conditions differentially affect neurobehavioral outcomes in a mouse model of sepsis-associated encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Mu-Huo; Tang, Hui; Luo, Dan; Qiu, Li-Li; Jia, Min; Yuan, Hong-Mei; Feng, Shan-Wu; Yang, Jian-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Brain dysfunction remains a common complication after sepsis development and is an independent risk factor for a poorer prognosis and an increased mortality. Here we tested the hypothesis that the behavioral outcomes after lipopolysaccharides (LPS) administration are exacerbated by an impoverished environment (IE) and alleviated by an enriched environment (EE), respectively. Mice were randomly allocated in a standard environment (SE), an EE, or an IE for 4 weeks after LPS or normal saline (NS) administration. Neurobehavioral alternations were assessed by the open field, novel objective recognition, and fear conditioning tests. The expressions of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10), ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (IBA1)-positive cells as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and the number of dendritic spines in the hippocampal CA1 were determined. Our results showed that the some of the neurocognitive abnormalities induced by LPS administration can be aggravated by stressful conditions such as IE but alleviated by EE. These neurocognitive alternations were accompanied by significant changes in biomarkers of immune response and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In summary, our study confirmed the negative impact of IE and the positive effects of EE on the cognitive function after LPS administration, with potential implications to the basis of sepsis-related cognitive impairments in the critically ill patients. PMID:29137271

  1. Prenatal and childhood exposure to pesticides and neurobehavioral development: review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    Conventional pesticides comprise a diverse group of substances intended to destroy, repel or control organisms identified as pests. Compared to the studies on lead, mercury, and PCBs, few epidemiological studies have assessed the developmental neurotoxicity of pesticides. Epidemiological studies focused on the neurobehavioural development of children exposed to pesticides were identified by searching the PubMed, Medline, EBSCO, Agricola and TOXNET databases. The findings of the studies reviewed imply that children's exposure to pesticides may bring about impairments in their neurobehavioral development. Children exposed to organophosphate pesticides (OP), both prenatally and during childhood, may have difficulties performing tasks that involve short-term memory, and may show increased reaction time, impaired mental development or pervasive developmental problems. In newborns, the effects of OP exposure are manifested mainly by an increased number of abnormal reflexes, while in adolescents, by mental and emotional problems. The studies investigating association between exposure to organochlorine pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects show inconsistent results. While some studies report impairments in mental and psychomotor functions, other studies do not confirm the above. The information deriving from epidemiological studies indicate a need to increase awareness among people and children exposed to pesticides about the association between the use of pesticides and neurodevelopmental impairments. Therefore, the principle of prudence should become a rule.

  2. Functional connectivity changes in adults with developmental stuttering: a preliminary study using quantitative electro-encephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Kathleen; De Ridder, Dirk; Boey, Ronny A.; Vanneste, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stuttering is defined as speech characterized by verbal dysfluencies, but should not be seen as an isolated speech disorder, but as a generalized sensorimotor timing deficit due to impaired communication between speech related brain areas. Therefore we focused on resting state brain activity and functional connectivity. Method: We included 11 patients with developmental stuttering and 11 age matched controls. To objectify stuttering severity and the impact on quality of life (QoL), we used the Dutch validated Test for Stuttering Severity-Readers (TSS-R) and the Overall Assessment of the Speaker’s Experience of Stuttering (OASES), respectively. Furthermore, we used standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analyses to look at resting state activity and functional connectivity differences and their correlations with the TSS-R and OASES. Results: No significant results could be obtained when looking at neural activity, however significant alterations in resting state functional connectivity could be demonstrated between persons who stutter (PWS) and fluently speaking controls, predominantly interhemispheric, i.e., a decreased functional connectivity for high frequency oscillations (beta and gamma) between motor speech areas (BA44 and 45) and the contralateral premotor (BA6) and motor (BA4) areas. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between functional connectivity at low frequency oscillations (theta and alpha) and stuttering severity, while a mixed increased and decreased functional connectivity at low and high frequency oscillations correlated with QoL. Discussion: PWS are characterized by decreased high frequency interhemispheric functional connectivity between motor speech, premotor and motor areas in the resting state, while higher functional connectivity in the low frequency bands indicates more severe speech disturbances, suggesting that increased interhemispheric and right sided functional connectivity is

  3. Balance, autonomy and functional independence of active and sedentary elderly: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Matheus da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the body balance (BB, as the functional autonomy (FA and the level of functional independence (FI of 10 sedentary elderly (GI were evaluated and compared to related data in 10 active elderly (GII, all of the health program family in Araxá-MG, after signing the informed consent, were submitted to the evaluation tests of the EC, the AF and the NIF, besides the identification of BMI. Although body overweight and equal NIF between both the EC and AF were significantly higher in GII than in GI, we concluded that the practice of therapeutic exercise promotes functional health in the elderly.  

  4. Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vibol, Sao [United Nations University – International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Faculty of Agricultural Technology and Management, Royal University of Agriculture, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Hashim, Jamal Hisham, E-mail: jamalhas@hotmail.com [United Nations University – International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Community Health, National University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sarmani, Sukiman [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia)

    2015-02-15

    The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300–500 μg/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50–300 μg/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93 μg/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22 μg/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08 μg/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57–4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93 µg/g among those from the highly

  5. The relationship between alexithymia and frontal lobe function in patients with schizophrenia: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Usta

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: It is observed that the alexithymia has effects on the frontal functions of patients with schizophrenia. This mediated effect is related with the clinic of schizophrenia. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 80-85

  6. Identification of succinic semialdehyde reductases from Geobacter: expression, purification, crystallization, preliminary functional, and crystallographic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Xiaoli; Zheng, Yi; Garavito, R. Michael (MSU)

    2012-04-30

    Succinic semialdehyde reductase (SSAR) is an important enzyme involved in {gamma}-aminobutyrate (GABA) metabolism. By converting succinic semialdehyde (SSA) to {gamma}-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), the SSAR facilitates an alternative pathway for GABA degradation. In this study, we identified SSARs from Geobacter sulfurreducens and Geobacter metallireducens (GsSSAR and GmSSAR, respectively). The enzymes were over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near homogeneity. Both GsSSAR and GmSSAR showed the activity of reducing SSA using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate as a co-factor. The oligomeric sizes of GsSSAR and GmSSAR, as determined by analytical size exclusion chromatography, suggest that the enzymes presumably exist as tetramers in solution. The recombinant GsSSAR and GmSSAR crystallized in the presence of NADP{sup +}, and the resulting crystals diffracted to 1.89 {angstrom} (GsSSAR) and 2.25 {angstrom} (GmSSAR) resolution. The GsSSAR and GmSSAR crystals belong to the space groups P2{sub 1}22{sub 1} (a = 99.61 {angstrom}, b = 147.49 {angstrom}, c = 182.47 {angstrom}) and P1 (a = 75.97 {angstrom}, b = 79.14 {angstrom}, c = 95.47 {angstrom}, {alpha} = 82.15{sup o}, {beta} = 88.80{sup o}, {gamma} = 87.66{sup o}), respectively. Preliminary crystallographic data analysis suggests the presence of eight protein monomers in the asymmetric units for both GsSSAR and GmSSAR.

  7. The PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scales: preliminary reliability and validity

    OpenAIRE

    Varni James W; Burwinkle Tasha M; Eisen Sarajane; Sherman Sandra A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scales (PedsQL™ VAS) were designed as an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) instrument to rapidly measure present or at-the-moment functioning in children and adolescents. The PedsQL™ VAS assess child self-report and parent-proxy report of anxiety, sadness, anger, worry, fatigue, and pain utilizing six developmentally appropriate visual analogue scales based on the well-established Varni/Thompson Pediatric Pain Questionnai...

  8. Heroin and amphetamine users display opposite relationships between trait and neurobehavioral dimensions of impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassileva, Jasmin; Paxton, Jessica; Moeller, F. Gerard; Wilson, Michael; Bozgunov, Kiril; Martin, Eileen; Gonzalez, Raul; Vasilev, Georgi

    2014-01-01

    The multidimensional construct of impulsivity is implicated in all phases of the addiction cycle. Substance dependent individuals (SDIs) demonstrate elevated impulsivity on both trait and laboratory tests of neurobehavioral impulsivity; however our understanding of the relationship between these different aspects of impulsivity in users of different classes of drugs remains rudimentary. The goal of this study was to assess for commonalities and differences in the relationships between trait and neurobehavioral impulsivity in heroin and amphetamine addicts. Participants included 58 amphetamine dependent (ADI) and 74 heroin dependent individuals (HDI) in protracted abstinence. We conducted principal components analyses (PCA) on two self-report trait and six neurobehavioral measures of impulsivity, which resulted in two trait impulsivity (action, planning) and four neurobehavioral impulsivity composites (discriminability, response inhibition efficiency, decision-making efficiency, quality of decision-making). Multiple regression analyses were used to determine whether neurobehavioral impulsivity is predicted by trait impulsivity and drug type. The analyses revealed a significant interaction between drug type and trait action impulsivity on response inhibition efficiency, which showed opposite relationships for ADIs and HDIs. Specifically, increased trait action impulsivity was associated with worse response inhibition efficiency in ADIs, but with better efficiency in HDIs. These results challenge the unitary account of drug addiction and contribute to a growing body of literature that reveals important behavioral, cognitive, and neurobiological differences between users of different classes of drugs. PMID:24342174

  9. Relationship between blood pressure, cognitive function and education level in elderly patients with diabetes: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talfournier, J; Bitu, J; Paquet, C; Gobron, C; Guillausseau, P J; Hugon, J; Dumurgier, J

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationship between blood pressure and cognitive function in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 32 patients with DM aged ≥ 65 years (seven women and 25 men; mean ± SD age: 74.3 ± 6.4 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. Relationships between blood pressure and neuropsychological tests were determined using Spearman's rank correlations (ρ) and multivariable linear regression models. Lower diastolic blood pressure was associated with lower scores on the Frontal Assessment Battery (ρ=0.32, P=0.02), longer times to complete the Trail Making Test Part B (ρ=0.51, P=0.003), lower scores for the Finger Tapping Test (ρ=0.36, P=0.046) and less verbal fluency (ρ=0.36, P=0.047). In multivariable models, these relationships were attenuated after adjusting for levels of education. There was an association between lower diastolic blood pressure and poorer executive function in this cohort of elderly DM patients. These results underline the importance of systematic cognitive evaluation in elderly patients with DM, and suggest that a too-low diastolic blood pressure may have deleterious effects on mental function. Larger studies in the future are required to confirm these preliminary results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Duration of content and function words in oral discourse by speakers with fluent aphasia: Preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Lee

    2014-04-01

    Words that had occurred ten times or more in the speech materials was arbitrarily categorized as ‘unique words’ that could more reliably reflect syllable duration. There were a total of 206 unique words (141 content and 65 function words in the aphasia speech materials and 253 unique words (187 content and 66 function in the normal materials, most of them were disyllabic or monosyllabic. A higher lexical diversity in the normal group, but similar number of different function words for both groups, was consistent with earlier findings of impaired lexical access in aphasia. Table 1 displays the average duration per syllable and per word for content and function words among the two speaker groups. Our study showed that word duration in aphasic speech was longer than that in control speech. This is in line with our earlier results of higher speaking rate in normal speech. While content words were longer than function words in the aphasic speech, the difference was not as significant as that in controls.

  11. Examining the function of problem behavior in fragile X syndrome: preliminary experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter; O'Reilly, Mark F; Lang, Russell; Machalicek, Wendy; Chan, Jeffrey Michael; Rispoli, Mandy

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited cause of intellectual and developmental disability. The influence of environmental variables on behaviors associated with the syndrome has received only scant attention. The current study explored the function served by problem behavior in fragile X syndrome by using experimental functional analysis methodology with 8 children with fragile X. No child met criteria for attention-maintained problem behavior, 5 children met criteria for escape-maintained problem behavior, and 4 children met criteria for tangible-maintained problem behavior. Results are discussed and compared with previous findings on the function of problem behavior in fragile X syndrome, and implications for intervention are discussed. It is noted that the external validity of these findings is limited by the small sample size.

  12. A comparative, developmental and clinical perspective of neurobehavioral sexual dimorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Paz eViveros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological mechanisms involved in sexual differentiation of the central nervous system will be presented with a comparative view across vertebrates. Women and men differ in a wide variety of behavioral traits and in the probabilities of developing certain mental disorders. A brief overview of sex-chromosome pathways underlying sexual dimorphisms will be provided. We will describe most common brain phenotypes derived in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging, discuss the challenges in interpreting these phenotypes vis-à-vis the underlying neurobiology and revise the known sex differences in brain structure from birth, through adolescence, to adulthood. Clinical and epidemiological data indicate important sex differences in the prevalence, course, and expression of psychopathologies such as schizophrenia, and mood disorders including major depression and bipolar illness. Recent evidence implies that mood disorders and psychosis share some common genetic predispositions, as well as some neurobiological basis. Therefore, modern research is emphasizing dimensional representation of mental disorders and conceptualization of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression as a continuum of cognitive deficits and neurobiological abnormalities. Herein, we have examined available evidence on cerebral sexual dimorphism in all three conditions to verify if sex differences vary quantitatively and/or qualitatively along the psychoses-depression continuum. Sex differences in posttraumatic disorders prevalence have also been described, thus data on differences at genomic and molecular levels will be considered. Finally, we will discuss the important contribution - advantages and limitations - of animal models in the investigation of underlying mechanisms of neurobehavioral sex differences in neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug dependence, with special emphasis in experimental models based on the neurodevelopmental and three hits hypotheses.

  13. A quantitative approach to measure women's sexual function using electromyography: a preliminary study of the Kegel exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohktar, Mas Sahidayana; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Mohd Rozi, Nur Farahana; Mohd Yusof, Juhaida; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Su Yen, Khong; Omar, Siti Zawiah

    2013-12-13

    Currently, the reference standard used to clinically assess sexual function among women is a qualitative questionnaire. Hence, a generalised and quantitative measurement tool needs to be available as an alternative. This study investigated whether an electromyography (EMG) measurement technique could be used to help quantify women's sexual function. A preliminary intervention study was conducted on 12 female subjects, who were randomised into a control (n=6) and an intervention (n=6) group. Intervention involved a set regimen of pelvic floor muscle exercises (Kegel) and the control group did not have any treatment. All subjects were asked to answer a validated, self-rated Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire (PISQ). EMG measurements of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) and the abdominal muscles were taken from all women at recruitment and 8 weeks after study commencement. After 8 weeks, most of the subjects in the control group did not display any noted positive difference in either PISQ score (4/6) or in their muscle strength (4/6). However, a noted progressive difference were observed in subjects who were placed in the Kegel group; PISQ score (5/6) and muscles strength (4/6). The noted difference in the Kegel group subjects was that if progress is observed in the sexual function, improvement is also observed in the strength of at least 2 types of muscles (either abdominal or PFM muscles). Thus, EMG measurement is a potential technique to quantify the changes in female sexual function. Further work will be conducted to validate this assumption.

  14. A quantitative approach to measure women’s sexual function using electromyography: A preliminary study of the Kegel exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohktar, Mas Sahidayana; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Rozi, Nur Farahana Mohd; Yusof, Juhaida Mohd; Ahmad, Siti Anom; Yen, Khong Su; Omar, Siti Zawiah

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently, the reference standard used to clinically assess sexual function among women is a qualitative questionnaire. Hence, a generalised and quantitative measurement tool needs to be available as an alternative. This study investigated whether an electromyography (EMG) measurement tecnique could be used to help quantify women’s sexual function. Material/Methods A preliminary intervention study was conducted on 12 female subjects, who were randomised into a control (n=6) and an intervention (n=6) group. Intervention involved a set regimen of pelvic floor muscle exercises (Kegel) and the control group did not have any treatment. All subjects were asked to answer a validated, self-rated Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire (PISQ). EMG measurements of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) and the abdominal muscles were taken from all women at recruitment and 8 weeks after study commencement. Results After 8 weeks, most of the subjects in the control group did not display any noted positive difference in either PISQ score (4/6) or in their muscle strength (4/6). However, a noted progressive difference were observed in subjects who were placed in the Kegel group; PISQ score (5/6) and muscles strength (4/6). Conclusions The noted difference in the Kegel group subjects was that if progress is observed in the sexual function, improvement is also observed in the strength of at least 2 types of muscles (either abdominal or PFM muscles). Thus, EMG measurement is a potential technique to quantify the changes in female sexual function. Further work will be conducted to validate this assumption. PMID:24335927

  15. Dual-Language Education for Low-Income Children: Preliminary Evidence of Benefits for Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Alena G.; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    This investigation is an initial examination of possible enhancement of executive function through a dual-language (50:50) education model. The ethnically diverse, low-income sample of 120 children from Grades K, 2, and 4 consisted of approximately equal numbers of children enrolled in dual-language and traditional classrooms. Dual-language…

  16. Cognitive Functioning after Medial Frontal Lobe Damage Including the Anterior Cingulate Cortex: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Amee; Dewar, Bonnie-Kate; Critchley, Hugo; Gilbert, Sam J.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Two patients with medial frontal lobe damage involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) performed a range of cognitive tasks, including tests of executive function and anterior attention. Both patients lesions extended beyond the ACC, therefore caution needs to be exerted in ascribing observed deficits to the ACC alone. Patient performance was…

  17. Preliminary study of Internet addiction and cognitive function in adolescents based on IQ tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Hyeon; Park, E-Jin; Choi, Jeewook; Chai, Sukhi; Lee, Ji-Han; Lee, Chul; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2011-12-30

    The potential relationship between Internet addiction and certain cognitive function problems has been suggested by several studies. However, few or no studies have examined the differences in cognitive functioning between persons addicted to the Internet and persons not addicted using a standard neuropsychological test. This study screened 253 middle school students and 389 high school students for Internet addiction and compared 59 Internet-addicted students with 43 non-addicted students using an IQ test. The Internet-addicted group had comprehension sub-item scores that were significantly lower than those of the non-addicted group. As the comprehension item reflects ethical judgement and reality testing, there may be a relationship between Internet addiction and weak social intelligence. Earlier onset of Internet addiction and longer addiction duration were associated with lower participant performance in areas related to attention. As this study is a cross-sectional study, it is not clear whether the persons who display weak cognitive functioning are susceptible to Internet addiction or if Internet addiction causes cognitive problems. However, as brain development remains active during adolescence, the possibility that Internet addiction adversely affects the cognitive functioning of adolescents cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Blink Rate in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome: Preliminary Evidence for Altered Dopamine Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. E.; Symons, F. J.; Johnson, A.-M.; Hatton, D. D.; Boccia, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in motor and cognitive functioning, can be non-invasively measured via observation of spontaneous blink rates. Blink rates have been studied in a number of clinical conditions including schizophrenia, autism, Parkinsons, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder with results implicating either…

  19. The Antipsychotics and Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (ASFQ) : Preliminary evidence for reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, M.K.; Castelein, Stynke; Bous, Johan; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A.; Knegtering, Henderikus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the psychometric properties of the Antipsychotics and Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (ASFQ). Internal reliability, test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, validity and sensitivity to change were calculated in a sample of 30 patients with schizophrenia

  20. Neuropsychology of domestic violence: a comparative preliminary study of executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-García, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In neuropsychological studies of executive functioning in domestic violence offenders, the different investigations conducted have only studied differences within this group or in relation to control groups of non-offenders. To minimize the limitations in relation to comparison groups, the purpose of this study was to compare executive functioning in domestic violence offenders in relation to different groups of offenders (i.e. sexual, violent and non-violent) and a control group of non-offenders, with all groups matched on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Executive functioning was tested of all participants with the Trail Making Test (direct and derived scores). Compared with the control group, the domestic violence offenders and sex offenders exhibited the poorest performance on the Trail Making Test part B (time) and on the B-A derived index; whereas, the violent offenders group (i.e. convicted of assault, wounding, homicide etc.) showed a high number of errors in part B. These findings suggest that domestic violence offenders exhibit similar performance on the TMT as sex offenders, where both have poorer cognitive flexibility and executive control. Other violent offenders exhibited different patterns of difficulty on this test (e.g. more impulsivity responses). Executive functioning may be a central psychological process that could help explain the interrelations between domestic and sexual aggression, and could be a relevant construct for common treatment of domestic batterers and sex offenders. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Interferon-α acutely impairs whole-brain functional connectivity network architecture - A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipasquale, Ottavia; Cooper, Ella A; Tibble, Jeremy; Voon, Valerie; Baglio, Francesca; Baselli, Giuseppe; Cercignani, Mara; Harrison, Neil A

    2016-11-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a key mediator of antiviral immune responses used to treat Hepatitis C infection. Though clinically effective, IFN-α rapidly impairs mood, motivation and cognition, effects that can appear indistinguishable from major depression and provide powerful empirical support for the inflammation theory of depression. Though inflammation has been shown to modulate activity within discrete brain regions, how it affects distributed information processing and the architecture of whole brain functional connectivity networks have not previously been investigated. Here we use a graph theoretic analysis of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rfMRI) to investigate acute effects of systemic interferon-alpha (IFN-α) on whole brain functional connectivity architecture and its relationship to IFN-α-induced mood change. Twenty-two patients with Hepatitis-C infection, initiating IFN-α-based therapy were scanned at baseline and 4h after their first IFN-α dose. The whole brain network was parcellated into 110 cortical and sub-cortical nodes based on the Oxford-Harvard Atlas and effects assessed on higher-level graph metrics, including node degree, betweenness centrality, global and local efficiency. IFN-α was associated with a significant reduction in global network connectivity (node degree) (p=0.033) and efficiency (p=0.013), indicating a global reduction of information transfer among the nodes forming the whole brain network. Effects were similar for highly connected (hub) and non-hub nodes, with no effect on betweenness centrality (p>0.1). At a local level, we identified regions with reduced efficiency of information exchange and a sub-network with decreased functional connectivity after IFN-α. Changes in local and particularly global functional connectivity correlated with associated changes in mood measured on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. IFN-α rapidly induced a profound shift in whole brain network structure

  2. A study on neurobehavioral performance of workers occupationally exposed to solvent in synthetic resin manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Asim; Tripathi, S R

    2014-01-01

    One major effect of occupational solvent exposure is central nervous system (CNS) impairment, ranging from depression to encephalopathy with cognitive, behavioral changes. Exposures in industries being varied, classification of health outcomes for different exposures is important. This study assessed neurobehavioral performance of synthetic resin manufacturing workers exposed to organic solvent, mainly formalin. This cross-sectional study selected subjects by random selection from all such workers of an Indian city. Questionnaire survey and assessment by a neurobehavioral test battery (NBT) was undertaken. Comparison between actual and allied workers observed significant difference in tweezer dexterity, card sorting and backward memory scores. Significant effect of exposure was observed on tweezer dexterity, card sorting, and hand dynamometer scores. Changes of neurobehavioral performance might occur following solvent exposure and these changes might have a relationship with the quantum of exposure. Periodic examination of workers with NBT is needed for detection of early neurotoxic effects.

  3. Effect of posture on bladder and urethral function in normal pregnancy. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, W M

    1975-01-01

    25 pregnant women, 15 of whom developed stress incontinence in pregnancy, have been investigated by cystometry and urethrometry in both erect and supine posture. The resting bladder pressure rises throughout pregnancy in both erect and supine positions. Those who are not incontinent have normal bladder and urethral function. Incontinent patients show no residual urine, normal bladder capacity, and either detrusor instability and/or sphincter weakness. The stress of change of posture makes both bladder dysfunction and sphincter weakness more evident. Although the results of this investigation are not yet complete, there is a suggestion that detrusor instability may be produced by pregnancy in some patients and that in some instances recovery to normal bladder function occurs after delivery. It is postulated that these patients may be the ones who, in later life, develop stress incontinence due to bladder dysfunction.

  4. Maltreatment Related Trauma Symptoms Affect Academic Achievement through Cognitive Functioning: A Preliminary Examination in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Ogata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect could have some deleterious impacts on both intellectual and academic performance of school students. The aim of this study was to examine relationships among child maltreatment, trauma symptoms, cognitive functioning, and academic achievement. Data were collected from child guidance centers, where maltreated children were substantiated, assessed, evaluated, protected, and treated clinically. The selection criteria for subjects included Japanese children (1 who had a history of maltreatment; (2 whose IQs were measured using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children second edition (KABC-II; and (3 whose traumatic stress was evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children alternate version (TSCC-A. Covariance structure analysis showed the model that explains the relations of trauma symptom (measured by TSCC-A on academic achievement (measured by KABC-II as being intervened by cognitive functioning (measured by KABC-II.

  5. Description and Preliminary Evaluation of a Curriculum for Teaching Conversational Skills to Children with High-Functioning Autism and Other Social Cognition Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Eve; Cannon, Lynn R.; Kornblum, Courtney; Clark, Jonna; Powers, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this clinical focus article is to provide (a) a detailed description of a school-based intervention designed to teach children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HF-ASDs) and other social cognition challenges both the "how" and the "why" of conversation and (b) a preliminary evaluation of…

  6. The influence of vibroacoustic therapy on the functional status of patients with gonarthrosis. A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Skopowska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Gonarthrosis is a degenerative disease of the articular cartilage. Its main symptoms are pain, swelling, stiffness, limitation of functions and deformations of the joint. One of the available methods of preservative treatment of gonarthrosis is vibroacoustic therapy (VT, which evokes micro-vibrations in the tissues – through the use of sound waves of variable frequency and amplitude. The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of VT on the functional status of people with gonarthrosis. Material and methods: Forty-four people, aged over 44, with gonarthrosis were subjected to 10 sessions of VT with the Vitafon-T device, in a variable range of frequencies between 30 and 18 000 Hz. The sessions lasted 15 minutes. In order to estimate the effectiveness of the therapy, double measurements (before and after therapy of the following parameters were taken: pain (VAS, joint circumferences and function tests (Timed Up and Go – TUG, the average free walking time at the 6 m distance and the knee bends test. The statistical analysis was carried out using the Wilcoxon test, with the significance level of p < 0.0001. Results : In the examined group a decrease was observed in: pain (by 1.9 VAS points among 77% of the patients, circumference of the joints among 91% and the time of conducting the TUG test in 96%. The number of knee bends increased in 82% of the patients. All the results reached statistical significance (p < 0.0001. The free walking improved among 91%; however, this result was not statistically significant. Conclusions : Vibroacoustic therapy has brought positive treatment effects of an analgesic and anti-swelling character, which has further influenced the functional efficiency of the patients with gonarthrosis. The research still needs to be expanded to other groups of patients before the method may be popularized in primary care rehabilitation facilities.

  7. The European Large Area ISO Survey - IV. The preliminary 90-mu m luminosity function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serjeant, S.; Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.

    2001-01-01

    We present the luminosity function of 90-mum-selected galaxies from the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS), extending to z = 0.3. Their luminosities are in the range 10(9)

  8. Altered Cortical Swallowing Processing in Patients with Functional Dysphagia: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollbrink, Andreas; Warnecke, Tobias; Winkels, Martin; Pantev, Christo; Dziewas, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Objective Current neuroimaging research on functional disturbances provides growing evidence for objective neuronal correlates of allegedly psychogenic symptoms, thereby shifting the disease concept from a psychological towards a neurobiological model. Functional dysphagia is such a rare condition, whose pathogenetic mechanism is largely unknown. In the absence of any organic reason for a patient's persistent swallowing complaints, sensorimotor processing abnormalities involving central neural pathways constitute a potential etiology. Methods In this pilot study we measured cortical swallow-related activation in 5 patients diagnosed with functional dysphagia and a matched group of healthy subjects applying magnetoencephalography. Source localization of cortical activation was done with synthetic aperture magnetometry. To test for significant differences in cortical swallowing processing between groups, a non-parametric permutation test was afterwards performed on individual source localization maps. Results Swallowing task performance was comparable between groups. In relation to control subjects, in whom activation was symmetrically distributed in rostro-medial parts of the sensorimotor cortices of both hemispheres, patients showed prominent activation of the right insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and lateral premotor, motor as well as inferolateral parietal cortex. Furthermore, activation was markedly reduced in the left medial primary sensory cortex as well as right medial sensorimotor cortex and adjacent supplementary motor area (pdysphagia - a condition with assumed normal brain function - seems to be associated with distinctive changes of the swallow-related cortical activation pattern. Alterations may reflect exaggerated activation of a widely distributed vigilance, self-monitoring and salience rating network that interferes with down-stream deglutition sensorimotor control. PMID:24586948

  9. [Preliminary analysis of lung function of population with biofuel smoke exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D X; Chen, S Y; Zhou, Y M; Li, X C; Liu, S; Chen, L; Pu, J D; Ran, P X

    2017-05-12

    Objective: To analyse the impaired lung functions of people with biofuel smoke exposure. Methods: Nonsmokers with biofuel smoke exposure were selected as research objects in a mountainous area of northern Guangdong where the families used biofuels as main energies and the nonsmokers without biofuel smoke exposure in the same area as control. Questionnaire interviews and spirometry tests were performed on all subjects. To analyse the differences of lung functions in both. Results: Seventy hundred and seventeen subjects were enro1led in this study.There were 530 nonsmokers with biofuel smoke exposure(observation group) including 442 women and 88 men, average age 54±10. There were 187 nonsmokers without biofuel smoke exposure(control group) including 141 women and 46 men, average age 54±10. There was no significant difference between two groups in age, height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist/hip ratio( P >0.05). The pulmonary ventilation function index(FEV(1)%Pred, FEV(1)/FVC) in the observation group was significantly less than that in control group [(100±18) vs .(106±25); (80±10) vs .(83±6) respectively, P BIOFUEL-INDEX and FEV/FVC was -0.1, 95% CI (-0.1, -0.1, P BIOFUEL-INDEX was 46.0, where the predicted Y value was 81.76, 95% CI (80.2, 83.33). When BIOFUEL-INDEX0.05); when BIOFUEL-INDEX> 46.0, the regression coefficient 2 was -0.1, 95% CI (-0.2, -0.1)( P biofuel smokes exposure causes damages in lung function.

  10. Sexual function in teenagers after multimodal treatment of pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Antonio; Ferreira, Pedro Vanalle; Barroso, Ubirajara; Demarchi, Guilherme T; Garrone, Gilmar; Liguori, Riberto; Caran, Eliana; Ortiz, Valdemar

    2010-12-01

    The multimodal approach to treatment of genitourinary rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) has improved survival rates, but there is now a focus on the effect on quality of life. Our aim was to evaluate erectile function in children with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) who underwent chemotherapy, radiotherapy, cystectomy and continent urinary diversion. We evaluated four eligible patients (age > 14 years) from our genitourinary RMS database. In two patients the reservoir was constructed at the same time of the cystectomy and in two after undiversion of an ileal conduit. All patients were treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy before cystectomy. We used a questionnaire to estimate erectile function in adolescents and young adults. There were four questions, each one to be scored 1-5, assessing capability to masturbate. Mean follow up after cystectomy was 9.75 years. We considered that two patients had erections of good quality (scores 18 and 20) and two of moderate quality (scores 8 and 10). One patient had a good response to sildenafil administration. Our data demonstrate that it is possible to keep erectile function during masturbation in children with RMS who have undergone chemotherapy, radiotherapy, cystectomy and continent urinary diversion. Copyright © 2010 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of tango on functional mobility in Parkinson's disease: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Madeleine E; Kantorovich, Svetlana; Levin, Rebecca; Earhart, Gammon M

    2007-12-01

    Recent research has shown that dance, specifically tango, may be an appropriate and effective strategy for ameliorating functional mobility deficits in people who are frail and elderly. Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience declines in functional mobility that may be even more pronounced than those experienced by frail elderly individuals without PD. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two movement programs: tango classes or exercise classes. Nineteen subjects with PD were randomly assigned to a tango group or a group exercise class representative of the current classes offered in our geographical area for individuals with PD. Subjects completed a total of 20 tango or exercise classes and were evaluated the week before and the week following the intervention. Both groups showed significant improvements in overall Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score and nonsignificant improvements in self-reported Freezing of Gait. In addition, the tango group showed significant improvements on the Berg Balance Scale. The exercise group did not improve on this measure. Finally, the tango group showed a trend toward improvement on the Timed Up and Go test that was not observed in the exercise group. Future studies with a larger sample are needed to confirm and extend our observation that tango may be an effective intervention to target functional mobility deficits in individuals with PD.

  12. Mood and cognitive function following repeated transcranial direct current stimulation in healthy volunteers: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Nobutaka; Yamaguchi, Masayasu; Fujii, Tomokazu; Kitahara, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Although mood and cognitive function have been reported to change following transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with neurological and psychiatric diseases, little is known about the effects of repeated tDCS on mood and cognition in healthy humans. We recruited 11 healthy male participants for this single-blind, sham-controlled crossover trial. We used Profile of Mood States, brief-form (POMS), and CogHealth (Detection Task, Identification Task, One Back Task, One Card Learning Task and Continuous Monitoring Task) to evaluate the changes in mood and cognitive function, respectively, before and immediately after 4-daily, 20 min, 1 mA sham or anodal tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). While there were no significant changes in six factors of POMS and performance (speed and accuracy) of CogHealth between sham and anodal stimulation, the accuracy of One Card Learning was increased at the end of the experiment. Signal detection analyses revealed that both hit rate and discriminability were improved in this task. These results suggest that 4-daily anodal tDCS over left DLPFC may not change mood and cognitive function in healthy subjects, and further support the safety of tDCS. A slight improvement in a visual recognition and learning task at the end of experiment may be susceptible to practice effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Social skills and executive function among youth with sickle cell disease: a preliminary investigation.

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    Hensler, Molly; Wolfe, Kelly; Lebensburger, Jeffrey; Nieman, Jilian; Barnes, Margaux; Nolan, William; King, Allison; Madan-Swain, Avi

    2014-06-01

    To explore the relationship between executive function (EF) and social skills in youth with sickle cell disease (SCD).   20 youth with SCD completed objective tests of EF (Tasks of Executive Control; Animal Sorting subtest from the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment-Second Edition), an IQ screener, and paper-and-pencil measures of social skills (Social Skills Improvement System [SSIS]). Primary caregivers completed paper-and-pencil measures of EF (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function) and social skills (SSIS).   EF scores from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function related to parent- and child-reported social skills such that EF deficits correlated with poorer overall and domain-specific social skills. Similarly, EF scores from the Animal Sorting test related to child-reported social skills. Worse parent-reported EF predicted worse parent-reported social skills above the variance accounted for by IQ.   EF is related to social skills and may be necessary for successful social interaction among youth with SCD. These results provide rationale and guidance for future larger-scale investigations of EF and social skills among children with SCD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Placental FKBP5 genetic and epigenetic variation is associated with infant neurobehavioral outcomes in the RICHS cohort.

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    Alison G Paquette

    Full Text Available Adverse maternal environments can lead to increased fetal exposure to maternal cortisol, which can cause infant neurobehavioral deficits. The placenta regulates fetal cortisol exposure and response, and placental DNA methylation can influence this function. FK506 binding protein (FKBP5 is a negative regulator of cortisol response, FKBP5 methylation has been linked to brain morphology and mental disorder risk, and genetic variation of FKBP5 was associated with post-traumatic stress disorder in adults. We hypothesized that placental FKBP5 methylation and genetic variation contribute to gene expression control, and are associated with infant neurodevelopmental outcomes assessed using the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scales (NNNS. In 509 infants enrolled in the Rhode Island Child Health Study, placental FKBP5 methylation was measured at intron 7 using quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing. Placental FKBP5 mRNA was measured in a subset of 61 infants by quantitative PCR, and the SNP rs1360780 was genotyped using a quantitative allelic discrimination assay. Relationships between methylation, expression and NNNS scores were examined using linear models adjusted for confounding variables, then logistic models were created to determine the influence of methylation on membership in high risk groups of infants. FKBP5 methylation was negatively associated with expression (P = 0.08, r = -0.22; infants with the TT genotype had higher expression than individuals with CC and CT genotypes (P = 0.06, and those with CC genotype displayed a negative relationship between methylation and expression (P = 0.06, r = -0.43. Infants in the highest quartile of FKBP5 methylation had increased risk of NNNS high arousal compared to infants in the lowest quartile (OR 2.22, CI 1.07-4.61. TT genotype infants had increased odds of high NNNS stress abstinence (OR 1.98, CI 0.92-4.26. Placental FKBP5 methylation reduces expression in

  15. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

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    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  16. Effect of Spinal Manipulation on Pelvic Floor Functional Changes in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women: A Preliminary Study.

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    Haavik, Heidi; Murphy, Bernadette A; Kruger, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a single session of spinal manipulation of pregnant women can alter pelvic floor muscle function as measured using ultrasonographic imaging. In this preliminary, prospective, comparative study, transperineal ultrasonographic imaging was used to assess pelvic floor anatomy and function in 11 primigravid women in their second trimester recruited via notice boards at obstetric caregivers, pregnancy keep-fit classes, and word of mouth and 15 nulliparous women recruited from a convenience sample of female students at the New Zealand College of Chiropractic. Following bladder voiding, 3-/4-dimensional transperineal ultrasonography was performed on all participants in the supine position. Levator hiatal area measurements at rest, on maximal pelvic floor contraction, and during maximum Valsalva maneuver were collected before and after either spinal manipulation or a control intervention. Levator hiatal area at rest increased significantly (P pelvic floor muscles. This did not occur in the nonpregnant control participants, suggesting that it may be pregnancy related. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The development and evaluation of content validity of the Zambia Spina Bifida Functional Measure: Preliminary studies

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    Margaret M. Mweshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Very little is known on outcome measures for children with spina bifida (SB in Zambia. If rehabilitation professionals managing children with SB in Zambia and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa are to instigate measuring outcomes routinely, a tool has to be made available. The main objective of this study was to develop an appropriate and culturally sensitive instrument for evaluating the impact of the interventions on children with SB in Zambia.Methods: A mixed design method was used for the study. Domains were identified retrospectively and confirmation was done through a systematic review study. Items were generated through semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Qualitative data were downloaded, translated into English, transcribed verbatim and presented. These were then placed into categories of the main domains of care deductively through the process of manifest content analysis. Descriptive statistics, alpha coefficient and index of content validity were calculated using SPSS.Results: Self-care, mobility and social function were identified as main domains, while participation and communication were sub-domains. A total of 100 statements were generated and 78 items were selected deductively. An alpha coefficient of 0.98 was computed and experts judged the items.Conclusions: The new functional measure with an acceptable level of content validity titled Zambia Spina Bifida Functional Measure (ZSBFM was developed. It was designed to evaluate effectiveness of interventions given to children with SB from the age of 6 months to 5 years. Psychometric properties of reliability and construct validity were tested and are reported in another study.

  18. [Operative treatment of flexor pollicis longus tendon with Krackow suture, functional results--preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbasirević, Marko Z; Andjelković, Sladjana; Lesić, Aleksandar R; Sudjić, Vojo S; Palibrk, Tomislav; Tulić, Goran Dz; Radenković, Dejan V; Bajec, Djordje D

    2010-01-01

    Surgical treatment of the injuried flexor tensons is the important part of hand surgery. Tendon adhesions, ruptures, joint contcatures-stifness are only one part of the problem one is faced during the tendon treatment. In spite of improvement in surgical technique and suture material, the end result of sutured flexor tendons still represent a serious problem. To present of operative treatment of flexor pollicis longus injury with Krakow suture technique. All patients are treated in the first 48 hours after the accident. The regional anesthesia was performed with use of turniquet. Beside spare debridement, the reconstruction of digital nerves was done. All patients started with active and pasive movements-excercises on the first postoperative day. Follow-up was from 6 to 24 months. In evaluation of functional recovery the grip strenght, pinch strenght, range of movements of interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joiht and DASH score were used. In the last two years there were 30 patients, 25 males (83.33%) and 5 females (16.66%). Mean age was 39.8 years, ranged from 17 to 65 years. According to mechanism of injury the patients were divided in two groups: one with sharp and other with wider zone of injury. Concomitant digital nerve lesions was noticed in 15 patients (50%). the Krackow sutrue allowed early rehabilitation, which prevent tendon adhesions, enabled faster and better functional recovery.

  19. Functional and Preliminary Characterisation of Hydrocolloid from Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Puree

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    Kharidah Muhammad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocolloid from tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. puree was extracted using water and characterised for the first time. Proximate compositions of the extracted hydrocolloid were also determined. Functional characteristics such as water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity, emulsifying activity, emulsion stability, foaming capacity and stability of the hydrocolloid were evaluated in comparison to that of commercial hydrocolloids. Its functional groups and degree of esterification were determined using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. Monosaccharide profiling was done using reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. Screening of various fruits for high hydrocolloid yield after water extraction resulted in tamarillo giving the highest yield. The yield on dry weight basis was 8.30%. The hydrocolloid constituted of 0.83% starch, 21.18% protein and 66.48% dietary fibre with 49.47% degree of esterification and the monosaccharides identified were mannose, ribose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose. Higher oil-holding capacity, emulsifying activity and emulsion stability compared to commercial hydrocolloids propose its possible application as a food emulsifier and bile acid binder. Foaming capacity of 32.19% and good foam stabilisation (79.36% of initial foam volume after 2 h of foam formation suggest its promising application in frothy beverages and other foam based food products. These findings suggest that water-extracted tamarillo hydrocolloid can be utilised as an alternative to low methoxyl pectin.

  20. Neuropsychology, social cognition and global functioning among bipolar, schizophrenic patients and healthy controls: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo A; Fiorentini, Alessio; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Serati, Marta; Orsenigo, Giulia; Grillo, Paolo; Zago, Stefano; Caldiroli, Alice; Prunas, Cecilia; Giusti, Francesca; Consonni, Dario; Altamura, A Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD), schizophrenic (SKZ) patients and healthy controls (HC). The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan; it includes stabilized SKZ patients (n = 30), euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18) and HC (n = 18). Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB) that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however, the differences did not influence the results. BD patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to SKZ patients, even in "ecological" tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p Hotel task SKZ patients completed significantly less tasks (p differences were found between the two groups in GAF scores, being greater among BD subjects (p < 0.001). GAF was correlated with BACS and ESCB scores showing the crucial role of cognitive and ecological performances in patients' global functioning.

  1. Radiofrequency Ablation of Functioning Adrenal Adenomas: Preliminary Clinical and Laboratory Findings.

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    Szejnfeld, Denis; Nunes, Thiago Franchi; Giordano, Endrigo Emanuel; Freire, Fabio; Ajzen, Sergio Aron; Kater, Claudio Elias; Goldman, Suzan Menasce

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate clinical and laboratory findings in patients undergoing radiofrequency (RF) ablation for functioning adrenal adenomas. Eleven adult patients, nine with Conn syndrome and two with Cushing syndrome, underwent percutaneous computed tomography-guided RF ablation for benign adrenal neoplasms. Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure and the number of classes of antihypertensive drugs used by each patient were analyzed before and 1, 4, and 12 weeks after the procedure. Serum hormone levels were analyzed within 30 days before and 12 weeks after the procedure. Of the nine patients with Conn syndrome, eight showed normal serum aldosterone levels after the procedure and one patient had a nodule located very close to the inferior vena cava, resulting in incomplete ablation. The two patients with Cushing syndrome had normal serum and salivary cortisol levels after the procedure. Mean aldosterone concentration at baseline was 63.3 ng/dL ± 28.0 and decreased to 13.3 ng/dL ± 13.5 at 12 weeks postoperatively (P = .008). Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures decreased significantly in the first week after the procedure (P < .001) and remained stable during further follow-up. In patients with Conn syndrome or Cushing syndrome, percutaneous RF ablation of functioning adrenal adenomas may result in normalization of hormone secretion, improvement in blood pressure, and reduced need for antihypertensive drugs. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and aging on auditory function in the rat: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, M W; Abel, E L; Kaltenbach, J A; Overbeck, G W

    1996-02-01

    This study investigated select aspects of peripheral and central auditory dysfunction, as well as the pathological effects of aging, In an animal model of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Pregnant rats consumed liquid alcohol diets containing 0, 17.5, or 35% ethanol-derived calories, from gestation day 7 to parturition. A fourth group was untreated. Offspring of these mothers were tested for auditory and neurological function, using the auditory brainstem response at 6, 12, and 18 months of age. Some animals in the alcohol-exposed groups showed a peripheral auditory disorder in the form of congenital sensorineural hearing loss. This was correlated with punctate lesions and malformed stereocilia on the auditory sensory receptor cells of the inner ear. Alcohol-exposed animals also showed a central auditory processing disorder characterized by prolonged transmission of neural potentials along the brainstem portion of the auditory pathway. Animals in the highest dose group also showed an augmentation in the age-related deterioration of auditory acuity. Thus, increased peripheral and central auditory dysfunctions and pathological deterioration of auditory function in old age may be sequelae of FAS. Such morbidities have important implications for the long-term clinical assessment and management of FAS patients.

  3. Dissociative symptoms and academic functioning in maltreated children: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perzow, Sarah E D; Petrenko, Christie L M; Garrido, Edward F; Combs, Melody D; Culhane, Sara E; Taussig, Heather N

    2013-01-01

    Research has identified numerous negative sequelae of child maltreatment that may adversely impact academic functioning (AF). There is limited research, however, on the relationship between specific trauma symptoms, such as dissociation, and poor AF. This cross-sectional study examined the association between dissociative symptoms and multi-informant reports of AF in a sample of maltreated youth with a history of out-of-home care. Participants included 149 youth and their caregivers and teachers. Dissociative symptoms were measured based on youth report, whereas AF was assessed using (a) standardized measures of academic achievement, (b) youth-report measures of school membership and perceived academic competence, (c) caregiver reports of youths' performance in school, and (d) teacher reports of student grades. Results of multiple regression analyses suggested that dissociative symptoms were generally related to poorer AF after IQ, age, gender, and the total number of school and caregiver transitions were controlled. Implications for school personnel are discussed.

  4. A preliminary study of the effects of working memory training on brain function in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael C.; Gaynor, Alexandra; Bessette, Katie L.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) training improves WM ability in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but its efficacy for non-cognitive ADHD impairments ADHD has been sharply debated. The purpose of this preliminary study was to characterize WM training-related changes in ADHD brain function and see if they were linked to clinical improvement. We examined 18 adolescents diagnosed with DSM-IV Combined-subtype ADHD before and after 25 sessions of WM training using a frequently employed approach (CogmedTM) using a nonverbal Sternberg WM fMRI task, neuropsychological tests, and participant- and parent-reports of ADHD symptom severity and associated functional impairment. Whole brain SPM8 analyses identified ADHD activation deficits compared to 18 non-ADHD control participants, then tested whether impaired ADHD frontoparietal brain activation would increase following WM training. Post hoc tests examined the relationships between neural changes and neurocognitive or clinical improvements. As predicted, WM training increased WM performance, ADHD clinical functioning, and WM-related ADHD brain activity in several frontal, parietal and temporal lobe regions. Increased left inferior frontal sulcus region activity was seen in all Encoding, Maintenance, and Retrieval Sternberg task phases. ADHD symptom severity improvements were most often positively correlated with activation gains in brain regions known to be engaged for WM-related executive processing; improvement of different symptom types had different neural correlates. The responsiveness of both amodal WM frontoparietal circuits and executive process-specific WM brain regions was altered by WM training. The latter might represent a promising, relatively unexplored treatment target for researchers seeking to optimize clinical response in ongoing ADHD WM training development efforts. PMID:26138580

  5. Accessible Neurobehavioral Anger-Related Markers for Vulnerability to Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in a Population of Male Soldiers

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    Lin, Tamar; Gilam, Gadi; Raz, Gal; Or-Borichev, Ayelet; Bar-Haim, Yair; Fruchter, Eyal; Hendler, Talma

    2017-01-01

    Identifying vulnerable individuals prone to develop post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) is of paramount importance, especially in populations at high risk for stress exposure such as combat soldiers. While several neural and psychological risk factors are known, no post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) biomarker has yet progressed to clinical use. Here we present novel and clinically applicable anger-related neurobehavioral risk markers for military-related PTSS in a large cohort of Israeli soldiers. The psychological, electrophysiological and neural (Simultaneous recording of scalp electroencephalography [EEG] and functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) reaction to an anger-inducing film were measured prior to advanced military training and PTSS were recorded at 1-year follow-up. Limbic modulation was measured using a novel approach that monitors amygdala modulation using fMRI-inspired EEG, hereafter termed amygdala electrical fingerprint (amyg-EFP). Inter-subject correlation (ISC) analysis on fMRI data indicated that during movie viewing participants’ brain activity was synchronized in limbic regions including the amygdala. Self-reported state-anger and amyg-EFP modulation successfully predicted PTSS levels. State-anger significantly accounted for 20% of the variance in PTSS, and amyg-EFP signal modulation significantly accounted for additional 15% of the variance. Our study was limited by the moderate PTSS levels and lack of systematic baseline symptoms assessment. These results suggest that pre-stress neurobehavioral measures of anger may predict risk for later PTSS, pointing to anger-related vulnerability factors that can be measured efficiently and at a low cost before stress exposure. Possible mechanisms underlying the association between the anger response and risk for PTSS are discussed. PMID:28326027

  6. Transgenerational inheritance of neurobehavioral and physiological deficits from developmental exposure to benzo[a]pyrene in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Andrea L; Truong, Lisa; Marvel, Skylar W; Reif, David M; Garcia, Abraham; Lu, Catherine; Simonich, Michael T; Teeguarden, Justin G; Tanguay, Robert L

    2017-08-15

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a well-known genotoxic polycylic aromatic compound whose toxicity is dependent on signaling via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). It is unclear to what extent detrimental effects of B[a]P exposures might impact future generations and whether transgenerational effects might be AHR-dependent. This study examined the effects of developmental B[a]P exposure on 3 generations of zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120h post fertilization (hpf) to 5 and 10μM B[a]P and raised in chemical-free water until adulthood (F0). Two generations were raised from F0 fish to evaluate transgenerational inheritance. Morphological, physiological and neurobehavioral parameters were measured at two life stages. Juveniles of the F0 and F2 exhibited hyper locomotor activity, decreased heartbeat and mitochondrial function. B[a]P exposure during development resulted in decreased global DNA methylation levels and generally reduced expression of DNA methyltransferases in wild type zebrafish, with the latter effect largely reversed in an AHR2-null background. Adults from the F0 B[a]P exposed lineage displayed social anxiety-like behavior. Adults in the F2 transgeneration manifested gender-specific increased body mass index (BMI), increased oxygen consumption and hyper-avoidance behavior. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene during development resulted in transgenerational inheritance of neurobehavioral and physiological deficiencies. Indirect evidence suggested the potential for an AHR2-dependent epigenetic route. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Renal Denervation on Renal Artery Function in Humans: Preliminary Study.

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    Adelina Doltra

    Full Text Available To study the effects of RD on renal artery wall function non-invasively using magnetic resonance.32 patients undergoing RD were included. A 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance of the renal arteries was performed before RD and after 6-month. We quantified the vessel sharpness of both renal arteries using a quantitative analysis tool (Soap-Bubble®. In 17 patients we assessed the maximal and minimal cross-sectional area of both arteries, peak velocity, mean flow, and renal artery distensibility. In a subset of patients wall shear stress was assessed with computational flow dynamics. Neither renal artery sharpness nor renal artery distensibility differed significantly. A significant increase in minimal and maximal areas (by 25.3%, p = 0.008, and 24.6%, p = 0.007, respectively, peak velocity (by 16.9%, p = 0.021, and mean flow (by 22.4%, p = 0.007 was observed after RD. Wall shear stress significantly decreased (by 25%, p = 0.029. These effects were observed in blood pressure responders and non-responders.RD is not associated with adverse effects at renal artery level, and leads to an increase in cross-sectional areas, velocity and flow and a decrease in wall shear stress.

  8. Reflective function mediates the relationship between emotional maltreatment and borderline pathology in adolescents: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Jeremy; Newman, Louise K; Bennett, Clair; Gordon, Michael S; Saeedi, Naysun; Melvin, Glenn A

    2017-08-22

    Deficits in mentalizing, particularly within the context of attachment relationships i.e., reflective function (RF), are posited to result from childhood maltreatment and to influence the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Whilst a mentalization-based model of BPD provides a theoretical explanation, direct empirical support for this model, in linking childhood maltreatment to borderline pathology remains limited. This study examined the interrrelationships between childhood maltreatment, RF, and borderline pathology in a mixed adolescent sample, consisting of adolescents with BPD (n=26) and a group of non-clinical adolescents (n=25). With the aim of directly testing the mentalization-based model of BPD, we additionally investigated the influence of each form of childhood maltreatment within this developmental pathway. Self-report data supported the hypothesized indirect effect of childhood maltreatment on elevated borderline pathology through lowered RF in adolescents. Both emotional abuse and emotional neglect were found to indirectly influence borderline pathology through adolescent RF, however, only emotional abuse indirectly influenced borderline pathology through RF, after all other maltreatment types were controlled for. Findings support the promotion of mentalization, within attachment-related contexts, as an intervention target for adolescents with borderline pathology and as a potential target of prevention for at-risk children and adolescents with histories of childhood maltreatment, especially emotional abuse. Future research should delineate other underlying mechanisms, independent of RF, which may also link the influence of childhood maltreatment, and in particular, emotional abuse, to BPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neuropsychology, Social Cognition and Global Functioning Among Bipolar, Schizophrenic Patients and Healthy Controls: Preliminary Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eCaletti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD, schizophrenic patients (SKZ and healthy controls (HC. The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, it includes stabilized schizophrenic patients (n = 30, euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18 and healthy controls (n = 18. Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however the differences did not influence the results. Bipolar patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to schizophrenic patients, even in ecological tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p

  10. The integration of prosodic speech in high functioning autism: a preliminary FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesling, Isabelle; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Peppé, Sue; Amirault, Marion; Bouvard, Manuel; Allard, Michèle

    2010-07-13

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a specific triad of symptoms such as abnormalities in social interaction, abnormalities in communication and restricted activities and interests. While verbal autistic subjects may present a correct mastery of the formal aspects of speech, they have difficulties in prosody (music of speech), leading to communication disorders. Few behavioural studies have revealed a prosodic impairment in children with autism, and among the few fMRI studies aiming at assessing the neural network involved in language, none has specifically studied prosodic speech. The aim of the present study was to characterize specific prosodic components such as linguistic prosody (intonation, rhythm and emphasis) and emotional prosody and to correlate them with the neural network underlying them. We used a behavioural test (Profiling Elements of the Prosodic System, PEPS) and fMRI to characterize prosodic deficits and investigate the neural network underlying prosodic processing. Results revealed the existence of a link between perceptive and productive prosodic deficits for some prosodic components (rhythm, emphasis and affect) in HFA and also revealed that the neural network involved in prosodic speech perception exhibits abnormal activation in the left SMG as compared to controls (activation positively correlated with intonation and emphasis) and an absence of deactivation patterns in regions involved in the default mode. These prosodic impairments could not only result from activation patterns abnormalities but also from an inability to adequately use the strategy of the default network inhibition, both mechanisms that have to be considered for decreasing task performance in High Functioning Autism.

  11. Prospective study comparing functional outcomes and revision rates between hip resurfacing and total hip arthroplasty: preliminary results for 2 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Pailhé

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a need of independent prospective studies about modern generation of hip resurfacing implants. The aim of this propective observational study was to compare the functional outcomes and revision rates with hip resurfacing arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty and to present the preliminary results at 2 years. Patients included were recruited prospectively in the Partial Pelvic Replacement Hip Project by a single surgeon between January 2007 and January 2010. Patients were assessed with the Harris Hip Score (HHS and Postel-Merle d’Aubigné (MDA score and Devane Score. The end point of the study was reoperation for any cause related to the prosthesis. At a mean follow up of 38.6 months there were a total of 142 patients with hip resurfacing (group 1 [100 Durom® (Zimmer Inc., Warsaw, IN, USA and 42 Birmingham Hip Resurfacing® (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA] and 278 patients with total hip arthroplasty (group 2. The results showed significantly greater gain of HHS, MDA and Devane score with hip resurfacing procedures. However, considering all the complications, the rate was significantly higher in group 16.4% vs 1.79% in group 2 (P<0.0001. In group 1 we observed 6 complications only concerned males with Durom® implants. The follow up of this cohort is still on going and may deliver more information on the evolution of these results in time.

  12. The Effect of Specific Sling Exercises on the Functional Movement Screen Score in Adolescent Volleyball Players: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linek Paweł

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing data indicate that the result of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS test influences the likelihood of subsequent injury in professional athletes. Therefore, exercises increasing test scores of the FMS may be useful at various stages of sports activity. This study evaluated the effects of the NEURAC sling exercises method on the FMS test score in teenage volleyball players. The study was conducted on 15 volleyball players aged 14 years. The FMS test was performed three times interspersed with a two-month interval. Between the first and the second assessment, neither additional treatment nor training was applied, while between the second and the third assessment, the participants performed stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method. Training was carried out twice a week, for eight weeks. The analysis showed that between the first and the second measurement, no significant differences occurred. The use of specific sling exercises caused a significant improvement in FMS results (p ≤ 0.01 between the first and the third, as well as the second and the third measurement. The applied stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method positively influenced the FMS test result in male subjects practicing volleyball. Performance of such exercises also resulted in more than 90% of the subjects having a total FMS test score ≥ 17, which may be important in the prevention of injuries. The preliminary results indicate that this type of exercise should be included in a teenage volleyball training routine.

  13. The Effect of Specific Sling Exercises on the Functional Movement Screen Score in Adolescent Volleyball Players: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linek, Paweł; Saulicz, Edward; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wójtowicz, Monika; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    The existing data indicate that the result of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) test influences the likelihood of subsequent injury in professional athletes. Therefore, exercises increasing test scores of the FMS may be useful at various stages of sports activity. This study evaluated the effects of the NEURAC sling exercises method on the FMS test score in teenage volleyball players. The study was conducted on 15 volleyball players aged 14 years. The FMS test was performed three times interspersed with a two-month interval. Between the first and the second assessment, neither additional treatment nor training was applied, while between the second and the third assessment, the participants performed stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method. Training was carried out twice a week, for eight weeks. The analysis showed that between the first and the second measurement, no significant differences occurred. The use of specific sling exercises caused a significant improvement in FMS results (p ≤ 0.01) between the first and the third, as well as the second and the third measurement. The applied stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method positively influenced the FMS test result in male subjects practicing volleyball. Performance of such exercises also resulted in more than 90% of the subjects having a total FMS test score ≥ 17, which may be important in the prevention of injuries. The preliminary results indicate that this type of exercise should be included in a teenage volleyball training routine.

  14. Quantitative assessment of age-related macular degeneration using parametric modeling of the leakage transfer function: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldeeb, Safaa M; Abdelmoula, Walid M; Shah, Syed M; Fahmy, Ahmed S

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness and visual impairment in older adults. The wet form of the disease is characterized by abnormal blood vessels forming a choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV), that result in destruction of normal architecture of the retina. Current evaluation and follow up of wet AMD include subjective evaluation of Fluorescein Angiograms (FA) to determine the activity of the lesion and monitor the progression or regression of the disease. However, this subjective evaluation prevents accurate monitoring of the disease progression or regression in response to a pharmacologic agent. In this work, we present a method that allows objective assessment of the activity of a CNV lesion which can be statistically compared across different patient and time points. The method is based on a hypothesis that the discrepancy in the time-intensity signals among the diseased and normal retinal areas are due to an implicit transfer function whose parameters can be used to characterize the retina. The method begins with parametric modeling of the temporal variation of the lesion and background intensities. Then, the values of the model parameters are used to evaluate the change in the activity of the disease. Preliminary results on five datasets show that the calculated parameters are highly correlated with the Visual Acuity (VA) of the patients.

  15. A novel device for grasping assessment during functional tasks: preliminary results

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    Ana Carolinne Portela Rocha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology and first results obtained in a study with a novel device that allows the analysis of grasping quality. Such a device is able to acquire motion information of upper limbs allowing kinetic of manipulation analysis as well. A pilot experiment was carried out with six groups of typically developing children aged between 5 and 10 years old, with 7-8 children in each one. The device, designed to emulate a glass, has an optical system composed by one digital camera and a special convex mirror that together allow image acquisition of grasping hand posture when it is grasped and manipulated. It also carries an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU that captures motion data as acceleration, orientation, and angular velocities. The novel instrumented object is used in our approach to evaluate functional tasks performance in quantitative terms. During tests each child was invited to grasp the cylindrical part of the device that was placed on the top of a table, simulating the task of drinking a glass of water. In the sequence the child was oriented to transport the device back to the starting position and release it. The task was repeated 3 times for each child. A grasping hand posture evaluation is presented as an example to evaluate grasping quality. Additionally, motion patterns obtained with the triasl performed with the different groups are presented and discussed. This device is attractive due to its portable characteristics, the small size and its ability to evaluate grasping form. The results may be also useful to analyze the evolution of the rehabilitation process through reach-to-grasping movement and the grasping images analysis.

  16. The integration of prosodic speech in high functioning autism: a preliminary FMRI study.

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    Isabelle Hesling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a specific triad of symptoms such as abnormalities in social interaction, abnormalities in communication and restricted activities and interests. While verbal autistic subjects may present a correct mastery of the formal aspects of speech, they have difficulties in prosody (music of speech, leading to communication disorders. Few behavioural studies have revealed a prosodic impairment in children with autism, and among the few fMRI studies aiming at assessing the neural network involved in language, none has specifically studied prosodic speech. The aim of the present study was to characterize specific prosodic components such as linguistic prosody (intonation, rhythm and emphasis and emotional prosody and to correlate them with the neural network underlying them. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a behavioural test (Profiling Elements of the Prosodic System, PEPS and fMRI to characterize prosodic deficits and investigate the neural network underlying prosodic processing. Results revealed the existence of a link between perceptive and productive prosodic deficits for some prosodic components (rhythm, emphasis and affect in HFA and also revealed that the neural network involved in prosodic speech perception exhibits abnormal activation in the left SMG as compared to controls (activation positively correlated with intonation and emphasis and an absence of deactivation patterns in regions involved in the default mode. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These prosodic impairments could not only result from activation patterns abnormalities but also from an inability to adequately use the strategy of the default network inhibition, both mechanisms that have to be considered for decreasing task performance in High Functioning Autism.

  17. Functional near infrared spectroscopy as a potential biological assessment of addiction recovery: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jared P; Harris, Kitty S; Shumway, Sterling T; Kimball, Thomas G; Herrera, J Caleb; Dsauza, Cynthia M; Bradshaw, Spencer D

    2015-03-01

    Addiction science has primarily utilized self-report, continued substance use, and relapse factors to explore the process of recovery. However, the entry into successful abstinence substantially reduces our assessment abilities. Advances in neuroscience may be the key to objective understanding, treating, and monitoring long-term success in addiction recovery. To explore functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIR) as a viable technique in the assessment of addiction-cue reactivity. Specifically, prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation to alcohol cues was explored among formally alcohol-dependent individuals, across varying levels of successful abstinence. The aim of the investigation was to identify patterns of PFC activation change consistent with duration of abstinence. A total of 15 formally alcohol-dependent individuals, with abstinence durations ranging from 1 month to 10 years, viewed alcohol images during fNIR PFC assessment. Participants also subjectively rated the same images for affect and arousal level. Subjective ratings of alcohol cues did not significantly correlate with duration of abstinence. As expected, days of abstinence did not significantly correlate with neutral cue fNIR reactivity. However, for alcohol cues, fNIR results showed increased days of abstinence was associated with decreased activation within the dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex regions. The present results suggest that fNIR may be a viable tool in the assessment of addiction-cue reactivity. RESULTS also support previous findings on the importance of dorsolateral and dorsomedial PFC in alcohol-cue activation. The findings build upon these past results suggesting that fNIR-assessed activation may represent a robust biological marker of successful addiction recovery.

  18. The evaluation of neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus by functional neuroimaging. Preliminary results

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    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of functional neuro-imaging for describe neurological involvement in Lupus Erithematosus Systemicus. Methods. 20 SLE patients were included into this study (18 females / 2 males. Median age was 40.5 years (range 16 –66 ys, 9 patients with a clear neurological involvement, 7 with aspecific neurological symptoms and 4 were asymptomatics, according to 1999 ACR Classification. All patients were underwent to conventional resonance imaging (RMFLAIR, RM perfusion ( RM-PWI, RM diffusion (RM-DWI and cerebral SPECT. The RM techniques was performed using a 1 Tesla “Signa-Horizon” Tomograph by General Eletric: The data analysis was performed from two indipendent neuroradiologist and than trough coordinated evalutation after coregistration of acquired volumes. Results: In 11/20 patients (55% lesions were demonstrated in RM-FLAIR evaluation, more frequent in cases with focal symptoms than in diffuse. RM-PWI was positive in 50% of cases. SPECT analysis was altered in 85 % of patients. In all patients RM-DWI evaluation was negative. 5 of 29 lesional areas (3 patients showed by SPECT analysis were positive in RM-PWI. None of them was positive in RM-FLAIR study. After coordinated evaluation of RM-FLAIR, SPECT and RM-PWI, 7 findings were considered false positive. 6 Of patients with negative RM-FLAIR were positive in SPECT and 3 in RM-PWI. Only 1 patient was positive in SPECT and RM-PWI. Conclusions: According to the literature, the RM-FLAIR is a very sensitive procedure to describe the lesional charge, especially in patients with focal symptoms. All lesions was considered as stable outcomes due to negativity of RM-DWI analysis. The SPECT is a sensitive technique to individuate cerebral areas of altered perfusion. The coregistration seems to be an helpful method to improve the explanation of uncertain cases. e the sections are prepared for the microscopic analysis of the various

  19. Impact of Tactile Stimulation on Neurobehavioral Development of Premature Infants in Assiut City

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    Sayed, Atyat Mohammed Hassan; Youssef, Magda Mohamed E.; Hassanein, Farouk El-Sayed; Mobarak, Amal Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess impact of tactile stimulation on neurobehavioral development of premature infants in Assiut City. Design: Quasi-experimental research design. Setting: The study was conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Assiut University Children Hospital, Assiut General Hospital, Health Insurance Hospital (ElMabarah Hospital) and…

  20. Fetal Neurobehavioral Development and the Role of Maternal Nutrient Intake and Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Marisa; Smerling, Jennifer; Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Foss, Sophie; Monk, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Measuring and understanding fetal neurodevelopment provides insight regarding the developing brain. Maternal nutrient intake and psychological stress during pregnancy each impact fetal neurodevelopment and influence childhood outcomes and are thus important factors to consider when studying fetal neurobehavioral development. The authors provide an…

  1. Conflicting perspectives on neurobehavioral theories of the depressive disorders and drug actions.

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    Katz, Martin M

    2016-12-01

    A prominent theory of depression focusses on neural plasticity and stress as central issues in seeking to develop a pattern of identifiable biological markers for the depressive disorders. Relative neglect, however, of clinical factors in that theory limits the uncovering of markers and opens to question their methodological approach. A conflicting theory, the 'opposed neurobehavioral states', based on dimensional analysis of monoamine neurotransmitter systems and behavioural factors is presented. This perspectives paper contrasts the two approaches viewing the biomarkers theory as premature at this point in the progress of depression research. Studies developed to support the biomarkers theory and the opposed neurobehavioral states theory are examined for their strengths and limitations in explaining the nature of the disorder and the actions of therapeutic drugs. Reference is made to reviews of the many studies on biomarkers and the recent work that supports the opposed neurobehavioral states theory. Discussion Main issue: the biomarkers theory sets important goals, but despite the many advances in the neural investigations of factors underlying depression, is still not successful in specifying markers. Thus, it is believed to be applying the wrong methodologic approach and premature in its claims. the 'opposed neurobehavioral' theory is limited in its breadth of research. It applies, however, the dimensional approach to the clinical side of the problem, a methodological approach more likely to be effective in selecting the best clinical treatment and open to a more productive path to understanding of the nature of the disorder in future research.

  2. COMPARISON OF ACUTE NEUROBEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF N-METHYL CARBAMATE INSECTICIDES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The acute neurobehavioral and cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting effects of N-methyl carbamate insecticides have not been systematically compared. We evaluated five carbamates - carbaryl (CB), propoxur (PP), oxamyl (OM), methomyl (MM), and methiocarb (MC). Adult male Long-Evans ra...

  3. Neurobehavioral Consequences of Prenatal Exposure to Smoking at 6 to 8 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael; Greenberg, Mark; Blair, Clancy; Stifter, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Between 400,000 and 800,000 infants are born in the United States each year to women who smoked cigarettes during their pregnancy. Whereas the physical health consequences to infants of prenatal exposure to smoking are well established, the early neurobehavioral consequences are less well understood. This study investigated the neurobehavioral…

  4. Early Malnutrition and Child Neurobehavioral Development: Insights from the Study of Children of Diabetic Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Thomas A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Studied whether disturbances in mothers' metabolism (N=139) during pregnancy may exert long-range effects on neurobehavioral development of singleton progeny. Examined detailed pregnancy and perinatal records of mothers who experienced diabetes in pregnancy and intelligence tests of their offspring, administered at ages 7 to 11 years. All…

  5. Lung function in adults following in utero and childhood exposure to arsenic in drinking water: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphiné, David C; Ferreccio, Catterina; Guntur, Sandeep; Yuan, Yan; Hammond, S Katharine; Balmes, John; Smith, Allan H; Steinmaus, Craig

    2011-08-01

    Evidence suggests that arsenic in drinking water causes non-malignant lung disease, but nearly all data concern exposed adults. The desert city of Antofagasta (population 257,976) in northern Chile had high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water (>800 μg/l) from 1958 until 1970, when a new treatment plant was installed. This scenario, with its large population, distinct period of high exposure, and accurate data on past exposure, is virtually unprecedented in environmental epidemiology. We conducted a pilot study on early-life arsenic exposure and long-term lung function. We present these preliminary findings because of the magnitude of the effects observed. We recruited a convenience sample consisting primarily of nursing school employees in Antofagasta and Arica, a city with low drinking water arsenic. Lung function and respiratory symptoms in 32 adults exposed to >800 μg/l arsenic before age 10 were compared to 65 adults without high early-life exposure. Early-life arsenic exposure was associated with 11.5% lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) (P = 0.04), 12.2% lower forced vital capacity (FVC) (P = 0.04), and increased breathlessness (prevalence odds ratio = 5.94, 95% confidence interval 1.36-26.0). Exposure-response relationships between early-life arsenic concentration and adult FEV(1) and FVC were also identified (P trend = 0.03). Early-life exposure to arsenic in drinking water may have irreversible respiratory effects of a magnitude similar to smoking throughout adulthood. Given the small study size and non-random recruitment methods, further research is needed to confirm these findings.

  6. Lack of agreement between objective and subjective measures in the evaluation of masticatory function: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroni-Pereira, Aline; Marquezin, Maria Carolina Salomé; Araujo, Darlle Santos; Pereira, Luciano José; Bommarito, Silvana; Castelo, Paula Midori

    2018-02-01

    The evaluation of mastication is important to understand the masticatory behavior and diagnose feeding difficulties. The objective of this preliminary study was to verify if there is agreement between objective and subjective validated methods of chewing evaluation in a convenience sample which consisted of 32 adolescents (mean 15.5years), complete permanent dentition and free of tooth decay. The Quality of Masticatory Function Questionnaire with the Food-Mastication, Habits, Meat, Fruit and Vegetables domains was used in the subjective evaluation. The objective aspects consisted of maximum bite force (BF) and masticatory performance (MP) by mastication of cubes of test-material and sieving to determine the median particle size (X50) and distribution in the sieves ("b"), and by the colorimetric method using colorchangeable chewing gum. Data were submitted to exploratory analysis, normality test and correlation tests (Pearson/Spearman). The correlation between BF and X50 (r=-0.43; p=0.02) and between BF and MP chewing gum (r=0.53; p=0.002) was significant with large effect size. The MP evaluated by chewing gum correlated with X50 (r=-0.34; p=0.055), but not with "b" (r=-0.06; p=0.73), while "b" correlated only with X50 (r=0.52, p=0.002). No significant correlation was observed between the objective measures and the total score of the subjective evaluation; only a negative correlation was observed between "b" and Meat domain (r=-0.40; p=0.023). The objective methods showed moderate correlation with each other and no agreement between the objective and subjective methods was observed in this sample of healthy adolescents, emphasizing the importance of both aspects in the evaluation of masticatory function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of MRI-derived input function for quantitative measurement of glucose metabolism in an integrated PET-MRI

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    Anazodo, Udunna; Kewin, Matthew [Lawson Health Research Institute, Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); Finger, Elizabeth [Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); Thiessen, Jonathan; Hadway, Jennifer; Butler, John [Lawson Health Research Institute, Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); Pavlosky, William [Diagnostic Imaging, St Joseph' s Health Care, London, Ontario (Canada); Prato, Frank; Thompson, Terry; St Lawrence, Keith [Lawson Health Research Institute, Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-05-18

    PET semi-quantitative methods such as relative uptake value can be robust but offer no biological information and do not account for intra-subject variability in tracer administration or clearance. Simultaneous multimodal measurements that combine PET and MRI not only permit crucial multiparametric measurements, it provides means of applying tracer kinetic modelling without the need for serial arterial blood sampling. In this study we adapted an image-derived input function (IDIF) method to improve characterization of glucose metabolism in an ongoing dementia study. Here we present preliminary results in a small group of frontotemporal dementia patients and controls. IDIF was obtained directly from dynamic PET data guided by regions of interest drawn on carotid vessels on high resolution T1-weighted MR Images. IDIF was corrected for contamination of non-arterial voxels. A validation of the method was performed in a porcine model in a PET-CT scanner comparing IDIF to direct arterial blood samples. Metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) was measured voxel-by-voxel in gray matter producing maps that were compared between groups. Net influx rate (Ki) and global mean CMRglc are reported. A good correlation (r = 0.9 p<0.0001) was found between corrected IDIF and input function measured from direct arterial blood sampling in the validation study. In 3 FTD and 3 controls, a trend towards hypometabolism was found in frontal, temporal and parietal lobes similar to significant differences previously reported by other groups. The global mean CMRglc and Ki observed in control subjects are in line with previous reports. In general, kinetic modelling of PET-FDG using an MR-IDIF can improve characterization of glucose metabolism in dementia. This method is feasible in multimodal studies that aim to combine PET molecular imaging with MRI as dynamic PET can be acquired along with multiple MRI measurements.

  8. Neurobehavioral toxicity in progeny of rat mothers exposed to methylmercury during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh N. Gandhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Methylmercury (MeHg is recognized as one of the most hazardous environmental pollutants. This may be a concern to long-term consumption of contaminated fish and seafood for health risk to pregnant women and their children. AIM: An animal study was conducted to assess the effect of MeHg exposure on rodent offspring following in utero exposure. METHODS: Pregnant Wister rats were treated by gavage with MeHg at dose levels of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg/day from gestation day (GD 5 till parturition, and then were allowed to deliver. RESULTS: Dams treated with 2.0 mg/kg/day MeHg group showed signs of toxicity such as gait alterations and hyperactivity resulting in the failure to deliver sustainable viable pups. MeHg had significant effects on body weight gain of dams during GD 5 till parturition. MeHg had no significant effects on the ages of physical developments such as pinna detachment, incisor eruptions or eye opening as well as alter cliff avoidance, surface righting, swimming ontogeny, startle reflex, pivoting, negative geotaxis, or forelimb and hindlimb grip strength in either sex. Exposure to 1.0 mg/kg/day MeHg treatment group prolonged gestation period, retard mid-air righting in male pups, shortened forelimb grip strength measured on rotating rod in either sex and enhanced open field behaviour in male pups. Data obtained from Functional Observation Battery (FOB also revealed impairment of neuromotor performance in male pups. The male pups appeared to be more susceptible than the female pups. CONCLUSION. Overall, the dose level of MeHg in the present study produced a few adverse effects on the neurobehavioral parameters, and it may alter neuromotor performance of the male pups.

  9. A Review of Neurobehavioral Challenges in Children Exposed Prenatally to Intrauterine Opioid

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    Kamaledin Alaedini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Substance abuse has remained a worldwide issue for many years and in recent decades there has been a major growth in the number of individuals consuming opioids. Several studies have discovered that young kids who have been exposed to opioids develop greater damages in overall intellectual capabilities and neurobehavioral functions than non-exposed children. Evidence Acquisition The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surviving texts on the incidence of challenging behavior among kids due to prenatal medication contact. Overall, out of 84 identified manuscripts, 18 were established to consider intellectual, psychomotor, and behavior consequences in opioid-exposed infants, precollege and college children when matched with healthy no-opioid-exposed controls. Results The results indicate that children exposed to opioid in utero may be cognitively affected over time, even once located in stable families on an actual early age. Somewhat, susceptibilities seem to rise by age for girls, and the unprotected boys persist behind non exposed boys entirely through infancy and into college age. Therefore, there looks to be a constant deleterious consequence of factors associated with prenatal medication contact over time. Conclusions The results indicate children exposed to opioid in utero may be cognitively affected over time, even once located in stable families on an actual early age. The natural susceptibilities of prenatally drug-exposed children can affect initial intellectual skills which yet again are extremely associated with advanced mental capabilities. It is feasible that pre- and postnatal genetic susceptibilities and ecological issues cooperate in a transactional method through the child’s lifespan.

  10. Distinct neurobehavioral dysfunction based on the timing of developmental binge-like alcohol exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrian, B; Lopez-Guzman, M; Wilson, DA; Saito, M

    2014-01-01

    Gestational exposure to alcohol can result in long-lasting behavioral deficiencies generally described as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD-modeled rodent studies of acute ethanol exposure typically select one developmental window to simulate a specific context equivalent of human embryogenesis, and study consequences of ethanol exposure within that particular developmental epoch. Exposure timing is likely a large determinant in the neurobehavioral consequence of early ethanol exposure, as each brain region is variably susceptible to ethanol cytotoxicity and has unique sensitive periods in their development. We made a parallel comparison of the long-term effects of single-day binge ethanol at either embryonic day 8 (E8) or postnatal day 7 (P7) in male and female mice, and here demonstrate the differential long-term impacts on neuroanatomy, behavior and in vivo electrophysiology of two systems with very different developmental trajectories. The significant long-term differences in odor-evoked activity, local circuit inhibition, and spontaneous coherence between brain regions in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway that were found as a result of developmental ethanol exposure, varied based on insult timing. Long-term effects on cell proliferation and interneuron cell density were also found to vary by insult timing as well as by region. Finally, spatial memory performance was affected in P7-exposed mice, but not E8-exposed mice. Our physiology and behavioral results are conceptually coherent with the neuroanatomical data attained from these same mice. Our results recognize both variable and shared effects of ethanol exposure timing on long-term circuit function and their supported behavior. PMID:25241068

  11. A Neurobehavioral Mechanism Linking Behaviorally Inhibited Temperament and Later Adolescent Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzell, George A; Troller-Renfree, Sonya V; Barker, Tyson V; Bowman, Lindsay C; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Henderson, Heather A; Kagan, Jerome; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2017-12-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament identified in early childhood that is a risk factor for later social anxiety. However, mechanisms underlying the development of social anxiety remain unclear. To better understand the emergence of social anxiety, longitudinal studies investigating changes at behavioral neural levels are needed. BI was assessed in the laboratory at 2 and 3 years of age (N = 268). Children returned at 12 years, and an electroencephalogram was recorded while children performed a flanker task under 2 conditions: once while believing they were being observed by peers and once while not being observed. This methodology isolated changes in error monitoring (error-related negativity) and behavior (post-error reaction time slowing) as a function of social context. At 12 years, current social anxiety symptoms and lifetime diagnoses of social anxiety were obtained. Childhood BI prospectively predicted social-specific error-related negativity increases and social anxiety symptoms in adolescence; these symptoms directly related to clinical diagnoses. Serial mediation analysis showed that social error-related negativity changes explained relations between BI and social anxiety symptoms (n = 107) and diagnosis (n = 92), but only insofar as social context also led to increased post-error reaction time slowing (a measure of error preoccupation); this model was not significantly related to generalized anxiety. Results extend prior work on socially induced changes in error monitoring and error preoccupation. These measures could index a neurobehavioral mechanism linking BI to adolescent social anxiety symptoms and diagnosis. This mechanism could relate more strongly to social than to generalized anxiety in the peri-adolescent period. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  12. Distinct neurobehavioral dysfunction based on the timing of developmental binge-like alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrian, B; Lopez-Guzman, M; Wilson, D A; Saito, M

    2014-11-07

    Gestational exposure to alcohol can result in long-lasting behavioral deficiencies generally described as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD-modeled rodent studies of acute ethanol exposure typically select one developmental window to simulate a specific context equivalent of human embryogenesis, and study consequences of ethanol exposure within that particular developmental epoch. Exposure timing is likely a large determinant in the neurobehavioral consequence of early ethanol exposure, as each brain region is variably susceptible to ethanol cytotoxicity and has unique sensitive periods in their development. We made a parallel comparison of the long-term effects of single-day binge ethanol at either embryonic day 8 (E8) or postnatal day 7 (P7) in male and female mice, and here demonstrate the differential long-term impacts on neuroanatomy, behavior and in vivo electrophysiology of two systems with very different developmental trajectories. The significant long-term differences in odor-evoked activity, local circuit inhibition, and spontaneous coherence between brain regions in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway that were found as a result of developmental ethanol exposure, varied based on insult timing. Long-term effects on cell proliferation and interneuron cell density were also found to vary by insult timing as well as by region. Finally, spatial memory performance and object exploration were affected in P7-exposed mice, but not E8-exposed mice. Our physiology and behavioral results are conceptually coherent with the neuroanatomical data attained from these same mice. Our results recognize both variable and shared effects of ethanol exposure timing on long-term circuit function and their supported behavior. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of attention processes in presumed obligate carriers of schizophrenia: preliminary findings

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    Morris Robin G

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presumed obligate carriers (POCs are the first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia who, although do not exhibit the disorder, are in direct lineage of it. Thus, this subpopulation of first-degree relatives could provide very important information with regard to the investigation of endophenotypes for schizophrenia that could clarify the often contradictory findings in schizophrenia high-risk populations. To date, despite the extant literature on schizophrenia endophenotypes, we are only aware of one other study that examined the neural mechanisms that underlie cognitive abnormalities in this group. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a more homogeneous group of relatives, such as POCs, have neural abnormalities that may be related to schizophrenia. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to collect blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD response data in six POCs and eight unrelated healthy controls while performing under conditions of sustained, selective and divided attention. Results The POCs indicated alterations in a widely distributed network of regions involved in attention processes, such as the prefrontal and temporal (including the parahippocampal gyrus cortices, in addition to the anterior cingulate gyrus. More specifically, a general reduction in BOLD response was found in these areas compared to the healthy participants during attention processes. Conclusion These preliminary findings of decreased activity in POCs indicate that this more homogeneous population of unaffected relatives share similar neural abnormalities with people with schizophrenia, suggesting that reduced BOLD activity in the attention network may be an intermediate marker for schizophrenia.

  14. The use of compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) for postoperative monitoring of free functioning gracilis muscle transfer: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Amr M E; Doi, Kazuteru; Hattori, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Soutetsu; Yonemura, Hiroshi; Kumar, Kannan

    2015-07-01

    The use of skin flap as a monitoring tool cannot sensitively reflect the vascularity of a functioning free muscle transfer (FFMT), and it may result in delayed detection of vascular compromise. We report the use of compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) as a supplemental method in the monitoring of free gracilis transfers. In 46 successful free gracilis transfers in 23 patients following total brachial plexus injury (BPI), CMAPs were measured every hour for 75 h postoperatively. We analyzed the amplitude, latency, and duration to understand the Wallerian degeneration effect and thresholds to warn vascular compromise clinically. After the primary study, we applied CMAP monitoring for 23 clinical cases. Three basic wave patterns of the CMAPs with or without dispersion were recognized. Forty-two CMAPs were successfully traced and 27 CMAPs with one constant wave pattern showed two types of amplitude and latency changes; positive and negative Wallerian degeneration. The mean 1-h maximal decreases of amplitudes and elongation of latency were 36% and 77%, respectively; however, they returned to the original pattern within 1 h. There were no significant differences of reinnervation time and final strength of elbow flexion between these 46 muscle transfers. In the clinical series, we experienced two cases of vascular compromise that showed CMAP critical alterations without skin flap changes. Our preliminary results show that the measurement of CMAPs has great potential for the sensitive and reliable monitoring of muscle circulation after FFMT. The clinical critical values of CMAP amplitude changes for vascular compromise are >40% sudden decrease, and they continued to decrease further. This technique is most useful for postoperative vascular monitoring of a buried muscle flap, and it is proven to be of clinical significance in current vascular compromised cases. Level Ⅳ, Case Series. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic

  15. Measuring Soldier Performance During the Patrol-Exertion Multitask: Preliminary Validation of a Postconcussive Functional Return-to-Duty Metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Matthew R; Weightman, Margaret M; Radomski, Mary Vining; Smith, Laurel; Finkelstein, Marsha; Cecchini, Amy; Heaton, Kristin Jensen; McCulloch, Karen

    2017-05-10

    To assess the discriminant validity of the Patrol-Exertion Multitask (PEMT), a novel, multidomain, functional return-to-duty clinical assessment for active duty military personnel. Measurement development study. Nonclinical indoor testing facility. Participants (N=84) were healthy control (HC) service members (SMs; n=51) and military personnel (n=33) with persistent postconcussive symptoms receiving rehabilitation (mild traumatic brain injury [mTBI]). Not applicable. Known-groups discriminant validity was evaluated by comparing performance on the PEMT in 2 groups of active duty SMs: HCs and personnel with mTBI residual symptoms. Participant PEMT performance was based on responses in 4 subtasks during a 12-minute patrolling scenario: (1) accuracy in identifying virtual improvised explosive device (IED) markers and responses to scenario-derived questions from a computer-simulated foot patrol; (2) auditory reaction time responses; (3) rating of perceived exertion during stepping; and (4) self-reported visual clarity (ie, gaze stability) during vertical head-in-space translation while stepping. Significant between-group differences for the PEMT were observed in 2 of 4 performance domains. Postpatrol IED identification task/question responses (P=.179) and rating of perceived exertion (P=.133) did not discriminate between groups. Participant self-report of visual clarity during stepping revealed significant (P<.001) between-group differences. SM reaction time responses to scenario-based auditory cues were significantly delayed in the mTBI group in both the early (P=.013) and late (P=.002) stages of the PEMT. Findings from this study support the use of a naturalistic, multidomain, complex clinical assessment to discriminate between healthy SMs and personnel with mTBI residual symptoms. Based on this preliminary study, additional research to further refine the PEMT and extend its application to return-to-work outcomes in military and civilian environments is warranted

  16. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation upon attention and visuoperceptual function in Lewy body dementia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Greg J; Firbank, Michael J; Kumar, Hrishikesh; Chatterjee, Payel; Chakraborty, Titas; Dutt, Alakananda; Taylor, John-Paul

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with Lewy body dementia (LBD) typically exhibit impairments in attentional and executive function. Current pharmacological treatments have limited efficacy, with associated side effects. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may represent an alternative treatment, as cognitive improvements have been demonstrated in healthy individuals. However, no studies to date have assessed the feasibility of tDCS in an LBD population. The aim of this preliminary study, therefore, was to assess the tolerability of tDCS, as well as its effects upon attentional and visuoperceptual performance, in LBD patients. Thirteen participants completed attentional (simple reaction time, choice reaction time, and digit vigilance) and forced-choice visuoperceptual (angle and motion perception) tasks before and after one 20-min session of active tDCS (0.08 mA/cm2). The anodal electrode was applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the cathodal electrode was applied to the right deltoid. Attentional (task accuracy and reaction time to correct answers) and visuoperceptual (task accuracy and difficulty) outcome measures were compared using paired t-tests. All participants tolerated stimulation and did not report any side effects during or immediately after stimulation. Post-stimulation improvements were observed in the choice reaction time (increased percentage of correct answers; p = 0.01) and digit vigilance (reduced mean reaction time to correct answers; p = 0.02) attention tasks. Visuoperceptual task performance did not improve (all p-values > 0.05). Attentional, but not visuoperceptual, improvements were observed following stimulation in LBD patients. Larger-scale, placebo-controlled trials are needed to confirm whether tDCS is a useful treatment option for attentional deficits in LBD.

  17. A Nonlinear Dynamics-Based Estimator for Functional Electrical Stimulation: Preliminary Results from Lower-Leg Extension Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marcus; Zhong, Qiang; Kirsch, Nicholas; Dani, Ashwin; Clark, William W; Sharma, Nitin

    2017-09-07

    Miniature inertial measurement units (IMUs) are wearable sensors that measure limb segment or joint angles during dynamic movements. However, IMUs are generally prone to drift, external magnetic interference, and measurement noise. This paper presents a new class of nonlinear state estimation technique called state-dependent coefficient (SDC) estimation to accurately predict joint angles from IMU measurements. The SDC estimation method uses limb dynamics, instead of limb kinematics, to estimate the limb state. Importantly, the nonlinear limb dynamic model is formulated into state dependent matrices that facilitate the estimator design without performing a Jacobian linearization. The estimation method is experimentally demonstrated to predict knee joint angle measurements during functional electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscle. The nonlinear knee musculoskeletal model was identified through a series of experiments. The SDC estimator was then compared to an Extended Kalman filter (EKF), which uses a Jacobian linearization and a rotation matrix method, which uses a kinematic model instead of the dynamic model. Each estimator's performance was evaluated against the true value of the joint angle, which was measured through a rotary encoder. The experimental results showed that the SDC estimator, the rotation matrix method, and EKF had root mean square errors of 2.70°, 2.86°, and 4.42°, respectively. Our preliminary experimental results show the new estimator's advantage over the EKF method but a slight advantage over the rotation matrix method. However, the information from the dynamic model allows the SDC method to use only one IMU to measure the knee angle compared to the rotation matrix method that uses 2 IMUs to estimate the angle.

  18. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early

    OpenAIRE

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhoo...

  19. On-Line Analysis of Physiologic and Neurobehavioral Variables During Long-Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emery N.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop reliable statistical algorithms for on-line analysis of physiologic and neurobehavioral variables monitored during long-duration space missions. Maintenance of physiologic and neurobehavioral homeostasis during long-duration space missions is crucial for ensuring optimal crew performance. If countermeasures are not applied, alterations in homeostasis will occur in nearly all-physiologic systems. During such missions data from most of these systems will be either continually and/or continuously monitored. Therefore, if these data can be analyzed as they are acquired and the status of these systems can be continually assessed, then once alterations are detected, appropriate countermeasures can be applied to correct them. One of the most important physiologic systems in which to maintain homeostasis during long-duration missions is the circadian system. To detect and treat alterations in circadian physiology during long duration space missions requires development of: 1) a ground-based protocol to assess the status of the circadian system under the light-dark environment in which crews in space will typically work; and 2) appropriate statistical methods to make this assessment. The protocol in Project 1, Circadian Entrainment, Sleep-Wake Regulation and Neurobehavioral will study human volunteers under the simulated light-dark environment of long-duration space missions. Therefore, we propose to develop statistical models to characterize in near real time circadian and neurobehavioral physiology under these conditions. The specific aims of this project are to test the hypotheses that: 1) Dynamic statistical methods based on the Kronauer model of the human circadian system can be developed to estimate circadian phase, period, amplitude from core-temperature data collected under simulated light- dark conditions of long-duration space missions. 2) Analytic formulae and numerical algorithms can be developed to compute the error in the

  20. Neurobehavioral Consequences of HTLV-III Brain Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Encephalopathy: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-15

    hypothesized, the neuropsychological evaluation of these patients has been the most revealing. Ongoing analyses have shown a subtle cognitive dysfunction ...AD-A220 180 +++AAD-A22 0t Available Copy FUNDING NO.: 87PP7856 TITLE: Neurobehavioral Consequences of HTLV -III Brain Infection and Acquired Immune...TITLE (Include Securty Classifiat:on) Neurobehavioral Consequences of HTLV -1II Brain Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS

  1. The administration of psilocybin to healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-functional magnetic resonance imaging environment: a preliminary investigation of tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Williams, Tim M; Sessa, Ben; Tyacke, Robin J; Rich, Ann S; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

    2011-11-01

    This study sought to assess the tolerability of intravenously administered psilocybin in healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-magnetic resonance imaging environment as a preliminary stage to a controlled investigation using functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the effects of psilocybin on cerebral blood flow and activity. The present pilot study demonstrated that up to 2 mg of psilocybin delivered as a slow intravenous injection produces short-lived but typical drug effects that are psychologically and physiologically well tolerated. With appropriate care, this study supports the viability of functional magnetic resonance imaging work with psilocybin.

  2. rTMS: A Treatment to Restore Function After Severe TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    III will examine the effect of rTMS on white fiber tracts and whether or not the rTMS-related effects correlate with improving neurobehavioral function...improving neurobehavioral function; (3) Examine the effect of rTMS on white fiber tracts and whether or not the rTMS-related effects correlate with...aging. Lamar serves at PI. Title: Neuromodulation and Neurorehabilitation for Treatment of Functional Deficits after mTBI plus PTSD Source of Support

  3. Behavioral Sleep Problems and their Potential Impact on Developing Executive Function in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, Kathryn; Graham J Reid; Morton, J. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Bedtime resistance and night waking are common sleep problems throughout childhood, especially in the early years. These sleep problems may lead to difficulties in neurobehavioral functioning, but most research into childhood sleep problems has not emphasized the importance of the developmental context in which disruptions in neurobehavioral and daytime functioning occur. We review the development of sleep as well as executive functioning (EF) in childhood and suggest that EF may be particula...

  4. Preliminary design of a vacuum pressure swing adsorption process for natural gas upgrading based on amino-functionalized MIL-53

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra-Crespo, P.; Wezendonk, T.A.; Bach-Samario, C.; Sundar, N.; Verouden, K.; Zweemer, M.; Gascon, J.; van den Berg, Henderikus; Kapteijn, F.

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary study based on a conceptual process design methodology that includes a technical evaluation and an economic study has been carried out for the use of the metal-organic framework NH2-MIL-53(Al) as adsorbent for the separation of carbon dioxide from methane. Among the alternatives

  5. Evaluating and treating neurobehavioral symptoms in professional American football players: Lessons from a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Raquel C; Possin, Katherine L; Hess, Christopher P; Huang, Eric J; Grinberg, Lea T; Nolan, Amber L; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Ghosh, Pia M; Lanata, Serggio; Merrilees, Jennifer; Kramer, Joel H; Berger, Mitchel S; Miller, Bruce L; Yaffe, Kristine; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2015-08-01

    In the aftermath of multiple high-profile cases of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional American football players, physicians in clinical practice are likely to face an increasing number of retired football players seeking evaluation for chronic neurobehavioral symptoms. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of these patients are sparse. Clinical criteria for a diagnosis of CTE are under development. The contribution of CTE vs other neuropathologies to neurobehavioral symptoms in these players remains unclear. Here we describe the experience of our academic memory clinic in evaluating and treating a series of 14 self-referred symptomatic players. Our aim is to raise awareness in the neurology community regarding the different clinical phenotypes, idiosyncratic but potentially treatable symptoms, and the spectrum of underlying neuropathologies in these players.

  6. The impact of neurobehavioral features on medication adherence in HIV: Evidence from longitudinal models

    OpenAIRE

    Panos, Stella E.; Del Re, A. C.; Thames, April D.; Arentsen, Timothy J.; Patel, Sapna M.; Castellon, Steven A.; Singer, Elyse J.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    Effective antiretroviral therapy has led to substantial improvements in health-related outcomes among individuals with HIV. Despite advances in HIV pharmacotherapy, suboptimal medication adherence remains a significant barrier to successful treatment. Although several factors have been associated with medication adherence in the extant literature, study assessing the effects of some of the neurobehavioral features specific to HIV has been limited. Moreover, although there is a growing body of...

  7. Organophosphorus pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral performance in Latino children living in an orchard community

    OpenAIRE

    Butler-Dawson, Jaime; Galvin, Kit; Thorne, Peter S.; Rohlman, Diane S.

    2016-01-01

    Children living in agricultural communities have a greater risk from pesticides due to para-occupational pathways. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides on the neurobehavioral performance of school-aged Latino children over time. Two exposure measures were used to estimate children’s pesticide exposure: parent’s occupation (agricultural or non-agricultural) and organophosphate residues in home carpet dust samples. During 2008–2011, 206 scho...

  8. Sensory processing disorder in preterm infants during early childhood and relationships to early neurobehavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckman, Justin; Hilton, Claudia; Rogers, Cynthia; Pineda, Roberta

    2017-10-01

    Preterm infants are exposed to a variety of sensory stimuli that they are not developmentally prepared to handle, which puts them at risk for developing a sensory processing disorder. However, the patterns and predictors of sensory processing disorder and their relationship to early behavior at term equivalent age are poorly understood. The aims of the study are to: 1) describe the incidence of sensory processing disorder in preterm infants at four to six years of age, 2) define medical and sociodemographic factors that relate to sensory processing disorder, and 3) explore relationships between early neurobehavior at term equivalent age and sensory processing disorder at age four to six years. This study was a prospective longitudinal design. Thirty-two preterm infants born ≤30weeks gestation were enrolled. Infants had standardized neurobehavioral testing at term equivalent age with the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale. At four to six years of age, participants were assessed with the Sensory Processing Assessment for Young Children (SPA). Sixteen children (50%) had at least one abnormal score on the SPA, indicating a sensory processing disorder. There were no identified relationships between medical and sociodemographic factors and sensory processing disorder. More sub-optimal reflexes (p=0.04) and more signs of stress (p=0.02) at term equivalent age were related to having a sensory processing disorder in early childhood. Preterm infants are at an increased risk for developing a sensory processing disorder. Medical and sociodemographic factors related to sensory processing disorder could not be isolated in this study, however relationships between sensory processing disorder and early neurobehavior were identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An avian model for the reversal of neurobehavioral teratogenicity with neural stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dotan, Sharon; Pinkas, Adi; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Yanai, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A fast and simple model which uses lower animals on the evolutionary scale is beneficial for developing procedures for the reversal of neurobehavioral teratogenicity with neural stem cells. Here, we established a procedure for the derivation of chick neural stem cells, establishing embryonic day (E) 10 as optimal for progression to neuronal phenotypes. Cells were obtained from the embryonic cerebral hemispheres and incubated for 5–7 days in enriched medium containing epidermal growth factor (...

  10. Mercury-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of abnormal neurobehavior is correlated with sperm epimutations in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvan, Michael J; Kalluvila, Thomas A; Klingler, Rebekah H; Larson, Jeremy K; Pickens, Matthew; Mora-Zamorano, Francisco X; Connaughton, Victoria P; Sadler-Riggleman, Ingrid; Beck, Daniel; Skinner, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental neurotoxicant, with human exposures predominantly resulting from fish consumption. Developmental exposure of zebrafish to MeHg is known to alter their neurobehavior. The current study investigated the direct exposure and transgenerational effects of MeHg, at tissue doses similar to those detected in exposed human populations, on sperm epimutations (i.e., differential DNA methylation regions [DMRs]) and neurobehavior (i.e., visual startle and spontaneous locomotion) in zebrafish, an established human health model. F0 generation embryos were exposed to MeHg (0, 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 nM) for 24 hours ex vivo. F0 generation control and MeHg-exposed lineages were reared to adults and bred to yield the F1 generation, which was subsequently bred to the F2 generation. Direct exposure (F0 generation) and transgenerational actions (F2 generation) were then evaluated. Hyperactivity and visual deficit were observed in the unexposed descendants (F2 generation) of the MeHg-exposed lineage compared to control. An increase in F2 generation sperm epimutations was observed relative to the F0 generation. Investigation of the DMRs in the F2 generation MeHg-exposed lineage sperm revealed associated genes in the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and actin-cytoskeleton pathways being effected, which correlate to the observed neurobehavioral phenotypes. Developmental MeHg-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of abnormal neurobehavior is correlated with sperm epimutations in F2 generation adult zebrafish. Therefore, mercury can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease in zebrafish, which significantly impacts its environmental health considerations in all species including humans.

  11. The impact of repeated organophosphorus pesticide exposure on biomarkers and neurobehavioral outcomes among adolescent pesticide applicators

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed A. Ismail; Wang, Kai; Olson, James R.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Hendy, Olfat; Rasoul, Gaafar Abdel; Rohlman, Diane S.

    2017-01-01

    Egyptian adolescents are hired as seasonal workers to apply pesticides to the cotton crop and may perform this occupation for several years. However, few studies examined the effects of repeated pesticide exposure on health outcomes The goal of this study was to determine the impact of repeated pesticide exposure on neurobehavioral (NB) performance and biomarkers of exposure (urinary metabolite) and effect (cholinesterase activity). Eighty-four adolescents from two field stations in Menoufia,...

  12. Low and moderate prenatal ethanol exposures of mice during gastrulation or neurulation delays neurobehavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schambra, Uta B; Goldsmith, Jeff; Nunley, Kevin; Liu, Yali; Harirforoosh, Sam; Schambra, Heidi M

    2015-01-01

    Human and animal studies show significant delays in neurobehavioral development in offspring after prolonged prenatal exposure to moderate and high ethanol doses resulting in high blood alcohol concentration (BECs). However, none have investigated the effects of lower ethanol doses given acutely during specific developmental time periods. Here, we sought to create a mouse model for modest and circumscribed human drinking during the 3rd and 4th weeks of pregnancy. We acutely treated mice during embryo gastrulation on gestational day (GD) 7 or neurulation on GD8 with a low or moderate ethanol dose given via gavage that resulted in BECs of 107 and 177 mg/dl, respectively. We assessed neonatal physical development (pinnae unfolding, and eye opening); weight gain from postnatal day (PD) 3-65; and neurobehavioral maturation (pivoting, walking, cliff aversion, surface righting, vertical screen grasp, and rope balance) from PD3 to 17. We used a multiple linear regression model to determine the effects of dose, sex, day of treatment and birth in animals dosed during gastrulation or neurulation, relative to their vehicle controls. We found that ethanol exposure during both time points (GD7 and GD8) resulted in some delays of physical development and significant sensorimotor delays of pivoting, walking, and thick rope balance, as well as additional significant delays in cliff aversion and surface righting after GD8 treatment. We also found that treatment with the low ethanol dose more frequently affected neurobehavioral development of the surviving pups than treatment with the moderate ethanol dose, possibly due to a loss of severely affected offspring. Finally, mice born prematurely were delayed in their physical and sensorimotor development. Importantly, we showed that brief exposure to low dose ethanol, if administered during vulnerable periods of neuroanatomical development, results in significant neurobehavioral delays in neonatal mice. We thus expand concerns about

  13. Normal standards for fetal neurobehavioral developments--longitudinal quantification by four-dimensional sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjak, Asim; Andonotopo, Wiku; Hafner, Tomislav; Salihagic Kadic, Aida; Stanojevic, Milan; Azumendi, Guillermo; Ahmed, Badreldeen; Carrera, Jose M; Troyano, J M

    2006-01-01

    To construct normal standards for fetal neurobehavioral development using longitudinal observations through all trimesters by four-dimensional sonography. A group of 100 healthy normal singleton pregnancies were recruited for longitudinal 4D US examinations to evaluate fetal neurodevelopmental parameters between 7 to 40 weeks' gestation. Variables of maternal and fetal characteristics including gestational age, eight fetal movements patterns in the first trimester and 14 parameters of fetal movement and fetal facial expression patterns recorded thereafter for the construction of fetal neurological charts. Measurement of 7 parameters in the first trimester and 11 parameters in the second and third trimesters correlated with gestational age (P<0.05). Those parameters have been followed longitudinally through all trimesters and showed increasing frequency of fetal movements during the first trimester. A tendency towards decreased frequency of facial expressions and movement patterns with increasing gestational age from second to third trimesters has been noticed. With 4D sonography, it is possible to quantitatively assess normal neurobehavioral development. There is urgent need for further multicentric studies until a sufficient degree of normative data is available and the predictive validity of the specific relationship between fetal neurobehavior and child developmental outcome is better established.

  14. [Neurobehavioral manifestation in early period of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidzan, Mariola; Bidzan, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    AD and VD are preceded by a preclinical stage. Small but tangible cognitive impairments sometimes occur many years before the onset and diagnosis ofdementia. The ongoing degenerative process can be conductive to behavioural and psychological symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate the rates of neurobehavioral symptoms in the preclinical stages of AD and VD. Two hundred and ninety one residents of nursery homes were included in the study. Participants of the study did not display symptoms of dementia in accordance with DSM IV criteria and obtained at least 24 points on the MMSE scale and were on the first or second level of the Global Deterioration Scale. Participants were screened for behavioural and psychological symptoms with the NPI-NH scale, while their cognitive functioning was evaluated by means of the ADAS-cog. Participants of the study were evaluated with the MMSE scale annually. Participants who obtained less than 24 points on the MMSE scale were evaluated by a senior psychiatrist. Diagnosis of dementia was done on the basis of DSM criteria. Alzheimer's Disease was diagnosed on the basis of NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and vascular dementia on the NINDS-AIREN criteria. The study was carried out over a period of seven consecutive years. A hundred and fifty people were included in the final analysis--in 111 of them were found not to be afflicted with dementia, 25 were found to have AD and in 14 VD was diagnosed. The control group differed from the AD and VD group with respect to the initial level of cognitive impairment (ADAS-cog) and the intensity of behavioural and psychological symptoms (NPI -NH scale). Particular items of the NPI -NH scale differentiated the two groups to a different degree. In people with AD the greatest differences were observed with respect to agitation/aggression, mood swings, irritability/emotional liability and the rates of anxiety. People with VD, similarly to people with AD, significantly differed from the control group with

  15. Genetic Disruption of Arc/Arg3.1 in Mice Causes Alterations in Dopamine and Neurobehavioral Phenotypes Related to Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Managò

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human genetic studies have recently suggested that the postsynaptic activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc complex is a convergence signal for several genes implicated in schizophrenia. However, the functional significance of Arc in schizophrenia-related neurobehavioral phenotypes and brain circuits is unclear. Here, we find that, consistent with schizophrenia-related phenotypes, disruption of Arc in mice produces deficits in sensorimotor gating, cognitive functions, social behaviors, and amphetamine-induced psychomotor responses. Furthermore, genetic disruption of Arc leads to concomitant hypoactive mesocortical and hyperactive mesostriatal dopamine pathways. Application of a D1 agonist to the prefrontal cortex or a D2 antagonist in the ventral striatum rescues Arc-dependent cognitive or psychomotor abnormalities, respectively. Our findings demonstrate a role for Arc in the regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission and related behaviors. The results also provide initial biological support implicating Arc in dopaminergic and behavioral abnormalities related to schizophrenia.

  16. Preliminary fundamental aspects on the thyroid volume and function in the population of long term heavily polluted area in East Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, P. [Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, SAS, Bratislava (Slovakia); Tajtakova, M. [Safarik Univ., Kosice (Slovakia). First Clinic of Internal Medicine; Kocan, A. [Slovak Health Univ. - IPCM, Bratislava (SK). Research Base] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    Our previous examinations of employees of chemical factory formerly producing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) repeatedly showed increased thyroid volume as measured by ultrasound as well as increased frequency of thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor autoantibodies. At the same time a considerable PCB pollution of soil, waters and food chain in large area surrounding that chemical factory was found. The aim of present preliminary evaluation of data obtained within the EC project PCBRISK was to search for further interrelations between long-term organochlorine pollution and fundamental markers of thyroid volume and function in large cohorts of population from three districts of East Slovakia.

  17. Functional brain alterations during self-reference processing in adolescents with sexual abuse-related post-traumatic stress disorder: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dégeilh, Fanny; Viard, Armelle; Guénolé, Fabian; Gaubert, Malo; Egler, Pierre-Jean; Egret, Stéphanie; Gerardin, Priscille; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Eustache, Francis; Dayana, Jacques; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère

    2017-02-01

    We proposed to explore the functional brain changes during a self-reference processing (SRP) task in adolescents with sexual abuse-related post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 10), compared with healthy adolescents (N = 10). While patients showed no behavioral disturbances in (SRP), they exhibited changes in activity and connectivity in regions involved in emotional regulation (amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortex) and semantic memory (temporal and ventrolateral prefrontal regions). These preliminary results suggest that these alterations may have an effect on self-esteem which may contribute to a possible retention and impairment of symptoms in adulthood.

  18. A clinical study of the effects of lead poisoning on the intelligence and neurobehavioral abilities of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shuangxing; Yuan, Lianfang; Jin, Pengpeng; Ding, Bojun; Qin, Na; Li, Li; Liu, Xuedong; Wu, Zhongliang; Zhao, Gang; Deng, Yanchun

    2013-02-18

    Lead is a heavy metal and important environmental toxicant and nerve poison that can destruction many functions of the nervous system. Lead poisoning is a medical condition caused by increased levels of lead in the body. Lead interferes with a variety of body processes and is toxic to many organs and issues, including the central nervous system. It interferes with the development of the nervous system, and is therefore particularly toxic to children, causing potentially permanent neural and cognitive impairments. In this study, we investigated the relationship between lead poisoning and the intellectual and neurobehavioral capabilities of children. The background characteristics of the research subjects were collected by questionnaire survey. Blood lead levels were detected by differential potentiometric stripping analysis (DPSA). Intelligence was assessed using the Gesell Developmental Scale. The Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was used to evaluate each child's behavior. Blood lead levels were significantly negatively correlated with the developmental quotients of adaptive behavior, gross motor performance, fine motor performance, language development, and individual social behavior (P lead poisoning had abnormal behaviors, especially social withdrawal, depression, and atypical body movements, aggressions and destruction. Lead poisoning has adverse effects on the behavior and mental development of 2-4-year-old children, prescribing positive and effective precautionary measures.

  19. Oral administration of potassium bromate induces neurobehavioral changes, alters cerebral neurotransmitters level and impairs brain tissue of swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajarem, Jamaan; Altoom, Naif G; Allam, Ahmed A; Maodaa, Saleh N; Abdel-Maksoud, Mostafa A; Chow, Billy Kc

    2016-05-12

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is widely used as a food additive and is a major water disinfection by-product. The present study reports the side effects of KBrO3 administration on the brain functions and behaviour of albino mice. Animals were divided into three groups: control, low dose KBrO3 (100 mg/kg/day) and high dose KBrO3 (200 mg/kg/day) groups. Administration of KBrO3 led to a significant change in the body weight in the animals of the high dose group in the first, second and the last weeks while water consumption was not significantly changed. Neurobehavioral changes and a reduced Neurotransmitters levels were observed in both KBrO3 groups of mice. Also, the brain level of reduced glutathione (GSH) in KBrO3 receiving animals was decreased. Histological studies favoured these biochemical results showing extensive damage in the histological sections of brain of KBrO3-treated animals. These results show that KBrO3 has serious damaging effects on the central nervous system and therefore, its use should be avoided.

  20. Relationships between post operative pain management and short term functional mobility in total knee arthroplasty patients with a femoral nerve catheter: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Sarah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective pain management following total knee arthroplasty (TKA is fundamental in achieving positive rehabilitation outcomes. The purpose of our study was to investigate post operative pain management in relation to short term functional mobility in an intervention group receiving concomitant use of an IV narcotic PCA and a continuous infusion of local anaesthetic via a femoral nerve catheter (CFNC, compared to a group receiving narcotic PCA alone. This was a preliminary study conducted to establish an appropriate design for a larger investigative study. Methods A prospective design was used to measure the effect of a CFNC on post operative pain management and functional mobility prior to hospital discharge. The amount of fentanyl used, pain and nausea scores, timed up and go (TUG tests and active range of knee movement (AROM were used to compare a CFNC and supplemental narcotic patient controlled analgesia (PCA group (n = 27 with a PCA only group (n = 25. Results The CFNC group used significantly less fentanyl than the PCA only group (p s = .505 p s = .529 p s = .328, p = .034 Conclusions In this small preliminary study improved TUG performance at Day 4 post op was not influenced by the use of a CFNC but was positively correlated with male gender, preoperative performance, time elapsed since last oral analgesia and pain score. However AROM was decreased in the CFNC group suggesting further research on the relationship between CFNCs, local anaesthetic concentration and quadriceps strength should be incorporated in the follow up study's design.

  1. FUNCTIONAL-ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF POLYHALOGENATED AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS IN EXPERIMENTAL-ANIMALS AND HUMAN INFANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROUWER, A; AHLBORG, UG; VANDENBERG, M; BIRNBAUM, LS; BOERSMA, ER; BOSVELD, B; DENISON, MS; GRAY, LE; HAGMAR, L; HOLENE, E; HUISMAN, M; JACOBSON, SW; JACOBSON, JL; KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; KOPPE, JG; KULIG, BM; MORSE, DC; MUCKLE, G; PETERSON, RE; SAUER, PJJ; SEEGAL, RF; SMITSVANPROOIJE, AE; TOUWEN, BCL; WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; WINNEKE, G

    1995-01-01

    A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. Persistent neurobehavioral, reproductive and

  2. Countermeasures to Neurobehavioral Deficits from Cumulative Partial Sleep Deprivation During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, David F.

    1999-01-01

    This project is concerned with identifying ways to prevent neurobehavioral and physical deterioration due to inadequate sleep in astronauts during long-duration manned space flight. The performance capability of astronauts during extended-duration space flight depends heavily on achieving recovery through adequate sleep. Even with appropriate circadian alignment, sleep loss can erode fundamental elements of human performance capability including vigilance, cognitive speed and accuracy, working memory, reaction time, and physiological alertness. Adequate sleep is essential during manned space flight not only to ensure high levels of safe and effective human performance, but also as a basic regulatory biology critical to healthy human functioning. There is now extensive objective evidence that astronaut sleep is frequently restricted in space flight to averages between 4 hr and 6.5 hr/day. Chronic sleep restriction during manned space flight can occur in response to endogenous disturbances of sleep (motion sickness, stress, circadian rhythms), environmental disruptions of sleep (noise, temperature, light), and curtailment of sleep due to the work demands and other activities that accompany extended space flight operations. The mechanism through which this risk emerges is the development of cumulative homeostatic pressure for sleep across consecutive days of inadequate sleep. Research has shown that the physiological sleepiness and performance deficits engendered by sleep debt can progressively worsen (i.e., accumulate) over consecutive days of sleep restriction, and that sleep limited to levels commonly experienced by astronauts (i.e., 4 - 6 hr per night) for as little as 1 week, can result in increased lapses of attention, degradation of response times, deficits in complex problem solving, reduced learning, mood disturbance, disruption of essential neuroendocrine, metabolic, and neuroimmune responses, and in some vulnerable persons, the emergence of uncontrolled

  3. Deterioration of Neurobehavioral Performance in Resident Physicians During Repeated Exposure to Extended Duration Work Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Clare; Sullivan, Jason P.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Cade, Brian E.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although acute sleep loss during 24- to 30-h extended duration work shifts (EDWS) has been shown to impair the performance of resident physicians, little is known about the effects of cumulative sleep deficiency on performance during residency training. Chronic sleep restriction induces a gradual degradation of neurobehavioral performance and exacerbates the effects of acute sleep loss in the laboratory, yet the extent to which this occurs under real-world conditions is unknown. In this study, the authors quantify the time course of neurobehavioral deterioration due to repeated exposure to EDWS during a 3-week residency rotation. Design: A prospective, repeated-measures, within-subject design. Setting: Medical and cardiac intensive care units, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA. Participants: Thirty-four postgraduate year one resident physicians (23 males; age 28.0 ± 1.83 (standard deviation) years) Measurements and Results: Residents working a 3-week Q3 schedule (24- to 30-h work shift starts every 3rd day), consisting of alternating 24- to 30-h (EDWS) and approximately 8-h shifts, underwent psychomotor vigilance testing before, during, and after each work shift. Mean response time, number of lapses, and slowest 10% of responses were calculated for each test. Residents also maintained daily sleep/wake/work logs. EDWS resulted in cumulative sleep deficiency over the 21-day rotation (6.3 h sleep obtained per day; average 2.3 h sleep obtained per extended shift). Response times deteriorated over a single 24- to 30-h shift (P Cade BE; Czeisler CA; Lockley SW. Deterioration of neurobehavioral performance in resident physicians during repeated exposure to extended duration work shifts. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1137-1146. PMID:22851809

  4. Exposure to Enriched Environment Decreases Neurobehavioral Deficits Induced by Neonatal Glutamate Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kiss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment is a popular strategy to enhance motor and cognitive performance and to counteract the effects of various harmful stimuli. The protective effects of enriched environment have been shown in traumatic, ischemic and toxic nervous system lesions. Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a commonly used taste enhancer causing excitotoxic effects when given in newborn animals. We have previously demonstrated that MSG leads to a delay in neurobehavioral development, as shown by the delayed appearance of neurological reflexes and maturation of motor coordination. In the present study we aimed at investigating whether environmental enrichment is able to decrease the neurobehavioral delay caused by neonatal MSG treatment. Newborn pups were treated with MSG subcutaneously on postnatal days 1, 5 and 9. For environmental enrichment, we placed rats in larger cages, supplemented with different toys that were altered daily. Normal control and enriched control rats received saline treatment only. Physical parameters such as weight, day of eye opening, incisor eruption and ear unfolding were recorded. Animals were observed for appearance of reflexes such as negative geotaxis, righting reflexes, fore- and hindlimb grasp, fore- and hindlimb placing, sensory reflexes and gait. In cases of negative geotaxis, surface righting and gait, the time to perform the reflex was also recorded daily. For examining motor coordination, we performed grid walking, footfault, rope suspension, rota-rod, inclined board and walk initiation tests. We found that enriched environment alone did not lead to marked alterations in the course of development. On the other hand, MSG treatment caused a slight delay in reflex development and a pronounced delay in weight gain and motor coordination maturation. This delay in most signs and tests could be reversed by enriched environment: MSG-treated pups kept under enriched conditions showed no weight retardation, no reflex delay in

  5. Pathways in the emergence of developmental neuroethology: antecedents to current views of neurobehavioral ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, R W

    1992-12-01

    The historical forces that have contributed to our current views of neurobehavioral development (and thus to the fields of developmental psychobiology and neuroethology) are many and varied. Although similar statements might be made about almost any field of science, it is in particular true of this field, which represents a kind of mongrel discipline derived from at least three major sources (psychology, embryology, and neuroscience) and several more minor ones (including developmental psychology and psychiatry, psychoanalysis, education, zoology, ethology, and sociology). Although I attempt to demonstrate here how each of these sources may have influenced the emergence of a unified field of developmental psychobiology or developmental neuroethology, because the present article represents the first attempt of which I am aware to trace the history of these fields I am certain that there is considerable room for improvement, correction, and revision of the views expressed here. Accordingly, I consider this inaugural effort a kind of reconnaissance intended to trace a necessarily imperfect historic path for others to follow and improve upon. In the final analysis, I will be satisfied if this article only serves to underscore two related points: first is the value derived from historical studies of contemporary issues in development, and the second concerns the extent to which our current ideas and concepts about neurobehavioral development, ideas often considered new and contemporary, were already well known to those who came before us. The first point underscores the arguments expressed in the Introduction that the present must always be reconciled with the past, for the past is never entirely past. The second point returns full circle to an important thought expressed in the opening quotation to this article, namely, that even though our historic predecessors lacked much of the empirical facts available to us they were nonetheless able to attain a surprisingly deep

  6. Developmental exposure to a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71: neurobehavioral, hormonal, and reproductive effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodavanti, Prasada [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Durham, North Carolina; Coburn, Cary [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Durham, North Carolina; Moser, Virginia [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Durham, North Carolina; MacPhail, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Durham, North Carolina; Fenton, Suzanne [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Stoker, Tammy [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Durham, North Carolina; Birnbaum, Linda [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)

    2010-06-01

    Developmental effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been suspected due to their structural similarities to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study evaluated neurobehavioral, hormonal, and reproductive effects in rat offspring perinatally exposed to a widely used pentabrominated commercial mixture, DE-71. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed to 0, 1.7, 10.2, or 30.6 mg/kg/day DE-71 in corn oil by oral gavage from gestational day 6 to weaning. DE-71 did not alter maternal or male offspring body weights. However, female offspring were smaller compared with controls from postnatal days (PNDs) 35-60. Although several neurobehavioral endpoints were assessed, the only statistically significant behavioral finding was a dose-by-age interaction in the number of rears in an open-field test. Developmental exposure to DE-71 caused severe hypothyroxinemia in the dams and early postnatal offspring. DE-71 also affected anogenital distance and preputial separation in male pups. Body weight gain over time, reproductive tissue weights, and serum testosterone concentrations at PND 60 were not altered. Mammary gland development of female offspring was significantly affected at PND 21. Congener-specific analysis of PBDEs indicated accumulation in all tissues examined. Highest PBDE concentrations were found in fat including milk, whereas blood had the lowest concentrations on a wet weight basis. PBDE concentrations were comparable among various brain regions. Thus, perinatal exposure to DE-71 leads to accumulation of PBDE congeners in various tissues crossing blood-placenta and blood-brain barriers, causing subtle changes in some parameters of neurobehavior and dramatic changes in circulating thyroid hormone levels, as well as changes in both male and female reproductive endpoints. Some of these effects are similar to those seen with PCBs, and the persistence of these changes requires further investigation.

  7. Neurobehavior of full-term small for gestational age newborn infants of adolescent mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Marina C. de Moraes Barros; Ruth Guinsburg; Mitsuhiro, Sandro S.; Elisa Chalem; Laranjeira, Ronaldo R. [UNIFESP

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Comparar o neurocomportamento de recém-nascidos a termo pequenos (PIG) e adequados (AIG) para a idade gestacional, filhos de mães adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal prospectivo de nascidos a termo AIG e PIG, com 24-72 horas de vida, sem afecções do sistema nervoso central. Os neonatos foram avaliados por meio da Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) para: habituação, atenção, despertar, controle, manobras para a orientação, qualidade dos movimentos...

  8. Neurobehavioral, health, and safety consequences associated with shift work in safety-sensitive professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Laura K; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2009-03-01

    Almost 15% of the full-time workers in the United States are shift workers. We review the physiologic challenges inherent not only in traditional night or rotating shifts but also in extended-duration shifts and other nonstandard hours. The challenging schedules of those in particularly safety-sensitive professions such as police officers, firefighters, and health care providers are highlighted. Recent findings describing the neurobehavioral, health, and safety outcomes associated with shift work also are reviewed. Comprehensive fatigue management programs that include education, screening for common sleep disorders, and appropriate interventions need to be developed to minimize these negative consequences associated with shift work.

  9. Neurobehavioral aspects, pathophysiology, and management of Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shprecher, David R; Schrock, Lauren; Himle, Michael

    2014-08-01

    This update summarizes progress in understanding Tourette syndrome clinical characteristics, etiology, and treatment over the past year. Premonitory sensory phenomena were found to have important impacts on Tourette syndrome quality of life. A rare genetic form of Tourette syndrome due to L-histidine-decarboxylase mutation, with similar features in human and rodent, has inspired new research on functional anatomy of Tourette syndrome. In response to new data, treatment guidelines have been revised to include behavioral therapy as first-line treatment. Novel dopamine receptor antagonists aripiprazole and ecopipam have shown potential efficacy - as well as tolerability concerns. Recent work has suggested efficacy and tolerability of topiramate and fluphenazine, but more rigorous studies are needed to further understand their role in Tourette syndrome management. Recent consensus guidelines explain when deep brain stimulation can be considered for severe refractory cases under a multidisciplinary team. More research is needed to identify better tolerated treatments for, to understand pathophysiology or functional anatomy of, and to predict or influence longitudinal outcome of Tourette syndrome.

  10. Prevalence of neurobehavioral, social, and emotional dysfunction in patients treated for childhood craniopharyngioma: a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Zada

    Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas (CP are locally invasive and frequently recurring neoplasms often resulting in neurological and endocrinological dysfunction in children. In addition, social-behavioral impairment is commonly reported following treatment for childhood CP, yet remains to be fully understood. The authors aimed to further characterize the prevalence of neurobehavioral, social, and emotional dysfunction in survivors of childhood craniopharyngiomas.A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed to identify studies formally assessing neurobehavioral, social, and emotional outcomes in patients treated for CP prior to 18 years of age. Studies published between the years 1990-2012 that reported the primary outcome (prevalence of neurobehavioral, social, emotional/affective dysfunction, and/or impaired quality of life (QoL in ≥ 10 patients were included.Of the 471 studies screened, 11 met inclusion criteria. Overall neurobehavioral dysfunction was reported in 51 of 90 patients (57% with available data. Social impairment (i.e. withdrawal, internalizing behavior was reported in 91 of 222 cases (41%. School dysfunction was reported in 48 of 136 patients (35%. Emotional/affective dysfunction was reported in 58 of 146 patients (40%, primarily consisting of depressive symptoms. Health related quality of life was affected in 49 of 95 patients (52%. Common descriptors of behavior in affected children included irritability, impulsivity, aggressiveness, and emotional outbursts.Neurobehavioral, social, and emotional impairment is highly prevalent in survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma, and often affects quality of life. Thorough neurobehavioral/emotional screening and appropriate counseling is recommended in this population. Additional research is warranted to identify risk factors and treatment strategies for these disorders.

  11. Are suicidal thoughts reinforcing? A preliminary real-time monitoring study on the potential affect regulation function of suicidal thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Evan M; Coppersmith, Daniel D L; Millner, Alexander J; Franz, Peter J; Fox, Kathryn R; Nock, Matthew K

    2018-02-17

    Theoretical work and clinical observation suggest that many patients experience relief from negative affect after thinking about suicide, which may increase the likelihood of future suicidal thoughts. Accordingly, our objective was to examine whether the occurrence of suicidal thinking was followed by decreased negative affect and increased positive affect. Participants were 43 adults who attempted suicide at least once in the past year (78% female, 78% White, M age = 23.28 years, SD age = 4.38 years) who completed 28 days of smartphone-based real-time monitoring, where they were signaled four times/day to report on current affect and whether they were having suicidal thoughts. Participants could initiate a survey whenever they had a suicidal thought. First, we examined changes in affect that occurred when suicidal thinking at the current time (T) but not at T + 1 (approximately 4-8 h later). Negative affect decreased and positive affect increased when participants went from a period when they were experiencing suicidal thoughts to a period where they were not. Second, to assess the time course of changes in affect, we examined changes in affect before and after participant-initiated reports of suicidal thinking. Positive affect increased and sadness decreased. Given its preliminary nature, the study has some limitations including insufficient power to expand beyond a 4-8 h timespan. Findings provide preliminary evidence that suicidal thinking leads to shifts in affect. These shifts in affect may be reinforcing, helping to explain (in part) why suicidal thinking is so persistent for some patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, D F; Gonzalo, I T; Cohan, P; Berman, N; Swerdloff, R; Wang, C

    2000-11-01

    Recognition of pituitary hormonal insufficiencies after head injury and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be important, especially given that hypopituitarism-related neurobehavioral problems are typically alleviated by hormone replacement. In this prospective study the authors sought to determine the rate and risk factors of pituitary dysfunction after head injury and SAH in patients at least 3 months after insult. Patients underwent dynamic anterior and posterior pituitary function testing. Results of the tests were compared with those of 18 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy volunteers. The 22 head-injured patients included 18 men and four women (mean age 28+/-10 years at the time of injury) with initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 3 to 15. Eight patients (36.4%) had a subnormal response in at least one hormonal axis. Four were growth hormone (GH) deficient. Five patients (four men, all with normal testosterone levels, and one woman with a low estradiol level) exhibited an inadequate gonadotroph response. One patient had both GH and thyrotroph deficiency and another had both GH deficiency and borderline cortisol deficiency. At the time of injury, all eight patients with pituitary dysfunction had an initial GCS score of 10 or less and, compared with the 14 patients without dysfunction, were more likely to have had diffuse swelling, seen on initial computerized tomography scans (p insult (p = 0.07). Of two patients with SAH who were studied (Hunt and Hess Grade IV) both had GH deficiency. From this preliminary study, some degree of hypopituitarism appears to occur in approximately 40% of patients with moderate or severe head injury, with GH and gonadotroph deficiencies being most common. A high degree of injury severity and secondary cerebral insults are likely risk factors for hypopituitarism. Pituitary dysfunction also occurs in patients with poor-grade aneurysms. Postacute pituitary function testing may be warranted in most

  13. A preliminary validity study of the cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery for the assessment of executive function in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Sun; An, Yong Min; Kwon, Jun Soo; Shin, Min-Sup

    2014-10-01

    Although the executive function subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) have been used to assess cognitive function in diverse psychiatric illnesses, few studies have verified the validity of this battery for Korean psychiatric patients. Therefore, this preliminary study evaluated the construct and concurrent validity of the executive function subtests of the CANTAB for Korean psychiatric patients by comparing it with subtests of the Computerized Neuropsychological Test (CNT). Three subtests of the CANTAB and three subtests of the CNT were administered to 36 patients diagnosed with either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Subtests of the CANTAB included the Intra/Extra-Dimensional Set Shift (IED), Stockings of Cambridge (SOC), and Spatial Working Memory (SWM). Differences between groups on each subtest as well as correlations between the subtests of the CANTAB and the CNT were assessed. The schizophrenia group performed significantly more poorly on the IED and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) compared with the bipolar disorder group. Additionally, correlation analyses revealed a significant correlation between the IED and the WCST; a positive correlation between the SOC and the Trail Making Test, Part B and the Stroop test; and a significant correlation between the SWM and the Stroop test. This study verified the construct and concurrent validity of the executive function subtests of the CANTAB for Korean psychiatric patients and suggests that the subtests of this battery would be useful and appropriate for assessing deficits in executive function in Korean clinical settings.

  14. Mice with Catalytically Inactive Cathepsin A Display Neurobehavioral Alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Calhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lysosomal carboxypeptidase A, Cathepsin A (CathA, is a serine protease with two distinct functions. CathA protects β-galactosidase and sialidase Neu1 against proteolytic degradation by forming a multienzyme complex and activates sialidase Neu1. CathA deficiency causes the lysosomal storage disease, galactosialidosis. These patients present with a broad range of clinical phenotypes, including growth retardation, and neurological deterioration along with the accumulation of the vasoactive peptide, endothelin-1, in the brain. Previous in vitro studies have shown that CathA has specific activity against vasoactive peptides and neuropeptides, including endothelin-1 and oxytocin. A mutant mouse with catalytically inactive CathA enzyme (CathAS190A shows increased levels of endothelin-1. In the present study, we elucidated the involvement of CathA in learning and long-term memory in 3-, 6-, and 12-month-old mice. Hippocampal endothelin-1 and oxytocin accumulated in CathAS190A mice, which showed learning impairments as well as long-term and spatial memory deficits compared with wild-type littermates, suggesting that CathA plays a significant role in learning and in memory consolidation through its regulatory role in vasoactive peptide processing.

  15. Neurobehavioral alteration in rodents following developmental exposure to aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, E; Rankin, J; Santucci, D

    1998-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is one of the most abundant metals in the earth's crust, and humans can be exposed to it from several sources. It is present in food, water, pharmaceutical compounds, and in the environment, e.g., as a result of acid rain leaching it from the soil. Exposure to Al has recently been implicated in a number of human pathologies, but it has not yet been definitely proved that it plays a major causal role in any of them. In this paper we review the effects of developmental exposure of laboratory animals to Al salts as a model for human pathological conditions. The data presented show behavioral and neurochemical changes in the offspring of AL-exposed mouse dams during gestation, which include alterations in the pattern of ultrasonic vocalizations and a marked reduction in central nervous system (CNS) choline acetyltransferase activity. Prenatal Al also affects CNS cholinergic functions under Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) control, as shown by increased central NGF levels and impaired performances in a maze learning task in young-adult mice. The need for more detailed studies to evaluate the risks for humans associated with developmental exposure to Al, as well as the importance of using more than one strain of laboratory animal in the experimental design, is emphasized.

  16. Growth differentiation factor 11 improves neurobehavioral recovery and stimulates angiogenesis in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingxi; Zhang, Lina; Niu, Tengfei; Ai, Chibo; Jia, Gongwei; Jin, Xinhao; Wen, Lan; Zhang, Keming; Zhang, Qinbin; Li, Changqing

    2018-02-09

    The recent suggestion that growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) acts as a rejuvenation factor has remained controversial. However, in addition to its role in aging, the relationship between GDF11 and cerebral ischemia is still an important area that needs more investigation. Here we examined effects of GDF11 on angiogenesis and recovery of neurological function in a rat model of stroke. Exogenous recombinant GDF11 (rGDF11) at different doses were directly injected into the tail vein in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Neurobehavioral tests were performed, the proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs) and GDF11 downstream signal activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5) were assessed, and functional microvessels were measured. Results showed that rGDF11 at a dosage of 0.1 mg/kg/day could effectively activate cerebral angiogenesis in vivo. In addition, rGDF11 improved the modified neurological severity scores and the adhesive removal somatosensory test, promoted proliferation of ECs, induced ALK5 and increased vascular surface area and the number of vascular branch points in the peri-infarct cerebral cortex after cerebral I/R. These effects were suppressed by blocking ALK5. Our novel findings shed new light on the role of GDF11. Our results strongly suggest that GDF11 improves neurofunctional recovery from cerebral I/R injury and that this effect is mediated partly through its proangiogenic effect in the peri-infarct cerebral cortex, which is associated with ALK5. Thus, GDF11/ALK5 may represent new therapeutic targets for aiding recovery from stroke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of melatonin on aluminium-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allagui, M S; Feriani, A; Saoudi, M; Badraoui, R; Bouoni, Z; Nciri, R; Murat, J C; Elfeki, A

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of melatonin (Mel) against aluminium-induced neurodegenerative changes in aging Wistar rats (24-28months old). Herein, aluminium chloride (AlCl3) (50mg/kg BW/day) was administered by gavage, and melatonin (Mel) was co-administered to a group of Al-treated rats by an intra-peritoneal injection at a daily dose of 10mg/kg BW for four months. The findings revealed that aluminium administration induced a significant decrease in body weight associated with marked mortality for the old group of rats, which was more pronounced in old Al-treated rats. Behavioural alterations were assessed by 'open fields', 'elevated plus maze' and 'Radial 8-arms maze' tests. The results demonstrated that Mel co-administration alleviated neurobehavioral changes in both old and old Al-treated rats. Melatonin was noted to play a good neuroprotective role, reducing lipid peroxidation (TBARs), and enhancing enzymatic (SOD, CAT and GPx) activities in the brain organs of old control and old Al-treated rats. Mel treatment also reversed the decrease of AChE activity in the brain tissues, which was confirmed by histological sections. Overall, the results showed that Mel administration can induce beneficial effects for the treatment of Al-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in the central nervous system (CNS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mindfulness Training among Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease: Neurobehavioral Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pickut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate possible neurobehavioral changes secondary to a mindfulness based intervention (MBI training for individuals living with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Background. In the context of complementary medicine, MBIs are increasingly being used for stress reduction and in patient populations coping with chronic illness. The use of alternative and complementary medicine may be higher in patients with chronic conditions such as PD. However, behavioral effects of mindfulness training in PD have not yet been reported in the literature and this points to an unmet need and warrants further examination. Methods. A total of 27 out of 30 PD patients completed a randomized controlled longitudinal trial. Questionnaires and the UPDRS I–IV were obtained at baseline and 8-week follow-up. Results. Significant changes after the MBI were found including a 5.5 point decrease on the UPDRS motor score, an increase of 0.79 points on Parkinson’s disease questionnaire (PDQ-39 pain item, and a 3.15 point increase in the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire observe facet. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative analysis of neurobehavioral effects of MBI in PD.

  19. Intranasal Insulin Prevents Anesthesia-Induced Cognitive Impairment and Chronic Neurobehavioral Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxing Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available General anesthesia increases the risk for cognitive impairment post operation, especially in the elderly and vulnerable individuals. Recent animal studies on the impact of anesthesia on postoperative cognitive impairment have provided some valuable insights, but much remains to be understood. Here, by using mice of various ages and conditions, we found that anesthesia with propofol and sevoflurane caused significant deficits in spatial learning and memory, as tested using Morris Water Maze (MWM 2–6 days after anesthesia exposure, in aged (17–18 months old wild-type (WT mice and in adult (7–8 months old 3xTg-AD mice (a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but not in adult WT mice. Anesthesia resulted in long-term neurobehavioral changes in the fear conditioning task carried out 65 days after exposure to anesthesia in 3xTg-AD mice. Importantly, daily intranasal administration of insulin (1.75 U/mouse/day for only 3 days prior to anesthesia completely prevented the anesthesia-induced deficits in spatial learning and memory and the long-term neurobehavioral changes tested 65 days after exposure to anesthesia in 3xTg-AD mice. These results indicate that aging and AD-like brain pathology increase the vulnerability to cognitive impairment after anesthesia and that intranasal treatment with insulin can prevent anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment.

  20. 21st century neurobehavioral theories of decision making in addiction: Review and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Mellis, Alexandra M; Snider, Sarah E; Athamneh, Liqa N; Stein, Jeffrey S; Pope, Derek A

    2018-01-01

    This review critically examines neurobehavioral theoretical developments in decision making in addiction in the 21st century. We specifically compare each theory reviewed to seven benchmarks of theoretical robustness, based on their ability to address: why some commodities are addictive; developmental trends in addiction; addiction-related anhedonia; self-defeating patterns of behavior in addiction; why addiction co-occurs with other unhealthy behaviors; and, finally, means for the repair of addiction. We have included only self-contained theories or hypotheses which have been developed or extended in the 21st century to address decision making in addiction. We thus review seven distinct theories of decision making in addiction: learning theories, incentive-sensitization theory, dopamine imbalance and systems models, opponent process theory, strength models of self-control failure, the competing neurobehavioral decision systems theory, and the triadic systems theory of addiction. Finally, we have directly compared the performance of each of these theories based on the aforementioned benchmarks, and highlighted key points at which several theories have coalesced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental Enrichment Decreases Asphyxia-Induced Neurobehavioral Developmental Delay in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kiss

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia.

  2. Effect of low-level prenatal mercury exposure on neonate neurobehavioral development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinhua; Ying, Tinger; Shen, Zhonghai; Wang, Haiyan

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of low-level prenatal mercury exposure on neonate neurobehavioral development in China. In total, 418 mother-neonate pairs were included in the study. Maternal urine, hair, and blood samples and cord blood samples were used to document prenatal exposure to mercury. The Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment was used to estimate neurobehavioral development in the neonates at 3 days of age. Total mercury level was significantly higher in cord blood than that in maternal blood. A strong correlation was found between total mercury levels in maternal blood and those in cord blood (r = 0.7431; P mercury levels (all P mercury levels among groups with different fish consumption frequencies (all P mercury level was significantly associated with total Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment scores (β = 0.03; standard error = 0.01; P = 0.0409), passive muscle tone (odds ratio = 1.07; 95% confidence interval = 1.12-1.13; P = 0.0071), and active muscle tone (odds ratio = 1.06; 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.11; P = 0.0170) scores after adjustment, respectively. Neonatal neurodevelopment was associated with prenatal exposure to mercury. Women with high mercury levels should avoid intake seafood excessively during pregnancy. Long-term effects of exposure to mercury on childhood development need to be further explored. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neurobehavioral changes associated with chronic treatment of omega-3 in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of chronic use for 2 month with omega-3 on the level of neurobehavioral and motor activity in the open field. The study showed an effect for different doses of omega-3 on the nervous system and behavior when drainage drug by mouth, that are easily hand to deal with the rats dosage with 10, 50, 250, 500 mgkg of body weight. Rats in doses 10, 50, 250, 500, 1000 mg/kg recorded a significant decrease in number of crossed squares and the number of rearing comparison with the control group. Pocking test recorded significant increase in the number of times introduction of head in the holes compared to the control group in doses of 50, 250, 500 mgkg of body weight, a dose of 1000 mgkg showed a prolongation in the time required to avoid animal high edge, with a lower score swimming and stretching in a period of rotation in the negative geotaxis test compared with the control group, while the rest of the doses did not show any significant difference compared with control. In test of tonic immobility response all the doses recorded a significant decrease in the stillness and freeze for rats movement, compared with control group. We concluded that omega-3 has beneficial effect on the level of neurobehavioral and motor activity in the open field activity in addition to development cognitive behavior of animals, except dose 1000 mgkg Shaw some behavioral difference compare with control group.

  4. Parenting behavior is associated with the early neurobehavioral development of very preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Anderson, Vicki A; Howard, Kelly; Bear, Merilyn; Hunt, Rod W; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie E; Woodward, Lianne; Anderson, Peter J

    2009-02-01

    There is an increasing focus on social and environmental factors that promote and support the early development of highly vulnerable children such as those born very preterm. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between parenting behavior, parent-child synchrony, and neurobehavioral development in very preterm children at 24 months of age. Participants were 152 very preterm children (behavior (positive affect, negative affect, sensitivity, facilitation, and intrusiveness). Cognitive and motor development was assessed by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II, and the Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment was used to assess socioemotional development (social-emotional competence and internalizing and externalizing behavior). fter controlling for social risk, most parenting domains were associated with cognitive development, with parent-child synchrony emerging as the most predictive. Greater parent-child synchrony was also associated with greater social-emotional competence, as was parenting that was positive, warm, and sensitive. Parents who displayed higher levels of negative affect were more likely to rate their children as withdrawn, anxious, and inhibited, but, unexpectedly, higher negative affect was also associated with more optimal psychomotor development. Parenting was not associated with externalizing behaviors at this age. Specific parenting behaviors, particularly parent-child synchrony, were associated with neurobehavioral development. These findings have implications for the development of targeted parent-based interventions to promote positive outcomes across different developmental domains during the first 2 years of life for very preterm children.

  5. Automatic quantitative MRI texture analysis in small-for-gestational-age fetuses discriminates abnormal neonatal neurobehavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Sanz-Cortes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis whether texture analysis (TA from MR images could identify patterns associated with an abnormal neurobehavior in small for gestational age (SGA neonates. METHODS: Ultrasound and MRI were performed on 91 SGA fetuses at 37 weeks of GA. Frontal lobe, basal ganglia, mesencephalon and cerebellum were delineated from fetal MRIs. SGA neonates underwent NBAS test and were classified as abnormal if ≥ 1 area was 5(th centile. Textural features associated with neurodevelopment were selected and machine learning was used to model a predictive algorithm. RESULTS: Of the 91 SGA neonates, 49 were classified as normal and 42 as abnormal. The accuracies to predict an abnormal neurobehavior based on TA were 95.12% for frontal lobe, 95.56% for basal ganglia, 93.18% for mesencephalon and 83.33% for cerebellum. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal brain MRI textural patterns were associated with neonatal neurodevelopment. Brain MRI TA could be a useful tool to predict abnormal neurodevelopment in SGA.

  6. Animal Models of Virus-Induced Neurobehavioral Sequelae: Recent Advances, Methodological Issues, and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bortolato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Converging lines of clinical and epidemiological evidence suggest that viral infections in early developmental stages may be a causal factor in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism-spectrum disorders. This etiological link, however, remains controversial in view of the lack of consistent and reproducible associations between viruses and mental illness. Animal models of virus-induced neurobehavioral disturbances afford powerful tools to test etiological hypotheses and explore pathophysiological mechanisms. Prenatal or neonatal inoculations of neurotropic agents (such as herpes-, influenza-, and retroviruses in rodents result in a broad spectrum of long-term alterations reminiscent of psychiatric abnormalities. Nevertheless, the complexity of these sequelae often poses methodological and interpretational challenges and thwarts their characterization. The recent conceptual advancements in psychiatric nosology and behavioral science may help determine new heuristic criteria to enhance the translational value of these models. A particularly critical issue is the identification of intermediate phenotypes, defined as quantifiable factors representing single neurochemical, neuropsychological, or neuroanatomical aspects of a diagnostic category. In this paper, we examine how the employment of these novel concepts may lead to new methodological refinements in the study of virus-induced neurobehavioral sequelae through animal models.

  7. Brief report: changes in brain function during acute cannabis intoxication: preliminary findings suggest a mechanism for cannabis-induced violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard C; Menkes, David B

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that cannabis use may be associated with antisocial and violent behaviour, raising the question: What brain mechanisms mediate the disinhibiting effects of cannabis on behaviour? To examine whether an electrocortical measure of affective impulsivity, Go/No Go contingent negative variation, is affected by acute cannabis intoxication. Slow brain potentials were recorded in a Go/No Go noise avoidance task from five habitual cannabis users before, during and after they smoked a cannabis reefer containing 11 mg D-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Slow brain potentials developed normally in both Go and No Go conditions before and during cannabis smoking but were severely disrupted 20-40 minutes later, coincident with peak intoxication. Cannabis effects on Go/No Go brain activity resembled those reported to occur in patients with lateral prefrontal cortex lesions. Our findings are preliminary, calling for larger-scale studies, to confirm the present findings and to investigate whether brain responses to cannabis intoxication differentiate those who are predisposed to suffer adverse consequences of cannabis use from those who are not.

  8. A Preliminary Study of the Effects of an Arts Education Program on Executive Function, Behavior, and Brain Structure in a Sample of Nonclinical School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Jong-Min; Baik, Young; Kim, Kihyun; Yun, Hyuk Jin; Kwon, Hunki; Jung, Yeon-Kyung; Kim, Bung-Nyun

    2015-11-01

    The authors examined the effects of arts education on cognition, behavior, and brain of children. Twenty-nine nonclinical children participated in a 15-week arts education program that was composed of either creative movement or musical arts. Children completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, clinical scales, and brain magnetic resonance imaging before and after the intervention. Following program completion, performances on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Children's Depression Inventory scores, and conduct disorder scores were significantly improved. Furthermore, cortical thickness in the left postcentral gyrus and superior parietal lobule were increased, and the mean diffusivity values in the right posterior corona radiate and superior longitudinal fasciculus were decreased. Positive correlations between changes in cognitive measurements and changes in cortical thickness were observed. This preliminary study suggests a positive effect of arts education on executive functions in association with brain changes. However, these findings must be interpreted with caution due to the noncomparative study design. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Mindfulness Based Functional Therapy: A preliminary open trial of an integrated model of care for people with persistent low back pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eSchutze

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This pilot study investigated the feasibility and clinical utility of implementing a novel, evidence-informed, interdisciplinary group intervention – Mindfulness Based Functional Therapy (MBFT – for the management of persistent low back pain (LBP in primary care. MBFT aimed to improve physical and psychological functioning in patients with persistent LBP. Design: A single-group repeated measures design was utilized to gather data about feasibility, effect sizes, clinically significant changes and patient satisfaction.Setting: A community sample of 16 adults (75% female, mean (SD age 47.00 (9.12 years (range 26-65 years, with mean (SD LBP duration of 8.00 (9.00 years participated, using a simulated primary care setting at Curtin University in Australia.Intervention: MBFT is an 8-week group intervention co-facilitated by psychology and physiotherapy disciplines. Content includes: mindfulness meditation training, cognitive-functional physiotherapeutic movement retraining, pain education, and group support.Main outcome measures: Several validated self-report measures were used to assess functional disability, emotional functioning, mindfulness, pain catastrophizing, health-related quality of life at baseline, post-intervention, and 6 months follow-up.Results: Adherence and satisfaction was high, with 85% of participants highly satisfied with MBFT. Clinical significance analysis and effect size estimates showed improvements in a number of variables, including pain catastrophizing, physical functioning, role limitations due to physical condition, and depression, although these may have occurred due to non-intervention effects. Conclusions: MBFT is feasible to implement in primary care. Preliminary findings suggest that a randomized controlled trial is warranted to investigate its efficacy in improving physical and emotional functioning in people with disabling persistent LBP.

  10. The effect of two physiotherapy approaches on physical and cognitive functions and independent coping at home in stroke rehabilitation. A preliminary follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyöriä, Outi; Talvitie, Ulla; Nyrkkö, Hannu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Pohjolainen, Timo; Kasper, Virpi

    2007-03-30

    Activating physiotherapy was used to support the principle of post stroke functional recovery as a learning process which requires both cognitive and physical actions. The purpose of the present preliminary study was to examine the influence of activating physiotherapy on stroke patients' cognitive and physical functions and independent living at home compared with traditional treatment over a 12-month follow-up. The 40 patients who received activating physiotherapy were compared with 40 patients receiving traditional therapy. Patients' physical functional capacity was measured one week and 12 months post stroke with the Barthel Index (BI), 10-m gait speed, the Postural Control and Balance for Stroke (PCBS) test, walking distances and patients' abilities to cope without outside help. Cognitive capacity was measured with specific neuropsychological tests: language, visuospatial functions, visual inattention and memory. Physical functional capacity improved significantly (p = 0.001) in both groups at the 12-month follow-up, but no significant differences were found between groups. However, the patients in the activating therapy group coped better without outside help (p = 0.042) and covered longer distances outdoors (p = 0.012). At follow-up all the measured cognitive functions had improved significantly in the activating therapy group and the change in memory in the same group differed significantly from that in the traditional therapy group (p stroke patients' cognitive and physical functional recovery and supported their return to independent life at home more than did traditional physiotherapy. In this respect activating therapy seems to have a beneficial influence on long-term stroke rehabilitation.

  11. Effect of functional lumbar stabilization exercises on pain, disability, and kinesiophobia in women with menstrual low back pain: a preliminary trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Hassan; Fathollahi, Zahra; Karimi, Noureddin; Arab, Amir M

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the effect of functional lumbar stabilization exercises on pain, disability, and kinesiophobia in women with menstrual low back pain (LBP). Thirty women with menstrual LBP participated in the study. Subjects were assigned to a control group (n = 10, mean age = 25.1 ± 4.7 years) and an intervention group (n = 20, mean age = 21.7±2.4 years). Treatment for the intervention group consisted of functional lumbar stabilization exercises, 10 repetitions each, 3 times a day, for 3 consecutive months. The women in the control group received no exercise and performed their regular activity daily living. Pain intensity using a Numeric Pain Scale (NPS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Roland-Morris Questionnaire (RMQ), and Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) was collected at baseline and at the end of 3 months in both groups. Statistical analysis (paired t test) revealed a significant decrease in NPS, ODI, RMQ, and TSK after treatment in the intervention group. No significant difference in NPS, ODI, RMQ, or TSK was found between pre- and postmeasurement scores in the control group. In the analysis of covariance, controlling for pretest scores, a significant difference was found between the 2 groups in the postmeasurement score of NPS (P = .01), ODI (P kinesiophobia during menstrual LBP for subjects who participated in this preliminary study compared to those who did not receive the intervention.

  12. Changes in cardiopulmonary function in normal adults after the Rockport 1 mile walking test: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Hye-Young; Lee, Do-Youn; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of cardiopulmonary function in normal adults after the Rockport 1 mile walking test. [Subjects and Methods] University students (13 males and 27 females) participated in this study. Before and after the Rockport 1 mile walking test, pulmonary function, respiratory pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake were measured. [Results] Significant improvements in forced vital capacity and maximal inspiratory pressure were observed after the Rockport 1 mile walking test in males, and significant improvements in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at 1 s, maximal inspiratory pressure, and maximal expiratory pressure were observed after the Rockport 1 mile walking test in females. However, the maximal oxygen uptake was not significantly different. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that the Rockport 1 mile walking test changes cardiopulmonary function in males and females, and that it may improve cardiopulmonary function in middle-aged and older adults and provide basic data on cardiopulmonary endurance.

  13. Preliminary experience with mycophenolate mofetil for preservation of renal function in cardiac transplant patients with documented cyclosporine nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aly, Ziyad; Sachdeva, Ashutosh; Philoctete Ashley, Jennifer M; Bastani, Bahar

    2006-04-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) has positively impacted on the outcome of cardiac transplantation; however, the nephrotoxicity associated with CyA has been a major drawback. In an effort to reduce exposure to CyA and possibly alleviate its nephrotoxic effects, we undertook a therapeutic strategy to switch cardiac transplant patients with biopsy-proven CyA nephrotoxicity from azathioprine (AZA) to mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) with subsequent CyA dose reduction or elimination. MMF was substituted for AZA in five cardiac transplant patients (four males; mean age, 60 +/- 6 years old; average time from transplant was 7 +/- 3 years) who had biopsy proven evidence of CyA nephrotoxicity, and in whom CyA dose was reduced (3/5) or discontinued (2/5). At the time of the therapeutic intervention, four patients had an average serum creatinine of 230 +/- 62 micromol/L and one patient had just been started on haemodialysis (HD). During an average follow-up period of 42 months, the slope of the inverse serum creatinine significantly improved in three patients and continued to deteriorate in one patient. The patient on HD could be transiently taken off HD. However, he developed a severe episode of cardiac rejection requiring antirejection therapy and increase in the dose of CyA. The patient was subsequently returned back on HD. In this preliminary report, we show that AZA to MMF switch with subsequent CyA dose reduction or discontinuation may slow down the progression of kidney disease in some patients. However, the patients should be followed closely for evidence of cardiac rejection.

  14. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Parkinsonism in Occupations with Manganese Exposure: A Review of Methodological Issues in the Epidemiological Literature

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    Robert M. Park

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to manganese (Mn is associated with neurobehavioral effects. There is disagreement on whether commonly occurring exposures in welding, ferroalloy, and other industrial processes produce neurologically significant neurobehavioral changes representing parkinsonism. A review of methodological issues in the human epidemiological literature on Mn identified: (1 studies focused on idiopathic Parkinson disease without considering manganism, a parkinsonian syndrome; (2 studies with healthy worker effect bias; (3 studies with problematic statistical modeling; and (4 studies arising from case series derived from litigation. Investigations with adequate study design and exposure assessment revealed consistent neurobehavioral effects and attributable subclinical and clinical signs and symptoms of impairment. Twenty-eight studies show an exposure-response relationship between Mn and neurobehavioral effects, including 11 with continuous exposure metrics and six with three or four levels of contrasted exposure. The effects of sustained low-concentration exposures to Mn are consistent with the manifestations of early manganism, i.e., consistent with parkinsonism. This is compelling evidence that Mn is a neurotoxic chemical and there is good evidence that Mn exposures far below the current US standard of 5.0 mg/m3 are causing impairment.

  15. Epigenetic Regulation of Placental "NR3C1": Mechanism Underlying Prenatal Programming of Infant Neurobehavior by Maternal Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George D.; Salisbury, Amy L.; Phipps, Maureen G.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Niaura, Raymond; Padbury, James F.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of the placental glucocorticoid receptor gene ("NR3C1") was investigated as a mechanism underlying links between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and infant neurobehavior in 45 mother-infant pairs (49% MSDP-exposed; 52% minorities; ages 18-35). The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Network Neurobehavioral…

  16. Changes in cardiopulmonary function in normal adults after the Rockport 1 mile walking test: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyoung; LEE,Hye-Young; Lee, Do-Youn; Nam, Chan-Woo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of cardiopulmonary function in normal adults after the Rockport 1 mile walking test. [Subjects and Methods] University students (13 males and 27 females) participated in this study. Before and after the Rockport 1 mile walking test, pulmonary function, respiratory pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake were measured. [Results] Significant improvements in forced vital capacity and maximal inspiratory pressure were observed after t...

  17. OBESITY PHENOTYPE INFLUENCES TREND IN PULMONARY FUNCTION INDICES RECOVERY FOLLOWING ABDOMINAL SURGERY: PRELIMINARY REPORT FROM A NIGERIAN POPULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinremi, A A; Orotokun, A E; Sanya, A O

    2014-09-01

    Obesity phenotypes are known to have varying effects on pulmonary function but their effects on trends of pulmonary function indices' recovery among abdominal surgery patients is unclear. To investigate the influence of obesity phenotype on pulmonary function trend among abdominal surgery patients. An observational study involving 28 female patients aged 20-60 years who were never-smokers. Participants were classified into four groups namely: healthy BMI without abdominal obesity; healthy BMI with abdominal obesity; overweight/obese without abdominal obesity; and overweight/obese with abdominal obesity. Pulmonary function indices (FEV1, FVC and PEF) were taken day-1 pre-op; 5th, 6th and 7th day post-surgery. Data were summarized using mean and standard deviation, while Kruskal-Wallis and Jonckheere trend test were used to test for differences and trend across the groups at p trend test showed that obesity pattern had significant effect on the trend of FEV1, FVC and PER with group I having the highest values, followed by group III and group II, while group IV had the lowest values. Obesity phenotype had significant effect on trend of pulmonary function indices among participants. Patients with abdominal obesity, irrespective of BMI, had poor pulmonary function.

  18. Exploring frontal asymmetry using functional near-infrared spectroscopy: a preliminary study of the effects of social anxiety during interaction and performance tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuscan, Lori-Ann; Herbert, James D; Forman, Evan M; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Schultheis, Maria

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary studies examining brain function associated with social anxiety suggest the possibility of right-sided prefrontal activation associated with phobic stimulation. Although most existing neuroimaging techniques preclude participants from engaging in ecologically valid social tasks during assessment, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a promising new technique that permits such assessment. The present study investigated the utility of the fNIRS procedure and explored frontal asymmetry during in vivo social challenge tasks among female undergraduate students who scored in top and bottom percentiles on a social anxiety screening measure. Results revealed that participants in both groups experienced a significant increase in concentration of blood volume and oxygenated hemoglobin in the right hemisphere compared to the left hemisphere while giving a speech. Non-hemispheric effects were also observed. In addition, the high anxiety group showed a non-significant trend toward greater right frontal activity than the low anxiety group. This study highlights the utility of the fNIRS device in successfully assessing real-time changes in cerebrovascular response as a function of naturalistic social behavior, and supports the potential utility of this technology in the study of the neurophysiology of social anxiety.

  19. Predicting personality disorder functioning styles by the Chinese Adjective Descriptors of Personality: a preliminary trial in healthy people and personality disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongying; Zhu, Qisha; Ma, Guorong; Shen, Chanchan; Zhang, Bingren; Wang, Wei

    2016-08-30

    Cultural and personality factors might contribute to the clinical differences of psychiatric patients all over the world including China. One cultural oriented Chinese Adjective Descriptors of Personality (CADP) designed to measure normal personality traits, might be specifically associated with different personality disorder functioning styles. We therefore have invited 201 healthy volunteers and 67 personality disorder patients to undergo CADP, the Parker Personality Measure (PERM), and the Plutchik-van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP) tests. Patients scored significantly higher on PVP scale and all 11 PERM personality disorder functioning styles, as well as CADP Emotional and Unsocial traits. The PVP was significantly correlated with some CADP traits and PERM styles in both groups. In healthy volunteers, only one CADP trait, Unsocial, prominently predicted 11 PERM styles. By contrast in patients, CADP Intelligent predicted the PERM Narcissistic and Passive-Aggressive styles; CADP Emotional the PERM Paranoid, Borderline, and Histrionic styles; CADP Conscientious the PERM Obsessive-Compulsive style; CADP Unsocial the PERM Schizotypal, Antisocial, Narcissistic, Avoidant, Dependent, and Passive-Aggressive styles; CADP Agreeable the PERM Antisocial style. As a preliminary study, our results demonstrated that, in personality disorder patients, all five CADP traits were specifically associated with almost all 11 personality disorder functioning styles, indicating that CADP might be used as an aid to diagnose personality disorders in China.

  20. Can TRUS Power Doppler Predict the Preservation of Erectile Function in HIFU Treatment of Localised Prostate Cancer? — A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoh, I. M.; Calleary, J. G.; Moore, C.; Emberton, M.; Allen, C.

    2006-05-01

    Perhaps the single most significant unifying feature in men diagnosed with organ confined prostate cancer is the hope of erectile preservation in the treatment that offers cure. Although it is not 100% certain that the preservation of neurovascular bundle (NVB) can actually lead to intact sexual function, there is evidence that non-sparing nerve radical prostatectomy has a much higher incidence of impotence compared to nerve-sparing ones. The idea to monitor NVB flow can be realized using a simple power Doppler technique that was done before and after HIFU. The NVB flow was found intact in all patients (n=14). Tumescence returned in 93% of patients with a mean time of 6 weeks for this to occur. The erectile function score, IIEF-15 decreased by a third but shows a trend towards recovery. This preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of transrectal power Doppler as a monitoring tool to provide immediate feedback on the NVB flow which was found intact in all patients. Although early reports of the tumescence proved encouraging, its full impact on erectile function will require longer follow-up.

  1. Taurine ameliorates neurobehavioral, neurochemical and immunohistochemical changes in sporadic dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT) caused by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Hayate; Khan, Andleeb; Vaibhav, Kumar; Moshahid Khan, Mohd; Ahmad, Ajmal; Ejaz Ahmad, Md; Ahmad, Ashafaq; Tabassum, Rizwana; Islam, Farah; Safhi, Mohammed M; Islam, Fakhrul

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative loads in the brain are involved in age related impairments like learning and memory as well as neurodegeneration. Taurine, the most abundant free amino acid in humans has many potential health benefits through its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we investigated the neuroprotective potential of taurine on oxidative stress, neuronal loss and memory impairments in streptozotocin model of cognitive impairments in rats. The cognitive impairment was developed by giving single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) 3 mg/kg body weight bilaterally. An increased latency and path length was observed in ICV-STZ group animals as compared to sham group animals and these were inhibited significantly in STZ group pre-treated with taurine (50 mg/kg body weight orally once daily for 15 days). Moreover, the significantly depleted content of GSH and elevated level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in ICV-STZ group animals were protected significantly with pre-treatment of taurine. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase was decreased in STZ group as compared to sham group and pre-treatment of STZ group with taurine has protected their activities significantly. Furthermore, the increased activity of acetylcholine esterase and decreased expression of choline acetyl transferase were attenuated by the pre-treatment of taurine. Taurine also protected the morphology of the hippocampal pyramidal neurons. This study concludes that the prophylactic intervention of taurine may be used to prevent the deterioration of cognitive functions and neurobehavioral activities, often associated with the generation of free radicals.

  2. From Cortical and Subcortical Grey Matter Abnormalities to Neurobehavioral Phenotype of Angelman Syndrome: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhanyan, Gayane; Bonanni, Paolo; Randazzo, Giovanna; Nappi, Sara; Tessarotto, Federica; De Martin, Lara; Frijia, Francesca; De Marchi, Daniele; De Masi, Francesco; Kuppers, Beate; Lombardo, Francesco; Caramella, Davide; Montanaro, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare neurogenetic disorder due to loss of expression of maternal ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene. It is characterized by severe developmental delay, speech impairment, movement or balance disorder and typical behavioral uniqueness. Affected individuals show normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, although mild dysmyelination may be observed. In this study, we adopted a quantitative MRI analysis with voxel-based morphometry (FSL-VBM) method to investigate disease-related changes in the cortical/subcortical grey matter (GM) structures. Since 2006 to 2013 twenty-six AS patients were assessed by our multidisciplinary team. From those, sixteen AS children with confirmed maternal 15q11-q13 deletions (mean age 7.7 ± 3.6 years) and twenty-one age-matched controls were recruited. The developmental delay and motor dysfunction were assessed using Bayley III and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the clinical and neuropsychological datasets. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired and FSL-VBM approach was applied to investigate differences in the local GM volume and to correlate clinical and neuropsychological changes in the regional distribution of GM. We found bilateral GM volume loss in AS compared to control children in the striatum, limbic structures, insular and orbitofrontal cortices. Voxel-wise correlation analysis with the principal components of the PCA output revealed a strong relationship with GM volume in the superior parietal lobule and precuneus on the left hemisphere. The anatomical distribution of cortical/subcortical GM changes plausibly related to several clinical features of the disease and may provide an important morphological underpinning for clinical and neurobehavioral symptoms in children with AS.

  3. From Cortical and Subcortical Grey Matter Abnormalities to Neurobehavioral Phenotype of Angelman Syndrome: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayane Aghakhanyan

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS is a rare neurogenetic disorder due to loss of expression of maternal ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A gene. It is characterized by severe developmental delay, speech impairment, movement or balance disorder and typical behavioral uniqueness. Affected individuals show normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings, although mild dysmyelination may be observed. In this study, we adopted a quantitative MRI analysis with voxel-based morphometry (FSL-VBM method to investigate disease-related changes in the cortical/subcortical grey matter (GM structures. Since 2006 to 2013 twenty-six AS patients were assessed by our multidisciplinary team. From those, sixteen AS children with confirmed maternal 15q11-q13 deletions (mean age 7.7 ± 3.6 years and twenty-one age-matched controls were recruited. The developmental delay and motor dysfunction were assessed using Bayley III and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to the clinical and neuropsychological datasets. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired and FSL-VBM approach was applied to investigate differences in the local GM volume and to correlate clinical and neuropsychological changes in the regional distribution of GM. We found bilateral GM volume loss in AS compared to control children in the striatum, limbic structures, insular and orbitofrontal cortices. Voxel-wise correlation analysis with the principal components of the PCA output revealed a strong relationship with GM volume in the superior parietal lobule and precuneus on the left hemisphere. The anatomical distribution of cortical/subcortical GM changes plausibly related to several clinical features of the disease and may provide an important morphological underpinning for clinical and neurobehavioral symptoms in children with AS.

  4. From Cortical and Subcortical Grey Matter Abnormalities to Neurobehavioral Phenotype of Angelman Syndrome: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhanyan, Gayane; Bonanni, Paolo; Randazzo, Giovanna; Nappi, Sara; Tessarotto, Federica; De Martin, Lara; Frijia, Francesca; De Marchi, Daniele; De Masi, Francesco; Kuppers, Beate; Lombardo, Francesco; Caramella, Davide; Montanaro, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare neurogenetic disorder due to loss of expression of maternal ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene. It is characterized by severe developmental delay, speech impairment, movement or balance disorder and typical behavioral uniqueness. Affected individuals show normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, although mild dysmyelination may be observed. In this study, we adopted a quantitative MRI analysis with voxel-based morphometry (FSL-VBM) method to investigate disease-related changes in the cortical/subcortical grey matter (GM) structures. Since 2006 to 2013 twenty-six AS patients were assessed by our multidisciplinary team. From those, sixteen AS children with confirmed maternal 15q11-q13 deletions (mean age 7.7 ± 3.6 years) and twenty-one age-matched controls were recruited. The developmental delay and motor dysfunction were assessed using Bayley III and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the clinical and neuropsychological datasets. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired and FSL-VBM approach was applied to investigate differences in the local GM volume and to correlate clinical and neuropsychological changes in the regional distribution of GM. We found bilateral GM volume loss in AS compared to control children in the striatum, limbic structures, insular and orbitofrontal cortices. Voxel-wise correlation analysis with the principal components of the PCA output revealed a strong relationship with GM volume in the superior parietal lobule and precuneus on the left hemisphere. The anatomical distribution of cortical/subcortical GM changes plausibly related to several clinical features of the disease and may provide an important morphological underpinning for clinical and neurobehavioral symptoms in children with AS. PMID:27626634

  5. Changes in physical functional performance and quality of life in hemodialysis patients in Taiwan: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Huang, Hsiao-Yuan; Chen, Shih-Ching; Lin, Wen-Hsuan; Wu, Chia-Wei; Chang, Chung-Hsin; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2010-01-01

    To study the long-term changes in physical functional performance and quality of life in hemodialysis patients living in the community in Taiwan. This prospective study monitored 27 ambulatory hemodialysis patients for 16 months living in the community in Taiwan. Physical capacity (6-minute walk test, grip strength, pinch strength and chair-rising time), maximal cardiovascular fitness test, functional performance (Functional Independence Measure) and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) were evaluated. There were 17 men and 7 women, with a mean age of 61.3 (+/- 9.0) years. The results showed significantly decreased pinch strength (right hand: from 6.4 kg to 4.5 kg, p=0.009; left hand: from 5.6 kg to 4.7 kg, p=0.017) and decreased quality of life (from 89.5 to 85.3 for WHOQOL-BREF total score, p=0.026), especially in the domain of physical health and subcategories of concentrating ability, satisfaction with working ability and sex life, and "eating foods whenever wanted," over the 16-month period. Maximal cardiovascular fitness and functional performance remained stationary during the 16-month period. Significantly declined pinch strength and quality of life, with maintained maximal cardiovascular fitness and functional performance, were noted in ambulatory hemodialysis patients over the 16-month period of follow-up. An intensive pinch strengthening program and overall improvement in quality of life for these patients is needed.

  6. Using robot fully assisted functional movements in upper-limb rehabilitation of chronic stroke patients: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimmi, Marco; Chiavenna, Andrea; Scano, Alessandro; Gasperini, Giulio; Giovanzana, Chiara; Molinari Tosatti, Lorenzo; Molteni, Franco

    2017-06-01

    Robotic rehabilitation is promising to promote function in stroke patients. The assist as needed training paradigm has shown to stimulate neuroplasticity but often cannot be used because stroke patients are too impaired to actively control the robot against gravity. To verify whether a rehabilitation intervention based on robot fully assisted reaching against gravity (RCH) and hand-to-mouth (HTM) can promote upper-limb function in chronic stroke. Cohort study. Chronic stroke outpatients referring to the robotic rehabilitation lab of a rehabilitation centre. Ten chronic stroke patients with mild to moderate upper-limb hemiparesis. Patients underwent 12 sessions (3 per week) of robotic treatment using an end-effector robot Every session consisted of 20 minutes each of RCH and HtM; movements were fully assisted, but patients were asked to try to actively participate. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) was the primary outcome measure; Medical Research Council and Modified Ashworth Scale were the secondary outcome measures. All patients, but one, show functional improvements (FMA section A-D, mean increment 7.2±3.9 points, Probotic intervention based on functional movements, fully assisted, can be effective in promoting function in chronic stroke patients. These results are promising considering the short time of the intervention (1 month) and the time from the stroke event, which was large (27±20 months). A larger study, comprehensive of objective instrumental measures, is necessary to confirm the results. This intervention could be extended even to subacute stroke and other neurological disorders.

  7. The relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cognitive functions in alcohol-dependent patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Won, Sung-Doo; Roh, Sungwon; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2015-01-01

    As a neurotoxic substance, alcohol can induce neurodegenesis in the brain. Alcohol-dependent patients' cognitive functioning can be affected by chronic alcohol use. In addition, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to reflect the status of neuroadaptive changes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive functions and BDNF in alcohol-dependent patients. The subjects were 39 alcohol-dependent patients. BDNF was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. We examined clinical features and administered the Korean version of Alcohol Dependence Scale. We also used the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) to measure cognitive functioning. Then, we determined the relationships between BDNF and various parts of the CERAD. The performance of alcohol-dependent patients proved stable in most parts of the CERAD. Within the different parts of the CERAD, only Trail Making Test B correlated with BDNF. Trail Making Test specifically assesses executive functions. BDNF might play an important role in the detection of neurocognitive function among individuals with alcohol dependence.

  8. The effect of feedback respiratory training on pulmonary function of children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Young; Cha, Yong Jun; Kim, Kyoung

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effect of feedback respiratory training on pulmonary function of children with cerebral palsy. Randomized controlled experimental study. Outpatient rehabilitation hospital. Twenty-two children with cerebral palsy were randomly assigned to two groups: the experimental group (feedback respiratory training) and the control group. Feedback respiratory training and comprehensive rehabilitation therapy were performed by children in the experimental group. Comprehensive rehabilitation therapy was performed by children in the control group. Children in both groups received training three times per week for a period of four weeks. Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at one second, peak expiratory flow, vital capacity, tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume were assessed before and after four weeks training period. Significant improvements in pulmonary function were observed after training in the experimental group (P 0.05). Participation in feedback respiratory training resulted in improvement of pulmonary function of children with cerebral palsy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Do Respiratory Cycle-Related EEG Changes or Arousals from Sleep Predict Neurobehavioral Deficits and Response to Adenotonsillectomy in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervin, Ronald D.; Garetz, Susan L.; Ruzicka, Deborah L.; Hodges, Elise K.; Giordani, Bruno J.; Dillon, James E.; Felt, Barbara T.; Hoban, Timothy F.; Guire, Kenneth E.; O'Brien, Louise M.; Burns, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with hyperactive behavior, cognitive deficits, psychiatric morbidity, and sleepiness, but objective polysomnographic measures of OSA presence or severity among children scheduled for adenotonsillectomy have not explained why. To assess whether sleep fragmentation might explain neurobehavioral outcomes, we prospectively assessed the predictive value of standard arousals and also respiratory cycle-related EEG changes (RCREC), thought to reflect inspiratory microarousals. Methods: Washtenaw County Adenotonsillectomy Cohort II participants included children (ages 3-12 years) scheduled for adenotonsillectomy, for any clinical indication. At enrollment and again 7.2 ± 0.9 (SD) months later, children had polysomnography, a multiple sleep latency test, parent-completed behavioral rating scales, cognitive testing, and psychiatric evaluation. The RCREC were computed as previously described for delta, theta, alpha, sigma, and beta EEG frequency bands. Results: Participants included 133 children, 109 with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 1.5, mean 8.3 ± 10.6) and 24 without OSA (AHI 0.9 ± 0.3). At baseline, the arousal index and RCREC showed no consistent, significant associations with neurobehavioral morbidities, among all subjects or the 109 with OSA. At follow-up, the arousal index, RCREC, and neurobehavioral measures all tended to improve, but neither baseline measure of sleep fragmentation effectively predicted outcomes (all p > 0.05, with only scattered exceptions, among all subjects or those with OSA). Conclusion: Sleep fragmentation, as reflected by standard arousals or by RCREC, appears unlikely to explain neurobehavioral morbidity among children who undergo adenotonsillectomy. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT00233194 Citation: Chervin RD, Garetz SL, Ruzicka DL, Hodges EK, Giordani BJ, Dillon JE, Felt BT, Hoban TF, Guire KE, O'Brien LM, Burns JW. Do respiratory cycle

  10. Low-level gestational exposure to mercury and maternal fish consumption: Associations with neurobehavior in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingying; Khoury, Jane C; Sucharew, Heidi; Dietrich, Kim; Yolton, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining the effects of low-level gestational methylmercury exposure from fish consumption on infant neurobehavioral outcomes in the offspring are limited and inconclusive. Our objective was to examine the effects of low-level gestational exposure to methylmercury on neurobehavioral outcomes in early infancy. We assessed neurobehavior of 344 infants at 5-weeks using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS). Gestational mercury exposure was measured as whole blood total mercury (WBTHg) in maternal and cord blood. We collected fish consumption information and estimated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake. We examined the association between gestational mercury exposure and NNNS scales using regression, adjusting for covariates. Geometric mean of maternal and cord WBTHg were 0.64 and 0.72 μg/L, respectively. Most mothers (84%) reported eating fish during pregnancy. Infants with higher prenatal mercury exposure showed increased asymmetric reflexes among girls (p=0.04 for maternal WBTHg and p=0.03 for cord WBTHg), less need for special handling during the assessment (p=0.03 for cord WBTHg) and a trend of better attention (p=0.054 for both maternal WBTHg and cord WBTHg). Similarly, infants born to mothers with higher fish consumption or estimated PUFA intake also had increased asymmetric reflexes and less need for special handling. In models simultaneously adjusted for WBTHg and fish consumption (or PUFA intake), the previously observed WBTHg effects were attenuated; and higher fish consumption (or PUFA intake) was significantly associated with less need for special handling. In a cohort with low level mercury exposure and reporting low fish consumption, we found minimal evidence of mercury associated detrimental effects on neurobehavioral outcomes during early infancy. Higher prenatal mercury exposure was associated with more frequent asymmetric reflexes in girls. In contrast, infants with higher prenatal mercury exposure and those whose mothers

  11. Conceptualizing the relations between metacognition and executive functions in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS patients’ caregivers. A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania La Foresta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Executive Functions are goal-directed neurocognitive processes that allow the management of cognition and behavior. Executive Functions are essential to allow people to set goals, self-monitor, inhibit inappropriate responses, and generally engage in well-planned, flexible, future-oriented behavior. Metacognitive processes, in close alliance with executive functions, are viewed as integral components of awareness and emotional regulation. The influence of metacognition on planning, monitoring and mental flexibility has not been investigated. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the relationship between metacognition and executive functions in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis patient's caregivers. Twenty-two caregivers were evaluated using the following instruments: Metacognition Questionnaire-30 and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Data analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows applying correlational analysis (Spearman’s Rho. We founded that total score of metacognition is positive correlated with number of perseverative errors made in Wisconsin (0.75 p<.001. In particular, need to control thoughts is positive correlated with number of perseverative errors (0.78 p<.001. Results could suggest the importance to explore the relationship between metacognitive processes and executive functions in order to cope disease’s changes and optimize the relative daily living management. Providing care to a Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis relative may cause feelings of burden, psychological distress, anxiety or depression, in particular in case of dysfunctional metacognitions. So, our future researches will be oriented to explore the relationship between psycopatological symptoms and metacognition and executive functions in ALS’caregivers in order to contain caregiver emotional burden.

  12. Evaluation of the Military Functional Assessment Program: Preliminary Assessment of the Construct Validity Using an Archived Database of Clinical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Amanda M; Ranes, Bethany M; Estrada, Art; Grandizio, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    Several important factors must be considered when deciding to return a soldier to duty after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Premature return increases risk for not only second-impact syndrome during the acute phase but also permanent changes from repetitive concussions. Thus, there is a critical need for return-to-duty (RTD) assessment criteria that encompass the spectrum of injury and disease experienced by US soldiers, particularly TBI. To provide evidence-based standards to eventually serve as criteria for operational competence and performance of a soldier after injury. Specifically, the relationships between clinical assessments and novel military-specific tasks were evaluated. Exploratory analyses (including nonparametric tests and Spearman rank correlations) of an archived database. A total of 79 patients with TBI who participated in an RTD assessment program at a US Army rehabilitation and recovery center. Military Functional Assessment Program (to determine a soldier's operational competence and performance after TBI) tasks; Dizziness Handicap Inventory; Dynamic Visual Acuity (vestibular function); Sensory Organization Test (postural control); Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (neuropsychological screening test); Beck Depression Inventory-II; Beck Anxiety Inventory; Comprehensive Trail Making Test (visual search and sequencing); posttraumatic stress disorder checklist military version; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; Epworth Sleepiness Scale; Patient Health Questionnaire; and Military Acute Concussion Evaluation. Selected military operational assessment tasks correlated significantly with clinical measures of vestibular function, psychological well-being, and cognitive function. Differences on occupational therapy assessments, a concussion screening tool, and a self-report health questionnaire were seen between those who passed and those who failed the RTD assessment. Specifically, those who passed the RTD

  13. PER3 polymorphism predicts cumulative sleep homeostatic but not neurobehavioral changes to chronic partial sleep deprivation.

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    Namni Goel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The variable number tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism 5-repeat allele of the circadian gene PERIOD3 (PER3(5/5 has been associated with cognitive decline at a specific circadian phase in response to a night of total sleep deprivation (TSD, relative to the 4-repeat allele (PER3(4/4. PER3(5/5 has also been related to higher sleep homeostasis, which is thought to underlie this cognitive vulnerability. To date, no study has used a candidate gene approach to investigate the response to chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD, a condition distinct from TSD and one commonly experienced by millions of people on a daily and persistent basis. We evaluated whether the PER3 VNTR polymorphism contributed to cumulative neurobehavioral deficits and sleep homeostatic responses during PSD.PER3(5/5 (n = 14, PER3(4/5 (n = 63 and PER3(4/4 (n = 52 healthy adults (aged 22-45 y demonstrated large, but equivalent cumulative decreases in cognitive performance and physiological alertness, and cumulative increases in sleepiness across 5 nights of sleep restricted to 4 h per night. Such effects were accompanied by increasing daily inter-subject variability in all groups. The PER3 genotypes did not differ significantly at baseline in habitual sleep, physiological sleep structure, circadian phase, physiological sleepiness, cognitive performance, or subjective sleepiness, although during PSD, PER3(5/5 subjects had slightly but reliably elevated sleep homeostatic pressure as measured physiologically by EEG slow-wave energy in non-rapid eye movement sleep compared with PER3(4/4 subjects. PER3 genotypic and allelic frequencies did not differ significantly between Caucasians and African Americans.The PER3 VNTR polymorphism was not associated with individual differences in neurobehavioral responses to PSD, although it was related to one marker of sleep homoeostatic response during PSD. The comparability of PER3 genotypes at baseline and their equivalent inter-individual vulnerability

  14. Functional connectivity in the first year of life in infants at-risk for autism: A preliminary near-infrared spectroscopy study

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    Brandon eKeehn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been called a ‘developmental disconnection syndrome,’ however the majority of the research examining connectivity in ASD has been conducted exclusively with older children and adults. Yet, prior ASD research suggests that perturbations in neurodevelopmental trajectories begin as early as the first year of life. Prospective longitudinal studies of infants at risk for ASD may provide a window into the emergence of these aberrant patterns of connectivity. The current study employed functional connectivity near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in order to examine the development of intra- and inter-hemispheric functional connectivity in high- and low-risk infants across the first year of life.Methods: NIRS data were collected from 27 infants at high risk for autism (HRA and 37 low-risk comparison (LRC infants who contributed a total of 116 data sets at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-months. At each time point, HRA and LRC groups were matched on age, sex, head circumference, and Mullen Scales of Early Learning scores. Regions of interest (ROI were selected from anterior and posterior locations of each hemisphere. The average time course for each ROI was calculated and correlations for each ROI pair were computed. Differences in functional connectivity were examined in a cross-sectional manner.Results: At 3-months, HRA infants showed increased overall functional connectivity compared to LRC infants. This was the result of increased connectivity for intra- and inter-hemispheric ROI pairs. No significant differences were found between HRA and LRC infants at 6- and 9-months. However, by 12-months, HRA infants showed decreased connectivity relative to LRC infants.Conclusions: Our preliminary results suggest that atypical functional connectivity may exist within the first year of life in HRA infants, providing support to the growing body of evidence that aberrant patterns of connectivity may be a potential endophenotype for

  15. A Preliminary Evaluation of Functional Communication Training Effectiveness and Language Preference when Spanish and English Are Manipulated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla Dalmau, Yaniz C.; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K.; Schieltz, Kelly M.; Lee, John F.; Breznican, Gregory P.; Kramer, Abigail R.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated whether differences in treatment effectiveness or preference between languages emerged across Spanish and English during functional communication training (FCT) for young children with developmental disabilities exposed to Spanish and English in the home environment. Participants were 2 young children with developmental disabilities…

  16. Evaluation of the functional effects of a course of Bobath therapy in children with cerebral palsy: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Virginia; Evans, Andrew Lloyd

    2002-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate functional effects of Bobath therapy in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Fifteen children with a diagnosis of CP were recruited (9 males, 6 females; mean age 7 years 4 months, SD 2 years 8 months; age range 2 to 12 years). Types of motor disorder were as follows: spastic quadriplegia (n=9); spastic diplegia (n=4); athetoid quadriplegia (n=1), and ataxia (n=1). Participants were distributed across the following Gross Motor Function Classification levels: level I, n=1; level II, n=4; level III, n=5; level IV, n=4; and level V, n=1. Children awaiting orthopaedic intervention were excluded. A repeated measures design was used with participants tested with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) at 6-weekly intervals (baseline, before and after Bobath therapy, and follow-up). As the data were of ordinal type, non-parametric statistics were used, i.e. Wilcoxon's test. Participants showed a significant improvement in scores in the following areas following Bobath therapy compared with the periods before and after Bobath therapy: GMFM total score (p=0.009); GMFM goal total (p=0.001); PEDI self care skills (p=0.036); and PEDI caregiver assistance total score (p=0.012). This demonstrates that in this population, gains were made in motor function and self care following a course of Bobath therapy.

  17. The crust and mantle beneath the Siberian provinces: a preliminary model based on new receiver function analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The new receiver function (RF) study complements the existing seismic data on the crustal and upper mantle structure at the margins of the Siberian craton and the West Siberian Basin. So far, RF studies of Siberia have been largely restricted to the Baikal rift zone (Gao et al., 2004; Liu and Gao...

  18. A Preliminary Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study of Cortical Inhibition and Excitability in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Peter G.; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Bradshaw, John L.; Fitzgerald, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Controversy surrounds the distinction between high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger disorder, but motor abnormalities are associated features of both conditions. This study examined motor cortical inhibition and excitability in HFA and Asperger disorder using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Method: Participants were diagnosed by…

  19. Discourse Comprehension Intervention for High-Functioning Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Preliminary Findings from a School-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Jakob; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2010-01-01

    Many students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate comprehension difficulties. In the present study, 12 high-functioning Swedish students with ASD (aged 10-15 years) took part in a naturalistic classroom-based intervention to support comprehension of connected narrative discourse. An effective approach for supporting discourse…

  20. Brain-Gut Axis Modulation of Acupuncture in Functional Dyspepsia: A Preliminary Resting-State fcMRI Study

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    Jiliang Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore acupuncture effects on brain functional connectivity in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD. Methods. Eight patients in an acupuncture treatment group and ten healthy adults in the control group participated in the study. Acupuncture effectiveness was evaluated based on changes of the gastrointestinal symptoms, gastric motility measurements, and gastrin levels and comparisons with the control group when appropriate. To investigate functional connectivity changes related to FD and potential modulation after acupuncture, a set of regions of interest (ROIs were selected according to previous fMRI reports of acupuncture. Results. Patients showed significant improvements of FD signs and symptoms after acupuncture treatments. For all of the ROIs, we identified subportions of the networks showing reduced connectivity in patients with FD. Connectivity between the ROIs and corresponding disease targets showed significant improvement after acupuncture treatment (P<0.05 in all ROIs except for right medial temporal lobe-hippocampus and right inferior parietal lobule. Conclusion. Functional connectivity of the brain is changed in patients with FD but approximates that in healthy control after acupuncture treatment. The relief of gastrointestinal signs and symptoms by acupuncture is likely due to the normalization of brain-gut axis associated with FD.

  1. Development and preliminary validation of a new scale to assess functional ability of older population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkar, Aarti; Gadhave, Swapnil; Kulkarni, Shruti

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the decline in functional ability and preventing disability is the critical element of the quality of life of an old age. However, the lack of contextual scale to assess the decline in functional capacity is a major issue. Objective of this study is to design the functional ability assessment scale for elderly people in India and test its psychometric properties. Random sample of 659 individuals above 60 years of age from western part of India was recruited. This paper outlines the construction, reliability and validity of a newly developed 14 item scale named as Pune-Functional Ability Assessment Tool (Pune-FAAT). The factors were extracted using the principal component analysis. Two-factor-structure of scale was accepted after applying the K1 rule, scree plot and parallel analysis method. The two factor structure yielded variance of 64.4%. The psychometric properties of the scale were examined using confirmatory factor analysis. The scale has an excellent reliability (Cronbach's α 0.928) and very good test-retest reliability (r=0.884). Each subscale demonstrated good internal consistency (Subscale I - Cronbach's α 0.938 and Subscale II - Cronbach's α 0.762). Excellent convergent validity with Standford's health assessment questionnaire (r=0.959). Discriminant validity was very good as FAAT index showed significant difference in young adults (mean±SD 1.11±0.24) and older adults (mean±SD 1.69±0.70). This new measure is a potentially valuable research tool for investigating older adult's functional ability to perform basic and complex daily activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adult neurobehavioral outcome of hyperbilirubinemia in full term neonates—a 30 year prospective follow-up study

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    Laura Hokkanen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (HB may cause severe neurological damage, but serious consequences are effectively controlled by phototherapy and blood exchange transfusion. HB is still a serious health problem in economically compromised parts of the world. The long term outcome has been regarded favorable based on epidemiological data, but has not been confirmed in prospective follow-up studies extending to adulthood.Methods. We studied the long term consequences of HB in a prospective birth cohort of 128 HB cases and 82 controls. The cases are part of a neonatal at-risk cohort (n = 1196 that has been followed up to 30 years of age. HB cases were newborns ≥ 2500 g birth weight and ≥ 37 weeks of gestation who had bilirubin concentrations > 340 µmol/l or required blood exchange transfusion. Subjects with HB were divided into subgroups based on the presence (affected HB or absence (unaffected HB of diagnosed neurobehavioral disorders in childhood, and compared with healthy controls. Subjects were seen at discharge, 5, 9 and 16 years of life and parent’s and teacher’s assessments were recorded. At 30 years they filled a questionnaire about academic and occupational achievement, life satisfaction, somatic and psychiatric symptoms including a ADHD self-rating score. Cognitive functioning was tested using ITPA, WISC, and reading and writing tests at 9 years of life.Results. Compared to controls, the odds for a child with HB having neurobehavioral symptoms at 9 years was elevated (OR = 4.68. Forty-five per cent of the HB group were affected by cognitive abnormalities in childhood and continued to experience problems in adulthood. This was apparent in academic achievement (p < 0.0001 and the ability to complete secondary (p < 0.0001 and tertiary (p < 0.004 education. Also, the subgroup of affected HB reported persisting cognitive complaints e.g., problems with reading, writing and mathematics. Childhood symptoms of hyperactivity

  3. Association of cognitive deficits with elevated homocysteine levels in euthymic bipolar patients and its impact on psychosocial functioning: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, S; Seemüller, F; Schwarz, M J; Kleindienst, N; Stampfer, R; Zach, J; Born, C; Bernhard, B; Fast, K; Grunze, H; Engel, R R; Severus, E

    2007-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been demonstrated to have a negative impact on cognitive functioning in healthy elderly people. Further studies suggest that they are an independent risk factor for dementia, in particular for Alzheimer's disease. Bipolar disorder is also associated with cognitive impairment. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of these deficits have not been elucidated yet. This study examines the role of Hcy on cognition and its impact on psychosocial functioning in euthymic bipolar patients. A total of 55 euthymic bipolar patients and 17 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Neuropsychological assessments consisted of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), the Trail Making Test (TMT), the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3(rd) edition (WAIS-III) subtest Letter-Number Sequencing Test (LNST) and the HAWIE-R (German version of the WAIS-R) subtest Information. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS). To obtain plasma levels of Hcy, blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes, immediately put on ice, centrifuged within 15 min and stored at -80 degrees C. Total Hcy concentration was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. In the neuropsychological tests, patients differed significantly from healthy controls on the TMT B and the RBANS composite indices Language, Attention and Total Score. No differences were found on the HAWIE-R subtest Information, the TMT A, LNST or the RBANS composite indices Immediate Memory, Visuospatial/Constructional Abilities and Delayed Memory. Mean Hcy levels were 9.8 +/- 3.2 microm/L in the patient group and 7.8 +/- 2.1 microm/L in the control group, respectively (p = 0.012). In the patient group Hcy levels significantly correlated with gender, diagnosis and RBANS index scores for Immediate Memory, Language, Attention and Total Score. Linear regression analyses revealed a significant and independent association

  4. A descriptive study of Lewy body dementia with functional imaging support in a Chinese population: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Y F; Chu, L W; Lee, S C

    2017-06-01

    Lewy body dementia includes dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia. There have been limited clinical studies among Chinese patients with Lewy body dementia. This study aimed to review the presenting clinical features and identify risk factors for complications including falls, dysphagia, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, and mortality in Chinese patients with Lewy body dementia. We also wished to identify any difference in clinical features of patients with Lewy body dementia with and without an Alzheimer's disease pattern of functional imaging. We retrospectively reviewed 23 patients with Lewy body dementia supported by functional imaging. Baseline demographics, presenting clinical and behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, functional and cognitive assessment scores, and complications during follow-up were reviewed. Patients with Lewy body dementia were further classified as having an Alzheimer's disease imaging pattern if functional imaging demonstrated bilateral temporoparietal hypometabolism or hypoperfusion with or without precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus hypometabolism or hypoperfusion. The pre-imaging accuracy of clinical diagnosis was 52%. In 83% of patients, behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia were evident. Falls, dysphagia, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, and death occurred in 70%, 52%, 26%, 26%, and 30% of patients, respectively with corresponding event rates per person-years of 0.32, 0.17, 0.18, 0.08, and 0.10. Patients with aspiration pneumonia compared with those without were more likely to have dysphagia (100% vs 35%; P=0.01). Deceased patients with Lewy body dementia, compared with alive patients, had a higher (median [interquartile range]) presenting Clinical Dementia Rating score (1 [1-2] vs 0.5 [0.5-1.0]; P=0.01), lower mean (± standard deviation) baseline Barthel index (13 ± 7 vs 18 ± 4; P=0.04), and were more likely to be prescribed levodopa (86% vs 31%; P=0.03). Patients with

  5. Effects of Playback Theatre on cognitive function and quality of life in older adults in Singapore: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Krystal Shu Yi; Lee, Eleena Shi Lynn; Tan, Jia Qi; Teo, Dylan Jin Hao; Lee, Chris Ban Loong; Ee, Sharifah Rose; Sim, Sam Kim Yang; Chee, Chew Sim

    2018-01-17

    This study investigated the effects of Playback Theatre on older adults' cognitive function and well-being, specifically in the Singapore context. Eighteen healthy older adults, older than 50 years of age, participated in the study. Due to practical limitations, a single-group pre-post study design was adopted. Participants completed the outcome measures before and after the training program. There were six weekly sessions in total (about 1.5 hours, once weekly). Participants experienced a significant improvement in their emotional well-being after training. However, there were no significant changes in participants' cognitive function or health-related quality of life. Our results suggest that Playback Theatre as a community program has potential to improve the mental and emotional well-being of older people. © 2018 AJA Inc.

  6. The effects of repeated intravenous iohexol administration on renal function in healthy beagles – a preliminary report

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    Kirberger Robert M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrast induced nephrotoxicity (CIN is a well described syndrome in humans undergoing contrast medium examinations. To date CIN has received minimal attention in the veterinary literature despite increasing use of contrast medium examinations in computed tomographic studies. Methods This prospective study evaluated the effect of 1290 mg/kg iohexol given intravenously to 5 normal beagle dogs in a divided dose at an interval of 6–8 weeks. Renal function was evaluated by means of scintigraphically determined glomerular filtration rate (GFR and a variety of laboratory assays. Results Only GFR showed a significant decrease (17% after the second injection but not to a clinically or pathologically significant level. Conclusions No clinically significant effect of repeated contrast medium administration was determined in this limited study. However in dogs with reduced renal function the risk of CIN is likely to increase dramatically post contrast administration.

  7. Using Virtual Technology to Promote Functional Communication in Aphasia: Preliminary Evidence From Interactive Dialogues With Human and Virtual Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Martin, Nadine; Keshner, Emily; Rudnicky, Alex; Shi, Justin; Teodoro, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using a virtual clinician (VC) to promote functional communication abilities of persons with aphasia (PWAs). We aimed to determine whether the quantity and quality of verbal output in dialogues with a VC would be the same or greater than those with a human clinician (HC). Four PWAs practiced dialogues for 2 sessions each with a HC and VC. Dialogues from before and after practice were transcribed and analyzed for content. We compared measures taken before and after practice in the VC and HC conditions. Results were mixed. Participants either produced more verbal output with the VC or showed no difference on this measure between the VC and HC conditions. Participants also showed some improvement in postpractice narratives. Results provide support for the feasibility and applicability of virtual technology to real-life communication contexts to improve functional communication in PWAs.

  8. Competing neurobehavioral decision systems theory of cocaine addiction: From mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Snider, Sarah E; Quisenberry, Amanda J; Stein, Jeffrey S; Hanlon, Colleen A

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is a difficult-to-treat, chronically relapsing disorder. Multiple scientific disciplines provide distinct perspectives on this disorder; however, connections between disciplines are rare. The competing neurobehavioral decision systems (CNDS) theory posits that choice results from the interaction between two decision systems (impulsive and executive) and that regulatory imbalance between systems can induce pathology, including addiction. Using this view, we integrate a diverse set of observations on cocaine dependence, including bias for immediacy, neural activity and structure, developmental time course, behavioral comorbidities, and the relationship between cocaine dependence and socioeconomic status. From the CNDS perspective, we discuss established and emerging behavioral, pharmacological, and neurological treatments and identify possible targets for future treatments. The ability of the CNDS theory to integrate diverse findings highlights its utility for understanding cocaine dependence and supports that dysregulation between the decision systems contributes to addiction. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurobehavioral estimation of children with life-long increased lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benetou-Marantidou, A.; Nakou, S.; Micheloyannis, J.

    1988-11-01

    A battery of neurobehavioral examinations was carried out on 30 children who were 6-11 yr of age and who had resided near a lead smelter all their lives. Their blood lead levels were 35-60 micrograms/100 ml and erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels were greater than 100 micrograms/100 ml. Neurological examination revealed that they had a significantly higher incidence of pathological findings (e.g., muscle hypotonia, increased tendon reflexes, dysarthria, and dysdiadochokinesia) than children from an unpolluted area who were matched for age, sex, family size, and educational and socioeconomic status of the parents, but who had normal erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels. The children with elevated blood lead levels showed, after assessment by the Oseretsky test, retardation of motor maturation; they also scored higher on the minimal brain damage scale of the Rutter behavioral questionnaire. These differences persisted at a 4-yr follow-up, and their school performance was consistently poorer than that of the controls.

  10. The Level of Self-Esteem and Sexual Functioning in Women with Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Durmała; Irmina Blicharska; Agnieszka Drosdzol-Cop; Violetta Skrzypulec-Plinta

    2015-01-01

    A person’s image, which is determined through physical appearance, considerably affects self-esteem developed from early childhood. Scoliosis causes multiple trunk deformations that can affect a person’s perception of the body. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of scoliosis dimension and the degree of trunk deformation on the level of self-esteem and sexual functioning in women with idiopathic scoliosis. Thirty-six women diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis were recruited to a pro...

  11. Preliminary pilot fMRI study of neuropostural optimization with a noninvasive asymmetric radioelectric brain stimulation protocol in functional dysmetria

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    Mura M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Marco Mura1, Alessandro Castagna2, Vania Fontani2, Salvatore Rinaldi21Institute of Radiology, University of Cagliari, 2Rinaldi Fontani Institute – Department of Neuro Psycho Physical Optimization, Florence, ItalyPurpose: This study assessed changes in functional dysmetria (FD and in brain activation observable by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during a leg flexion-extension motor task following brain stimulation with a single radioelectric asymmetric conveyer (REAC pulse, according to the precisely defined neuropostural optimization (NPO protocol.Population and methods: Ten healthy volunteers were assessed using fMRI conducted during a simple motor task before and immediately after delivery of a single REAC-NPO pulse. The motor task consisted of a flexion-extension movement of the legs with the knees bent. FD signs and brain activation patterns were compared before and after REAC-NPO.Results: A single 250-millisecond REAC-NPO treatment alleviated FD, as evidenced by patellar asymmetry during a sit-up motion, and modulated activity patterns in the brain, particularly in the cerebellum, during the performance of the motor task.Conclusion: Activity in brain areas involved in motor control and coordination, including the cerebellum, is altered by administration of a REAC-NPO treatment and this effect is accompanied by an alleviation of FD.Keywords: motor behavior, motor control, cerebellum, dysmetria, functional dysmetria, fluctuating asymmetry

  12. Forgetting the best when predicting the worst: Preliminary observations on neural circuit function in adolescent social anxiety

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    Johanna M. Jarcho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder typically begins in adolescence, a sensitive period for brain development, when increased complexity and salience of peer relationships requires novel forms of social learning. Disordered social learning in adolescence may explain how brain dysfunction promotes social anxiety. Socially anxious adolescents (n = 15 and adults (n = 19 and non-anxious adolescents (n = 24 and adults (n = 32 predicted, then received, social feedback from high and low-value peers while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. A surprise recall task assessed memory biases for feedback. Neural correlates of social evaluation prediction errors (PEs were assessed by comparing engagement to expected and unexpected positive and negative feedback. For socially anxious adolescents, but not adults or healthy participants of either age group, PEs elicited heightened striatal activity and negative fronto-striatal functional connectivity. This occurred selectively to unexpected positive feedback from high-value peers and corresponded with impaired memory for social feedback. While impaired memory also occurred in socially-anxious adults, this impairment was unrelated to brain-based PE activity. Thus, social anxiety in adolescence may relate to altered neural correlates of PEs that contribute to impaired learning about social feedback. Small samples necessitate replication. Nevertheless, results suggest that the relationship between learning and fronto-striatal function may attenuate as development progresses.

  13. A Preliminary Study of Functional Brain Activation among Marijuana Users during Performance of a Virtual Water Maze Task

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    Jennifer Tropp Sneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic marijuana use. Given that the hippocampus contains a high density of cannabinoid receptors, hippocampal-mediated cognitive functions, including visuospatial memory, may have increased vulnerability to chronic marijuana use. Thus, the current study examined brain activation during the performance of a virtual analogue of the classic Morris water maze task in 10 chronic marijuana (MJ users compared to 18 nonusing (NU comparison subjects. Imaging data were acquired using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD functional MRI at 3.0 Tesla during retrieval (hidden platform and motor control (visible platform conditions. While task performance on learning trials was similar between groups, MJ users demonstrated a deficit in memory retrieval. For BOLD fMRI data, NU subjects exhibited greater activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus and cingulate gyrus compared to the MJ group for the Retrieval-Motor Control contrast (NU > MJ. These findings suggest that hypoactivation in MJ users may be due to differences in the efficient utilization of neuronal resources during the retrieval of memory. Given the paucity of data on visuospatial memory function in MJ users, these findings may help elucidate the neurobiological effects of marijuana on brain activation during memory retrieval.

  14. The Level of Self-Esteem and Sexual Functioning in Women with Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmała, Jacek; Blicharska, Irmina; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2015-08-12

    A person's image, which is determined through physical appearance, considerably affects self-esteem developed from early childhood. Scoliosis causes multiple trunk deformations that can affect a person's perception of the body. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of scoliosis dimension and the degree of trunk deformation on the level of self-esteem and sexual functioning in women with idiopathic scoliosis. Thirty-six women diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis were recruited to a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. The subjects were divided into two groups depending on the value of the Cobb angle. The level of self-esteem was determined by means of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), whereas the sexual functioning was assessed via the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The trunk deformations were specified with the Posterior Trunk Symmetry Index (POTSI). A statistically significant correlation was proved between the amount of points received in the Rosenberg scale evaluation and the POTSI index in Group A (R = -0.56, p = 0.04). Subjects with smaller deformations within the coronal plane had a higher level of self-confidence. The trunk asymmetries in the coronal plane may have a negative effect on women with scoliosis and their self-appraisal.

  15. The Level of Self-Esteem and Sexual Functioning in Women with Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Durmała

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A person’s image, which is determined through physical appearance, considerably affects self-esteem developed from early childhood. Scoliosis causes multiple trunk deformations that can affect a person’s perception of the body. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of scoliosis dimension and the degree of trunk deformation on the level of self-esteem and sexual functioning in women with idiopathic scoliosis. Thirty-six women diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis were recruited to a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. The subjects were divided into two groups depending on the value of the Cobb angle. The level of self-esteem was determined by means of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES, whereas the sexual functioning was assessed via the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. The trunk deformations were specified with the Posterior Trunk Symmetry Index (POTSI. A statistically significant correlation was proved between the amount of points received in the Rosenberg scale evaluation and the POTSI index in Group A (R = −0.56, p = 0.04. Subjects with smaller deformations within the coronal plane had a higher level of self-confidence. The trunk asymmetries in the coronal plane may have a negative effect on women with scoliosis and their self-appraisal.

  16. Weighted phase lag index and graph analysis: preliminary investigation of functional connectivity during resting state in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Erick; Stingl, Krunoslav; Münssinger, Jana; Braun, Christoph; Preissl, Hubert; Belardinelli, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Resting state functional connectivity of MEG data was studied in 29 children (9-10 years old). The weighted phase lag index (WPLI) was employed for estimating connectivity and compared to coherence. To further evaluate the network structure, a graph analysis based on WPLI was used to determine clustering coefficient (C) and betweenness centrality (BC) as local coefficients as well as the characteristic path length (L) as a parameter for global interconnectedness. The network's modular structure was also calculated to estimate functional segregation. A seed region was identified in the central occipital area based on the power distribution at the sensor level in the alpha band. WPLI reveals a specific connectivity map different from power and coherence. BC and modularity show a strong level of connectedness in the occipital area between lateral and central sensors. C shows different isolated areas of occipital sensors. Globally, a network with the shortest L is detected in the alpha band, consistently with the local results. Our results are in agreement with findings in adults, indicating a similar functional network in children at this age in the alpha band. The integrated use of WPLI and graph analysis can help to gain a better description of resting state networks.

  17. Preliminary Study on the Synthesis of Phosphorylated Mung Bean Starch: The Effect of pH on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties

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    Illona Nathania

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean (Vigna radiate L. is a grain legume widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Mung bean seeds contain a significant amount of carbohydrate (63%-w/w and are easily digested compared to seeds from other legumes. Mung bean starch has the potential to be used as thickener or gelling agents in food industries. Certain functional properties of mung bean starch, however, still need to be improved. In this research, a preliminary study was performed to upgrade mung bean starch properties using phosphorylation reaction. In particular, the effect of starch suspension pH (6–10 on the functional properties of the modified products was investigated. Phosphorylation was carried out at 130 °C, for 2 h using sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP with an intake of 5%-w based on dry starch. The phosphorylated products were subsequently washed with water and dried. The experimental results show that the P-content of the phosphorylated mung bean starch is accessible in the range of 0.04–0.08%. The solubility (6.09–11.37%-w/w and swelling power (9.88–11.17 g/g of the modified starch products have been improved compared to native starch (solubility = 6.06 %-w/w, swelling power = 8.05 g/g. Phosphorylation also proved to increase peak viscosity, paste clarity, and water absorption/oil absorption capacity of the products.

  18. [Application of simultaneous auditory evoked potentials and functional magnetic resonance recordings for examination of central auditory system--preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Rafał; Rusiniak, Mateusz; Wolak, Tomasz; Piatkowska-Janko, Ewa; Naumczyk, Patrycja; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Senderski, Andrzej; Ganc, Małgorzata; Skarzyński, Henryk

    2011-01-01

    Processing of auditory information in central nervous system bases on the series of quickly occurring neural processes that cannot be separately monitored using only the fMRI registration. Simultaneous recording of the auditory evoked potentials, characterized by good temporal resolution, and the functional magnetic resonance imaging with excellent spatial resolution allows studying higher auditory functions with precision both in time and space. was to implement the simultaneous AEP-fMRI recordings method for the investigation of information processing at different levels of central auditory system. Five healthy volunteers, aged 22-35 years, participated in the experiment. The study was performed using high-field (3T) MR scanner from Siemens and 64-channel electrophysiological system Neuroscan from Compumedics. Auditory evoked potentials generated by acoustic stimuli (standard and deviant tones) were registered using modified odd-ball procedure. Functional magnetic resonance recordings were performed using sparse acquisition paradigm. The results of electrophysiological registrations have been worked out by determining voltage distributions of AEP on skull and modeling their bioelectrical intracerebral generators (dipoles). FMRI activations were determined on the basis of deviant to standard and standard to deviant functional contrasts. Results obtained from electrophysiological studies have been integrated with functional outcomes. Morphology, amplitude, latency and voltage distribution of auditory evoked potentials (P1, N1, P2) to standard stimuli presented during simultaneous AEP-fMRI registrations were very similar to the responses obtained outside scanner room. Significant fMRI activations to standard stimuli were found mainly in the auditory cortex. Activations in these regions corresponded with N1 wave dipoles modeled based on auditory potentials generated by standard tones. Auditory evoked potentials to deviant stimuli were recorded only outside the MRI

  19. No Overt Effects of a 6-Week Exergame Training on Sensorimotor and Cognitive Function in Older Adults. A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordnung, Madeleine; Hoff, Maike; Kaminski, Elisabeth; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Several studies investigating the relationship between physical activity and cognition showed that exercise interventions might have beneficial effects on working memory, executive functions as well as motor fitness in old adults. Recently, movement based video games (exergames) have been introduced to have the capability to improve cognitive function in older adults. Healthy aging is associated with a loss of cognitive, as well as sensorimotor functions. During exergaming, participants are required to perform physical activities while being simultaneously surrounded by a cognitively challenging environment. However, only little is known about the impact of exergame training interventions on a broad range of motor, sensory, and cognitive skills. Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the effects of an exergame training over 6 weeks on cognitive, motor, and sensory functions in healthy old participants. For this purpose, 30 neurologically healthy older adults were randomly assigned to either an experimental (ETG, n = 15, 1 h training, twice a week) or a control group (NTG, n = 15, no training). Several cognitive tests were performed before and after exergaming in order to capture potential training-induced effects on processing speed as well as on executive functions. To measure the impact of exergaming on sensorimotor performance, a test battery consisting of pinch and grip force of the hand, tactile acuity, eye-hand coordination, flexibility, reaction time, coordination, and static balance were additionally performed. While we observed significant improvements in the trained exergame (mainly in tasks that required a high load of coordinative abilities), these gains did not result in differential performance improvements when comparing ETG and NTG. The only exergaming-induced difference was a superior behavioral gain in fine motor skills of the left hand in ETG compared to NTG. In an exploratory analysis, within-group comparison revealed improvements in

  20. No Overt Effects of a 6-Week Exergame Training on Sensorimotor and Cognitive Function in Older Adults. A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordnung, Madeleine; Hoff, Maike; Kaminski, Elisabeth; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Several studies investigating the relationship between physical activity and cognition showed that exercise interventions might have beneficial effects on working memory, executive functions as well as motor fitness in old adults. Recently, movement based video games (exergames) have been introduced to have the capability to improve cognitive function in older adults. Healthy aging is associated with a loss of cognitive, as well as sensorimotor functions. During exergaming, participants are required to perform physical activities while being simultaneously surrounded by a cognitively challenging environment. However, only little is known about the impact of exergame training interventions on a broad range of motor, sensory, and cognitive skills. Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the effects of an exergame training over 6 weeks on cognitive, motor, and sensory functions in healthy old participants. For this purpose, 30 neurologically healthy older adults were randomly assigned to either an experimental (ETG, n = 15, 1 h training, twice a week) or a control group (NTG, n = 15, no training). Several cognitive tests were performed before and after exergaming in order to capture potential training-induced effects on processing speed as well as on executive functions. To measure the impact of exergaming on sensorimotor performance, a test battery consisting of pinch and grip force of the hand, tactile acuity, eye-hand coordination, flexibility, reaction time, coordination, and static balance were additionally performed. While we observed significant improvements in the trained exergame (mainly in tasks that required a high load of coordinative abilities), these gains did not result in differential performance improvements when comparing ETG and NTG. The only exergaming-induced difference was a superior behavioral gain in fine motor skills of the left hand in ETG compared to NTG. In an exploratory analysis, within-group comparison revealed improvements in

  1. Inbred mice strain shows neurobehavioral changes when exposed to tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Joyce Moreira; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Montalvão, Mateus Flores; da Costa Estrela, Dieferson; da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-01-01

    The bovine leather processing (tanning industries) stands as a generating activity of potentially toxic waste. The emission of untreated effluents into the environment may cause serious harm to human and environmental health. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the possible effects of intake of these effluents in experimental mammalian models. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of chronic intake of different tannery effluent concentrations diluted with water (0.1, 1, and 5%) in male C57BL/6J mice. After 120 days of exposure, the animals were subjected to different behavioral tests, predictive of anxiety (elevated plus maze (EPM), open-field (OF), and neophobia test), depression (forced swim), and memory deficits (object recognition test). From the EPM test, it was observed that the mice exposed to 0.1, 1, and 5% of tannery effluents showed higher anxiety scores compared to the animals in the control group. However, the results of this study revealed no differences among the experimental groups in the proportion (percentage) of locomotion in the central quarters/total locomotion calculated (by OF), considered an indirect measure for anxiety. At neophobia test, all the animals exposed to chronic intake of tannery effluents showed higher latency time to start eating, which corresponds to an anxiogenic behavior. Regarding the forced swim test, it was observed that the animals exposed to tannery effluents had longer time in immobility behavior, suggesting a predictive behavior to depression. Finally, the object recognition test showed that the treatments did not cause damage to the animals' memory. The recognition rate of the new object did not differ among the experimental groups. Thus, it is concluded that male C57BL/6J mice (inbred strain) exposed to tannery effluents have predictive neurobehavioral changes of anxiety and depression, without memory deficit.

  2. Early neurobehavioral development of preterm infants Desenvolvimento neurocomportamental inicial de bebês prematuros

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    Paula Stefaneli Ziotti Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the very early neurobehavioral development of preterm infants and to examine differences regarding sex. Two-hundred and two preterm infants were assessed by the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI, which was carried out at 32-37 weeks post-conceptional age in the hospital setting. The infants' performance was compared to a norm-referenced sample and a comparison between groups regarding sex was also done. In comparison to the NAPI norm-reference, the preterm infants showed less muscular tonicity on the scarf sign, less vigor and spontaneous movement, higher alertness and orientation, weaker cry, and more sleep state. There was no statistical difference between males and females preterm infants at NAPI performances.O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o desenvolvimento neurocomportamental inicial de bebês prematuros e examinar as diferenças quanto ao sexo. Foram avaliados 202 bebês nascidos pré-termo pela Avaliação Neurocomportamental para Prematuros (NAPI, que foi realizada na fase de 32-37 semanas de idade pós-concepcional no contexto hospitalar. O desempenho dos bebês no NAPI foi comparado com a amostra de padronização do instrumento e também foi feita a comparação entre grupos diferenciados pelo sexo. Em relação à amostra de padronização, os bebês deste estudo apresentaram menor tonicidade muscular no sinal de cachecol, menor vigor e movimento espontâneo, mais alerta e orientação, choro mais fraco e mais estado de sono. Houve um padrão semelhante de desempenho neurocomportamental dos meninos e meninas nascidos prematuros.

  3. Prenatal exposure to mercury and neurobehavioral development of neonates in Zhoushan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Yan, Chong-Huai; Tian, Ying; Wang, Yu; Xie, Han-Fang; Zhou, Xin; Yu, Xiao-Dan; Yu, Xiao-Gang; Tong, Shilu; Zhou, Qing-Xin; Shen, Xiao-Ming

    2007-11-01

    Exposure to hazardous Hg can adversely affect children's neurodevelopment. However, few data are available on either Hg levels in neonates and their mothers or the impact of prenatal exposure to Hg on neonates' neurobehavioral development in the Chinese population. Therefore, this study examined Hg levels in neonates and their mothers and the relationship between prenatal exposure to Hg and neonates' neurobehavioral development in Zhoushan City, Zhejiang Province, China. Between August and October 2004, 417 women who delivered their babies at Zhoushan Women's and Children's Health Hospital, an island city in east China were invited to take part in this study. A total of 408 complete questionnaires, 405 maternal hair samples, and 406 umbilical cord samples were collected. Neonatal behavioral neurological assessments (NBNA) were conducted for 384 neonates. The geometric mean (GM) of Hg level in cord blood was 5.58 microg/L (interquartile range: 3.96-7.82 microg/L), and the GM of maternal hair Hg level was 1246.56 microg/kg (interquartile range: 927.34-1684.67 microg/kg), a level much lower than other reported fish-eating populations, indicating Hg exposure in Zhoushan city is generally below those considered hazardous. However, according to the reference dose of Hg levels (RfD 5.8 microg/L) derived by EPA, 69.9% of newborns had levels at or above the RfD, an estimated level assumed to be without appreciable harm. There was a strong correlation between maternal hair and cord blood Hg levels (r = 0.82, P exposure was associated with decreased behavioral ability for males (OR = 1.235, 95%CI of OR = 1.078-1.414, P exposure resulting from fish consumption. But the findings of this study may be due to chance, and long-term follow-up research is needed to evaluate cumulative effects of exposure to mercury.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of the vegetative and minimally conscious state: Clinical consensus versus standardized neurobehavioral assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majerus Steve

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously published studies have reported that up to 43% of patients with disorders of consciousness are erroneously assigned a diagnosis of vegetative state (VS. However, no recent studies have investigated the accuracy of this grave clinical diagnosis. In this study, we compared consensus-based diagnoses of VS and MCS to those based on a well-established standardized neurobehavioral rating scale, the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R. Methods We prospectively followed 103 patients (55 ± 19 years with mixed etiologies and compared the clinical consensus diagnosis provided by the physician on the basis of the medical staff's daily observations to diagnoses derived from CRS-R assessments performed by research staff. All patients were assigned a diagnosis of 'VS', 'MCS' or 'uncertain diagnosis.' Results Of the 44 patients diagnosed with VS based on the clinical consensus of the medical team, 18 (41% were found to be in MCS following standardized assessment with the CRS-R. In the 41 patients with a consensus diagnosis of MCS, 4 (10% had emerged from MCS, according to the CRS-R. We also found that the majority of patients assigned an uncertain diagnosis by clinical consensus (89% were in MCS based on CRS-R findings. Conclusion Despite the importance of diagnostic accuracy, the rate of misdiagnosis of VS has not substantially changed in the past 15 years. Standardized neurobehavioral assessment is a more sensitive means of establishing differential diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness when compared to diagnoses determined by clinical consensus.

  5. Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment Accurately Measures Cognition in Patients Undergoing Electroconvulsive Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Kristen R; Woods, Steven R; Adams-Clark, Alexis; Choi, So Yung; Franke, Caroline L; Susukida, Ryoko; Thompson, Carol; Reti, Irving M; Kaplin, Adam I

    2017-10-03

    The Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA) is an electronic cognitive test battery. The present study compares DANA to the standard Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in subjects undergoing electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Seventeen inpatient subjects in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Department of Psychiatry were administered longitudinal paired DANA and MMSE tests (7.6 ± 4.1 per patient) from January 10, 2014 to September 26, 2014. Regression analyses were conducted (with or without MMSE scores of 30) to study the impact of the MMSE upper limit, and within-subject regression analyses were conducted to compare MMSE and DANA scores over time. Statistically significant relationships were measured between DANA and MMSE scores. Relationships strengthened when MMSE scores of 30 were omitted from analyses, demonstrating a ceiling effect of the MMSE. Within-subject analyses revealed relationships between MMSE and DANA scores over the duration of the inpatient stay. Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment is an electronic, mobile, repeatable, sensitive, and valid method of measuring cognition over time in depressed patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy treatment. Automation of the DANA allows for more frequent cognitive testing in a busy clinical setting and enhances cognitive assessment sensitivity with a timed component to each test.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  6. A longitudinal study for investigating the exposure level of anesthetics that impairs neurobehavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapellato, Maria Luisa; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Fedeli, Ugo; Carrieri, Mariella; Maccà, Isabella; Scoizzato, Luca; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista

    2008-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the level of anesthetics that impairs neurobehavioral performance, leading to differences in exposure standards (25 or 50 ppm for N(2)O). Thirty-eight operating room nurses and 23 unexposed nurses were asked to provide information on confounding variables: age, gender, years of schooling, alcohol and coffee consumption, smoking, length of work, symptoms (Euroquest) and results of Block Design test. Afterward, all workers were repeatedly examined (on Monday and Friday of a working week, before and after workshift) for stress and arousal (Mood Scale) and complex reaction times (Color Word Vigilance, CWV), the latter being the outcome. Individual exposure was assessed through urinary end-shift concentrations of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and isoflurane. According to the highest value of urinary excretion of N(2)O in the week, exposed workers were subdivided in three groups ( or =13 and or = 27 microg/l). The values of 13 and 27 microg/l correspond to environmental concentrations of 25 and 50 ppm, respectively. In order to take into account the pre-existing abilities of exposed and reference workers, and investigate the neurobehavioral changes over time, longitudinal data were analyzed by a two-stage regression model and analysis of variance for repeated measures (MANOVA). The former method, controlling for confounding factors and Monday morning CWV (which conveyed the pre-existing ability of the subjects), showed that, with respect to unexposed nurses, reaction times were significantly (p or = 27 microg/l. Therefore, at MANOVA, all subjects were categorized in two classes (N(2)O urinary concentrations or = 27 microg/l), and CWV results were adjusted for the confounding variables and effects of stress and arousal, taken concurrently with CWV. CWV significantly (peffect) in workers with urinary N(2)O 27 microg/l.

  7. Open label smoking cessation with varenicline is associated with decreased glutamate levels and functional changes in anterior cingulate cortex: preliminary findings

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    Muriah Dawn Wheelock

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Varenicline, the most effective single agent for smoking cessation, is a partial agonist at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Increasing evidence implicates glutamate in the pathophysiology of addiction and one of the benefits of treatment for smoking cessation is the ability to regain cognitive control. Objective: To evaluate the effects of 12 week varenicline administration on glutamate levels in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and functional changes within the cognitive control network.Methods: We used single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS in the dACC and functional MRI (fMRI during performance of a Stroop color-naming task before and after smoking cessation with varenicline in 11 healthy smokers (open label design. Using the dACC as a seed region, we evaluated functional connectivity changes using a psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis. Results: We observed a significant decrease in dACC glutamate + glutamine (Glx/Cr levels as well as significant blood oxygen level-dependent signal (BOLD decreases in the rostral ACC/medial orbitofrontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex. These BOLD changes are suggestive of alterations in default mode network (DMN function and are further supported by the results of the PPI analysis that revealed changes in connectivity between the dACC and regions of the DMN. Baseline measures of nicotine dependence and craving positively correlated with baseline Glx/Cr levels.Conclusions: These results suggest possible mechanisms of action for varenicline such as reduction in Glx levels in dACC and shifts in BOLD activities between large scale brain networks. They also suggest a role for ACC Glx in the modulation of behavior. Due to the preliminary nature of this study (lack of control group and small sample size, future studies are needed to replicate these findings.

  8. Functional Connectivity is Altered in Concussed Adolescent Athletes Despite Medical Clearance to Return to Play: A Preliminary Report

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    Mary R. Newsome

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recovery following sports related concussion (SRC is slower and often more complicated in young adolescent athletes than in collegiate players. Further, the clinical decision to return to play is currently based on symptoms and cognitive performance without direct knowledge of brain function. We tested the hypothesis that brain functional connectivity would be aberrant in recently concussed, asymptomatic athletes who had been cleared to return to play. A seed-based functional connectivity (FC analysis measured the FC of the default mode network (DMN (seeds = anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, right lateral parietal cortex, and left lateral parietal cortex 30 days after SRC in asymptomatic high school athletes cleared to return to play (n=13 and was compared to the FC of high school athletes with orthopedic injury (OI (n=13. The SRC group demonstrated greater FC than the OI group between the posterior cingulate cortex and the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex, as well as between the right lateral parietal cortex and lateral temporal cortex (with regions both outside of and within the DMN. Additionally, the OI group demonstrated greater FC than the SRC group between right lateral parietal cortex and supramarginal gyrus. When relating the FC results to verbal memory performance approximately one week and one month after injury, significantly different between-group relations were found for the posterior cingulate and right lateral parietal cortex seeds. However, the groups did not differ in verbal memory at one month. We suggest that changes in FC are apparent one month post-SRC despite resolution of post-concussion symptoms and recovery of cognitive performance in adolescent athletes cleared to return to play.

  9. [A preliminary study of the effect of mitochondrial autophagy on cognitive function in rats of early intermittent hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Wang, Hongyang; Yu, Jiangtao; Han, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yanan; Cao, Jinli

    2014-11-01

    To explore the effect of mitochondrial autophagy on cognitive function in rats of early intermittent hypoxia by observing hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell mitochondrial autophagy and the expression of related proteins in a intermittent hypoxia(IH) animal model. Seventy-two adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group (UC) and a 5% intermittent hypoxia (IH) group. The compressed air was given to the UC group while rats in 5% IH group suffered from 7-hour IH every day. At 1 d, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, 10 d and 14 d after the completion of the model, transmission electron microscopy was used to observation rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell mitochondrial ultrastructural changes, and immunohistochemistry assay was used to detect the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3. The Morris water test was performed to detect the learning and memory function in the rats. Compared with the UC group, the 5% IH group began to show mitochondrial size and shape changes, swelling, reduced matrix density, cristae, mitochondrial vacuolization, and typical mitochondria autophagosome formation from the 3 d. In the 5% IH group, Beclin-1 and LC3 protein expressions were significantly increased compared with the UC group (P 0.05). The level of learning and memory of the rats in the 5% IH group had no obvious changes compared with the UC group at 1 d, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, and 10 d, but the level started to drop at 14 d with a significant difference (P memory of the rats in the UC group was not different among different time points (P > 0.05). Early intermittent hypoxia induced hippocampus mitochondrial autophagy and autophagy-related protein expression in rats. Mitochondrial autophagy may reduce the damage to cognitive function of the rats exposed to early intermittent hypoxia.

  10. Design and Preliminary Feasibility Study of a Soft Robotic Glove for Hand Function Assistance in Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Kai Yap

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Various robotic exoskeletons have been proposed for hand function assistance during activities of daily living (ADL of stroke survivors. However, traditional exoskeletons involve the use of complex rigid systems that impede the natural movement of joints, and thus reduce the wearability and cause discomfort to the user. The objective of this paper is to design and evaluate a soft robotic glove that is able to provide hand function assistance using fabric-reinforced soft pneumatic actuators. These actuators are made of silicone rubber which has an elastic modulus similar to human tissues. Thus, they are intrinsically soft and compliant. Upon air pressurization, they are able to support finger range of motion (ROM and generate the desired actuation of the finger joints. In this work, the soft actuators were characterized in terms of their blocked tip force, normal and frictional grip force outputs. Combining the soft actuators and flexible textile materials, a soft robotic glove was developed for grasping assistance during ADL for stroke survivors. The glove was evaluated on five healthy participants for its assisted ROM and grip strength. Pilot test was performed in two stroke survivors to evaluate the efficacy of the glove in assisting functional grasping activities. Our results demonstrated that the actuators designed in this study could generate desired force output at a low air pressure. The glove had a high kinematic transparency and did not affect the active ROM of the finger joints when it was being worn by the participants. With the assistance of the glove, the participants were able to perform grasping actions with sufficient assisted ROM and grip strength, without any voluntary effort. Additionally, pilot test on stroke survivors demonstrated that the patient's grasping performance improved with the presence and assistance of the glove. Patient feedback questionnaires also showed high level of patient satisfaction and comfort. In

  11. Effects of isotretinoin on the thyroid gland and thyroid function tests in acne patients: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar, Belkiz; Solak, Aynur; Saklamaz, Ali; Akyildiz, Muhittin; Genc, Berhan; Gökduman, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    Isotretinoin is widely used in the treatment of acne. We investigated the effects of isotretinoin on thyroid function tests and thyroid volume in acne patients. In this prospective study, a total of 104 acne patients were included. Sixty-six patients were treated with isotretinoin for at least 4 months. Thirty eight patients were included in the control group. The levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, antithyroglobulin and antithyroid peroxidase antibodies were measured and a thyroid ultrasound was performed in all the subjects before treatment and 4 months after treatment. A "p" value of isotretinoin-treated group, thyroid stimulating hormone levels increased significantly during isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.018). Free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, anti-thyroid peroxidase levels and thyroid volume decreased significantly during treatment (P = 0.016, P= 0.012, P= 0.006, P = 0.020 respectively). The major limitation of this study is the lack of follow-up data after the cessation of isotretinoin therapy in acne patients. Patients treated with isotretinoin should be monitored with thyroid function tests.

  12. Functional electromyostimulation of the corpus cavernosum penis--preliminary results of a novel therapeutic option for erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stief, C G; Weller, E; Noack, T; Djamilian, M; Meschi, M; Truss, M; Jonas, U

    1995-01-01

    Transcutaneous application of low-frequency electric current in the treatment of partially or temporarily denervated striated muscles is widely used to prevent or treat muscular atrophy. Due to the high regenerative capacity of smooth-muscle cells, this approach should be beneficial in the treatment of diseases with smooth-muscle degeneration due to partial denervation. Our study was done to evaluate the possible beneficial effect of transcutaneously applied low-frequency electric current on the corpus cavernosum penis in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. After a comprehensive workup, 21 patients with chronic erectile dysfunction (20/21 vasoactive nonresponders) received daily (3-5 x 20 min) transcutaneous functional electromyostimulation of the corpus cavernosum smooth muscles [FEMCC; zero-line symmetric impulses of trapezoid shape, 2-channel device with alternating stimulations; frequency (f), 10-20 Hz for channel I and 20-35 Hz for channel II; impulse duration (ti), 100-150 microseconds; approx. 12 mA; rise time, 0.5 s; stimulation time, 5 s/channel; pause between stimulations, 0.5 s. In all, 4/21 patients (19%) regained full spontaneous erections and another 3/21 (14%) responded to vasoactive drugs after FEMCC. Overall, 14/21 were FEMCC failures, including 2 who subjectively "improved." In a similar group of patients who were evaluated during the same period but received no therapy, no spontaneous improvement in erectile function was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Preliminary evidence for increased parasympathetic activity during social inclusion and exclusion in adolescents with functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulewitsch, Marco Daniel; Jusyte, Aiste; Mazurak, Nazar; Weimer, Katja; Schönenberg, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Peer victimization (e.g. social exclusion) has been shown to be associated with physical health problems such as functional somatic complaints and especially symptoms of pain. To date, no study has investigated the mechanisms underlying this association in clinical pediatric samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasympathetic activity during a social exclusion experience in adolescents with functional abdominal pain (FAP). Twenty adolecents with FAP and 21 matched healthy participants were compared regarding parameters of parasympathetic activation before, during, and after participating in the Cyberball-game, a well-established paradigm to induce social exclusion. Adolescents with FAP showed an increase in parasympathetic activation during both consecutive phases of the Cyberball game (inclusion as well as exclusion condition) whereas the healthy control group remained stable. There were no differences in subjective experience of in- and exclusion between the groups. The parasympathetic activation pattern may indicate altered processing of social stimuli in adolescents with FAP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Alterations of EEG functional connectivity in resting state obese and overweight patients with binge eating disorder: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Farina, Benedetto; Innamorati, Marco; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Lamis, Dorian A; Contardi, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo; Speranza, Anna Maria

    2015-10-21

    Alterations in brain functional connectivity have been detected in patients with eating disorders, but have not been studied in binge eating disorder (BED). We have investigated electroencephalographic (EEG) functional connectivity in thirteen overweight and obese patients with BED and thirteen overweight and obese patients without BED during RS condition. EEG analyzes were conducted by means of the exact Low Resolution Electric Tomography software (eLORETA). Compared to patients without BED, patients with BED demonstrated an increase of lagged phase synchronization in the beta frequency band among the cortical areas explored by FC1-T3 (left superior frontal gyrus-left middle temporal gyrus), T5-O1 (left inferior temporal gyrus-left middle occipital gyrus), and C4-O1 (right postcentral gyrus-left middle occipital gyrus) electrodes (T=4.861, pbinge eating symptomatology after controlling for depressive symptoms. Our results may reflect the impairment of frontal control network and visual processing networks, which lead patients with BED to be more vulnerable to food cues and lack of control with regards to over eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of aberrant cerebral perfusion on resting-state functional MRI: A preliminary investigation of Moyamoya disease.

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    Yituo Wang

    Full Text Available The impact of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion on resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent signal fluctuations remains unknown. We aimed to determine whether chronic ischemia induces changes in amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF and to investigate the correlation between ALFF and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (PWI parameters in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD. Thirty patients with pre- and postoperative resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and PWI were included, and thirty normal controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. A decrease in preoperative frontal lobe ALFF was observed in patients with MMD. Postoperative frontal lobe ALFF showed moderate improvement but still remained lower than those in normal controls. The values of mean transit time and time-to-peak, but not cerebral blood volume and cerebral blood flow, correlated significantly with frontal lobe ALFF. Moreover, there were significant negative correlations between changes in frontal lobe PWI parameters and changes in frontal lobe ALFF on both operated side and contralateral side after the unilateral revascularization surgery. Our results demonstrate that reduced ALFF are closely related to the abnormal PWI parameters and vary with the alteration of cerebral perfusion in patients with MMD.

  16. Developmental trajectories of fronto-executive functions in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A preliminary study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Howley, S A

    2011-01-01

    22qll.2 deletion syndrome (22qllDS) is associated with borderline-mild intellectual disability and specific neurocognitive deficits, particularly in prefrontally-mediated executive functions (EF). There is evidence for white matter abnormalities in frontal cortical regions in 22qllDS, however little is known about the development of EF across the age range. Forty-eight individuals with 22qllDS were divided into 3 age groups: Child (7 male; n = 16; 6–11 years; M (SD) age = 8.4 (1.7); mean FSIQ = 72.9); Adolescent (7 male; n = 15; 12–15 years; M (SD) age = 13.1 (0.8); mean FSIQ = 68.0) and Adult (7 male; n = 17; 16–45 years; M (SD) age = 28.8 (11.5); mean FSIQ = 69.6). Forty healthy controls were also recruited and divided into the same 3 age groups: Child (6 male; 6–11 years, n = 12; M (SD) age = 9.3 (1.7); mean FSIQ = 99.1); Adolescent (6 male; 12–15 years; n = 12; M (SD) age = 13.2 (1.1); mean FSIQ = 100.9) and Adult (6 male; 16–45 years; n = 16; M (SD) age = 28.8 (9.4); mean FSIQ = 109). All participants completed standardised tests of a range of executive functions, specifically working memory, planning, problem-solving, strategy formation, cognitive flexibility and inhibition, and cross-sectional developmental trajectories of each function were constructed. No age-mediated improvements on EF tasks were observed in the 22qllDS groups, with the exception of verbal working memory. The control group exhibited significant age-mediated improvements in working memory, strategy formation and planning efficiency. These findings support the hypothesis that 22qllDS individuals experience atypical development of neuroanatomical regions and networks associated with EF in typical individuals. Future longitudinal work is required to examine intra-individual development of executive and non-executive cognitive processes.

  17. A neurobehavioral intervention incorporated into a state early intervention program is associated with higher perceived quality of care among parents of high-risk newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Beth M; Nugent, J Kevin

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare two models of early intervention (EI) service delivery-a neurobehavioral intervention and usual care-on parents' perceived quality of EI service delivery. Families of newborns referred to EI were randomly assigned to a neurobehavioral intervention or usual care group and followed until the infant was 12 weeks corrected gestational age. The intervention group (n = 25) received a weekly neurobehavioral intervention. The usual care group (n = 13) received standard weekly home visits. Mothers completed the Home Visiting Index (HVI) measuring the quality of EI service delivery. Mixed linear regression was used to examine group differences in quality scores. The intervention group reported higher quality of care related to facilitating optimal parent-infant social interaction (mean difference = 2.17, 95% CI: 0.41, 3.92).A neurobehavioral model of service delivery can be successfully integrated into EI programming and appears to be associated with higher parent-reported perceived quality.

  18. El Sistema-inspired ensemble music training is associated with changes in children's neurocognitive functional integration: preliminary ERP evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Nina; Schibli, Kylie; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2016-12-01

    Children (aged 9-12) training in an El Sistema-inspired program (OrKidstra) and a matched comparison group participated in an auditory Go/No-Go task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Entire-sweep waveform patterns correlated with known ERP peaks associated with executive and other cognitive functions and indicated that the spread of neural activity in the initial 250 ms of executive attention processing (pre-P300) showed higher level of topographical overlap in OrKidstra children. In these children, late potentials (post-P300) concurrent with response control were more widely distributed and temporally coordinated. Intensive ensemble music training, we suggest, may be associated with neuroplastic changes facilitating integration of neural information.

  19. Comparison of ivabradine versus metoprolol in early phases of reperfused anterior myocardial infarction with impaired left ventricular function: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasullo, Sergio; Cannizzaro, Sergio; Maringhini, Giorgio; Ganci, Filippo; Giambanco, Francesco; Vitale, Giuseppe; Pinto, Vito; Migliore, Giuseppe; Torres, Daniele; Sarullo, Filippo M; Paterna, Salvatore; Di Pasquale, Pietro

    2009-12-01

    beta-blockers in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are indicated for patients without a contraindication, particularly in patients with high heart rates (HR) or blood pressures. Epidemiological studies have shown that elevated HR represents a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. The study investigates the feasibility, tolerability, and the effects after 30 days of follow-up of ivabradine (IVA) versus metoprolol (METO) in early phases of anterior STEMI reperfused by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients with a first anterior STEMI, Killip class I-II, an acceptable echocardiographic window, and admitted within 4hours of the onset of symptoms, with an ejection fraction function and high HR and sinus rhythm. A larger sample of patients and further studies are required to evaluate the effects of ivabradine on clinical end points.

  20. A functional MRI study of working memory in adolescents and young adults at genetic risk for bipolar disorder: preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermenos, Heidi W; Makris, Nikos; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Brown, Ariel B; Giuliano, Anthony J; Lee, Erica H; Faraone, Stephen V; Tsuang, Ming T; Seidman, Larry J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In this report, we seek to (i) identify a potential neuroimaging endophenotype for bipolar disorder (BD) in emotion regulatory and autonomic circuitry in young first-degree relatives of persons with BD; and (ii) replicate our previous work identifying the functional neuroanatomy of working memory (WM) in an older sample of relatives of persons with BD. Methods Ten adolescent and young adult (age 13–24) unmedicated, non-ill, first-degree relatives of persons with BD (RELS) and 10 demographically comparable healthy controls performed a 2-back WM task and a 0-back control task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI data were collected on a 1.5 Tesla scanner and analyzed using SPM-2. Mood was assessed on the day of scanning. Results The groups did not differ on any demographic, neuropsychological, or in-scanner task performance variables. In contrast to controls, RELS showed (i) weak task-dependent modulation activity in the cerebellar vermis (CV), insula, and amygdala/parahippocampal region, and (ii) exaggerated modulation of activity in the frontopolar cortex and brainstem, even after controlling for potential confounders. Many of the group differences were driven by differences in activity in the low-level (0-back) baseline task. Conclusions Young, unmedicated RELS exhibited altered task-dependent modulation of frontopolar, CV, and insula activity during WM, especially during the low-level (0-back) baseline task. Results are largely consistent with our initial study of older adult RELS, suggesting these alterations may represent biomarkers of genetic risk for BD. PMID:21676130

  1. S-TOFHLA in mild Alzheimer's disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment patients as a measure of functional literacy: Preliminary study

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    Maira Okada de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The greatest difficulty in diagnosing cognitive loss in our population is the diversity of its education which has a broad spectrum ranging from illiteracy, functional illiteracy and different degrees of literacy, even in those with the same level of schooling. Objectives: To verify whether there is impairment on the S-TOFHLA among individuals with AD and MCI compared with healthy controls, and to compare performance on the S-TOFHLA performance with neuropsychological tests and the scores achieved on the Raven's Colored Matrices and Vocabulary and Block Design (WAIS-III as a measure of estimated intellectual level. Methods: 59 subjects: controls (n=23; age 70.96±8.31y; schooling 10.2±5.87y; 6 men, MCI patients (n=11; age 74.18±8.12y; schooling 7.55±4.32y; 5 men and AD patients (n=25; age 76.16±4.96y; schooling 7.32±4.78y; 10 men were submitted to neuropsychological assessment, S-TOFHLA and functional evaluation. Results: Differences on BD, Raven and Estimated IQ were found between controls and MCI patients as well as controls and AD patients. On the S-TOFHLA, differences were found between MCI and AD patients, controls and AD patients, but not between control and MCI groups. S-TOFHLA performance correlated strongly with schooling and all neuropsychological tests, except Clock Drawing. Conclusions: The S-TOFHLA seems to be a useful measure for determining the level of literacy in MCI patients, but not in AD patients. S-TOFHLA performance was more closely associated with neuropsychological test scores than were years of education and seems to be a good predictor of level of literacy. The Vocabulary subtest proved to be uninfluenced by the disease process in early stages and preserved in both MCI and AD patients, showing that semantic memory and crystallized intelligence are preserved.

  2. Magnetite nanoparticles coated with β-cyclodextrin functionalized-ionic liquid: Synthesis and its preliminary investigation as a new sensing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinniah, Subathra; Mohamad, Sharifah; Manan, Ninie S.A., E-mail: niniemanan@um.edu.my

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • A novel of β-cyclodextrin functionalized-ionic liquid coated with magnetite nanoparticles is prepared via co-precipitation method. • The architecture of the material is successfully characterized and confirmed that β-cyclodextrin-functionalized-ionic liquid, has been effectively coated onto surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetite nanoparticles. • Vibration Sample Magnetometer analysis confirmed that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL able to attain an excellent magnetic properties. • Preliminary electrochemical study shows that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL able to recognize Biphenol A. - Abstract: In this study, a novel surface of modified magnetite nanoparticles Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was coated with β-cyclodextrin-funclionalized ionic liquid (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL) via the co-precipitation method in alkaline salt medium. β-Cyclodextrin-functionalized-ionic liquid has been effectively coated onto the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetite nanoparticles. The instruments used to investigate the architecture are: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Powder Diffraction, Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry, Transmission Electron Microscope, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller isotherm. A Vibration Sample Magnetometer analysis verified that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL attained excellent magnetic properties. The analysis of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope shows that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-β-CD-IL produced monodisperse particles with minimal aggregation. Moreover, electrochemical studies have revealed that this new material showed outstanding ability to recognize Bisphenol A with lower electrochemical potential at 0.5 V than other comparative materials, as well as a higher detection current. Thus, this material has promising potential as a new electrode material in sensor applications.

  3. Preliminary study of relationships between hypnotic susceptibility and personality disorder functioning styles in healthy volunteers and personality disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypnotic susceptibility is one of the stable characteristics of individuals, but not closely related to the personality traits such as those measured by the five-factor model in the general population. Whether it is related to the personality disorder functioning styles remains unanswered. Methods In 77 patients with personality disorders and 154 healthy volunteers, we administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSSC and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM tests. Results Patients with personality disorders showed higher passing rates on SHSSC Dream and Posthypnotic Amnesia items. No significant correlation was found in healthy volunteers. In the patients however, SHSSC Taste hallucination (β = 0.26 and Anosmia to Ammonia (β = -0.23 were significantly correlated with the PERM Borderline style; SHSSC Posthypnotic Amnesia was correlated with the PERM Schizoid style (β = 0.25 but negatively the PERM Narcissistic style (β = -0.23. Conclusions Our results provide limited evidence that could help to understand the abnormal cognitions in personality disorders, such as their hallucination and memory distortions.

  4. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, Jorge [LABS and Rede D' Or Hospitais, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Neuroimagem e Neurologia do Comportamento; Eslinger, Paul J. [Pensylvania State Univ. (United States). College of Medicine. Div. of Neurology and Behavioral Science; The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PN (United States); Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de [Universidade do Rio de Janeiro (UNI-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Gaffree e Guinle]. E-mail: neuropsychiatry@hotmail.com

    2001-09-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  5. Increased cortical activity in binge drinkers during working memory task: a preliminary assessment through a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Campanella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral dysfunction is a common feature of both chronic alcohol abusers and binge drinkers. Here, we aimed to study whether, at equated behavioral performance levels, binge drinkers exhibited increased neural activity while performing simple cognitive tasks. METHODS: Thirty-two participants (16 binge drinkers and 16 matched controls were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while performing an n-back working memory task. In the control zero-back (N0 condition, subjects were required to press a button with the right hand when the number "2" was displayed. In the two-back (N2 condition, subjects had to press a button when the displayed number was identical to the number shown two trials before. RESULTS: fMRI analyses revealed higher bilateral activity in the pre-supplementary motor area in binge drinkers than matched controls, even though behavioral performances were similar. Moreover, binge drinkers showed specific positive correlations between the number of alcohol doses consumed per occasion and higher activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, as well as between the number of drinking occasions per week and higher activity in cerebellum, thalamus and insula while performing the N2 memory task. CONCLUSIONS: Binge alcohol consumption leads to possible compensatory cerebral changes in binge drinkers that facilitate normal behavioral performance. These changes in cerebral responses may be considered as vulnerability factors for developing adult substance use disorders.

  6. Changes in FKBP5 expression and memory functions during cognitive-behavioral therapy in posttraumatic stress disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Csilla; Kelemen, Oguz; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2014-05-21

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by hyperarousal, flashbacks, avoidance, and memory dysfunctions. Although psychotherapy improves the clinical symptoms, its effect on memory has not been explored. In addition, there is no information about gene expression changes related to hippocampal functions. We assessed PTSD patients (n=20) using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and a paired associates learning (PAL) test, as well as changes in blood FK506 binding protein (FKBP5) mRNA expression before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Results revealed that before CBT PTSD patients were impaired on WAIS-R delayed recall, attention/concentration, and PAL compared with trauma-exposed control subjects (n=20). These memory dysfunctions showed a significant improvement after CBT. Better performance on the PAL test correlated with enhanced blood FKBP5 mRNA expression. These results suggest that elevated FKBP5 expression during CBT is related to improved associative memory linked to the hippocampal formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary Study on Function of Calcineurin B-Like Protein Gene OsCBL8 in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-jun MA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The homozygous T3 transgenic lines with sense OsCBL8 gene and antisense OsCBL8 gene obtained by agro-transformation were used to investigate the function of OsCBL8 in rice. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that the expression of OsCBL8 extremely increased in sense transgenic lines, and decreased to some extents in antisense transgenic lines. Such up- and down-regulation of the OsCBL8 gene in these transgenic lines had little effects on main agronomic traits, but significantly decreased the number of filled grains per panicle and seed setting rate in some of transgenic lines. By evaluation of the tolerance to 150 mmol/L NaCl, 20% PEG6000 and low temperature treatments, and relevant physiological indices, 8F12, a sense transgenic line with high salt tolerance, and 8R14, an antisense transgenic line with high drought tolerance, were obtained, which suggests that the OsCBL8 gene is involved in the response of rice to abiotic stresses.

  8. An integrated gait rehabilitation training based on Functional Electrical Stimulation cycling and overground robotic exoskeleton in complete spinal cord injury patients: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, S; Battini, E; Rustici, A; Stampacchia, G

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an integrated gait rehabilitation training based on Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)-cycling and overground robotic exoskeleton in a group of seven complete spinal cord injury patients on spasticity and patient-robot interaction. They underwent a robot-assisted rehabilitation training based on two phases: n=20 sessions of FES-cycling followed by n= 20 sessions of robot-assisted gait training based on an overground robotic exoskeleton. The following clinical outcome measures were used: Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) on spasticity, Penn Spasm Frequency Scale (PSFS), Spinal Cord Independence Measure Scale (SCIM), NRS on pain and International Spinal Cord Injury Pain Data Set (ISCI). Clinical outcome measures were assessed before (T0) after (T1) the FES-cycling training and after (T2) the powered overground gait training. The ability to walk when using exoskeleton was assessed by means of 10 Meter Walk Test (10MWT), 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Timed Up and Go test (TUG), standing time, walking time and number of steps. Statistically significant changes were found on the MAS score, NRS-spasticity, 6MWT, TUG, standing time and number of steps. The preliminary results of this study show that an integrated gait rehabilitation training based on FES-cycling and overground robotic exoskeleton in complete SCI patients can provide a significant reduction of spasticity and improvements in terms of patient-robot interaction.

  9. A preliminary functional magnetic resonance imaging study of prefrontal-amygdalar activation changes in adolescents with bipolar depression treated with lamotrigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kiki D; Wagner, Christopher; Garrett, Amy; Howe, Meghan; Reiss, Allan

    2008-05-01

    Hypotheses regarding mood dysregulation in bipolar disorder (BD) have centered on limbic overactivity with relative prefrontal underactivity during mood episodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that adolescents with bipolar depression successfully treated with lamotrigine would show decreases in amygdalar activation, and increases in prefrontal activation. Eight adolescents with BD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at baseline and after eight weeks of lamotrigine treatment. Blocks of negatively and neutrally valenced emotional pictures were presented during scanning, and subjects were asked to rate how each picture made them feel. Activation in bilateral amygdalae and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC) for negative minus neutral pictures was correlated with Children's Depression Rating Scale (CDRS) scores. Mean (SD) CDRS scores decreased significantly, from 53.0 (10.6) at baseline to 26.3 (5.3) at Week 8. This clinical improvement was correlated with decreased right amygdalar activation (r = 0.91, p = 0.002). At Week 8, but not baseline, CDRS score was positively correlated with bilateral amygdalar activation (r = 0.85, p = 0.007). DLPFC activation was not correlated with change in CDRS score. These preliminary results indicate that adolescents with BD treated with lamotrigine demonstrated less amygdalar activation when viewing negative stimuli as depressive symptoms improved. Larger controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  10. Functional knee brace use by non-injured subjects while performing an anaerobic capacity task: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishiraj, N; Taunton, J E; Lloyd-Smith, R; Niven, B; Regan, W; Woollard, R

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate if performance was hindered in non-injured braced athletes during an anaerobic task. If performance was affected, could accommodation to wearing a knee brace occur and thus decreasing performance hindrance concern while using a functional knee brace (FKB). A 2x3 non-braced (NBr) and braced repeated measure factorial design. Five healthy athletes completed all testing. Subjects performed the Repeated High Intensity Shuttle Test (RHIST) over six days (three days NBr and three days braced). Running times were recorded each testing day to determine performance measures and percent fatigue levels while using a FKB and if accommodation to FKB use was possible. Non significant (F1,4=1.42, P=0.299) faster group mean performance time, was recorded for braced subjects relative to the non-braced condition. Although relatively faster performance levels were noted during the braced testing conditions during days 1 and 3 compared to the non-braced condition, these results were also not significant (F2,8=2.82, P=0.118). Lower percent fatigue level was recorded during all three braced days compared to non-braced days. Further, a tendency for accommodation to knee brace trend use was noted as the percentage performance difference between the two conditions had decreased by the last day of testing. Use of a knee brace did not hinder performance once accommodation to using the knee brace occurred and fatigue was not a factor while using a knee brace. Additional research, using a larger sample size and longer testing duration, is required to confirm the potential accommodation trend.

  11. The Effect of Ethnicity on Wideband Absorbance of Neonates with Healthy Middle Ear Functions in Malaysia: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Hamzah A; Mazlan, Rafidah

    2017-10-24

    Ethnicity effect on wideband absorbance (WBA) findings was evident in adults. However, its effect on neonates has not been established yet. This study aimed to investigate the influence of ethnicity on WBA measured at 0 daPa from neonates with healthy middle ear functions. Participants were 99 normal, healthy, full-term newborn babies with chronological age between 11 and 128 hours of age (mean=46.73, standard deviation=26.36). A cross-sectional study design was used to measure WBA at 16 one-third octave frequency points from 99 neonates comprising of three ethnic groups: Malays (n=58), Chinese (n=13) and Indians (n=28). A total of 165 ears (83.3%) that passed a battery of tests involving distortion product otoacoustic emissions, 1 kHz tympanometry and acoustic stapedial reflex were further tested using WBA. Moreover, body size measurements were recorded from each participant. The Malays and Indians neonates showed almost identical WBA response across the frequency range while the Chinese babies showed lower absorbance values between 1.25 kHz and 5 kHz. However, the differences observed in WBA between the three ethnic groups were not statistically significant (p=0.23). Additionally, there were no statistically significant difference in birth weight, height and head circumference among the three ethnic groups. This study showed that Malays, Chinese and Indians neonates were not significantly different in their WBA responses. In conclusion, to apply for the ethnic-specific norms is not warranted when testing neonates from population constitute of these three ethnicities.

  12. Effects of Virtual Reality Training using Xbox Kinect on Motor Function in Stroke Survivors: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae-Sung; Lee, Do-Gyun; Lee, Kyeongbong; Lee, GyuChang

    2017-10-01

    Although the Kinect gaming system (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA) has been shown to be of therapeutic benefit in rehabilitation, the applicability of Kinect-based virtual reality (VR) training to improve motor function following a stroke has not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of VR training, using the Xbox Kinect-based game system, on the motor recovery of patients with chronic hemiplegic stroke. This was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty patients with hemiplegic stroke were randomly assigned to either the intervention group or the control group. Participants in the intervention group (n = 10) received 30 minutes of conventional physical therapy plus 30 minutes of VR training using Xbox Kinect-based games, and those in the control group (n = 10) received 30 minutes of conventional physical therapy only. All interventions consisted of daily sessions for a 6-week period. All measurements using Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-LE), the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Timed Up and Go test (TUG), and the 10-meter Walk Test (10mWT) were performed at baseline and at the end of the 6 weeks. The scores on the FMA-LE, BBS, TUG, and 10mWT improved significantly from baseline to post intervention in both the intervention and the control groups after training. The pre-to-post difference scores on BBS, TUG, and 10mWT for the intervention group were significantly more improved than those for the control group (P stroke rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Rg; Schultz, Ab; Callaghan, Sj; Jordan, Ca; Luczo, Tm; Jeffriess, Md

    2015-03-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  14. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Lockie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]. Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman’s correlations (p ≤ 0.05 examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05 were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725. However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829. A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  15. Hippocampus-precuneus functional connectivity as an early sign of Alzheimer's disease: a preliminary study using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghoe; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Hwan

    2013-02-07

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by structural atrophies in the hippocampus (HP) and aberrant patterns of functional connectivities (FC) between the hippocampus and the rest of the brain. However, the relationship between cortical atrophy levels and corresponding degrees of aberrant FC patterns has not been systematically examined. In this study, we investigated whether there was an explicit link between structural abnormalities and corresponding functional aberrances associated with AD using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. To this end, brain regions with cortical atrophies that are associated with AD were identified in the HP in the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres using structural MRI data from volume analyses (p<0.03 for L-HP; p<0.04 for R-HP) and voxel-based morphometry analyses (p<4×10(-4) for L-HP; p<2×10(-3) for R-HP). Aberrantly reduced FC levels between the HP (with atrophy) and precuneus were also consistently observed in fMRI data from AD than HC brains that were analyzed by the Pearson's correlation coefficients (p<3×10(-4) for L-HP; and p<8×10(-5) for R-HP). In addition, the substantial negative FC levels from the HC brains between the precuneus and post central gyrus (PoCG) without structural atrophy were also significantly diminished from the AD brains (p<5×10(-5) for L-PoCG; and p<6×10(-5) for R-PoCG). The effect sizes of these aberrant FC levels associated with AD were greater than that of cortical atrophy levels when comparing using normalized Z score and Cohen's d measures, which indicates that an aberrant FC level may precede cortical atrophy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A new evaluation of the upper esophageal sphincter using the functional lumen imaging probe: a preliminary report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Regan, J

    2012-03-06

    Objective and reliable evaluation of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening during swallowing based on videofluoroscopy and pharyngeal manometry challenges dysphagia clinicians. The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) is a portable tool based on impedance planimetry originally designed to measure esophogastric junction compliance. It is hypothesized that FLIP can evaluate UES distensibility, and can provide UES diameter and pressure measurements at rest, during swallowing, and during voluntary maneuvers. Eleven healthy adult subjects consented to FLIP evaluation. The probe was inserted transorally, and the balloon was positioned across the UES. Two 20-mL ramp distensions were completed. Changes in UES diameter and intraballoon pressure were measured during dry and 5-mL liquid swallows, and during voluntary swallow postures and maneuvers employed in clinical practice. The protocol was completed by 10 of 11 healthy subjects. Mean intraballoon pressure increased throughout 5-mL (5.8 mmHg; -4.5-18.6 mmHg), 10-mL (8.7 mmHg; 2.3-28.5 mmHg), 15-mL (17.3 mmHg; 9.5-34.8 mmHg), and 20-mL (31.2 mmHg; 16-46.3 mmHg) balloon volumes. Mean resting UES diameter (4.9 mm) increased during dry swallows (9.2 mm) and 5-mL liquid swallows (7.7 mm). Mean UES diameter increased during 5-mL liquid swallows with head turn to right (8.1 mm) and left (8.3 mm), chin tuck (8.4 mm), effortful swallow (8.5 mm), Mendelsohn maneuver (8.1 mm), and supraglottic swallow (7.8 mm). FLIP was safely inserted and distended in the UES, and provided useful quantitative data regarding UES distensibility and UES diameter changes during swallowing maneuvers. Further research is being conducted to explore the role of FLIP in UES evaluation.

  17. Focal Gray Matter Plasticity as a Function of Long Duration Head Down Tilted Bed Rest: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelmans, V.; Erdeniz, B.; DeDios, Y. E.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, P. A.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight (i.e., 22 days or longer) has been associated with changes in sensorimotor systems, resulting in difficulties that astronauts experience with posture control, locomotion, and manual control. The microgravity environment is an important causal factor for spaceflight induced sensorimotor changes. Whether these sensorimotor changes are solely related to peripheral changes from reduced vestibular stimulation, body unloading, body fluid shifts or that they may be related to structural and functional brain changes is yet unknown. However, a recent study reported associations between microgravity and flattening of the posterior eye globe and protrusion of the optic nerve [1] possibly as the result of increased intracranial pressure due to microgravity induced bodily fluid shifts [3]. Moreover, elevated intracranial pressure has been related to white matter microstructural damage [2]. Thus, it is possible that spaceflight may affect brain structure and thereby cognitive functioning. Long duration head down tilt bed rest has been suggested as an exclusionary analog to study microgravity effects on the sensorimotor system [4]. Bed rest mimics microgravity in body unloading and bodily fluid shifts. In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers both in- and post-flight, we are conducting a prospective longitudinal 70-day bed rest study as an analog to investigate the effects of microgravity on brain structure [5]. Here we present results of the first six subjects. Six subjects were assessed at 12 and 7 days before-, at 7, 30, and 70 days in-, and at 8 and 12 days post 70 days of bed rest at the NASA bed rest facility in UTMB, Galveston, TX, USA. At each time point structural MRI scans (i.e., high resolution T1-weighted imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)) were obtained using a 3T Siemens scanner. Focal changes over time in gray matter density were assessed using the voxel based morphometry 8 (VBM8) toolbox under SPM

  18. Longitudinal Associations from Neurobehavioral Disinhibition to Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior in Boys: Direct and Mediated Effects through Moderate Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Tate, Eleanor B.; Ridenour, Ty A.; Reynolds, Maureen D.; Zhai, Zu W.; Vanyukov, Michael M.; Tarter, Ralph E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) in childhood, mediated by alcohol use, portends risky sexual behavior (number of sexual partners) in mid-adolescence. Methods Participants were 410 adolescent boys. Neurobehavioral disinhibition was assessed at 11.3 years of age. Frequency and quantity of alcohol use on a typical drinking occasion were assessed at 13.4 years of age at first follow-up and sexual behavior at 16.0 years at second follow-up. Results Quantity of alcohol consumed on a typical drinking occasion, but not frequency of alcohol use, mediated the relation between ND and number of sexual partners. Conclusions These findings indicate that number of sexual partners in mid-adolescence is predicted by individual differences in boys’ psychological self-regulation during childhood and moderate alcohol consumption in early adolescence, and that ND may be a potential target for multi-outcome public health interventions. PMID:23876782

  19. A Preliminary Study of the Effects of Repeated Massage on Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal and Immune Function in Healthy Individuals: A Study of Mechanisms of Action and Dosage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettler, Pamela; Bresee, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study gathers preliminary data about the biologic effects of repeated Swedish massage therapy compared to a light-touch control condition. Design The study design was a 5-week comparison of repeated Swedish massage and light touch on oxytocin (OT), arginine-vasopressin (AVP), adrenal corticotropin hormone (ACTH), cortisol (CORT), circulating phenotypic lymphocyte markers, and mitogen-stimulated cytokine function. Setting The setting was an outpatient research unit in an academic medical center. Participants The study subjects were medically and psychiatrically healthy young adults. Intervention The study comprised 45 minutes of Swedish massage or light touch, using highly specified and identical protocols, either weekly or twice weekly for 5 weeks. Outcome measures The outcome measures were mean differences between massage and light touch on OT, AVP, ACTH, CORT, lymphocyte markers, and cytokine levels. Results Compared to the touch control condition, weekly Swedish massage stimulated a sustained pattern of increased circulating phenotypic lymphocyte markers and decreased mitogen-stimulated cytokine production, similar to what was previously reported for a single massage session, while having minimal effect on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal function. Twice-weekly massage produced a different response pattern with increased OT levels, decreased AVP, and decreased CORT but little effect on circulating lymphocyte phenotypic markers and a slight increase in mitogen-stimulated interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1b and IL-2 levels, suggesting increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusions There are sustained cumulative biologic actions for the massage and touch interventions that persist for several days or a week, and these differ profoundly depending on the dosage (frequency) of sessions. Confirmatory studies in larger samples are needed. PMID:22775448

  20. Additive manufacturing technology (direct metal laser sintering) as a novel approach to fabricate functionally graded titanium implants: preliminary investigation of fabrication parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Shao; Starr, Thomas L; Harris, Bryan T; Zandinejad, Amirali; Morton, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the preliminary findings of the mechanical properties of functionally graded titanium with controlled distribution of porosity and a reduced Young's modulus on the basis of a computeraided design (CAD) file, using the rapid-prototyping, direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technique. Sixty specimens of Ti-6Al-4V were created using a DMLS machine (M270) following the standard for tensile testing of metals. One group was fabricated with only 170 W of laser energy to create fully dense specimens (control group). The remaining specimens all featured an outer fully dense "skin" layer and a partially sintered porous inner "core" region. The outer "skin" of each specimen was scanned at 170 W and set at a thickness of 0.35, 1.00, or 1.50 mm for different specimen groups. The inner "core" of each specimen was scanned at a lower laser power (43 or 85 W). The partially sintered core was clearly visible in all specimens, with somewhat greater porosity with the lower laser power. However, the amount of porosity in the core region was not related to the laser power alone; thinner skin layers resulted in higher porosity for the same power values in the core structure. The lowest Young's modulus achieved, 35 GPa, is close to that of bone and was achieved with a laser power of 43 W and a skin thickness of 0.35 mm, producing a core that comprised 74% of the total volume. Additive manufacturing technology may provide an efficient alternative way to fabricate customized dental implants based on a CAD file with a functionally graded structure that may minimize stress shielding and improve the long-term performance of dental implants.

  1. Cognitive requirements of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems: some implications of temporal horizon for managerial behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Peterson, 2007; Wargo et al., 2010a). This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS) hypothesis (Bickel et al., 2012b) captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994) and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST; Gray and McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton and Corr, 2004), which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992) as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behavior. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second, by consideration of adaptive-innovative cognitive styles (Kirton, 2003) in the construction of managerial teams, a theme that can now be investigated by a dedicated research program that incorporates psychometric analysis of personality types and cognitive styles involved in managerial decision-making and the underlying neurophysiological bases of such decision-making.

  2. Dynamic Circadian Modulation in a Biomathematical Model for the Effects of Sleep and Sleep Loss on Waking Neurobehavioral Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Peter; Kalachev, Leonid V.; Mollicone, Daniel J.; Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David F.; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental observations and theoretical advances have indicated that the homeostatic equilibrium for sleep/wake regulation—and thereby sensitivity to neurobehavioral impairment from sleep loss—is modulated by prior sleep/wake history. This phenomenon was predicted by a biomathematical model developed to explain changes in neurobehavioral performance across days in laboratory studies of total sleep deprivation and sustained sleep restriction. The present paper focuses on the dynamics of neurobehavioral performance within days in this biomathematical model of fatigue. Without increasing the number of model parameters, the model was updated by incorporating time-dependence in the amplitude of the circadian modulation of performance. The updated model was calibrated using a large dataset from three laboratory experiments on psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) performance, under conditions of sleep loss and circadian misalignment; and validated using another large dataset from three different laboratory experiments. The time-dependence of circadian amplitude resulted in improved goodness-of-fit in night shift schedules, nap sleep scenarios, and recovery from prior sleep loss. The updated model predicts that the homeostatic equilibrium for sleep/wake regulation—and thus sensitivity to sleep loss—depends not only on the duration but also on the circadian timing of prior sleep. This novel theoretical insight has important implications for predicting operator alertness during work schedules involving circadian misalignment such as night shift work. Citation: McCauley P; Kalachev LV; Mollicone DJ; Banks S; Dinges DF; Van Dongen HPA. Dynamic circadian modulation in a biomathematical model for the effects of sleep and sleep loss on waking neurobehavioral performance. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1987-1997. PMID:24293775

  3. A chronic longitudinal characterization of neurobehavioral and neuropathological cognitive impairment in a mouse model of Gulf War agent exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuchra eZakirova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gulf War Illness (GWI is a chronic multisymptom illness with a central nervous system component that includes memory impairment as well as neurological and musculoskeletal deficits. Previous studies have shown that in the First Persian Gulf War conflict (1990-1991 exposure to Gulf War (GW agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB and permethrin (PER, were key contributors to the etiology of GWI.For this study, we used our previously established mouse model of GW agent exposure (10 days PB+PER and undertook an extensive lifelong neurobehavioral characterization of the mice from 11 days to 22.5 months post exposure in order to address the persistence and chronicity of effects suffered by the current GWI patient population, 24 years post-exposure. Mice were evaluated using a battery of neurobehavioral testing paradigms, including Open Field Test, Elevated Plus Maze, Three Chamber Testing, Radial Arm Water Maze and Barnes Maze Test. We also carried out neuropathological analyses at 22.5 months post exposure to GW agents after the final behavioral testing. Our results demonstrate that PB+PER exposed mice exhibit neurobehavioral deficits beginning at the 13 months post exposure time point and continuing trends through the 22.5 month post exposure time point. Furthermore, neuropathological changes, including an increase in GFAP staining in the cerebral cortices of exposed mice, were noted 22.5 months post exposure. Thus, the persistent neuroinflammation evident in our model presents a platform with which to identify novel biological pathways, correlating with emergent outcomes that may be amenable to therapeutic targeting. Furthermore, in this work we confirmed our previous findings that GW agent exposure causes neuropathological changes, and have presented novel data which demonstrate increased disinhibition, and lack of social preference in PB+PER exposed mice at 13 months after exposure. We also extended upon our previous work to cover the lifespan

  4. Do respiratory cycle-related EEG changes or arousals from sleep predict neurobehavioral deficits and response to adenotonsillectomy in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervin, Ronald D; Garetz, Susan L; Ruzicka, Deborah L; Hodges, Elise K; Giordani, Bruno J; Dillon, James E; Felt, Barbara T; Hoban, Timothy F; Guire, Kenneth E; O'Brien, Louise M; Burns, Joseph W

    2014-08-15

    Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with hyperactive behavior, cognitive deficits, psychiatric morbidity, and sleepiness, but objective polysomnographic measures of OSA presence or severity among children scheduled for adenotonsillectomy have not explained why. To assess whether sleep fragmentation might explain neurobehavioral outcomes, we prospectively assessed the predictive value of standard arousals and also respiratory cycle-related EEG changes (RCREC), thought to reflect inspiratory microarousals. Washtenaw County Adenotonsillectomy Cohort II participants included children (ages 3-12 years) scheduled for adenotonsillectomy, for any clinical indication. At enrollment and again 7.2 ± 0.9 (SD) months later, children had polysomnography, a multiple sleep latency test, parent-completed behavioral rating scales, cognitive testing, and psychiatric evaluation. The RCREC were computed as previously described for delta, theta, alpha, sigma, and beta EEG frequency bands. Participants included 133 children, 109 with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 1.5, mean 8.3 ± 10.6) and 24 without OSA (AHI 0.9 ± 0.3). At baseline, the arousal index and RCREC showed no consistent, significant associations with neurobehavioral morbidities, among all subjects or the 109 with OSA. At follow-up, the arousal index, RCREC, and neurobehavioral measures all tended to improve, but neither baseline measure of sleep fragmentation effectively predicted outcomes (all p > 0.05, with only scattered exceptions, among all subjects or those with OSA). Sleep fragmentation, as reflected by standard arousals or by RCREC, appears unlikely to explain neurobehavioral morbidity among children who undergo adenotonsillectomy. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT00233194.

  5. Cognitive requirements of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems: Some implications of temporal horizon for managerial behavior in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Wargo, Baglini & Nelson, 2010a; Peterson, 2007. This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS hypothesis (Bickel, Mueller & Jarmolowicz, 2012 captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994 and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (Gray & McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton & Corr, 2004, which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992 as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behaviour. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second, by consideration of adaptive-innovative cognitive styles (Kirton, 2003 in the construction of managerial teams, a theme that can now be investigated by a dedicated research program that incorporates psychometric analysis of personality types and cognitive styles involved in managerial decision-making and the underlying neurophysiological bases of such decision-making.

  6. The effects of Cannabis sativa L. seed (hemp seed) on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofi, Másume; Saberivand, Adel; Becker, Lora A; Karimi, Isaac

    2011-05-01

    This study determined the effects of maternal dietary intake of hemp seed on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points of Wistar rats. Time-mated rats were fed 100% hemp seed (n  =  15), 50% hemp seed (n  =  15) or basal diet (n  =  15) once a day. The amount of food made available was based on control feed consumption records. All dams remained on their respective diets from premating (14 days) throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were given their maternal diet until puberty. Mating and delivery weights of dams in all groups did not show significant changes. Number of pregnancies, number and post-natal survival rate of total rat pups, litter size and milk yield were lower in the group that received 100% hemp seed. Offspring that received 50% hemp seed diet expressed reproductive and neurobehavioral end points from a modified Fox battery earlier than rats on 100% hemp seed or basal diet, except acoustic startle results where no differences appeared. In conclusion, this study shows that hemp seed supplementation does not improve the reproductive and neurobehavioral performances of rats. Pregnant women and nursing mothers should be cautious about the using of Cannabis sativa L. byproducts in their diets. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Dynamic circadian modulation in a biomathematical model for the effects of sleep and sleep loss on waking neurobehavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Peter; Kalachev, Leonid V; Mollicone, Daniel J; Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David F; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2013-12-01

    Recent experimental observations and theoretical advances have indicated that the homeostatic equilibrium for sleep/wake regulation--and thereby sensitivity to neurobehavioral impairment from sleep loss--is modulated by prior sleep/wake history. This phenomenon was predicted by a biomathematical model developed to explain changes in neurobehavioral performance across days in laboratory studies of total sleep deprivation and sustained sleep restriction. The present paper focuses on the dynamics of neurobehavioral performance within days in this biomathematical model of fatigue. Without increasing the number of model parameters, the model was updated by incorporating time-dependence in the amplitude of the circadian modulation of performance. The updated model was calibrated using a large dataset from three laboratory experiments on psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) performance, under conditions of sleep loss and circadian misalignment; and validated using another large dataset from three different laboratory experiments. The time-dependence of circadian amplitude resulted in improved goodness-of-fit in night shift schedules, nap sleep scenarios, and recovery from prior sleep loss. The updated model predicts that the homeostatic equilibrium for sleep/wake regulation--and thus sensitivity to sleep loss--depends not only on the duration but also on the circadian timing of prior sleep. This novel theoretical insight has important implications for predicting operator alertness during work schedules involving circadian misalignment such as night shift work.

  8. Piperine Augments the Protective Effect of Curcumin Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neurobehavioral and Neurochemical Deficits in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangra, Ashok; Kwatra, Mohit; Singh, Tavleen; Pant, Rajat; Kushwah, Pawan; Sharma, Yogita; Saroha, Babita; Datusalia, Ashok Kumar; Bezbaruah, Babul Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of curcumin alone and in combination with piperine against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits in the mice hippocampus. Mice were treated with curcumin (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and piperine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days followed by LPS (0.83 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. Animals exhibited anxiety and depressive-like phenotype after 3 and 24 h of LPS exposure, respectively. LPS administration increased the oxido-nitrosative stress as evident by elevated levels of malondialdehyde, nitrite, and depletion of glutathione level in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we found raised level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) in the hippocampus of LPS-treated mice. Pretreatment with curcumin alleviated LPS-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits. Furthermore, co-administration of curcumin with piperine significantly potentiated the neuroprotective effect of curcumin. These results demonstrate that piperine enhanced the neuroprotective effect of curcumin against LPS-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits.

  9. Effects of perinatal coexposure to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls on neurobehavioral development in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Norio [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Environmental Health Sciences, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki (Japan); Ohba, Takashi; Nakai, Kunihiko; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Keita; Kameo, Satomi; Shimada, Miyuki; Kurokawa, Naoyuki; Satoh, Chieko; Satoh, Hiroshi [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Environmental Health Sciences, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Kakita, Akiyoshi [Niigata University, Department of Pathological Neuroscience, Resource Branch for Brain Disease Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants that cause neurobehavioral deficits in humans. Because exposures to MeHg and PCBs occur through fish consumption, it is necessary to clarify the effects of the interaction of the two pollutants. Therefore, we investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to MeHg and PCBs on the neurobehavioral development in mice. Female mice (C57BL/6Cr) were divided into four groups according to the type of exposure: (1) vehicle control, (2) MeHg alone, (3) PCBs alone, and (4) MeHg + PCBs. The MeHg-exposed groups were fed with a diet containing 5 ppm MeHg (as Hg), from 4 weeks before mating, throughout pregnancy, and lactation. The PCB-exposed groups were given a commercial mixture of PCBs, Aroclor 1254, at 18 mg/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage every 3 days from day 5 after breeding and continued until postnatal day (PND) 20. Before weaning, an assessment of eye opening showed the interactive effects between MeHg and PCBs on PND 12: The coexposure group showed a similar response to the control group, whereas the MeHg- and PCB-exposed groups showed a high response than the former two groups. We also observed delay in development of grasp reflex by MeHg exposure on PNDs 12 and 14. When the offspring mice were 8 weeks old, the group exposed to PCBs alone showed increases in the frequencies of excrement defecation and urine traces in an open-field test. Analysis of the latency revealed the antagonistic interaction between the MeHg and PCBs: The latency increased by either MeHg or PCB exposure was decreased by coexposure. Treatment with MeHg decreased the distance walked by the mice, and MeHg interacted with PCBs. Moris' water maze test showed that the MeHg-treated mice took a long time to reach the submerged platform; however, this MeHg exposure showed no interaction with PCB exposure. The spontaneous locomotion activity of the mice was not affected by the chemical exposure at 9 weeks of

  10. Longitudinal study on potential neurotoxic effects of aluminium: II. Assessment of exposure and neurobehavioral performance of Al welders in the automobile industry over 4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesswetter, Ernst; Schäper, M; Buchta, M; Schaller, K H; Rossbach, B; Kraus, T; Letzel, S

    2009-11-01

    This is the second of two parallel longitudinal studies investigating Al exposure and neurobehavioral health of Al welders over 4 years. While the first published study in the trail and truck construction industry examined the neurobehavioral development of Al welders from age 41-45 in the group mean (Kiesswetter et al. in Int Arch Occup Environ Health 81:41-67, 2007), the present study in the automobile industry followed the development from 35 to 39. Although no conspicuous neurobehavioral developments were detected in the first study, which furthermore exhibited the higher exposure, it cannot be excluded that exposure effects appear in earlier life and exposure stages. The longitudinal study is based on a repeated measurement design comprising 4 years with three measurements in 2 years intervals. 92 male Al welders in the automobile industry were compared with 50 non-exposed construction workers of the same industry and of similar age. The repeated measurements included total dust in air, and Al pre- and post-shift plasma and urine samples. Neurobehavioral methods comprised symptoms, verbal intelligence, logic thinking, psychomotor behavior, memory, and attention. The computer aided tests came from the Motor Performance Series and the European Neurobehavioral Evaluation System. The courses of neurobehavioral changes were analyzed with multivariate covariance-analytical methods considering the covariates age, indicators of 'a priori' intelligence differences (education or markers of 'premorbid' intelligence), and alcohol consumption (carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in plasma). Additionally, the interrelationship, reliability and validity of biomonitoring measures were examined. The mean environmental dust load during welding, 0.5-0.8 mg/m(3), and the mean internal load of the welders (pre-shift: 23-43 microg Al/g creatinine in urine; 5-9 microg Al/l plasma) were significantly lower than in the parallel study. Under low exposure, the stability of biomonitoring

  11. Preliminary investigation of plasma levels of sex hormones and human growth factor(s, and P300 latency as correlates to cognitive decline as a function of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner Mallory M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is marked by declines in levels of many sex hormones and growth factors, as well as in cognitive function. The P300 event-related potential has been established as a predictor of cognitive decline. We decided to determine if this measure, as well as 2 standard tests of memory and attention, may be correlated with serum levels of sex hormones and growth factors, and if there are any generalizations that could be made based on these parameters and the aging process. Findings In this large clinically based preliminary study several sex-stratified associations between hormone levels and cognition were observed, including (1 for males aged 30 to 49, both IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (2 for males aged 30 to 49, the spearman correlation between prolonged P300 latency and low free testosterone was significant; (3 for males aged 60 to 69, there was a significant negative correlation between P300 latency and DHEA levels; (4 for females aged 50 to 59 IGFBP-3 significantly associated negatively with prolonged P300 latency; (5 for females at all age periods, estrogen and progesterone were uncorrelated with P300 latency; and (6 for females aged 40 to 69, there was significant negative correlation between DHEA levels and P300 latency. Moreover there were no statistically significant correlations between any hormone and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-111. However, in females, there was a significant positive correlation between estrogen levels and the number of Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD complaints. Conclusion Given certain caveats including confounding factors involving psychiatric and other chronic diseases as well as medications, the results may still have important value. If these results could be confirmed in a more rigorously controlled investigation, it may have important value in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cognitive impairments and decline.

  12. Reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of amaranth administered to mice in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T

    1993-01-01

    The color additive amaranth was given in the drinking water at levels of 0 (control), 0.025, 0.075, and 0.225% from 5 weeks of age in F0 generation until F1 generation mice were weaned, with selected reproductive, developmental and behavioral parameters being measured. Amaranth had little adverse effect upon litter size, litter weight and sex ratio. Average body weight in both sexes of the F1 mice was significantly increased in the 0.025% group in both sexes. Survival index at postnatal day (PND) 21 was reduced in the 0.025% amaranth group. For the neurobehavioral parameters, surface righting at PND 4 in female offspring and olfactory orientation in both sexes were significantly affected by treatment. Several parameters of movement activity of male offspring at 3 weeks of age were affected in amaranth 0.075% group, but those of female offspring were similar in all groups. The dose levels of amaranth in this study produced a little adverse effect on behavioral development in mice.

  13. The impact of repeated organophosphorus pesticide exposure on biomarkers and neurobehavioral outcomes among adolescent pesticide applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmed A.; Wang, Kai; Olson, James R.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Hendy, Olfat; Rasoul, Gaafar Abdel; Rohlman, Diane S.

    2017-01-01

    Egyptian adolescents are hired as seasonal workers to apply pesticides to the cotton crop and may perform this occupation for several years. However, few studies examined the effects of repeated pesticide exposure on health outcomes The goal of this study was to determine the impact of repeated pesticide exposure on neurobehavioral (NB) performance and biomarkers of exposure (urinary metabolite) and effect (cholinesterase activity). Eighty-four adolescents from two field stations in Menoufia, Egypt, were examined four times: before and during pesticide application season in 2010 and again before and during application season in 2011. At each of the four time points, participants completed a questionnaire, performed an NB test battery, and were assessed for urinary levels of the chlorpyrifos metabolite TCPy (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) and blood cholinesterase activity. Following the study cohort over two consecutive pesticide application seasons revealed that TCPy levels significantly increased following exposure, and returned to baseline levels following the end of the application season. Blood butyryl cholinesterase activity exhibited a similar pattern. Although NB outcomes displayed learning and practice effects over time, deficits in performance were significantly associated with increased TCPy levels with reduction in the number of NB measures showing improvement over time. Biomarkers of exposure and effect demonstrated changes associated with pesticide application and recovery after application ended. Deficits in NB performance were correlated with elevated pesticide exposure. Data demonstrated that repeated pesticide exposure may exert a long-term adverse impact on human health. PMID:28880741

  14. Neurobehavioral, reflexological and physical development of Wistar rat offspring exposed to ayahuasca during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage prepared by the decoction of plants native to the Amazon Basin region. The beverage has been used throughout the world by members of some syncretic religious movements. Despite the recent legalization of ayahuasca in Brazil for religious purposes, there is little pre-clinical and clinical information attesting to its safety, particularly in relation to the use during pregnancy. The aim of the current work was to determine the effects of perinatal exposure to ayahuasca (from the 6th day of pregnancy to the 10th day of lactation on physical, reflexology and neurobehavioral parameters of the Wistar rat offspring. The offspring showed no statistically significant changes in the physical and reflexology parameters evaluated. However, in adult rats, perinatally exposed to ayahuasca, an increase in frequency of entries in open arms in elevated plus-maze test, a decrease in total time of interaction in social interaction test, a decrease in time of latency for the animal to start swimming and a decrease of the minimum convulsant dose induced by pentylenetetrazol were observed. In conclusion, our results showed that the use of ayahuasca by mothers during pregnancy and lactation reduced the general anxiety and social motivation of the rat offspring. Besides, it promoted a higher sensitivity for initiation and spread of seizure activity.

  15. Neurobehavioral, reflexological and physical development of Wistar rat offspring exposed to ayahuasca during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage prepared by the decoction of plants native to the Amazon Basin region. The beverage has been used throughout the world by members of some syncretic religious movements. Despite the recent legalization of ayahuasca in Brazil for religious purposes, there is little pre-clinical and clinical information attesting to its safety, particularly in relation to the use during pregnancy. The aim of the current work was to determine the effects of perinatal exposure to ayahuasca (from the 6th day of pregnancy to the 10th day of lactation on physical, reflexology and neurobehavioral parameters of the Wistar rat offspring. The offspring showed no statistically significant changes in the physical and reflexology parameters evaluated. However, in adult rats, perinatally exposed to ayahuasca, an increase in frequency of entries in open arms in elevated plus-maze test, a decrease in total time of interaction in social interaction test, a decrease in time of latency for the animal to start swimming and a decrease of the minimum convulsant dose induced by pentylenetetrazol were observed. In conclusion, our results showed that the use of ayahuasca by mothers during pregnancy and lactation reduced the general anxiety and social motivation of the rat offspring. Besides, it promoted a higher sensitivity for initiation and spread of seizure activity.

  16. Evaluation of the neurobehavioral screening tool in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFrance, Michael-Anne; McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Nash, Kelly; Andrew, Gail; Loock, Christine; Oberlander, Tim F; Koren, Gideon; Rasmussen, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for validated tools to screen children at risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The Neurobehavioral Screening Tool (NST) is one of several promising screening measures for FASD, though further evidence is needed to establish the tool's psychometric utility. To assess the predictive accuracy of the NST among children with an FASD diagnosis, with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) but no FASD diagnosis, and typically developing controls. The NST was completed by caregivers of children ages 6 to 17, including 48 with FASD, 22 with PAE, and 32 typically developing non-exposed controls. Predictive accuracy coefficients were calculated using Nash et al. (2006) criteria, and compared against controls. An alternative scoring scheme was also investigated to determine optimum referral thresholds using item-level total scores. The NST yielded 62.5% sensitivity for participants with FASD and 50% for PAE. Specificity values were 100% with no typically developing control scoring positive. Within the FASD group there was a trend for higher sensitivity among adolescents aged 12 to17 (70.8%) compared with children aged 6 to 11 years (54.2%), p = 0.23. The findings support a growing body of literature evidencing psychometric promise for the clinical utility of the NST as an FASD screening tool, though further research on possible age-effects is warranted. The availability of a validated clinical screening tool for FASD, such as the NST, would aid in accurately screening a large number of children and lead to a timelier diagnostic referral.

  17. The impact of repeated organophosphorus pesticide exposure on biomarkers and neurobehavioral outcomes among adolescent pesticide applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmed A; Wang, Kai; Olson, James R; Bonner, Matthew R; Hendy, Olfat; Abdel Rasoul, Gaafar; Rohlman, Diane S

    2017-01-01

    Egyptian adolescents are hired as seasonal workers to apply pesticides to the cotton crop and may perform this occupation for several years. However, few studies examined the effects of repeated pesticide exposure on health outcomes The goal of this study was to determine the impact of repeated pesticide exposure on neurobehavioral (NB) performance and biomarkers of exposure (urinary metabolite) and effect (cholinesterase activity). Eighty-four adolescents from two field stations in Menoufia, Egypt, were examined four times: before and during pesticide application season in 2010 and again before and during application season in 2011. At each of the four time points, participants completed a questionnaire, performed an NB test battery, and were assessed for urinary levels of the chlorpyrifos metabolite TCPy (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) and blood cholinesterase activity. Following the study cohort over two consecutive pesticide application seasons revealed that TCPy levels significantly increased following exposure, and returned to baseline levels following the end of the application season. Blood butyryl cholinesterase activity exhibited a similar pattern. Although NB outcomes displayed learning and practice effects over time, deficits in performance were significantly associated with increased TCPy levels with reduction in the number of NB measures showing improvement over time. Biomarkers of exposure and effect demonstrated changes associated with pesticide application and recovery after application ended. Deficits in NB performance were correlated with elevated pesticide exposure. Data demonstrated that repeated pesticide exposure may exert a long-term adverse impact on human health.

  18. Neurobehavioral observation and hearing impairment in children at school age in eastern Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovcikova, E.; Trnovec, T.; Petrik, J.; Kocan, A.; Drobna, B.; Wimmerova, S.; Wsolova, L. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Hustak, M. [Air Force Military Hospital, Kosice (Slovakia)

    2004-09-15

    Neurotoxicity of PCBs has been reported in humans and confirmed in animal studies. It was shown that PCBs can alter a number of developmental physiological processes in which the thyroid plays an essential role. In children, the prenatal exposure to PCBs was associated with reduced birth weight and poor recognition memory. In children with longer duration of breast feeding implying higher PCB exposure, altered behavior, lengthening of psychomotor activities, worse attention, and worse memory performance were found. The so far published data on the association between PCBs exposure and hearing were based mainly on animal observations. Low-frequency auditory impairments have been documented in PCB exposed rats, including elevated behavioral auditory thresholds, decreased amplitude and prolonged latency auditory evoked brain stem responses. Two papers were related to humans only. The first one reported PCB-associated increased thresholds at two out of eight frequencies on audiometry, but only on the left side, and no deficits on evoked potentials or contrast sensitivity in 7-year-old children prenatally exposed to seafood neurotoxicants. The other paper was focused on hearing impairments in boys of fish-eating mothers, but no individual PCB exposure data were available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between exposure to PCBs and health outcomes assessed, as performance in neurobehavioral tests, thyroid hormones production and hearing status. Selected confounder factors such as heavy metals and health/social background of development in children were also taken into consideration.

  19. Cognitive functioning and subjective quality of life in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients before and after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Pasquale C

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Concetta De Pasquale,1,2 Maria Luisa Pistorio,1 Massimiliano Veroux,2 Alessia Giaquinta,2 Pierfrancesco Veroux,2 Michele Fornaro11Department of Education Science, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; 2Vascular Surgery and Organ Transplant Unit, Department of Surgery Transplantation and Advanced Technologies, University Hospital of Catania, Catania, ItalyBackground: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a disease of the nervous system that has profound effects on everyday functioning and quality of life of not only the person who is diagnosed, but also her/his family and acquaintances. Despite this, the uncertainties of the actual etiological basis of MS make it difficult to reach a conclusive statement about the optimal therapeutic management of the disease, which may differ depending on the given case and phase of illness. This has led to an interest in potential novel therapeutic avenues, including percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA. Yet, evidence in support of PTA in the management of MS is scarce and contradictory. The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary assessment as to whether PTA may impact subjective quality of life and cognitive functioning in severe MS. Method: Ninety-five MS outpatients were followed-up for 24 months on a scheduled basis using the Milan Overall Dementia Assessment and the short-form 36-item scales, and were clinically evaluated by an appointed neurologist and psychiatrist. Results: At end point (month 24, only a minority of patients were still active in the study (n=33 or 34.74%. Among other measures, those who remained in the study until completion showed a significantly better Expanded Disability Status Scale and Milan Overall Dementia Assessment autonomy profile at study entrance compared to those patients who did not remain in the study until completion. Limitations were: a lack of any active control group; small sample size; Berkson’s bias; and selection by indication biases.Conclusion: Given

  20. Short-range forecast of Shershnevskoie (South Ural) water-storage algal blooms: preliminary results of predictors' choosing and membership functions' construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayazova, Anna; Abdullaev, Sanjar

    2014-05-01

    three rules, linking membership functions of temperature, P. duplex abundance, nitrate concentration and M. aeruginosa abundance were set up. Developed fuzzy logic rules were good to predict M. aeruginosa intense outbreaks. For ANN method of forecasting specially written program was used to train the fuzzy artificial neural network on number of input selected predictors' values and output predicted factor's values to set up the predictive rules and membership functions automatically. As a result, two models based on mineralization and P. duplex abundance were developed for 2009. For 2011 four patterns were developed, the best result was obtained for model based on temperature and P. duplex abundance. Developed methods of forecasting were applied to predict outbreaks of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and M. aeruginosa abundance in Shershnevskoie reservoir. For this purpose long-term data of chemical parameters, measured once in a month, data of dominant species abundance, measured fifth in a week and data of turbidity, water color, alkalinity, pH, obtained each day, were analyzed. Based on these empirical data significant factors were determined, membership functions were set up and preliminary models for Shershnevskoie reservoir were developed. As expected, these models differ significantly from developed for Smolino lake ones and should be tested on new data sets.

  1. Relation between cognitive distortions and neurobehavior disinhibition on the development of substance use during adolescence and substance use disorder by young adulthood: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirisci, Levent; Tarter, Ralph E; Vanyukov, Michael; Reynolds, Maureen; Habeych, Miguel

    2004-11-11

    Previous research has demonstrated that neurobehavior disinhibition increases the risk for a diagnosis of substance use disorder (SUD). This investigation tested the hypothesis that a deficiency in the capacity to appraise the effects of alcohol and drugs and interpret social interactions mediates the relation between neurobehavior disinhibition in childhood and SUD by early adulthood. Boys with fathers having lifetime SUD (N=88) and no SUD or other psychiatric disorder (N=127) were prospectively tracked from ages 10-12 to 19 years. Neurobehavior disinhibition was evaluated at baseline followed by assessments of cognitive distortions and substance use involvement in early and mid-adolescence. SUD outcome was evaluated up to age 19 years. Cognitive distortions (age 12-14 years) mediated the association between neurobehavior disinhibition (age 10-12 years) and marijuana use (age 16 years) which, in turn, predicted SUD by age 19 years. Cognitive distortions in early adolescence did not directly predict SUD by young adulthood. Inaccurate social cognition, significantly predicted by childhood neurobehavior disinhibition, biases development toward marijuana use prodromal to SUD. These results indicate that cognitive processes, in conjunction with psychological self-regulation, comprise important components of the individual liability to SUD.

  2. Comparison of the developmental milestones and preweaning neurobehavioral parameters in rat pups exposed to lead (Pb) during gestation, lactation and pregestation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao Barkur, Rajashekar; Bairy, Laxminarayana K

    2016-01-01

    Studies in urban children exposed to low lead (Pb) have shown neurobehavioral deficits in the domains of intelligence, reaction time and attention. The structures - hippocampus (vital for learning and memory) and cerebellum (play a role in motor behavior and cognition) - which develop postnatally, are affected by developmental Pb exposure. The effect of low level of Pb exposure during specific periods of early brain development on early neurobehavioral outcomes in rat pups has not been studied. So in this study, pregnant albino Wistar strain rats were exposed to low levels of Pb in drinking water during gestation period (G group), lactation period (L group), both gestation and lactation period (GL group) and prior to pregnancy (a period of 1 month) (PG group). The rat pups born in each of these groups were assessed in preweaning neurobehavioral parameters including surface righting reflex, swimming development, negative geotaxis and ascending wire mesh test. The swimming development scores were low in the GL group of rats. The negative geotaxis score in GL and G groups were altered. The day of achievement of ascending wire mesh test was significantly delayed in GL, G and L groups of rats. To conclude, results show that (a) low level of Pb exposure during gestation and lactation period of brain development causes significant alterations in the early neurobehavioral and sensorimotor reflex development in the absence of concomitant weight loss and (b) gestation period only and lactation period only, Pb exposure causes alteration in some of the neurobehavioral outcomes.

  3. College and combat trauma: an insider's perspective of the post-secondary education experience shared by service members managing neurobehavioral symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Bryan M; Rocke, Maya R; Harrist, Christopher J; Vroman, Kerryellen G

    2014-01-01

    Enrolling in post-secondary education is common among military service members returning from combat deployments, but recent research shows service members who present with neurobehavioral symptoms consistent with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at risk for psychosocial and academic difficulty. This exploratory study was conducted to examine the academic experiences of service members through in-depth qualitative analysis. An initial survey was conducted at a public university to measure self-reported academic achievement and neurobehavioral symptoms experienced by service members (n = 48). Then, follow-up interviews were solicited from a sub-sample (n = 5) of participants to gain an in-depth understanding of their transition, social, and academic experiences. The results revealed both the day-to-day challenges participants faced while adjusting to post-secondary life and how neurobehavioral symptoms associated with combat trauma interacted with their learning experiences. The findings indicated participants did not perceive neurobehavioral symptoms as particularly deleterious to their learning thereby highlighting the potentially integral role of coping strategies and motivation in post-secondary success. This study underscores the importance of understanding not only the adverse impact of neurobehavioral symptoms but the factors that promote resilience among military service members in post-secondary education.

  4. An investigation into neurologic and neurobehavioral effects of long-term agrichemical use among deciduous fruit farm workers in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, L; Myers, J E; Nell, V; Taylor, T; Thompson, M L

    1997-01-01

    Long-term exposure to organophosphates (OPs) in the absence of acute poisoning is increasingly suspected of causing chronic neurologic and neurobehavioral effects. A cross-sectional survey of 163 spray operators on deciduous fruit farms in the Western Cape, South Africa, and 84 nonspraying labororers was conducted in 1993 to investigate the relationship between long-term OP exposures and neurological and neurobehavioral outcomes. The study also sought to evaluate the performance of a set of neurobehavioral test batteries based on the information-processing theory of cognitive psychology, relative to the more established World Health Organization's Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery (WHO NCTB). These information-processing tests were designed for use in studies of subjects with little education, which are frequently conducted in developing countries in agriculture. They draw on experience from a previous South African study in which problems were encountered with a lack of cross-cultural validity of conventional test batteries. No evidence was found of a relationship between long-term OP exposure and loss of vibration sense. Small associations were found with the NCTB Pursuit-Aiming and Santa Ana (nondominant hand) subtests. The overall evidence of neurologic and neurobehavioral effects of long-term OP exposure was small; exposure misclassification may have contributed to this finding. Important confounders such as brain injury, alcohol consumption, and nutritional status were identified. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  5. Perceived Exertion Is Lower When Using a Functional Electrical Stimulation Neuroprosthesis Compared With an Ankle-Foot Orthosis in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Seema R; Beranger, Alexandria G; Felix, Elizabeth R

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates the direct comparison of energy cost, efficiency, and effort between an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) and a functional electrical stimulation (FES) device for foot drop in ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis. Twenty adults (32-74 years old; 55% female) with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis resulting in foot drop participated in a crossover, counterbalanced preliminary study. Each participant was tested on different days, with each session consisting of a separate walk trial per prosthetic device. Heart rate, oxygen consumption, speed, distance, and self-reported exertion were measured independently for each device walk trial. Repeated-measures analysis of variance with device and visit number as within-participants independent variables were run for the primary outcome variables of perceived exertion, energy, and metabolic efficiency. A significant main effect of device was found for perceived exertion (P = 0.01), with participants reporting decreased exertion levels (Borg Scale) when using the FES compared with the AFO (mean difference, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-2.76). Energy and efficiency did not significantly differ by device. Results suggest that further investigation of the potential advantages of FES devices over traditional AFO is warranted. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) describe the potential differences between an AFO and FES for the treatment of foot drop in patients with multiple sclerosis, (2) understand the mechanisms and prevalence of foot drop in patients with multiple sclerosis, and (3) recognize the potential benefit of improved perceived exertion found when using FES for the treatment of foot drop in patients with multiple sclerosis. Advanced ACCREDITATION: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of a Brief Web and Mobile Phone Intervention for Men With Depression: Men's Positive Coping Strategies and Associated Depression, Resilience, and Work and Social Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Andrea Susan; Proudfoot, Judy; Whittle, Erin Louise; Clarke, Janine; Player, Michael J; Christensen, Helen; Wilhelm, Kay

    2017-08-10

    Previous research has identified that men experiencing depression do not always access appropriate health services. Web-based interventions represent an alternative treatment option for men, are effective in reducing anxiety and depression, and have potential for wide dissemination. However, men do not access Web-based programs at the same rate as women. Programs with content explicitly tailored to men's mental health needs are required. This study evaluated the applicability of Man Central, a new Web and mobile phone intervention for men with depression. The impact of the use of Man Central on depression, resilience, and work and social functioning was assessed. A recruitment flier was distributed via social media, email networks, newsletters, research registers, and partner organizations. A single-group, repeated measures design was used. The primary outcome was symptoms of depression. Secondary outcomes included externalizing symptoms, resilience, and work and social functioning. Man Central comprises regular mood, symptom, and behavior monitoring, combined with three 15-min interactive sessions. Clinical features are grounded in cognitive behavior therapy and problem-solving therapy. A distinguishing feature is the incorporation of positive strategies identified by men as useful in preventing and managing depression. Participants were directed to use Man Central for a period of 4 weeks. Linear mixed modeling with intention-to-treat analysis assessed associations between the intervention and the primary and secondary outcomes. A total of 144 men aged between 18 and 68 years and with at least mild depression enrolled in the study. The symptoms most often monitored by men included motivation (471 instances), depression (399), sleep (323), anxiety (316), and stress (262). Reminders were scheduled by 60.4% (87/144). Significant improvements were observed in depression symptoms (Psocial functioning (P<.001, d=0.78). No change was observed in measures of resilience

  7. Childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure and neurobehavior in children at 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Ann M; Yolton, Kimberly; Xie, Changchun; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Braun, Joseph M; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2017-10-01

    Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure has been associated with decrements in IQ and increased attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder related behaviors in children; however, data are limited for the role of postnatal exposures. We investigated the association between a series of childhood PBDE concentrations and Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) and externalizing problems at 8 years. We used data from 208 children in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort. Child serum PBDEs were measured at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years; missing serum PBDE concentrations were estimated via multiple imputation. The Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-IV and the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 was used to assess intelligence and externalizing behavior, respectively, in children at 8 years. We used multiple informant models to estimate associations between repeated lipid-adjusted PBDEs and child neurobehavior and to test for windows of susceptibility. Postnatal exposure to PBDE congeners (- 28, - 47, - 99, - 100, and - 153) at multiple ages was inversely associated with FSIQ at 8 years. For instance, a 10-fold increase in BDE-153 concentrations at 2, 3, 5, and 8 years were all related to lower FSIQ at age 8 (β for 3 years: - 7.7-points, 95% CI - 12.5, - 2.9; β for 8 years: - 5.6-points, 95% CI - 10.8, - 0.4). Multiple PBDE congeners at 8 years were associated with increased hyperactivity and aggressive behaviors at 8 years. Postnatal PBDE exposure was associated with decrements in FSIQ and increases in hyperactivity and aggressive behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurobehavioral development of CD-1 mice after combined gestational and postnatal exposure to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell`Omo, G. [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Fiore, M. [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Petruzzi, S. [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Alleva, E. [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Bignami, G. [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    Outbred CD-1 mice were exposed continuously to ozone (O{sub 3}, 0.6 ppm) from 6 days prior to the formation of breeding pairs to the time of weaning of the offspring on postnatal day 22 (PND 22) or to PND 26. One half of the mice in each of eight O{sub 3} and eight control litters were subjected on PND 24 to a 20-min open-field test after IP treatment by either saline or scopolamine (2 mg/kg). The remaining mice (those exposed until PND 26) were subjected on PNDs 28-31 to a conditioned place preference (CPP) test, using a short schedule with a single IP injection on PND 29 of either d-amphetamine (3.3 mg/kg) or saline. Subsequently, the saline mice of the open-field experiment were used on PND 59 for an activity test in one of the CPP apparatus compartments after IP treatment by either d-amphetamine (same dose) or saline. In addition, the saline mice of the CPP experiment underwent a multitrial, step-through passive avoidance (PA) acquisition test on PND 59 or 60, followed 24 h later by a single-trial retention test. In the absence of effects on reproductive performance (proportion of successful pregnancies, litter size, offspring viability, and sex ratio), O{sub 3} offspring showed a long-lasting reduction in body weight without modification of sec differences. Ozone effects on neurobehavioral development were not large and quite selective, including: attenuation of the sex differences in several responses (rearing and sniffing in the open-field, activity in the final CPP test session); a change in response choices in the final CPP test, in the absence of a main effect on conditioning; a reduction of grooming in the activity test on PND 29; and impairment of PA acquisition limited to the initial period of training. (orig.)

  9. An avian model for the reversal of neurobehavioral teratogenicity with neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Sharon; Pinkas, Adi; Slotkin, Theodore A; Yanai, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A fast and simple model which uses lower animals on the evolutionary scale is beneficial for developing procedures for the reversal of neurobehavioral teratogenicity with neural stem cells. Here, we established a procedure for the derivation of chick neural stem cells, establishing embryonic day (E) 10 as optimal for progression to neuronal phenotypes. Cells were obtained from the embryonic cerebral hemispheres and incubated for 5-7 days in enriched medium containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) according to a procedure originally developed for mice. A small percentage of the cells survived, proliferated and formed nestin-positive neurospheres. After removal of the growth factors to allow differentiation (5 days), 74% of the cells differentiated into all major lineages of the nervous system, including neurons (Beta III tubulin-positive, 54% of the total number of differentiated cells), astrocytes (GFAP-positive, 26%), and oligodendrocytes (O4-positive, 20%). These findings demonstrate that the cells were indeed neural stem cells. Next, the cells were transplanted in two allograft chick models; (1) direct cerebral transplantation to 24-h-old chicks, followed by post-transplantation cell tracking at 24 h, 6 days and 14 days, and (2) intravenous transplantation to chick embryos on E13, followed by cell tracking on E19. With both methods, transplanted cells were found in the brain. The chick embryo provides a convenient, precisely-timed and unlimited supply of neural progenitors for therapy by transplantation, as well as constituting a fast and simple model in which to evaluate the ability of neural stem cell transplantation to repair neural damage, steps that are critical for progress toward therapeutic applications. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Developmental Research in Space: Predicting Adult Neurobehavioral Phenotypes via Metabolomic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Julia M.; Moyer, Eric L.; Lowe, M.; Morgan, Jonathan A.; Tulbert, Christina D.; Olson, John; Horita, David A.; Klevin, Gale A.; Ronca, April E.

    2017-01-01

    As human habitation and eventual colonization of space becomes an inevitable reality, there is a necessity to understand how organisms develop over the life span in the space environment. Microgravity, altered CO2, radiation and psychological stress are some of the key factors that could affect mammalian reproduction and development in space, however there is a paucity of information on this topic. Here we combine early (neonatal) in vivo spectroscopic imaging with an adult emotionality assay following a common obstetric complication (prenatal asphyxia) likely to occur during gestation in space. The neural metabolome is sensitive to alteration by degenerative changes and developmental disorders, thus we hypothesized that that early neonatal neurometabolite profiles can predict adult response to novelty. Late gestation fetal rats were exposed to moderate asphyxia by occluding the blood supply feeding one of the rats pair uterine horns for 15min. Blood supply to the opposite horn was not occluded (within-litter cesarean control). Further comparisons were made with vaginal (natural) birth controls. In one-week old neonates, we measured neurometabolites in three brain areas (i.e., striatum, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus). Adult perinatally-asphyxiated offspring exhibited greater anxiety-like behavioral phenotypes (as measured the composite neurobehavioral assay involving open field activity, responses to novel object, quantification of fecal droppings, and resident-intruder tests of social behavior). Further, early neurometabolite profiles predicted adult responses. Non-invasive MRS screening of mammalian offspring is likely to advance ground-based space analogue studies informing mammalian reproduction in space, and achieving high-priority multigenerational research that will enable studies of the first truly space-developed mammals.

  11. [Neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral effects associated with exposure to low doses of mercury from habitual consumption of marine fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, P; Flore, C; Alinovi, R; Ibba, A; Tocco, M; Aru, G; Carta, R; Girei, M; Mutti, A; Sanna, F Randaccio

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral effects possibly associated with increased dietary intake of organic mercury (Hg), a group of 22 subjects living on the island of Carloforte (south-west Sardinia) was examined, who were regular consumers of tuna fish with relatively high Hg content. This group, never exposed occupationally to either Hg or to other neurotoxic substances, was compared with 22 age-matched controls employed at a chemical plant in Portotorres (northern Sardinia). Hg in urine (HgU) and serum prolactin (PRL) were measured in all cases, whereas measurements of total (HgB) and organic blood mercury were available only for 10 subjects from Carloforte and 6 controls. Data about working history and lifestyle (education, smoking habit, alcohol and sea fish consumption) were collected by an interviewer using a standardised questionnaire. Neurotoxic symptoms were evaluated by a self-administered questionnaire, whereas a test battery, including some computerised tests of the Swedish Performance Evaluation System (SPES) to assess vigilance and psychomotor performance, some tests on motor coordination (Luria-Nebraska and Branches Alternate Movement Task) and one memory test for numbers (Digit Span) was administered to assess neurobehavioral changes associated with exposure to dietary intake of organic mercury. In all cases, characteristics of hand tremor were evaluated by the CATSYS System 7.0. HgU values were significantly higher in the Carloforte group (median 6.5, range 1.8-21.5 micrograms/g creatinine) compared with controls (median 1.5, range 0.5-5.3 micrograms/g creatinine). Serum PRL was significantly higher among subjects from Carloforte and correlated with both urine and blood Hg levels. The scores of each item of the questionnaire investigating neurological symptoms were not statistically different in the two groups. In some tests of the SPES battery (Color Word Vigilance, Digit Symbol and Finger Tapping) the performance of the Carloforte

  12. Premorbid and current neuropsychological function in opiate abusers receiving treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluck, Graham; Lee, Kwang-Hyuk; Rele, Ruta; Spence, Sean A; Sarkar, Sugato; Lagundoye, Olawale; Parks, Randolph W

    2012-07-01

    There is an established corpus of evidence linking substance abuse with neuropsychological impairment, particularly implicating frontal lobe functions. These could potentially be premorbid to, rather than consequences of, direct effects of substance abuse. A matched pairs design was employed in which currently abstinent opiate abusers in treatment were matched to 22 healthy control individuals. These were compared for premorbid and current neurobehavioral abnormalities with the self-report Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). Estimated premorbid and current IQ scores were also ascertained. There was no difference between the groups regarding socioeconomic background. There was no evidence for an alteration in cognitive function as measured by current IQ associated with opiate abuse, nor evidence of premorbidly lower IQ. However, with the FrSBe, the opiate abusers reported overall higher levels of apathy. They also had raised FrSBe total scores, indicating the presence of neurobehavioral features associated with frontal lobe impairment. Furthermore, the opiate abusers reported higher levels of these neurobehavioral abnormalities compared to their matched controls, even in the period preceding substance abuse. The results suggest that some substance abusing individuals in treatment demonstrate raised levels of neurobehavioral abnormalities, independently of general intellectual functioning. Furthermore, the results imply that these abnormalities may have already been present prior to the effects on the nervous system of substance abuse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy and harms of pharmacological interventions for neurobehavioral symptoms in post traumatic amnesia after traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Amelia J; Clay, Fiona J; Hopwood, Malcolm; Jayaram, Mahesh; Batty, Rachel; Ponsford, Jennie L

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness and harms of pharmacotherapy as compared to all types of comparators for the management of neurobehavioral symptoms in post-traumatic amnesia in adults aged 16 years and over who have sustained a traumatic brain injury. This review forms part of a larger project which aims to gather the evidence for the pharmacological treatment of neurobehavioral symptoms post traumatic brain injury as a prelude to the development of a clinical guideline.

  14. Comparative Effects of Human Neural Stem Cells and Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells on the Neurobehavioral Disorders of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Kwon Bae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since multiple sclerosis (MS is featured with widespread demyelination caused by autoimmune response, we investigated the recovery effects of F3.olig2 progenitors, established by transducing human neural stem cells (F3 NSCs with Olig2 transcription factor, in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein- (MOG- induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model mice. Six days after EAE induction, F3 or F3.olig2 cells (1 × 106/mouse were intravenously transplanted. MOG-injected mice displayed severe neurobehavioral deficits which were remarkably attenuated and restored by cell transplantation, in which F3.olig2 cells were superior to its parental F3 cells. Transplanted cells migrated to the injured spinal cord, matured to oligodendrocytes, and produced myelin basic proteins (MBP. The F3.olig2 cells expressed growth and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, nerve growth factor (NGF, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF. In addition, the transplanted cells markedly attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced cytokine levels in the spinal cord and lymph nodes, and protected host myelins. The results indicate that F3.olig2 cells restore neurobehavioral symptoms of EAE mice by regulating autoimmune inflammatory responses as well as by stimulating remyelination and that F3.olig2 progenitors could be a candidate for the cell therapy of demyelinating diseases including MS.

  15. N-nitro-L-arginine, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, aggravates iminodipropionitrile-induced neurobehavioral and vestibular toxicities in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2012-11-01

    Exposure of iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) to rodents produces permanent behavioral syndrome characterized by repetitive head movements, circling and back walking. Other synthetic nitriles of industrial importance such as crotonitrile and allylnitrile are also able to produce similar motor deficits in experimental animals. However, due to the well-defined behavioral deficits and their easy quantification, IDPN-induced behavioral syndrome is a preferential animal model to test the interaction of various agents with synthetic nitriles. This study reports the effect of non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine (NARG) on IDPN-induced neurobehavioral toxicity in adult male Wistar rats. Four groups of animals were given i.p. injections of IDPN (100 mg/kg) for 6 days. These rats were treated with oral administration of NARG in the doses of 0 (IDPN alone group), 50, 150 and 300 mg/kg, 60 min before IDPN, respectively. Control rats received vehicle only, whereas another group was treated with 300 mg/kg of NARG alone (without IDPN). The results showed that NARG significantly exacerbated the incidence and intensity of IDPN-induced dyskinetic head movements, circling and back walking. The histology of inner ear showed massive degeneration of the sensory hair cells in the crista ampullaris of rats receiving the combined treatment with IDPN and NARG, suggesting a possible role of nitric oxide in IDPN-induced neurobehavioral syndrome in rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. An acetylcholinesterase-independent mechanism for neurobehavioral impairments after chronic low level exposure to dichlorvos in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Suresh Kumar; Kumar, Vijay; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2009-03-01

    The present study was designed to explore an alternate mechanism of action other than acetylcholinesterase inhibition for the chronic, low-level exposure to dichlorvos, an organophosphate, in vivo. Dichlorvos, at dose of 1.0 as well as 6.0 mg/kg b. wt. for 12 weeks to rats showed impairment in neurobehavioral indices viz. rota rod, passive avoidance and water maze tests. Though higher dose of dichlorvos had a detrimental effect on acetylcholinesterase activity, no significant inhibition was seen with lower dose of dichlorvos for the same period of exposure i.e. 12 weeks. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding studies revealed a decrease in the number of binding sites (B(max)) in low as well as high dose groups but the dissociation constant (K(d)) value was unaffected with both doses of dichlorvos. Use of selective ligands against M(1), M(2) and M(3) receptor subtypes indicated that M(2) is the major receptor subtype being affected by chronic low-level exposure to dichlorvos. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence studies also confirmed these biochemical findings. Thus, the present study suggests that M(2) receptors may play a major role in the development of neurobehavioral impairments after chronic exposure to dichlorvos.

  17. Longitudinal associations from neurobehavioral disinhibition to adolescent risky sexual behavior in boys: direct and mediated effects through moderate alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel R; Tate, Eleanor B; Ridenour, Ty A; Reynolds, Maureen D; Zhai, Zu W; Vanyukov, Michael M; Tarter, Ralph E

    2013-10-01

    This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) in childhood, mediated by alcohol use, portends risky sexual behavior (number of sexual partners) in midadolescence. Participants were 410 adolescent boys. Neurobehavioral disinhibition was assessed at 11.3 years of age. Frequency and quantity of alcohol use on a typical drinking occasion were assessed at 13.4 years of age at first follow-up, and sexual behavior at 16.0 years at second follow-up. Quantity of alcohol consumed on a typical drinking occasion, but not frequency of alcohol use, mediated the relation between ND and number of sexual partners. These findings indicate that number of sexual partners in midadolescence is predicted by individual differences in boys' psychological self-regulation during childhood and moderate alcohol consumption in early adolescence, and that ND may be a potential target for multi-outcome public health interventions. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Attenuation of neurobehavioral and neurochemical abnormalities in animal model of cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease by fermented soybean nanonutraceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Prakash Chandra; Pathak, Shruti; Kumar, Vikas; Panda, Bibhu Prasad

    2018-02-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of nanonutraceuticals (NN) for attenuation of neurobehavioral and neurochemical abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease. Solid-state fermentation of soybean with Bacillus subtilis was performed to produce different metabolites (nattokinase, daidzin, genistin and glycitin and menaquinone-7). Intoxication of rats with colchicine caused impairment in learning and memory which was demonstrated in neurobehavioral paradigms (Morris water maze and passive avoidance) linked with decreased activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). NN treatment led to a significant increase in TLT in the retention trials as compared to acquisition trial TLT suggesting an improved learning and memory in rats. Further, treatment of NN caused an increase in the activity of AChE (42%), accompanied with a reduced activity of glutathione (42%), superoxide dismutase (43%) and catalase (41%). It also decreased the level of lipid peroxidation (28%) and protein carbonyl contents (30%) in hippocampus as compared to those treated with colchicine alone, suggesting a possible neuroprotective efficacy of NN. Interestingly, in silico studies also demonstrated an effective amyloid-β and BACE-1 inhibition activity. These findings clearly indicated that NN reversed colchicine-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations through potent antioxidant activity and could possibly impart beneficial effects in cognitive defects associated with Alzheimer's disease.

  19. The “Double-Edge Sword” of Human Empathy: A Unifying Neurobehavioral Theory of Compassion Stress Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Russell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An integrative neurobehavioral model for “compassion stress injury” is offered to explain the “double-edge sword” of empathy and inherent vulnerability of helping professionals and care-givers. One of the most strikingly robust, yet largely invisible scientific findings to emerge over the past decade is identifying the neurophysiological mechanisms enabling human beings to understand and feel what another is feeling. The compelling convergence of evidence from multi-disciplinary lines of primary research and studies of paired-deficits has revealed that the phenomenon of human beings witnessing the pain and suffering of others is clearly associated with activation of neural structures used during first-hand experience. Moreover, it is now evident that a large part of the neural activation shared between self- and other-related experiences occurs automatically, outside the observer’s conscious awareness or control. However, it is also well established that full blown human empathic capacity and altruistic behavior is regulated by neural pathways responsible for flexible consciously controlled actions of the observer. We review the history, prevalence, and etiological models of “compassion stress injury” such as burnout, secondary traumatic stress, vicarious traumatization, compassion fatigue, and empathic distress fatigue, along with implications of the neurobehavioral approach in future research.

  20. Tourette Syndrome: Overview and Classroom Interventions. A Complex Neurobehavioral Disorder Which May Involve Learning Problems, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms, and Stereotypical Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ramona A.; Collins, Edward C.

    Tourette Syndrome is conceptualized as a neurobehavioral disorder, with behavioral aspects that are sometimes difficult for teachers to understand and deal with. The disorder has five layers of complexity: (1) observable multiple motor, vocal, and cognitive tics and sensory involvement; (2) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; (3)…

  1. Comprehensive analysis of neurobehavior associated with histomorphological alterations in a chronic constrictive nerve injury model through use of the CatWalk XT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chien-Yi; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Chen, Chun-Jung; Su, Hong-Lin; Sheehan, Jason; Pan, Hung-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is debilitating, and when chronic, it significantly affects the patient physically, psychologically, and socially. The neurobehavior of animals used as a model for chronic constriction injury seems analogous to the neurobehavior of humans with neuropathic pain. However, no data depicting the severity of histomorphological alterations of the nervous system associated with graded changes in neurobehavior are available. To determine the severity of histomorphological alteration related to neurobehavior, the authors created a model of chronic constrictive injury of varying intensity in rats and used the CatWalk XT system to evaluate neurobehavior. A total of 60 Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250-300 g each, were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups that would receive sham surgery or 1, 2, 3, or 4 ligatures of 3-0 chromic gut loosely ligated around the left sciatic nerve. Neurobehavior was assessed by CatWalk XT, thermal hyperalgesia, and mechanic allodynia before injury and periodically after injury. The nerve tissue from skin to dorsal spinal cord was obtained for histomorphological analysis 1 week after injury, and brain evoked potentials were analyzed 4 weeks after injury. Significant differences in expression of nerve growth factor existed in skin, and the differences were associated with the intensity of nerve injury. After injury, expression of cluster of differentiation 68 and tumor necrosis factor-α was increased, and expression of S100 protein in the middle of the injured nerve was decreased. Increased expression of synaptophysin in the dorsal root ganglion and dorsal spinal cord correlated with the intensity of injury. The amplitude of sensory evoked potential increased with greater severity of nerve damage. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia did not differ significantly among treatment groups at various time points. CatWalk XT gait analysis indicated significant differences for print areas, maximum contact maximum intensity, stand

  2. Neurobehavioral effects, c-Fos/Jun expression and tissue distribution in rat offspring prenatally co-exposed to MeHg and PFOA: PFOA impairs Hg retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinping; Fujimura, Masatake; Zhao, Wenchang; Wang, Wenhua

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) can occur simultaneously as both contaminants are found in the same food sources, especially fish, seafood, marine mammals and milk. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of exposure to MeHg (10 μg mL(-1) in drinking water) and PFOA (10 μg mL(-1) in drinking water) from gestational day 1 to postnatal day (PND) 21, alone and in combination, on neurobehavioral development and the expression of c-Fos/Jun in different brain regions in the offspring. Our findings showed that exposure to MeHg alone, and exposure to MeHg combined with PFOA significantly induced cliff avoidance reflexes and negative geotaxis reflexes. And these effects appeared to be greater following exposure to MeHg alone. MeHg and/or PFOA exposure did not significantly impair motor coordination functions, or cause significant changes in c-Fos expression in the hippocampus and cerebellum, and spatial learning tests were similar to those in the controls, thus it was impossible to determine whether combined exposure to MeHg and PFOA had any additional effects on both hippocampus and cerebellum regions. However, a significant increase in the frequency of line crossing was observed in rats treated with MeHg or PFOA alone, and there were no significant differences between the MeHg+PFOA-treated group and the controls, suggesting that PFOA was antagonistic to MeHg toxicity in the locomotor activity test. Co-exposure to MeHg and PFOA decreased all tissue Hg concentrations in pups compared to the group exposed to MeHg only, suggesting that PFOA impaired Hg retention in different tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  4. Paradoxical neurobehavioral rescue by memories of early-life abuse: the safety signal value of odors learned during abusive attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-03-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90 Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation.

  5. Further characterization of the GlyT-1 inhibitor Org25935: anti-alcohol, neurobehavioral, and gene expression effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidö, Helga Höifödt; Jonsson, Susanne; Hyytiä, Petri; Ericson, Mia; Söderpalm, Bo

    2017-05-01

    The glycine transporter-1 inhibitor Org25935 is a promising candidate in a treatment concept for alcohol use disorder targeting the glycine system. Org25935 inhibits ethanol-induced dopamine elevation in brain reward regions and reduces ethanol intake in Wistar rats. This study aimed to further characterise the compound and used ethanol consumption, behavioral measures, and gene expression as parameters to investigate the effects in Wistar rats and, as pharmacogenetic comparison, Alko-Alcohol (AA) rats. Animals were provided limited access to ethanol in a two-bottle free-choice paradigm with daily drug administration. Acute effects of Org25935 were estimated using locomotor activity and neurobehavioral status. Effects on gene expression in Wistar rats were measured with qPCR. The higher but not the lower dose of Org25935 reduced alcohol intake in Wistar rats. Unexpectedly, Org25935 reduced both ethanol and water intake and induced strong CNS-depressive effects in AA-rats (withdrawn from further studies). Neurobehavioral effects by Org25935 differed between the strains (AA-rats towards sedation). Org25935 did not affect gene expression at the mRNA level in the glycine system of Wistar rats. The data indicate a small therapeutic range for the anti-alcohol properties of Org25935, a finding that may guide further evaluations of the clinical utility of GlyT-1 inhibitors. The results point to the importance of pharmacogenetic considerations when developing drugs for alcohol-related medical concerns. Despite the lack of successful clinical outcomes, to date, the heterogeneity of drug action of Org25935 and similar agents and the unmet medical need justify further studies of glycinergic compounds in alcohol use disorder.

  6. Exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide during pregnancy and lactation induces neurobehavioral alterations in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Cristina E; Bartos, Mariana; Bras, Cristina; Gumilar, Fernanda; Antonelli, Marta C; Minetti, Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    The impact of sub-lethal doses of herbicides on human health and the environment is a matter of controversy. Due to the fact that evidence particularly of the effects of glyphosate on the central nervous system of rat offspring by in utero exposure is scarce, the purpose of the present study was to assess the neurobehavioral effects of chronic exposure to a glyphosate-containing herbicide during pregnancy and lactation. To this end, pregnant Wistar rats were exposed through drinking water to 0.2% or 0.4% of a commercial formulation of glyphosate (corresponding to a concentration of 0.65 or 1.30g/L of glyphosate, respectively) during pregnancy and lactation and neurobehavioral alterations in offspring were analyzed. The postnatal day on which each pup acquired neonatal reflexes (righting, cliff aversion and negative geotaxis) and that on which eyes and auditory canals were fully opened were recorded for the assessment of sensorimotor development. Locomotor activity and anxiety levels were monitored via open field test and plus maze test, respectively, in 45- and 90-day-old offspring. Pups exposed to a glyphosate-based herbicide showed early onset of cliff aversion reflex and early auditory canal opening. A decrease in locomotor activity and in anxiety levels was also observed in the groups exposed to a glyphosate-containing herbicide. Findings from the present study reveal that early exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide affects the central nervous system in rat offspring probably by altering mechanisms or neurotransmitter systems that regulate locomotor activity and anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional connectivity disruption in neonates with prenatal marijuana exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Karen eGrewen; Andrew eSalzwedel; Andrew eSalzwedel; Wei eGao; Wei eGao

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) is linked to neurobehavioral and cognitive impairments, however findings in childhood and adolescence are inconsistent. Type-1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R) modulate fetal neurodevelopment, mediating PME effects on growth of functional circuitry sub-serving behaviors critical for academic and social success. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal marijuana on development of early brain functional circuitry prior to prolonged post...

  8. Development and Preliminary Psychometric Evaluation of a Brief Self-Report Questionnaire for the Assessment of the DSM-5 level of Personality Functioning Scale: The LPFS Brief Form (LPFS-BF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsebaut, Joost; Feenstra, Dine J; Kamphuis, Jan H

    2016-04-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) alternative model for personality disorders (PDs) introduced a new paradigm for the assessment of PDs that includes levels of personality functioning indexing the severity of personality pathology irrespective of diagnosis. In this study, we describe the development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of a newly developed brief self-report questionnaire to assess levels of personality functioning, the Level of Personality Functioning Scale-Brief Form (LPFS-BF; Bender, Morey, & Skodol, 2011). Patients (N = 240) referred to a specialized setting for the assessment and treatment of PDs completed the LPFS-BF, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI; Derogatis, 1975), the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118; Verheul et al., 2008), and were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Personality Disorders (SCID-I; APA, 1994; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1997) and the SCID Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, Williams, & Benjamin, 1996). When constrained to a 2-factor oblique solution, the LPFS-BF yielded a structure that corresponded well to an interpretation of Self- and Interpersonal Functioning scales. The instrument demonstrated fair to satisfactory internal consistency and promising construct validity. The LPFS-BF constitutes a short, user-friendly instrument that provides a quick impression of the severity of personality pathology, specifically oriented to the DSM-5 model. Clearly, more research is needed to test its validity and clinical utility. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Effects of virtual reality training with modified constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity function in acute stage stroke: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Eun-Kyu; Lee, Sang-Heon

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of virtual reality training combined with modified constraint-induced movement therapy on upper extremity motor function recovery in acute stage stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Four acute stage stroke patients participated in the study. A multiple baseline single subject experimental design was utilized. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy was used according to the EXplaining PLastICITy after stroke protocol during baseline sessions. Virtual reality training with modified constraint-induced movement therapy was applied during treatment sessions. The Manual Function Test and the Box and Block Test were used to measure upper extremity function before every session. [Results] The subjects' upper extremity function improved during the intervention period. [Conclusion] Virtual reality training combined with modified constraint-induced movement is effective for upper extremity function recovery in acute stroke patients.

  10. Mathematical Models of the Use of Caffeine as a Countermeasure Deterioration of Neurobehavioral Functioning During Circadian Misalignment and Sleep Depr