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Sample records for neuroanatomy neuroenergetics pharmacology

  1. Radiographic neuroanatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.W.; Ketonen, L.

    1990-01-01

    The authors map out the central nervous system as it is seen through X-ray imaging, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance, and nuclear medicine. Comparing the visual aspect of the central nervous system as it appears in both dissections and atlases of the human body with what a resident can expect to see in a clinical environment, the work is a reference to the neuroanatomy, and the technology used to observe it

  2. Radiographic neuroanatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H.W.; Ketonen, L.

    1990-01-01

    The authors map out the central nervous system as it is seen through X-ray imaging, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance, and nuclear medicine. Comparing the visual aspect of the central nervous system as it appears in both dissections and atlases of the human body with what a resident can expect to see in a clinical environment, the work is a reference to the neuroanatomy, and the technology used to observe it.

  3. Neuroanatomy and transgenic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a short review that introduces recent advances of neuroanatomy and transgenic technologies. The anatomical complexity of the nervous system remains a subject of tremendous fascination among neuroscientists. In order to tackle this extraordinary complexity, powerful transgenic technologies a...

  4. Neuroanatomy of Tardigrada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Dennis Krog

    The organization of the tardigrade nervous system is important for inference of phylogenetic relationships; however, there is some uncertainties regarding the structure and even existence of certain nervous structures. Therefore, a detailed description of the tardigrade neuroanatomy, and especially...

  5. Curricular Guidelines for Neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presented are the curricular guidelines for Neuroanatomy developed by the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids. Included are recommendations for primary educational goals, prerequisites, scope, content, behavioral objectives,…

  6. Studying neuroanatomy using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Jason P; van der Kouwe, André J W; Raznahan, Armin; Paus, Tomáš; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Miller, Karla L; Smith, Stephen M; Fischl, Bruce; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N

    2017-02-23

    The study of neuroanatomy using imaging enables key insights into how our brains function, are shaped by genes and environment, and change with development, aging and disease. Developments in MRI acquisition, image processing and data modeling have been key to these advances. However, MRI provides an indirect measurement of the biological signals we aim to investigate. Thus, artifacts and key questions of correct interpretation can confound the readouts provided by anatomical MRI. In this review we provide an overview of the methods for measuring macro- and mesoscopic structure and for inferring microstructural properties; we also describe key artifacts and confounds that can lead to incorrect conclusions. Ultimately, we believe that, although methods need to improve and caution is required in interpretation, structural MRI continues to have great promise in furthering our understanding of how the brain works.

  7. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eNassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist's toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic

  8. Neurovascular-neuroenergetic coupling axis in the brain: master regulation by nitric oxide and consequences in aging and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Cátia F; Ledo, Ana; Barbosa, Rui M; Laranjinha, João

    2017-07-01

    The strict energetic demands of the brain require that nutrient supply and usage be fine-tuned in accordance with the specific temporal and spatial patterns of ever-changing levels of neuronal activity. This is achieved by adjusting local cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a function of activity level - neurovascular coupling - and by changing how energy substrates are metabolized and shuttled amongst astrocytes and neurons - neuroenergetic coupling. Both activity-dependent increase of CBF and O 2 and glucose utilization by active neural cells are inextricably linked, establishing a functional metabolic axis in the brain, the neurovascular-neuroenergetic coupling axis. This axis incorporates and links previously independent processes that need to be coordinated in the normal brain. We here review evidence supporting the role of neuronal-derived nitric oxide ( • NO) as the master regulator of this axis. Nitric oxide is produced in tight association with glutamatergic activation and, diffusing several cell diameters, may interact with different molecular targets within each cell type. Hemeproteins such as soluble guanylate cyclase, cytochrome c oxidase and hemoglobin, with which • NO reacts at relatively fast rates, are but a few of the key in determinants of the regulatory role of • NO in the neurovascular-neuroenergetic coupling axis. Accordingly, critical literature supporting this concept is discussed. Moreover, in view of the controversy regarding the regulation of catabolism of different neural cells, we further discuss key aspects of the pathways through which • NO specifically up-regulates glycolysis in astrocytes, supporting lactate shuttling to neurons for oxidative breakdown. From a biomedical viewpoint, derailment of neurovascular-neuroenergetic axis is precociously linked to aberrant brain aging, cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. Thus, we summarize current knowledge of how both neurovascular and neuroenergetic coupling are compromised in

  9. Neuroanatomy: Cajal and after Cajal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edward G

    2007-10-01

    This essay commences with a consideration of the relative contributions of Cajal and Golgi to the study of the anatomy of the nervous system. It demonstrates the extent to which Cajal depended upon Golgi's work and how his modifications of the Golgi technique permitted a remarkable series of investigations in which the foundations of the neuron doctrine were laid and in which the intrinsic connectivity of virtually every part of the central nervous system was charted. Cajal's readiness to seize on and develop new techniques was one of the many keys to his success. After him, neuroanatomical studies tended to be focused more on long tract connectivity, using techniques such as those of Nissl and Marchi that had been in place before Cajal commenced his studies. Development of degeneration-based techniques of tracing connections in the late 1950s spearheaded a revolution in neuroanatomy while introduction of mixed aldehyde fixation made possible similarly intensive studies of the fine structure of the nervous system. At this time, the Golgi technique experienced a brief resurgence as neuroanatomists made efforts to bridge the gap between light and electron microscopy. Later developments in techniques for tracing connections included anterograde tracing by autoradiography and retrograde tracing by horseradish peroxidase. These were soon superseded by tracing techniques of increasing sensitivity and specificity that rely upon the cellular and molecular biology of neurons. Although neuroanatomy in its traditional form is perhaps no longer fashionable as a discipline, the techniques of neuroanatomy remain preeminent in many, perhaps all areas of neuroscience.

  10. Basics of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barha, C K; Nagamatsu, L S; Liu-Ambrose, T

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the anatomy and functioning of the central nervous system. We begin the discussion by first examining the cellular basis of neural transmission. Then we present a brief description of the brain's white and gray matter and associated diseases, including a discussion of white-matter lesions. Finally, we place this information into context by discussing how the central nervous system integrates complex information to guide key functional systems, including the visual, auditory, chemosensory, somatic, limbic, motor, and autonomic systems. Where appropriate, we have supplied information pertaining to pathologic and functional outcomes of damage to the central nervous system. Also included is a brief description of important tools and methods used in the study of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. Overall, this chapter provides a basic review of the concepts required to understand and interpret the clinical disorders and related material presented in the subsequent chapters of this book. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative imaging of brain energy metabolisms and neuroenergetics using in vivo X-nuclear 2H, 17O and 31P MRS at ultra-high field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Lu, Ming; Chen, Wei

    2018-07-01

    Brain energy metabolism relies predominantly on glucose and oxygen utilization to generate biochemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is essential for maintaining basal electrophysiological activities in a resting brain and supporting evoked neuronal activity under an activated state. Studying complex neuroenergetic processes in the brain requires sophisticated neuroimaging techniques enabling noninvasive and quantitative assessment of cerebral energy metabolisms and quantification of metabolic rates. Recent state-of-the-art in vivo X-nuclear MRS techniques, including 2 H, 17 O and 31 P MRS have shown promise, especially at ultra-high fields, in the quest for understanding neuroenergetics and brain function using preclinical models and in human subjects under healthy and diseased conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The functional neuroanatomy of language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Gregory

    2009-09-01

    There has been substantial progress over the last several years in understanding aspects of the functional neuroanatomy of language. Some of these advances are summarized in this review. It will be argued that recognizing speech sounds is carried out in the superior temporal lobe bilaterally, that the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally is involved in phonological-level aspects of this process, that the frontal/motor system is not central to speech recognition although it may modulate auditory perception of speech, that conceptual access mechanisms are likely located in the lateral posterior temporal lobe (middle and inferior temporal gyri), that speech production involves sensory-related systems in the posterior superior temporal lobe in the left hemisphere, that the interface between perceptual and motor systems is supported by a sensory-motor circuit for vocal tract actions (not dedicated to speech) that is very similar to sensory-motor circuits found in primate parietal lobe, and that verbal short-term memory can be understood as an emergent property of this sensory-motor circuit. These observations are considered within the context of a dual stream model of speech processing in which one pathway supports speech comprehension and the other supports sensory-motor integration. Additional topics of discussion include the functional organization of the planum temporale for spatial hearing and speech-related sensory-motor processes, the anatomical and functional basis of a form of acquired language disorder, conduction aphasia, the neural basis of vocabulary development, and sentence-level/grammatical processing.

  13. Near-peer teaching in clinical neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Samuel; Lewis, Michael; Border, Scott; Powell, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    Near-peer teaching involves students being taught by more senior students and draws on their similar knowledge base and shared experiences. It has been used previously for teaching gross anatomy, but has not yet been reported specifically for neuroanatomy. At the University of Southampton there is no formal neuroanatomy teaching during the clinical years, and so a near-peer teaching programme was developed to support students, learning in between attending their clinical attachments. A series of seven sessions were organised and delivered by two medical students throughout the 2010/11 academic year, and each session was evaluated by using participant feedback forms. Sixty feedback forms were returned by the students, giving an average rating for the overall quality of the sessions of 4.3 out of 5.0. There was an 18 per cent increase in the student's perceived level of knowledge (p peer teaching sessions. The most common feedback received from our students related to the availability of handouts and expressions of gratitude. The results from this teaching development support the use of near-peer teaching in neuroanatomy. In this article we provide some evidence to suggest that students feel more confident with neuroanatomy after attending these sessions, and describe some unique advantages of this teaching programme over sessions led by faculty staff. The wider benefits to both faculty staff and student teachers are also considered. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Formative Evaluation of a Neuroanatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterret, Patrick R.; Littlefield, John H.

    1976-01-01

    Student cognitive performance data and affective reactions provided the basis for a formative evaluation of this neuroanatomy curriculum for freshmen medical students. The cerebral hempispheres topic area was marked by poor cognitive performance and low ratings in lecture quality. Videotapes designed to augment neurophysiology also received low…

  15. Valentino Braitenberg: From neuroanatomy to behavior and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrello, Mario

    2014-10-01

    This article compiles an expose of Valentino Braitenberg's singular view on neuroanatomy and neuroscience. The review emphasizes his topologically informed work on neuroanatomy and his dialectics of brain-based explanations of motor behavior. Some of his early ideas on topologically informed neuroanatomy are presented, together with some of his more obscure work on the taxonomy of neural fiber bundles and synaptic arborizations. His functionally informed interpretations of neuroanatomy of the cerebellum, cortex, and hippocampus, are introduced. Finally, we will touch on his philosophical views and the inextricable role of function in the explanation of neural behavior.

  16. Three-dimensional reconstructions in neuroanatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmann, H.J.; Vogt, H.; Schuetz, T.; Gerke, M.; Riedel, A.; Buhmann, C.; Wesemann, M.; Mueller, D.

    1991-01-01

    Computer-aided 3D reconstructions of neurofunctional systems and structures are generated as a reference for neuroimaging (CT, MRI, PET). The clinical application of these 3D reconstructions requires a coordinate system and conditions resembling the intravital neuroanatomy as far as possible. In this paper the neuroanatomical reference system (NeuRef) of the Department of Neuroanatomy of Hannover Medical School is presented. This consists of methods to record brain structures from serial sections with minimal error (less than 1 mm) and to display 3D brain models derived from such a data base. In addition, NeuRef is able to generate sections through, for instance, the visual and pyramidal system and to transfer these data onto a corresponcing CT image. Therefore, this method can serve as a diagnostic aid in neuroradiology, in operation planning, and radiotherapy. It can also be used in PACS. (orig.) [de

  17. Valentino Braitenberg: From neuroanatomy to behavior and back

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Negrello (Mario)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis article compiles an expose of Valentino Braitenberg's singular view on neuroanatomy and neuroscience. The review emphasizes his topologically informed work on neuroanatomy and his dialectics of brain-based explanations of motor behavior. Some of his early ideas on topologically

  18. A Novel Three-Dimensional Tool for Teaching Human Neuroanatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Maureen E.; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Bergethon, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualization of neuroanatomy can be challenging for medical students. This knowledge is essential in order for students to correlate cross-sectional neuroanatomy and whole brain specimens within neuroscience curricula and to interpret clinical and radiological information as clinicians or researchers. This study implemented…

  19. 3D brain mapping using a deformable neuroanatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, G.E.; Rabbitt, R.D.; Miller, M.I.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents two different mathematical methods that can be used separately or in conjunction to accommodate shape variabilities between normal human neuroanatomies. Both methods use a digitized textbook to represent the complex structure of a typical normal neuroanatomy. Probabilistic transformations on the textbook coordinate system are defined to accommodate shape differences between the textbook and images of other normal neuroanatomies. The transformations are constrained to be consistent with the physical properties of deformable elastic solids in the first method and those of viscous fluids in the second. Results presented in this paper demonstrate how a single deformable textbook can be used to accommodate normal shape variability. (Author)

  20. 3D brain mapping using a deformable neuroanatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, G.E.; Rabbitt, R.D.; Miller, M.I. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents two different mathematical methods that can be used separately or in conjunction to accommodate shape variabilities between normal human neuroanatomies. Both methods use a digitized textbook to represent the complex structure of a typical normal neuroanatomy. Probabilistic transformations on the textbook coordinate system are defined to accommodate shape differences between the textbook and images of other normal neuroanatomies. The transformations are constrained to be consistent with the physical properties of deformable elastic solids in the first method and those of viscous fluids in the second. Results presented in this paper demonstrate how a single deformable textbook can be used to accommodate normal shape variability. (Author).

  1. Three-dimensional reconstructions in neuroanatomy. Dreidimensionale Rekonstruktionen in der Neuroanatomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmann, H.J.; Vogt, H.; Schuetz, T.; Gerke, M.; Riedel, A.; Buhmann, C.; Wesemann, M. (Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Neuroanatomie); Mueller, D. (Hannover Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Informatik)

    1991-10-01

    Computer-aided 3D reconstructions of neurofunctional systems and structures are generated as a reference for neuroimaging (CT, MRI, PET). The clinical application of these 3D reconstructions requires a coordinate system and conditions resembling the intravital neuroanatomy as far as possible. In this paper the neuroanatomical reference system (NeuRef) of the Department of Neuroanatomy of Hannover Medical School is presented. This consists of methods to record brain structures from serial sections with minimal error (less than 1 mm) and to display 3D brain models derived from such a data base. In addition, NeuRef is able to generate sections through, for instance, the visual and pyramidal system and to transfer these data onto a corresponcing CT image. Therefore, this method can serve as a diagnostic aid in neuroradiology, in operation planning, and radiotherapy. It can also be used in PACS. (orig.).

  2. Tools and resources for neuroanatomy education: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, M; Arantes, J; Ferreira, M A

    2018-05-03

    The aim of this review was to identify studies exploring neuroanatomy teaching tools and their impact in learning, as a basis towards the implementation of a neuroanatomy program in the context of a curricular reform in medical education. Computer-assisted searches were conducted through March 2017 in the PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Current Contents Connect, KCI and Scielo Citation Index databases. Four sets of keywords were used, combining "neuroanatomy" with "education", "teaching", "learning" and "student*". Studies were reviewed independently by two readers, and data collected were confirmed by a third reader. Of the 214 studies identified, 29 studies reported data on the impact of using specific neuroanatomy teaching tools. Most of them (83%) were published in the last 8 years and were conducted in the United States of America (65.52%). Regarding the participants, medical students were the most studied sample (37.93%) and the majority of the studies (65.52%) had less than 100 participants. Approximately half of the studies included in this review used digital teaching tools (e.g., 3D computer neuroanatomy models), whereas the remaining used non-digital learning tools (e.g., 3D physical models). Our work highlight the progressive interest in the study of neuroanatomy teaching tools over the last years, as evidenced from the number of publications and highlight the need to consider new tools, coping with technological development in medical education.

  3. Recent Trends in the Presentation of Neuroanatomy in Contemporary Neuroanatomy Books as Revealed in Their 'Preface's: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Q S; Banu, L A; Rahman, M F; Paul, S

    2015-04-01

    Many changes have been made in the field of Neuroanatomy teaching and assessment. One important way to know the changes in other country is by analyzing the Neuroanatomy text books and we can compare their reflections in our curriculum by analyzing the assessment system. To analyze the 'Preface's of contemporary Neuroanatomy text books, qualitatively, for noting the approaches taken and means applied in dealing with Neuroanatomy in the text books. This review was done in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka from July 2008 and June 2009. The 'Preface's of ten contemporary text books dealing with Neuroanatomy, published since 1993, was analyzed. Among them, the two that are most commonly recommended to the medical postgraduates in Bangladesh were selected for analyzing their presentation of text and illustrations. The 'Preface's of ten books were analyzed qualitatively to identify the information and explanations provided and comments made by their author(s)/editor(s) on the approaches taken and the means applied in the books in selecting and presenting topics, text and illustrations. The observations were organized into specific 'theme's. Twelve 'theme's were identified from the analyses of the 'Preface's of ten contemporary Neuroanatomy text books. These include special emphasis in the books on incorporation of new information, on practical application of Neuroanatomical facts. Addition and improvement regarding illustrations are also highlighted. By incorporating the findings of the present study with the present-day ideas and trends in Neuroanatomy in the developed world as evident from the available literature, suggestions could be formulated on improving the methods of teaching and assessment of Neuroanatomy in Bangladesh.

  4. Retracing the etymology of terms in neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluzzi, Alessandro; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan; Torrenti, Matthew; Gardner, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Researching the origin of the terms that we use to identify neuroanatomical structures is a helpful and fascinating exercise. It can provide neuroscientists with a better insight and understanding of the macroscopic anatomy of the cranium and its contents. It can also help the novice to this discipline to become acquainted with structures whose three dimensional anatomy is often difficult to appreciate. The purpose of this article was to investigate the etymology of some of the terms referring to the macroscopic anatomical structures of the skull and the intracranial cavity. We observed how each name unravels an interesting story, sometimes linked to mythological creatures, other times to the shape of animals or objects and tools of everyday life. We conclude that even without a deep knowledge of the Greek, Latin, or Arabic language, learning who described a particular structure and how they decided to name it, makes the study of neuroanatomy more complete and fulfilling. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Molecular neuroanatomy: a generation of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Jonathan D; Wu, Da-Yu; Satterlee, John S

    2014-02-01

    The neuroscience research landscape has changed dramatically over the past decade. Specifically, an impressive array of new tools and technologies have been generated, including but not limited to: brain gene expression atlases, genetically encoded proteins to monitor and manipulate neuronal activity, and new methods for imaging and mapping circuits. However, despite these technological advances, several significant challenges must be overcome to enable a better understanding of brain function and to develop cell type-targeted therapeutics to treat brain disorders. This review provides an overview of some of the tools and technologies currently being used to advance the field of molecular neuroanatomy, and also discusses emerging technologies that may enable neuroscientists to address these crucial scientific challenges over the coming decade. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of an Online Three-Dimensional Interactive Resource for Undergraduate Neuroanatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lauren K.; Eagleson, Roy; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Neuroanatomy is one of the most challenging subjects in anatomy, and novice students often experience difficulty grasping the complex three-dimensional (3D) spatial relationships. This study evaluated a 3D neuroanatomy e-learning module, as well as the relationship between spatial abilities and students' knowledge in neuroanatomy. The study's…

  7. Changing concepts of neuroanatomy teaching in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelton, Lara

    2011-10-01

    Anatomy teaching is often described as foundational in the education of physicians, but in recent years there has been increasing pressure on teachers of neuroanatomy to justify its place in the curriculum. This article examines theoretical assumptions that have traditionally influenced the neuroanatomy curriculum and explains how evolution of thought in the field of medical education has led to a shift in how the pedagogy of neuroanatomy is conceptualized. The widespread adoption of competency-based education, the emphasis on outcome-based objectives, patient- and learner-centered approaches, and a renewed interest in humanistic aspects of medical education have all contributed to a changing educational milieu. These changes have led to a number of curricular innovations. However, questions remain as to what should be taught to medical learners, and how best to teach it.

  8. Segmentation of neuroanatomy in magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrew; Arridge, Simon R.; Barker, G. J.; Tofts, Paul S.

    1992-06-01

    Segmentation in neurological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is necessary for feature extraction, volume measurement and for the three-dimensional display of neuroanatomy. Automated and semi-automated methods offer considerable advantages over manual methods because of their lack of subjectivity, their data reduction capabilities, and the time savings they give. We have used dual echo multi-slice spin-echo data sets which take advantage of the intrinsically multispectral nature of MRI. As a pre-processing step, a rf non-uniformity correction is applied and if the data is noisy the images are smoothed using a non-isotropic blurring method. Edge-based processing is used to identify the skin (the major outer contour) and the eyes. Edge-focusing has been used to significantly simplify edge images and thus allow simple postprocessing to pick out the brain contour in each slice of the data set. Edge- focusing is a technique which locates significant edges using a high degree of smoothing at a coarse level and tracks these edges to a fine level where the edges can be determined with high positional accuracy. Both 2-D and 3-D edge-detection methods have been compared. Once isolated, the brain is further processed to identify CSF, and, depending upon the MR pulse sequence used, the brain itself may be sub-divided into gray matter and white matter using semi-automatic contrast enhancement and clustering methods.

  9. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Takakusaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture- gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture- gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling.

  10. Tools for neuroanatomy and neurogenetics in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, Barret D.; Jenett, Arnim; Hammonds, Ann S.; Ngo, Teri-T B.; Misra, Sima; Murphy, Christine; Scully, Audra; Carlson, Joseph W.; Wan, Kenneth H.; Laverty, Todd R.; Mungall, Chris; Svirskas, Rob; Kadonaga, James T.; Doe, Chris Q.; Eisen, Michael B.; Celniker, Susan E.; Rubin, Gerald M.

    2008-08-11

    We demonstrate the feasibility of generating thousands of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster lines in which the expression of an exogenous gene is reproducibly directed to distinct small subsets of cells in the adult brain. We expect the expression patterns produced by the collection of 5,000 lines that we are currently generating to encompass all neurons in the brain in a variety of intersecting patterns. Overlapping 3-kb DNA fragments from the flanking noncoding and intronic regions of genes thought to have patterned expression in the adult brain were inserted into a defined genomic location by site-specific recombination. These fragments were then assayed for their ability to function as transcriptional enhancers in conjunction with a synthetic core promoter designed to work with a wide variety of enhancer types. An analysis of 44 fragments from four genes found that >80% drive expression patterns in the brain; the observed patterns were, on average, comprised of <100 cells. Our results suggest that the D. melanogaster genome contains >50,000 enhancers and that multiple enhancers drive distinct subsets of expression of a gene in each tissue and developmental stage. We expect that these lines will be valuable tools for neuroanatomy as well as for the elucidation of neuronal circuits and information flow in the fly brain.

  11. Spatial ability and training in virtual neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumley, Leah; Armstrong, Ryan; De Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Neuroanatomy is one of the most challenging sections of anatomy to learn, partially related to the intricate relation of multiple 3D structures. As part of the medical student curriculum, it is usually taught in 2D using illustrations and plastinated brain section, since the number of hours devoted to anatomy have dropped in the curriculum, making the dissection of brain too time-consuming to be done. In this study we are analyzing the role of innate spatial ability of novices in learning some basic structures and placing them back in a 3D volumetric brain. Two tasks are performed after a short training session: the first one is to localize the ventricular tip as would be required during a temporal lobectomy, and the second task requires that the subject 'reconstruct' 3D anatomical structures within the context of our 3D brain model. We report our findings on the performance scores obtained from a population of subjects of differing backgrounds and spatial abilities.

  12. A Neuroanatomy Teaching Activity Using Case Studies and Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Jane P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity for use in an introductory psychology course in which students collaborate and apply their neuroanatomy knowledge to three case studies. Provides a table with descriptions of and possible answers for the three case studies and discusses the students' responses. (CMK)

  13. Clinical neuroanatomy - cranial MRI and CT. 4. rev. and enl. ed.; Klinische Neuroanatomie - kranielle MRT und CT

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    Lanfermann, Heinrich; Raab, Peter [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (MHH) (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Kretschmann, Hans-Joachim; Weinrich, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    The book on clinical neuroanatomy - cranial MRI and CT covers the following issues: layered imaging diagnostics and reference structures; frontal layer, sagittal layers, transverse layers, brainstem, skull topography and the intracranial spaces and structures, facial skull topography, head-neck topography; neurofunctional systems, neurotransmitter and neuromodulators, surveillance material and techniques.

  14. Functional and clinical neuroanatomy of morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Manuela; Priori, Alberto

    2012-07-01

    Morality is among the most sophisticated features of human judgement, behaviour and, ultimately, mind. An individual who behaves immorally may violate ethical rules and civil rights, and may threaten others' individual liberty, sometimes becoming violent and aggressive. In recent years, neuroscience has shown a growing interest in human morality, and has advanced our understanding of the cognitive and emotional processes involved in moral decisions, their anatomical substrates and the neurology of abnormal moral behaviour. In this article, we review research findings that have provided a key insight into the functional and clinical neuroanatomy of the brain areas involved in normal and abnormal moral behaviour. The 'moral brain' consists of a large functional network including both cortical and subcortical anatomical structures. Because morality is a complex process, some of these brain structures share their neural circuits with those controlling other behavioural processes, such as emotions and theory of mind. Among the anatomical structures implicated in morality are the frontal, temporal and cingulate cortices. The prefrontal cortex regulates activity in subcortical emotional centres, planning and supervising moral decisions, and when its functionality is altered may lead to impulsive aggression. The temporal lobe is involved in theory of mind and its dysfunction is often implicated in violent psychopathy. The cingulate cortex mediates the conflict between the emotional and the rational components of moral reasoning. Other important structures contributing to moral behaviour include the subcortical nuclei such as the amygdala, hippocampus and basal ganglia. Brain areas participating in moral processing can be influenced also by genetic, endocrine and environmental factors. Hormones can modulate moral behaviour through their effects on the brain. Finally, genetic polymorphisms can predispose to aggressivity and violence, arguing for a genetic

  15. Anesthetic pharmacology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evers, Alex S; Maze, M; Kharasch, Evan D

    2011-01-01

    ...: Section 1 introduces the principles of drug action, Section 2 presents the molecular, cellular and integrated physiology of the target organ/functional system and Section 3 reviews the pharmacology...

  16. Ultrahigh Voltage Electron Microscopy Links Neuroanatomy and Neuroscience/Neuroendocrinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Sakamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional (3D analysis of anatomical ultrastructures is extremely important in most fields of biological research. Although it is very difficult to perform 3D image analysis on exact serial sets of ultrathin sections, 3D reconstruction from serial ultrathin sections can generally be used to obtain 3D information. However, this technique can only be applied to small areas of a specimen because of technical and physical difficulties. We used ultrahigh voltage electron microscopy (UHVEM to overcome these difficulties and to study the chemical neuroanatomy of 3D ultrastructures. This methodology, which links UHVEM and light microscopy, is a useful and powerful tool for studying molecular and/or chemical neuroanatomy at the ultrastructural level.

  17. The Neuroanatomy of Sexual Dimorphism in Opioid Analgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-13

    2012 for review). Studies utilizing orofacial , somatosensory or visceral pain assays typically report that morphine produces a significantly greater...Review The neuroanatomy of sexual dimorphism in opioid analgesia Dayna R. Loyd a, Anne Z. Murphy b,⁎ a Pain Management Research Area, United States...online 13 April 2014 Keywords: Pain Periaqueductal gray Morphine Mu opioid receptor The influence of sex has been neglected in clinical studies on pain

  18. Neuro-anatomy enters the age of information technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    By usual neuro-anatomy, it has been observed for a long time that considerable anatomical disparities exist from one brain to another one. How to explain this variability? How is it interpreted at a functional level? It is indispensable to deal with these questions before intending to pick, with a view to doing clinical diagnosis, the informations given by a patient brain imagery (NMR imaging, positron computed tomography). The image processing tends to bring some answers elements. (O.M.)

  19. Neuroanatomy: The added value of the Klingler method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana M; Andrade, José Paulo

    2016-11-01

    Undergraduate neuroanatomy students are usually not able to achieve a clear comprehension of the spatial relationships existing between the white matter fiber tracts in spite of numerous neuroanatomy textbooks, atlases and multimedia tools. The objective of this paper is to show the educational value of the application of the Klingler fiber dissection technique and the use of these dissections in the understanding of the three-dimensional intrinsic anatomy of the brain white matter for medical students. Four formalin-fixed brains were dissected using the Klingler methodology in order to reveal the inner anatomical organization of the brain white matter. The most important fiber systems were dissected and their relationships to the cerebral and cerebellar gray matter structures visualized. These dissections were used as a learning tool in teaching the brain white matter structural and topographical connectivity. The white matter fiber systems were presented to undergraduate medical students during a neuroanatomy course. They observed and manipulated the dissected specimens leading to a thorough understanding of the configuration and location of the white matter fiber tracts, and their relationships to the ventricular system and gray matter structures. Subsequently, students were asked to answer a survey concerning the importance of the utilization of this material in their understanding of the three-dimensional intrinsic anatomy of the brain white matter. The knowledge acquired with this technique, complemented by conventional formalin-fixed sections may improve the neuroanatomical knowledge and future retention of medical students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Computer-Based Learning: Graphical Integration of Whole and Sectional Neuroanatomy Improves Long-Term Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaz, Farah; Chariker, Julia H.; Pani, John R.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to test the hypothesis that instruction with graphically integrated representations of whole and sectional neuroanatomy is especially effective for learning to recognize neural structures in sectional imagery (such as magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]). Neuroanatomy was taught to two groups of participants using computer…

  1. Computer-Based Learning of Neuroanatomy: A Longitudinal Study of Learning, Transfer, and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chariker, Julia H.; Naaz, Farah; Pani, John R.

    2011-01-01

    A longitudinal experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of new methods for learning neuroanatomy with computer-based instruction. Using a three-dimensional graphical model of the human brain and sections derived from the model, tools for exploring neuroanatomy were developed to encourage "adaptive exploration". This is an…

  2. Teaching Neuroanatomy Using Computer-Aided Learning: What Makes for Successful Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirko, Elena; Mellanby, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Computer-aided learning (CAL) is an integral part of many medical courses. The neuroscience course at Oxford University for medical students includes CAL course of neuroanatomy. CAL is particularly suited to this since neuroanatomy requires much detailed three-dimensional visualization, which can be presented on screen. The CAL course was…

  3. Intensive Mode Delivery of a Neuroanatomy Unit: Lower Final Grades but Higher Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar P.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Macquarie University moved to a three-session academic year which included two 13-week sessions (traditional mode) and one seven-week session (intensive mode). This study was designed to compare the intensive and traditional modes of delivery in a unit of undergraduate neuroanatomy. The new intensive mode neuroanatomy unit provided the…

  4. Unexpected variation in neuroanatomy among diverse nematode species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziduan eHan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are considered excellent models for understanding fundamental aspects of neuron function. However, nematodes are less frequently used as models for examining the evolution of nervous systems. While the habitats and behaviors of nematodes are diverse, the neuroanatomy of nematodes is often considered highly conserved. A small number of nematode species greatly influences our understanding of nematode neurobiology. The free-living species Caenorhabditis elegans and, to a lesser extent, the mammalian gastrointestinal parasite Ascaris suum are, historically, the primary sources of knowledge regarding nematode neurobiology. Despite differences in size and habitat, C. elegans and Ascaris suum share a surprisingly similar neuroanatomy. Here, we examined species across several clades in the phylum Nematoda and show that there is a surprising degree of neuroanatomical variation both within and among nematode clades when compared to C. elegans and Ascaris. We found variation in the numbers of neurons in the ventral nerve cord and dye-filling pattern of sensory neurons. For example, we found that Pristionchus pacificus, a bacterial feeding species used for comparative developmental research, had 20% fewer ventral cord neurons compared to C. elegans. Steinernema carpocapse, an insect-parasitic nematode capable of jumping behavior, had 40% more ventral cord neurons than C. elegans. Interestingly, the non-jumping congeneric nematode, S. glaseri showed an identical number of ventral cord neurons as S. carpocapsae. There was also variability in the timing of neurodevelopment of the ventral cord with two of five species that hatch as second-stage juveniles showing delayed neurodevelopment. We also found unexpected variation in the dye-filling of sensory neurons among examined species. Again, sensory neuron dye-filling pattern did not strictly correlate with phylogeny. Our results demonstrate that variation in nematode neuroanatomy is more prevalent

  5. Dynamic neuroanatomy at subcellular resolution in the zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucherre, Adèle; López-Schier, Hernán

    2014-01-01

    Genetic means to visualize and manipulate neuronal circuits in the intact animal have revolutionized neurobiology. "Dynamic neuroanatomy" defines a range of approaches aimed at quantifying the architecture or subcellular organization of neurons over time during their development, regeneration, or degeneration. A general feature of these approaches is their reliance on the optical isolation of defined neurons in toto by genetically expressing markers in one or few cells. Here we use the afferent neurons of the lateral line as an example to describe a simple method for the dynamic neuroanatomical study of axon terminals in the zebrafish by laser-scanning confocal microscopy.

  6. The human cerebellum: a review of physiologic neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaei, Tina; Nazeri, Arash; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Minagar, Alireza

    2014-11-01

    The cerebellum resides in the posterior cranial fossa dorsal to the brainstem and has diverse connections to the cerebrum, brain stem, and spinal cord. It is anatomically and physiologically divided into distinct functional compartments and is composed of highly regular arrays of neuronal units, each sharing the same basic cerebellar microcircuitry. Its circuitry is critically involved in motor control and motor learning, and its role in nonmotor cognitive and affective functions is becoming increasingly recognized. This article describes the cerebellar gross and histologic neuroanatomy in relation to its function, and the relevance of cerebellar circuitry and firing patterns to motor learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Pharmacological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola Manchola, Enrique; Álaba Trueba, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic degenerative and inflammatory process leading to synapticdysfunction and neuronal death. A review about the pharmacological treatment alternatives is made: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI), a nutritional supplement (Souvenaid) and Ginkgo biloba. A special emphasis on Ginkgo biloba due to the controversy about its use and the approval by the European Medicines Agency is made. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. The nervous system of Tricladida. I. Neuroanatomy of Procerodes littoralis (Maricola, Procerodidae) : an immunocytochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuter, M.; Gustafsson, M.K.S.; Sahlgren, C.; Halton, D.W.; Maule, A.G.; Shaw, C.

    1995-01-01

    The organization of the nervous system of Procerodes littoralis (Tricladida, Maricola, Procerodidae) was studied by immunocytochemistry, using antibodies to authentic flatworm neuropeptide F (NPF) (Moniezia expansa). Compared to earlier investigations of the neuroanatomy of tricladid flatworms, the

  9. Ludwig Edinger: the vertebrate series and comparative neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century, Ludwig Edinger completed the first comparative survey of the microscopic anatomy of vertebrate brains. He is regarded as the founder of the field of comparative neuroanatomy. Modern commentators have misunderstood him to have espoused an anti-Darwinian linear view of brain evolution, harkening to the metaphysics of the scala naturae. This understanding arises, in part, from an increasingly contested view of nineteenth-century morphology in Germany. Edinger did espouse a progressionist, though not strictly linear, view of forebrain evolution, but his work also provided carefully documented evidence that brain stem structures vary in complexity independently from one another and across species in a manner that is not compatible with linear progress. This led Edinger to reject progressionism for all brain structures other than the forebrain roof, based on reasoning not too dissimilar from those his successors used to dismiss it for the forebrain roof.

  10. Immersive virtual reality as a teaching tool for neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, Katelyn; Zeiger, Joshua; Hanchuk, Stephanie; Del Signore, Anthony; Shrivastava, Raj; Govindaraj, Satish; Iloreta, Alfred

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computer modeling and interactive virtual reality (VR) simulation are validated teaching techniques used throughout medical disciplines. Little objective data exists supporting its use in teaching clinical anatomy. Learner motivation is thought to limit the rate of utilization of such novel technologies. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness, satisfaction, and motivation associated with immersive VR simulation in teaching medical students neuroanatomy. Images of normal cerebral anatomy were reconstructed from human Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) computed tomography (CT) imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into 3D VR formats compatible with the Oculus Rift VR System, a head-mounted display with tracking capabilities allowing for an immersive VR experience. The ventricular system and cerebral vasculature were highlighted and labeled to create a focused interactive model. We conducted a randomized controlled study with 66 medical students (33 in both the control and experimental groups). Pertinent neuroanatomical structures were studied using either online textbooks or the VR interactive model, respectively. We then evaluated the students' anatomy knowledge, educational experience, and motivation (using the Instructional Materials Motivation Survey [IMMS], a previously validated assessment). There was no significant difference in anatomy knowledge between the 2 groups on preintervention, postintervention, or retention quizzes. The VR group found the learning experience to be significantly more engaging, enjoyable, and useful (all p < 0.01) and scored significantly higher on the motivation assessment (p < 0.01). Immersive VR educational tools awarded a more positive learner experience and enhanced student motivation. However, the technology was equally as effective as the traditional text books in teaching neuroanatomy. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  11. Modeling Functional Neuroanatomy for an Anatomy Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, Jörg M.; Gebert, Andreas; Schulz, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Objective Existing neuroanatomical ontologies, databases and information systems, such as the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA), represent outgoing connections from brain structures, but cannot represent the “internal wiring” of structures and as such, cannot distinguish between different independent connections from the same structure. Thus, a fundamental aspect of Neuroanatomy, the functional pathways and functional systems of the brain such as the pupillary light reflex system, is not adequately represented. This article identifies underlying anatomical objects which are the source of independent connections (collections of neurons) and uses these as basic building blocks to construct a model of functional neuroanatomy and its functional pathways. Design The basic representational elements of the model are unnamed groups of neurons or groups of neuron segments. These groups, their relations to each other, and the relations to the objects of macroscopic anatomy are defined. The resulting model can be incorporated into the FMA. Measurements The capabilities of the presented model are compared to the FMA and the Brain Architecture Management System (BAMS). Results Internal wiring as well as functional pathways can correctly be represented and tracked. Conclusion This model bridges the gap between representations of single neurons and their parts on the one hand and representations of spatial brain structures and areas on the other hand. It is capable of drawing correct inferences on pathways in a nervous system. The object and relation definitions are related to the Open Biomedical Ontology effort and its relation ontology, so that this model can be further developed into an ontology of neuronal functional systems. PMID:18579841

  12. The functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder: a consensus model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakowski, Stephen M; Adler, Caleb M; Almeida, Jorge; Altshuler, Lori L; Blumberg, Hilary P; Chang, Kiki D; DelBello, Melissa P; Frangou, Sophia; McIntosh, Andrew; Phillips, Mary L; Sussman, Jessika E; Townsend, Jennifer D

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Functional neuroimaging methods have proliferated in recent years, such that functional magnetic resonance imaging, in particular, is now widely used to study bipolar disorder. However, discrepant findings are common. A workgroup was organized by the Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati (Cincinnati, OH, USA) to develop a consensus functional neuroanatomic model of bipolar I disorder based upon the participants’ work as well as that of others. Methods Representatives from several leading bipolar disorder neuroimaging groups were organized to present an overview of their areas of expertise as well as focused reviews of existing data. The workgroup then developed a consensus model of the functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder based upon these data. Results Among the participants, a general consensus emerged that bipolar I disorder arises from abnormalities in the structure and function of key emotional control networks in the human brain. Namely, disruption in early development (e.g., white matter connectivity, prefrontal pruning) within brain networks that modulate emotional behavior leads to decreased connectivity among ventral prefrontal networks and limbic brain regions, especially amygdala. This developmental failure to establish healthy ventral prefrontal–limbic modulation underlies the onset of mania and ultimately, with progressive changes throughout these networks over time and with affective episodes, a bipolar course of illness. Conclusions This model provides a potential substrate to guide future investigations and areas needing additional focus are identified. PMID:22631617

  13. Neuroanatomy of the marine Jurassic turtle Plesiochelys etalloni (Testudinata, Plesiochelyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabajal, Ariana Paulina; Sterli, Juliana; Müller, Johannes; Hilger, André

    2013-01-01

    Turtles are one of the least explored clades regarding endocranial anatomy with few available descriptions of the brain and inner ear of extant representatives. In addition, the paleoneurology of extinct turtles is poorly known and based on only a few natural cranial endocasts. The main goal of this study is to provide for the first time a detailed description of the neuroanatomy of an extinct turtle, the Late Jurassic Plesiochelysetalloni, including internal carotid circulation, cranial endocast and inner ear, based on the first digital 3D reconstruction using micro CT scans. The general shape of the cranial endocast of P. etalloni is tubular, with poorly marked cephalic and pontine flexures. Anteriorly, the olfactory bulbs are clearly differentiated suggesting larger bulbs than in any other described extinct or extant turtle, and indicating a higher capacity of olfaction in this taxon. The morphology of the inner ear of P. etalloni is comparable to that of extant turtles and resembles those of slow-moving terrestrial vertebrates, with markedly low, short and robust semicircular canals, and a reduced lagena. In P. etalloni the arterial pattern is similar to that found in extant cryptodires, where all the internal carotid branches are protected by bone. As the knowledge of paleoneurology in turtles is scarce and the application of modern techniques such as 3D reconstructions based on CT scans is almost unexplored in this clade, we hope this paper will trigger similar investigations of this type in other turtle taxa.

  14. Ludwig Edinger (1855-1918): founder of modern neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prithishkumar, Ivan James

    2012-03-01

    Ludwig Edinger, a German neurologist is considered as one of the founders of modern neuroanatomy. He was conferred the degree of Doctor of Medicine at the University of Strassburg. His observation of small living organisms under a microscope at an early age led him to study medicine. Edinger had many discoveries to his credit. He was the first to describe the ventral and dorsal spinocerebellar tracts, to distinguish between paleo-encephalon and neo-encephalon, and between paleo-cerebellum and neo-cerebellum. He coined the terms "gnosis" and "praxis," which were later adopted in psychological descriptions of agnosia and apraxia. He identified the Edinger-Westphal nucleus in 1885 and was the first to describe the syndrome of thalamic pain. Edinger worked with renowned clinicians and published a large number of papers. He founded the Neurological Institute at the Goethe University in Frankfurt, which is the oldest neurological Institute in Germany. Edinger was a rare combination of a profound scientist, a brilliant teacher, a fine artist, and a noted hypnotist. While at the height of his career, he underwent a surgery and died a few hours later. It was his last will that his brain should be dissected in his own institute. It showed extraordinarily well-developed occipital lobes as well as other unusual features. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Functional neuroanatomy of the rhinophore of Archidoris pseudoargus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Adrian; Rössler, Wolfgang; Obermayer, Malu; Bickmeyer, Ulf

    2007-06-01

    For sea slugs, chemosensory information represents an important sensory modality, because optical and acoustical information are limited. In the present study, we focussed on the neuroanatomy of the rhinophores and processing of olfactory stimuli in the rhinophore ganglion of Archidoris pseudoargus, belonging to the order of Nudibranchia in the subclass of Opisthobranchia. Histological techniques, fluorescent markers, and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse neuroanatomical features of the rhinophore. A large ganglion and a prominent central lymphatic channel are surrounded by longitudinal muscles. Many serotonin-immunoreactive (IR) processes were found around the centre and between the ganglion and the highly folded lobes of the rhinophore, but serotonin-IR cell bodies were absent inside the rhinophore. In contrast to the conditions recently found in Aplysia punctata, we found no evidence for the presence of olfactory glomeruli within the rhinophore. Using calcium-imaging techniques with Fura II as a calcium indicator, we found differential calcium responses in various regions within the ganglion to stimulation of the rhinophore with different amino acids. The lack of glomeruli in the rhinophores induces functional questions about processing of chemical information in the rhinophore.

  16. Jean Baptiste Paulin Trolard (1842-1910): his life and contributions to neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Shea, Misha; Shea, Cory; Lutter-Hoppenheim, Martine; Zand, Paula; Tubbs, R Shane; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2010-06-01

    One hundred years after his death, Jean Baptiste Paulin Trolard's name endures in the medical literature primarily because of his work on the anastomotic veins of the cerebral circulation. Specifically, and known to all neurosurgeons, the great anastomotic vein, or the vein of Trolard, underscores a portion of Trolard's contribution to neuroanatomy. The country of Algeria has also remembered this influential colonist because of his life's work as a physician, professor, humanitarian, environmentalist, and French nationalist. Trolard fought deforestation, injustice, epidemics, and bureaucracy in northern Africa and tragically died in the midst of these struggles. In this historical vignette, the authors review the life and contributions of this pioneer of early neuroanatomy.

  17. Drawing on student knowledge of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Tara N; Momsen, Jennifer L; Montplaisir, Lisa M

    2017-06-01

    Drawings are an underutilized assessment format in Human Anatomy and Physiology (HA&P), despite their potential to reveal student content understanding and alternative conceptions. This study used student-generated drawings to explore student knowledge in a HA&P course. The drawing tasks in this study focused on chemical synapses between neurons, an abstract concept in HA&P. Using two preinstruction drawing tasks, students were asked to depict synaptic transmission and summation. In response to the first drawing task, 20% of students ( n = 352) created accurate representations of neuron anatomy. The remaining students created drawings suggesting an inaccurate or incomplete understanding of synaptic transmission. Of the 208 inaccurate student-generated drawings, 21% depicted the neurons as touching. When asked to illustrate summation, only 10 students (roughly 4%) were able to produce an accurate drawing. Overall, students were more successful at drawing anatomy (synapse) than physiology (summation) before formal instruction. The common errors observed in student-generated drawings indicate students do not enter the classroom as blank slates. The error of "touching" neurons in a chemical synapse suggests that students may be using intuitive or experiential knowledge when reasoning about physiological concepts. These results 1 ) support the utility of drawing tasks as a tool to reveal student content knowledge about neuroanatomy and neurophysiology; and 2 ) suggest students enter the classroom with better knowledge of anatomy than physiology. Collectively, the findings from this study inform both practitioners and researchers about the prevalence and nature of student difficulties in HA&P, while also demonstrating the utility of drawing in revealing student knowledge. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. The Virtual Insect Brain protocol: creating and comparing standardized neuroanatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schindelin Johannes E

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the fly Drosophila melanogaster, new genetic, physiological, molecular and behavioral techniques for the functional analysis of the brain are rapidly accumulating. These diverse investigations on the function of the insect brain use gene expression patterns that can be visualized and provide the means for manipulating groups of neurons as a common ground. To take advantage of these patterns one needs to know their typical anatomy. Results This paper describes the Virtual Insect Brain (VIB protocol, a script suite for the quantitative assessment, comparison, and presentation of neuroanatomical data. It is based on the 3D-reconstruction and visualization software Amira, version 3.x (Mercury Inc. 1. Besides its backbone, a standardization procedure which aligns individual 3D images (series of virtual sections obtained by confocal microscopy to a common coordinate system and computes average intensities for each voxel (volume pixel the VIB protocol provides an elaborate data management system for data administration. The VIB protocol facilitates direct comparison of gene expression patterns and describes their interindividual variability. It provides volumetry of brain regions and helps to characterize the phenotypes of brain structure mutants. Using the VIB protocol does not require any programming skills since all operations are carried out at an intuitively usable graphical user interface. Although the VIB protocol has been developed for the standardization of Drosophila neuroanatomy, the program structure can be used for the standardization of other 3D structures as well. Conclusion Standardizing brains and gene expression patterns is a new approach to biological shape and its variability. The VIB protocol provides a first set of tools supporting this endeavor in Drosophila. The script suite is freely available at http://www.neurofly.de2

  19. DeepNAT: Deep convolutional neural network for segmenting neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachinger, Christian; Reuter, Martin; Klein, Tassilo

    2018-04-15

    We introduce DeepNAT, a 3D Deep convolutional neural network for the automatic segmentation of NeuroAnaTomy in T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. DeepNAT is an end-to-end learning-based approach to brain segmentation that jointly learns an abstract feature representation and a multi-class classification. We propose a 3D patch-based approach, where we do not only predict the center voxel of the patch but also neighbors, which is formulated as multi-task learning. To address a class imbalance problem, we arrange two networks hierarchically, where the first one separates foreground from background, and the second one identifies 25 brain structures on the foreground. Since patches lack spatial context, we augment them with coordinates. To this end, we introduce a novel intrinsic parameterization of the brain volume, formed by eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator. As network architecture, we use three convolutional layers with pooling, batch normalization, and non-linearities, followed by fully connected layers with dropout. The final segmentation is inferred from the probabilistic output of the network with a 3D fully connected conditional random field, which ensures label agreement between close voxels. The roughly 2.7million parameters in the network are learned with stochastic gradient descent. Our results show that DeepNAT compares favorably to state-of-the-art methods. Finally, the purely learning-based method may have a high potential for the adaptation to young, old, or diseased brains by fine-tuning the pre-trained network with a small training sample on the target application, where the availability of larger datasets with manual annotations may boost the overall segmentation accuracy in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The functional neuroanatomy of autobiographical memory: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Eva; McKinnon, Margaret C.; Levine, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) entails a complex set of operations, including episodic memory, self-reflection, emotion, visual imagery, attention, executive functions, and semantic processes. The heterogeneous nature of AM poses significant challenges in capturing its behavioral and neuroanatomical correlates. Investigators have recently turned their attention to the functional neuroanatomy of AM. We used the effect-location method of meta-analysis to analyze data from 24 functional imaging studies of AM. The results indicated a core neural network of left-lateralized regions, including the medial and ventrolateral prefrontal, medial and lateral temporal and retrosplenial/posterior cingulate cortices, the temporoparietal junction and the cerebellum. Secondary and tertiary regions, less frequently reported in imaging studies of AM, are also identified. We examined the neural correlates of putative component processes in AM, including, executive functions, self-reflection, episodic remembering and visuospatial processing. We also separately analyzed the effect of select variables on the AM network across individual studies, including memory age, qualitative factors (personal significance, level of detail and vividness), semantic and emotional content, and the effect of reference conditions. We found that memory age effects on medial temporal lobe structures may be modulated by qualitative aspects of memory. Studies using rest as a control task masked process-specific components of the AM neural network. Our findings support a neural distinction between episodic and semantic memory in AM. Finally, emotional events produced a shift in lateralization of the AM network with activation observed in emotion-centered regions and deactivation (or lack of activation) observed in regions associated with cognitive processes. PMID:16806314

  1. The Virtual Insect Brain protocol: creating and comparing standardized neuroanatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenett, Arnim; Schindelin, Johannes E; Heisenberg, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Background In the fly Drosophila melanogaster, new genetic, physiological, molecular and behavioral techniques for the functional analysis of the brain are rapidly accumulating. These diverse investigations on the function of the insect brain use gene expression patterns that can be visualized and provide the means for manipulating groups of neurons as a common ground. To take advantage of these patterns one needs to know their typical anatomy. Results This paper describes the Virtual Insect Brain (VIB) protocol, a script suite for the quantitative assessment, comparison, and presentation of neuroanatomical data. It is based on the 3D-reconstruction and visualization software Amira, version 3.x (Mercury Inc.) [1]. Besides its backbone, a standardization procedure which aligns individual 3D images (series of virtual sections obtained by confocal microscopy) to a common coordinate system and computes average intensities for each voxel (volume pixel) the VIB protocol provides an elaborate data management system for data administration. The VIB protocol facilitates direct comparison of gene expression patterns and describes their interindividual variability. It provides volumetry of brain regions and helps to characterize the phenotypes of brain structure mutants. Using the VIB protocol does not require any programming skills since all operations are carried out at an intuitively usable graphical user interface. Although the VIB protocol has been developed for the standardization of Drosophila neuroanatomy, the program structure can be used for the standardization of other 3D structures as well. Conclusion Standardizing brains and gene expression patterns is a new approach to biological shape and its variability. The VIB protocol provides a first set of tools supporting this endeavor in Drosophila. The script suite is freely available at [2] PMID:17196102

  2. Roots of neuroanatomy, neurology, and neurosurgery as found in the Bible and Talmud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Wellons, John C; Oakes, W Jerry

    2008-07-01

    Historical observations and interpretations regarding the treatment of components of the nervous system can be found in the writings of the Bible and Talmud. A review of topics germane to modern neuroanatomy, neurology, and neurosurgery from these early, rich writings is presented herein. These historic writings provide a glimpse into the early understanding, description, and treatment of pathologies of the nervous system.

  3. Functional Neuroanatomy of Human Cortex Cerebri in Relation to Wanting Sex and Having It

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    Neuroanatomical textbooks typically restrict the central nervous system control of sexual responsiveness to the hypothalamus, brainstem and spinal cord. However, for all its primitive functions human sex is surprisingly complex and versatile. This review aims to extend the neuroanatomy of sexual

  4. Clinical neuroanatomy - cranial MRI and CT. 4. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanfermann, Heinrich; Raab, Peter; Kretschmann, Hans-Joachim; Weinrich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The book on clinical neuroanatomy - cranial MRI and CT covers the following issues: layered imaging diagnostics and reference structures; frontal layer, sagittal layers, transverse layers, brainstem, skull topography and the intracranial spaces and structures, facial skull topography, head-neck topography; neurofunctional systems, neurotransmitter and neuromodulators, surveillance material and techniques.

  5. The Perceived Importance of Anatomy and Neuroanatomy in the Practice of Speech-Language Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kate; Bessell, Nicola J.; Scholten, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the application of anatomy and neuroanatomy knowledge to current practice of speech-language pathology (SLP), based on the perceptions of practicing SLPs, and to elicit information on participants' experiences of learning these subjects in their primary SLP degree with a view to inform potential…

  6. Using Truncated Lectures, Conceptual Exercises, and Manipulatives to Improve Learning in the Neuroanatomy Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krontiris-Litowitz, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    Functional Neuroanatomy is a course designed to help students learn the function and anatomy of the human nervous system. Historically, students have had difficulty with the spinal tract curricular unit and frequently resorted to memorization to "learn" the material. They performed poorly on exams and failed to demonstrate competence in the…

  7. Item Difficulty in the Evaluation of Computer-Based Instruction: An Example from Neuroanatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chariker, Julia H.; Naaz, Farah; Pani, John R.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports large item effects in a study of computer-based learning of neuroanatomy. Outcome measures of the efficiency of learning, transfer of learning, and generalization of knowledge diverged by a wide margin across test items, with certain sets of items emerging as particularly difficult to master. In addition, the outcomes of…

  8. Can Medical Students Accurately Predict Their Learning? A Study Comparing Perceived and Actual Performance in Neuroanatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Samuel R.; Stephens, Jonny R.; Seaby, Eleanor G.; Andrade, Matheus Gesteira; Lowry, Andrew F.; Parton, Will J. C.; Smith, Claire F.; Border, Scott

    2016-01-01

    It is important that clinicians are able to adequately assess their level of knowledge and competence in order to be safe practitioners of medicine. The medical literature contains numerous examples of poor self-assessment accuracy amongst medical students over a range of subjects however this ability in neuroanatomy has yet to be observed. Second…

  9. Investigation of the Functional Neuroanatomy of Single Word Reading and Its Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Erica D.; Brown, Timothy T.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.

    2004-01-01

    An understanding of the processing underlying single word reading will provide insight into how skilled reading is achieved, with important implications for reading education and impaired reading. Investigation of the functional neuroanatomy of both the mature and the developing systems will be critical for reaching this understanding. To this…

  10. Computer-Based Learning: Interleaving Whole and Sectional Representation of Neuroanatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, John R.; Chariker, Julia H.; Naaz, Farah

    2013-01-01

    The large volume of material to be learned in biomedical disciplines requires optimizing the efficiency of instruction. In prior work with computer-based instruction of neuroanatomy, it was relatively efficient for learners to master whole anatomy and then transfer to learning sectional anatomy. It may, however, be more efficient to continuously…

  11. Development and Assessment of a New 3D Neuroanatomy Teaching Tool for MRI Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapkin, Zachary A.; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Lopez, Michael J.; Stabio, Maureen E.

    2015-01-01

    A computerized three-dimensional (3D) neuroanatomy teaching tool was developed for training medical students to identify subcortical structures on a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) series of the human brain. This program allows the user to transition rapidly between two-dimensional (2D) MRI slices, 3D object composites, and a combined model in…

  12. Understanding Neurophobia: Reasons behind Impaired Understanding and Learning of Neuroanatomy in Cross-Disciplinary Healthcare Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Asim; Chakraborty, Shelly; Cryan, John F.; Schellekens, Harriët; Toulouse, André

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted a fear or difficulty with the study and understanding of neuroanatomy among medical and healthcare students. This has been linked with a diminished confidence of clinical practitioners and students to manage patients with neurological conditions. The underlying reasons for this difficulty have been queried among a…

  13. Bridging neuroanatomy, neuroradiology and neurology: three-dimensional interactive atlas of neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, W L; Chua, B C

    2013-06-01

    Understanding brain pathology along with the underlying neuroanatomy and the resulting neurological deficits is of vital importance in medical education and clinical practice. To facilitate and expedite this understanding, we created a three-dimensional (3D) interactive atlas of neurological disorders providing the correspondence between a brain lesion and the resulting disorder(s). The atlas contains a 3D highly parcellated atlas of normal neuroanatomy along with a brain pathology database. Normal neuroanatomy is divided into about 2,300 components, including the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, arteries, veins, dural sinuses, tracts, cranial nerves (CN), white matter, deep gray nuclei, ventricles, visual system, muscles, glands and cervical vertebrae (C1-C5). The brain pathology database contains 144 focal and distributed synthesized lesions (70 vascular, 36 CN-related, and 38 regional anatomy-related), each lesion labeled with the resulting disorder and associated signs, symptoms, and/or syndromes compiled from materials reported in the literature. The initial view of each lesion was preset in terms of its location and size, surrounding surface and sectional (magnetic resonance) neuroanatomy, and labeling of lesion and neuroanatomy. In addition, a glossary of neurological disorders was compiled and for each disorder materials from textbooks were included to provide neurological description. This atlas of neurological disorders is potentially useful to a wide variety of users ranging from medical students, residents and nurses to general practitioners, neuroanatomists, neuroradiologists and neurologists, as it contains both normal (surface and sectional) brain anatomy and pathology correlated with neurological disorders presented in a visual and interactive way.

  14. Learning from graphically integrated 2D and 3D representations improves retention of neuroanatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaz, Farah

    Visualizations in the form of computer-based learning environments are highly encouraged in science education, especially for teaching spatial material. Some spatial material, such as sectional neuroanatomy, is very challenging to learn. It involves learning the two dimensional (2D) representations that are sampled from the three dimensional (3D) object. In this study, a computer-based learning environment was used to explore the hypothesis that learning sectional neuroanatomy from a graphically integrated 2D and 3D representation will lead to better learning outcomes than learning from a sequential presentation. The integrated representation explicitly demonstrates the 2D-3D transformation and should lead to effective learning. This study was conducted using a computer graphical model of the human brain. There were two learning groups: Whole then Sections, and Integrated 2D3D. Both groups learned whole anatomy (3D neuroanatomy) before learning sectional anatomy (2D neuroanatomy). The Whole then Sections group then learned sectional anatomy using 2D representations only. The Integrated 2D3D group learned sectional anatomy from a graphically integrated 3D and 2D model. A set of tests for generalization of knowledge to interpreting biomedical images was conducted immediately after learning was completed. The order of presentation of the tests of generalization of knowledge was counterbalanced across participants to explore a secondary hypothesis of the study: preparation for future learning. If the computer-based instruction programs used in this study are effective tools for teaching anatomy, the participants should continue learning neuroanatomy with exposure to new representations. A test of long-term retention of sectional anatomy was conducted 4-8 weeks after learning was completed. The Integrated 2D3D group was better than the Whole then Sections group in retaining knowledge of difficult instances of sectional anatomy after the retention interval. The benefit

  15. Computer-based learning in neuroanatomy: A longitudinal study of learning, transfer, and retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chariker, Julia H.

    A longitudinal experiment was conducted to explore computer-based learning of neuroanatomy. Using a realistic 3D graphical model of neuroanatomy, and sections derived from the model, exploratory graphical tools were integrated into interactive computer programs so as to allow adaptive exploration. 72 participants learned either sectional anatomy alone or learned whole anatomy followed by sectional anatomy. Sectional anatomy was explored either in perceptually continuous animation or discretely, as in the use of an anatomical atlas. Learning was measured longitudinally to a high performance criterion. After learning, transfer to biomedical images and long-term retention was tested. Learning whole anatomy prior to learning sectional anatomy led to a more efficient learning experience. Learners demonstrated high levels of transfer from whole anatomy to sectional anatomy and from sectional anatomy to complex biomedical images. All learning groups demonstrated high levels of retention at 2--3 weeks.

  16. Immersive and interactive virtual reality to improve learning and retention of neuroanatomy in medical students: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Chelsea; Jamal, Ali; Nguyen, Ron; Kudryk, Annalise; Mann, Jennifer; Mendez, Ivar

    2018-02-23

    Spatial 3-dimensional understanding of the brain is essential to learning neuroanatomy, and 3-dimensional learning techniques have been proposed as tools to enhance neuroanatomy training. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of immersive virtual-reality neuroanatomy training and compare it to traditional paper-based methods. In this randomized controlled study, participants consisted of first- or second-year medical students from the University of Saskatchewan recruited via email and posters displayed throughout the medical school. Participants were randomly assigned to the virtual-reality group or the paper-based group and studied the spatial relations between neural structures for 12 minutes after performing a neuroanatomy baseline test, with both test and control questions. A postintervention test was administered immediately after the study period and 5-9 days later. Satisfaction measures were obtained. Of the 66 participants randomly assigned to the study groups, 64 were included in the final analysis, 31 in the virtual-reality group and 33 in the paper-based group. The 2 groups performed comparably on the baseline questions and showed significant performance improvement on the test questions following study. There were no significant differences between groups for the control questions, the postintervention test questions or the 7-day postintervention test questions. Satisfaction survey results indicated that neurophobia was decreased. Results from this study provide evidence that training in neuroanatomy in an immersive and interactive virtual-reality environment may be an effective neuroanatomy learning tool that warrants further study. They also suggest that integration of virtual-reality into neuroanatomy training may improve knowledge retention, increase study motivation and decrease neurophobia. Copyright 2018, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  17. Stroke atlas: a 3D interactive tool correlating cerebrovascular pathology with underlying neuroanatomy and resulting neurological deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, W L; Chua, B C

    2013-02-01

    Understanding stroke-related pathology with underlying neuroanatomy and resulting neurological deficits is critical in education and clinical practice. Moreover, communicating a stroke situation to a patient/family is difficult because of complicated neuroanatomy and pathology. For this purpose, we created a stroke atlas. The atlas correlates localized cerebrovascular pathology with both the resulting disorder and surrounding neuroanatomy. It also provides 3D display both of labeled pathology and freely composed neuroanatomy. Disorders are described in terms of resulting signs, symptoms and syndromes, and they have been compiled for ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and cerebral aneurysms. Neuroanatomy, subdivided into 2,000 components including 1,300 vessels, contains cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, white matter, deep grey nuclei, arteries, veins, dural sinuses, cranial nerves and tracts. A computer application was developed comprising: 1) anatomy browser with the normal brain atlas (created earlier); 2) simulator of infarcts/hematomas/aneurysms/stenoses; 3) tools to label pathology; 4) cerebrovascular pathology database with lesions and disorders, and resulting signs, symptoms and/or syndromes. The pathology database is populated with 70 lesions compiled from textbooks. The initial view of each pathological site is preset in terms of lesion location, size, surrounding surface and sectional neuroanatomy, and lesion and neuroanatomy labeling. The atlas is useful for medical students, residents, nurses, general practitioners, and stroke clinicians, neuroradiologists and neurologists. It may serve as an aid in patient-doctor communication helping a stroke clinician explain the situation to a patient/family. It also enables a layman to become familiarized with normal brain anatomy and understand what happens in stroke.

  18. The perceived importance of anatomy and neuroanatomy in the practice of speech-language pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kate; Bessell, Nicola J; Scholten, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the application of anatomy and neuroanatomy knowledge to current practice of speech-language pathology (SLP), based on the perceptions of practicing SLPs, and to elicit information on participants' experiences of learning these subjects in their primary SLP degree with a view to inform potential curriculum development. A qualitative approach was taken to the collection of data. Eight practicing SLPs from four settings were interviewed. The critical incident technique, together with further probing, was used to elicit information. Interviews were transcribed and later thematically analyzed. This study found that knowledge of anatomy and neuroanatomy was perceived to be important by SLPs across all settings, to varying degrees, with a greater application in acute hospital settings. Negative experiences in studying this material were reported across all settings regardless of country of study. Participants discussed ways to increase students' motivation to learn this challenging material. Relevance of material demanded by students may be enhanced if active learning methods were used to teach anatomy/neuroanatomy, including case-based learning and with vertical and horizontal integration of material to provide a cohesive, spiral curriculum. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. Computational genetic neuroanatomy of the developing mouse brain: dimensionality reduction, visualization, and clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The structured organization of cells in the brain plays a key role in its functional efficiency. This delicate organization is the consequence of unique molecular identity of each cell gradually established by precise spatiotemporal gene expression control during development. Currently, studies on the molecular-structural association are beginning to reveal how the spatiotemporal gene expression patterns are related to cellular differentiation and structural development. Results In this article, we aim at a global, data-driven study of the relationship between gene expressions and neuroanatomy in the developing mouse brain. To enable visual explorations of the high-dimensional data, we map the in situ hybridization gene expression data to a two-dimensional space by preserving both the global and the local structures. Our results show that the developing brain anatomy is largely preserved in the reduced gene expression space. To provide a quantitative analysis, we cluster the reduced data into groups and measure the consistency with neuroanatomy at multiple levels. Our results show that the clusters in the low-dimensional space are more consistent with neuroanatomy than those in the original space. Conclusions Gene expression patterns and developing brain anatomy are closely related. Dimensionality reduction and visual exploration facilitate the study of this relationship. PMID:23845024

  20. Computational neuroanatomy: ontology-based representation of neural components and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Daniel L; Talos, Ion-Florin; Halle, Michael; Musen, Mark A; Kikinis, Ron

    2009-02-05

    A critical challenge in neuroscience is organizing, managing, and accessing the explosion in neuroscientific knowledge, particularly anatomic knowledge. We believe that explicit knowledge-based approaches to make neuroscientific knowledge computationally accessible will be helpful in tackling this challenge and will enable a variety of applications exploiting this knowledge, such as surgical planning. We developed ontology-based models of neuroanatomy to enable symbolic lookup, logical inference and mathematical modeling of neural systems. We built a prototype model of the motor system that integrates descriptive anatomic and qualitative functional neuroanatomical knowledge. In addition to modeling normal neuroanatomy, our approach provides an explicit representation of abnormal neural connectivity in disease states, such as common movement disorders. The ontology-based representation encodes both structural and functional aspects of neuroanatomy. The ontology-based models can be evaluated computationally, enabling development of automated computer reasoning applications. Neuroanatomical knowledge can be represented in machine-accessible format using ontologies. Computational neuroanatomical approaches such as described in this work could become a key tool in translational informatics, leading to decision support applications that inform and guide surgical planning and personalized care for neurological disease in the future.

  1. Attitudes of health care students about computer-aided neuroanatomy instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeough, D Michael; Bagatell, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This study examined students' attitudes toward computer-aided instruction (CAI), specifically neuroanatomy learning modules, to assess which components were primary in establishing these attitudes and to discuss the implications of these attitudes for successfully incorporating CAI in the preparation of health care providers. Seventy-seven masters degree, entry-level, health care professional students matriculated in an introductory neuroanatomy course volunteered as subjects for this study. Students independently reviewed the modules as supplements to lecture and completed a survey to evaluate teaching effectiveness. Responses to survey statements were compared across the learning modules to determine if students viewed the modules differently. Responses to individual survey statements were averaged to measure the strength of agreement or disagreement with the statement. Responses to open-ended questions were theme coded, and frequencies and percentages were calculated for each. Students saw no differences between the learning modules. Students perceived the learning modules as valuable; they enjoyed using the modules but did not prefer CAI over traditional lecture format. The modules were useful in learning or reinforcing neuroanatomical concepts and improving clinical problem-solving skills. Students reported that the visual representation of the neuroanatomical systems, computer animation, ability to control the use of the modules, and navigational fidelity were key factors in determining attitudes. The computer-based learning modules examined in this study were effective as adjuncts to lecture in helping entry-level health care students learn and make clinical applications of neuroanatomy information.

  2. A Usability Study of Users’ Perceptions Toward a Multimedia Computer-Assisted Learning Tool for Neuroanatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Douglas J.; Terrell, Mark A.; Fleming, Jo

    2015-01-01

    This usability study evaluated users’ perceptions of a multimedia prototype for a new e-learning tool: Anatomy of the Central Nervous System: A Multimedia Course. Usability testing is a collection of formative evaluation methods that inform the developmental design of e-learning tools to maximize user acceptance, satisfaction, and adoption. Sixty-two study participants piloted the prototype and completed a usability questionnaire designed to measure two usability properties: program need and program applicability. Statistical analyses were used to test the hypothesis that the multimedia prototype was well designed and highly usable, it was perceived as: 1) highly needed across a spectrum of educational contexts, 2) highly applicable in supporting the pedagogical processes of teaching and learning neuroanatomy, and 3) was highly usable by all types of users. Three independent variables represented user differences: level of expertise (faculty vs. student), age, and gender. Analysis of the results supports the research hypotheses that the prototype was designed well for different types of users in various educational contexts and for supporting the pedagogy of neuroanatomy. In addition, the results suggest that the multimedia program will be most useful as a neuroanatomy review tool for health-professions students preparing for licensing or board exams. This study demonstrates the importance of integrating quality properties of usability with principles of human learning during the instructional design process for multimedia products. PMID:19177405

  3. A Prototype Symbolic Model of Canonical Functional Neuroanatomy of the Motor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Daniel L.; Halle, Michael; Musen, Mark; Kikinis, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in bioinformatics have opened entire new avenues for organizing, integrating and retrieving neuroscientific data, in a digital, machine-processable format, which can be at the same time understood by humans, using ontological, symbolic data representations. Declarative information stored in ontological format can be perused and maintained by domain experts, interpreted by machines, and serve as basis for a multitude of decision-support, computerized simulation, data mining, and teaching applications. We have developed a prototype symbolic model of canonical neuroanatomy of the motor system. Our symbolic model is intended to support symbolic lookup, logical inference and mathematical modeling by integrating descriptive, qualitative and quantitative functional neuroanatomical knowledge. Furthermore, we show how our approach can be extended to modeling impaired brain connectivity in disease states, such as common movement disorders. In developing our ontology, we adopted a disciplined modeling approach, relying on a set of declared principles, a high-level schema, Aristotelian definitions, and a frame-based authoring system. These features, along with the use of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) vocabulary, enable the alignment of our functional ontology with an existing comprehensive ontology of human anatomy, and thus allow for combining the structural and functional views of neuroanatomy for clinical decision support and neuroanatomy teaching applications. Although the scope of our current prototype ontology is limited to a particular functional system in the brain, it may be possible to adapt this approach for modeling other brain functional systems as well. PMID:18164666

  4. Development of a Web-Based 3D Module for Enhanced Neuroanatomy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lauren K; Ren, He Zhen; Eagleson, Roy; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Neuroanatomy is a challenging subject, with novice medical students often experiencing difficulty grasping the intricate 3D spatial relationships. Most of the anatomical teaching in undergraduate medicine utilizes conventional 2D resources. E-learning technologies facilitate the development of learner-centered educational tools that can be tailored to meet each student's educational needs, and may foster improved learning in neuroanatomy, however this has yet to be examined fully in the literature. An interactive 3D e-learning module was developed to complement gross anatomy laboratory instruction. Incorporating such 3D modules may provide additional support for students in areas of anatomy that are spatially challenging, such as neuroanatomy. Specific anatomical structures and their relative spatial positions to other structures can be clearly defined in the 3D virtual environment from viewpoints that may not readily be available using cadaveric or 2D image modalities. Providing an interactive user interface for the 3D module in which the student controls many factors may enable the student to develop an improved understanding of the spatial relationships. This work outlines the process for the development of a 3D interactive module of the cerebral structures included in the anatomy curriculum for undergraduate medical students in their second year of study.

  5. Biological and Pharmacological properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Biological and Pharmacological properties. NOEA inhibits Ceramidase. Anandamide inhibits gap junction conductance and reduces sperm fertilizing capacity. Endogenous ligands for Cannabinoid receptors (anandamide and NPEA). Antibacterial and antiviral ...

  6. Early Clinical Exposure as a Learning Tool to Teach Neuroanatomy for First Year MBBS Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Maitreyee; Kar, Chinmaya; Roy, Hironmoy; Goyal, Parmod

    2017-12-01

    Early clinical exposure (ECE) is one of the important tools to teach basic science to the MBBS students. It is one form of vertical integration between basic science and clinical subjects. This study is an effort at exploring the use of ECE as a motivational tool toward better learning in neuroanatomy for first year MBBS students. This study aims to make the students interested and motivated to study neuroanatomy by using ECE as learning tool in neuroanatomy and to make the students enable to retain the knowledge of neuroanatomy more efficiently and correlate the knowledge of neuroanatomy with neuromedicine. This study was conducted in collaboration with the Departments of Anatomy, General Medicine and Medical Education Unit in the year 2016. This was cross-sectional study. One hundred and fifty students of 1 st Professional MBBS were subdivided into two groups. After preliminary classes on brain, brainstem, and spinal cord for both groups, conventional lecture classes were taken for Group A only on upper motor neuron (UMN) and lower motor neuron (LMN) paralysis, and only Group B visited General Medicine ward where HOD, General Medicine showed and examined patients of UMN paralysis and LMN paralysis, elicited different symptoms, and discussed different investigation. It was followed by assessment of all by problem-based multiple choice questions (MCQ) and short answer questions. Then, Group B attended lecture class on different cranial nerve palsy whereas Group A visited medicine ward. It was followed by assessment of both groups by problem-based MCQ and short answer questions. The performance was compared. Then, the feedback of the students on ECE was collected by means of reflection writing followed by administration of questionnaire. Then, the perception of teachers regarding ECE was recorded by focused group discussion. Student's t -test was used to compare the performance of both batches. Reflection writing and focus group discussion were analyzed

  7. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY OF DIURETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Soldatenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical pharmacology of diuretics in the international system of ATC (anatomic-therapeutic-chemical is presented. Classification of this group by the action mechanism and caused effects is provided. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics features, indications and principles of diuretics usage in clinics are considered. Contraindications, side effects and interaction with other drugs of this group are discussed in detail.

  8. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  9. Effect of Stereoscopic Anaglyphic 3-Dimensional Video Didactics on Learning Neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Amir; Monti, Sara; Lee, Darrin; Girgis, Fady

    2017-11-01

    The teaching of neuroanatomy in medical education has historically been based on didactic instruction, cadaveric dissections, and intraoperative experience for students. Multiple novel 3-dimensional (3D) modalities have recently emerged. Among these, stereoscopic anaglyphic video is easily accessible and affordable, however, its effects have not yet formally been investigated. This study aimed to investigate if 3D stereoscopic anaglyphic video instruction in neuroanatomy could improve learning for content-naive students, as compared with 2-dimensional (2D) video instruction. A single-site controlled prospective case control study was conducted at the School of Education. Content knowledge was assessed at baseline, followed by the presentation of an instructional neuroanatomy video. Participants viewed the video in either 2D or 3D format and then completed a written test of skull base neuroanatomy. Pretest and post-test performances were analyzed with independent Student's t-tests and analysis of covariance. Our study was completed by 249 subjects. At baseline, the 2D (n = 124, F = 97) and 3D groups (n = 125, F = 96) were similar, although the 3D group was older by 1.7 years (P = 0.0355) and the curricula of participating classes differed (P < 0.0001). Average scores for the 3D group were higher for both pretest (2D, M = 19.9%, standard deviation [SD] = 12.5% vs. 3D, M = 23.9%, SD = 14.9%, P = 0.0234) and post-test performances (2D, M = 68.5%, SD = 18.6% vs. 3D, M = 77.3%, SD = 18.8%, P = 0.003), but the magnitude of improvement across groups did not reach statistical significance (2D, M = 48.7%, SD = 21.3%, vs. 3D, M = 53.5%, SD = 22.7%, P = 0.0855). Incorporation of 3D video instruction into curricula without careful integration is insufficient to promote learning over 2D video. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Chemical neuroanatomy and in vitro receptor autoradiography: A basis for cerebral positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albin, R.L.; Young, A.B.; Penney, J.B.; Makowiec, R.L.; Gilman, S.

    1991-01-01

    We review chemical neuroanatomy and in vitro receptor (IVG) autoradiography as tools for the development of methods suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) studies. The organizations of monoaminergic, cholinergic, γ-aminobutyric acidergic (GABA), and excitatory amino acidergic (EAA) pathways within the central nervous system are summarized, as is the presently accepted classification of GABA and EAA receptors. We describe the technique of IVG and discuss its unique advantages for the selection of possible PET methods. Finally, we discuss receptor changes in Huntington's disease and olivopontocerebellar atrophy, two human diseases for which IVG has suggested possible targets for PET imaging

  11. Functional neuroanatomy of human cortex cerebri in relation to wanting sex and having it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Janniko R

    2015-04-01

    Neuroanatomical textbooks typically restrict the central nervous system control of sexual responsiveness to the hypothalamus, brainstem and spinal cord. However, for all its primitive functions human sex is surprisingly complex and versatile. This review aims to extend the neuroanatomy of sexual responsiveness by providing a comprehensive overview of the empirical evidence for cerebral cortical involvement. To this end I will structure relevant human brain research data to fit the sexual pleasure cycle template-wanting sex, having sex, inhibiting sex-arguing that going through these sexual response phases requires adequate shifting between functional cortical networks. The relevance of this notion for understanding certain sexual dysfunctions is discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Bernhard von Gudden, neuro-ophthalmology and the Munich School of Neuroanatomy and Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danek, Adrian

    2006-12-01

    Bernhard von Gudden, psychiatrist to the Royal House of Bavaria (1824-1886), had studied ocular torsion by means of self-observation in the mirror and with the help of after-images for his dissertation of 1848, but later turned to experimental neuroanatomy. Several findings are connected with his name, among them the transverse peduncular tract, part of the accessory optic system. August Forel, Emil Kraepelin and Franz Nissl belonged to his Munich school that took neuroanatomical research as a guiding principle for scientific psychiatry.

  13. Neuroenergetics: How energy constraints shape brain function

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The nervous system consumes a disproportionate fraction of the resting body’s energy production. In humans, the brain represents 2% of the body’s mass, yet it accounts for ~20% of the total oxygen consumption. Expansion in the size of the brain relative to the body and an increase in the number of connections between neurons during evolution underpin our cognitive powers and are responsible for our brains’ high metabolic rate. The molecules at the center of cellular energy metabolism also act as intercellular signals and constitute an important communication pathway, coordinating for instance the immune surveillance of the brain. Despite the significance of energy consumption in the nervous system, how energy constrains and shapes brain function is often under appreciated. I will illustrate the importance of brain energetics and metabolism with two examples from my recent work. First, I will show how the brain trades information for energy savings in the visual pathway. Indeed, a significant fraction ...

  14. The Effect of Face-to-Face Teaching on Student Knowledge and Satisfaction in an Undergraduate Neuroanatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar P.

    2013-01-01

    The total number of anatomy teaching hours has declined in medical courses worldwide. Conversely, face-to-face teaching in undergraduate neuroanatomy at Macquarie University increased by 50% in 2011. Our aim was to investigate whether this influenced student performance and overall satisfaction with the course. One hundred eighty-one students…

  15. Neuroanatomy Education: The Impact on Perceptions, Attitudes, and Knowledge of an Intensive Course on General Practice Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Mavilde; Barbosa, Joselina Maria; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2017-01-01

    General practitioners are responsible for the management of an increasing number of patients with neurological illness, and thus a solid education in neurosciences is a necessary component of their training. This study examines the effects of an intensive clinical neuroanatomy course on twenty general practice residents' perceptions, attitudes,…

  16. Neuroanatomy of Individual Differences in Language in Adult Males with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ecker, Christine; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Happé, Francesca; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    One potential source of heterogeneity within autism spectrum conditions (ASC) is language development and ability. In 80 high-functioning male adults with ASC, we tested if variations in developmental and current structural language are associated with current neuroanatomy. Groups with and without language delay differed behaviorally in early social reciprocity, current language, but not current autistic features. Language delay was associated with larger total gray matter (GM) volume, smaller relative volume at bilateral insula, ventral basal ganglia, and right superior, middle, and polar temporal structures, and larger relative volume at pons and medulla oblongata in adulthood. Despite this heterogeneity, those with and without language delay showed significant commonality in morphometric features when contrasted with matched neurotypical individuals (n = 57). In ASC, better current language was associated with increased GM volume in bilateral temporal pole, superior temporal regions, dorsolateral fronto-parietal and cerebellar structures, and increased white matter volume in distributed frontal and insular regions. Furthermore, current language–neuroanatomy correlation patterns were similar across subgroups with or without language delay. High-functioning adult males with ASC show neuroanatomical variations associated with both developmental and current language characteristics. This underscores the importance of including both developmental and current language as specifiers for ASC, to help clarify heterogeneity. PMID:25249409

  17. A core syllabus for the teaching of neuroanatomy to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxham, Bernard; McHanwell, Stephen; Plaisant, Odile; Pais, Diogo

    2015-09-01

    There is increasingly a call for clinical relevance in the teaching of biomedical sciences within all health care courses. However, this presupposes that there is a clear understanding of what can be considered core material within the curricula. To date, the anatomical sciences have been relatively poorly served by the development of core syllabuses, particularly for specialized core syllabuses such as neuroanatomy. One of the aims of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) and of the European Federation for Experimental Morphology (EFEM) is to formulate, on an international scale, core syllabuses for all branches of the anatomical sciences using Delphi Panels consisting of anatomists, scientists, and clinicians to initially evaluate syllabus content. In this article, the findings of a Delphi Panel for neuroanatomy are provided. These findings will subsequently be published on the IFAA website to enable anatomical (and other cognate learned) societies and individual anatomists, clinicians, and students to freely comment upon, and elaborate and amend, the syllabuses. The aim is to set internationally recognized standards and thus to provide guidelines concerning neuroanatomical knowledge when engaged in course development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Pharmacological interactions of vasoconstrictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article is the first of a series on pharmacological interactions involving medicaments commonly prescribed and/or used in odontology: vasoconstrictors in local anaesthetics and anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial analgesics. The necessity for the odontologist to be aware of adverse reactions as a result of the pharmacological interactions is due to the increase in medicament consumption by the general population. There is a demographic change with greater life expectancy and patients have increased chronic health problems and therefore have increased medicament intake. The presence of adrenaline (epinephrine) and other vasoconstrictors in local odontological anaesthetics is beneficial in relation to the duration and depth of anaesthesia and reduces bleeding and systemic toxicity of the local anaesthetic. However, it might produce pharmacological interactions between the injected vasoconstrictors and the local anaesthetic and adrenergic medicament administered exogenically which the odontologist should be aware of, especially because of the risk of consequent adverse reactions. Therefore the importance of conducting a detailed clinical history of the general state of health and include all medicaments, legal as well as illegal, taken by the patient.

  19. Pharmacological effects of biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2005-07-01

    In the last few decades, more vitamin-mediated effects have been discovered at the level of gene expression. Increasing knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of these vitamins has opened new perspectives that form a connection between nutritional signals and the development of new therapeutic agents. Besides its role as a carboxylase prosthetic group, biotin regulates gene expression and has a wide repertoire of effects on systemic processes. The vitamin regulates genes that are critical in the regulation of intermediary metabolism: Biotin has stimulatory effects on genes whose action favors hypoglycemia (insulin, insulin receptor, pancreatic and hepatic glucokinase); on the contrary, biotin decreases the expression of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, a key gluconeogenic enzyme that stimulates glucose production by the liver. The findings that biotin regulates the expression of genes that are critical in the regulation of intermediary metabolism are in agreement with several observations that indicate that biotin supply is involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Biotin deficiency has been linked to impaired glucose tolerance and decreased utilization of glucose. On the other hand, the diabetic state appears to be ameliorated by pharmacological doses of biotin. Likewise, pharmacological doses of biotin appear to decrease plasma lipid concentrations and modify lipid metabolism. The effects of biotin on carbohydrate metabolism and the lack of toxic effects of the vitamin at pharmacological doses suggest that biotin could be used in the development of new therapeutics in the treatment of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, an area that we are actively investigating.

  20. Pharmacological Profile of Quinoxalinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxalinone and its derivatives are used in organic synthesis for building natural and designed synthetic compounds and they have been frequently utilized as suitable skeletons for the design of biologically active compound. This review covers updated information on the most active quinoxalinone derivatives that have been reported to show considerable pharmacological actions such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiviral, antitumor, and antitubercular activity. It can act as an important tool for chemists to develop newer quinoxalinone derivatives that may prove to be better agents in terms of efficacy and safety.

  1. Clinical neuroanatomy and diagnostic imaging of the skull. Computerized tomography and nmr imaging. 2. rev. and enlarged ed. Klinische Neuroanatomie und kranielle Bilddiagnostik. Computertomographie und Magnetresonanztomographie

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    Kretschmann, H.J. (Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Abt. Neuroanatomie); Weinrich, W. (Krankenhaus Nordstadt, Hannover (Germany). Neurologische Klinik)

    1991-01-01

    In the last few years, the techniques of CT, MRI, PET and utrasonography have been improved in their diagnostic efficiency, but in spite of the much enhanced resolution achievable with the new techniques, a large part of the neurofunctional systems that are of great significance to clinical diagnostic evaluation remains in the dark. The local structure of the neurofunctional systems is derived from the data describing the position of the conductive structures such as cerebral ventricles or typical cerebral sulci or gyri. A good knowledge of the three-dimensional topography of the neuroanatomy in the skull is required for this purpose, and this is what the book at hand is intended to confer. The arteries and their vascular environment are shown in the frontal, sagittal and axial plane and are compared with drawings produced from angiographies. The information given covers the cranium viscerale, the craniocervical neighbouring areas, and the motor innervation areas of the skull. The term 'diagnostic imaging of the skull' comprises the whole head and the transitional zones. The illustration of the neurofunctional system anatomy in the tomogram presented in this book is a source of information that may serve as a guide for pathfinding in CT, MRI, PET and ultrasonography. In addition, the knowledge found in the book will help to assign clinical data to pathologic findings revealed by CT or MRI. (orig.) With 596 mostly coloured figs.

  2. [Achievements and enlightenment of modern acupuncture therapy for stroke based on the neuroanatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Fang; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Chen, Lu-Ni; Wang, Chao

    2014-04-01

    Up to now, in the treatment of stroke patients by acupuncture therapy, three main representative achievements involving scalp acupuncture intervention, "Xing Nao Kai Qiao" (restoring consciousness and inducing resuscitation) acupuncture technique and nape acupuncture therapy have been got. Regarding their neurobiological mechanisms, the scalp acupuncture therapy is based on the functional localization of the cerebral cortex, "Xing Nao Kai Qiao" acupuncture therapy is closely related to nerve stem stimulation, and the nape acupuncture therapy is based on the nerve innervation of the regional neck-nape area in obtaining therapeutic effects. In fact, effects of these three acupuncture interventions are all closely associated with the modern neuroanatomy. In the treatment of post-stroke spastic paralysis, cognitive disorder and depression with acupuncture therapy, modern neuroanatomical knowledge should be one of the key theoretical basis and new therapeutic techniques should be explored and developed continuously.

  3. Jelena Krmpotić-Nemanić (1921-2008): contributions to human neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judas, Milos; Petanjek, Zdravko; Kostović, Ivica

    2011-01-01

    Jelena Krmpotić-Nemanić (1921-2008) was a world-famous anatomist, internationally distinguished otolaryngologist, a member of the Croatian Academy of Sciences & Arts and appreciated professor at the School of Medicine University of Zagreb. The founding influence in her scientific career came from her mentor Drago Perovid who was a student of Ferdinand Hochstetter, the leading authority in the field of human developmental neuroanatomy and embryology. Such an influence was obviously important in early shaping of the research agenda of Jelena Krmpotić-Nemanić, and it remains important in a long series of studies on developing human telencephalon initiated by Ivica Kostović and his collaborators - with an always present and active support of Jelena Krmpotić-Nemanić. The aim of this mini review is to briefly describe her numerous contributions to the anatomy of the human peripheral and central nervous system.

  4. The importance of scientific collecting and natural history museums for comparative neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2011-05-01

    The comparative study of vertebrate brains is inherently dependent upon access to a sufficient number of species and specimens to perform meaningful comparisons. Although many studies rely on compiling published information, continued specimen collection, in addition to more extensive use of existing brain collections and natural history museums, are crucial for detailed neuroanatomical comparisons across species. This review highlights the importance of collecting species through a variety of means, details a marsupial brain collection, and stresses the potential of natural history museums as a resource for comparative neuroanatomy. By taking advantage of as many of these resources as possible, researchers can rapidly increase species coverage and generate a better understanding of how the brain evolves. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Functional neuroanatomy in depressed patients with sexual dysfunction: blood oxygenation level dependent functional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jong Chul

    2004-01-01

    To demonstrate the functional neuroanatomy associated with sexual arousal visually evoked in depressed males who have underlying sexual dysfunction using Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent-based fMRI. Ten healthy volunteers (age range 21-55: mean 32.5 years), and 10 depressed subjects (age range 23-51: mean 34.4 years, mean Beck Depression Inventory score of 39.6 ± 5.9, mean Hamilton Rating Scale Depression (HAMD)-17 score of 33.5 ± 6.0) with sexual arousal dysfunction viewed erotic and neutral video films during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 1.5 T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 oblique planes using gradient-echo EPI (flip angle/TR/TE=90 .deg. /6000 ms/50 ms). The visual stimulation paradigm began with 60 sec of black screen, 150 sec of neutral stimulation with a documentary video film, 30 sec of black screen, 150 sec of sexual stimulation with an erotic video film followed by 30 sec of black screen. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by SPM99 program. There was a significant difference of brain activation between two groups during visual sexual stimulation. In depressed subjects, the level of activation during the visually evoked sexual arousal was significantly less than that of healthy volunteers, especially in the cerebrocortical areas of the hypothalamus, thalamus, caudate nucleus, and inferior and superior temporal gyri. On the other hand, the cerebral activation patterns during the neutral condition in both groups showed no significant differences (ρ < 0.01). This study is the first demonstration of the functional neuroanatomy of the brain associated with sexual dysfunction in depressed patients using fMRI. In order to validate our physiological neuroscience results, further studies that would include patients with other disorders and sexual dysfunction, and depressed patients without sexual dysfunction and their treatment response are needed

  6. Functional neuroanatomy in depressed patients with sexual dysfunction: blood oxygenation level dependent functional MR imaging

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    Yang, Jong Chul [Chonnam National Univ. Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To demonstrate the functional neuroanatomy associated with sexual arousal visually evoked in depressed males who have underlying sexual dysfunction using Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent-based fMRI. Ten healthy volunteers (age range 21-55: mean 32.5 years), and 10 depressed subjects (age range 23-51: mean 34.4 years, mean Beck Depression Inventory score of 39.6 {+-} 5.9, mean Hamilton Rating Scale Depression (HAMD)-17 score of 33.5 {+-} 6.0) with sexual arousal dysfunction viewed erotic and neutral video films during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 1.5 T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 oblique planes using gradient-echo EPI (flip angle/TR/TE=90 .deg. /6000 ms/50 ms). The visual stimulation paradigm began with 60 sec of black screen, 150 sec of neutral stimulation with a documentary video film, 30 sec of black screen, 150 sec of sexual stimulation with an erotic video film followed by 30 sec of black screen. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by SPM99 program. There was a significant difference of brain activation between two groups during visual sexual stimulation. In depressed subjects, the level of activation during the visually evoked sexual arousal was significantly less than that of healthy volunteers, especially in the cerebrocortical areas of the hypothalamus, thalamus, caudate nucleus, and inferior and superior temporal gyri. On the other hand, the cerebral activation patterns during the neutral condition in both groups showed no significant differences ({rho} < 0.01). This study is the first demonstration of the functional neuroanatomy of the brain associated with sexual dysfunction in depressed patients using fMRI. In order to validate our physiological neuroscience results, further studies that would include patients with other disorders and sexual dysfunction, and depressed patients without sexual dysfunction and their treatment response are needed.

  7. Canine neuroanatomy: Development of a 3D reconstruction and interactive application for undergraduate veterinary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffan, Hazel; Guevar, Julien; Poyade, Matthieu; Rea, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    Current methods used to communicate and present the complex arrangement of vasculature related to the brain and spinal cord is limited in undergraduate veterinary neuroanatomy training. Traditionally it is taught with 2-dimensional (2D) diagrams, photographs and medical imaging scans which show a fixed viewpoint. 2D representations of 3-dimensional (3D) objects however lead to loss of spatial information, which can present problems when translating this to the patient. Computer-assisted learning packages with interactive 3D anatomical models have become established in medical training, yet equivalent resources are scarce in veterinary education. For this reason, we set out to develop a workflow methodology creating an interactive model depicting the vasculature of the canine brain that could be used in undergraduate education. Using MR images of a dog and several commonly available software programs, we set out to show how combining image editing, segmentation and surface generation, 3D modeling and texturing can result in the creation of a fully interactive application for veterinary training. In addition to clearly identifying a workflow methodology for the creation of this dataset, we have also demonstrated how an interactive tutorial and self-assessment tool can be incorporated into this. In conclusion, we present a workflow which has been successful in developing a 3D reconstruction of the canine brain and associated vasculature through segmentation, surface generation and post-processing of readily available medical imaging data. The reconstructed model was implemented into an interactive application for veterinary education that has been designed to target the problems associated with learning neuroanatomy, primarily the inability to visualise complex spatial arrangements from 2D resources. The lack of similar resources in this field suggests this workflow is original within a veterinary context. There is great potential to explore this method, and introduce

  8. Revealing the functional neuroanatomy of intrinsic alertness using fMRI: methodological peculiarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Benjamin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Sack, Alexander T; Sack, Alexander; Heinecke, Armin; Willmes, Klaus; Sturm, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Clinical observations and neuroimaging data revealed a right-hemisphere fronto-parietal-thalamic-brainstem network for intrinsic alertness, and additional left fronto-parietal activity during phasic alertness. The primary objective of this fMRI study was to map the functional neuroanatomy of intrinsic alertness as precisely as possible in healthy participants, using a novel assessment paradigm already employed in clinical settings. Both the paradigm and the experimental design were optimized to specifically assess intrinsic alertness, while at the same time controlling for sensory-motor processing. The present results suggest that the processing of intrinsic alertness is accompanied by increased activity within the brainstem, thalamus, anterior cingulate gyrus, right insula, and right parietal cortex. Additionally, we found increased activation in the left hemisphere around the middle frontal gyrus (BA 9), the insula, the supplementary motor area, and the cerebellum. Our results further suggest that rather minute aspects of the experimental design may induce aspects of phasic alertness, which in turn might lead to additional brain activation in left-frontal areas not normally involved in intrinsic alertness. Accordingly, left BA 9 activation may be related to co-activation of the phasic alertness network due to the switch between rest and task conditions functioning as an external warning cue triggering the phasic alertness network. Furthermore, activation of the intrinsic alertness network during fixation blocks due to enhanced expectancy shortly before the switch to the task block might, when subtracted from the task block, lead to diminished activation in the typical right hemisphere intrinsic alertness network. Thus, we cautiously suggest that--as a methodological artifact--left frontal activations might show up due to phasic alertness involvement and intrinsic alertness activations might be weakened due to contrasting with fixation blocks, when assessing the

  9. Pharmacological therapy for amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is the most common cause of preventable blindness in children and young adults. Most of the amblyopic visual loss is reversible if detected and treated at appropriate time. It affects 1.0 to 5.0% of the general population. Various treatment modalities have been tried like refractive correction, patching (both full time and part time, penalization and pharmacological therapy. Refractive correction alone improves visual acuity in one third of patients with anisometropic amblyopia. Various drugs have also been tried of which carbidopa & levodopa have been popular. Most of these agents are still in experimental stage, though levodopa-carbidopa combination therapy has been widely studied in human amblyopes with good outcomes. Levodopa therapy may be considered in cases with residual amblyopia, although occlusion therapy remains the initial treatment choice. Regression of effect after stoppage of therapy remains a concern. Further studies are therefore needed to evaluate the full efficacy and side effect profile of these agents.

  10. Pharmacological therapy for amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupam; Nagpal, Ritu; Mittal, Sanjeev Kumar; Bahuguna, Chirag; Kumar, Prashant

    2017-01-01

    Amblyopia is the most common cause of preventable blindness in children and young adults. Most of the amblyopic visual loss is reversible if detected and treated at appropriate time. It affects 1.0 to 5.0% of the general population. Various treatment modalities have been tried like refractive correction, patching (both full time and part time), penalization and pharmacological therapy. Refractive correction alone improves visual acuity in one third of patients with anisometropic amblyopia. Various drugs have also been tried of which carbidopa & levodopa have been popular. Most of these agents are still in experimental stage, though levodopa-carbidopa combination therapy has been widely studied in human amblyopes with good outcomes. Levodopa therapy may be considered in cases with residual amblyopia, although occlusion therapy remains the initial treatment choice. Regression of effect after stoppage of therapy remains a concern. Further studies are therefore needed to evaluate the full efficacy and side effect profile of these agents. PMID:29018759

  11. How to interpret an unenhanced CT Brain scan. Part 1: Basic principles of Computed Tomography and relevant neuroanatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Osborne

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to: Cover the basics of Computed Tomography (CT Brain imaging. Review relevant CT neuroanatomy. A CT image is produced by firing x-rays at a moving object which is then detected by an array of rotating detectors (Figure 1. The detected x-rays are then converted into a computerised signal which is used to produce a series of cross sectional images.

  12. Effectiveness of a computer-aided neuroanatomy program for entry-level physical therapy students: anatomy and clinical examination of the dorsal column-medial lemniscal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeough, D Michael; Mattern-Baxter, Katrin; Barakatt, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a computer-aided instruction learning module improves students' knowledge of the neuroanatomy/physiology and clinical examination of the dorsal column-medial lemniscal (DCML) system. Sixty-one physical therapy students enrolled in a clinical neurology course in entry-level PT educational programs at two universities participated in the study. Students from University-1 (U1;) had not had a previous neuroanatomy course, while students from University-2 (U2;) had taken a neuroanatomy course in the previous semester. Before and after working with the learning module, students took a paper-and-pencil test on the neuroanatomy/physiology and clinical examination of the DCML system. Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests were used to determine if differences existed between neuroanatomy/physiology examination scores and clinical examination scores before and after taking the learning module, and between student groups based on university attended. For students from U1, neuroanatomy/physiology post-test scores improved significantly over pre-test scores (p Neuroanatomy/physiology pre-test scores from U2 were significantly better than those from U1 (p < 0.001); there was no significant difference in post-test scores (p = 0.062). Clinical examination pre-test and post-test scores from U2 were significantly better than those from U1 (p < 0.001). Clinical examination post-test scores improved significantly from the pre-test scores for both U1 (p < 0.001) and U2 (p < 0.001).

  13. [Pharmacological treatment of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis Barbará, R

    2004-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of obesity should be considered when cannot be achieved a 10% weight loss with diet therapy and physical activity. The drugs effective in obesity treatment may act by different mechanisms such as reduction in food intake, inhibition of fat absorption, increase of thermogenesis and stimulation of adipocyte apoptosis. At present, we only have two marketed drugs for obesity treatment. Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonina reuptake which inhibits food intake and increases thermogenesis. Sibutramine administration for a year can induce a weight loss of 4-7%. Its main side effects are hypertension, headache, insomnia and constipation. Orlistat is an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase which is able to block the absorption of 30% of ingested fat. Its administration induces weight loss and reduction of ulterior weight regain. Also, this drug improves hypertension dyslipdaemia and helps to prevent diabetes in 52% of cases when administered over four years. The increase in frequency of stools and interference with vitamin absorption are its main side effects. Glucagon-like peptide 1, which increases insulin sensitivity and satiety, adiponectin and PPAR-gamma agonists which reduce insulin resistance and modulates adipocyte generation are the basis for future therapeutic approaches of obesity. Phosphatase inhibitors induce PPAR-gamma phosphorylation and UCP-1 expression leading to an increase in thermogenesis and reduction in appetite.

  14. Pharmacological therapy of spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzi, Carlo; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Gilio, Michele; Leccese, Pietro; Padula, Angela; Olivieri, Ignazio

    2015-01-01

    The current pharmacological therapy of spondyloarthritis (SpA) includes several drugs: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologic drugs. A systematic literature search was completed using the largest electronic databases (Medline, Embase and Cochrane), starting from 1995, with the aim to review data on traditional and biologic agents commercialised for SpA treatment. Randomised controlled trials and large observational studies were considered. In addition, studies performed in SpA patients treated with other, still unapproved, drugs (rituximab, anti-IL6 agents, apremilast, IL17 inhibitors and anakinra) were also taken into account. Biologic agents, especially anti-TNF drugs, have resulted in significant progress in improving clinical symptoms and signs, reducing inflammatory features in laboratory tests and imaging findings, and recovering all functional indexes. Anti-TNF drugs have radically changed the evolution of radiographic progression in peripheral joints; the first disappointing data concerning their efficacy on new bone formation of axial SpA has been recently challenged by studies enrolling patients who have been earlier diagnosed and treated. The opportunity to extend the interval of administration or to reduce the doses of anti-TNF agents can favourably influence the costs. Ustekinumab, the first non-anti-TNF biologic drug commercialised for psoriatic arthritis, offers new chances to patients that are unresponsive to anti-TNF.

  15. Pharmacology of midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, L; Schaffner, R; Scherschlicht, R; Polc, P; Sepinwall, J; Davidson, A; Möhler, H; Cumin, R; Da Prada, M; Burkard, W P; Keller, H H; Müller, R K; Gerold, M; Pieri, M; Cook, L; Haefely, W

    1981-01-01

    8-Chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine (midazolam, Ro 21-3981, Dormicum) is an imidazobenzodiazepine whose salts are soluble and stable in aqueous solution. It has a quick onset and, due to rapid metabolic inactivation, a rather short duration of action in all species studied. Midazolam has a similar pharmacologic potency and broad therapeutic range as diazepam. It produces all the characteristic effects of the benzodiazepine class, i.e., anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sleep-inducing, muscle relaxant, and "sedative" effects. The magnitude of the anticonflict effect of midazolam is smaller than that of diazepam in rats and squirrel monkeys, probably because a more pronounced sedative component interferes with the increase of punished responses. In rodents, surgical anaesthesia is not attained with midazolam alone even in high i.v. doses, whereas this state is obtained in monkeys. The drug potentiates the effect of various central depressant agents. Midazolam is virtually free of effects on the cardiovascular system in conscious animals and produces only slight decreases in cardiac performance in dogs anaesthetized with barbiturates. No direct effects of the drugs on autonomic functions were found, however, stress-induced autonomic disturbances are prevented, probably by an effect on central regulatory systems. All animal data suggest the usefulness of midazolam as a sleep-inducer and i.v. anaesthetic of rapid onset and short duration.

  16. Pharmacology of pediatric resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushay, H M; Notterman, D A

    1997-02-01

    The resuscitation of children from cardiac arrest and shock remains a challenging goal. The pharmacologic principles underlying current recommendations for intervention in pediatric cardiac arrest have been reviewed. Current research efforts, points of controversy, and accepted practices that may not be most efficacious have been described. Epinephrine remains the most effective resuscitation adjunct. High-dose epinephrine is tolerated better in children than in adults, but its efficacy has not received full analysis. The preponderance of data continues to point toward the ineffectiveness and possible deleterious effects of overzealous sodium bicarbonate use. Calcium chloride is useful in the treatment of ionized hypocalcemia but may harm cells that have experienced asphyxial damage. Atropine is an effective agent for alleviating bradycardia induced by increased vagal tone, but because most bradycardia in children is caused by hypoxia, improved oxygenation is the intervention of choice. Adenosine is an effective and generally well-tolerated agent for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia. Lidocaine is the drug of choice for ventricular dysrhythmias, and bretylium, still relatively unexplored, is in reserve. Many pediatricians use dopamine for shock in the postresuscitative period, but epinephrine is superior. Most animal research on cardiac arrest is based on models with ventricular fibrillation that probably are not reflective of cardiac arrest situations most often seen in pediatrics.

  17. The pharmacology of regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, George J; Saul, Justin M; Furth, Mark E; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2013-07-01

    Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary, translational research enterprise whose explicit purpose is to advance technologies for the repair and replacement of damaged cells, tissues, and organs. Scientific progress in the field has been steady and expectations for its robust clinical application continue to rise. The major thesis of this review is that the pharmacological sciences will contribute critically to the accelerated translational progress and clinical utility of regenerative medicine technologies. In 2007, we coined the phrase "regenerative pharmacology" to describe the enormous possibilities that could occur at the interface between pharmacology, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. The operational definition of regenerative pharmacology is "the application of pharmacological sciences to accelerate, optimize, and characterize (either in vitro or in vivo) the development, maturation, and function of bioengineered and regenerating tissues." As such, regenerative pharmacology seeks to cure disease through restoration of tissue/organ function. This strategy is distinct from standard pharmacotherapy, which is often limited to the amelioration of symptoms. Our goal here is to get pharmacologists more involved in this field of research by exposing them to the tools, opportunities, challenges, and interdisciplinary expertise that will be required to ensure awareness and galvanize involvement. To this end, we illustrate ways in which the pharmacological sciences can drive future innovations in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering and thus help to revolutionize the discovery of curative therapeutics. Hopefully, the broad foundational knowledge provided herein will spark sustained conversations among experts in diverse fields of scientific research to the benefit of all.

  18. Cognitive patterns of neuroanatomy concepts: Knowledge organizations that emerge from problem solving versus information gathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Jeanne Margaret O'malley

    2000-10-01

    This study was motivated by some of the claims that are found in the literature on Problem-Based Learning (PBL). This instructional technique, which uses case studies as its primary instructional tool, has been advanced as an alternative to traditional instruction in order to foster more meaningful, integrative learning of scientific concepts. Several of the advantages attributed to Problem-Based Learning are that it (1) is generally preferred by students because it appears to foster a more nurturing and enjoyable learning experience, (2) fosters greater retention of knowledge and concepts acquired, and (3) results in increased ability to apply this knowledge toward solving new problems. This study examines the differences that result when students learn neuroanatomy concepts under two instructional contexts: problem solving vs. information gathering. The technological resource provided to students to support learning under each of these contexts was the multimedia program BrainStorm: An Interactive Neuroanatomy Atlas (Coppa & Tancred, 1995). The study explores the influence of context with regard to subjects' performance on objective post-tests, organization of knowledge as measured by Pathfinder Networks, differential use of the multimedia software and discourse differences emerging from the transcripts. The findings support previous research in the literature that problem-solving results in less knowledge acquisition in the short term, greater retention of material over time, and a subjects' preference for the method. However, both the degree of retention and preference were influenced by subjects' prior knowledge of the material in the exercises, as there was a significant difference in performance between the two exercises: for the exercise about which subjects appeared to have greater background information, memory decay was less, and subject attitude toward the problem solving instructional format was more favorable, than for the exercise for which subjects

  19. Pharmacology Portal: An Open Database for Clinical Pharmacologic Laboratory Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen Bjånes, Tormod; Mjåset Hjertø, Espen; Lønne, Lars; Aronsen, Lena; Andsnes Berg, Jon; Bergan, Stein; Otto Berg-Hansen, Grim; Bernard, Jean-Paul; Larsen Burns, Margrete; Toralf Fosen, Jan; Frost, Joachim; Hilberg, Thor; Krabseth, Hege-Merete; Kvan, Elena; Narum, Sigrid; Austgulen Westin, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    More than 50 Norwegian public and private laboratories provide one or more analyses for therapeutic drug monitoring or testing for drugs of abuse. Practices differ among laboratories, and analytical repertoires can change rapidly as new substances become available for analysis. The Pharmacology Portal was developed to provide an overview of these activities and to standardize the practices and terminology among laboratories. The Pharmacology Portal is a modern dynamic web database comprising all available analyses within therapeutic drug monitoring and testing for drugs of abuse in Norway. Content can be retrieved by using the search engine or by scrolling through substance lists. The core content is a substance registry updated by a national editorial board of experts within the field of clinical pharmacology. This ensures quality and consistency regarding substance terminologies and classification. All laboratories publish their own repertoires in a user-friendly workflow, adding laboratory-specific details to the core information in the substance registry. The user management system ensures that laboratories are restricted from editing content in the database core or in repertoires within other laboratory subpages. The portal is for nonprofit use, and has been fully funded by the Norwegian Medical Association, the Norwegian Society of Clinical Pharmacology, and the 8 largest pharmacologic institutions in Norway. The database server runs an open-source content management system that ensures flexibility with respect to further development projects, including the potential expansion of the Pharmacology Portal to other countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fuzzy pharmacology: theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, Beth A; Naranjo, Claudio A; Türksen, I Burhan

    2002-09-01

    Fuzzy pharmacology is a term coined to represent the application of fuzzy logic and fuzzy set theory to pharmacological problems. Fuzzy logic is the science of reasoning, thinking and inference that recognizes and uses the real world phenomenon that everything is a matter of degree. It is an extension of binary logic that is able to deal with complex systems because it does not require crisp definitions and distinctions for the system components. In pharmacology, fuzzy modeling has been used for the mechanical control of drug delivery in surgical settings, and work has begun evaluating its use in other pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic applications. Fuzzy pharmacology is an emerging field that, based on these initial explorations, warrants further investigation.

  1. The pharmacology of gynaecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tothill, A

    1980-09-01

    Focus in this discussion of the pharmacology of gynecology is on the following: vaginal infections; genital herpes; genital warts; pelvic inflammatory disease; urinary infections; pruritus vulvae; menstrual problems; infertility; oral contraception; and hormone replacement therapy. Doctors in England working in Local Authority Family Planning Clinics are debarred from prescribing, and any patient with a vaginal infection has to be referred either to a special clinic or to her general practitioner which is often preferable as her medical history will be known. Vaginal discharge is a frequent complaint, and it is necessary to obtain full details. 1 of the most common infections is vaginal candidosis. Nystatin pessaries have always been a useful 1st-line treatment and are specific for this type of infection. Trichomonas infection also occurs frequently and responds well to metronidazole in a 200 mg dosage, 3 times daily for 7 days. It is necessary to treat the consort at the same time. Venereal diseases such as syphilis and gonorrhea always require vigorous treatment. Patients are now presenting with herpes genitalis far more often. The only treatment which is currently available, and is as good as any, is the application of warm saline to the vaginal area. Genital warts may be discovered on routine gynecological examination or may be reported to the doctor by the patient. 1 application of a 20% solution of podophyllum, applied carefully to each wart, usually effects a cure. Pelvic inflammatory disease seems to be on the increase. Provided any serious disease is ruled out a course of systemic antibiotics is often effective. Urinary infections are often seen in the gynecologic clinic, and many of these will respond well to 2 tablets of co-trimoxazole, 2 times daily for 14 days. In pruritus vulvae it is important to determine whether the cause is general or local. Menstrual problems regularly occur and have been increased by the IUD and the low-dose progesterone pill

  2. [Pharmacological therapy of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagotto, Uberto; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vicennati, Valentina; Pasquali, Renato

    2008-04-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and it is correlated with various comorbidities, among which the most relevant are diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity management is a modern challenge because of the rapid evolution of unfavorable lifestyles and unfortunately there are no effective treatments applicable to the large majority of obese/overweight people. The current medical attitude is to treat the complications of obesity (e.g. dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases). However, the potential of treating obesity is enormous, bearing in mind that a volitional weight loss of 10 kg is associated with important risk factor improvement: blood pressure -10 mmHg, total cholesterol -10%, LDL cholesterol -15%, triglycerides -30%, fasting glucose -50%, HDL cholesterol +8%. Drug treatment for obesity is an evolving branch of pharmacology, burdened by severe side effects and consequences of the early drugs, withdrawn from the market, and challenged by the lack of long-term data on the effect of medications on obesity-related morbidity and mortality, first of all cardiovascular diseases. In Europe three antiobesity drugs are currently licensed: sibutramine, orlistat, and rimonabant; important trials with clinical endpoints are ongoing for sibutramine and rimonabant. While waiting for their results, it is convenient to evaluate these drugs for their effects on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors. Sibutramine is a centrally acting serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor that mainly increases satiety. At the level of brown adipose tissue, sibutramine can also facilitate energy expenditure by increasing thermogenesis. The long-term studies (five) documented a mean differential weight reduction of 4.45 kg for sibutramine vs placebo. Considering the principal studies, attrition rate was 43%. This drug not only reduces body weight and waist circumference, but it decreases triglycerides and

  3. The student experience of applied equivalence-based instruction for neuroanatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greville, W James; Dymond, Simon; Newton, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    Esoteric jargon and technical language are potential barriers to the teaching of science and medicine. Effective teaching strategies which address these barriers are desirable. Here, we created and evaluated the effectiveness of stand-alone 'equivalence-based instruction' (EBI) learning resources wherein the teaching of a small number of direct relationships between stimuli (e.g., anatomical regions, their function, and pathology) results in the learning of higher numbers of untaught relationships. We used a pre and post test design to assess students' learning of the relations. Resources were evaluated by students for perceived usefulness and confidence in the topic. Three versions of the resources were designed, to explore learning parameters such as the number of stimulus classes and the number of relationships within these classes. We show that use of EBI resulted in demonstrable learning of material that had not been directly taught. The resources were well received by students, even when the quantity of material to be learned was high. There was a strong desire for more EBI-based teaching. The findings are discussed in the context of an ongoing debate surrounding 'rote' vs. 'deep' learning, and the need to balance this debate with considerations of cognitive load and esoteric jargon routinely encountered during the study of medicine. These standalone EBI resources were an effective, efficient and well-received method for teaching neuroanatomy to medical students. The approach may be of benefit to other subjects with abundant technical jargon, science and other areas of medicine.

  4. Neuroanatomy of the male pelvis in respect to radical prostatectomy including three-dimensional visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalenberg, Thilo; Neuhaus, Jochen; Liatsikos, Evangelos; Winkler, Mathias; Löffler, Sabine; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The neuroanatomical structures of the radical prostatectomy (RP) are extensively discussed for their existence, localization and function. Especially structures, e.g. the so-called neurovascular bundle (NVB) that are points of debate in numerous anatomical studies. We review the literature and present our observations in cadaveric specimens, to reconstruct neuroanatomical structures in three dimensions (3D) with the use of appropriate computer applications and produce images of operative fields. We used an internet PubMed survey (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) to review recent publications and included back copies of historical neuroanatomical studies from our own library. Our own experimental cadaveric (specimens preserved in Thiel's solution) studies of the autonomic nerve supply of the lower urinary tract were also reviewed. Visualization of the pelvic anatomy and neuroanatomy was done using computer-based software packages. No unified terminology for the structures of the NVBs can be presented to date. The innervation of the smooth muscular structures of the urethra and the complex morphology of urethral sphincter remain unclear. Our cadaveric studies showed that nerves are located on the lateral aspect of the prostate in addition to the NVBs described at the dorsolateral side of the prostate. The neuroanatomical investigations of the male pelvis and visualization of the structures in 3D enable the presentation of operative sites as seen intraoperatively. Moreover, dynamic depiction of the pelvic floor is also possible.

  5. Development and assessment of a new 3D neuroanatomy teaching tool for MRI training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapkin, Zachary A; Lindgren, Kristen A; Lopez, Michael J; Stabio, Maureen E

    2015-01-01

    A computerized three-dimensional (3D) neuroanatomy teaching tool was developed for training medical students to identify subcortical structures on a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) series of the human brain. This program allows the user to transition rapidly between two-dimensional (2D) MRI slices, 3D object composites, and a combined model in which 3D objects are overlaid onto the 2D MRI slices, all while rotating the brain in any direction and advancing through coronal, sagittal, or axial planes. The efficacy of this tool was assessed by comparing scores from an MRI identification quiz and survey in two groups of first-year medical students. The first group was taught using this new 3D teaching tool, and the second group was taught the same content for the same amount of time but with traditional methods, including 2D images of brain MRI slices and 3D models from widely used textbooks and online sources. Students from the experimental group performed marginally better than the control group on overall test score (P = 0.07) and significantly better on test scores extracted from questions involving C-shaped internal brain structures (P teaching tool is an effective way to train medical students to read an MRI of the brain and is particularly effective for teaching C-shaped internal brain structures. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Surgical neuroanatomy and programming in deep brain stimulation for obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Takashi; Fayad, Sarah M; Goodman, Wayne K; Foote, Kelly D; Chen, Dennis; Peace, David A; Rhoton, Albert L; Okun, Michael S

    2014-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been established as a safe, effective therapy for movement disorders (Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, etc.), and its application is expanding to the treatment of other intractable neuropsychiatric disorders including depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Several published studies have supported the efficacy of DBS for severely debilitating OCD. However, questions remain regarding the optimal anatomic target and the lack of a bedside programming paradigm for OCD DBS. Management of OCD DBS can be highly variable and is typically guided by each center's individual expertise. In this paper, we review the various approaches to targeting and programming for OCD DBS. We also review the clinical experience for each proposed target and discuss the relevant neuroanatomy. A PubMed review was performed searching for literature on OCD DBS and included all articles published before March 2012. We included all available studies with a clear description of the anatomic targets, programming details, and the outcomes. Six different DBS approaches were identified. High-frequency stimulation with high voltage was applied in most cases, and predictive factors for favorable outcomes were discussed in the literature. DBS remains an experimental treatment for medication refractory OCD. Target selection and programming paradigms are not yet standardized, though an improved understanding of the relationship between the DBS lead and the surrounding neuroanatomic structures will aid in the selection of targets and the approach to programming. We propose to form a registry to track OCD DBS cases for future clinical study design. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.

  7. No differences in grades or level of satisfaction in a flipped classroom for neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar Petter

    2015-10-01

    The intensive nature of a 5- or 6-week teaching block poses unique problems for adequate delivery of content. This study was designed to compare the delivery of a unit of undergraduate neuroanatomy in a short summer school period, as a traditionally taught unit, with a rendition given in the form of the "Flipped Classroom." The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of the flipped classroom in the intensive mode classroom. The flipped classroom encompassed the same learning outcomes, but students were responsible for covering the content at home in preparation for tutorials that applied their acquired knowledge to higher levels of thinking. The main outcome measures were the final course grades and the level of satisfaction with the course. There were no significant differences between the 2 cohorts in final grades (p = .259), self-rated knowledge (p = .182), or overall satisfaction with the course (p = .892). This particular design of the flipped classroom did not add value to the intensive mode experience. It may be that this mode of delivery is ill suited to intensive classes for subjects that carry a lot of content. The use of the flipped classroom requires further research to fully evaluate its value.

  8. Clinical neuroanatomy and diagnostic imaging of the skull. 2. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmann, H.J.; Weinrich, W.

    1991-01-01

    In the last few years, the techniques of CT, MRI, PET and utrasonography have been improved in their diagnostic efficiency, but in spite of the much enhanced resolution achievable with the new techniques, a large part of the neurofunctional systems that are of great significance to clinical diagnostic evaluation remains in the dark. The local structure of the neurofunctional systems is derived from the data describing the position of the conductive structures such as cerebral ventricles or typical cerebral sulci or gyri. A good knowledge of the three-dimensional topography of the neuroanatomy in the skull is required for this purpose, and this is what the book at hand is intended to confer. The arteries and their vascular environment are shown in the frontal, sagittal and axial plane and are compared with drawings produced from angiographies. The information given covers the cranium viscerale, the craniocervical neighbouring areas, and the motor innervation areas of the skull. The term 'diagnostic imaging of the skull' comprises the whole head and the transitional zones. The illustration of the neurofunctional system anatomy in the tomogram presented in this book is a source of information that may serve as a guide for pathfinding in CT, MRI, PET and ultrasonography. In addition, the knowledge found in the book will help to assign clinical data to pathologic findings revealed by CT or MRI. (orig.) With 596 mostly coloured figs [de

  9. Stereoscopic Three-Dimensional Neuroanatomy Lectures Enhance Neurosurgical Training: Prospective Comparison with Traditional Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Anna D; Guilfoyle, Mathew R; Candy, Nicholas G; Budohoski, Karol P; Hofmann, Riikka; Barone, Damiano G; Santarius, Thomas; Kirollos, Ramez W; Trivedi, Rikin A

    2017-12-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging is increasingly used in the teaching of neuroanatomy and although this is mainly aimed at undergraduate medical students, it has enormous potential for enhancing the training of neurosurgeons. This study aims to assess whether 3D lecturing is an effective method of enhancing the knowledge and confidence of neurosurgeons and how it compares with traditional two-dimensional (2D) lecturing and cadaveric training. Three separate teaching sessions for neurosurgical trainees were organized: 1) 2D course (2D lecture + cadaveric session), 2) 3D lecture alone, and 3) 3D course (3D lecture + cadaveric session). Before and after each session, delegates were asked to complete questionnaires containing questions relating to surgical experience, anatomic knowledge, confidence in performing procedures, and perceived value of 3D, 2D, and cadaveric teaching. Although both 2D and 3D lectures and courses were similarly effective at improving self-rated knowledge and understanding, the 3D lecture and course were associated with significantly greater gains in confidence reported by the delegates for performing a subfrontal approach and sylvian fissure dissection. Stereoscopic 3D lectures provide neurosurgical trainees with greater confidence for performing standard operative approaches and enhances the benefit of subsequent practical experience in developing technical skills in cadaveric dissection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Functional neuroanatomy of amygdalohippocampal interconnections and their role in learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Alexander J; Mott, David D

    2017-03-01

    The amygdalar nuclear complex and hippocampal/parahippocampal region are key components of the limbic system that play a critical role in emotional learning and memory. This Review discusses what is currently known about the neuroanatomy and neurotransmitters involved in amygdalo-hippocampal interconnections, their functional roles in learning and memory, and their involvement in mnemonic dysfunctions associated with neuropsychiatric and neurological diseases. Tract tracing studies have shown that the interconnections between discrete amygdalar nuclei and distinct layers of individual hippocampal/parahippocampal regions are robust and complex. Although it is well established that glutamatergic pyramidal cells in the amygdala and hippocampal region are the major players mediating interconnections between these regions, recent studies suggest that long-range GABAergic projection neurons are also involved. Whereas neuroanatomical studies indicate that the amygdala only has direct interconnections with the ventral hippocampal region, electrophysiological studies and behavioral studies investigating fear conditioning and extinction, as well as amygdalar modulation of hippocampal-dependent mnemonic functions, suggest that the amygdala interacts with dorsal hippocampal regions via relays in the parahippocampal cortices. Possible pathways for these indirect interconnections, based on evidence from previous tract tracing studies, are discussed in this Review. Finally, memory disorders associated with dysfunction or damage to the amygdala, hippocampal region, and/or their interconnections are discussed in relation to Alzheimer's disease, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and temporal lobe epilepsy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Computational neuroanatomy using brain deformations: From brain parcellation to multivariate pattern analysis and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-10-01

    The past 20 years have seen a mushrooming growth of the field of computational neuroanatomy. Much of this work has been enabled by the development and refinement of powerful, high-dimensional image warping methods, which have enabled detailed brain parcellation, voxel-based morphometric analyses, and multivariate pattern analyses using machine learning approaches. The evolution of these 3 types of analyses over the years has overcome many challenges. We present the evolution of our work in these 3 directions, which largely follows the evolution of this field. We discuss the progression from single-atlas, single-registration brain parcellation work to current ensemble-based parcellation; from relatively basic mass-univariate t-tests to optimized regional pattern analyses combining deformations and residuals; and from basic application of support vector machines to generative-discriminative formulations of multivariate pattern analyses, and to methods dealing with heterogeneity of neuroanatomical patterns. We conclude with discussion of some of the future directions and challenges. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. [The neuroanatomy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: neuropsychological and clinical correlates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, J; Fernandez-Jaen, A; Martin Fernandez-Mayoralas, D; Lopez-Martin, S; Fernandez-Perrone, A L; Calleja-Perez, B; Jimenez-De la Pena, M; Recio-Rodriguez, M

    2016-07-16

    The development of structural magnetic resonance scanning and new methods of analysis has made it possible to explore, in a hitherto unknown way, the neuroanatomical bases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Yet, little is known about the relation between the clinical symptoms and the neuropsychological dysfunctions characterising ADHD and the neuroanatomical alterations that are observed. To explore the relation between neuroanatomy, clinical features and neuropsychology in ADHD. At group level, there are a number of marked differences between the brain of children, adolescents and adults with ADHD and the brain of subjects with a typical development. These differences are observed cross-sectionally and longitudinally in all the measurements, both in the grey matter and in the white matter. Although still scarce, there is an increasing body of evidence showing that these differences are related with the core symptoms of the disorder and with the degree of clinical dysfunction. They also appear to be associated with cognitive functioning (mainly attention and inhibitory control). The relation among the different levels of analysis in the study of ADHD bring research closer to the clinical features and allows a better understanding and management of the disorder. Although progress is undoubtedly being made in this field, there are still many questions that need exploring in greater depth. There is a need for a better understanding of the association between the neuroanatomical measurements and each dimension of the symptoms, and their relationship with other neuropsychological processes that are also involved in the disorder.

  13. Functional neuroanatomy in the pre-Hippocratic era: observations from the Iliad of Homer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlas, D J

    2001-06-01

    To describe observations of neurological significance made in the Iliad of Homer and to interpret these relative to pre-Hippocratic concepts of health and disease in Ancient Greece. English translations of the Iliad were analyzed for references of neurological significance, and the Homeric Greek was subsequently reviewed for accuracy. Findings are discussed in the context of ancient Greek ideas regarding anatomy and physiology, early descriptions and conceptualizations of the nervous system, ancient Greek theories concerning illness and disease, and the practice of medicine in the pre-Hippocratic era. Descriptions of injuries sustained by soldiers fighting in the Trojan War represent some of the earliest case histories of neurotrauma. Passages in the Iliad describe immediate death after penetrating head trauma with injury to the brain or the brainstem, make reference to clinical signs of brain injury, and mention neurological signs and symptoms after damage to the spinal cord, brachial plexus, and peripheral nerves. The Iliad of Homer contains many descriptions of traumatic injury to the nervous system and provides us with 3,000-year-old references to some of the basic principles of functional neuroanatomy.

  14. Gender differences in the functional neuroanatomy of emotional episodic autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piefke, Martina; Weiss, Peter H; Markowitsch, Hans J; Fink, Gereon R

    2005-04-01

    Autobiographical memory is based on interactions between episodic memory contents, associated emotions, and a sense of self-continuity along the time axis of one's life. The functional neuroanatomy subserving autobiographical memory is known to include prefrontal, medial and lateral temporal, as well as retrosplenial brain areas; however, whether gender differences exist in neural correlates of autobiographical memory remains to be clarified. We reanalyzed data from a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment to investigate gender-related differences in the neural bases of autobiographical memories with differential remoteness and emotional valence. On the behavioral level, there were no significant gender differences in memory performance or emotional intensity of memories. Activations common to males and females during autobiographical memory retrieval were observed in a bilateral network of brain areas comprising medial and lateral temporal regions, including hippocampal and parahippocampal structures, posterior cingulate, as well as prefrontal cortex. In males (relative to females), all types of autobiographical memories investigated were associated with differential activation of the left parahippocampal gyrus. By contrast, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was activated differentially by females. In addition, the right insula was activated differentially in females during remote and negative memory retrieval. The data show gender-related differential neural activations within the network subserving autobiographical memory in both genders. We suggest that the differential activations may reflect gender-specific cognitive strategies during access to autobiographical memories that do not necessarily affect the behavioral level of memory performance and emotionality. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Applied neuroanatomy elective to reinforce and promote engagement with neurosensory pathways using interactive and artistic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Vinh; Yeh, Pon-Hsiu; Vogel, Kristine S; Moore, Charleen M

    2015-01-01

    One in six Americans is currently affected by neurologic disease. As the United States population ages, the number of neurologic complaints is expected to increase. Thus, there is a pressing need for more neurologists as well as more neurology training in other specialties. Often interest in neurology begins during medical school, so improving education in medical neural courses is a critical step toward producing more neurologists and better neurology training in other specialists. To this end, a novel applied neuroanatomy elective was designed at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA) to complement the traditional first-year medical neuroscience course and promote engagement and deep learning of the material with a focus on neurosensory pathways. The elective covered four neurosensory modalities (proprioception/balance, vision, auditory, and taste/olfaction) over four sessions, each with a short classroom component and a much longer activity component. At each session, students reviewed the neurosensory pathways through structured presentations and then applied them to preplanned interactive activities, many of which allowed students to utilize their artistic talents. Students were required to complete subjective pre-course and post-course surveys and reflections. The survey results and positive student comments suggest that the elective was a valuable tool when used in parallel with the traditional medical neuroscience course in promoting engagement and reinforcement of the neurosensory material. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Quality management of pharmacology and safety pharmacology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Per; Seiler, Jürg P

    2002-01-01

    to safety pharmacology studies, and, when indicated, to secondary pharmacodynamic studies, does not influence the scientific standards of studies. However, applying formal GLP standards will ensure the quality, reliability and integrity of studies, which reflect sound study management. It is important...... to encourage a positive attitude among researchers and academics towards these lines, whenever possible. GLP principles applied to the management of non-clinical safety studies are appropriate quality standards when studies are used in the context of protecting public health, and these quality standards...... of pharmacology studies (ICH S7A): primary pharmacodynamic, secondary pharmacodynamic and safety pharmacology studies, and guidance on the quality standards (expectations for GLP conformity) for these study types have been provided. Primary pharmacodynamic studies are the only study types that are fully exempt...

  17. A mathematical model to determine incorporated quantities of radioactivity from the measured photometric values of tritium-autoradiographs in neuroanatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennissen, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The mathematical/empirical model developed in this paper helps to determine the incorporated radioactivity from the measured photometric values and the exposure time T. Possible errors of autoradiography due to the exposure time or the preparation are taken into consideration by the empirical model. It is shown that the error of appr. 400% appearing in the sole comparison of the measured photometric values can be corrected. The model is valid for neuroanatomy as optical nerves, i.e. neuroanatomical material, were used to develop it. Its application also to the other sections of the central nervous system seems to be justified due to the reduction of errors thus achieved. (orig.) [de

  18. Stereoscopic neuroanatomy lectures using a three-dimensional virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockro, Ralf A; Amaxopoulou, Christina; Killeen, Tim; Wagner, Wolfgang; Reisch, Robert; Schwandt, Eike; Gutenberg, Angelika; Giese, Alf; Stofft, Eckart; Stadie, Axel T

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics are increasingly used to supplement the teaching of anatomy. While most systems consist of a program which produces 3D renderings on a workstation with a standard screen, the Dextrobeam virtual reality VR environment allows the presentation of spatial neuroanatomical models to larger groups of students through a stereoscopic projection system. Second-year medical students (n=169) were randomly allocated to receive a standardised pre-recorded audio lecture detailing the anatomy of the third ventricle accompanied by either a two-dimensional (2D) PowerPoint presentation (n=80) or a 3D animated tour of the third ventricle with the DextroBeam. Students completed a 10-question multiple-choice exam based on the content learned and a subjective evaluation of the teaching method immediately after the lecture. Students in the 2D group achieved a mean score of 5.19 (±2.12) compared to 5.45 (±2.16) in the 3D group, with the results in the 3D group statistically non-inferior to those of the 2D group (p<0.0001). The students rated the 3D method superior to 2D teaching in four domains (spatial understanding, application in future anatomy classes, effectiveness, enjoyableness) (p<0.01). Stereoscopically enhanced 3D lectures are valid methods of imparting neuroanatomical knowledge and are well received by students. More research is required to define and develop the role of large-group VR systems in modern neuroanatomy curricula. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. The student experience of applied equivalence-based instruction for neuroanatomy teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. James Greville

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Esoteric jargon and technical language are potential barriers to the teaching of science and medicine. Effective teaching strategies which address these barriers are desirable. Here, we created and evaluated the effectiveness of stand-alone ‘equivalence-based instruction’ (EBI learning resources wherein the teaching of a small number of direct relationships between stimuli (e.g., anatomical regions, their function, and pathology results in the learning of higher numbers of untaught relationships. Methods We used a pre and post test design to assess students’ learning of the relations. Resources were evaluated by students for perceived usefulness and confidence in the topic. Three versions of the resources were designed, to explore learning parameters such as the number of stimulus classes and the number of relationships within these classes. Results We show that use of EBI resulted in demonstrable learning of material that had not been directly taught. The resources were well received by students, even when the quantity of material to be learned was high. There was a strong desire for more EBI-based teaching. The findings are discussed in the context of an ongoing debate surrounding ‘rote’ vs. ‘deep’ learning, and the need to balance this debate with considerations of cognitive load and esoteric jargon routinely encountered during the study of medicine. Conclusion These standalone EBI resources were an effective, efficient and well-received method for teaching neuroanatomy to medical students. The approach may be of benefit to other subjects with abundant technical jargon, science and other areas of medicine.

  20. Functional neuroanatomy of executive function after neonatal brain injury in adults who were born very preterm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia K Kalpakidou

    Full Text Available Individuals who were born very preterm (VPT; <33 gestational weeks are at risk of experiencing deficits in tasks involving executive function in childhood and beyond. In addition, the type and severity of neonatal brain injury associated with very preterm birth may exert differential effects on executive functioning by altering its neuroanatomical substrates. Here we addressed this question by investigating with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI the haemodynamic response during executive-type processing using a phonological verbal fluency and a working memory task in VPT-born young adults who had experienced differing degrees of neonatal brain injury. 12 VPT individuals with a history of periventricular haemorrhage and ventricular dilatation (PVH+VD, 17 VPT individuals with a history of uncomplicated periventricular haemorrhage (UPVH, 13 VPT individuals with no history of neonatal brain injury and 17 controls received an MRI scan whilst completing a verbal fluency task with two cognitive loads ('easy' and 'hard' letters. Two groups of VPT individuals (PVH+VD; n = 10, UPVH; n = 8 performed an n-back task with three cognitive loads (1-, 2-, 3-back. Results demonstrated that VPT individuals displayed hyperactivation in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices and in caudate nucleus, insula and thalamus compared to controls, as demands of the verbal fluency task increased, regardless of type of neonatal brain injury. On the other hand, during the n-back task and as working memory load increased, the PVH+VD group showed less engagement of the frontal cortex than the UPVH group. In conclusion, this study suggests that the functional neuroanatomy of different executive-type processes is altered following VPT birth and that neural activation associated with specific aspects of executive function (i.e., working memory may be particularly sensitive to the extent of neonatal brain injury.

  1. Neuroanatomy and sex differences of the lordosis-inhibiting system in the lateral septum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Shinji; Kanaya, Moeko; Yamanouchi, Korehito

    2014-01-01

    Female sexual behavior in rodents, termed lordosis, is controlled by facilitatory and inhibitory systems in the brain. It has been well demonstrated that a neural pathway from the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) to the midbrain central gray (MCG) is essential for facilitatory regulation of lordosis. The neural pathway from the arcuate nucleus to the VMN, via the medial preoptic nucleus, in female rats mediates transient suppression of lordosis, until female sexual receptivity is induced. In addition to this pathway, other regions are involved in inhibitory regulation of lordosis in female rats. The lordosis-inhibiting systems exist not only in the female brain but also in the male brain. The systems contribute to suppression of heterotypical sexual behavior in male rats, although they have the potential ability to display lordosis. The lateral septum (LS) exerts an inhibitory influence on lordosis in both female and male rats. This review focuses on the neuroanatomy and sex differences of the lordosis-inhibiting system in the LS. The LS functionally and anatomically links to the MCG to exert suppression of lordosis. Neurons of the intermediate part of the LS (LSi) serve as lordosis-inhibiting neurons and project axons to the MCG. The LSi-MCG neural connection is sexually dimorphic, and formation of the male-like LSi-MCG neural connection is affected by aromatized testosterone originating from the testes in the postnatal period. The sexually dimorphic LSi-MCG neural connection may reflect the morphological basis of sex differences in the inhibitory regulation of lordosis in rats. PMID:25278832

  2. Functional neuroanatomy of gesture-speech integration in children varies with individual differences in gesture processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir-Lira, Özlem Ece; Asaridou, Salomi S; Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Holt, Anna E; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Small, Steven L

    2018-03-08

    Gesture is an integral part of children's communicative repertoire. However, little is known about the neurobiology of speech and gesture integration in the developing brain. We investigated how 8- to 10-year-old children processed gesture that was essential to understanding a set of narratives. We asked whether the functional neuroanatomy of gesture-speech integration varies as a function of (1) the content of speech, and/or (2) individual differences in how gesture is processed. When gestures provided missing information not present in the speech (i.e., disambiguating gesture; e.g., "pet" + flapping palms = bird), the presence of gesture led to increased activity in inferior frontal gyri, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the left superior temporal gyrus, compared to when gesture provided redundant information (i.e., reinforcing gesture; e.g., "bird" + flapping palms = bird). This pattern of activation was found only in children who were able to successfully integrate gesture and speech behaviorally, as indicated by their performance on post-test story comprehension questions. Children who did not glean meaning from gesture did not show differential activation across the two conditions. Our results suggest that the brain activation pattern for gesture-speech integration in children overlaps with-but is broader than-the pattern in adults performing the same task. Overall, our results provide a possible neurobiological mechanism that could underlie children's increasing ability to integrate gesture and speech over childhood, and account for individual differences in that integration. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Pharmacology Experiments on the Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    A computer program that replaces a set of pharmacology and physiology laboratory experiments on live animals or isolated organs is described and illustrated. Five experiments are simulated: dose-effect relationships on smooth muscle, blood pressure and catecholamines, neuromuscular signal transmission, acetylcholine and the circulation, and…

  4. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  5. Chemotaxonomy and pharmacology of Gentianaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Schripsema, Jan

    2002-01-01

    the remaining six are members of the Gentianeae. Based on the above results, a tentative list of chemical characteristics for the tribes of the Gentianaceae is presented. Finally, some pharmacologically interesting properties of plant extracts or compounds from taxa within Gentianaceae are listed....

  6. Automatic Testing and Assessment of Neuroanatomy Using a Digital Brain Atlas: Method and Development of Computer- and Mobile-Based Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Thirunavuukarasuu, Arumugam; Ananthasubramaniam, Anand; Chua, Beng Choon; Qian, Guoyu; Nowinska, Natalia G.; Marchenko, Yevgen; Volkau, Ihar

    2009-01-01

    Preparation of tests and student's assessment by the instructor are time consuming. We address these two tasks in neuroanatomy education by employing a digital media application with a three-dimensional (3D), interactive, fully segmented, and labeled brain atlas. The anatomical and vascular models in the atlas are linked to "Terminologia…

  7. The Value of Neurosurgical and Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography in Clinically Integrated Neuroanatomy Modules: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familiari, Giuseppe; Relucenti, Michela; Heyn, Rosemarie; Baldini, Rossella; D'Andrea, Giancarlo; Familiari, Pietro; Bozzao, Alessandro; Raco, Antonino

    2013-01-01

    Neuroanatomy is considered to be one of the most difficult anatomical subjects for students. To provide motivation and improve learning outcomes in this area, clinical cases and neurosurgical images from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractographies produced using an intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging apparatus (MRI/DTI) were presented and…

  8. Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy of Reflexive and Volitional Saccades as Revealed by Lesion Studies with Neurological Patients and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muri, Rene M.; Nyffeler, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This review discusses the neurophysiology and neuroanatomy of the cortical control of reflexive and volitional saccades in humans. The main focus is on classical lesion studies and studies using the interference method of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). To understand the behavioural function of a region, it is essential to assess…

  9. Functional Neuroanatomy Associated with Natural and Urban Scenic Views in the Human Brain: 3.0T Functional MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwang Won; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Baek, Han Su; Oh, Seok Kyun; Kang, Heoung Keun; Lee, Sam Gyu; Kim, Yoon Soo; Song, Jin Kyu [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    By using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique we assessed brain activation patterns while subjects were viewing the living environments representing natural and urban scenery. A total of 28 healthy right-handed subjects underwent an fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner. The stimulation paradigm consisted of three times the rest condition and two times the activation condition, each of which lasted for 30 and 120 seconds, respectively. During the activation period, each subject viewed natural and urban scenery, respectively. The predominant brain activation areas observed following exposure to natural scenic views in contrast with urban views included the superior and middle frontal gyri, superior parietal gyrus, precuneus, basal ganglia, superior occipital gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and insula. On the other hand, the predominant brain activation areas following exposure to urban scenic views in contrast with natural scenes included the middle and inferior occipital gyri, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, anterior temporal pole, and inferior frontal gyrus. Our findings support the idea that the differential functional neuroanatomies for each scenic view are presumably related with subjects emotional responses to the natural and urban environment, and thus the differential functional neuroanatomy can be utilized as a neural index for the evaluation of friendliness in ecological housing

  10. Functional Neuroanatomy Associated with Natural and Urban Scenic Views in the Human Brain: 3.0T Functional MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Won; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Baek, Han Su; Oh, Seok Kyun; Kang, Heoung Keun; Lee, Sam Gyu; Kim, Yoon Soo; Song, Jin Kyu

    2010-01-01

    By using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique we assessed brain activation patterns while subjects were viewing the living environments representing natural and urban scenery. A total of 28 healthy right-handed subjects underwent an fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner. The stimulation paradigm consisted of three times the rest condition and two times the activation condition, each of which lasted for 30 and 120 seconds, respectively. During the activation period, each subject viewed natural and urban scenery, respectively. The predominant brain activation areas observed following exposure to natural scenic views in contrast with urban views included the superior and middle frontal gyri, superior parietal gyrus, precuneus, basal ganglia, superior occipital gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and insula. On the other hand, the predominant brain activation areas following exposure to urban scenic views in contrast with natural scenes included the middle and inferior occipital gyri, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, anterior temporal pole, and inferior frontal gyrus. Our findings support the idea that the differential functional neuroanatomies for each scenic view are presumably related with subjects emotional responses to the natural and urban environment, and thus the differential functional neuroanatomy can be utilized as a neural index for the evaluation of friendliness in ecological housing

  11. Neuroanatomia do transtorno de pânico Neuroanatomy of panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Andre Mezzasalma

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O Transtorno de Pânico (TP é um transtorno de ansiedade que permite um estudo comparativo de modelos animais visando à elucidação dos circuitos cerebrais envolvidos na sua gênese, embora estes ainda tenham sido pouco discutidos. MÉTODOS: Os autores realizam uma revisão da literatura sobre neurobiologia e neuroanatomia do TP. RESULTADOS: Uma revisão de dados demonstra a existência de uma "rede de medo", que tem como ponto principal o núcleo central da amígdala e compreende o hipotálamo, o tálamo, o hipocampo, a substância cinzenta periaquedutal, o locus ceruleus e outras estruturas do tronco cerebral. Sua presença é evidenciada em estudos de modelos animais de estados emocionais e comportamentais, e sua presença e importância podem ser extrapoladas para o TP em humanos. CONCLUSÃO: Esta rede de medo pode permitir que novos avanços e estudos utilizando técnicas de neuroimagem e/ou psicofármacos possam auxiliar na maior elucidação da circuitos cerebrais do TP.OBJECTIVES: Animal model studies may allow greater elucidation of the cerebral circuits involved in the genesis of panic disorder (PD, but these studies have not yet been fully analyzed. METHODS: The authors review recent literature on the neurobiology and neuroanatomy of PD. RESULTS: In this update, the authors present a revision of data that demonstrates the existence of a "fear network", which has as its main point the central nucleus of the amygdale and includes the hypothalamus, the thalamus, the hippocampus, the periaqueductal gray region, the locus ceruleus and other brainstem structures. Its existence is evidenced in animal studies of emotional and behavioral states, and its presence and importance can be extrapolated to the study of PD in humans. CONCLUSION: This fear network can allow new progresses and studies using neuroimaging techniques and/or psychopharmacological trials, further elucidating the cerebral circuits of PD.

  12. The lateral hypothalamic area revisited: neuroanatomy, body weight regulation, neuroendocrinology and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardis, L L; Bellinger, L L

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews findings that have accumulated since the original description of the syndrome that follows destruction of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). These data comprise the areas of neuroanatomy, body weight regulation, neuroendocrinology, neurochemistry, and intermediary metabolism. Neurons in the LHA are the largest in the hypothalamus, and are topographically well organized. The LHA belongs to the parasympathetic area of the hypothalamus, and connects with all major parts of the brain and the major hypothalamic nuclei. Rats with LHA lesions regulate their body weight set point in a primary manner and not because of destruction of a "feeding center". The lower body weight is not due to finickiness. In the early stages of the syndrome, catabolism and running activity are enhanced, and so is the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) as shown by increased norepinephrine excretion that normalizes one mo later. The LHA plays a role in the feedback control of body weight regulation different from ventromedial (VMN) and dorsomedial (DMN). Tissue preparations from the LHA promote glucose utilization and insulin release. Although it does not belong to the classical hypothysiotropic area of the hypothalamus, the LHA does affect neuroendocrine secretions. No plasma data on growth hormone are available following electrolytic lesions LHA but electrical stimulation fails to elicit GH secretion. Nevertheless, antiserum raised against the 1-37 fragment of human GHRF stains numerous perikarya in the dorsolateral LHA. The plasma circadian corticosterone rhythm is disrupted in LHA lesioned rats, but this is unlikely due to destruction of intrinsic oscillators. Stimulation studies show a profound role of the LHA in glucose metabolism (glycolysis, glycogenesis, gluconeogenesis), this mechanism being cholinergic. Its role in lipolysis appears not to be critical. In general, stimulation of the VMN elicits opposite effects. Lesion studies in rats show altered

  13. Pharmacological Treatment for Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Sugi, MD PhD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological treatment for atrial fibrillation has a variety of purposes, such as pharmacological defibrillation, maintenance of sinus rhythm, heart rate control to prevent congestive heart failure and prevention of both cerebral infarction and atrial remodeling. Sodium channel blockers are superior to potassium channel blockers for atrial defibrillation, while both sodium and potassium channel blockers are effective in the maintenance of sinus rhythm. In general, digitalis or Ca antagonists are used to control heart rate during atrial fibrillation to prevent congestive heart failure, while amiodarone or bepridil also reduce heart rates during atrial fibrillation. Anticoagulant therapy with warfarin is recommended to prevent cerebral infarction and angiotensin converting enzyme antagonists or angiotensin II receptor blockers are also used to prevent atrial remodeling. One should select appropriate drugs for treatment of atrial fibrillation according to the patient's condition.

  14. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fisher, Iben Wendelboe; Larsen, Isabelle Myriam

    2013-01-01

    Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion. Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal ...

  15. Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the

  16. Pharmacological chaperoning: a primer on mechanism and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidenheimer, Nancy J; Ryder, Katelyn G

    2014-05-01

    Approximately forty percent of diseases are attributable to protein misfolding, including those for which genetic mutation produces misfolding mutants. Intriguingly, many of these mutants are not terminally misfolded since native-like folding, and subsequent trafficking to functional locations, can be induced by target-specific, small molecules variably termed pharmacological chaperones, pharmacoperones, or pharmacochaperones (PCs). PC targets include enzymes, receptors, transporters, and ion channels, revealing the breadth of proteins that can be engaged by ligand-assisted folding. The purpose of this review is to provide an integrated primer of the diverse mechanisms and pharmacology of PCs. In this regard, we examine the structural mechanisms that underlie PC rescue of misfolding mutants, including the ability of PCs to act as surrogates for defective intramolecular interactions and, at the intermolecular level, overcome oligomerization deficiencies and dominant negative effects, as well as influence the subunit stoichiometry of heteropentameric receptors. Not surprisingly, PC-mediated structural correction of misfolding mutants normalizes interactions with molecular chaperones that participate in protein quality control and forward-trafficking. A variety of small molecules have proven to be efficacious PCs and the advantages and disadvantages of employing orthostatic antagonists, active-site inhibitors, orthostatic agonists, and allosteric modulator PCs are considered. Also examined is the possibility that several therapeutic agents may have unrecognized activity as PCs, and this chaperoning activity may mediate/contribute to therapeutic action and/or account for adverse effects. Lastly, we explore evidence that pharmacological chaperoning exploits intrinsic ligand-assisted folding mechanisms. Given the widespread applicability of PC rescue of mutants associated with protein folding disorders, both in vitro and in vivo, the therapeutic potential of PCs is vast

  17. Neonatal brain injury and neuroanatomy of memory processing following very preterm birth in adulthood: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia K Kalpakidou

    Full Text Available Altered functional neuroanatomy of high-order cognitive processing has been described in very preterm individuals (born before 33 weeks of gestation; VPT compared to controls in childhood and adolescence. However, VPT birth may be accompanied by different types of adverse neonatal events and associated brain injury, the severity of which may have differential effects on brain development and subsequent neurodevelopmental outcome. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study to investigate how differing degrees of neonatal brain injury, detected by neonatal ultrasounds, affect the functional neuroanatomy of memory processing in VPT young adults. We used a verbal paired associates learning task, consisting of four encoding, four cued-recall and four baseline condition blocks. To further investigate whether differences in neural activation between the groups were modulated by structural brain changes, structural MRI data were also collected. We studied 12 VPT young adults with a history of periventricular haemorrhage with associated ventricular dilatation, 17 VPT individuals with a history of uncomplicated periventricular haemorrhage, 12 individuals with normal ultrasonographic findings, and 17 controls. Results of a linear trend analysis demonstrated that during completion of the paired associates learning task right frontal and right parietal brain activation decreased as the severity of neonatal brain injury increased. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in on-line task performance and participants' intelligence quotient (IQ at assessment. This pattern of differential activation across the groups was observed particularly in the right middle frontal gyrus during encoding and in the right posterior cingulate gyrus during recall. Structural MRI data analysis revealed that grey matter volume in the right superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum, left middle temporal gyrus, right globus pallidus and

  18. Potential and limitations of X-Ray micro-computed tomography in arthropod neuroanatomy: A methodological and comparative survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombke, Andy; Lipke, Elisabeth; Michalik, Peter; Uhl, Gabriele; Harzsch, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Classical histology or immunohistochemistry combined with fluorescence or confocal laser scanning microscopy are common techniques in arthropod neuroanatomy, and these methods often require time-consuming and difficult dissections and sample preparations. Moreover, these methods are prone to artifacts due to compression and distortion of tissues, which often result in information loss and especially affect the spatial relationships of the examined parts of the nervous system in their natural anatomical context. Noninvasive approaches such as X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can overcome such limitations and have been shown to be a valuable tool for understanding and visualizing internal anatomy and structural complexity. Nevertheless, knowledge about the potential of this method for analyzing the anatomy and organization of nervous systems, especially of taxa with smaller body size (e.g., many arthropods), is limited. This study set out to analyze the brains of selected arthropods with micro-CT, and to compare these results with available histological and immunohistochemical data. Specifically, we explored the influence of different sample preparation procedures. Our study shows that micro-CT is highly suitable for analyzing arthropod neuroarchitecture in situ and allows specific neuropils to be distinguished within the brain to extract quantitative data such as neuropil volumes. Moreover, data acquisition is considerably faster compared with many classical histological techniques. Thus, we conclude that micro-CT is highly suitable for targeting neuroanatomy, as it reduces the risk of artifacts and is faster than classical techniques. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:1281–1295, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25728683

  19. Iomazenil: pharmacological and animal data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, H.F.; Blaeuenstein, P.A.; Hasler, P.H.; Schubiger, P.A.; Hunkeler, W.; Bibettu, E.P.; Pieri, L.; Grayson Richards, J.

    1990-01-01

    The flumazenil analogue Ro 16-0154 (Iomazenil), a benzodiazepine partial inverse agonist, has been labelled by halogen exchange to enable SPECT investigations of central benzodiazepine receptors in human brain. The purified 123 I-Ro 16-0154 was found to be stable in rat brain preparations and to be metabolized in rat liver preparations. Its pharmacological properties were comparable to those of flumazenil with the exception of the antagonism of diazepam versus pentylenetetrazol. Biodistribution in rats (1 h p.i.) resulted in a high brain to blood ratio of 16. Clinical studies revealed images of the bezodiazepine receptor density in the brain. (author) 9 figs., 3 tabs., 27 refs

  20. Pharmacological approach to acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, U.C.; Semb, S.; Nøjgaard, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmacological prevention and treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP) based on experimental animal models and clinical trials. Somatostatin (SS) and octreotide inhibit the exocrine production of pancreatic enzymes and may...... be useful as prophylaxis against post endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP). The protease inhibitor gabexate mesilate (GM) is used routinely as treatment to AP in some countries, but randomized clinical trials and a meta-analysis do not support this practice. Nitroglycerin (NGL...

  1. Pharmacological approach to acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich-Christian; Semb, Synne; Nojgaard, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    -steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) indomethacin and diclofenac have in randomized studies showed potential as prophylaxis against PEP. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with anti-inflammatory properties but two trials testing IL-10 as prophylaxis to PEP have returned conflicting results. Antibodies...... pharmacological treatment of AP is limited and studies on the effect of potent anti-inflammatory drugs are warranted....... against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have a potential as rescue therapy but no clinical trials are currently being conducted. The antibiotics beta-lactams and quinolones reduce mortality when necrosis is present in pancreas and may also reduce incidence of infected necrosis. Evidence based...

  2. Gaultheria: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Bing Shi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Gaultheria, comprised of approximately 134 species, is mostly used in ethnic drugs to cure rheumatism and relieve pain. Phytochemical investigations of the genus Gaultheria have revealed the presence of methyl salicylate derivatives, C6-C3 constituents, organic acids, terpenoids, steroids, and other compounds. Methyl salicylate glycoside is considered as a characteristic ingredient in this genus, whose anti-rheumatic effects may have a new mechanism of action. In this review, comprehensive information on the phytochemistry, volatile components and the pharmacology of the genus Gaultheria is provided to explore its potential and advance research.

  3. Pharmacologic therapy for acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambhampati, Swetha; Park, Walter; Habtezion, Aida

    2014-01-01

    While conservative management such as fluid, bowel rest, and antibiotics is the mainstay of current acute pancreatitis management, there is a lot of promise in pharmacologic therapies that target various aspects of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Extensive review of preclinical studies, which include assessment of therapies such as anti-secretory agents, protease inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-oxidants are discussed. Many of these studies have shown therapeutic benefit and improved survival in experimental models. Based on available preclinical studies, we discuss potential novel targeted pharmacologic approaches that may offer promise in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. To date a variety of clinical studies have assessed the translational potential of animal model effective experimental therapies and have shown either failure or mixed results in human studies. Despite these discouraging clinical studies, there is a great clinical need and there exist several preclinical effective therapies that await investigation in patients. Better understanding of acute pancreatitis pathophysiology and lessons learned from past clinical studies are likely to offer a great foundation upon which to expand future therapies in acute pancreatitis. PMID:25493000

  4. Pharmacological management of panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Marchesi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Carlo MarchesiPsychiatric Section, Department of Neuroscience, University of Parma, Parma, ItalyAbstract: Panic disorder (PD is a disabling condition which appears in late adolescence or early adulthood and affects more frequently women than men. PD is frequently characterized by recurrences and sometimes by a chronic course and, therefore, most patients require longterm treatments to achieve remission, to prevent relapse and to reduce the risks associated with comorbidity. Pharmacotherapy is one of the most effective treatments of PD. In this paper, the pharmacological management of PD is reviewed. Many questions about this effective treatment need to be answered by the clinician and discussed with the patients to improve her/his collaboration to the treatment plan: which is the drug of choice; when does the drug become active; which is the effective dose; how to manage the side effects; how to manage nonresponse; and how long does the treatment last. Moreover, the clinical use of medication in women during pregnancy and breastfeeding or in children and adolescents was reviewed and its risk-benefit balance discussed.Keywords: panic disorder, pharmacological treatment, treatment guidelines

  5. Pharmacological and non- pharmacological treatment of hypertension: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Seyedmazhari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a worldwide epidemic disease. It is more common and more severe in elderly persons. Various studies however have estimated 41.9 million men and 27.8 million women to have prehypertension. Diagnosis and early treatment of prehypertension are of utmost importance. Although hypertension is usually divided into 2 general categories of essential (primary and secondary hypertension, the initial treatment for hypertension often depends on its stage which is determined by systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Lifestyle modification is the first step in treating stage one hypertension. Pharmaceutical treatments including diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, calcium blockers, beta blockers, and angiotensin receptor blockers will be recommended if lifestyle modification fails to control blood pressure.    METHODS: The PubMed database was searched by a number of keywords including hypertension, pharmaceutical treatment, and non-pharmaceutical treatment. The results were limited by determining a date range of 2008-11.    RESULTS: High blood pressure causes major health problems for many people around the world. It should be controlled because of its high mortality and morbidity. However, in order to select an appropriate treatment modality, it is initially important to diagnose the kinds and stages of hypertension. Pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical treatments can then be employed to control this serious disease.    CONCLUSION: Treating hypertension depends on the kinds and stages of this disease. Several tips should be considered when selecting a method of treatment.       Keywords: Hypertension, Pharmacological treatment, Non-pharmacological treatment

  6. A Mind of Their Own: Using Inquiry-based Teaching to Build Critical Thinking Skills and Intellectual Engagement in an Undergraduate Neuroanatomy Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Ralf R; Quitadamo, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    A changing undergraduate demographic and the need to help students develop advanced critical thinking skills in neuroanatomy courses has prompted many faculty to consider new teaching methods including clinical case studies. This study compared primarily conventional and inquiry-based clinical case (IBCC) teaching methods to determine which would produce greater gains in critical thinking and content knowledge. Results showed students in the conventional neuroanatomy course gained less than 3 national percentile ranks while IBCC students gained over 7.5 within one academic term using the valid and reliable California Critical Thinking Skills Test. In addition to 2.5 times greater gains in critical thinking, IBCC teaching methods also produced 12% greater final exam performance and 11% higher grades using common grade performance benchmarks. Classroom observations also indicated that IBCC students were more intellectually engaged and participated to a greater extent in classroom discussions. Through the results of this study, it is hoped that faculty who teach neuroanatomy and desire greater critical thinking and content student learning outcomes will consider using the IBCC method.

  7. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fischer, Iben Wendelboe Deleuran

    2014-01-01

    food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids......Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion....... Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases...

  8. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fischer, Iben Wendelboe Deleuran

    2014-01-01

    food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids....... Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases......Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion...

  9. Pharmacology of human experimental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Graeff

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  10. Carotenoids: biochemistry, pharmacology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Alireza; Basirnejad, Marzieh; Shahbazi, Sepideh; Bolhassani, Azam

    2017-06-01

    Carotenoids and retinoids have several similar biological activities such as antioxidant properties, the inhibition of malignant tumour growth and the induction of apoptosis. Supplementation with carotenoids can affect cell growth and modulate gene expression and immune responses. Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between a high carotenoid intake in the diet with a reduced risk of breast, cervical, ovarian, colorectal cancers, and cardiovascular and eye diseases. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary carotenoids involves several mechanisms, including effects on gap junctional intercellular communication, growth factor signalling, cell cycle progression, differentiation-related proteins, retinoid-like receptors, antioxidant response element, nuclear receptors, AP-1 transcriptional complex, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, carotenoids can stimulate the proliferation of B- and T-lymphocytes, the activity of macrophages and cytotoxic T-cells, effector T-cell function and the production of cytokines. Recently, the beneficial effects of carotenoid-rich vegetables and fruits in health and in decreasing the risk of certain diseases has been attributed to the major carotenoids, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, crocin (/crocetin) and curcumin, due to their antioxidant effects. It is thought that carotenoids act in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In this review, we briefly describe the biological and immunological activities of the main carotenoids used for the treatment of various diseases and their possible mechanisms of action. This article is part of a themed section on Principles of Pharmacological Research of Nutraceuticals. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.11/issuetoc. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Pharmacologic treatment of depression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus W.; Glazenborg, Arjon; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Mostert, Jop; De Keyser, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Background Depression is a common problem in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It is unclear which pharmacologic treatment is the most effective and the least harmful. Objectives To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacologic treatments for depression in patients with MS. Search

  12. Complex Pharmacology of Free Fatty Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Shimpukade, Bharat; Ulven, Trond

    2017-01-01

    pharmacology have shaped understanding of the complex pharmacology of receptors that recognize and are activated by nonesterified or "free" fatty acids (FFAs). The FFA family of receptors is a recently deorphanized set of GPCRs, the members of which are now receiving substantial interest as novel targets...

  13. The Dutch vision of clinical pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellens, J H M; Grouls, R; Guchelaar, H J; Touw, D J; Rongen, G A; de Boer, A; Van Bortel, L M

    Recent position papers addressing the profession of clinical pharmacology have expressed concerns about the decline of interest in the field among clinicians and medical educators in the United Kingdom and other Western countries, whether clinical pharmacology is actually therapeutics, and whether

  14. Pharmacology of sexually compulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codispoti, Victoria L

    2008-12-01

    In a meta-analysis on controlled outcomes evaluations of 22,000 sex offenders, Losel and Schmucker found 80 comparisons between treatment and control groups. The recidivism rate averaged 19% in treated groups, and 27% in controls. Most other reviews reported a lower rate of sexual recidivism in treated sexual offenders. Of 2039 citations in this study (including literature in five languages), 60 studies held independent comparisons. Problematic issues included the control groups; various hormonal, surgical, cognitive behavioral, and psychotherapeutic treatments; and sample sizes. In the 80 studies compared after the year 2000, 32% were reported after 2000, 45% originated in the United States, 45% were reported in journals, and 36% were unpublished. Treatment characteristics showed a significant lack of pharmacologic treatment (7.5%), whereas use cognitive and classical behavioral therapy was 64%. In 68% of the studies, no information was available on the integrity of the treatment implementation; 36% of the treatment settings were outpatient only, 31% were prison settings, and 12% were mixed settings (prison, hospital, and outpatient). Integrating research interpretations is complicated by the heterogeneity of sex offenders, with only 56% being adult men and 17.5% adolescents. Offense types reported included 74% child molestation, 48% incest, and 30% exhibitionism. Pedophilia was not singled out. Follow-up periods varied from 12 months to greater than 84 months. The definition of recidivism ran the gamut from arrest (24%), conviction (30%), charges (19%), and no indication (16%). Results were difficult to interpret because of the methodological problems with this type of study. Overall, a positive outcome was noted with sex offender treatment. Cognitive-behavioral and hormonal treatment were the most promising. Voluntary treatment led to a slightly better outcome than mandatory participation. When accounting for a low base rate of sexual recidivism, the reduction

  15. Future pharmacological therapy in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Merrill H; Lavie, Carl J; Ventura, Hector O

    2018-04-26

    Hypertension (HTN) is a widespread and growing disease, with medication intolerance and side-effect present among many. To address these obstacles novel pharmacotherapy is an active area of drug development. This review seeks to explore future drug therapy for HTN in the preclinical and clinical arenas. The future of pharmacological therapy in HTN consists of revisiting old pathways to find new targets and exploring wholly new approaches to provide additional avenues of treatment. In this review, we discuss the current status of the most recent drug therapy in HTN. New developments in well trod areas include novel mineralocorticoid antagonists, aldosterone synthase inhibitors, aminopeptidase-A inhibitors, natriuretic peptide receptor agonists, or the counter-regulatory angiotensin converting enzyme 2/angiotensin (Ang) (1-7)/Mas receptor axis. Neprilysin inhibitors popularized for heart failure may also still hold HTN potential. Finally, we examine unique systems in development never before used in HTN such as Na/H exchange inhibitors, vasoactive intestinal peptide agonists, and dopamine beta hydroxylase inhibitors. A concise review of future directions of HTN pharmacotherapy.

  16. [History and pharmacology of trazodone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnoli, A

    1986-10-01

    Trazodone, a non-tricyclic molecule, represents the first of a new generation of antidepressants. It is currently marketed in a number of European countries, in the United States and in Latin America. The pharmacological and biochemical data, the mechanism of action and the preferential indications of trazodone are presented and compared to those of imipramine and other tricyclics. Unlike imipramine, trazodone inhibits the adrenergic system. The two molecules have anti-nociceptive properties, similar effects on the serotoninergic system and, after repeated administrations, they both reduce the density of beta-receptors. The clinical implications of the alpha-blocking activity of trazodone are reported. Trazodone is preferable to tricyclic anti-depressants in the treatment of depression in elderly subjects in general, and especially when they present closed angle glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, tremor or cardiovascular problems due to hyperactivity of the adrenergic system, as well as in organic depressions and in depression secondary to schizophrenia, alcoholism and in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  17. Cardiovascular Safety Pharmacology of Sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jaesuk; Chung, Eunyong; Choi, Ki Hwan; Cho, Dae Hyun; Song, Yun Jeong; Han, Kyoung Moon; Cha, Hey Jin; Shin, Ji Soon; Seong, Won-Keun; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyung Soo

    2015-07-01

    Sibutramine is an anorectic that has been banned since 2010 due to cardiovascular safety issues. However, counterfeit drugs or slimming products that include sibutramine are still available in the market. It has been reported that illegal sibutramine-contained pharmaceutical products induce cardiovascular crisis. However, the mechanism underlying sibutramine-induced cardiovascular adverse effect has not been fully evaluated yet. In this study, we performed cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies of sibutramine systemically using by hERG channel inhibition, action potential duration, and telemetry assays. Sibutramine inhibited hERG channel current of HEK293 cells with an IC50 of 3.92 μM in patch clamp assay and increased the heart rate and blood pressure (76 Δbpm in heart rate and 51 ΔmmHg in blood pressure) in beagle dogs at a dose of 30 mg/kg (per oral), while it shortened action potential duration (at 10 μM and 30 μM, resulted in 15% and 29% decreases in APD50, and 9% and 17% decreases in APD90, respectively) in the Purkinje fibers of rabbits and had no effects on the QTc interval in beagle dogs. These results suggest that sibutramine has a considerable adverse effect on the cardiovascular system and may contribute to accurate drug safety regulation.

  18. Pharmacological challenges in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fisher, Iben Wendelboe; Larsen, Isabelle Myriam

    2013-11-14

    Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion. Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids are often prescribed as pain treatment. Opioids have intrinsic effects on gastrointestinal motility and hence can modify the absorption of other drugs taken at the same time. Furthermore, the increased fluid absorption caused by opioids will decrease water available for drug dissolution and may hereby affect absorption of the drug. As stated above many factors can influence drug absorption and metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The factors may not have clinical relevance, but may explain inter-individual variations in responses to a given drug, in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

  19. [Pharmacologic treatment of osteoporosis--2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Péter

    2011-08-14

    Osteoporosis affects approximately 9% of the population in Hungary resulting in about 100 000 osteoporotic fractures annually. Thirty-five percent of patients with hip fractures due to osteoporosis will die within 1 year. Direct costs of osteoporosis exceed 25 billion forints per year. Apparently, cost-effective reduction of bone loss and consequent fracture risk will add up to not only financial savings but improvement in quality of life, as well. A number of pharmacological modalities are available for this purpose. The mainstay of the treatment of osteoporosis is the bisphosphonate group that includes effective anti-resorptive compounds mitigating bone loss and fragility. The recently registered denosumab exhibits similar efficacy by neutralizing RANK ligand, however, marked differences can be observed between the two drug classes. Strontium has a unique mechanism of action by rebalancing bone turnover, and thus, providing an efficient treatment option for the not fast bone losers who are at high fracture risk. The purely anabolic teriparatide is available for the extremely severe osteoporotic patients and for those who do not respond to other types of therapy. Older treatment options such as hormone replacement therapy, raloxifene, tibolone or calcitonin may also have a restricted place in the management of osteoporosis.

  20. Pharmacological Fingerprints of Contextual Uncertainty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Marshall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful interaction with the environment requires flexible updating of our beliefs about the world. By estimating the likelihood of future events, it is possible to prepare appropriate actions in advance and execute fast, accurate motor responses. According to theoretical proposals, agents track the variability arising from changing environments by computing various forms of uncertainty. Several neuromodulators have been linked to uncertainty signalling, but comprehensive empirical characterisation of their relative contributions to perceptual belief updating, and to the selection of motor responses, is lacking. Here we assess the roles of noradrenaline, acetylcholine, and dopamine within a single, unified computational framework of uncertainty. Using pharmacological interventions in a sample of 128 healthy human volunteers and a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we characterise the influences of noradrenergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic receptor antagonism on individual computations of uncertainty during a probabilistic serial reaction time task. We propose that noradrenaline influences learning of uncertain events arising from unexpected changes in the environment. In contrast, acetylcholine balances attribution of uncertainty to chance fluctuations within an environmental context, defined by a stable set of probabilistic associations, or to gross environmental violations following a contextual switch. Dopamine supports the use of uncertainty representations to engender fast, adaptive responses.

  1. Functional neuroanatomy associated with the interaction between emotion and cognition in explicit memory tasks in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chung-Man; Yang, Jong-Chul; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2017-01-01

    The functional neuroanatomy for explicit memory in conjunction with the major anxiety symptoms in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has not yet been clearly identified. To investigate the brain activation patterns on the interaction between emotional and cognitive function during the explicit memory tasks, as well as its correlation with clinical characteristics in GAD. The participants comprised GAD patients and age-matched healthy controls. The fMR images were obtained while the participants performed an explicit memory task with neutral and anxiety-inducing words. Patients showed significantly decreased functional activities in the putamen, head of the caudate nucleus, hippocampus, and middle cingulate gyrus during the memory tasks with the neutral and anxiety-inducing words, whereas the precentral gyrus and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex were significantly increased only in the memory tasks with the anxiety-inducing words. Also, the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes in the hippocampus were positively correlated with the recognition accuracy for both neutral and anxiety-inducing words. This study identified the brain areas associated with the interaction between emotional regulation and cognitive function in the explicit memory tasks in patients with GAD. These findings would be helpful to understand the neural mechanism on the explicit memory-related cognitive deficits and emotional dysfunction with GAD symptoms. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2016.

  2. The neuroanatomy of active hand movement in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: Analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Mukhina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the characteristics of the functional neuroanatomy of movements in severe traumatic brain injury (STBI patients with varying severity of motor defect versus that in healthy individuals for the study of brain neuroplasticity as a basis of compensation.Patients and methods. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, 3T was used to analyze cerebral hemodynamic changes in 28 patients with STBI during an active right-hand finger tapping task. A control group consisted of 17 healthy individuals. The percentage of representation of individual brain structures involved in movements and volume activation (Vox was determined in fMRI responses.Results. The patient group showed a tendency for an increased fMRI response diffusion with the emergence of activation zones (the left frontal and parietal regions, as well as the occiptal and temporal regions of the cerebral hemispheres that are atypical for healthy individuals during motor exercises. This trend is more evident in patients with right-sided hemiparesis.Conclusion. The results of the study clarify the existing ideas about the neurophysiological mechanisms of motor impairment and compensation in traumatic brain injury, which is important for the development and improvement of neurorehabilitation techniques. There is evidence for the hypothesis that the extrapyramidal system may be actively involved in the compensation for post-traumatic musculoskeletal defect, which was earlier proposed by E.V. Sharova et al. (2014.

  3. Preservation of cranial nerves during removal of the brain for an enhanced student experience in neuroanatomy classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Roberts, David J H; Pickering, James D

    2014-01-01

    Neuroanatomy teaching at the University of Leeds includes the examination of isolated brains by students working in small groups. This requires the prosected brains to exhibit all 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Traditional methods of removing the brain from the skull involve elevating the frontal lobes and cutting each cranial nerve as the brain is reflected posteriorly. This can leave a substantial length of each nerve attached to the skull base rather than to the removed brain. We have found a posterior approach more successful. In this study, five adult heads were disarticulated at the level of the thyroid cartilage and placed, prone, in a head stand. A wedge of bone from the occipital region was removed before the cerebellum and brainstem were elevated to visualize the cranial nerves associated with the medulla oblongata, cerebellopontine angle and mesencephalic-pontine junction prior to cutting them as close to the skull as possible. Five brains were successfully removed from the skull, each having a full complement of cranial nerves of good length attached to them. This approach significantly increases the length and number of cranial nerves remaining attached to the brain, which supports student education. For integration into head and neck dissection courses, careful consideration will be required to ensure the necks are suitably dissected and to decide whether the cranial nerves are best left attached to the skull base or brain. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Proposed catalog of the neuroanatomy and the stratified anatomy for the 361 acupuncture points of 14 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Will

    2013-10-01

    In spite of the extensive research on acupuncture mechanisms, no comprehensive and systematic peer-reviewed reference list of the stratified anatomical and the neuroanatomical features of all 361 acupuncture points exists. This study creates a reference list of the neuroanatomy and the stratified anatomy for each of the 361 acupuncture points on the 14 classical channels and for 34 extra points. Each acupuncture point was individually assessed to relate the point's location to anatomical and neuroanatomical features. The design of the catalogue is intended to be useful for any style of acupuncture or Oriental medicine treatment modality. The stratified anatomy was divided into shallow, intermediate and deep insertion. A separate stratified anatomy was presented for different needle angles and directions. The following are identified for each point: additional specifications for point location, the stratified anatomy, motor innervation, cutaneous nerve and sensory innervation, dermatomes, Langer's lines, and somatotopic organization in the primary sensory and motor cortices. Acupuncture points for each muscle, dermatome and myotome are also reported. This reference list can aid clinicians, practitioners and researchers in furthering the understanding and accurate practice of acupuncture. Additional research on the anatomical variability around acupuncture points, the frequency of needle contact with an anatomical structure in a clinical setting, and conformational imaging should be done to verify this catalogue. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Figures and institutions of the neurological sciences in Paris from 1800 to 1950. Introduction and Part I: Neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarac, F; Barbara, J-G; Broussolle, E; Poirier, J

    2012-01-01

    We present a short historical review on the major institutions and figures that contributed to make Paris a renowned centre of physiology and neurology during the xixth and the first half of the xxth centuries. We purposely chose to focus on the period 1800-1950, as 1800 corresponds to the development of brain science and 1950 marks the true beginning of neuroscience. Our presentation is divided into four chapters, matching the main disciplines which have progressed and contributed the most to the knowledge we have of the brain sciences: anatomy, physiology, neurology, and psychiatry-psychology. The present article is the first of four parts of this review, which includes an introduction followed by the chapter on neuroanatomy and on anatomo-pathology, which includes biographical sketches of Félix Vicq d'Azyr, François-Xavier Bichat, Franz Joseph Gall, Jean Cruveilhier, Jules Bernard Luys, Paul Broca, Louis Ranvier, André-Victor Cornil, Albert Gombault, Jean Nageotte and René Couteaux. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. I remember you: A role for memory in social cognition and the functional neuroanatomy of their interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreng, R. Nathan; Mar, Raymond A.

    2011-01-01

    Remembering events from the personal past (autobiographical memory) and inferring the thoughts and feelings of other people (mentalizing) share a neural substrate. The shared functional neuroanatomy of these processes has been demonstrated in a meta-analysis of independent task domains (Spreng, Mar & Kim, 2009) and within subjects performing both tasks (Rabin, Gilboa, Stuss, Mar, & Rosenbaum, 2010; Spreng & Grady, 2010). Here, we examine spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations in fMRI BOLD signal during rest from two separate regions key to memory and mentalizing, the left hippocampus and right temporal parietal junction, respectively. Activity in these two regions was then correlated with the entire brain in a resting-state functional connectivity analysis. Although the left hippocampus and right temporal parietal junction were not correlated with each other, both were correlated with a distributed network of brain regions. These regions were consistent with the previously observed overlap between autobiographical memory and mentalizing evoked brain activity found in past studies. Reliable patterns of overlap included the superior temporal sulcus, anterior temporal lobe, lateral inferior parietal cortex (angular gyrus), posterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial and ventral prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and the amygdala. We propose that the functional overlap facilitates the integration of personal and interpersonal information and provides a means for personal experiences to become social conceptual knowledge. This knowledge, in turn, informs strategic social behavior in support of personal goals. In closing, we argue for a new perspective within social cognitive neuroscience, emphasizing the importance of memory in social cognition. PMID:21172325

  7. Review of the Chemistry and Pharmacology of 7-Methyljugulone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of the Chemistry and Pharmacology of 7-Methyljugulone. ... Methods: The chemical and pharmacological data were retrieved from the well-known scientific websites such as Pubmed, Google Scholar, Reaxys, Scirus, Scopus, ... Keywords: 7-methyljugulone; biosynthesis; in vitro synthesis; pharmacology

  8. [PROFESSOR VLADIMIR V. NIKOLAEV AND RUSSIAN PHARMACOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarchuk, N G; Fisenko, V P

    2016-01-01

    Various stages of scientific research activity of Prof. Vladimir V. Nikolaev are analyzed. The importance of Prof. Nikolaev's discovery of the two-neuron parasympathetic nervous system and some new methods of pharmacological substances evaluation is shown. Prof. Nikolaev is known as the editor of the first USSR Pharmacopoeia. Peculiarities of pharmacology teaching at the First Moscow Medical institute under conditions of changing social demands are described. Successful research of Prof. Nikolaev with colleagues in studying new mechanisms of drug action and developing original pharmacological substances is summarized.

  9. Problems of pharmacological supply of disaster medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabaev, V.V.; Il'ina, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of pharmacological problems, being important for the disaster medicine, of theoretical and practical nature, the settlement of which would promote more efficient rendering emergency medical aid to the injured persons in the conditions of emergency situations and further expert medical care. On the example of radiation accidents there are studied methodical approaches to organization of drug prophylaxis and therapy of the injured persons in emergency situations. The authors have proved the necessity of arranging proper pharmacological supply of disaster medicine which is to settle the whole complex of scientific-applied and organizational questions relating to the competence of pharmacology and pharmacy. 17 refs

  10. [Contribution of animal experimentation to pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassard, Jean; Hamon, Michel; Galibert, Francis

    2009-11-01

    Animal experimentation is of considerable importance in pharmacology and cannot yet be avoided when studying complex, highly integrated physiological functions. The use of animals has been drastically reduced in the classical phases of pharmacological research, for example when comparing several compounds belonging to the same pharmacological class. However, animal experiments remain crucial for generating and validating new therapeutic concepts. Three examples of such research, conducted in strict ethical conditions, will be used to illustrate the different ways in which animal experimentation has contributed to human therapeutics.

  11. Phytochemical and pharmacological overview on Liriopes radix

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Metabolic Diseases Research Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee. University ... has been used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of ..... Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by.

  12. Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic search engines such as Google, Google scholar, publishing sites such as Elsevier .... A number of pharmacological activities of C. bulbispermum have been ..... bulbispermum using the direct plate method and minimum inhibitory ...

  13. Bioanalysis, metabolism & clinical pharmacology of antiretroviral drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine, R. ter

    2009-01-01

    The aims of all studies described in this thesis were to develop new bioanalytical and more patient friendly methods for studying the clinical pharmacology of antiretroviral drugs and to ultimately improve antiretroviral treatment.

  14. Medicinal, Pharmacological and Phytochemical Potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal, Pharmacological and Phytochemical Potentials of Annona Comosus linn. ... Therapeutic plants, and the drugs derived from them, are the most important ... also as treatment to: diarrhea, indigestion, pneumonia, bronchitis, arthritis, ...

  15. Disrupting reconsolidation: pharmacological and behavioral manipulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeter, M.; Kindt, M.

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited

  16. Pharmaceutical and pharmacological approaches for bioavailability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... Etoposide posses high plasma protein binding (97%) and is degraded via ... The present article gives insight on pharmaceutical and pharmacological .... caprolactone and were found efficient as drug delivery vehicles.

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Pharmacological testing in Horner's syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    topical cocaine 10% in both eyes gave an odds ratio of 1 050:1 that. Horner's syndrome ... nerve endings and therefore do not stimulate the effector cells directly. ... Pharmacological testing in Horner's syndrome – a new paradigm. Derrick P ...

  18. Precision pharmacology for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Harald; Vergallo, Andrea; Aguilar, Lisi Flores; Benda, Norbert; Broich, Karl; Cuello, A Claudio; Cummings, Jeffrey; Dubois, Bruno; Federoff, Howard J; Fiandaca, Massimo; Genthon, Remy; Haberkamp, Marion; Karran, Eric; Mapstone, Mark; Perry, George; Schneider, Lon S; Welikovitch, Lindsay A; Woodcock, Janet; Baldacci, Filippo; Lista, Simone

    2018-04-01

    The complex multifactorial nature of polygenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) presents significant challenges for drug development. AD pathophysiology is progressing in a non-linear dynamic fashion across multiple systems levels - from molecules to organ systems - and through adaptation, to compensation, and decompensation to systems failure. Adaptation and compensation maintain homeostasis: a dynamic equilibrium resulting from the dynamic non-linear interaction between genome, epigenome, and environment. An individual vulnerability to stressors exists on the basis of individual triggers, drivers, and thresholds accounting for the initiation and failure of adaptive and compensatory responses. Consequently, the distinct pattern of AD pathophysiology in space and time must be investigated on the basis of the individual biological makeup. This requires the implementation of systems biology and neurophysiology to facilitate Precision Medicine (PM) and Precision Pharmacology (PP). The regulation of several processes at multiple levels of complexity from gene expression to cellular cycle to tissue repair and system-wide network activation has different time delays (temporal scale) according to the affected systems (spatial scale). The initial failure might originate and occur at every level potentially affecting the whole dynamic interrelated systems within an organism. Unraveling the spatial and temporal dynamics of non-linear pathophysiological mechanisms across the continuum of hierarchical self-organized systems levels and from systems homeostasis to systems failure is key to understand AD. Measuring and, possibly, controlling space- and time-scaled adaptive and compensatory responses occurring during AD will represent a crucial step to achieve the capacity to substantially modify the disease course and progression at the best suitable timepoints, thus counteracting disrupting critical pathophysiological inputs. This approach will provide the conceptual basis for effective

  19. Punishment, Pharmacological Treatment, and Early Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that pharmacological treatment may have an impact on aggressive and impulsive behavior. Assuming that these results are correct, would it be morally acceptable to instigate violent criminals to accept pharmacological rehabilitation by offering this treatment in return fo...... relates to the acceptability of the fact that those criminals who accepted the treatment would be exempted from the punishment they rightly deserved. It is argued that none of these reasons succeeds in rejecting this sort of offer....

  20. Pharmacological interventions for acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggia, Elisabetta; Koti, Rahul; Belgaumkar, Ajay P; Fazio, Federico; Pereira, Stephen P; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2017-04-21

    In people with acute pancreatitis, it is unclear what the role should be for medical treatment as an addition to supportive care such as fluid and electrolyte balance and organ support in people with organ failure. To assess the effects of different pharmacological interventions in people with acute pancreatitis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and trial registers to October 2016 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We also searched the references of included trials to identify further trials. We considered only RCTs performed in people with acute pancreatitis, irrespective of aetiology, severity, presence of infection, language, blinding, or publication status for inclusion in the review. Two review authors independently identified trials and extracted data. We did not perform a network meta-analysis as planned because of the lack of information on potential effect modifiers and differences of type of participants included in the different comparisons, when information was available. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the binary outcomes and rate ratios with 95% CIs for count outcomes using a fixed-effect model and random-effects model. We included 84 RCTs with 8234 participants in this review. Six trials (N = 658) did not report any of the outcomes of interest for this review. The remaining 78 trials excluded 210 participants after randomisation. Thus, a total of 7366 participants in 78 trials contributed to one or more outcomes for this review. The treatments assessed in these 78 trials included antibiotics, antioxidants, aprotinin, atropine, calcitonin, cimetidine, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), gabexate, glucagon, iniprol, lexipafant, NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), octreotide, oxyphenonium, probiotics, activated protein C, somatostatin, somatostatin plus omeprazole, somatostatin

  1. I remember you: a role for memory in social cognition and the functional neuroanatomy of their interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreng, R Nathan; Mar, Raymond A

    2012-01-05

    Remembering events from the personal past (autobiographical memory) and inferring the thoughts and feelings of other people (mentalizing) share a neural substrate. The shared functional neuroanatomy of these processes has been demonstrated in a meta-analysis of independent task domains (Spreng, Mar & Kim, 2009) and within subjects performing both tasks (Rabin, Gilboa, Stuss, Mar, & Rosenbaum, 2010; Spreng & Grady, 2010). Here, we examine spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations in fMRI BOLD signal during rest from two separate regions key to memory and mentalizing, the left hippocampus and right temporal parietal junction, respectively. Activity in these two regions was then correlated with the entire brain in a resting-state functional connectivity analysis. Although the left hippocampus and right temporal parietal junction were not correlated with each other, both were correlated with a distributed network of brain regions. These regions were consistent with the previously observed overlap between autobiographical memory and mentalizing evoked brain activity found in past studies. Reliable patterns of overlap included the superior temporal sulcus, anterior temporal lobe, lateral inferior parietal cortex (angular gyrus), posterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial and ventral prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and the amygdala. We propose that the functional overlap facilitates the integration of personal and interpersonal information and provides a means for personal experiences to become social conceptual knowledge. This knowledge, in turn, informs strategic social behavior in support of personal goals. In closing, we argue for a new perspective within social cognitive neuroscience, emphasizing the importance of memory in social cognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Humphrey Ridley (1653-1708): 17th century evolution in neuroanatomy and selective cerebrovascular injections for cadaver dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Jai Deep; Sonig, Ashish; Chittiboina, Prashant; Khan, Imad Saeed; Wadhwa, Rishi; Nanda, Anil

    2012-08-01

    Humphrey Ridley, M.D. (1653-1708), is a relatively unknown historical figure, belonging to the postmedieval era of neuroanatomical discovery. He was born in the market town of Mansfield, 14 miles from the county of Nottinghamshire, England. After studying at Merton College, Oxford, he pursued medicine at Leiden University in the Netherlands. In 1688, he was incorporated as an M.D. at Cambridge. Ridley authored the first original treatise in English language on neuroanatomy, The Anatomy of the Brain Containing its Mechanisms and Physiology: Together with Some New Discoveries and Corrections of Ancient and Modern Authors upon that Subject. Ridley described the venous anatomy of the eponymous circular sinus in connection with the parasellar compartment. His methods were novel, unique, and effective. To appreciate the venous anatomy, he preferred to perform his anatomical dissections on recently executed criminals who had been hanged. These cadavers had considerable venous engorgement, which made the skull base venous anatomy clearer. To enhance the appearance of the cerebral vasculature further, he used tinged wax and quicksilver in the injections. He set up experimental models to answer questions definitively, in proving that the arachnoid mater is a separate meningeal layer. The first description of the subarachnoid cisterns, blood-brain barrier, and the fifth cranial nerve ganglion with its branches are also attributed to Ridley. This historical vignette revisits Ridley's life and academic work that influenced neuroscience and neurosurgical understanding in its infancy. It is unfortunate that most of his novel contributions have gone unnoticed and uncited. The authors hope that this article will inform the neurosurgical community of Ridley's contributions to the field of neurosurgery.

  3. Sensory Neuroanatomy of Parastrongyloides trichosuri, a Nematode Parasite of Mammals: Amphidial Neurons of the First-Stage Larva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Li, Jian; Nolan, Thomas J.; Schad, Gerhard A.; Lok, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Owing to its ability to switch between free-living and parasitic modes of development, Parastrongyloides trichosuri represents a valuable model with which to study the evolution of parasitism among the nematodes, especially aspects pertaining to morphogenesis of infective third-stage larvae. In the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, developmental fates of third-stage larvae are determined in part by environmental cues received by chemosensory neurons in the amphidial sensillae. As a basis for comparative study, we have described the neuroanatomy of the amphidial sensillae of P. trichosuri. Using computational methods we incorporated serial electron micrographs into a three-dimensional reconstruction of the amphidial neurons of this parasite. Each amphid is innervated by 13 neurons, and the dendritic processes of 10 of these extend nearly to the amphidial pore. Dendritic processes of two specialized neurons leave the amphidial channel and terminate within invaginations of the sheath cell. One of these is similar to the finger cell of C. elegans, terminating in digitiform projections. The other projects a single cilium into the sheath cell. The dendritic process of a third specialized neuron terminates within the tight junction of the amphid. Each amphidial neuron was traced from the tip of its dendrite(s) to its cell body in the lateral ganglion. Positions of these cell bodies approximate those of morphologically similar amphidial neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans, so the standard nomenclature for amphidial neurons in C. elegans was adopted. A map of cell bodies within the lateral ganglion of P. trichosuri was prepared to facilitate functional study of these neurons. PMID:21456026

  4. Computational neuroanatomy: mapping cell-type densities in the mouse brain, simulations from the Allen Brain Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    The Allen Brain Atlas of the adult mouse (ABA) consists of digitized expression profiles of thousands of genes in the mouse brain, co-registered to a common three-dimensional template (the Allen Reference Atlas).This brain-wide, genome-wide data set has triggered a renaissance in neuroanatomy. Its voxelized version (with cubic voxels of side 200 microns) is available for desktop computation in MATLAB. On the other hand, brain cells exhibit a great phenotypic diversity (in terms of size, shape and electrophysiological activity), which has inspired the names of some well-studied cell types, such as granule cells and medium spiny neurons. However, no exhaustive taxonomy of brain cell is available. A genetic classification of brain cells is being undertaken, and some cell types have been chraracterized by their transcriptome profiles. However, given a cell type characterized by its transcriptome, it is not clear where else in the brain similar cells can be found. The ABA can been used to solve this region-specificity problem in a data-driven way: rewriting the brain-wide expression profiles of all genes in the atlas as a sum of cell-type-specific transcriptome profiles is equivalent to solving a quadratic optimization problem at each voxel in the brain. However, the estimated brain-wide densities of 64 cell types published recently were based on one series of co-registered coronal in situ hybridization (ISH) images per gene, whereas the online ABA contains several image series per gene, including sagittal ones. In the presented work, we simulate the variability of cell-type densities in a Monte Carlo way by repeatedly drawing a random image series for each gene and solving the optimization problem. This yields error bars on the region-specificity of cell types.

  5. Pharmacological stress agents in nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscombe, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Treadmill test combined with myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is a commonly used technique in the assessment of coronary artery disease. However there are a group of patients who may not be able to undergo treadmill tests. Patients with underlying conditions like neuromuscular disease, musculoskeletal disorder, heart failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on renal dialysis would find it difficult to perform exercise on a treadmill or bicycle ergometer. These conditions prevent them from performing adequate exercise. Such patients would benefit from pharmacological stress procedures combined with MPS. Nuclear medicine departments use various pharmacological agents while performing stress tests on cardiac patients. The most commonly used pharmacological agents for cardiac stress are coronary vasodilators and catecholamines. In addition to these agents, adjuvant use of nitrates and atropine is also a common practice in nuclear cardiology. This review addresses various physiological and pharmacological properties of the commonly used pharmacological stress agents in MPS and critically analyses their advantages and disadvantages, as well as their safety and efficacy. (author)

  6. Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers - Current Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Kumar, Kuldip; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2015-07-01

    Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem solving. Cognitive dysfunctions are an integral part of neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in healthy ageing. Cognitive Enhancers are molecules that help improve aspects of cognition like memory, intelligence, motivation, attention and concentration. Recently, Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers have gained popularity as effective and safe alternative to various established drugs. Many of these Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers seem to be more efficacious compared to currently available Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers. This review describes and summarizes evidence on various Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers such as physical exercise, sleep, meditation and yoga, spirituality, nutrients, computer training, brain stimulation, and music. We also discuss their role in ageing and different neuro-psychiatric disorders, and current status of Cochrane database recommendations. We searched the Pubmed database for the articles and reviews having the terms 'non pharmacological and cognitive' in the title, published from 2000 till 2014. A total of 11 results displayed, out of which 10 were relevant to the review. These were selected and reviewed. Appropriate cross-references within the articles along with Cochrane reviews were also considered and studied.

  7. Pharmacological screening technologies for venom peptide discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashanth, Jutty Rajan; Hasaballah, Nojod; Vetter, Irina

    2017-12-01

    Venomous animals occupy one of the most successful evolutionary niches and occur on nearly every continent. They deliver venoms via biting and stinging apparatuses with the aim to rapidly incapacitate prey and deter predators. This has led to the evolution of venom components that act at a number of biological targets - including ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors, transporters and enzymes - with exquisite selectivity and potency, making venom-derived components attractive pharmacological tool compounds and drug leads. In recent years, plate-based pharmacological screening approaches have been introduced to accelerate venom-derived drug discovery. A range of assays are amenable to this purpose, including high-throughput electrophysiology, fluorescence-based functional and binding assays. However, despite these technological advances, the traditional activity-guided fractionation approach is time-consuming and resource-intensive. The combination of screening techniques suitable for miniaturization with sequence-based discovery approaches - supported by advanced proteomics, mass spectrometry, chromatography as well as synthesis and expression techniques - promises to further improve venom peptide discovery. Here, we discuss practical aspects of establishing a pipeline for venom peptide drug discovery with a particular emphasis on pharmacology and pharmacological screening approaches. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Venom-derived Peptides as Pharmacological Tools.' Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Only connect: the merger of BMC Pharmacology and BMC Clinical Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Elizabeth C; Morrey, Christopher; Appleford-Cook, Joanne M

    2012-08-13

    This editorial celebrates the launch of BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology within the BMC series of journals published by BioMed Central. The scope of the journal is interdisciplinary encompassing toxicology, experimental and clinical pharmacology including clinical trials. In this editorial we discuss the origins of this new journal and the ethos and policies under which it will operate.

  9. Three-dimensional interactive and stereotactic atlas of the cranial nerves and their nuclei correlated with surface neuroanatomy, vasculature and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Johnson, Aleksandra; Chua, Beng Choon; Nowinska, Natalia G

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the cranial nerves and their nuclei is critical in clinical practice, medical research and education. However to our best knowledge, a comprehensive source capturing full three-dimensional (3D) relationships of the cranial nerves along with surrounding neuroanatomy is not yet available. This work addresses the construction and validation of an atlas of the cranial nerves with their nuclei, correlated with surface neuroanatomy, vasculature, and magnetic resonance imaging. The atlas is interactive, stereotactic, 3D, detailed, fully parcellated, completely labeled, consistent in 3D, electronically dissectible, and scalable. A 3D geometrical model of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves with nuclei was created from an in vivo magnetic resonance scan exploiting in-house developed tools and methods, including tubular and iso-surface modeling, interactive editing, and mesh compression. This virtual model contains 439 objects with 121 different names, labeled based on Terminologia Anatomica. The model was integrated with a 3D atlas of structure, vasculature and tracts developed earlier, and correlated with sectional magnetic resonance anatomy. The whole model or its components can be interactively rotated, zoomed, panned, and add or removed with a simple few clicks. The studied material can be adaptively selected in an in-depth manner by using controls available in the user interface. This atlas is potentially useful for anatomy browsing, user self-testing, automatic student assessment, preparing materials, and localization in clinical neurology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Perinatal pharmacology: applications for neonatal neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Anne; Allegaert, Karel

    2011-11-01

    The principles of clinical pharmacology also apply to neonates, but their characteristics warrant a tailored approach. We focus on aspects of both developmental pharmacokinetics (concentration/time relationship) and developmental pharmacodynamics (concentration/effect relationship) in neonates. We hereby aimed to link concepts used in clinical pharmacology with compound-specific observations (anti-epileptics, analgosedatives) in the field of neonatal neurology. Although in part anecdotal, we subsequently illustrate the relevance of developmental pharmacology in the field of neonatal neurology by a specific intervention (e.g. whole body cooling), specific clinical presentations (e.g. short and long term outcome following fetal exposure to antidepressive agents, the development of new biomarkers for fetal alcohol syndrome) and specific clinical needs (e.g. analgosedation in neonates, excitocytosis versus neuro-apoptosis/impaired synaptogenesis). Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Traumatic brain injury pharmacological treatment: recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Anghinah

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article presents the recommendations on the pharmacological treatment employed in traumatic brain injury (TBI at the outpatient clinic of the Cognitive Rehabilitation after TBI Service of the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. A systematic assessment of the consensus reached in other countries, and of articles on TBI available in the PUBMED and LILACS medical databases, was carried out. We offer recommendations of pharmacological treatments in patients after TBI with different symptoms.

  12. Delirium in the elderly: A systematic review of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Carboni Tardelli Cerveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Delirium is a common disorder associated with poor prognosis, especially in the elderly. The impact of different treatment approaches for delirium on morbimortality and long-term welfare is not completely understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments in elderly patients with delirium. METHODS: This systematic review compared pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments in patients over 60 years old with delirium. Databases used were: MEDLINE (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL and LILACS from inception to January 6th, 2016. RESULTS: A total of ten articles were selected. The six non-pharmacological intervention studies showed no impact on duration of delirium, mortality or institutionalization, but a decrease in severity of delirium and improvement in medium-term cognitive function were observed. The most commonly used interventions were temporal-spatial orientation, orientation to self and others, early mobilization and sleep hygiene. The four studies with pharmacological interventions found that rivastigmine reduced the duration of delirium, improved cognitive function and reduced caregiver burden; olanzapine and haloperidol decreased the severity of delirium; droperidol reduced length of hospitalization and improved delirium remission rate. CONCLUSION: Although the pharmacological approach has been used in the treatment of delirium among elderly, there have been few studies assessing its efficacy, involving a small number of patients. However, the improvements in delirium duration and severity suggest these drugs are effective in treating the condition. Once delirium has developed, non-pharmacological treatment seems less effective in controlling symptoms, and there is a lack of studies describing different non-pharmacological interventions.

  13. Pharmacological therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients with COPD require pharmacological therapy. ... pulmonary dysfunction. Clearly the patient's tolerance to the various drugs will influence the choice of long-term maintenance treatment. The other important factor in the .... blocking cervical immune responses might leave her less protected against other infections.

  14. Multidimensional Screening as a Pharmacology Laboratory Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Marvin H.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A multidimensional pharmacodynamic screening experiment that addresses drug interaction is included in the pharmacology-toxicology laboratory experience of pharmacy students at the University of the Pacific. The student handout with directions for the procedure is reproduced, drug compounds tested are listed, and laboratory evaluation results are…

  15. Radioreceptor assay: theory and applications to pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, G.; Simon, P.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this work is to present the theory of the radioreceptor assay and to compare it to the other techniques of radioanalysis (radioimmunoassay, competitive protein binding assays). The technology of the radioreceptor assay is then presented and its components (preparation of the receptors, radioligand, incubation medium) are described. The analytical characteristics of the radioreceptor assay (specificity, sensitivity, reproductibility, accuracy) and the pharmacological significance of the results are discussed. The second part is devoted to the description of the radioreceptor assays of some pharmacological classes (neuroleptics, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, β-blockers, anticholinergic drugs) and to their use in therapeutic drug monitoring. In conclusion, by their nature, radioreceptor assays are highly sensitive, reliable, precise, accurate and simple to perform. Their chief disadvantage relates to specificity, since any substance having an appreciable affinity to the receptor site will displace the specifically bound radioligand. Paradoxically in some cases, this lack of specificity may be advantageous in that it allows for the detection of not only the apparent compound but of active metabolites and endogenous receptor agonists as well and in that radioreceptors assays can be devised for a whole pharmacological class and not only for one drug as it is the case for classical physico-chemical techniques. For all these reasons future of radioreceptor assay in pharmacology appears promising [fr

  16. Ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological activities of Croton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To provide an overview of the ethnomedicinal uses and ... calls for detailed phytochemical and pharmacological properties of the species aimed at identifying the ... urban communities throughout its native ... sized, densely leafy tree reaching 15 m tall [17] ..... Williams College, United States; 1998; p 133.

  17. Pharmacological Interventions for Students with ADD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Vance L.

    2003-01-01

    A review of the research on pharmacological interventions for students with attention deficit disorder finds that psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) are effective in improving focus and impulse control, but should be used in conjunction with psychosocial and behavioral interventions. Comprehensive medical screenings and guidelines…

  18. Jatropha Tanjorensis - Review of Phytochemistry, Pharmacology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings of this work, future study on the phytochemistry and chemical constituents in relation to certain other biological activities are required to fully understand the phytochemical and complex pharmacological effect of the plant specie. Further work to isolate active compounds from the plant is also necessary.

  19. Current status and challenges of cytokine pharmacology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zídek, Zdeněk; Anzenbacher, P.; Kmoníčková, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 3 (2009), s. 342-361 ISSN 0007-1188 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/08/0535; GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cytokines * immunotherapy * immunopharmacology Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 5.204, year: 2009

  20. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research (IJHPR) [ISSN: 2315-537X; E- ISSN: 2384-6836] is a peer reviewed journal publication of Anthonio Research Center. The Journal is intended to serve as a medium for the publication of research findings in the field of Herbal medication in developing countries ...

  1. Botulinum Neurotoxins: Biology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirazzini, Marco; Rossetto, Ornella; Eleopra, Roberto; Montecucco, Cesare

    2017-04-01

    The study of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) is rapidly progressing in many aspects. Novel BoNTs are being discovered owing to next generation sequencing, but their biologic and pharmacological properties remain largely unknown. The molecular structure of the large protein complexes that the toxin forms with accessory proteins, which are included in some BoNT type A1 and B1 pharmacological preparations, have been determined. By far the largest effort has been dedicated to the testing and validation of BoNTs as therapeutic agents in an ever increasing number of applications, including pain therapy. BoNT type A1 has been also exploited in a variety of cosmetic treatments, alone or in combination with other agents, and this specific market has reached the size of the one dedicated to the treatment of medical syndromes. The pharmacological properties and mode of action of BoNTs have shed light on general principles of neuronal transport and protein-protein interactions and are stimulating basic science studies. Moreover, the wide array of BoNTs discovered and to be discovered and the production of recombinant BoNTs endowed with specific properties suggest novel uses in therapeutics with increasing disease/symptom specifity. These recent developments are reviewed here to provide an updated picture of the biologic mechanism of action of BoNTs, of their increasing use in pharmacology and in cosmetics, and of their toxicology. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  2. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research: Advanced Search ... either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; ... African Journal of Biomedical Research, African Journal of Biotechnology, African Journal of ...

  3. Pharmacological management of chronic obstructive pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of treatment is to relieve daily symptoms, improve quality of life and importantly decrease the risk of future exacerbations. Current guidelines are based on grade A and B evidence. Pneumococcal and annual influenza vaccinations are encouraged. A holistic approach that augments pharmacological ...

  4. Emerging pharmacological therapy for functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Mariko; Nagahara, Akihito; Asaoka, Daisuke; Watanabe, Sumio

    2013-10-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a multifactorial disease with complex underlying pathophysiology. To date, there is no established treatment for FD. This review summarizes recent progress in pharmacological therapy for the disease. A newly developed drug, acotiamide, is expected to improve symptoms of postprandial distress syndrome. Herbal medicines are also expected to become options for FD treatment.

  5. Clinical pharmacology of novel anticancer drug formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuurman, F.E.

    2013-01-01

    Studies outlined in this thesis describe the impact of drug formulations on pharmacology of anticancer drugs. It consists of four parts and starts with a review describing the mechanisms of low oral bioavailability of anti-cancer drugs and strategies for improvement of the bioavailability. The

  6. Kinship and interaction in neuromuscular pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiere, Sjouke

    2006-01-01

    The background of this thesis is presented in the introductory chapters and stafts with a brief history of neuromuscular relaxants. It is followed by a short description of the neuromuscular physiology and pharmacology in chapters 2 and 3, respectively. In chapter 4 the aim of the thesis is

  7. Pharmaceutical and pharmacological approaches for bioavailability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much research has been done to determine drug–drug and herb–drug interactions for improving the bioavailability of etoposide. The present article gives insight on pharmaceutical and pharmacological attempts made from time to time to overcome the erratic inter- and intra-patient variability for improving the bioavailability ...

  8. Chemical constituents, and pharmacological and toxicological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A large number of research articles related to “Cynomorium songaricum” “pharmacological effects” .... contents in C. songaricum at different stages of its growth are varied in a .... Oral water-soluble polysaccharides of C. ... tested strains, mouse somatic cells and germ cells. .... change under the influence of heating.

  9. Pharmacological Evaluation of the Antidiarrhoeal Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the pharmacological evaluation of the effects of intraperitoneal injection of aqueous seed extract of Aframomum melegueta (AM) on diarrhoea, intestinal fluid secretion and gastrointestinal transit time, induced by castor oil in rodents. The results of the study revealed that AM (50-200 mg/kg) produced a ...

  10. Some Pharmacological Aspects of Antimalarial Drugs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-15

    Jun 15, 1974 ... Some Pharmacological Aspects of Antimalarial. Drugs. D.BOTHA. SUMMARY. A short review is given of antimalarial drugs currently in use. S. Air. Med. l., 48, 1263 (1974). CLASSIFICATION. The chemotherapy of malaria may be conveniently classi- fied as (i) casual prophylaxis; (ii) suppressive treatment;.

  11. Systems Pharmacology in Small Molecular Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery is a risky, costly and time-consuming process depending on multidisciplinary methods to create safe and effective medicines. Although considerable progress has been made by high-throughput screening methods in drug design, the cost of developing contemporary approved drugs did not match that in the past decade. The major reason is the late-stage clinical failures in Phases II and III because of the complicated interactions between drug-specific, human body and environmental aspects affecting the safety and efficacy of a drug. There is a growing hope that systems-level consideration may provide a new perspective to overcome such current difficulties of drug discovery and development. The systems pharmacology method emerged as a holistic approach and has attracted more and more attention recently. The applications of systems pharmacology not only provide the pharmacodynamic evaluation and target identification of drug molecules, but also give a systems-level of understanding the interaction mechanism between drugs and complex disease. Therefore, the present review is an attempt to introduce how holistic systems pharmacology that integrated in silico ADME/T (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity, target fishing and network pharmacology facilitates the discovery of small molecular drugs at the system level.

  12. Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To present an overview of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Crinum bulbispermum so as to understand its importance and potential in primary healthcare systems. Methods: A review of the literature was undertaken and an in-depth analysis of previous research on ethnobotany, phytochemistry ...

  13. Plant cannabinoids: a neglected pharmacological treasure trove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechoulam, Raphael

    2005-12-01

    Most of the cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. have not been fully evaluated for their pharmacological activity. A publication in this issue presents evidence that a plant cannabinoid, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin is a potent antagonist of anandamide, a major endogenous cannabinoid. It seems possible that many of the non-psychoactive constituents of this plant will be of biological interest.

  14. Molecular Pharmacology of CXCR4 inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Anne; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2012-01-01

    pharmacology of well-known CXCR4 antagonists in order to augment the potency and affinity and to increase the specificity of future CXCR4-targeting compounds. In this chapter, binding modes of CXCR4 antagonists that have been shown to mobilize stem cells are discussed. In addition, comparisons between results...

  15. Pharmacology and function of melatonin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubocovich, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily from the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone, through an action in the brain, appears to be involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes that are cued by the daily change in photoperiod. This article reviews the pharmacological characteristics and function of melatonin receptors in the central nervous system, and the role of melatonin in mediating physiological functions in mammals. Melatonin and melatonin agonists, at picomolar concentrations, inhibit the release of dopamine from retina through activation of a site that is pharmacologically different from a serotonin receptor. These inhibitory effects are antagonized by the novel melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole (N-0774), which suggests that melatonin activates a presynaptic melatonin receptor. In chicken and rabbit retina, the pharmacological characteristics of the presynaptic melatonin receptor and the site labeled by 2-[125I]iodomelatonin are identical. It is proposed that 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding sites (e.g., chicken brain) that possess the pharmacological characteristics of the retinal melatonin receptor site (order of affinities: 2-iodomelatonin greater than 6-chloromelatonin greater than or equal to melatonin greater than or equal to 6,7-di-chloro-2-methylmelatonin greater than 6-hydroxymelatonin greater than or equal to 6-methoxymelatonin greater than N-acetyltryptamine greater than or equal to luzindole greater than N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine greater than 5-methoxytryptamine much greater than 5-hydroxytryptamine) be classified as ML-1 (melatonin 1). The 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding site of hamster brain membranes possesses different binding and pharmacological characteristics from the retinal melatonin receptor site and should be classified as ML-2. 64 references

  16. A HUMANIZED CLINICALLY CALIBRATED QUANTITATIVE SYSTEMS PHARMACOLOGY MODEL FOR HYPOKINETIC MOTOR SYMPTOMS IN PARKINSON’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo eGeerts

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The current treatment of Parkinson’s disease with dopamine-centric approaches such as L-DOPA and dopamine agonists, although very succesfull, is in need of alternative treatment strategies, both in terms of disease modification and symptom management. Various non-dopaminergic treatment approaches did not result in a clear clinical benefit, despite showing a clear effect in preclinical animal models. In addition, polypharmacy is common, sometimes leading to unintended effects on non-motor symptoms such as in cognitive and psychiatric domains. To explore novel targets for symptomatic treatment and possible synergistic pharmacodynamic effects between different drugs, we developed a Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP platform of the closed cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical basal ganglia loop of the dorsal motor circuit. This mechanism-based simulation platform is based on the known neuro-anatomy and neurophysiology of the basal ganglia and explicitly incorporates domain expertise in a formalized way. The calculated beta/gamma power ratio of the local field potential in the subthalamic nucleus correlates well (R2=0.71 with clinically observed extra-pyramidal symptoms triggered by antipsychotics during schizophrenia treatment (43 drug-dose combinations. When incorporating Parkinsonian (PD pathology and reported compensatory changes, the computer model suggests a major increase in b/g ratio (corresponding to bradykinesia and rigidity from a dopamine depletion of 70% onwards. The correlation between the outcome of the QSP model and the reported changes in UPDRS III Motor Part for 22 placebo-normalized drug-dose combinations is R2=0.84. The model also correctly recapitulates the lack of clinical benefit for perampanel, MK-0567 and flupirtine and offers a hypothesis for the translational disconnect. Finally, using human PET imaging studies with placebo response, the computer model predicts well the placebo response for chronic treatment, but not

  17. Pharmacists' and general practitioners' pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Leendertse, Anne J; Faber, Adrianne; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Jansen, Paul A F

    Understanding differences in the pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills of pharmacists and physicians is vital to optimizing interprofessional collaboration and education. This study investigated these differences and the potential influence of work experience. The pharmacology knowledge

  18. Three-dimensional interactive and stereotactic atlas of head muscles and glands correlated with cranial nerves and surface and sectional neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Wieslaw L; Chua, Beng Choon; Johnson, Aleksandra; Qian, Guoyu; Poh, Lan Eng; Yi, Su Hnin Wut; Bivi, Aminah; Nowinska, Natalia G

    2013-04-30

    Three-dimensional (3D) relationships between head muscles and cranial nerves innervating them are complicated. Existing sources present these relationships in illustrations, radiologic scans, or autopsy photographs, which are limited for learning and use. Developed electronic atlases are limited in content, quality, functionality, and/or presentation. We create a truly 3D interactive, stereotactic and high quality atlas, which provides spatial relationships among head muscles, glands and cranial nerves, and correlates them to surface and sectional neuroanatomy. The head muscles and glands were created from a 3T scan by contouring them and generating 3D models. They were named and structured according to Terminologia anatomica. The muscles were divided into: extra-ocular, facial, masticatory and other muscles, and glands into mouth and other glands. The muscles, glands (and also head) were placed in a stereotactic coordinate system. This content was integrated with cranial nerves and neuroanatomy created earlier. To explore this complex content, a scalable user interface was designed with 12 modules including central nervous system (cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord), cranial nerves, muscles, glands, arterial system, venous system, tracts, deep gray nuclei, ventricles, white matter, visual system, head. Anatomy exploration operations include compositing/decompositing, individual/group selection, 3D view-index mapping, 3D labeling, highlighting, distance measuring, 3D brain cutting, and axial/coronal/sagittal triplanar display. To our best knowledge, this is the first truly 3D, stereotactic, interactive, fairly complete atlas of head muscles, and the first attempt to create a 3D stereotactic atlas of glands. Its use ranges from education of students and patients to research to potential clinical applications. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacologic Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L

    2017-01-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder and is associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes. Psychological and behavioral interventions have been a mainstay of treatment for BED, but as understanding of this disorder has grown, pharmacologic agents have become promising treatment options for some patients. At this time, only one drug-the stimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine-is approved for the treatment of BED. Numerous classes of medications including antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and antiobesity drugs have been explored as off-label treatments for BED with variable success. Although not all patients with BED may be suitable candidates for pharmacotherapy, all patients should be considered for and educated about pharmacologic treatment options. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  20. Pharmacology profiling of chemicals and proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringelum, Jens Vindahl

    between pharmaceuticals and proteins in vivo potential leads to unwanted adverse effects, toxicity and reduced half-life, but can also lead to novel therapeutic effects of already approved pharmaceuticals. Hence identification of in vivo targets is of importance in discovery, development and repurposing....... This limitation complicates adverse effect assessment in the early drug-development phase, thus contributing to drugattrition. Prediction models offer the possibility to close these gaps and provide more complete pharmacology profiles, however improvements in performances are required for these tools to serve...... to its nonself origin, which potentially alters the pharmacology profile of the substance. The neutralization of biopharmaceuticals by antidrug antibodies (ADAs) is an important element in the immune response cascade, however studies of ADA binding site on biopharmaceuticals, referred to as B...

  1. Common mullein, pharmacological and chemical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riaz

    Full Text Available Verbascum thapsus L. [Khardhag or Common mullein], a member of the family Scrophulariaceae, is a famous herb that is found all over Europe, in temperate Asia, in North America and is well-reputed due to its medicinal properties. This medicinal herb contains various chemical constituents like saponins, iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, vitamin C and minerals. It is famous in various communities worldwide for the treatment of various disorders of both humans and animals aliments. A number of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihepatotoxic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity have been ascribed to this plant. The plant is used to treat tuberculosis also, earache and bronchitis. In the present paper botanical and ethnomedicinal description, pharmacological profile and phytochemistry of this herb is being discussed.

  2. Pharmacologic management of chronic neuropathic pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Alex; Weinberg, Erica; Moulin, Dwight E.; Clarke, Hance

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide family physicians with a practical clinical summary of the Canadian Pain Society (CPS) revised consensus statement on the pharmacologic management of neuropathic pain. Quality of evidence A multidisciplinary interest group within the CPS conducted a systematic review of the literature on the current treatments of neuropathic pain in drafting the revised consensus statement. Main message Gabapentinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are the first-line agents for treating neuropathic pain. Tramadol and other opioids are recommended as second-line agents, while cannabinoids are newly recommended as third-line agents. Other anticonvulsants, methadone, tapentadol, topical lidocaine, and botulinum toxin are recommended as fourth-line agents. Conclusion Many pharmacologic analgesics exist for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Through evidence-based recommendations, the CPS revised consensus statement helps guide family physicians in the management of patients with neuropathic pain. PMID:29138154

  3. Pharmacological evaluation of bee venom and melittin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila G. Dantas

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the pharmacological effects of bee venom and its major component, melittin, on the nervous system of mice. For the pharmacological analysis, mice were treated once with saline, 0.1 or 1.2 mg/kg of bee venom and 0.1 mg/kg of melittin, subcutaneously, 30 min before being submitted to behavioral tests: locomotor activity and grooming (open-field, catalepsy, anxiety (elevated plus-maze, depression (forced swimming test and apomorphine-induced stereotypy. Haloperidol, imipramine and diazepam were administered alone (positive control or as a pre-treatment (haloperidol.The bee venom reduced motor activity and promoted cataleptic effect, in a similar manner to haloperidol.These effects were decreased by the pretreatment with haloperidol. Both melittin and bee venom decreased the apomorphine-induced stereotypies. The data indicated the antipsychotic activity of bee venom and melittin in a murine model.

  4. Local Anesthetics: Review of Pharmacological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel E; Reed, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Local anesthetics have an impressive history of efficacy and safety in medical and dental practice. Their use is so routine, and adverse effects are so infrequent, that providers may understandably overlook many of their pharmacotherapeutic principles. The purpose of this continuing education article is to provide a review and update of essential pharmacology for the various local anesthetic formulations in current use. Technical considerations will be addressed in a subsequent article. PMID:22822998

  5. Conception of pharmacological knowledge and needs amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students who are taking/have taken the medical pharmacology course completed an 18-question survey within 10min by marking one/more choices from ... and 31.1% different drugs in a group; 45.8% prefer to study lecturers' notes, 26.7% textbooks, 9.8% the Internet, and 2.7% journals; 46.7% use standard textbooks, ...

  6. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abst...

  7. Pharmacological interventions to treat phlebitis: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz; Silveira, Renata Cristina de Campos Pereira; Vasques, Christiane Inocêncio; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a systematic review for evaluating effective pharmacological actions for the treatment of phlebitis stemming from infusion therapy. The studies reviewed were categorized according to the type of therapeutic approach proposed by the author and by the level of evidence presented. The review found that topical nitroglycerin and notoginseny were more effective in the reduction of the inflammatory process when compared with other proposed alternatives. Nevertheless, the development of research related to possible alternatives for the treatment of phlebitis is important.

  8. Pharmacological Aspects of Neuro-Immune Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vadim V; Kudryashov, Nikita V; Chubarev, Vladimir N; Kalinina, Tatiana S; Barreto, George E; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2018-01-01

    The use of systematic approach for the analysis of mechanism of action of drugs at different levels of biological organization of organisms is an important task in experimental and clinical pharmacology for drug designing and increasing the efficacy and safety of drugs. The analysis of published data on pharmacological effects of psychotropic drugs possessing immunomodulatory and/or antiviral properties have shown a correlation between central effects of examined drugs associated with the impact on the processes of neurogenesis of adult brain and survival of neurons, and their ability to alter levels of key proinflammatory cytokines. The changes that occur as a result of the influence of pharmacological agents at one of the systems should inevitably lead to the functional reorganization at another. Integrative mechanisms underlying the neuro-immune interactions may explain the "pleiotropic" pharmacological effects of some antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs. Amantadine, which was originally considered as an antiviral agent, was approved as anti-parkinsonic drug after its wide medical use. The prolonged administration of interferon alpha caused depression in 30-45% of patients, thus limiting its clinical use. The antiviral drug "Oseltamivir" may provoke the development of central side effects, including abnormal behavior, delirium, impaired perception and suicides. Anti-herpethetical drug "Panavir" shows pronounced neuroprotective properties. The purpose of this review is to analyze the experimental and clinical data related to central effects of drugs with antiviral or/and immunotropic activity, and to discover the relationship of these effects with changes in reactivity of immune system and proinflammatory response. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Pharmacological Effects of Biotin in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveron-Negrete, Leticia; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, it was found that vitamins affect biological functions in ways other than their long-known functions; niacin is the best example of a water-soluble vitamin known to possess multiple actions. Biotin, also known as vitamin B7 or vitamin H, is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin that serves as a covalently-bound coenzyme of carboxylases. It is now well documented that biotin has actions other than participating in classical enzyme catalysis reactions. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that pharmacological concentrations of biotin affect glucose and lipid metabolism, hypertension, reproduction, development, and immunity. The effect of biotin on these functions is related to its actions at the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels. The bestsupported mechanism involved in the genetic effects of biotin is the soluble guanylate cyclase/protein kinase G (PKG) signaling cascade. Although there are commercially-available products containing pharmacological concentrations of biotin, the toxic effects of biotin have been poorly studied. This review summarizes the known actions and molecular mechanisms of pharmacological doses of biotin in animals and current information regarding biotin toxicity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Phage Therapy: Eco-Physiological Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T. Abedon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial virus use as antibacterial agents, in the guise of what is commonly known as phage therapy, is an inherently physiological, ecological, and also pharmacological process. Physiologically we can consider metabolic properties of phage infections of bacteria and variation in those properties as a function of preexisting bacterial states. In addition, there are patient responses to pathogenesis, patient responses to phage infections of pathogens, and also patient responses to phage virions alone. Ecologically, we can consider phage propagation, densities, distribution (within bodies, impact on body-associated microbiota (as ecological communities, and modification of the functioning of body “ecosystems” more generally. These ecological and physiological components in many ways represent different perspectives on otherwise equivalent phenomena. Comparable to drugs, one also can view phages during phage therapy in pharmacological terms. The relatively unique status of phages within the context of phage therapy as essentially replicating antimicrobials can therefore result in a confluence of perspectives, many of which can be useful towards gaining a better mechanistic appreciation of phage therapy, as I consider here. Pharmacology more generally may be viewed as a discipline that lies at an interface between organism-associated phenomena, as considered by physiology, and environmental interactions as considered by ecology.

  11. Pharmacological enhancement of treatment for amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad MA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad A RashadOphthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare a weight-adjusted dose of carbidopa-levodopa as treatment adjunctive to occlusion therapy with occlusion therapy alone in children and adults with different types of amblyopia.Methods: This prospective study included 63 patients with amblyopia classified into two groups, ie, an occlusion group which included 35 patients who received occlusion therapy only and a pharmacological enhancement group which included 28 patients who received oral carbidopa-levodopa together with occlusion therapy for 6 weeks.Results: The mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR of the eyes with amblyopia was not significantly different in the occlusion group (0.52, 0.52, and 0.51 than in the pharmacological enhancement group (0.58, 0.49, and 0.56 at three follow-up visits (at months 1, 3, and 12, respectively. There was a highly significant improvement in mean logMAR of amblyopic eyes compared with baseline in both occlusion groups (from 0.68 to 0.52, from 0.68 to 0.52, and from 0.68 to 0.51 and in the pharmacological enhancement group (from 0.81 to 0.58, from 0.81 to 0.49, and from 0.81 to 0.56 at the month 1, 3, and 12 visits (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, and P = 0.001, respectively. The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients older than 12 years was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (42.5% than in the occlusion group (30%. The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients with severe amblyopia was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (34.3% than in the occlusion group (22%.Conclusion: Significant improvement was reported in both groups at all follow-up visits over 1 year. Regardless of the etiology of amblyopia, levodopa-carbidopa may be added to part-time occlusion in older patients as a means of increasing the plasticity of the visual cortex. Levodopa may add

  12. Pharmacological enhancement of treatment for amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashad, Mohammad A

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare a weight-adjusted dose of carbidopa- levodopa as treatment adjunctive to occlusion therapy with occlusion therapy alone in children and adults with different types of amblyopia. Methods This prospective study included 63 patients with amblyopia classified into two groups, ie, an occlusion group which included 35 patients who received occlusion therapy only and a pharmacological enhancement group which included 28 patients who received oral carbidopa-levodopa together with occlusion therapy for 6 weeks. Results The mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) of the eyes with amblyopia was not significantly different in the occlusion group (0.52, 0.52, and 0.51) than in the pharmacological enhancement group (0.58, 0.49, and 0.56) at three follow-up visits (at months 1, 3, and 12, respectively). There was a highly significant improvement in mean logMAR of amblyopic eyes compared with baseline in both occlusion groups (from 0.68 to 0.52, from 0.68 to 0.52, and from 0.68 to 0.51) and in the pharmacological enhancement group (from 0.81 to 0.58, from 0.81 to 0.49, and from 0.81 to 0.56) at the month 1, 3, and 12 visits (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, and P = 0.001, respectively). The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients older than 12 years was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (42.5%) than in the occlusion group (30%). The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients with severe amblyopia was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (34.3%) than in the occlusion group (22%). Conclusion Significant improvement was reported in both groups at all follow-up visits over 1 year. Regardless of the etiology of amblyopia, levodopa-carbidopa may be added to part-time occlusion in older patients as a means of increasing the plasticity of the visual cortex. Levodopa may add to the effect of occlusion in severe amblyopia and bilateral amblyopia. PMID:22536029

  13. Process Pharmacology: A Pharmacological Data Science Approach to Drug Development and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Ultsch, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    A novel functional-genomics based concept of pharmacology that uses artificial intelligence techniques for mining and knowledge discovery in "big data" providing comprehensive information about the drugs' targets and their functional genomics is proposed. In "process pharmacology", drugs are associated with biological processes. This puts the disease, regarded as alterations in the activity in one or several cellular processes, in the focus of drug therapy. In this setting, the molecular drug targets are merely intermediates. The identification of drugs for therapeutic or repurposing is based on similarities in the high-dimensional space of the biological processes that a drug influences. Applying this principle to data associated with lymphoblastic leukemia identified a short list of candidate drugs, including one that was recently proposed as novel rescue medication for lymphocytic leukemia. The pharmacological data science approach provides successful selections of drug candidates within development and repurposing tasks. © 2016 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  14. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments for chronic pain in individuals with HIV: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Jessica S.; Bulls, Hailey W.; Vucovich, Lee A.; Edelman, E. Jennifer; Starrels, Joanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain occurs in as many as 85% of individuals with HIV and is associated with substantial functional impairment. Little guidance is available for HIV providers seeking to address their patients’ chronic pain. We conducted a systematic review to identify clinical trials and observational studies that examined the impact of pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic interventions on pain and/or functional outcomes among HIV-infected individuals with chronic pain in high-development countries. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria and were mostly low or very low quality. Seven examined pharmacologic interventions (gabapentin, pregabalin, capsaicin, analgesics including opioids) and four examined non-pharmacologic interventions (cognitive behavioral therapy, self-hypnosis, smoked cannabis). The only controlled studies with positive results were of capsaicin and cannabis, and had short-term follow-up (≤12 weeks). Among the seven studies of pharmacologic interventions, five had substantial pharmaceutical industry sponsorship. These findings highlight several important gaps in the HIV/chronic pain literature that require further research. PMID:27267445

  15. Pharmacology Goes Concept-Based: Course Design, Implementation, and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Amelia; Davis, Rebecca G

    Although concept-based curricula are frequently discussed in the nursing education literature, little information exists to guide the development of a concept-based pharmacology course. Traditionally, nursing pharmacology courses are taught with an emphasis on drug class where a prototype drug serves as an exemplar. When transitioning pharmacology to a concept-based course, special considerations are in order. How can educators successfully integrate essential pharmacological content into a curriculum structured around nursing concepts? This article presents one approach to the design and implementation of a concept-based undergraduate pharmacology course. Planning methods, supportive teaching strategies, and course evaluation procedures are discussed.

  16. Interprofessional education in pharmacology using high-fidelity simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Brittney A; Seefeldt, Teresa M; Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Hendrickx, Lori D; Lubeck, Paula M; Farver, Debra K; Heins, Jodi R

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the feasibility of an interprofessional high-fidelity pharmacology simulation and its impact on pharmacy and nursing students' perceptions of interprofessionalism and pharmacology knowledge. Pharmacy and nursing students participated in a pharmacology simulation using a high-fidelity patient simulator. Faculty-facilitated debriefing included discussion of the case and collaboration. To determine the impact of the activity on students' perceptions of interprofessionalism and their ability to apply pharmacology knowledge, surveys were administered to students before and after the simulation. Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams scale (ATHCT) scores improved from 4.55 to 4.72 on a scale of 1-6 (p = 0.005). Almost all (over 90%) of the students stated their pharmacology knowledge and their ability to apply that knowledge improved following the simulation. A simulation in pharmacology is feasible and favorably affected students' interprofessionalism and pharmacology knowledge perceptions. Pharmacology is a core science course required by multiple health professions in early program curricula, making it favorable for incorporation of interprofessional learning experiences. However, reports of high-fidelity interprofessional simulation in pharmacology courses are limited. This manuscript contributes to the literature in the field of interprofessional education by demonstrating that an interprofessional simulation in pharmacology is feasible and can favorably affect students' perceptions of interprofessionalism. This manuscript provides an example of a pharmacology interprofessional simulation that faculty in other programs can use to build similar educational activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuroanatomy of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Rex E.; Segall, Judith M.; Bockholt, H. Jeremy; Flores, Ranee A.; Smith, Shirley M.; Chavez, Robert S.; Haier, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Creativity has long been a construct of interest to philosophers, psychologists and, more recently, neuroscientists. Recent efforts have focused on cognitive processes likely to be important to the manifestation of novelty and usefulness within a given social context. One such cognitive process – divergent thinking – is the process by which one extrapolates many possible answers to an initial stimulus or target data set. We sought to link well established measures of divergent thinking and creative achievement (Creative Achievement Questionnaire – CAQ) to cortical thickness in a cohort of young (23.7 ± 4.2 years), healthy subjects. Three independent judges ranked the creative products of each subject using the consensual assessment technique (Amabile, 1982) from which a “composite creativity index” (CCI) was derived. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was obtained at 1.5 Tesla Siemens scanner. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation were performed with the FreeSurfer image analysis suite. A region within the lingual gyrus was negatively correlated with CCI; the right posterior cingulate correlated positively with the CCI. For the CAQ, lower left lateral orbitofrontal volume correlated with higher creative achievement; higher cortical thickness was related to higher scores on the CAQ in the right angular gyrus. This is the first study to link cortical thickness measures to psychometric measures of creativity. The distribution of brain regions, associated with both divergent thinking and creative achievement, suggests that cognitive control of information flow among brain areas may be critical to understanding creative cognition. PMID:19722171

  18. Functional neuroanatomy of tics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Irene; Schneider, Frank; Shah, N Jon

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic success of haloperidol in the treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS) put an end to the discussion about a "hysteric" or "neurotic" origin of TS. The cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit has been identified as an underlying neurobiological correlate of TS. In this review we explore the main findings of structural alterations in TS including cortical areas, basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala, midbrain, and cerebellum. Based on the structural changes we examine the functional pattern described by the findings of fMRI and (15)O-PET/(18)FDG PET investigations. From the neuroimaging findings a cortical origin of the generation of tics is indicated. Future research on the neuronal footprint of TS should be directed towards addressing the question of which patterns of connectivity distinguish individuals in whom tics disappear during early adulthood from those in whom the tics persist. The understanding of this pathomechanism could provide a key on how to influence dysconnectivity in TS, for example, by more specific pharmaceutical intervention or by individually adopted EEG and/or fMRI neurofeedback. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The neuroanatomy of herophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2013-01-01

    Herophilus (ca. 330 to ca. 260 BC) was one of Hellenistic -Alexandria's renowned scholars, a leading physician, often named the 'Father of Anatomy'. From cadaveric dissections and possibly vivisection Herophilus considered the ventricles to be the seat of the soul, intelligence and mental functions. Herophilus introduced the term rete mirabile found in ungulates but not in man, as opposed to Galen, who erroneously believed it a vital human network. A founder of the principles of observations in science, and an exponent of measurements in medicine, his accurate dissections resulted in original anatomical discoveries. He distinguished nerves that produce voluntary motion from blood vessels, and motor from sensory nerves; the nerves of the spinal cord were directly linked to the brain. He identified at least seven pairs of cranial nerves. Herophilus demonstrated the meninges, and ventricles, regarding the fourth as most important. His name is perpetuated by his accounts of the calamus scriptorius and the confluence of venous sinuses the torcular Herophili. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Neuroanatomy and Global Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelipe, Javier

    2017-07-05

    Our brains are like a dense forest-a complex, seemingly impenetrable terrain of interacting cells mediating cognition and behavior. However, we should view the challenge of understanding the brain with optimism, provided that we choose appropriate strategies for the development of global neuroscience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A review of traditional pharmacological uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenyi; Du, Yijie; Meng, Hong; Dong, Yinmao; Li, Li

    2017-07-11

    Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) is an annual plant of the family Zygophyllaceae that has been used for generations to energize, vitalize, and improve sexual function and physical performance in men. The fruits and roots of TT have been used as a folk medicine for thousands of years in China, India, Sudan, and Pakistan. Numerous bioactive phytochemicals, such as saponins and flavonoids, have been isolated and identified from TT that are responsible alone or in combination for various pharmacological activities. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the traditional applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology and overuse of TT and provides evidence for better medicinal usage of TT.

  2. Pharmacological studies of the lung with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, A.

    1986-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET), known to be used for lung ventilation and perfusion studies, can also be used in pharmacology to obtain information that is otherwise not available. The lung takes up biologically active substances which can be inactivated or activated, and synthesises and releases others. Such information in man has been obtained from samples of human lungs, or from in vivo first-pass studies, invasive or not, as well as from in vivo kinetic studies using external detection methods with scintillation cameras. PET provides now quantitative regional data in the human lung

  3. Chemistry and Pharmacology of Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel J. Favela-Hernández

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Presently the search for new drugs from natural resources is of growing interest to the pharmaceutical industry. Natural products have been the source of new drugs since ancient times. Plants are a good source of secondary metabolites which have been found to have beneficial properties. The present study is a review of the chemistry and pharmacology of Citrus sinensis. This review reveals the therapeutic potential of C. sinensis as a source of natural compounds with important activities that are beneficial for human health that could be used to develop new drugs.

  4. [Pharmacological aspects of pain research in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederberger, E; Kuner, R; Geißlinger, G

    2015-10-01

    In spite of several approved analgesics, the therapy of pain still constitutes a challenge due to the fact that the drugs do not exert sufficient efficacy or are associated with severe side effects. Therefore, the development of new and improved painkillers is still of great importance. A number of highly qualified scientists in Germany are investigating signal transduction pathways in pain, effectivity of new drugs and the so far incompletely investigated mechanisms of well-known analgesics in preclinical and clinical studies. The highlights of pharmacological pain research in Germany are summarized in this article.

  5. Reappraisal of GIP Pharmacology for Metabolic Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finan, Brian; Müller, Timo D; Clemmensen, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs are considered the best current medicines for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity due to their actions in lowering blood glucose and body weight. Despite similarities to GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has not been extensively pursue...... be beneficial for metabolic diseases. However, a growing body of new evidence - including data based on refined genetically modified models and improved pharmacological agents - suggests a paradigm shift on how the GIP system should be manipulated for metabolic benefits....

  6. The pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask Larsen, Julie; Dima, Lorena; Correll, Christoph U; Manu, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The metabolic syndrome includes a constellation of several well-established risk factors, which need to be aggressively treated in order to prevent overt type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While recent guidelines for the treatment of individual components of the metabolic syndrome focus on cardiovascular benefits as resulted from clinical trials, specific recent recommendations on the pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome are lacking. The objective of present paper was to review the therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome and its components, the available evidence related to their cardiovascular benefits, and to evaluate the extent to which they should influence the guidelines for clinical practice. Areas covered: A Medline literature search was performed to identify clinical trials and meta-analyses related to the therapy of dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, glucose metabolism and obesity published in the past decade. Expert commentary: Our recommendation for first-line pharmacological are statins for dyslipidemia, renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system inhibitors for arterial hypertension, metformin or sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors or glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) for glucose intolerance, and the GLP-1RA liraglutide for achieving body weight and waist circumference reduction.

  7. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-05-01

    To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products' ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products' impact on public health.

  8. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Results Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products’ ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Conclusions Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products’ impact on public health. PMID:24732160

  9. Neuro-pharmacological functional MRI of epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiriyama, Hideki; Makabe, Tetsuo; Tomita, Susumu; Omoto, Takashi; Asari, Shoji [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Aihara, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Nishimoto, Akira; Ito, Takahiko

    2000-03-01

    We studied patients with epilepsy by neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam. Five normal volunteers and 7 patients with epilepsy were investigated. MRI was performed by a 1.5 T unit (SIGNA Horizon, GE) using the following parameters: TR/TE 5000 msec/80 msec, FA 90 deg, FOV 200 mm, matrix 128 x 128, slice thickness 7 mm. We performed MRI scanning over 5 minutes (2 minutes before and 3 minutes after injection of diazepam) for each 1 session; we scanned 3 sessions for each patient at intervals of 5 minutes. The diazepam was injected rapidly from the antecubital vein. The dose of diazepam was 0.05 mg/kg/injection (total dose was 0.15 mg/kg). The data were analyzed statistically using t-test. Signal change after administration of diazepam was less than 1 to 2% in healthy volunteers. By contrast, in patient with epilepsy, the signal change was almost 3%, which was significantly greater than that of the normal area (p=0.01). The neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam might be a useful method to identify epileptic foci. (author)

  10. Pharmacological Effects of Niacin on Acute Hyperlipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Paz, Sergio Montserrat-de; Bermudez, Beatriz; Naranjo, M Carmen; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2016-01-01

    The well-known changes in modern lifestyle habits including over nutrition and physical inactivity have led to striking adverse effects on public health (e.g., obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome) over recent decades. One noticeable consequence is exaggerated and prolonged state of postprandial hyperlipemia due to the ingestion of multiple fat-enriched meals during the course of a day. Postprandial (non-fasting) hyperlipemia is characterized by increased blood levels of exogenous triglycerides (TG) in the form of apolipoprotein (apo) B48-containing TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL), which have a causal role in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The cardiovascular benefits of lifestyle modification (healthy diet and exercise) and conventional lipid-lowering therapies (e.g., statins, fibrates, and niacin) could involve their favourable effects on postprandial metabolism. Pharmacologically, niacin has been used as an athero-protective drug for five decades. Studies have since shown that niacin may decrease fasting levels of plasma verylow- density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and lipoprotein [a] (Lp[a]), while may increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Herein, the purpose of this review was to provide an update on effects and mechanisms related to the pharmacological actions of niacin on acute hyperlipemia.

  11. Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Rakesh P; Kalariya, Manisha; Parmar, Sachin K; Sheth, Navin R

    2010-10-01

    Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) standley (LS) (Family: Cucurbitaceae) is an annual herbaceous climbing plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties, and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments, including jaundice, diabetes, ulcer, piles, colitis, insanity, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure (CCF), and skin diseases. Its fruit pulp is used both as an emetic and purgative, and for its cooling, diuretic, antibilious, and pectoral properties. Boiled in oil this pulp is used to treat rheumatism and insomnia. A wide range of chemical compounds including sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, and saponins have been isolated from the species. Its extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. Below, we give a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention is given to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, diuretic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, and antibacterial effects so that its potential uses in pharmaceutics can be better evaluated.

  12. Phytochemical and pharmacological review of Lagenaria sicereria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh P Prajapati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lagenaria siceraria (Molina standley (LS (Family: Cucurbitaceae is an annual herbaceous climbing plant with a long history of traditional medicinal uses in many countries, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Since ancient times the climber has been known for its curative properties, and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments, including jaundice, diabetes, ulcer, piles, colitis, insanity, hypertension, congestive cardiac failure (CCF, and skin diseases. Its fruit pulp is used both as an emetic and purgative, and for its cooling, diuretic, antibilious, and pectoral properties. Boiled in oil this pulp is used to treat rheumatism and insomnia. A wide range of chemical compounds including sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, and saponins have been isolated from the species. Its extracts have been found to possess various pharmacological activities. Below, we give a comprehensive review of its ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile as a medicinal plant. Particular attention is given to its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, diuretic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, and antibacterial effects so that its potential uses in pharmaceutics can be better evaluated.

  13. Multiple sclerosis: general features and pharmacologic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen Lagumersindez, Denis; Martinez Sanchez, Gregorio

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, inflammatory and desmyelinization disease central nervous system (CNS) of unknown etiology and critical evolution. There different etiological hypotheses talking of a close interrelation among predisposing genetic factors and dissimilar environmental factors, able to give raise to autoimmune response at central nervous system level. Hypothesis of autoimmune pathogeny is based on study of experimental models, and findings in biopsies of affected patients by disease. Accumulative data report that the oxidative stress plays a main role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Oxygen reactive species generated by macrophages has been involved as mediators of demyelinization and of axon damage, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and strictly in multiple sclerosis. Disease diagnosis is difficult because of there is not a confirmatory unique test. Management of it covers the treatment of acute relapses, disease modification, and symptoms management. These features require an individualized approach, base on evolution of this affection, and tolerability of treatments. In addition to diet, among non-pharmacologic treatments for multiple sclerosis it is recommended physical therapy. Besides, some clinical assays have been performed in which we used natural extracts, nutrition supplements, and other agents with promising results. Pharmacology allowed neurologists with a broad array of proved effectiveness drugs; however, results of research laboratories in past years make probable that therapeutical possibilities increase notably in future. (Author)

  14. DIVERSE POTENTIAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ARGININE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Meshram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arginine is metabolically flexible amino acid with major role in protein synthesis and detoxification of ammonia. It is involved in several metabolic pathways for the production of biologically active compounds such as creatine, nitric oxide, ornithine, glutamate, agmatine, citrulline and polyamines. Regarding this all, we review the crucial role of arginine in metabolism, diversified prospective uses and pharmacological applications. Arginine plays an important role in the treatment of tumorigenesis, asthama, gastric, erectile dysfunction, apoptosis, melanoma and congestive heart failure. Ability to produce nitric oxide offers various applications as in the prevention of age and hair loss. It serves as a precursor of creatine with ergogenic potential. The ability to increase endogenous growth hormone makes arginine a preferred supplement for the improvement of physical performance. In the present study details about the pharmacological applications of arginine based on modern scientific investigations have been discussed. There are immense properties hidden in arginine that need to be explored using the scientific investigations to make it beneficial for the medicine and human health. More research is needed to evaluate the role of arginine supplementation on exercise performance and training adaptations in healthy and diseased populations before taking any conclusions.

  15. Pharmacological treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Howard S; Argoff, Charles E

    2011-03-26

    Neuropathic pain continues to be a difficult and challenging clinical issue to deal with effectively. Painful diabetic polyneuropathy is a complex pain condition that occurs with reasonable frequency in the population and it may be extremely difficult for clinicians to provide patients with effective analgesia. Chronic neuropathic pain may occur in approximately one of every four diabetic patients. The pain may be described as burning or a deep-seated ache with sporadic paroxysms of lancinating painful exacerbations. The pain is often constant, moderate to severe in intensity, usually primarily involves the feet and generally tends to worsen at night. Treatment may be multimodal but largely involves pharmacological approaches. Pharmacological therapeutic options include antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), α2δ ligands and topical (5%) lidocaine patch. Other agents may be different antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate), topical capsaicin, tramadol and other opioids. Progress continues with respect to understanding various mechanisms that may contribute to painful diabetic neuropathy. Agents that may hold some promise include neurotrophic factors, growth factors, immunomodulators, gene therapy and poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors. It is hoped that in the future clinicians will be able to assess patient pathophysiology, which may help them to match optimal therapeutic agents to target individual patient aberrant mechanisms.

  16. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Berberis Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhber-Dezfuli, Najmeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae) includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species), there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation. PMID:24600191

  17. Pharmacological modulation of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Daniela M; Perocchi, Fabiana

    2018-01-10

    Mitochondria are pivotal organelles in calcium (Ca 2+ ) handling and signalling, constituting intracellular checkpoints for numerous processes that are vital for cell life. Alterations in mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis have been linked to a variety of pathological conditions and are critical in the aetiology of several human diseases. Efforts have been taken to harness mitochondrial Ca 2+ transport mechanisms for therapeutic intervention, but pharmacological compounds that direct and selectively modulate mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis are currently lacking. New avenues have, however, emerged with the breakthrough discoveries on the genetic identification of the main players involved in mitochondrial Ca 2+ influx and efflux pathways and with recent hints towards a deep understanding of the function of these molecular systems. Here, we review the current advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis and its contribution to physiology and human disease. We also introduce and comment on the recent progress towards a systems-level pharmacological targeting of mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2018 The Physiological Society.

  18. Neuro-pharmacological functional MRI of epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Hideki; Makabe, Tetsuo; Tomita, Susumu; Omoto, Takashi; Asari, Shoji; Aihara, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Nishimoto, Akira; Ito, Takahiko

    2000-01-01

    We studied patients with epilepsy by neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam. Five normal volunteers and 7 patients with epilepsy were investigated. MRI was performed by a 1.5 T unit (SIGNA Horizon, GE) using the following parameters: TR/TE 5000 msec/80 msec, FA 90 deg, FOV 200 mm, matrix 128 x 128, slice thickness 7 mm. We performed MRI scanning over 5 minutes (2 minutes before and 3 minutes after injection of diazepam) for each 1 session; we scanned 3 sessions for each patient at intervals of 5 minutes. The diazepam was injected rapidly from the antecubital vein. The dose of diazepam was 0.05 mg/kg/injection (total dose was 0.15 mg/kg). The data were analyzed statistically using t-test. Signal change after administration of diazepam was less than 1 to 2% in healthy volunteers. By contrast, in patient with epilepsy, the signal change was almost 3%, which was significantly greater than that of the normal area (p=0.01). The neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam might be a useful method to identify epileptic foci. (author)

  19. Harnessing Big Data for Systems Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lei; Draizen, Eli J; Bourne, Philip E

    2017-01-06

    Systems pharmacology aims to holistically understand mechanisms of drug actions to support drug discovery and clinical practice. Systems pharmacology modeling (SPM) is data driven. It integrates an exponentially growing amount of data at multiple scales (genetic, molecular, cellular, organismal, and environmental). The goal of SPM is to develop mechanistic or predictive multiscale models that are interpretable and actionable. The current explosions in genomics and other omics data, as well as the tremendous advances in big data technologies, have already enabled biologists to generate novel hypotheses and gain new knowledge through computational models of genome-wide, heterogeneous, and dynamic data sets. More work is needed to interpret and predict a drug response phenotype, which is dependent on many known and unknown factors. To gain a comprehensive understanding of drug actions, SPM requires close collaborations between domain experts from diverse fields and integration of heterogeneous models from biophysics, mathematics, statistics, machine learning, and semantic webs. This creates challenges in model management, model integration, model translation, and knowledge integration. In this review, we discuss several emergent issues in SPM and potential solutions using big data technology and analytics. The concurrent development of high-throughput techniques, cloud computing, data science, and the semantic web will likely allow SPM to be findable, accessible, interoperable, reusable, reliable, interpretable, and actionable.

  20. Neuropathic pain in people with cancer (part 2): pharmacological and non-pharmacological management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverner, Tarnia

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the management of neuropathic pain associated with cancer and to provide helpful clinical advice for nurses working with patients who may have neuropathic pain. While cancer pain is a mixed-mechanism pain, this article will focus only on neuropathic pain management. The impact of neuropathic pain on patients' quality of life is great and while many patients recover from their cancer, a significant number continue to suffer from a neuropathic pain syndrome. Management of neuropathic pain is significantly different from management of nociceptive pain with respect to pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies. Neuropathic pain is complex, and as such requires complex management using pharmacological as well as non-pharmacological approaches. Specific drugs for neuropathic pain may be effective for some patients, but not all; therefore, ongoing and comprehensive assessment and management are required. Furthermore, these patients may require trials of several drugs before they find one that works for them. It is important for nurses to understand neuropathic pain, its manifestation, impact on quality of life and management when nursing patients with neuropathic pain associated with cancer.

  1. Publication trends in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology: focus on pharmacology in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M.; El-Gowelli, Hanan M.; Michel, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous analysis of the country of origin of papers published in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, a major shift toward contributions from emerging market countries, was noticed in comparison of 2010 to 2001 publications. Repeating such analysis for 2012 publications in the

  2. Pharmacology national board examinations: factors that may influence performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidle, E A; Kahn, N

    1977-12-01

    Data from a survey of pharmacology courses in 60 dental schools were used to determine whether certain teaching variables affect performance in pharmacology National Board examinations. In addition, three-year class-averaged pharmacology scores and, rarely, one-year averaged scores were correlated with several admissions variables. While correlations between some admissions variables and pharmacology scores were quite good, the averaged pharmacology scores were not powerfully affected by course length, placement of the course in the curriculum, length of the curriculum, or the presence of a dentally trained pharmacologist in the department. It is suggested that other factors, related to the student and his capabilities, influence performance on National Boards. Dental pharmacology courses should be designed to given students the best possible exposure to an important basic science, not to make them perform well on National Boards, because student performance on National Boards may be independent of the nature of the didactic courses.

  3. Efficacy of Neurofeedback Versus Pharmacological Support in Subjects with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, Paloma; Cueli, Marisol; Rodríguez, Celestino; García, Trinidad; Álvarez, Luis

    2016-03-01

    Behavioral training in neurofeedback has proven to be an essential complement to generalize the effects of pharmacological support in subjects who have attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Therefore, this investigation attempts to analyze the efficacy of neurofeedback compared with pharmacological support and the combination of both. Participants were 131 students, classified into four groups: control (did not receive neurofeedback or pharmacological support), neurofeedback group, pharmacological support group, and combined group (neurofeedback + pharmacological support). Participants' executive control and cortical activation were assessed before and after treatment. Results indicate that the combined group obtained more benefits and that the neurofeedback group improved to a greater extent in executive control than the pharmacological support group. It is concluded that this kind of training may be an alternative to stimulate activation in subjects with ADHD.

  4. Clozapine-resistant schizophrenia – non pharmacological augmentation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gałaszkiewicz Joanna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is the drug of choice for drug-resistant schizophrenia, but despite its use, 30-40% patients fail to achieve satisfactory therapeutic effects. In such situations, augmentation attempts are made by both pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. To date, most of the work has been devoted to pharmacological strategies, much less to augemantation of clozapine with electroconvulsive therapy (C+ECT, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS.

  5. Quality of reporting statistics in two Indian pharmacology journals

    OpenAIRE

    Jaykaran,; Yadav, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reporting of the statistical methods in articles published in two Indian pharmacology journals. Materials and Methods: All original articles published since 2002 were downloaded from the journals′ (Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP) and Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology (IJPP)) website. These articles were evaluated on the basis of appropriateness of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics was evaluated on the basis of...

  6. A Review of Pharmacologic Treatment for Compulsive Buying Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Célia; Fernandes, Natália; Morgado, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    At present, no treatment recommendations can be made for compulsive buying disorder. Recent studies have found evidence for the efficacy of psychotherapeutic options, but less is known regarding the best pharmacologic treatment. The purpose of this review is to present and analyze the available published evidence on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying disorder. To achieve this, we conducted a review of studies focusing on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying by se...

  7. Network-based Approaches in Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boezio, Baptiste; Audouze, Karine; Ducrot, Pierre; Taboureau, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    In drug discovery, network-based approaches are expected to spotlight our understanding of drug action across multiple layers of information. On one hand, network pharmacology considers the drug response in the context of a cellular or phenotypic network. On the other hand, a chemical-based network is a promising alternative for characterizing the chemical space. Both can provide complementary support for the development of rational drug design and better knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the multiple actions of drugs. Recent progress in both concepts is discussed here. In addition, a network-based approach using drug-target-therapy data is introduced as an example. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Pharmacological management of spasticity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otero-Romero, Susana; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Comi, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Treatment of spasticity poses a major challenge given the complex clinical presentation and variable efficacy and safety profiles of available drugs. We present a systematic review of the pharmacological treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods...... improvement is seen with the previous drugs. Nabiximols has a positive effect when used as add-on therapy in patients with poor response and/or tolerance to first-line oral treatments. Despite limited evidence, intrathecal baclofen and intrathecal phenol show a positive effect in severe spasticity...... and suboptimal response to oral drugs. Conclusion: The available studies on spasticity treatment offer some insight to guide clinical practice but are of variable methodological quality. Large, well-designed trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of antispasticity agents and to produce evidence...

  9. Radioimmunoassay in basic and clinical pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrono, C.; Peskar, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of the book is the development, validation and application of radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques for the measurement of a variety of substances in animal and human body fluids. The book discusses methodological and conceptual issues related to the main classes of mediators of drug action and to drugs themselves, as assayed by this particular analytical technique. A number of introductory chapters provide basic information concerning production and characterization of antibodies, labeling techniques, statistical aspects and validation criteria, insight into problems related to the development and validation of RIA for the newly discovered mediator(s). In the following chapters, the emphasis is placed on the technical details relevant to each class of compounds and on specific aspects of their applications to basic and/or clinical pharmacological studies. New developments in this area, such as monoclonal antibodies and non-radioactive labeling techniques, are also covered

  10. Pharmacological Aspects of Vipera xantina palestinae Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momic, Tatjana; Arlinghaus, Franziska T.; Arien-Zakay, Hadar; Katzhendler, Jeoshua; Eble, Johannes A.; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Lazarovici, Philip

    2011-01-01

    In Israel, Vipera xantina palestinae (V.x.p.) is the most common venomous snake, accounting for several hundred cases of envenomation in humans and domestic animals every year, with a mortality rate of 0.5 to 2%. In this review we will briefly address the research developments relevant to our present understanding of the structure and function of V.x.p. venom with emphasis on venom disintegrins. Venom proteomics indicated the presence of four families of pharmacologically active compounds: (i) neurotoxins; (ii) hemorrhagins; (iii) angioneurin growth factors; and (iv) different types of integrin inhibitors. Viperistatin, a α1β1selective KTS disintegrin and VP12, a α2β1 selective C-type lectin were discovered. These snake venom proteins represent promising tools for research and development of novel collagen receptor selective drugs. These discoveries are also relevant for future improvement of antivenom therapy towards V.x.p. envenomation. PMID:22174978

  11. Safety pharmacology--current and emerging concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdam, Junnat; Sethu, Swaminathan; Smith, Trevor; Alfirevic, Ana; Alhaidari, Mohammad; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Ayala, Mimieveshiofuo; Box, Helen; Cross, Michael; Delaunois, Annie; Dermody, Ailsa; Govindappa, Karthik; Guillon, Jean-Michel; Jenkins, Rosalind; Kenna, Gerry; Lemmer, Björn; Meecham, Ken; Olayanju, Adedamola; Pestel, Sabine; Rothfuss, Andreas; Sidaway, James; Sison-Young, Rowena; Smith, Emma; Stebbings, Richard; Tingle, Yulia; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Williams, Awel; Williams, Dominic; Park, Kevin; Goldring, Christopher

    2013-12-01

    Safety pharmacology (SP) is an essential part of the drug development process that aims to identify and predict adverse effects prior to clinical trials. SP studies are described in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) S7A and S7B guidelines. The core battery and supplemental SP studies evaluate effects of a new chemical entity (NCE) at both anticipated therapeutic and supra-therapeutic exposures on major organ systems, including cardiovascular, central nervous, respiratory, renal and gastrointestinal. This review outlines the current practices and emerging concepts in SP studies including frontloading, parallel assessment of core battery studies, use of non-standard species, biomarkers, and combining toxicology and SP assessments. Integration of the newer approaches to routine SP studies may significantly enhance the scope of SP by refining and providing mechanistic insight to potential adverse effects associated with test compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacological Strategies to Retard Cardiovascular Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaras, Irene; Di Germanio, Clara; Bernier, Michel; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan; Lakatta, Edward G.; de Cabo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Aging is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which are the leading cause of death in the United States. Traditionally, the effort to prevent CVD has been focused on addressing the conventional risk factors, including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and high circulating levels of triglycerides. However, recent preclinical studies have identified new approaches to combat CVD. Calorie restriction has been reproducibly shown to prolong lifespan in various experimental model animals. This has led to the development of calorie restriction mimetics and other pharmacological interventions capable to delay age-related diseases. In this review, we will address the mechanistic effects of aging per se on the cardiovascular system and focus on the pro-longevity benefits of various therapeutic strategies that support cardiovascular health. PMID:27174954

  13. Pharmacologic Implications of Marijuana Use During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    Marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug in the United States, including among women of childbearing age and women who are pregnant. Changing legal statutes that allow for the use of medical marijuana and the decriminalization of marijuana for personal use reflect more permissive societal views on the use of this drug. Active compounds in marijuana cross the placenta rapidly and are excreted in breast milk. Results of studies of the effects of marijuana on a developing fetus and neonate are conflicting, but researchers have identified chronic marijuana exposure as a risk factor for preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age infants. This article reviews the pharmacology of marijuana and discusses implications for nurses who work with women of childbearing age. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  14. Anthraquinones As Pharmacological Tools and Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Enas M; Müller, Christa E

    2016-07-01

    Anthraquinones (9,10-dioxoanthracenes) constitute an important class of natural and synthetic compounds with a wide range of applications. Besides their utilization as colorants, anthraquinone derivatives have been used since centuries for medical applications, for example, as laxatives and antimicrobial and antiinflammatory agents. Current therapeutic indications include constipation, arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and cancer. Moreover, biologically active anthraquinones derived from Reactive Blue 2 have been utilized as valuable tool compounds for biochemical and pharmacological studies. They may serve as lead structures for the development of future drugs. However, the presence of the quinone moiety in the structure of anthraquinones raises safety concerns, and anthraquinone laxatives have therefore been under critical reassessment. This review article provides an overview of the chemistry, biology, and toxicology of anthraquinones focusing on their application as drugs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Targeting HIV latency: pharmacologic strategies toward eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Sifei; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    The latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells remains a major barrier to HIV-1 eradication, even though highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can successfully reduce plasma HIV-1 levels to below the detection limit of clinical assays and reverse disease progression. Proposed eradication strategies involve reactivation of this latent reservoir. Multiple mechanisms are believed to be involved in maintaining HIV-1 latency, mostly through suppression of transcription. These include cytoplasmic sequestration of host transcription factors and epigenetic modifications such as histone deacetylation, histone methylation and DNA methylation. Therefore, strategies targeting these mechanisms have been explored for reactivation of the latent reservoir. In this review, we discuss current pharmacological approaches toward eradication, focusing on small molecule latency-reversing agents, their mechanisms, advantages and limitations. PMID:23270785

  16. Pharmacological Needs of Nurses: Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Nazari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : This study was carried out to determine the most commonly used drugs in health centers. By identifying common medications, pharmacological educational needs of nurses gets clear and officials can provide nurses specific relevant training about common drugs. Material and Methods: In this descriptive report, the hospitals’ pharmacies were asked to name ten of the most widely used drugs in the past 6 months. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS 13 software using descriptive tests. Results: Gastrointestinal drugs and antibiotics in all centers and oxytocin in obstetrics and gynecological centers were the most commonly used drugs. Conclusion: Due to the important and dangerous side-effects of these common medications, renewing nurses’ information in this field is required. ​

  17. Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics of Levetiracetam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanin Clark Wright

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures still pose a management challenge despite the recent advances in the field of epilepsy. Parenteral formulations of old anticonvulsants are still a cornerstone in acute seizure management and are approved by the FDA. Intravenous levetiracetam, a second generation anticonvulsant, is approved by the FDA as an adjunctive treatment in patients 16 years or older when oral administration is not available. Data have shown that it has a unique mechanism of action, linear pharmacokinetics and no known drug interactions with other anticonvulsants. In this paper, we will review the current literature about the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of intravenous levetiracetam and the safety profile of this new anticonvulsant in acute seizure management of both adults and children.

  18. Ethnobotany, biochemistry and pharmacology of Minthostachys (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Lebuhn, A N

    2008-08-13

    The South American mint genus Minthostachys is of great importance in the Andes as a medicinal, aromatic, culinary and commercial essential oil plant. After decades of taxonomic confusion and virtual indeterminability of specimens, new systematic and taxonomic work has been conducted in recent years. The present paper attempts to summarize the state of knowledge about Minthostachys with a focus on ethnobotany, analyses of essential oil content and pharmacology, to identify the currently accepted species names for the plants examined in these previous studies, and to assess where additional research is needed. All available studies on Minthostachys were obtained and evaluated. Herbaria were contacted to identify voucher specimens cited in the respective publications. The great majority of published studies was conducted on a single species, Argentinean Minthostachys verticillata. In contrast, the most widely distributed and well-known species (Minthostachys mollis) as well as several locally important and intensively used species (e.g., Minthostachys acutifolia) have received disproportionately little attention, and virtually nothing is known about the local endemics among the 17 species currently recognized. In many cases, however, it is difficult to relate the results to taxonomic entities due to the lack of voucher specimens. Future research efforts should especially be directed at studying the chemistry and potential for use of several common but so far neglected species of the central and northern Andes, at disentangling environmental and genetic influences on essential oil composition, at prerequisites for cultivation, and at the pharmacological basis of the most important traditional uses. Because of the morphological complexity of the genus, future researchers are urged to deposit voucher specimens of the plants used in their studies to facilitate species identification and to make the results more comparable and reproducible.

  19. Clinical pharmacology of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerahee, M

    1999-05-01

    Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride is a new antimalarial combination that is used for treatment and prophylaxis of malaria. The clinical pharmacology of atovaquone and proguanil was reviewed. Atovaquone is a highly lipophilic compound with low aqueous solubility, the absorption of which is limited by the rate and extent of dissolution. Dietary fat increases the rate and extent of atovaquone absorption, increasing AUC two- to threefold and C(max) fivefold over fasting. Proguanil is rapidly and extensively absorbed regardless of food intake. Atovaquone is highly protein bound (> 99%) but does not displace other highly protein bound drugs in vitro, indicating significant drug interactions arising from displacement are unlikely. Atovaquone is predominantly eliminated unchanged in feces, with negligible excretion in urine. Proguanil is partially metabolized and partially excreted unchanged in urine. Its principal metabolite, cycloguanil, is also excreted in urine. Metabolism of proguanil is mediated in the liver by the cytochrome P450 3A and 2C subfamilies. The elimination half-life of atovaquone is 2 to 3 days in adults and 1 to 2 days in children. The elimination half-lives of proguanil and cycloguanil are 12 to 15 hours in adults and children. Dosage adjustments based on body weight categories in children (1/4 dose for 11-20 kg, 1/2 dose for > 20-30 kg, 3/4 dose for > 30-40 kg, and full dose for > 40 kg) achieve plasma concentrations that are safe and effective during prophylaxis and treatment of malaria. No dose adjustments for race, proguanil metabolizer status, gender, or elderly patients are needed, or for patients with mild to moderately impaired renal or hepatic function. The clinical pharmacology of atovaquone and proguanil provides a rationale for the dosing regimens recommended for treatment and prophylaxis of malaria.

  20. Pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Guerra, Yohani; Molina Cuevas, Vivian; Oyarzabal Yera, Ambar; Mas Ferreiro, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease in over 50 years-old men consisting in uncontrolled and benign growth of prostatic gland that leads to lower urinary tract symptoms. The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia is multifactoral involving the increased conversion of testosterone in dihydrotestosterone by the prostatic 5α-reductase action, which brought about events that encourage the prostate growth (static component) and the increase of the bladder and prostate smooth muscle tone (dynamic component) regulated by the aα 1 -adrenoceptors (ADR). The pharmacological treatment of the benign prostatic hyperplasia includes the prostatic 5aα-reductase inhibitors, the aα 1 -adrenoreceptor blockers, their combined therapy and the phytotherapy. This paper was aimed at presenting the most relevant aspects of the pharmacology of drugs used for treating the benign prostatic hyperplasia, and providing elements to analyze their efficacy, safety and tolerability. To this end, a review was made of the different drugs for the treatment of this pathology and they were grouped according to their mechanism of action. Natural products were included as lipid extracts from Serenoa repens and Pygeum africanum as well as D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, with proved beneficial effects on the main etiological factors of benign prostatic hyperplasia. D-004 is a prostatic 5a-reductase inhibitor, an aα 1 -adrenoceptor antagonist, aα 5-lipooxygenase inhibitor and has antioxidant action, all of which reveals a multifactoral mechanism. The results achieved till now indicate that D-004 is a safe and well-tolerated product

  1. The Safety Pharmacology Society salary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, Michael K; Authier, Simon; Brabham, Tiffini; Soloviev, Maxim; Markgraf, Carrie G; Correll, Krystle; Traebert, Martin; Greiter-Wilke, Andrea; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, Hugo; Botchway, Alfred; Leishman, Derek J; Curtis, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    Safety pharmacology is a growing discipline with scientists broadly distributed across international geographical regions. This electronic salary survey is the first to be distributed amongst the entire Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) membership. An electronic survey was sent to all members of the Society. Categorical survey questions assessed membership employment types, annual incomes, and professional certifications, along with other associated career attributes. This survey was distributed to the SPS membership that is comprised of safety pharmacologists, toxicologists and pharmacologists working globally in the pharmaceutical industry, at contract research organizations (CRO), regulatory agencies, and academia or within the technology provider industry. The survey was open for responses from December 2015 to March 2016. The survey response rate was 28% (129/453). North America (68%) was the region with the largest number of respondents followed by Europe (28%). A preponderance of respondents (77%) had 12years of industry experience or more. 52% of responders earned annually between $40,000 and $120,000. As expected, salary was generally positively correlated with the number of years of experience in the industry or the educational background but there was no correlation between salary and the number of employee's directly supervised. The median salary was higher for male vs female respondents, but so was median age, indicative of no gender 'salary gap'. Our 2016 SPS salary survey results showcased significant diversity regarding factors that can influence salary compensation within this discipline. These data provided insights into the complex global job market trends. They also revealed the level of scientific specialization embedded within the organization, presently uniquely positioned to support the dynamic career paths of current and future safety pharmacologists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacological management of obesity in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Cassie L; Harris, John Brock; Harris, Kira B

    2015-02-01

    To review current evidence of pharmacological options for managing pediatric obesity and provide potential areas for future research. A MEDLINE search (1966 to October 2014) was conducted using the following keywords: exenatide, liraglutide, lorcaserin, metformin, obesity, orlistat, pediatric, phentermine, pramlintide, topiramate, weight loss, and zonisamide. Identified articles were evaluated for inclusion, with priority given to randomized controlled trials with orlistat, metformin, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists, topiramate, and zonisamide in human subjects and articles written in English. References were also reviewed for additional trials. Whereas lifestyle modification is considered first-line therapy for obese pediatric patients, severe obesity may benefit from pharmacotherapy. Orlistat is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medication for pediatric obesity and reduced body mass index (BMI) by 0.5 to 4 kg/m(2), but gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects may limit use. Metformin has demonstrated BMI reductions of 0.17 to 1.8 kg/m(2), with mild GI adverse effects usually managed with dose titration. Exenatide reduced BMI by 1.1 to 1.7 kg/m(2) and was well-tolerated with mostly transient or mild GI adverse effects. Topiramate and zonisamide reduced weight when used in the treatment of epilepsy. Future studies should examine efficacy and safety of pharmacological agents in addition to lifestyle modifications for pediatric obesity. Lifestyle interventions remain the treatment of choice in pediatric obesity, but concomitant pharmacotherapy may be beneficial in some patients. Orlistat should be considered as second-line therapy for pediatric obesity. Evidence suggests that other diabetes and antiepileptic medications may also provide weight-loss benefits, but safety should be further evaluated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for depression and depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania S. Grigoriou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a mental disorder with a high prevalence among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD. It is reported that depression afflicts approximately 20-30% of this patient population, being associated, amongst other, with high mortality rate, low adherence to medication and low perceived quality of life. There is a variety of medications known to be effective for the treatment of depression but due to poor adherence to treatment as well as due to the high need for medications addressing other ESRD comorbidities, depression often remains untreated. According to the literature, depression is under-diagnosed and undertreated in the majority of the patients with chronic kidney disease. In the current review the main pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches and research outcomes for the management of depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients are discussed.

  4. A network pharmacology approach to investigate the pharmacological effects of Guizhi Fuling Wan on uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liuting; Yang, Kailin; Liu, Huiping; Zhang, Guomin

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the pharmacological mechanism of Guizhi Fuling Wan (GFW) in the treatment of uterine fibroids, a network pharmacology approach was used. Information on GFW compounds was collected from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) databases, and input into PharmMapper to identify the compound targets. Genes associated with uterine fibroids genes were then obtained from the GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man databases. The interaction data of the targets and other human proteins was also collected from the STRING and IntAct databases. The target data were input into the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery for gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses. Networks of the above information were constructed and analyzed using Cytoscape. The following networks were compiled: A compound-compound target network of GFW; a herb-compound target-uterine fibroids target network of GWF; and a compound target-uterine fibroids target-other human proteins protein-protein interaction network, which were subjected to GO and pathway enrichment analyses. According to this approach, a number of novel signaling pathways and biological processes underlying the effects of GFW on uterine fibroids were identified, including the negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the Ras, wingless-type, epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathways. This network pharmacology approach may aid the systematical study of herbal formulae and make TCM drug discovery more predictable.

  5. An Integrated Approach to Instruction in Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Robert L.; Walton, Charles A.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the clinical faculty on the content of the pharmacology course is described in a discussion of trends in pharmacology instruction. Interfaculty communication and development of course objectives are reviewed, and descriptions of two baccalaureate courses at the University of Texas College of Pharmacy are appended. (LBH)

  6. Measuring the effectiveness of pharmacology teaching in undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Aguilar, Maria Esther; Martinez-Gonzalez, Adrian; Rodriguez, Rodolfo

    2012-03-01

    Information overload and recent curricular changes are viewed as important contributory factors to insufficient pharmacological education of medical students. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of pharmacology teaching in our medical school. The study subjects were 455 second-year medical students, class of 2010, and 26 pharmacology teachers at the National University of Mexico Medical School. To assess pharmacological knowledge, students were required to take 3 multiple-choice exams (70 questions each) as part of their evaluation in the pharmacology course. A 30-item questionnaire was used to explore the students' opinion on teaching. Pharmacology professors evaluated themselves using a similar questionnaire. Students and teachers rated each statement on a 5-point Likert scale. The groups' exam scores ranged from 54.5% to 90.0% of correct responses, with a mean score of 77.3%. Only 73 (16%) of 455 students obtained an exam score of 90% and higher. Students' evaluations of faculty and professor self-ratings were very high (90% and 96.2%, of the maximal response, respectively). Student and professor ratings were not correlated with exam scores (r = 0.291). Our study shows that knowledge on pharmacology is incomplete in a large proportion of second-year medical students and indicates that there is an urgent need to review undergraduate training in pharmacology. The lack of relationship between the subjective ratings of teacher effectiveness and objective exam scores suggests the use of more demanding measures to assess the effectiveness of teaching.

  7. Human pharmacology of current and new treatments for schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem-Moolenaar, Marieke

    2012-01-01

    The studies in this thesis together show different ways of studying human pharmacology, give an impression of the current drug development in schizophrenia, and provide examples how human pharmacology can be applied in an early stage of drug development in healthy volunteers. The investigated

  8. Pharmacological effects of two cytolysins isolated from the sea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sticholysins I and II (St I/II) are cytolysins purified from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. In this study, we show their pharmacological action on guinea-pig and snail models in native and pH-denatured conditions in order to correlate the pharmacological findings with the pore-forming activity of both isoforms.

  9. GABA uptake inhibitors. Design, molecular pharmacology and therapeutic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard-Larsen, P; Frølund, B; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea

    2000-01-01

    demonstrated that neuronal and glial GABA transport mechanisms have dissimilar substrate specificities. With GABA transport mechanisms as pharmacological targets, strategies for pharmacological interventions with the purpose of stimulating GABA neurotransmission seem to be (1) effective blockade of neuronal......, tiagabine (49) containing (R)-nipecotic acid (24) as the GABA transport carrier-recognizing structure element, is now marketed as an antiepileptic agent....

  10. Non-pharmacological modulation of cerebral white matter organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tina D; Mandl, Rene C W; Jepsen, Jens R M

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neuroplasticity is a well-described phenomenon, but effects of non-pharmacological interventions on white matter (WM) are unclear. Here we review associations between active non-pharmacological interventions and WM organization in healthy subjects and in psychiatric patients. METHOD...

  11. Pharmacological intervention with oxidative burst in human neutrophils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosál, R.; Drábiková, K.; Jančinová, V.; Mačičková, T.; Pečivová, J.; Perečko, T.; Harmatha, Juraj

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2017), s. 56-60 ISSN 1337-6853 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : human neutrophils * oxidative burst * tharapeutical drugs * natural antioxidants Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry OBOR OECD: Pharmacology and pharmacy https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/intox.2017.10.issue-2/intox-2017-0009/intox-2017-0009.pdf

  12. Pharmacological Experimental Study Of The Anti-Depressant Effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacological Experimental Study Of The Anti-Depressant Effect Of Total Saikosaponins. Y Liu, C Cao, H Ding. Abstract. Background: Chai Hu has the hepato-protective, choleretic, anti-tussive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, and anti-tumor pharmacological effects. In this study, the ...

  13. Pharmacological interventions for antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Najat; Duggan, Conor; Stoffers, Jutta; Huband, Nick; Völlm, Birgit A; Ferriter, Michael; Lieb, Klaus

    2010-08-04

    Antisocial personality disorder (AsPD) is associated with a wide range of disturbance including persistent rule-breaking, criminality, substance misuse, unemployment, homelessness and relationship difficulties. To evaluate the potential beneficial and adverse effects of pharmacological interventions for people with AsPD. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to September 2009), EMBASE (1980 to 2009, week 37), CINAHL (1982 to September 2009), PsycINFO (1872 to September 2009) , ASSIA (1987 to September 2009) , BIOSIS (1985 to September 2009), COPAC (September 2009), National Criminal Justice Reference Service Abstracts (1970 to July 2008), Sociological Abstracts (1963 to September 2009), ISI-Proceedings (1981 to September 2009), Science Citation Index (1981 to September 2009), Social Science Citation Index (1981 to September 2009), SIGLE (1980 to April 2006), Dissertation Abstracts (September 2009), ZETOC (September 2009) and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (September 2009). Controlled trials in which participants with AsPD were randomly allocated to a pharmacological intervention and a placebo control condition. Two trials comparing one drug against another without a placebo control are reported separately. Three review authors independently selected studies. Two review authors independently extracted data. We calculated mean differences, with odds ratios for dichotomous data. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria involving 394 participants with AsPD. Data were available from four studies involving 274 participants with AsPD. No study set out to recruit participants solely on the basis of having AsPD, and in only one study was the sample entirely of AsPD participants. Eight different drugs were examined in eight studies. Study quality was relatively poor. Inadequate reporting meant the data available were generally insufficient to allow any independent statistical analysis. The

  14. Pharmacological Treatment Of Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kevin; Nezgovorova, Vera; Uzunova, Genoveva; Schlussel, Danya; Hollander, Eric

    2018-04-26

    Body dysmorphic disorder is a challenging disorder that manifests as erroneously perceived flaws in one's physical appearance and repetitive behaviors in response to appearance concerns. This disorder is also frequently comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder and autism spectrum disorder. It is currently understood to arise from a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Treatment of body dysmorphic disorder typically consists of a combination of pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. However, not all patients respond to treatment, and BDD symptoms remain even in those who do respond. This review outlines current pharmacological and neuromodulation treatments for body dysmorphic disorder, and suggests directions for future studies of novel treatments such as augmentation with atypical antipsychotics and the use of intranasal oxytocin in cases of body dysmorphic disorder that show residual symptomatology even with tailored monotherapy. There is emerging evidence suggesting that non-invasive neurostimulatory techniques, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, may be of value in treatment-resistant cases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Tinnitus: Network pathophysiology-network pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen eElgoyhen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a prevalent disorder. One in 10 adults has clinically significant subjective tinnitus, and for 1 in 100, tinnitus severely affects their quality of life. Despite the significant unmet clinical need for a safe and effective drug targeting tinnitus relief, there is currently not a single FDA-approved drug on the market. The search for drugs that target tinnitus is hampered by the lack of a deep knowledge of the underlying neural substrates of this pathology. Recent studies are increasingly demonstrating that, as described for other central nervous system disorders, tinnitus is a pathology of brain networks. The application of graph theoretical analysis to brain networks has recently provided new information concerning their topology, their robustness and their vulnerability to attacks. Moreover, the philosophy behind drug design and pharmacotherapy in central nervous system pathologies is changing from that of magic bullets that target individual chemoreceptors or disease-causing genes into that of magic shotguns, promiscuous or dirty drugs that target disease-causing networks, also known as network pharmacology. In the present work we provide some insight into how this knowledge could be applied to tinnitus pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy.

  16. Tinnitus: network pathophysiology-network pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgoyhen, Ana B; Langguth, Berthold; Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a prevalent disorder. One in 10 adults has clinically significant subjective tinnitus, and for one in 100, tinnitus severely affects their quality of life. Despite the significant unmet clinical need for a safe and effective drug targeting tinnitus relief, there is currently not a single Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug on the market. The search for drugs that target tinnitus is hampered by the lack of a deep knowledge of the underlying neural substrates of this pathology. Recent studies are increasingly demonstrating that, as described for other central nervous system (CNS) disorders, tinnitus is a pathology of brain networks. The application of graph theoretical analysis to brain networks has recently provided new information concerning their topology, their robustness and their vulnerability to attacks. Moreover, the philosophy behind drug design and pharmacotherapy in CNS pathologies is changing from that of "magic bullets" that target individual chemoreceptors or "disease-causing genes" into that of "magic shotguns," "promiscuous" or "dirty drugs" that target "disease-causing networks," also known as network pharmacology. In the present work we provide some insight into how this knowledge could be applied to tinnitus pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy.

  17. Non-pharmacological intervention for memory decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eCotelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-pharmacological treatment of memory difficulties in healthy older adults, as well as those with brain damage and neurodegenerative disorders, has gained much attention in recent years (Ball et al., 2002, Willis et al., 2006, Acevedo and Loewenstein, 2007. The two main reasons that explain this growing interest in memory rehabilitation are the limited efficacy of current drug therapies and the plasticity of the human central nervous system (Cotelli et al., 2011c and the discovery that during aging, the connections in the brain are not fixed but retain the capacity to change with learning.Moreover, several studies have reported enhanced cognitive performance in patients with neurological disease, following non-invasive brain stimulation (i.e., repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to specific cortical areas. The present review provides an overview of memory rehabilitation in individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and in patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD with particular regard to cognitive rehabilitation interventions focused on memory and non-invasive brain stimulation. Reviewed data suggest that in patients with memory deficits, memory intervention therapy could lead to performance improvements in memory, nevertheless further studies need to be conducted in order to establish the real value of this approach.

  18. Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac glycosides are an important cause of poisoning, reflecting their widespread clinical usage and presence in natural sources. Poisoning can manifest as varying degrees of toxicity. Predominant clinical features include gastrointestinal signs, bradycardia and heart block. Death occurs from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia. A wide range of treatments have been used, the more common including activated charcoal, atropine, β-adrenoceptor agonists, temporary pacing, anti-digoxin Fab and magnesium, and more novel agents include fructose-1,6-diphosphate (clinical trial in progress) and anticalin. However, even in the case of those treatments that have been in use for decades, there is debate regarding their efficacy, the indications and dosage that optimizes outcomes. This contributes to variability in use across the world. Another factor influencing usage is access. Barriers to access include the requirement for transfer to a specialized centre (for example, to receive temporary pacing) or financial resources (for example, anti-digoxin Fab in resource poor countries). Recent data suggest that existing methods for calculating the dose of anti-digoxin Fab in digoxin poisoning overstate the dose required, and that its efficacy may be minimal in patients with chronic digoxin poisoning. Cheaper and effective medicines are required, in particular for the treatment of yellow oleander poisoning which is problematic in resource poor countries. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Caffeine use in sports. A pharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, C J; Geiger, J D

    2000-03-01

    Caffeine is the most widely ingested psychoactive drug in the world. As many know, chronic use of caffeine leads to dependence, tolerance, drug craving, and upon abrupt cessation unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. Thus, caffeine fulfills pharmacological criteria by which agents are classified as drugs of abuse. Nevertheless, its use is legal and only at high, but readily attainable, levels is it banned from sport. Its use is widespread by athletes as young as 11 years of age who are seeking athletic advantage over fellow competitors. It is likely that its use will not decline any time soon because it is inexpensive, readily available, medically quite safe, socially acceptable, and by most measures legal. However, at levels allowed in sport, caffeine through its wide-ranging physiological and psychological effects increases endurance in well-trained athletes. If the goal of drug-testing and education programs in sport is to protect the health of athletes, prevent unfair advantage (cheating) and encourage ethical behavior then it seems obvious that the allowable levels of caffeine ingestion should be decreased. The alternative is to continue with policies designed largely to punish only those that get caught.

  20. Ayahuasca: Pharmacology, neuroscience and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Clavé, Elisabet; Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Pascual, Juan C; Álvarez, Enrique; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Riba, Jordi

    2016-09-01

    Ayahuasca is the Quechua name for a tea obtained from the vine Banisteriopsis caapi, and used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. The use of a variation of the tea that combines B. caapi with the leaves of the shrub Psychotria viridis has experienced unprecedented expansion worldwide for its psychotropic properties. This preparation contains the psychedelic 5-HT 2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from P. viridis, plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties from B. caapi. Acute administration induces a transient modified state of consciousness characterized by introspection, visions, enhanced emotions and recollection of personal memories. A growing body of evidence suggests that ayahuasca may be useful to treat substance use disorders, anxiety and depression. Here we review the pharmacology and neuroscience of ayahuasca, and the potential psychological mechanisms underlying its therapeutic potential. We discuss recent findings indicating that ayahuasca intake increases certain mindfulness facets related to acceptance and to the ability to take a detached view of one's own thoughts and emotions. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that ayahuasca shows promise as a therapeutic tool by enhancing self-acceptance and allowing safe exposure to emotional events. We postulate that ayahuasca could be of use in the treatment of impulse-related, personality and substance use disorders and also in the handling of trauma. More research is needed to assess the full potential of ayahuasca in the treatment of these disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Safety pharmacology — Current and emerging concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdam, Junnat; Sethu, Swaminathan; Smith, Trevor; Alfirevic, Ana; Alhaidari, Mohammad; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Ayala, Mimieveshiofuo; Box, Helen; Cross, Michael; Delaunois, Annie; Dermody, Ailsa; Govindappa, Karthik; Guillon, Jean-Michel; Jenkins, Rosalind; Kenna, Gerry; Lemmer, Björn; Meecham, Ken; Olayanju, Adedamola; Pestel, Sabine; Rothfuss, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Safety pharmacology (SP) is an essential part of the drug development process that aims to identify and predict adverse effects prior to clinical trials. SP studies are described in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) S7A and S7B guidelines. The core battery and supplemental SP studies evaluate effects of a new chemical entity (NCE) at both anticipated therapeutic and supra-therapeutic exposures on major organ systems, including cardiovascular, central nervous, respiratory, renal and gastrointestinal. This review outlines the current practices and emerging concepts in SP studies including frontloading, parallel assessment of core battery studies, use of non-standard species, biomarkers, and combining toxicology and SP assessments. Integration of the newer approaches to routine SP studies may significantly enhance the scope of SP by refining and providing mechanistic insight to potential adverse effects associated with test compounds. - Highlights: • SP — mandatory non-clinical risk assessments performed during drug development. • SP organ system studies ensure the safety of clinical participants in FiH trials. • Frontloading in SP facilitates lead candidate drug selection. • Emerging trends: integrating SP-Toxicological endpoints; combined core battery tests

  2. Safety pharmacology — Current and emerging concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdam, Junnat; Sethu, Swaminathan; Smith, Trevor; Alfirevic, Ana; Alhaidari, Mohammad [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Atkinson, Jeffrey [Lorraine University Pharmacolor Consultants Nancy PCN (France); Ayala, Mimieveshiofuo; Box, Helen; Cross, Michael [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Delaunois, Annie [UCB Pharma (Belgium); Dermody, Ailsa; Govindappa, Karthik [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Guillon, Jean-Michel [Sanofi-aventis (France); Jenkins, Rosalind [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Kenna, Gerry [Astra-Zeneca (United Kingdom); Lemmer, Björn [Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg (Germany); Meecham, Ken [Huntingdon Life Sciences (United Kingdom); Olayanju, Adedamola [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Pestel, Sabine [Boehringer-Ingelheim (Germany); Rothfuss, Andreas [Roche (Switzerland); and others

    2013-12-01

    Safety pharmacology (SP) is an essential part of the drug development process that aims to identify and predict adverse effects prior to clinical trials. SP studies are described in the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) S7A and S7B guidelines. The core battery and supplemental SP studies evaluate effects of a new chemical entity (NCE) at both anticipated therapeutic and supra-therapeutic exposures on major organ systems, including cardiovascular, central nervous, respiratory, renal and gastrointestinal. This review outlines the current practices and emerging concepts in SP studies including frontloading, parallel assessment of core battery studies, use of non-standard species, biomarkers, and combining toxicology and SP assessments. Integration of the newer approaches to routine SP studies may significantly enhance the scope of SP by refining and providing mechanistic insight to potential adverse effects associated with test compounds. - Highlights: • SP — mandatory non-clinical risk assessments performed during drug development. • SP organ system studies ensure the safety of clinical participants in FiH trials. • Frontloading in SP facilitates lead candidate drug selection. • Emerging trends: integrating SP-Toxicological endpoints; combined core battery tests.

  3. Pharmacological inhibition of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2012-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2) inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3) blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4) interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5) prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6) inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats.

  4. Clinical pharmacology in Russia-historical development and current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodnikova Goryachkina, Ksenia; Burbello, Aleksandra; Sychev, Dmitry; Frolov, Maxim; Kukes, Vladimir; Petrov, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    Clinical pharmacology in Russia has long history and is currently active, but rather unrecognized internationally. It is governmentally approved as a teaching/scientific specialty since 1983 and as a medical specialty since 1997. Courses of clinical pharmacology are included in the undergraduate curricula in the 5th and/or 6th year of education at all medical schools in the Russian Federation. Postgraduate education includes initial specialization in internal medicine with further residency in clinical pharmacology. Governmental legislation recommends that every healthcare institution has either a department or a single position of clinical pharmacologist. Major routine duties include information about and monitoring of medication use, consultations in difficult clinical situations, pharmacogenetic counseling, therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacovigilance, and participation in drug and therapeutics (formulary) committees. There are official experts in clinical pharmacology in Russia responsible for coordinating relevant legislative issues. The chief expert clinical pharmacologist represents the discipline directly at the Ministry of Health. Research in clinical pharmacology in Russia is extensive and variable, but only some of it is published internationally. Russia is a participant of international societies of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics and collaboration is actively ongoing. There are still certain problems related to the development of the discipline in Russia-some healthcare institutions do not see the need for clinical pharmacology. However, the number of clinical pharmacologists in Russia is increasing as well as their role in physicians' education, national healthcare, and research.

  5. Pharmacological screening of Ageratum conyzoides L. (mentrasto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia A. Yamamoto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological activities of a water extract (WE of Ageratum conyzoides L, a plant populary known for its analgesic and anti-inflamatory properties, were studied in vivo and in vitro preparations. Oral administration (p.o. of the water extract (WE, 0.1 to 5 g/Kg to rats and mice induced quietness and reduced the spontaneous motility. the sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg, i.p. in mice was not altered by previous treatment with We (2 g/Kg, p.o.. The same treatment did not influence the paw edema induced by carrageenan or dextran, nor did it reduce the chronic paw edema induced by complete Freund's adjuvant or formaldehyde in rats. The tail flick response in immersion test and writhings induced by 0.8%acetic acid in mice were not altered by WE either. In isolated guinea-pig ilea WE (0.4 to 4 mg/ml did not alter the EC50 values of histamine or acetylcholine, but reduced the maximal response to the agonists by 20 to 50%. We (0.01 to 10 mg/ml produced tonic contractions of the ileal smooth muscle proportional to the doses, reaching a maximum of 75% relatively to the maximum obtained with histamine. Those contractions were blocked by diphenhydramine (10 nM and reduced by 32% in presence of atropine (10 nM. The results indicated that oral treatment of rodents with A. conyzoides L neither reduced the inflammatory edema nor did it decrease the reaction to pain stimuli. In vitro the extract presented an unexpected histamine-like activity characteristic of a partial agonist. The results did not confirm the popular medicinal indications of the plant.

  6. Brain connectivity in pathological and pharmacological coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Noirhomme

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a vegetative state or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these primary sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread fronto-parietal global neuronal workspace in DOC patients including the midline default mode network, ‘intrinsic’ system, and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or ‘extrinsic system’. Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between intrinsic and extrinsic brain networks.

  7. Pharmacological Activity and Clinical Use of PDRN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Squadrito

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available PDRN is a proprietary and registered drug that possesses several activities: tissue repairing, anti-ischemic, and anti-inflammatory. These therapeutic properties suggest its use in regenerative medicine and in diabetic foot ulcers. PDRN holds a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides with molecular weights ranging between 50 and 1,500 KDa, it is derived from a controlled purification and sterilization process of Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmon Trout or Oncorhynchus keta (Chum Salmon sperm DNA. The procedure guarantees the absence of active protein and peptides that may cause immune reactions. In vitro and in vivo experiments have suggested that PDRN most relevant mechanism of action is the engagement of adenosine A2A receptors. Besides engaging the A2A receptor, PDRN offers nucleosides and nucleotides for the so called “salvage pathway.” The binding to adenosine A2A receptors is a unique property of PDRN and seems to be linked to DNA origin, molecular weight and manufacturing process. In this context, PDRN represents a new advancement in the pharmacotherapy. In fact adenosine and dipyridamole are non-selective activators of adenosine receptors and they may cause unwanted side effects; while regadenoson, the only other A2A receptor agonist available, has been approved by the FDA as a pharmacological stress agent in myocardial perfusion imaging. Finally, defibrotide, another drug composed by a mixture of oligonucleotides, has different molecular weight, a DNA of different origin and does not share the same wound healing stimulating effects of PDRN. The present review analyses the more relevant experimental and clinical evidences carried out to characterize PDRN therapeutic effects.

  8. Pharmacological Activity and Clinical Use of PDRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrito, Francesco; Bitto, Alessandra; Irrera, Natasha; Pizzino, Gabriele; Pallio, Giovanni; Minutoli, Letteria; Altavilla, Domenica

    2017-01-01

    PDRN is a proprietary and registered drug that possesses several activities: tissue repairing, anti-ischemic, and anti-inflammatory. These therapeutic properties suggest its use in regenerative medicine and in diabetic foot ulcers. PDRN holds a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides with molecular weights ranging between 50 and 1,500 KDa, it is derived from a controlled purification and sterilization process of Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmon Trout) or Oncorhynchus keta (Chum Salmon) sperm DNA. The procedure guarantees the absence of active protein and peptides that may cause immune reactions. In vitro and in vivo experiments have suggested that PDRN most relevant mechanism of action is the engagement of adenosine A2A receptors. Besides engaging the A2A receptor, PDRN offers nucleosides and nucleotides for the so called “salvage pathway.” The binding to adenosine A2A receptors is a unique property of PDRN and seems to be linked to DNA origin, molecular weight and manufacturing process. In this context, PDRN represents a new advancement in the pharmacotherapy. In fact adenosine and dipyridamole are non-selective activators of adenosine receptors and they may cause unwanted side effects; while regadenoson, the only other A2A receptor agonist available, has been approved by the FDA as a pharmacological stress agent in myocardial perfusion imaging. Finally, defibrotide, another drug composed by a mixture of oligonucleotides, has different molecular weight, a DNA of different origin and does not share the same wound healing stimulating effects of PDRN. The present review analyses the more relevant experimental and clinical evidences carried out to characterize PDRN therapeutic effects. PMID:28491036

  9. Trials of Pharmacological Interventions for Tourette Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Waldon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS is a childhood-onset hyperkinetic movement disorder defined by the chronic presence of multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic and often complicated by co-morbid behavioural problems. The pharmacological treatment of GTS focuses on the modulation of monoaminergic pathways within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry. This paper aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of tics in patients with GTS, in order to provide clinicians with an evidence-based rationale for the pharmacological treatment in GTS.

  10. How research in behavioral pharmacology informs behavioral science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Marc N

    2006-05-01

    Behavioral pharmacology is a maturing science that has made significant contributions to the study of drug effects on behavior, especially in the domain of drug-behavior interactions. Less appreciated is that research in behavioral pharmacology can have, and has had, implications for the experimental analysis of behavior, especially its conceptualizations and theory. In this article, I outline three general strategies in behavioral pharmacology research that have been employed to increase understanding of behavioral processes. Examples are provided of the general characteristics of the strategies and of implications of previous research for behavior theory. Behavior analysis will advance as its theories are challenged.

  11. Quantitative Systems Pharmacology: A Case for Disease Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, C J; Ramanujan, S; Schmidt, B J; Ghobrial, O G; Lu, J; Heatherington, A C

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) has emerged as an innovative approach in model-informed drug discovery and development, supporting program decisions from exploratory research through late-stage clinical trials. In this commentary, we discuss the unique value of disease-scale "platform" QSP models that are amenable to reuse and repurposing to support diverse clinical decisions in ways distinct from other pharmacometrics strategies. © 2016 The Authors Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  12. Methodologies for Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) Models: Design and Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribba, B; Grimm, H P; Agoram, B; Davies, M R; Gadkar, K; Niederer, S; van Riel, N; Timmis, J; van der Graaf, P H

    2017-08-01

    With the increased interest in the application of quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models within medicine research and development, there is an increasing need to formalize model development and verification aspects. In February 2016, a workshop was held at Roche Pharma Research and Early Development to focus discussions on two critical methodological aspects of QSP model development: optimal structural granularity and parameter estimation. We here report in a perspective article a summary of presentations and discussions. © 2017 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  13. Lateralized Feeding Behavior is Associated with Asymmetrical Neuroanatomy and Lateralized Gene Expressions in the Brain in Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk Je; Schneider, Ralf F; Manousaki, Tereza; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Lein, Etienne; Franchini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Lateralized behavior (“handedness”) is unusual, but consistently found across diverse animal lineages, including humans. It is thought to reflect brain anatomical and/or functional asymmetries, but its neuro-molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlid fish, Perissodus microlepis show pronounced asymmetry in their jaw morphology as well as handedness in feeding behavior—biting scales preferentially only from one or the other side of their victims. This makes them an ideal model in which to investigate potential laterality in neuroanatomy and transcription in the brain in relation to behavioral handedness. After determining behavioral handedness in P. microlepis (preferred attack side), we estimated the volume of the hemispheres of brain regions and captured their gene expression profiles. Our analyses revealed that the degree of behavioral handedness is mirrored at the level of neuroanatomical asymmetry, particularly in the tectum opticum. Transcriptome analyses showed that different brain regions (tectum opticum, telencephalon, hypothalamus, and cerebellum) display distinct expression patterns, potentially reflecting their developmental interrelationships. For numerous genes in each brain region, their extent of expression differences between hemispheres was found to be correlated with the degree of behavioral lateralization. Interestingly, the tectum opticum and telencephalon showed divergent biases on the direction of up- or down-regulation of the laterality candidate genes (e.g., grm2) in the hemispheres, highlighting the connection of handedness with gene expression profiles and the different roles of these brain regions. Hence, handedness in predation behavior may be caused by asymmetric size of brain hemispheres and also by lateralized gene expressions in the brain. PMID:29069363

  14. The neuroanatomy of subthreshold depressive symptoms in Huntington's disease: a combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprengelmeyer, R; Orth, M; Müller, H-P; Wolf, R C; Grön, G; Depping, M S; Kassubek, J; Justo, D; Rees, E M; Haider, S; Cole, J H; Hobbs, N Z; Roos, R A C; Dürr, A; Tabrizi, S J; Süssmuth, S D; Landwehrmeyer, G B

    2014-07-01

    Depressive symptoms are prominent psychopathological features of Huntington's disease (HD), making a negative impact on social functioning and well-being. We compared the frequencies of a history of depression, previous suicide attempts and current subthreshold depression between 61 early-stage HD participants and 40 matched controls. The HD group was then split based on the overall HD group's median Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-depression score into a group of 30 non-depressed participants (mean 0.8, s.d. = 0.7) and a group of 31 participants with subthreshold depressive symptoms (mean 7.3, s.d. = 3.5) to explore the neuroanatomy underlying subthreshold depressive symptoms in HD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Frequencies of history of depression, previous suicide attempts or current subthreshold depressive symptoms were higher in HD than in controls. The severity of current depressive symptoms was also higher in HD, but not associated with the severity of HD motor signs or disease burden. Compared with the non-depressed HD group DTI revealed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insula and cerebellum of the HD group with subthreshold depressive symptoms. In contrast, VBM measures were similar in both HD groups. A history of depression, the severity of HD motor signs or disease burden did not correlate with FA values of these regions. Current subthreshold depressive symptoms in early HD are associated with microstructural changes - without concomitant brain volume loss - in brain regions known to be involved in major depressive disorder, but not those typically associated with HD pathology.

  15. Lateralized Feeding Behavior is Associated with Asymmetrical Neuroanatomy and Lateralized Gene Expressions in the Brain in Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk Je; Schneider, Ralf F; Manousaki, Tereza; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Lein, Etienne; Franchini, Paolo; Meyer, Axel

    2017-11-01

    Lateralized behavior ("handedness") is unusual, but consistently found across diverse animal lineages, including humans. It is thought to reflect brain anatomical and/or functional asymmetries, but its neuro-molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlid fish, Perissodus microlepis show pronounced asymmetry in their jaw morphology as well as handedness in feeding behavior-biting scales preferentially only from one or the other side of their victims. This makes them an ideal model in which to investigate potential laterality in neuroanatomy and transcription in the brain in relation to behavioral handedness. After determining behavioral handedness in P. microlepis (preferred attack side), we estimated the volume of the hemispheres of brain regions and captured their gene expression profiles. Our analyses revealed that the degree of behavioral handedness is mirrored at the level of neuroanatomical asymmetry, particularly in the tectum opticum. Transcriptome analyses showed that different brain regions (tectum opticum, telencephalon, hypothalamus, and cerebellum) display distinct expression patterns, potentially reflecting their developmental interrelationships. For numerous genes in each brain region, their extent of expression differences between hemispheres was found to be correlated with the degree of behavioral lateralization. Interestingly, the tectum opticum and telencephalon showed divergent biases on the direction of up- or down-regulation of the laterality candidate genes (e.g., grm2) in the hemispheres, highlighting the connection of handedness with gene expression profiles and the different roles of these brain regions. Hence, handedness in predation behavior may be caused by asymmetric size of brain hemispheres and also by lateralized gene expressions in the brain. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Targeting Adenosine Signaling in Parkinson's Disease: From Pharmacological to Non-pharmacological Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza R. Nazario

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease displaying negative impacts on both the health and social ability of patients and considerable economical costs. The classical anti-parkinsonian drugs based in dopaminergic replacement are the standard treatment, but several motor side effects emerge during long-term use. This mini-review presents the rationale to several efforts from pre-clinical and clinical studies using adenosine receptor antagonists as a non-dopaminergic therapy. As several studies have indicated that the monotherapy with adenosine receptor antagonists reaches limited efficacy, the usage as a co-adjuvant appeared to be a promising strategy. The formulation of multi-targeted drugs, using adenosine receptor antagonists and other neurotransmitter systems than the dopaminergic one as targets, have been receiving attention since Parkinson's disease presents a complex biological impact. While pharmacological approaches to cure or ameliorate the conditions of PD are the leading strategy in this area, emerging positive aspects have arisen from non-pharmacological approaches and adenosine function inhibition appears to improve both strategies.

  17. Holistic Management of Schizophrenia Symptoms Using Pharmacological and Non-pharmacological Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Pronab; Soliman, Abdrabo; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia lead a poor quality of life, due to poor medical attention, homelessness, unemployment, financial constraints, lack of education, and poor social skills. Thus, a review of factors associated with the holistic management of schizophrenia is of paramount importance. The objective of this review is to improve the quality of life of individuals with schizophrenia, by addressing the factors related to the needs of the patients and present them in a unified manner. Although medications play a role, other factors that lead to a successful holistic management of schizophrenia include addressing the following: financial management, independent community living, independent living skill, relationship, friendship, entertainment, regular exercise for weight gained due to medication administration, co-morbid health issues, and day-care programmes for independent living. This review discusses the relationship between different symptoms and problems individuals with schizophrenia face (e.g., homelessness and unemployment), and how these can be managed using pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. Thus, the target of this review is the carers of individuals with schizophrenia, public health managers, counselors, case workers, psychiatrists, and clinical psychologists aiming to enhance the quality of life of individuals with schizophrenia.

  18. Arformoterol Tartrate: A Review of Pharmacology, Analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    suggest the potentially enhanced efficacy of this drug in the treatment of COPD including ... pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical studies, analytical techniques, drug-drug interactions, ..... accordance with the United States Food and. Drug ...

  19. Pharmacological and other beneficial effects of anti- nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Key words: Pharmacological, beneficial effects, anti-nutritional factors, plants. INTRODUCTION ...... Rankin SM, DeWhalley CV, Hoult S, Jessup W, Willins GM, Collard J, .... saponins from alfalfa on weeds and wheat. Bot. Bull ...

  20. Integrated quantitative pharmacology for treatment optimization in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasselt, J.G.C. van

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and application of quantitative pharmacological models in oncology for treatment optimization and for the design and analysis of clinical trials with respect to pharmacokinetics, toxicity, efficacy and cost-effectiveness. A recurring theme throughout this

  1. Pharmacological Properties of Melanin and its Function in Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElObeid, Adila Salih; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar K; Haseeb, Adil M

    2017-06-01

    The biological pigment melanin is present in most of the biological systems. It manifests a host of biological and pharmacological properties. Its role as a molecule with special properties and functions affecting general health, including photoprotective and immunological action, are well recognized. Its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, radioprotective, hepatic, gastrointestinal and hypoglycaemic benefits have only recently been recognized and studied. It is also associated with certain disorders of the nervous system. In this MiniReview, we consider the steadily increasing literature on the bioavailability and functional activity of melanin. Published literature shows that melanin may play a number of possible pharmacological effects such as protective, stimulatory, diagnostic and curative roles in human health. In this MiniReview, possible health roles and pharmacological effects are considered. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  2. Breastfeeding information in pharmacology textbooks: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Lisa H; Raval, Manjri; Hussainy, Safeera Y

    2013-07-01

    Women often need to take medicines while breastfeeding and pharmacists need to provide accurate information in order to avoid undue caution about the compatibility of medicines and breastfeeding. The objective of this study was to review information provided about breastfeeding in commonly used pharmacology textbooks. We asked 15 Australian universities teaching pharmacy courses to provide a list of recommended pharmacology textbooks in 2011. Ten universities responded, generating a list of 11 textbooks that we analysed for content relating to breastfeeding. Pharmacology textbooks outline the mechanisms of actions of medicines and their use: however, only a small emphasis is placed on the safety/compatibility of medicines for women during breastfeeding. Current pharmacology textbooks recommended by Australian universities have significant gaps in their coverage of medicine use in breastfeeding. Authors of textbooks should address this gap, so academic staff can recommend texts with the best lactation content.

  3. Non-pharmacological approaches to alleviate distress in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary; Agnelli, Joanne

    2015-11-25

    Distress is one of the most common clinical manifestations associated with dementia. Pharmacological intervention may be appropriate in managing distress in some people. However, best practice guidelines advocate non-pharmacological interventions as the preferred first-line treatment. The use of non-pharmacological interventions encourages healthcare professionals to be more person-centred in their approach, while considering the causes of distress. This article provides healthcare professionals with an overview of some of the non-pharmacological approaches that can assist in alleviating distress for people living with dementia including: reminiscence therapy, reality orientation, validation therapy, music therapy, horticultural therapy, doll therapy and pet therapy. It provides a summary of their use in clinical practice and links to the relevant literature.

  4. Pharmacological potential of tocotrienols: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Haseeb; Ahad, Amjid; Iqbal, Jahangir; Siddiqui, Waseem A

    2014-01-01

    Tocotrienols, members of the vitamin E family, are natural compounds found in a number of vegetable oils, wheat germ, barley, and certain types of nuts and grains. Like tocopherols, tocotrienols are also of four types viz. alpha, beta, gamma and delta. Unlike tocopherols, tocotrienols are unsaturated and possess an isoprenoid side chain. Tocopherols are lipophilic in nature and are found in association with lipoproteins, fat deposits and cellular membranes and protect the polyunsaturated fatty acids from peroxidation reactions. The unsaturated chain of tocotrienol allows an efficient penetration into tissues that have saturated fatty layers such as the brain and liver. Recent mechanistic studies indicate that other forms of vitamin E, such as γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, and γ-tocotrienol, have unique antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that are superior to those of α-tocopherol against chronic diseases. These forms scavenge reactive nitrogen species, inhibit cyclooxygenase- and 5-lipoxygenase-catalyzed eicosanoids and suppress proinflammatory signalling, such as NF-κB and STAT. The animal and human studies show tocotrienols may be useful against inflammation-associated diseases. Many of the functions of tocotrienols are related to its antioxidant properties and its varied effects are due to it behaving as a signalling molecule. Tocotrienols exhibit biological activities that are also exhibited by tocopherols, such as neuroprotective, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and cholesterol lowering properties. Hence, effort has been made to compile the different functions and properties of tocotrienols in experimental model systems and humans. This article constitutes an in-depth review of the pharmacology, metabolism, toxicology and biosafety aspects of tocotrienols. Tocotrienols are detectable at appreciable levels in the plasma after supplementations. However, there is inadequate data on the plasma concentrations of tocotrienols that are sufficient to

  5. Low prevalence of hypertension with pharmacological treatments and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the determinants of the lack of pharmacological treatment for hypertension. METHODS: In 2005, 3,323 Mozambicans aged 25-64 years old were evaluated. Blood pressure, weight, height and smoking status were assessed following the Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. Hypertensives (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive drug therapy were evaluated for awareness of their condition, pharmacological and non-pharmacological management, as well as use of herbal or traditional remedies. Prevalence ratios (PR were calculated, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors and non-pharmacological treatment. RESULTS: Most of the hypertensive subjects (92.3%, and nearly half of those aware of their condition were not treated pharmacologically. Among the aware, the prevalence of untreated hypertension was higher in men {PR = 1.61; 95% confidence interval (95%CI 1.10;2.36} and was lower in subjects under non-pharmacological treatment (PR = 0.58; 95%CI 0.42;0.79; there was no significant association with traditional treatments (PR = 0.75; 95%CI 0.44;1.26. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of pharmacological treatment for hypertension was more frequent in men, and was not influenced by the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors; it could not be explained by the use of alternative treatments as herbal/traditional medicines or non-pharmacological management. It is important to understand the reasons behind the lack of management of diagnosed hypertension and to implement appropriate corrective actions to reduce the gap in the access to healthcare between developed and developing countries.

  6. Behavior analysis and the growth of behavioral pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Laties, Victor G.

    2003-01-01

    Psychologists, particularly those influenced by the work of B. F. Skinner, played a major part in the development of behavioral pharmacology in the 1950s and 1960s. Revolutionary changes in pharmacology and psychiatry, including the discovery of powerful therapeutic agents such as chlorpromazine and reserpine, had produced a surge of interest in drug research. Pharmaceutical companies began hiring psychologists with operant conditioning backgrounds so as to compete successfully in the search ...

  7. Pharmacological characterization of social isolation-induced hyperactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Katrine; Helboe, Lone; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Social isolation (SI) of rats directly after weaning is a non-pharmacological, non-lesion animal model based on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. The model causes several neurobiological and behavioral alterations consistent with observations in schizophrenia.......Social isolation (SI) of rats directly after weaning is a non-pharmacological, non-lesion animal model based on the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. The model causes several neurobiological and behavioral alterations consistent with observations in schizophrenia....

  8. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology and Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rute; Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2018-06-05

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) are widely distributed in plants throughout the world, frequently in species relevant for human consumption. Apart from the toxicity that these molecules can cause in humans and livestock, PA are also known for their wide range of pharmacological properties, which can be exploited in drug discovery programs. In this work we review the current body of knowledge regarding the chemistry, toxicology, pharmacology and food safety of PA.

  9. Imaging tools to study pharmacology: functional MRI on small rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth eJonckers; Disha eShah; Julie eHamaide; Marleen eVerhoye; Annemie eVan Der Linden

    2015-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is an excellent tool to study the effect of pharmacological modulations on brain function in a non-invasive and longitudinal manner. We introduce several blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI techniques, including resting state (rsfMRI), stimulus-evoked (st-fMRI), and pharmacological MRI (phMRI). Respectively, these techniques permit the assessment of functional connectivity during rest as well as brain activation triggered by sensory stimu...

  10. Post-stroke Movement Disorders: Clinical Manifestations and Pharmacological Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Gallelli, Luca; Labate, Angelo; Malferrari, Giovanni; Palleria, Caterina; Sarro, Giovambattista De

    2012-09-01

    Involuntary abnormal movements have been reported after ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Post stroke movement disorders can appear as acute or delayed sequel. At the moment, for many of these disorders the knowledge of pharmacological treatment is still inadequate. Dopaminergic and GABAergic systems may be mainly involved in post-stroke movement disorders. This article provides a review on drugs commonly used in post-stroke movement disorders, given that some post-stroke movement disorders have shown a partial benefit with pharmacological approach.

  11. Strains of Rodents and the Pharmacology of Learning and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Castellano, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    Mendelian genetic tools have extensively been used to improve the description of the pharmacological mechanisms involved in learning and memory. The first part of this short review describes experiments involving the bidirectional selection of rats or mice for extreme behavioral characteristics or for sensitivity to pharmacological treatments. The second part focuses specifically on inbreeding. In conclusion, the advantages and the limits of a Mendelian pharmacog...

  12. Cannabis Pharmacology: The Usual Suspects and a Few Promising Leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B; Marcu, Jahan

    2017-01-01

    The golden age of cannabis pharmacology began in the 1960s as Raphael Mechoulam and his colleagues in Israel isolated and synthesized cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol, and other phytocannabinoids. Initially, THC garnered most research interest with sporadic attention to cannabidiol, which has only rekindled in the last 15 years through a demonstration of its remarkably versatile pharmacology and synergy with THC. Gradually a cognizance of the potential of other phytocannabinoids has developed. Contemporaneous assessment of cannabis pharmacology must be even far more inclusive. Medical and recreational consumers alike have long believed in unique attributes of certain cannabis chemovars despite their similarity in cannabinoid profiles. This has focused additional research on the pharmacological contributions of mono- and sesquiterpenoids to the effects of cannabis flower preparations. Investigation reveals these aromatic compounds to contribute modulatory and therapeutic roles in the cannabis entourage far beyond expectations considering their modest concentrations in the plant. Synergistic relationships of the terpenoids to cannabinoids will be highlighted and include many complementary roles to boost therapeutic efficacy in treatment of pain, psychiatric disorders, cancer, and numerous other areas. Additional parts of the cannabis plant provide a wide and distinct variety of other compounds of pharmacological interest, including the triterpenoid friedelin from the roots, canniprene from the fan leaves, cannabisin from seed coats, and cannflavin A from seed sprouts. This chapter will explore the unique attributes of these agents and demonstrate how cannabis may yet fulfil its potential as Mechoulam's professed "pharmacological treasure trove." © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharmacological and Non-pharmacological Therapies of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elzbieta; Morel, Agnieszka; Redlicka, Justyna; Miller, Igor; Saluk, Joanna

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the most important clinical features of neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). Conducted research shows that up to 65 percent of MS patients have cognitive deficits such as episodic memory, sustained attention, reduced verbal fluency; however, the cognitive MS domain is information processing speed. It is the first syndrome of cognitive dysfunction and the most widely affected in MS. Occasionally these impairments occur even before the appearance of physical symptoms. Therefore, this review focused on the current status of our knowledge about possible methods of treatment cognitive impairment in MS patients including novel strategies. Research and online content was performed using Medline and EMBASE databases. The most recent research suggests that cognitive impairment is correlated with brain lesion volume and brain atrophy. The examination of the cognitive impairment is usually based on particular neuropsychological batteries. However, it can be not enough to make a precise diagnosis. This creates a demand to find markers that might be useful for identifying patients with risk of cognitive impairment at an early stage of the disease. Currently the most promising methods consist of neuroimaging indicators, such as diffusion tensor imaging, the magnetization transfer ratio, and N-acetyl aspartate levels. Diagnosis problems are strictly connected with treatment procedures. There are two main cognitive therapies: pharmacological (disease modifying drugs (DMD), symptomatic treatments) and non-pharmacological interventions that are focused on psychological and physical rehabilitation. Some trials have shown a positive association between physical activity and the cognitive function. This article is an overview of the current state of knowledge related to cognition impairment treatment in MS. Additionally, novel strategies for cognitive impairments such as cryostimulation and other complementary methods are

  14. Palliative pharmacological sedation for terminally ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Elaine M; van Driel, Mieke L; McGregor, Leanne; Truong, Shani; Mitchell, Geoffrey

    2015-01-02

    Terminally ill people experience a variety of symptoms in the last hours and days of life, including delirium, agitation, anxiety, terminal restlessness, dyspnoea, pain, vomiting, and psychological and physical distress. In the terminal phase of life, these symptoms may become refractory, and unable to be controlled by supportive and palliative therapies specifically targeted to these symptoms. Palliative sedation therapy is one potential solution to providing relief from these refractory symptoms. Sedation in terminally ill people is intended to provide relief from refractory symptoms that are not controlled by other methods. Sedative drugs such as benzodiazepines are titrated to achieve the desired level of sedation; the level of sedation can be easily maintained and the effect is reversible. To assess the evidence for the benefit of palliative pharmacological sedation on quality of life, survival, and specific refractory symptoms in terminally ill adults during their last few days of life. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1946 to November 2014), and EMBASE (1974 to December 2014), using search terms representing the sedative drug names and classes, disease stage, and study designs. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, non-RCTs, and observational studies (e.g. before-and-after, interrupted-time-series) with quantitative outcomes. We excluded studies with only qualitative outcomes or that had no comparison (i.e. no control group or no within-group comparison) (e.g. single arm case series). Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of citations, and full text of potentially eligible studies. Two review authors independently carried out data extraction using standard data extraction forms. A third review author acted as arbiter for both stages. We carried out no meta-analyses due to insufficient data for pooling on any outcome; therefore, we reported

  15. Neuroanatomy of the vmPFC and dlPFC predicts individual differences in cognitive regulation during dietary self-control across regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Liane; Tusche, Anita; Manoharan, Nicolas; Hutcherson, Cendri; Hare, Todd; Plassmann, Hilke

    2018-06-04

    Making healthy food choices is challenging for many people. Individuals differ greatly in their ability to follow health goals in the face of temptation, but it is unclear what underlies such differences. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated in healthy humans (i.e., men and women) links between structural variation in gray matter volume and individuals' level of success in shifting toward healthier food choices. We combined MRI and choice data into a joint dataset by pooling across three independent studies that employed a task prompting participants to explicitly focus on the healthiness of food items before making their food choices. Within this dataset, we found that individual differences in gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) predicted regulatory success. We extended and confirmed these initial findings by predicting regulatory success out of sample and across tasks in a second dataset requiring participants to apply a different regulation strategy that entailed distancing from cravings for unhealthy, appetitive foods. Our findings suggest that neuroanatomical markers in the vmPFC and dlPFC generalized to different forms of dietary regulation strategies across participant groups. They provide novel evidence that structural differences in neuroanatomy of two key regions for valuation and its control, the vmPFC and dlPFC, predict an individual's ability to exert control in dietary choices. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dieting involves regulating food choices in order to eat healthier foods and fewer unhealthy foods. People differ dramatically in their ability to achieve or maintain this regulation, but it is unclear why. Here, we show that individuals with more gray matter volume in the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are better at exercising dietary self-control. This relationship was observed across four different studies examining two different forms of dietary

  16. Recent Pharmacology Studies on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    The environment on the International Space Station (ISS) includes a variety of potential stressors including the absence of Earth's gravity, elevated exposure to radiation, confined living and working quarters, a heavy workload, and high public visibility. The effects of this extreme environment on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and even on stored medication doses, are not yet understood. Dr. Wotring will discuss recent analyses of medication doses that experienced long duration storage on the ISS and a recent retrospective examination of medication use during long-duration spaceflights. She will also describe new pharmacology experiments that are scheduled for upcoming ISS missions. Dr. Virginia E. Wotring is a Senior Scientist in the Division of Space Life Sciences in the Universities Space Research Association, and Pharmacology Discipline Lead at NASA's Johnson Space Center, Human Heath and Countermeasures Division. She received her doctorate in Pharmacological and Physiological Science from Saint Louis University after earning a B.S. in Chemistry at Florida State University. She has published multiple studies on ligand gated ion channels in the brain and spinal cord. Her research experience includes drug mechanisms of action, drug receptor structure/function relationships and gene & protein expression. She joined USRA (and spaceflight research) in 2009. In 2012, her book reviewing pharmacology in spaceflight was published by Springer: Space Pharmacology, Space Development Series.

  17. Pharmacological treatment of sexual offenders in German outpatient treatment centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Gregório Hertz, Priscilla; Sauter, Julia; Briken, Peer; Rettenberger, Martin

    2018-05-04

    In Germany, depending on a sexual offender's culpability and the severity of the offence, he/she can be placed either in the forensic-psychiatric or the correctional system. Numbers related to the pharmacological treatment of sexual offenders for the correctional system are missing so far. In sexual offenders, the pharmacological treatment of paraphilic disorders is of special importance. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence of pharmacological sexual offender treatment in German outpatient treatment centers supervising mainly clients from the correctional sector. An online questionnaire was sent to 112 outpatient treatment centers and 21 provided data relevant for the present study. The included institutions reported about a total of 813 sexual offenders, of whom 200 (24.6%) were treated with pharmacological agents, most frequently antipsychotics (14.8%) and selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors (7.1%). Of the total sample, 26.7% of sexual offenders were diagnosed with a paraphilic - mainly with a pedophilic - disorder. Only 2% were treated with androgen-deprivation therapy. Compared with forensic-psychiatric institutions, only a minority of sexual offenders are treated with medication specifically addressing paraphilic symptomatology. However, the prevalence of paraphilic disorders found in the present study suggests that pharmacological treatment of paraphilic fantasies and behaviors could be of great importance in the correctional sector as well.

  18. A Review of Pharmacologic Treatment for Compulsive Buying Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Célia; Fernandes, Natália; Morgado, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    At present, no treatment recommendations can be made for compulsive buying disorder. Recent studies have found evidence for the efficacy of psychotherapeutic options, but less is known regarding the best pharmacologic treatment. The purpose of this review is to present and analyze the available published evidence on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying disorder. To achieve this, we conducted a review of studies focusing on the pharmacological treatment of compulsive buying by searching the PubMed/MEDLINE database. Selection criteria were applied, and 21 studies were identified. Pharmacological classes reported included antidepressants, mood stabilizers, opioid antagonists, second-generation antipsychotics, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. We found only placebo-controlled trials for fluvoxamine; none showed effectiveness against placebo. Three open-label trials reported clinical improvement with citalopram; one was followed by a double-blind discontinuation. Escitalopram was effective in an open-label trial but did not show efficacy in the double-blind phase. Memantine was identified as effective in a pilot open-label study. Fluoxetine, bupropion, nortriptyline, clomipramine, topiramate and naltrexone were only reported to be effective in clinical cases. According to the available literature, there is no evidence to propose a specific pharmacologic agent for compulsive buying disorder. Future research is required for a better understanding of both pathogenesis and treatment of this disorder.

  19. Non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions in patients with early arthritis: a systematic literature review informing the 2016 update of EULAR recommendations for the management of early arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daien, Claire Immediato; Hua, Charlotte; Combe, Bernard; Landewe, Robert

    2017-01-01

    To perform a systematic literature review (SLR) on pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, in order to inform the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the management of early arthritis (EA). The expert committee defined research questions concerning

  20. The Pharmacologic and Clinical Effects of Illicit Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C Michael

    2017-03-01

    This article presents information on illicitly used synthetic cannabinoids. Synthetic cannabinoids are structurally heterogeneous and commonly used drugs of abuse that act as full agonists of the cannabinoid type-1 receptor but have a variety of additional pharmacologic effects. There are numerous cases of patient harm and death in the United States, Europe, and Australia with many psychological, neurological, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal adverse events. Although most users prefer using cannabis, there are convenience, legal, and cost reasons driving the utilization of synthetic cannabinoids. Clinicians should be aware of pharmacologic and clinical similarities and differences between synthetic cannabinoid and cannabis use, the limited ability to detect synthetic cannabinoids in the urine or serum, and guidance to treat adverse events. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  1. Clinical Pharmacology of Chemotherapy Agents in Older People with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoye He

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Populations around the world are aging, and the associated increase in cancer incidence has led to the recognition of the importance of geriatric oncology. Chronological age is a poor determinant of pharmacological response to cancer chemotherapy agents. Age-associated changes in physiology and organ function have a significant impact on the clinical pharmacology of cancer chemotherapy agents used in cancer treatment. Altered response to medicines in older people is a consequence of changes in body composition, organ function, concomitant pathophysiology, multiple medications, genetic determinants of drug response, and patient's clinical status. These issues highlight the need to individualize the management of cancer in the older people with consideration of age-related changes in the clinical pharmacology of cancer drugs, analgesics, and adjunctive therapies.

  2. Pharmacological properties of Salvia officinalis and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis (Sage is a plant in the family of Labiatae/Lamiaceae. It is native to Middle East and Mediterranean areas, but today has been naturalized throughout the world. In folk medicine, S. officinalis has been used for the treatment of different kinds of disorders including seizure, ulcers, gout, rheumatism, inflammation, dizziness, tremor, paralysis, diarrhea, and hyperglycemia. In recent years, this plant has been a subject of intensive studies to document its traditional use and to find new biological effects. These studies have revealed a wide range of pharmacological activities for S. officinalis. Present review highlights the up-to-date information on the pharmacological findings that have been frequently reported for S. officinalis. These findings include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antidementia, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic effects. Also, chemical constituents responsible for pharmacological effects of S. officinalis and the clinical studies on this plant are presented and discussed.

  3. Human pharmacology for addiction medicine: From evidence to clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quednow, Boris B; Herdener, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Substance use disorders (SUD) are complex and often chronic diseases with negative health outcomes and social consequences. Pharmacological treatment options for SUD can be separated in medications for (i) intoxication, (ii) withdrawal, and (iii) reduction of use together with relapse prevention. This chapter will focus on approved or clinically established pharmacological strategies suited to manage symptoms of withdrawal, and to reduce substance use or to promote abstinence. Hereby SUD involving alcohol, nicotine, stimulants, and opioids are primarily discussed as these substances are considered most harmful for both the individual and the society. Moreover, the pharmacotherapy of SUD related to the use of cannabis, benzodiazepines, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate is also briefly reviewed. Since most approved pharmacological treatment options show only moderate effect sizes especially in the long term, the development of new treatment strategies including new drugs, new combinations of available compounds, and biomarkers for response prediction is still warranted. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Current trends and future development in pharmacologic stress testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jin Ho; Lee, Jae Tae

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacologic stress testing for myocardial perfusion imaging is a widely used noninvasive method for the evaluation of known or suspected coronary artery disease. The use of exercise for cardiac stress has been practiced for over 60 years and clinicians are familiar with its using. However, there are inevitable situations in which exercise stress is inappropriate. A large number of patients with cardiac problems are unable to exercise to their full potential due to comorbidity such as osteoarthritis, vascular disease and pulmonary disease and a standard exercise stress test for myocardial perfusion imaging is suboptimal means for assessment of coronary artery disease. This problem has led to the development of the pharmacologic stress test and to a great increase in its popularity. All of the currently used pharmacologic agents have well-documented diagnostic value. This review deals the physiological actions, clinical protocols, safety, nuclear imaging applications of currently available stress agents and future development of new vasodilating agents

  5. Factors Affecting the Pharmacology of Antibody–Drug Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Lucas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in therapeutic proteins, including antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs, have created revolutionary drug delivery systems in cancer over the past decade. While these immunoconjugate agents provide several advantages compared to their small-molecule counterparts, their clinical use is still in its infancy. The considerations in their development and clinical use are complex, and consist of multiple components and variables that can affect the pharmacologic characteristics. It is critical to understand the mechanisms employed by ADCs in navigating biological barriers and how these factors affect their biodistribution, delivery to tumors, efficacy, and toxicity. Thus, future studies are warranted to better understand the complex pharmacology and interaction between ADC carriers and biological systems, such as the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS and tumor microenvironment. This review provides an overview of factors that affect the pharmacologic profiles of ADC therapies that are currently in clinical use and development.

  6. Rehmannia glutinosa: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru-Xue; Li, Mao-Xing; Jia, Zheng-Ping

    2008-05-08

    Rehmannia glutinosa, a widely used traditional Chinese herb, belongs to the family of Scrophulariaceae, and is taken to nourish Yin and invigorate the kidney in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has a very high medicinal value. In recent decades, a great number of chemical and pharmacological studies have been done on Rehmannia glutinosa. More than 70 compounds including iridoids, saccharides, amino acid, inorganic ions, as well as other trace elements have been found in the herb. Studies show that Rehmannia glutinosa and its active principles possess wide pharmacological actions on the blood system, immune system, endocrine system, cardiovascular system and the nervous system. Currently, the effective monomeric compounds or active parts have been screened for the pharmacological activity of Rehmannia glutinosa and the highest quality scientific data is delivered to support the further application and exploitation for new drug development.

  7. Acanthopanax senticosus: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Linzhang; Zhao, Hongfang; Huang, Baokang; Zheng, Chengjian; Peng, Wei; Qin, Luping

    2011-02-01

    Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms (Araliaceae), also called Siberian Ginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Ciwujia in Chinese, is a widely used traditional Chinese herb that could invigorate qi, strengthen the spleen, and nourish kidney in the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine. With high medicinal value, Acanthopanax senticosus (AS, thereafter) is popularly used as an "adaptogen" like Panax ginseng. In recent decades, a great number of chemical, pharmacological, and clinical studies on AS have been carried out worldwide. Several kinds of chemical compounds have been reported, including triterpenoid saponins, lignans, coumarins, and flavones, among which, phenolic compounds such as syringin and eleutheroside E, were considered to be the most active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have persuasively demonstrated that AS possessed anti-stress, antiulcer, anti-irradiation, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, etc. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the botany, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and clinical trials of AS.

  8. The Genus Phyllanthus: An Ethnopharmacological, Phytochemical, and Pharmacological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Mao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The plants of the genus Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae have been used as traditional medicinal materials for a long time in China, India, Brazil, and the Southeast Asian countries. They can be used for the treatment of digestive disease, jaundice, and renal calculus. This review discusses the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacological studies of Phyllanthus over the past few decades. More than 510 compounds have been isolated, the majority of which are lignins, triterpenoids, flavonoids, and tannins. The researches of their remarkable antiviral, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities have become hot topics. More pharmacological screenings and phytochemical investigations are required to support the traditional uses and develop leading compounds.

  9. Simulation in an Undergraduate Nursing Pharmacology Course: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinnon, Elizabeth; Newton, Rebecca

    This study examined the effectiveness of simulation as a method of teaching pharmacological concepts to nursing students; perceptions of satisfaction with simulation as a teaching strategy were also evaluated. Second-semester juniors participated in three simulations and completed the National League for Nursing Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning Questionnaire and the Student Evaluation of Educational Quality Survey; a control group received traditional lectures. A unit exam on anticoagulant therapy content was administered to measure effectiveness. Findings support that simulation is as effective as traditional lecture for an undergraduate pharmacology course.

  10. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  11. New approaches in analyzing the pharmacological properties of herbal extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Herbal extracts are widely used and accepted in the population. The pharmacological characterization of such products meets some specific challenges, given the chemical complexity of the active ingredient. An overview is given on modern methods and approaches that can be used for that purpose. In particular, HPLC-based activity profiling is discussed as a means to identify pharmacologically active compounds in an extract, and expression profiling is described as a means for global assessment of effects exerted by multi-component mixtures such as extracts. These methods are illustrated with selected axamples from our labs, including woad (Isatis tinctoria), the traditional Chinese herb Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) and black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa).

  12. Pharmacological treatment of sleep disorders and its relationship with neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Vivien C; Guilleminault, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Sleep and wakefulness are regulated by complex brain circuits located in the brain stem, thalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and cerebral cortex. Wakefulness and NREM and REM sleep are modulated by the interactions between neurotransmitters that promote arousal and neurotransmitters that promote sleep. Various lines of evidence suggest that sleep disorders may negatively affect neuronal plasticity and cognitive function. Pharmacological treatments may alleviate these effects but may also have adverse side effects by themselves. This chapter discusses the relationship between sleep disorders, pharmacological treatments, and brain plasticity, including the treatment of insomnia, hypersomnias such as narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome (RLS), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and parasomnias.

  13. Neuroscience of behavioral and pharmacological treatments for addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N.; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Although substantial advances have been made in behavioral and pharmacological treatments for addictions, moving treatment development to the next stage may require novel ways of approaching addictions, particularly those derived from new findings regarding of the neurobiological underpinnings of addictions, while assimilating and incorporating relevant information from earlier approaches. In this review, we first briefly review theoretical and biological models of addiction and then describe existing behavioral and pharmacologic therapies for the addictions within this framework. We then propose new directions for treatment development and targets that are informed by recent evidence regarding the heterogeneity of addictions and the neurobiological contributions to these disorders. PMID:21338880

  14. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with exercise and pharmacological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundram, F.X.

    1995-01-01

    Cardiac studies including myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was begun in the Singapore General Hospital, nuclear medicine department in 1983. From a few patients per year using planar imaging, we have in 1994 studied 1500 patients for myocardial perfusion, using mainly SPECT (single-photon emission computerised tomography) and radionuclides such as Thallium-201, Technetium-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m tetrofosmin. Patients have been stressed using treadmill exercise or pharmacological agents; we have used dipyridamole, and dobutamine for pharmacological stress but have no experience with intravenous adenosine

  15. Polymeric drugs: Advances in the development of pharmacologically active polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yu, Fei; Chen, Yi; Oupický, David

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic polymers play a critical role in pharmaceutical discovery and development. Current research and applications of pharmaceutical polymers are mainly focused on their functions as excipients and inert carriers of other pharmacologically active agents. This review article surveys recent advances in alternative pharmaceutical use of polymers as pharmacologically active agents known as polymeric drugs. Emphasis is placed on the benefits of polymeric drugs that are associated with their macromolecular character and their ability to explore biologically relevant multivalency processes. We discuss the main therapeutic uses of polymeric drugs as sequestrants, antimicrobials, antivirals, and anticancer and anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:26410809

  16. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with exercise and pharmacological stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundram, F X [General Hospital of Singapore, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine (Senegal)

    1996-12-31

    Cardiac studies including myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was begun in the Singapore General Hospital, nuclear medicine department in 1983. From a few patients per year using planar imaging, we have in 1994 studied 1500 patients for myocardial perfusion, using mainly SPECT (single-photon emission computerised tomography) and radionuclides such as Thallium-201, Technetium-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m tetrofosmin. Patients have been stressed using treadmill exercise or pharmacological agents; we have used dipyridamole, and dobutamine for pharmacological stress but have no experience with intravenous adenosine.

  17. The internet as a tool in clinical pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Josep-Maria; Figueras, Albert; Vigo, Joan-Miquel

    2006-01-01

    The invention of the internet and the world-wide web was a landmark that has affected many aspects of everyday life, but is so recent and dynamic that many of its potential uses are still being explored. Aside from its purely commercial use as a virtual pharmacy (e-commerce), the internet is useful in at least three aspects related to clinical pharmacology: communication, training and research. In this paper we briefly review several internet applications related to clinical pharmacology and describe, as an example, the logistics of a multicentre research collaboration related to the promotion of rational drug use in the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage. PMID:16722847

  18. Pharmacological evidence of neuro-pharmacological activity of Acacia tortilis leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Waheeb D M; Azmat, Aisha

    2016-08-01

    Acacia tortilis is abundantly present in Saudi Arabia but its neuro-pharmacological activity has not yet been evaluated. In this study, the antidepressant by Forced swim test, Anxiolytic (Light and Dark box) and sedative effects (by using Open Field) of Acacia leaves extract were evaluated in mice. Aqueous extracts of the Acacia tortilis leaves were prepared. Two different doses (400 and 800 mg/kg) of the extracts were administered to the mice orally (p.o.). In exploratory behavior, Acacia leave extract (800 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction (Veh, 91.00 ± 5.26; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 46.33 ± 3.24 p < 0.05) similar to the effect observed with chlorpromazine (CPZ) (Veh, 91.00 ± 5.26; CPZ 1.0 mg/kg, 24.20 ± 3.40 p < 0.05). A dose-dependent significant decrease in immobility time was also observed in mice and this effect was comparable to its positive control (Imipramine). However, In light-dark box test, mice treated with high dose (800 mg/kg/day) spent significant (p < 0.05) time on the light side of the light-dark box similar to positive control DZP. (Veh, 114.40 ± 6.30 s; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 162.2 ± 14.9; DZP 1.0 mg/kg, 184.20 ± 9.24 p < 0.05). The present research propounded that Acacia tortilis leave extract contains some active ingredients with potential anxiolytic activity at low doses and antidepressant and sedative activity at high doses.

  19. The functional neuroanatomy of verbal memory in Alzheimer's disease: [18F]-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) correlates of recency and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffaroni, Adam M; Melrose, Rebecca J; Leskin, Lorraine P; Riskin-Jones, Hannah; Harwood, Dylan; Mandelkern, Mark; Sultzer, David L

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to distinguish the functional neuroanatomy of verbal learning and recognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Word Learning task. In 81 Veterans diagnosed with dementia due to AD, we conducted a cluster-based correlation analysis to assess the relationships between recency and recognition memory scores from the CERAD Word Learning Task and cortical metabolic activity measured using [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). AD patients (Mini-Mental State Examination, MMSE mean = 20.2) performed significantly better on the recall of recency items during learning trials than of primacy and middle items. Recency memory was associated with cerebral metabolism in the left middle and inferior temporal gyri and left fusiform gyrus (p recognition memory was correlated with metabolic activity in two clusters: (a) a large cluster that included the left hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, entorhinal cortex, anterior temporal lobe, and inferior and middle temporal gyri; (b) the bilateral orbitofrontal cortices (OFC). The present study further informs our understanding of the disparate functional neuroanatomy of recency memory and recognition memory in AD. We anticipated that the recency effect would be relatively preserved and associated with temporoparietal brain regions implicated in short-term verbal memory, while recognition memory would be associated with the medial temporal lobe and possibly the OFC. Consistent with our a priori hypotheses, list learning in our AD sample was characterized by a reduced primacy effect and a relatively spared recency effect; however, recency memory was associated with cerebral metabolism in inferior and lateral temporal regions associated with the semantic memory network, rather than regions associated with short-term verbal memory. The correlates of recognition memory included the medial temporal lobe

  20. Hard Core Pharmacology: How Much Is Taught in Pharmacy Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Kenneth A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A survey was sent to eighty-five American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy-member schools and affiliates to learn how many lectures are accorded to core sequences in pharmacology. The data were intended to provide a frame of reference for the University of Toledo College of Pharmacy. (Author/MLW)

  1. The pharmacology of lysergic acid diethylamide: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passie, Torsten; Halpern, John H; Stichtenoth, Dirk O; Emrich, Hinderk M; Hintzen, Annelie

    2008-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) was synthesized in 1938 and its psychoactive effects discovered in 1943. It was used during the 1950s and 1960s as an experimental drug in psychiatric research for producing so-called "experimental psychosis" by altering neurotransmitter system and in psychotherapeutic procedures ("psycholytic" and "psychedelic" therapy). From the mid 1960s, it became an illegal drug of abuse with widespread use that continues today. With the entry of new methods of research and better study oversight, scientific interest in LSD has resumed for brain research and experimental treatments. Due to the lack of any comprehensive review since the 1950s and the widely dispersed experimental literature, the present review focuses on all aspects of the pharmacology and psychopharmacology of LSD. A thorough search of the experimental literature regarding the pharmacology of LSD was performed and the extracted results are given in this review. (Psycho-) pharmacological research on LSD was extensive and produced nearly 10,000 scientific papers. The pharmacology of LSD is complex and its mechanisms of action are still not completely understood. LSD is physiologically well tolerated and psychological reactions can be controlled in a medically supervised setting, but complications may easily result from uncontrolled use by layman. Actually there is new interest in LSD as an experimental tool for elucidating neural mechanisms of (states of) consciousness and there are recently discovered treatment options with LSD in cluster headache and with the terminally ill.

  2. Quality of reporting statistics in two Indian pharmacology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaykaran; Yadav, Preeti

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the reporting of the statistical methods in articles published in two Indian pharmacology journals. All original articles published since 2002 were downloaded from the journals' (Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP) and Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology (IJPP)) website. These articles were evaluated on the basis of appropriateness of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics was evaluated on the basis of reporting of method of description and central tendencies. Inferential statistics was evaluated on the basis of fulfilling of assumption of statistical methods and appropriateness of statistical tests. Values are described as frequencies, percentage, and 95% confidence interval (CI) around the percentages. Inappropriate descriptive statistics was observed in 150 (78.1%, 95% CI 71.7-83.3%) articles. Most common reason for this inappropriate descriptive statistics was use of mean ± SEM at the place of "mean (SD)" or "mean ± SD." Most common statistical method used was one-way ANOVA (58.4%). Information regarding checking of assumption of statistical test was mentioned in only two articles. Inappropriate statistical test was observed in 61 (31.7%, 95% CI 25.6-38.6%) articles. Most common reason for inappropriate statistical test was the use of two group test for three or more groups. Articles published in two Indian pharmacology journals are not devoid of statistical errors.

  3. High-Throughput Screening of Ototoxic and Otoprotective Pharmacological Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinec, Federico

    2005-01-01

    Drug ototoxicity research has relied traditionally on animal models for the discovery and development of therapeutic interventions. More than 50 years of research, however, has delivered few--if any--successful clinical strategies for preventing or ameliorating the ototoxic effects of common pharmacological drugs such as aminoglycoside…

  4. Applying linked data approaches to pharmacology: Architectural decisions and implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gray, A.J.G; Groth, P.T.; Loizou, A.; Askjaer, S; Brenninkmeijer, C; Burger, K.; Chichester, C.; Evelo, C.T.; Goble, C.A.; Harland, L; Pettifier, S; Thompson, M.; Waagmeester, A; William, A.J

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new medicines requires pharmacologists to interact with a number of information sources ranging from tabular data to scientific papers, and other specialized formats. In this application report, we describe a linked data platform for integrating multiple pharmacology datasets that

  5. BPS Pharmacology 2014 - Drug Discovery Pathways symposium Report

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Report on BPS Pharmacology 2014, BPS Industry Committe and Learned Societies Drug Discovery Pathways Group symposium: "Realizing the potential of new approaches to target identification and validation" by Dr Andrew Marsh Associate Professor Department of Chemistry University of Warwick go.warwick.ac.uk/marshgroup Twitter @marshgroup

  6. PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND THERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES OF HIBISCUS CANNABINUS- A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

    2018-01-01

    The phytochemical analysis of Hibiscus cannabinus showed the presence of phytosterols, flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, steroids, alkaloids, saponins, lignans, essential oils, glucosides such as cannabiscitrin, cannabiscetin and anthocyanin glycoside. The pharmacological studies revealed that Hibiscus cannabinus possessed cytotoxic, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antiulcer, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, immunological, haematinic and hepatoprotective effects. This review will highli...

  7. Treatment of Fabry's Disease with the Pharmacologic Chaperone Migalastat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germain, Dominique P; Hughes, Derralynn A; Nicholls, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fabry's disease, an X-linked disorder of lysosomal α-galactosidase deficiency, leads to substrate accumulation in multiple organs. Migalastat, an oral pharmacologic chaperone, stabilizes specific mutant forms of α-galactosidase, increasing enzyme trafficking to lysosomes. METHODS: The...

  8. Teaching Medical Students Basic Neurotransmitter Pharmacology Using Primary Research Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Amy C.; Devonshire, Ian M.; Greenfield, Susan A.; Dommett, Eleanor J.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We…

  9. The Role of Pharmacology in Ureteral Physiology and Expulsive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerde, Travis J.; Nakada, Stephen Y.

    2007-04-01

    Research in the field of ureteral physiology and pharmacology has traditionally been directed toward relaxation of ureteral spasm as a mechanism of analgesia during painful ureteral obstruction, most often stone-induced episodes. However, interest in this field has expanded greatly in recent years with the expanded use of alpha-blocker therapy for inducing stone passage, a usage now termed "medical expulsive therapy". While most clinical reports involving expulsive therapy have focused on alpha receptor or calcium channel blockade, there are diverse studies investigating pharmacological ureteral relaxation with novel agents including cyclooxygenase inhibitors, small molecule beta receptor agonists, neurokinin antagonists, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. In addition, cutting edge molecular biology research is revealing promising potential therapeutic targets aimed at specific molecular changes that occur during the acute obstruction that accompanies stone disease. The purpose of this report is to review the use of pharmacological agents as ureteral smooth muscle relaxants clinically, and to look into the future of expulsive therapy by reviewing the available literature of ureteral physiology and pharmacology research.

  10. [Non-Pharmacological Interventions for Pregnancy-Related Sleep Disturbances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsuan-Man; Chiang, Hsiao-Ching

    2017-02-01

    Most women experience the worse sleep quality of their life during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. Although pregnancy typically accounts for a relatively short part of a woman's life, the related sleep disturbances may have a significant and negative impact on her long-term health. Approximately 78-80% of pregnant women experience sleep disturbances, including interruptions in deep sleep, decreased total sleep time, poor subjective sleep quality, frequent night waking, and reduced sleep efficacy. Sleep disturbances during pregnancy start during the first trimester and become prevalent during the third trimester. Related factors include physiological and psychosocial changes and an unhealthy lifestyle. As non-pharmacological interventions have the potential to improve sleep quality in 70% to 80% of patients with insomnia, this is the main approached that is currently used to treat pregnancy-related sleep disturbances. Examples of these non-pharmacological interventions include music therapy, aerobic exercise, massage, progressive muscle relaxation, multi-modal interventions, and the use of a maternity support belt. The efficacy and safety of other related non-pharmacological interventions such as auricular acupressure, cognitive therapy, tai chi, and aromatherapy remain uncertain, with more empirical research required. Additionally, non-pharmacological interventions do not effectively treat sleep disturbances in all pregnant women.

  11. Imaging of dopamine release induced by pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic stimulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Technological advances in molecular imaging made it possible to image synaptic neurotransmitter concentration in living human brain. The dopaminergic system has been most intensively studied because of its importance in neurological as well as psychiatric disorders. This paper provides a brief overview of recent progress in imaging studies of dopamine release induced by pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic stimulations.

  12. PHARMACOLOGICAL AND MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY ASPECTS OF CANNABIS COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cotelea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current communication includes a general overview of the scientific interest and medicianl chemistry aspects of Cannabis compounds. It relates to metabolism, pharmacological action and phisico-chemical analysis of these compounds, as well as of some isomers differing in spatial arrangement of functional groups.

  13. Non-pharmacological interventions for fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramp, Fiona; Hewlett, Sarah; Almeida, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and potentially distressing symptom for people with rheumatoid arthritis with no accepted evidence based management guidelines. Non-pharmacological interventions, such as physical activity and psychosocial interventions, have been shown to help people with a range of other long...

  14. Pharmacological interventions for delirium in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbateskovic, Marija; Larsen, Laura Krone; Oxenbøll-Collet, Marie

    2016-01-01

    for the management and prevention of delirium in ICU patients. The conclusions of the reviews showed conflicting results. Despite this unclear evidence, antipsychotics, in particular, haloperidol is often the recommended pharmacological intervention for delirium in ICU patients. The objective of this overview...

  15. Phytochemical and Ethno-Pharmacological Review of the Genus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution, traditional uses, isolated chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of some common species of the genus Araucaria are reviewed in this paper. Almost 19 species belong to the genus, Araucaria. It is indigenous to North. America. Biflavanoid, diterpene, phenyl propanoid and lignans are abundant in ...

  16. Integrated quantitative pharmacology for treatment optimization in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hasselt, J.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and application of quantitative pharmacological models in oncology for treatment optimization and for the design and analysis of clinical trials with respect to pharmacokinetics, toxicity, efficacy and cost-effectiveness. A recurring theme throughout this thesis

  17. Towards predictive cardiovascular safety : a systems pharmacology approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelder, Nelleke

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular safety issues related to changes in blood pressure, arise frequently in drug development. In the thesis “Towards predictive cardiovascular safety – a systems pharmacology approach”, a system-specific model is described to quantify drug effects on the interrelationship between mean

  18. Advances in Pharmacology of Isatin and its Derivatives: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isatin (1H-indole-2,3-dione), an indole derivative of plant origin, is involved in many pharmacological activities like antiallergic, antimalarial, antiviral and antimicrobial; isatin and its derivatives have been found to show promising results against various cancer cell lines. Isatin is a versatile precursor for many biologically ...

  19. I Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202. Nairobi, Kenya. '~nternational Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P.O. Box 30772-00100 Nairobi, Kenya. Volatile sex pheromone w as collected from the extruded p heromone g land o f females of the spotted stalk borer ...

  20. Anthelmintic and Other Pharmacological Activities of the Root Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anthelmintic activity of water, methanol and chloroform extracts of the root bark of Albizia anthelmintica on strongyle-type sheep nematode eggs and larvae were examined in vitro. In addition, pharmacological tests were carried out on the water extract to confirm other ethnomedical uses of the plant. The water extract ...

  1. Beyond reverse pharmacology: Mechanism-based screening of Ayurvedic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lele, R D

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the pharmacology of Indian medicinal plants, starting with the historical background of European work on the subject beginning as early as the 17th century, and tracing its history through the work of Sen and Bose in the 1930's, and Vakhil's historic 1949 paper on Sarpaghanda. The often crucial role of patient feedback in early discoveries is highlighted, as is the time lag between proof of pharmacological action and identification of the active principle, and subsequent elucidation of mechanism of action. In the case of Indian plants in the 20th century this process sometimes took almost 50 years. Reserpine and its mechanisms are given in detail, and its current relevance to public health discussed. The foundation of present day methods of pharmacology is briefly presented so the complexity of methods used to identify properties of Ayurveda derived drugs like forskolin and baicalein, and their bioavailability, may be better appreciated. Ayurveda derived anti-oxidants and their levels of action, immuno-modulators, particularly with respect to the NF-kB pathway and its implications for cancer control, are all considered. The example of curcumin derived from turmeric is explained in more detail, because of its role in cancer prevention. Finally, the paper emphasizes the importance of Ayurveda's concepts of rasayana as a form of dietary chemo-prevention; the significance of ahar, diet, in Ayurveda's aspiration to prevent disease and restore health thus becomes clear. Understood in this light, Ayurveda may transcend pharmacology as a treatment paradigm.

  2. On the Pharmacology of Oxidative Burst of Human Neutrophils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosáľ, R.; Drábiková, K.; Jančinová, V.; Mačičková, T.; Pečivová, J.; Perečko, T.; Harmatha, Juraj; Šmidrkal, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, Suppl 4 (2015), S445-S452 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : human neutrophils * oxidative burst * chemiluminescence * protein kinase C * apoptosis Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2015 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/64/64_S445.pdf

  3. Pharmacological interventions for benzodiazepine discontinuation in chronic benzodiazepine users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Rasmussen, Jesper Ø

    2018-01-01

    .13 points, 95% CI -4.03 to 3.77; very low-quality evidence).The following pharmacological interventions reduced symptoms of anxiety at end of intervention: carbamazepine (1 study, 36 participants; MD -6.00 points, 95% CI -9.58 to -2.42; very low-quality evidence), pregabalin (1 study, 106 participants; MD...

  4. Veterinary pharmacology: history, current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P; Fink-Gremmels, J; Toutain, P L

    2013-04-01

    Veterinary therapeutics, based on the art of Materia Medica, has been practised for countless centuries, but the science of veterinary pharmacology is of very recent origin. This review traces the contribution of Materia Medica to veterinary therapeutics from the Egyptian period through to the Age of Enlightenment. The first tentative steps in the development of the science of veterinary pharmacology were taken in the 18th century, but it was not until the mid 20th century that the science replaced the art of Materia Medica. This review traces the 20th century developments in veterinary pharmacology, with emphasis on the explosion of knowledge in the 35 year period to 2010. The range of factors which have influenced the current status of the discipline are reviewed. Future developments are considered from the perspectives of what might be regarded as desirable and those innovations that might be anticipated. We end with words of encouragement for young colleagues intent upon pursuing a career in veterinary pharmacology. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Attitudes toward pharmacological cognitive enhancement-a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelle, K.J.; Faulmüller, N.; Caviola, L.; Hewstone, M.

    2014-01-01

    A primary means for the augmentation of cognitive brain functions is "pharmacological cognitive enhancement" (PCE). The term usually refers to the off-label use of medical substances to improve mental performance in healthy individuals. With the final aim to advance the normative debate taking place

  6. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eric Wei-Chiang; Lye, Phui-Yan; Wong, Siu-Kuin

    2016-01-01

    The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive summary on the botany, utility, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba (mulberry or sang shu). The mulberry foliage has remained the primary food for silkworms for centuries. Its leaves have also been used as animal feed for livestock and its fruits have been made into a variety of food products. With flavonoids as major constituents, mulberry leaves possess various biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-diabetic, glucosidase inhibition, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, and cognitive enhancement activities. Rich in anthocyanins and alkaloids, mulberry fruits have pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, and hepatoprotective activities. The root bark of mulberry, containing flavonoids, alkaloids and stilbenoids, has antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Other pharmacological properties of M. alba include anti-platelet, anxiolytic, anti-asthmatic, anthelmintic, antidepressant, cardioprotective, and immunomodulatory activities. Clinical trials on the efficiency of M. alba extracts in reducing blood glucose and cholesterol levels and enhancing cognitive ability have been conducted. The phytochemistry and pharmacology of the different parts of the mulberry tree confer its traditional and current uses as fodder, food, cosmetics, and medicine. Overall, M. alba is a multi-functional plant with promising medicinal properties. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Methodologies for quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models : Design and Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribba, B.; Grimm, Hp; Agoram, B.; Davies, M.R.; Gadkar, K.; Niederer, S.; van Riel, N.; Timmis, J.; van der Graaf, Ph.

    2017-01-01

    With the increased interest in the application of quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models within medicine research and development, there is an increasing need to formalize model development and verification aspects. In February 2016, a workshop was held at Roche Pharma Research and Early

  8. Methodologies for Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) Models: Design and Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribba, B.; Grimm, H. P.; Agoram, B.; Davies, M. R.; Gadkar, K.; Niederer, S.; van Riel, N.; Timmis, J.; van der Graaf, P. H.

    2017-01-01

    With the increased interest in the application of quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models within medicine research and development, there is an increasing need to formalize model development and verification aspects. In February 2016, a workshop was held at Roche Pharma Research and Early

  9. Pharmacological actions of Uncaria alkaloids, rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing-Shan; Yu, Jun-Xian; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Xu, Rui-Xia

    2003-02-01

    The pharmacological actions of Uncaria alkaloids, rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline extracted from Uncaria rhynchophylla Miq Jacks were reviewed. The alkaloids mainly act on cardiovascular system and central nervous system including the hypotension, brachycardia, antiarrhythmia, and protection of cerebral ischemia and sedation. The active mechanisms were related to blocking of calcium channel, opening of potassium channel, and regulating of nerve transmitters transport and metabolism, etc.

  10. Fraxinus: A Plant with Versatile Pharmacological and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, Iqra; Rasul, Azhar; Jabeen, Farhat; Younis, Tahira; Zahoor, Muhammad Kashif; Arshad, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Fraxinus , a member of the Oleaceae family, commonly known as ash tree is found in northeast Asia, north America, east and western France, China, northern areas of Pakistan, India, and Afghanistan. Chemical constituents of Fraxinus plant include various secoiridoids, phenylethanoids, flavonoids, coumarins, and lignans; therefore, it is considered as a plant with versatile biological and pharmacological activities. Its tremendous range of pharmacotherapeutic properties has been well documented including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and neuroprotective. In addition, its bioactive phytochemicals and secondary metabolites can be effectively used in cosmetic industry and as a competent antiaging agent. Fraxinus presents pharmacological effectiveness by targeting the novel targets in several pathological conditions, which provide a spacious therapeutic time window. Our aim is to update the scientific research community with recent endeavors with specifically highlighting the mechanism of action in different diseases. This potentially efficacious pharmacological drug candidate should be used for new drug discovery in future. This review suggests that this plant has extremely important medicinal utilization but further supporting studies and scientific experimentations are mandatory to determine its specific intracellular targets and site of action to completely figure out its pharmacological applications.

  11. The neurobiology and pharmacology of depression: A comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Over the past decade, targeted drug design has led to significant advances in the pharmacological management of depression. A serendipitous approach to drug discovery has therefore been replaced by the development of drugs acting on predetermined neurobiological targets recognised to be involved in ...

  12. Pharmacology Students' Perceptions of Creating Multimodal Digital Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, W.; Hoban G.; Hyland, C. J. T.

    2017-01-01

    Students can now digitally construct their own representations of scientific concepts using a variety of modes including writing, diagrams, 2-D and 3-D models, images or speech, all of which communicate meaning. In this study, final-year chemistry students studying a pharmacology subject created a ''blended media'' digital product as an assignment…

  13. Occurrence of biflavonoids in Clusiaceae: chemical and pharmacological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafaela Oliveira; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de; Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento da

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the biflavonoids found in species of Clusiaceae, particularly the genera Garcinia and Calophyllum, emphasizing the importance of these metabolites as chemical markers of this family, their contribution to the pharmacological potential of these species, besides the promising potential of these compounds in the search for new drugs. (author)

  14. The benefit of pharmacological venous thromboprophylaxis in foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The risks and benefits of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis are well documented in respect of total joint arthroplasty and hip fractures, but little is understood about the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) or the potential risks and benefits of chemoprophylaxis in foot and ankle surgery. Objective. To determine ...

  15. PHARMACOLOGICAL AND THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF JASMINUM SAMBAC- A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

    2018-01-01

    The phytochemical analysis of Jasminum sambac revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, coumarins, glycosides, tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, steroids, fats, essential oils, fixed oils, terpines, resin, and salicylic acid. The pharmacological studies revealed that the plant extracts possessed antimicrobial, insecticidal, analgesic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, dermatological, anticancer, CNS and peripheral NS, ca...

  16. PHARMAVIRTUA: Educational Software for Teaching and Learning Basic Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo-Neto, Antonio Augusto; Alberto, Anael Viana Pinto; Bonavita, André Gustavo Calvano; Bezerra, Rômulo José Soares; Berçot, Felipe Faria; Lopes, Renato Matos; Alves, Luiz Anastacio

    2014-01-01

    Information and communication technologies have become important tools for teaching scientific subjects such as anatomy and histology as well as other, nondescriptive subjects like physiology and pharmacology. Software has been used to facilitate the learning of specific concepts at the cellular and molecular levels in the biological and health…

  17. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model for Obesity Pharmacology Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jolene; Vasselli, Joseph R; King, Jason F; King, Michael L; We, Wenqian; Fitzpatrick, Zachary; Johnson, William D; Finley, John W; Martin, Roy J; Keenan, Michael J; Enright, Frederic M; Greenway, Frank L

    The Caenorhabditis elegans model is a rapid and inexpensive method to address pharmacologic questions. We describe the use of C. elegans to explore 2 pharmacologic questions concerning candidate antiobesity drugs and illustrate its potential usefulness in pharmacologic research: (1) to determine a ratio of betahistine-olanzapine that blocks the olanzapine-induced intestinal fat deposition (IFD) as detected by Nile red staining and (2) to identify the mechanism of action of a pharmaceutical candidate AB-101 that reduces IFD. Olanzapine (53 μg/mL) increased the IFD (12.1 ± 0.1%, P < 0.02), which was blocked by betahistine (763 μg/mL, 39.3 ± 0.01%, P < 0.05) in wild-type C. elegans (N2). AB-101 (1.0%) reduced the IFD in N2 (P < 0.05), increased the pharyngeal pumping rate (P < 0.05), and reversed the elevated IFD induced by protease inhibitors atazanavir and ritonavir (P < 0.05). AB-101 did not affect IFD in a ACS null mutant strain acs-4(ok2872) III/hT2[bli-4(e937) let-?(q782) qIs48](I;III) suggesting an involvement of the lipid oxidation pathway and an upregulation of CPT-1. Our studies suggest that C. elegans may be used as a resource in pharmacologic research. This article is intended to stimulate a greater appreciation of its value in the development of new pharmaceutical interventions.

  18. Imaging tools to study pharmacology: functional MRI on small rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eJonckers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI is an excellent tool to study the effect of pharmacological modulations on brain function in a non-invasive and longitudinal manner. We introduce several blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD fMRI techniques, including resting state (rsfMRI, stimulus-evoked (st-fMRI, and pharmacological MRI (phMRI. Respectively, these techniques permit the assessment of functional connectivity during rest as well as brain activation triggered by sensory stimulation and/or a pharmacological challenge. The first part of this review describes the physiological basis of BOLD fMRI and the hemodynamic response on which the MRI contrast is based. Specific emphasis goes to possible effects of anaesthesia and the animal’s physiological conditions on neural activity and the hemodynamic response. The second part of this review describes applications of the aforementioned techniques in pharmacologically-induced, as well as in traumatic and transgenic disease models and illustrates how multiple fMRI methods can be applied successfully to evaluate different aspects of a specific disorder. For example, fMRI techniques can be used to pinpoint the neural substrate of a disease beyond previously defined hypothesis-driven regions-of-interest (ROIs. In addition, fMRI techniques allow one to dissect how specific modifications (e.g. treatment, lesion etc. modulate the functioning of specific brain areas (st-fMRI, phMRI and how functional connectivity (rsfMRI between several brain regions is affected, both in acute and extended time frames. Furthermore, fMRI techniques can be used to assess/explore the efficacy of novel treatments in depth, both in fundamental research as well as in preclinical settings. In conclusion, by describing several exemplary studies, we aim to highlight the advantages of functional MRI in exploring the acute and long-term effects of pharmacological substances and/or pathology on brain functioning along with

  19. Receptor visualization and the atomic bomb. A historical account of the development of the chemical neuroanatomy of receptors for neurotransmitters and drugs during the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, J M; Mengod, G

    2018-03-01

    This is a historical account of how receptors for neurotransmitters and drugs got to be seen at the regional, cellular, and subcellular levels in brain, in the years going from the end of the World War II until the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Cold War (1945-1991). The realization in the US of the problem of mental health care, as a consequence of the results of medical evaluation for military service during the war, let the US Government to act creating among other things the National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH). Coincident with that, new drug treatments for these disorders were introduced. War science also created an important number of tools and instruments, such as the radioisotopes, that played a significant role in the development of our story. The scientific context was marked by the development of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and the introduction in the early 80's of the DNA recombinant technologies. The concepts of chemical neurotransmission in the brain and of receptors for drugs and transmitters, although proposed before the war, where not generally accepted. Neurotransmitters were identified and the mechanisms of biosynthesis, storage, release and termination of action by mechanisms such as reuptake, elucidated. Furthermore, the synapse was seen with the electron microscope and more important for our account, neurons and their processes visualized in the brain first by fluorescence histochemistry, then using radioisotopes and autoradiography, and later by immunohistochemistry (IHC), originating the Chemical Neuroanatomy. The concept of chemical neurotransmission evolved from the amines, expanded to excitatory and inhibitory amino acids, then to neuropeptides and finally to gases and other "atypical" neurotransmitters. In addition, coexpression of more than one transmitter in a neuron, changed the initial ideas of neurotransmission. The concept of receptors for these and other messengers underwent a significant evolution from an abstract

  20. Pills or push-ups? Effectiveness and public perception of pharmacological and non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucius eCaviola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We review work on the effectiveness of different forms of cognitive enhancement, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. We consider caffeine, methylphenidate, and modafinil for pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE and computer training, physical exercise, and sleep for non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement (NPCE. We find that all of the techniques described can produce significant beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, effect sizes are moderate, and consistently dependent on individual and situational factors as well as the cognitive domain in question. Although meta-analyses allowing a quantitative comparison of effectiveness across techniques are lacking to date, we can conclude that PCE is not more effective than NPCE. We discuss the physiological reasons for this limited effectiveness.We then propose that even though their actual effectiveness seems similar, in the general public PCE is perceived as fundamentally different from NPCE, in terms of effectiveness, but also in terms of acceptability. We illustrate the potential consequences such a misperception of PCE can have.

  1. Human Behavioral Pharmacology, Past, Present, and Future: Symposium Presented at the 50th Annual Meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Sandra D.; Bickel, Warren K.; Yi, Richard; de Wit, Harriet; Higgins, Stephen T.; Wenger, Galen R.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    A symposium held at the 50th annual meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society in May 2007 reviewed progress in the human behavioral pharmacology of drug abuse. Studies on drug self-administration in humans are reviewed that assessed reinforcing and subjective effects of drugs of abuse. The close parallels observed between studies in humans and laboratory animals using similar behavioral techniques have broadened our understanding of the complex nature of the pharmacological and behavioral factors controlling drug self-administration. The symposium also addressed the role that individual differences, such as gender, personality, and genotype play in determining the extent of self-administration of illicit drugs in human populations. Knowledge of how these factors influence human drug self-administration has helped validate similar differences observed in laboratory animals. In recognition that drug self-administration is but one of many choices available in the lives of humans, the symposium addressed the ways in which choice behavior can be studied in humans. These choice studies in human drug abusers have opened up new and exciting avenues of research in laboratory animals. Finally, the symposium reviewed behavioral pharmacology studies conducted in drug abuse treatment settings and the therapeutic benefits that have emerged from these studies. PMID:20664330

  2. Fibromyalgia syndrome: prevalence, pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in outpatient health care. An analysis of statutory health insurance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Kristin; Kemper, Claudia; Glaeske, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic pain condition impacting on quality of life, causing physical and psychological impairment resulting in limited participation in professional and social life. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, recommended pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions of FMS, patients' characteristics and to compare findings to current research. About 1.6 Mio patients of a German statutory health insurance company (GEK) in 2007 were analyzed for: (a) the prevalence of FMS (ICD-10: M79.7); (b) and comorbid depression (ICD-10: F32/33); (c) the recommended pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention rates; (d) and characteristics of patients associated with being prescribed recommended interventions. The (a) standardized prevalence of FMS in 2007 was 0.05% in men and 0.4% in women. (b) 51.9% of the patients with prevalent FMS had a comorbid depression in 2007 (88.2% female). (c) 66% of FMS patients received the recommended pharmacological treatment, 59% physical therapy, 6.1% cognitive-behavioural therapy and 3.4% a combination of these (multi-component therapy, MCT). (d) One year increase in age was associated with a 3% decrease in the predicted odds of receiving MCT (95%, CI 0.95-0.99). The current data indicate an FMS-prevalence that differs from epidemiological surveys and screenings, probably due to methodological differences. Especially females with comorbid depression are affected. The likelihood of receiving MCT is not associated with gender, but with younger age. Yet, the findings seem to indicate insufficient and inadequate treatment, but FMS warrants more research. Copyright © 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. 2011 Annual Meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, Icilio

    2012-03-01

    The keynote address of 2011 Annual Meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society examined the known and the still to be known on drug-induced nephrotoxicity. The nominee of the Distinguished Service Award Lecture gave an account of his career achievements particularly on the domain of chronically instrumented animals for assessing cardiovascular safety. The value of Safety Pharmacology resides in the benefits delivered to Pharma organizations, regulators, payers and patients. Meticulous due diligence concerning compliance of Safety Pharmacology studies to best practices is an effective means to ensure that equally stringent safety criteria are applied to both in-licensed and in-house compounds. Innovative technologies of great potential for Safety Pharmacology presented at the meeting are organs on chips (lung, heart, intestine) displaying mechanical and biochemical features of native organs, electrical field potential (MEA) or impedance (xCELLigence Cardio) measurements in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes for unveiling cardiac electrophysiological and mechanical liabilities, functional human airway epithelium (MucilAir™) preparations with unique 1-year shelf-life for acute and chronic in vitro evaluation of drug efficacy and toxicity. Custom-designed in silico and in vitro assay platforms defining the receptorome space occupied by chemical entities facilitate, throughout the drug discovery phase, the selection of candidates with optimized safety profile on organ function. These approaches can now be complemented by advanced computational analysis allowing the identification of compounds with receptorome, or clinically adverse effect profiles, similar to those of the drug candidate under scrutiny for extending the safety assessment to potential liability targets not captured by classical approaches. Nonclinical data supporting safety can be quite reassuring for drugs with a discovered signal of risk. However, for marketing authorization

  4. The Functional Neuroanatomy of Dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neychev, Vladimir K.; Gross, Robert; Lehéricy, Stephane; Hess, Ellen J.; Jinnah, H. A.

    2011-01-01

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary twisting movements and postures. There are many different clinical manifestations, and many different causes. The neuroanatomical substrates for dystonia are only partly understood. Although the traditional view localizes dystonia to basal ganglia circuits, there is increasing recognition that this view is inadequate for accommodating a substantial portion of available clinical and experimental evidence. A model in which several brain regions play a role in a network better accommodates the evidence. This network model accommodates neuropathological and neuroimaging evidence that dystonia may be associated with abnormalities in multiple different brain regions. It also accommodates animal studies showing that dystonic movements arise with manipulations of different brain regions. It is consistent with neurophysiological evidence suggesting defects in neural inhibitory processes, sensorimotor integration, and maladaptive plasticity. Finally, it may explain neurosurgical experience showing that targeting the basal ganglia is effective only for certain subpopulations of dystonia. Most importantly, the network model provides many new and testable hypotheses with direct relevance for new treatment strategies that go beyond the basal ganglia. PMID:21303695

  5. Neuroanatomy of cranial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmann, H.J.; Weinrich, W.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the fundamental structures visualized by means of computed tomography, the authors present the functional systems which are relevant in neurology by means of axial cross-sections. All drawings were prepared from original preparations by means of a new technique which is similar to the grey values of X-ray CT and nuclear magnetic resonance tomography. A detailed description is given of the topics of neurofunctional lesions

  6. [Neuroanatomy of Frontal Association Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masahiko

    2016-11-01

    The frontal association cortex is composed of the prefrontal cortex and the motor-related areas except the primary motor cortex (i.e., the so-called higher motor areas), and is well-developed in primates, including humans. The prefrontal cortex receives and integrates large bits of diverse information from the parietal, temporal, and occipital association cortical areas (termed the posterior association cortex), and paralimbic association cortical areas. This information is then transmitted to the primary motor cortex via multiple motor-related areas. Given these facts, it is likely that the prefrontal cortex exerts executive functions for behavioral control. The functional input pathways from the posterior and paralimbic association cortical areas to the prefrontal cortex are classified primarily into six groups. Cognitive signals derived from the prefrontal cortex are conveyed to the rostral motor-related areas to transform them into motor signals, which finally enter the primary motor cortex via the caudal motor-related areas. Furthermore, it has been shown that, similar to the primary motor cortex, areas of the frontal association cortex form individual networks (known as "loop circuits") with the basal ganglia and cerebellum via the thalamus, and hence are extensively involved in the expression and control of behavioral actions.

  7. [Neuroanatomy of Isolated Body Lateropulsion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, Yoshihiko; Tamura, Naotoshi; Ikeda, Kei; Tanaka, Ai; Yamamoto, Toshimasa

    2016-03-01

    Axial body lateropulsion, a phenomenon where the body is pulled toward the side of the lesion, with tendency of falling down, is the well-known transient feature of lateral medullary syndrome. In some cases, axial body lateropulsion occurs without vestibular and cerebellar symptoms (isolated body lateropulsion:[iBL]). Patients with iBL have a lesion located in the spinocerebellar tract, descending lateral vestibulospinal tract, vestibulo-thalamic pathway, dentatorubrothalamic pathway, or thalamocortical fascicle. This review deals with the anatomic basis and clinical significance of iBL.

  8. A comparison of medical and pharmacy students' knowledge and skills of pharmacology and pharmacotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Custers, Eugene J F M; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; Hazen, Ankie C M; Jansen, Paul A F

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Pharmacotherapy might be improved if future pharmacists and physicians receive a joint educational programme in pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. This study investigated whether there are differences in the pharmacology and pharmacotherapy knowledge and skills of pharmacy and medical

  9. Sex differences in the pharmacological treatment of hypertension : a review of population-based studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klungel, O.H.; de Boer, A; Paes, A.H.P.; Seidell, J C; Bakker, A

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize all available literature on sex differences in the pharmacological treatment of hypertension with respect to the percentage of hypertensive patients treated pharmacologically and the selection of antihypertensive drugs. The influences of the calendar period, age, definition

  10. A Survey of State Boards of Optometry Concerning Educational Requirements in Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesher, Gary A.

    1986-01-01

    Results of a survey of state optometry licensing requirements for coursework in pharmacology, intended as a tool for optometry curriculum development, suggest a need for training in pharmacology in both the college curriculum and continuing education. (MSE)

  11. 76 FR 38668 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...] Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and... of Committee: Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General.... In response to feedback during the April 13, 2010, Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and...

  12. 76 FR 38188 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ...] Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and... of Committee: Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General..., 2011, the committee will discuss current strategies for FDA's Office of Pharmaceutical Science...

  13. 75 FR 11551 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ...] Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and... of Committee: Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General... Pharmaceutical Science (OPS) on the regulatory challenges of drug-induced phospholipidosis (excessive...

  14. 78 FR 58315 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ...] Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and... of Committee: Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General... continuous manufacturing for pharmaceutical products. Speakers from the Agency, academia, and industry will...

  15. The neuroenergetics of stress hormones in the hippocampus and implications for memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Danielle M.; Pearson-Leary, Jiah; McNay, Ewan C.

    2015-01-01

    Acute stress causes rapid release of norepinephrine (NE) and glucocorticoids (GCs), both of which bind to hippocampal receptors. This release continues, at varying concentrations, for several hours following the stressful event, and has powerful effects on hippocampally-dependent memory that generally promote acquisition and consolidation while impairing retrieval. Several studies have characterized the brain's energy usage both at baseline and during memory processing, but there are few data on energy requirements of memory processes under stressful conditions. Because memory is enhanced by emotional arousal such as during stress, it is likely that molecular memory processes under these conditions differ from those under non-stressful conditions that do not activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Mobilization of peripheral and central energy stores during stress may increase hippocampal glucose metabolism that enhances salience and detail to facilitate memory enhancement. Several pathways activated by the HPA axis affect neural energy supply and metabolism, and may also prevent detrimental damage associated with chronic stress. We hypothesize that alterations in hippocampal metabolism during stress are key to understanding the effects of stress hormones on hippocampally-dependent memory formation. Second, we suggest that the effects of stress on hippocampal metabolism are bi-directional: within minutes, NE promotes glucose metabolism, while hours into the stress response GCs act to suppress metabolism. These bi-directional effects of NE and GCs on glucose metabolism may occur at least in part through direct modulation of glucose transporter-4. In contrast, chronic stress and prolonged elevation of hippocampal GCs cause chronically suppressed glucose metabolism, excitotoxicity and subsequent memory deficits. PMID:25999811

  16. Neuroenergetic Response to Prolonged Cerebral Glucose Depletion after Severe Brain Injury and the Role of Lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patet, Camille; Quintard, Hervé; Suys, Tamarah; Bloch, Jocelyne; Daniel, Roy T; Pellerin, Luc; Magistretti, Pierre J; Oddo, Mauro

    2015-10-15

    Lactate may represent a supplemental fuel for the brain. We examined cerebral lactate metabolism during prolonged brain glucose depletion (GD) in acute brain injury (ABI) patients monitored with cerebral microdialysis (CMD). Sixty episodes of GD (defined as spontaneous decreases of CMD glucose from normal to low [brain oxygen and blood lactate remained normal. Dynamics of lactate and glucose supply during GD were further studied by analyzing the relationships between blood and CMD samples. There was a strong correlation between blood and brain lactate when LPR was normal (r = 0.56; p 25. The correlation between blood and brain glucose also decreased from r = 0.62 to r = 0.45. These findings in ABI patients suggest increased cerebral lactate delivery in the absence of brain hypoxia when glucose availability is limited and support the concept that lactate acts as alternative fuel.

  17. The Neuroenergetics of Stress Hormones in the Hippocampus and Implications for Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle eOsborne

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute stress causes rapid release of norepinephrine (NE and glucocorticoids (GCs, both of which bind to hippocampal receptors. This release continues, at varying concentrations, for several hours following the stressful event, and has powerful effects on hippocampally-dependent memory that generally promote acquisition and consolidation while impairing retrieval. Several studies have characterized the brain's energy usage both at baseline and during memory processing, but there are few data on energy requirements of memory processes under stressful conditions. Because memory is enhanced by emotional arousal such as during stress, it is likely that molecular memory processes under these conditions differ from those under non-stressful conditions that do not activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. Mobilization of peripheral and central energy stores during stress may increase hippocampal glucose metabolism that enhances salience and detail to facilitate memory enhancement. Several pathways activated by the HPA axis affect neural energy supply and metabolism, and may also prevent detrimental damage associated with chronic stress. We hypothesize that alterations in hippocampal metabolism during stress are key to understanding the effects of stress hormones on hippocampally-dependent memory formation. Second, we suggest that the effects of stress on hippocampal metabolism are bi-directional: within minutes, NE promotes glucose metabolism, while hours into the stress response GCs act to suppress metabolism. These bi-directional effects of NE and GCs on glucose metabolism may occur at least in part through direct modulation of glucose transporter-4. In contrast, chronic stress and prolonged elevation of hippocampal GCs cause chronically suppressed glucose metabolism, excitotoxicity and subsequent memory deficits.

  18. Temporal trends in pharmacology publications by pharmacy institutes: A deeper dig

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, Parloop Amit; Patel, Zarana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Publications in Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP) are the face of contemporary pharmacology practices followed in health-care profession - a knowledge-based profession. It depicts trends in terms of quantity (proportions), quality, type (preclinical/clinical), thrust areas, etc., of pharmacology followed by biomedical community professions both nationally and internationally. This article aims to establish temporal trends in pharmacology research by pharmacy institutes in light ...

  19. Translational Mouse Models of Autism: Advancing Toward Pharmacological Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdoba, Tatiana M.; Leach, Prescott T.; Yang, Mu; Silverman, Jill L.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Animal models provide preclinical tools to investigate the causal role of genetic mutations and environmental factors in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Knockout and humanized knock-in mice, and more recently knockout rats, have been generated for many of the de novo single gene mutations and copy number variants (CNVs) detected in ASD and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders. Mouse models incorporating genetic and environmental manipulations have been employed for preclinical testing of hypothesis-driven pharmacological targets, to begin to develop treatments for the diagnostic and associated symptoms of autism. In this review, we summarize rodent behavioral assays relevant to the core features of autism, preclinical and clinical evaluations of pharmacological interventions, and strategies to improve the translational value of rodent models of autism. PMID:27305922

  20. Carum copticum L.: A Herbal Medicine with Various Pharmacological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carum copticum L. commonly known as “Ajwain” is cultivated in many regions of the world including Iran and India, states of Gujarat and Rajasthan. Traditionally, C. copticum has been used in the past for various therapeutic effects including bloating, fatigue, diarrhea, abdominal tumors, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, and loss of appetite. It has other health benefits such as antifungal, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiparasitic, and hypolipidemic effects. This plant contains different important components such as carbohydrates, glucosides, saponins and phenolic compounds (carvacrol, volatile oils (thymol, terpiene, paracymene and beta-pinene, protein, fat, fiber, and minerals including calcium, phosphorus, iron, and nicotinic acid (niacin. In the previous studies, several pharmacological effects were shown for C. copticum. Therefore, in this paper, the pharmacological effects of the plant were reviewed.

  1. Portulaca oleracea L.: a review of phytochemistry and pharmacological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Xi; Xin, Hai-Liang; Rahman, Khalid; Wang, Su-Juan; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea L., belonging to the Portulacaceae family, is commonly known as purslane in English and Ma-Chi-Xian in Chinese. It is a warm-climate, herbaceous succulent annual plant with a cosmopolitan distribution. It is eaten extensively as a potherb and added in soups and salads around the Mediterranean and tropical Asian countries and has been used as a folk medicine in many countries. Diverse compounds have been isolated from Portulaca oleracea, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, polysaccharides, fatty acids, terpenoids, sterols, proteins vitamins and minerals. Portulaca oleracea possesses a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties such as neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerogenic, and anticancer activities. However, few molecular mechanisms of action are known. This review provides a summary of phytochemistry and pharmacological effects of this plant.

  2. Physiological and Pharmacological Aspects of the Vas Deferens - an Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Stewart Koslov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The vas deferens, a muscular conduit conveying spermatozoa from the epididymis to the urethra, has been used as a model tissue for smooth muscle pharmacological and physiological advancements. Many drugs, notably α-adrenergic antagonists, have effects on contractility and thus normal ejaculation, incurring significant side effects for patients that may interfere with compliance. A more thorough understanding of the innervation and neurotransmitter pharmacology of the vas has indicated that this is a highly complex structure and a model for co-transmission at the synapse. Recent models have shown clinical scenarios that alter the vas contraction. This review covers structure, receptors, neurotransmitters, smooth muscle physiology, and clinical implications of the vas deferens.

  3. Pharmacological Bypass of Cockayne Syndrome B Function in Neuronal Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuming Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cockayne syndrome (CS is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by growth abnormalities, premature aging, and photosensitivity. Mutation of Cockayne syndrome B (CSB affects neuronal gene expression and differentiation, so we attempted to bypass its function by expressing downstream target genes. Intriguingly, ectopic expression of Synaptotagmin 9 (SYT9, a key component of the machinery controlling neurotrophin release, bypasses the need for CSB in neuritogenesis. Importantly, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, a neurotrophin implicated in neuronal differentiation and synaptic modulation, and pharmacological mimics such as 7,8-dihydroxyflavone and amitriptyline can compensate for CSB deficiency in cell models of neuronal differentiation as well. SYT9 and BDNF are downregulated in CS patient brain tissue, further indicating that sub-optimal neurotrophin signaling underlies neurological defects in CS. In addition to shedding light on cellular mechanisms underlying CS and pointing to future avenues for pharmacological intervention, these data suggest an important role for SYT9 in neuronal differentiation.

  4. Supercapacitive transport of pharmacologic agents using nanoporous gold electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittard, Shaun D; Pierson, Bonnie E; Ha, Cindy M; Wu, Chung-An Max; Narayan, Roger J; Robinson, David B

    2010-02-01

    In this study, nanoporous gold supercapacitors were produced by electrochemical dealloying of gold-silver alloy. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed completion of the dealloying process and generation of a porous gold material with approximately 10 nm diameter pores. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry of the nanoporous gold electrodes indicated that these materials exhibited supercapacitor behavior. The storage capacity of the electrodes measured by chronoamperometry was approximately 3 mC at 200 mV. Electrochemical storage and voltage-controlled delivery of two model pharmacologic agents, benzylammonium and salicylic acid, was demonstrated. These results suggest that capacitance-based storage and delivery of pharmacologic agents may serve as an alternative to conventional drug delivery methods.

  5. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigations of Ricinus communis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have always played a vital role for the healthy human life. The family Euphorbiaceous is a family of flowering plants and contains nearly about 300 genera and 7,500 species. Amongst all, the species Ricinus communis or castor plant has high traditional and modern medicinal values. The individual parts of the plant like the seed, seed oil, leaves and the roots showed their importance in pharmacology. Traditionally, the plant has been used for the treatment of various diseases in traditional or folk remedies throughout the world. In modern pharmacology, this plant is reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, central analgesic, antitumor, anti-nociceptive, antiasthmatic activity and other medicinal properties. These activities of the plant are due to the presence of important phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids etc. The aim of present article is to explore the chemical constituents, their structures and medicinal importance of Ricinus communis.

  6. The genus Cordia: botanists, ethno, chemical and pharmacological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinardo Fagner Ferreira Matias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSpecies of the genus Cordia, Boraginaceae, are widely studied with regard to the various ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological aspects. They are found principally in tropical and subtropical regions of the American, Asian and African continents, where they occur in various countries. In the genus Cordia, there are many species cultivated for ornamental plants, wood and medicinal applications, where they are extensively utilized by traditional communities. In the last decades, scientific studies of Cordia species have intensified, demonstrating the great interest in phytochemical, biological and pharmacological studies. In this review, we describe the principal botanical aspects, ethnopharmacological information and evaluation of the bioactive and pharmacological properties of Cordia, its phytochemical constituents and the most common classes of secondary metabolites identified. The information reported in this work contributes scientifically to recognizing the importance of the genus Cordia as a target in the search for new biotechnological investments.

  7. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of essential oils from Cedrus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Antoine M; Gambari, Roberto; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra; Lampronti, Ilaria; Tacchini, Massimo; El Samrani, Antoine; Medawar, Samir; Makhlouf, Hassane; Tannoury, Mona; Abboud, Jihad; Diab-Assaf, Mona; Kijjoa, Anake; Tundis, Rosa; Aoun, Jawad; Efferth, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    Natural products frequently exert pharmacological activities. The present review gives an overview of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the Cedrus genus, e.g. cytotoxic, spasmolytic immunomodulatory, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Cancer patients frequently seek remedies from traditional medicinal plants that are believed to exert less side effects than conventional therapy with synthetic drugs. A long-lasting goal of anti-cancer and anti-microbial therapy research is to find compounds with reduced side effects compared to currently approved drugs. In this respect, Cedrus species might be of interest. The essential oil isolated from Cedrus libani leaves may bear potential for drug development due to its high concentrations of germacrene D and β-caryophyllene. The essential oils from Cedrus species also show bioactivity against bacteria and viruses. More preclinical analyses (e.g. in vivo experiments) as well as clinical trials are required to evaluate the potential of essential oils from Cedrus species for drug development.

  8. Pharmacological interactions of anti-inflammatory-analgesics in odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2009-02-01

    In this second article we describe the more interesting pharmacological interactions in dental practice based on the prescription of analgesic narcotics, paracetamol and non-selective non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAI) (which inhibit cyclooxigenase 1 -COX 1- and cyclooxigenase 2 -COX 2-) and selective NSAIs (COX 2 inhibitors). The importance of preventing the appearance of these pharmacological interactions is because these are medicaments prescribed daily in odontology for moderate pain treatment and inflammation in the oral cavity. Paracetamol can interact with warfarin and therefore care should be taken with chronic alcoholic patients. All NSAIs reduce renal blood flow and consequently are capable of reducing the efficacy of medicaments used for treating arterial hypertension, which act via a renal mechanism. Especial attention should be taken considering the risk of interaction between the antagonists of AT1 receptors of angiostensin II (ARAII) and the NSAIs.

  9. Nutraceutical or Pharmacological Potential of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xianjuan; Li, Biao; Olayanju, Julia B; Drake, Justin M; Chen, Ning

    2018-03-12

    Moringa oleifera Lam. ( M. oleifera ), which belongs to the Moringaceae family, is a perennial deciduous tropical tree, and native to the south of the Himalayan Mountains in northern India. M. oleifera is rich in proteins, vitamin A, minerals, essential amino acids, antioxidants, and flavonoids, as well as isothiocyanates. The extracts from M. oleifera exhibit multiple nutraceutical or pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, hypoglycemic, and blood lipid-reducing functions. The beneficial functions of M. oleifera are strongly associated with its phytochemicals such as flavonoids or isothiocyanates with bioactivity. In this review, we summarize the research progress related to the bioactivity and pharmacological mechanisms of M. oleifera in the prevention and treatment of a series of chronic diseases-including inflammatory diseases, neuro-dysfunctional diseases, diabetes, and cancers-which will provide a reference for its potential application in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases or health promotion.

  10. Pharmacology of Bradykinin-Evoked Coughing in Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Matthew M.; Adams, Gregory; Mazzone, Stuart B.; Mori, Nanako; Yu, Li; Canning, Brendan J.

    2016-01-01

    Bradykinin has been implicated as a mediator of the acute pathophysiological and inflammatory consequences of respiratory tract infections and in exacerbations of chronic diseases such as asthma. Bradykinin may also be a trigger for the coughing associated with these and other conditions. We have thus set out to evaluate the pharmacology of bradykinin-evoked coughing in guinea pigs. When inhaled, bradykinin induced paroxysmal coughing that was abolished by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonis...

  11. An overview on Phyllanthus emblica: phytochemical and pharmacological investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Amirazodi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Phyllanthus emblica L. (Phyllanthaceae, commonly known as Indian gooseberry, is an endemic plant to the tropical and subtropical areas in china, India and Thailand. The plant is extensively used in Chinese, Ayurveda, and traditional Persian medicine (TPM. In addition, there are numerous reports on pharmacological and clinical activities of gooseberry in current medicine. The present review was performed to compile the phytochemical and pharmacological data on P. emblica in order to draw a window for further research.  Methods: Databases such as Scopus, ScienceDirect and PubMed were searched for the term “P. emblica” up to 1st September, 2017. Papers concerning pharmacology and phytochemistry of the plant were gathered and analyzed. On the contrary, agriculture and genetic contents were excluded. Results: Over all, 80 papers were selected. The herb revealed to possess anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, larvicidal, anti-asthmatic, antiulcer, anti-aging, anti-carcinogenic, anti-tumor, anti-genotoxicity, anti-microbial, anticholinergic, antispasmodic, gastroprotective, anti-plasmodia, and antinociceptive activities as well as antidote effect against certain elements. The fruits are also useful in brain and gastrointestinal diseases and can be beneficial in hearth protection. Remarkably, many of those properties have been mentioned in TPM manuscripts.  Conclusion: Despite numerous pharmacological activities for P. emblica, there is still a gap between the in vivo and human studies which should be covered by more comprehensive and complementary studies. Many compounds have been isolated and elucidated from this plant which can be good candidates for various related activities and also as new natural medicaments in novel drug discovery.

  12. Pharmacological treatment of chronic constipation: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Roshanak Salari; Mahdi Yousefi; Masoumeh Salari

    2016-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a very common disease that is particularly commonplace among members of the elderly population. It is one of the most widespread bowel disorders, and it causes significant pain and discomfort; as such, it usually requires medical attention. The major causes of constipation are slow colonic movements and/or functional gastrointestinal disorders. This review aimed to examine the pharmacological treatments that are currently available for chronic constipation. To develop ...

  13. The chemistry and pharmacology of Cleome genus: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Mishra, Amrita; Mishra, Arun Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Since ancient times, species of Cleome genus are used to cure various ailments in human beings and same is stated in traditional treatises. Each part of the plant has its own significance, therefore, in background of its significance, upto date information in systematic manner is required. The present review embarks on variety of naturally occurring compounds that have been isolated from various species of Cleome genus. The present study furnishes an overview of all naturally isolated compounds diterpenes, triterpenoids, trinorterpenoids, flavonol glycoside, coumarinolignoids, dipyridodiazepinone, essential oils, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, carboxylic acid derivatives, lactone derivatives, sterols and pharmacological activities of various species of Cleome genus. These plants of Cleome genus are often used as conventional drugs to treat several ailments therefore information on analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, anticancer, anti-arthritic, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive, wound healing and psychopharmacological activity etc were compiled. Literature regarding the compounds isolated and pharmacological studies performed by various researchers in the last 40 years who worked on different species belonging to genus Cleome was summarized in the present review. On the basis of references, this review covers the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cleome species, describing compounds previously reported current trends and future prospects. From a wellbeing point of view, species belonging toCleome genus presents an excellent option for curing variety of ailments in human beings due to its isolated phytocompounds that reveal significant biological activities or for developing a variety of new pharmaceutical products. The observed pharmacological activities and no toxicity profile of extracts obtained from species of Cleome genus support the statement that these extracts might be used in the formation of new formulations that can be

  14. The genus Psiadia: Review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadeo, Keshika; Grondin, Isabelle; Kodja, Hippolyte; Soulange Govinden, Joyce; Jhaumeer Laulloo, Sabina; Frederich, Michel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2018-01-10

    The genus Psiadia Jacq. ex. Willd. belongs to the Asteraceae family and includes more than 60 species. This genus grows in tropical and subtropical regions, being especially well represented in Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands (La Réunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues). Several Psiadia species have been used traditionally for their medicinal properties in Africa and the Mascarene Islands. Based on traditional knowledge, various phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been conducted. However there are no recent papers that provide an overview of the medicinal potential of Psiadia species. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Psiadia and to highlight the gaps in our knowledge for future research opportunities. The available information on traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of the genus Psiadia was collected from scientific databases through a search using the keyword 'Psiadia' in 'Google Scholar', 'Pubmed', 'Sciencedirect', 'SpringerLink', 'Web of Science', 'Wiley' and 'Scifinder'. Additionally, published books and unpublished Ph.D. and MSc. dissertations were consulted for botanical information and chemical composition. Historically, species of the genus Psiadia have been used to treat a wide range of ailments including abdominal pains, colds, fevers, bronchitis, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, skin infections and liver disorders among others. Phytochemical works led to the isolation of flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, coumarins and terpenoids. Furthermore, phytochemical compositions of the essential oils of some species have been evaluated. Crude extracts, essential oils and isolated molecules showed in vitro pharmacological activities, such as antimicrobial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, antiplasmodial and antileishmanial activities. Crude extracts of Psiadia dentata and Psiadia arguta have specifically been found to be potentially useful for inhibition

  15. Beyond reverse pharmacology: Mechanism-based screening of Ayurvedic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R D Lele

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacology of Indian medicinal plants, starting with the historical background of European work on the subject beginning as early as the 17th century, and tracing its history through the work of Sen and Bose in the 1930′s, and Vakhil′s historic 1949 paper on Sarpaghanda. The often crucial role of patient feedback in early discoveries is highlighted, as is the time lag between proof of pharmacological action and identification of the active principle, and subsequent elucidation of mechanism of action. In the case of Indian plants in the 20th century this process sometimes took almost 50 years. Reserpine and its mechanisms are given in detail, and its current relevance to public health discussed. The foundation of present day methods of pharmacology is briefly presented so the complexity of methods used to identify properties of Ayurveda derived drugs like forskolin and baicalein, and their bioavailability, may be better appreciated. Ayurveda derived anti-oxidants and their levels of action, immuno-modulators, particularly with respect to the NF-kB pathway and its implications for cancer control, are all considered. The example of curcumin derived from turmeric is explained in more detail, because of its role in cancer prevention. Finally, the paper emphasizes the importance of Ayurveda′s concepts of rasayana as a form of dietary chemo-prevention; the significance of ahar, diet, in Ayurveda′s aspiration to prevent disease and restore health thus becomes clear. Understood in this light, Ayurveda may transcend pharmacology as a treatment paradigm.

  16. Marrubium vulgare L.: A review on phytochemical and pharmacological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santram Lodhi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Marrubium vulgare L. (family: Lamiaceae, also known as white horehound, is widely used as herbal remedy for chronic coughs and colds. It is used in various disorders related to skin, liver, gastric, heart and immune system. This review abridges phytochemical, pharmacological studies and medicinal uses of M. vulgare and provides scientific proof for various ethnobotanical claims in order to identify gaps, which will give impulsion for novel research on M. vulgare based herbal medicines. This review summarizes selected scientific evidence on phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of M. vulgare over the past 48 years (1968 to 2016. The work reported on M. vulgare was reviewed from various sources like books, internet source i.e. google search engine, pubmed, sciencedirect and chemical abstract. The exhaustive literature was studied and critical analysis was done according to their phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Phytochemical investigations on different parts of M. vulgare have been reported the presence of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins and volatile oils (0.05%. The aerial parts contain marrubiin, together with ursolic acid and choline. Pharmacological activities like, anti-nociceptive, anti-spasmodic, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-hepatotoxic activity have been reported. M. vulgare has therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammatory conditions, liver disorders, pain, cardiovascular, gastric and diabetic conditions. Aerial parts of M. vulgare is a good source of labdane type diterpene especially marrubiin which is present in high concentrations. However, further scientific studies are needed to explore clinical efficacy, toxicity and to explore the therapeutic effect of major secondary metabolites like diterpenes, phenylpropanoid and phenylethanoid glycosides of M. vulgare. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6

  17. Pharmacological treatment of refugees with trauma-related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per

    2017-01-01

    traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We conducted a systematic review of published treatment outcome studies on PTSD and depression among refugees. Fifteen studies were identified and reviewed. Most studies focused on the use of antidepressants. Included studies differed widely in method and quality....... The majority were observational studies and case studies. Small sample sizes limited the statistical power. Few studies reported effect sizes, confidence intervals, and statistical significance of findings. No specific pharmacological treatment for PTSD among refugees can be recommended on the basis...

  18. Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Stephania rotunda Lour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgrouas, Camille; Taudon, Nicolas; Bun, Sok-Siya; Baghdikian, Beatrice; Bory, Sothavireak; Parzy, Daniel; Ollivier, Evelyne

    2014-07-03

    Stephania rotunda Lour. (Menispermaceae) is an important traditional medicinal plant that is grown in Southeast Asia. The stems, leaves, and tubers have been used in the Cambodian, Lao, Indian and Vietnamese folk medicine systems for years to treat a wide range of ailments, including asthma, headache, fever, and diarrhoea. To provide an up-to-date, comprehensive overview and analysis of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Stephania rotunda for its potential benefits in human health, as well as to assess the scientific evidence of traditional use and provide a basis for future research directions. Peer-reviewed articles on Stephania rotunda were acquired via an electronic search of the major scientific databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect). Data were collected from scientific journals, theses, and books. The traditional uses of Stephania rotunda were recorded in countries throughout Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, and India). Different parts of Stephania rotunda were used in traditional medicine to treat about twenty health disorders. Phytochemical analyses identified forty alkaloids. The roots primarily contain l-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP), whereas the tubers contain cepharanthine and xylopinine. Furthermore, the chemical composition differs from one region to another and according to the harvest period. The alkaloids exhibited approximately ten different pharmacological activities. The main pharmacological activities of Stephania rotunda alkaloids are antiplasmodial, anticancer, and immunomodulatory effects. Sinomenine, cepharanthine, and l-stepholidine are the most promising components and have been tested in humans. The pharmacokinetic parameters have been studied for seven compounds, including the three most promising compounds. The toxicity has been evaluated for liriodenine, roemerine, cycleanine, l-tetrahydropalmatine, and oxostephanine. Stephania rotunda is traditionally used for the treatment of a wide range of

  19. Post-stroke Movement Disorders: Clinical Manifestations and Pharmacological Management

    OpenAIRE

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Gallelli, Luca; Labate, Angelo; Malferrari, Giovanni; Palleria, Caterina; Sarro, Giovambattista De

    2012-01-01

    Involuntary abnormal movements have been reported after ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Post stroke movement disorders can appear as acute or delayed sequel. At the moment, for many of these disorders the knowledge of pharmacological treatment is still inadequate. Dopaminergic and GABAergic systems may be mainly involved in post-stroke movement disorders. This article provides a review on drugs commonly used in post-stroke movement disorders, given that some post-stroke movement disorders ...

  20. The main directions of pharmacological correction of radioinduced scleroses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovskaya, V.F.

    1991-01-01

    Results of clinical and experimental research on pharmacological correction of radiationinduced sclerosis were summarized. Efficiency of prophylaxis main trends and drug therapy was analyzed. Application of specific pharmaceuticals (preparations directly affecting certain chains of collagen metabolism) and nonspecific pharmaceuticals (preparations of indirect affect on collagen metabolism) was given. Further research of specific pharmaceuticals was shown to be expedient. Analysis of nonspecific pharmaceuticals used in complex therapy revealed problems in evaluating their efficiency at various stages of sclerosis development

  1. Status of Undergraduate Pharmacology Laboratories in Colleges of Pharmacy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Norman L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    U.S. colleges of pharmacy were surveyed in 1976 to determine whether a trend exists in continuing, discontinuing, or restructuring laboratory time in pharmaceutical education. Data regarding core undergraduate pharmacology courses, undergraduate pharmacology laboratory status, and pharmacology faculty are presented. (LBH)

  2. The Genus Spilanthes Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Properties: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulraj, Jayaraj; Govindarajan, Raghavan; Palpu, Pushpangadan

    2013-01-01

    Spilanthes spp. are popular, over-the-counter remedies; they are sold over the internet under various names and are widely used in traditional medicine in various cultures. This review will summarize the important reports on the ethnopharmacology, botany, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties as described in the literature from recent years (1920 to 2013). Spilanthes spp. are used for more than 60 types of disorders. They are reported to contain a number of biologically active phytochemicals, although a large number of ethnopharmacological uses have been documented; only a few of these species have been investigated for their chemical and biological activities. The studies are carried out mainly on Spilanthes extracts and a few metabolites substantiate the uses of these plants in traditional medicine. Well-conducted pharmacological studies are still needed for several traditional indications, and the mechanisms of action by which the plant extracts and the active compounds exert their pharmacological effects remain to be studied. They are predominantly used as extracts in personal care products, traditional medicines, and the pharmaceutical and culinary areas. Suggestions are made regarding some of the possible mechanisms of action as to how the known compounds may exert their biological activity. PMID:24454346

  3. Lippia citrodora: a review on its phytochemistry and pharmacological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Lippia citrodora commonly known as lemon verbena is a species of flowering plant in the verbena family, native to western South America. With its antioxidant effects, it is mostly used in folk medicine to treat anti-inflammatory diseases, and diseases associated with oxidative stress. This review has presented a summary on L. citordora’s phytochemistry and its pharmacological activities. It will also discuss gaps and challenges needed to be solved. Methods: Electronic database including Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar were searched for articles published between 1973 and 2017 regarding the phytochemistry and biological activities of L. citodora. Results: Traditional uses of this plant were specially related to coagulation system, digestive system and brain. Phytochemical investigations identified flavonoids, terpenes, iridois, lignins, phenylethanoid, as the main components of the plant. Antimicrobial, neuroprotective, antinociceptive, anti hyperpropulsive, sedative, anticolitis, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, antihyperalgesic, and anticancer properties were among the pharmacological activities of L. citriodora. The plant extract and essential oil had also demonstrated high antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Modern pharmacological studies have now validated many traditional uses of L. citrodora. The data reviewed here revealed that this plant is a potential source for the treatment of a wide range of diseases specially inflammatory diseases and neurological dysfunctions. Future human studies are needed for further confirmation of the therapeutic activities of L. citriodora.

  4. Preemptive analgesia I: physiological pathways and pharmacological modalities.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, D J

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: This two-part review summarizes the current knowledge of physiological mechanisms, pharmacological modalities and controversial issues surrounding preemptive analgesia. SOURCE: Articles from 1966 to present were obtained from the MEDLINE databases. Search terms included: analgesia, preemptive; neurotransmitters; pain, postoperative; hyperalgesia; sensitization, central nervous system; pathways, nociception; anesthetic techniques; analgesics, agents. Principal findings: The physiological basis of preemptive analgesia is complex and involves modification of the pain pathways. The pharmacological modalities available may modify the physiological responses at various levels. Effective preemptive analgesic techniques require multi-modal interception of nociceptive input, increasing threshold for nociception, and blocking or decreasing nociceptor receptor activation. Although the literature is controversial regarding the effectiveness of preemptive analgesia, some general recommendations can be helpful in guiding clinical care. Regional anesthesia induced prior to surgical trauma and continued well into the postoperative period is effective in attenuating peripheral and central sensitization. Pharmacologic agents such as NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) opioids, and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) - and alpha-2-receptor antagonists, especially when used in combination, act synergistically to decrease postoperative pain. CONCLUSION: The variable patient characteristics and timing of preemptive analgesia in relation to surgical noxious input requires individualization of the technique(s) chosen. Multi-modal analgesic techniques appear most effective.

  5. Pharmacological treatment of chronic constipation: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Salari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation is a very common disease that is particularly commonplace among members of the elderly population. It is one of the most widespread bowel disorders, and it causes significant pain and discomfort; as such, it usually requires medical attention. The major causes of constipation are slow colonic movements and/or functional gastrointestinal disorders. This review aimed to examine the pharmacological treatments that are currently available for chronic constipation. To develop insights into the causes and treatments of chronic constipation, relevant review articles that were published on the Pubmed, Cochrane database, and Embase websites, were examined. The outputs of these studies indicated that high daily intake of fibers and fluids in addition to regular exercise can be very helpful in avoiding and treating constipation. The pharmacological treatments that are administered to treat this disease typically increase the water content of the bowel lumen, and this leads to more regular bowel movements. Novel drugs have been introduced to treat constipation, and many of these are now subject to formal research studies. Since constipation can facilitate the development of other gastrointestinal diseases, it is important that we develop an understanding the therapeutic treatments that are available with the intention of identifying which of these may represent the most effective method for treating this disease. With that objective in mind, this review was undertaken to review the clinical effectiveness of the different pharmacological treatments that are employed to treat or prevent constipation.

  6. Advances in the nutritional and pharmacological management of phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Denise M.; Blank, Robert D.; Hansen, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Structural Abstract Purpose of review The purpose is to discuss advances in the nutritional and pharmacological management of phenylketonuria (PKU). Recent findings Glycomacropeptide (GMP), a whey protein produced during cheese production, is a low-phe intact protein that represents a new dietary alternative to synthetic amino acids (AAs) for people with PKU. Skeletal fragility is a long-term complication of PKU that based on murine research, appears to result from both genetic and nutritional factors. Skeletal fragility in murine PKU is attenuated with the GMP diet, compared with an AA diet, allowing greater radial bone growth. Pharmacologic therapy with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), acting as a molecular chaperone for phenylalanine hydroxylase, increases tolerance to dietary phe in some individuals. Large neutral AAs (LNAA) inhibit phe transport across the intestinal mucosa and blood brain barrier; LNAA are most effective for individuals unable to comply with the low-phe diet. Summary Although a low-phe synthetic AA diet remains the mainstay of PKU management, new nutritional and pharmacological treatment options offer alternative approaches to maintain lifelong low phe concentrations. GMP medical foods provide an alternative to AA formula that may improve bone health, and BH4 permits some individuals with PKU to increase tolerance to dietary phe. Further research is needed to characterize the long-term efficacy of these new approaches for PKU management. PMID:24136088

  7. Review of the chemistry and pharmacology of 7-Methyljugulone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaveng, Armelle T; Kuete, Victor

    2014-03-01

    Naphthoquinone is a class of phenolic compounds derived from naphthalene. 7-Methyljuglone (7-MJ) is a naphthoquinone also known as ramentaceone or 6-Methyl-8-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone or 5-Hydroxy-7-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone or 7-Methyl-5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone or 5-Hydroxy-7-methyl-,1,4-naphtoquinone or 7-Methyl-5-hydroxynaphthalene-1,4-dione. This compound is a biologically active naphtoquinone, with a molecular weight of 188 g/mol mostly isolated in the genus Diospyros and Euclea. This review was aimed at providing available chemically and pharmacological data on 7-MJ. The chemical and pharmacological data were retrieved from the well-known scientific websites such as Pubmed, Google Scholar, Reaxys, Scirus, Scopus, Sciencedirect, Web-of-knowledge and Scifinder. 7-MJ was reported to have a variety of pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antitubercular, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities. The hemi-synthesis of the compound have been described. The present review pooled out together the knowledge on 7-MJ, and can serve as the start point for future research and valorization accomplishments.

  8. [Adherence to pharmacological treatment in adult patients undergoing hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgnaolin, Vanessa; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth Prado Lima

    2012-06-01

    Adherence to treatment in patients on hemodialysis is not a simple process. Strategies to promote adherence will meet the need for improvements in the process of orientation concerning the disease and its pharmacological treatment. To identify compliance with pharmacological treatment of patients on hemodialysis and the main factors related to it we used the Adherence Scale. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study. Interviews were conducted to collect socioeconomic, pharmacological data, as well as those regarding self-reported adherence to drug. Out of the 65 participants, 55.4% showed non-compliance. The mean number of drugs used was 4.1 ± 2.5 (self-report) and 6.2 ± 3.0 (prescription). Statistical analysis showed significant differences concerning compliance at different ages (> 60 years are more adherent). A significant proportion of patients have difficulty to comply with treatment and the main factor was forgetfulness. Regarding age, elderly patients are more adherent to treatment. The low level of knowledge about the used drugs may be one of the reasons for the lack of adherence, and the patient's orientation process by a team of multiprofessionals involved in assisting is a strategy to promote adherence.

  9. Metabolites of alectinib in human: their identification and pharmacological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Sato-Nakai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Two metabolites (M4 and M1b in plasma and four metabolites (M4, M6, M1a and M1b in faeces were detected through the human ADME study following a single oral administration of [14C]alectinib, a small-molecule anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor, to healthy subjects. In the present study, M1a and M1b, which chemical structures had not been identified prior to the human ADME study, were identified as isomers of a carboxylate metabolite oxidatively cleaved at the morpholine ring. In faeces, M4 and M1b were the main metabolites, which shows that the biotransformation to M4 and M1b represents two main metabolic pathways for alectinib. In plasma, M4 was a major metabolite and M1b was a minor metabolite. The contribution to in vivo pharmacological activity of these circulating metabolites was assessed from their in vitro pharmacological activity and plasma protein binding. M4 had a similar cancer cell growth inhibitory activity and plasma protein binding to that of alectinib, suggesting its contribution to the antitumor activity of alectinib, whereas the pharmacological activity of M1b was insignificant.

  10. Pharmacological activities of Vitex agnus-castus extracts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B; Berger, D; Hoberg, E; Sticher, O; Schaffner, W

    2000-10-01

    The pharmacological effects of ethanolic Vitex agnus-castus fruit-extracts (especially Ze 440) and various extract fractions of different polarities were evaluated both by radioligand binding studies and by superfusion experiments. A relative potent binding inhibition was observed for dopamine D2 and opioid (micro and kappa subtype) receptors with IC50 values of the native extract between 20 and 70 mg/mL. Binding, neither to the histamine H1, benzodiazepine and OFQ receptor, nor to the binding-site of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter, was significantly inhibited. The lipophilic fractions contained the diterpenes rotun-difuran and 6beta,7beta-diacetoxy-13-hydroxy-labda-8,14-dien . They exhibited inhibitory actions on dopamine D2 receptor binding. While binding inhibition to mu and kappa opioid receptors was most pronounced in lipophilic fractions, binding to delta opioid receptors was inhibited mainly by a aqueous fraction. Standardised Ze 440 extracts of different batches were of constant pharmacological quality according to their potential to inhibit the binding to D2 receptors. In superfusion experiments, the aqueous fraction of a methanolic extract inhibited the release of acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the potent D2 receptor antagonist spiperone antagonised the effect of the extract suggesting a dopaminergic action mediated by D2 receptor activation. Our results indicate a dopaminergic effect of Vitex agnus-castus extracts and suggest additional pharmacological actions via opioid receptors.

  11. Japanese women's experiences of pharmacological pain relief in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Keiko; Patterson, Jean; Griffiths, Christine R

    2014-06-01

    In Japan, most women manage labour pain without pharmacological interventions. However, New Zealand statistics show a high percentage of epidural use amongst Asian women. Entonox (a gas mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen) and pethidine are also available to women in New Zealand. This article investigates how Japanese women in New Zealand respond to the use of pharmacological pain relief in labour. The study was guided by two research questions: (1) How do Japanese women experience and manage labour pain in New Zealand? (2) How do they feel about the use of pharmacological pain relief? Thirteen Japanese women who had given birth in New Zealand were interviewed individually or in a focus group. The conversations were analysed using thematic analysis. Although in Japan very few women use pain relief, nine women received epidural and/or Entonox out of 11 women who experienced labour pain. The contrast between their Japanese cultural expectations and their birth experiences caused some of the women subsequent personal conflict. Japanese women's cultural perspectives and passive attitudes were demonstrated to influence the decision-making process concerning pain relief. It was concluded that understanding Japanese cultural worldviews and approaches to the role of pain in labour would help maternity providers in their provision of appropriate care for Japanese women. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Taiwan consensus of pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Mei Bai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is an important psychiatric disorder with different disease phases. The pharmacological treatment is complicated, and is updated frequently as new research evidence emerges. For the purpose of international collaboration, research, and education, the Taiwan consensus of pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorders was initiated by the Taiwanese Society of Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology (TSBPN – the Bipolar Chapter, which was established in August 2010 and approved as a member of International Society of Bipolar Disorder. TSBPN is the country member of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP. The development of the Taiwan consensus for bipolar disorder was mainly based on the template of WFSBP Guidelines, with references to other international guidelines including the Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments, and British Association for Psychopharmacology. We have also added Taiwanese experts’ experience, Taiwan national health insurance data, and the indications for the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder given by the Taiwan Department of Health, to emphasize the balance between efficacy and safety, and to make this consensus a concise, empirical, and important reference for clinical psychiatric practice.

  13. How Can Synergism of Traditional Medicines Benefit from Network Pharmacology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haidan; Ma, Qianqian; Cui, Heying; Liu, Guancheng; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Li, Wei; Piao, Guangchun

    2017-07-07

    Many prescriptions of traditional medicines (TMs), whose efficacy has been tested in clinical practice, have great therapeutic value and represent an excellent resource for drug discovery. Research into single compounds of TMs, such as artemisinin from Artemisia annua L., has achieved great success; however, it has become evident that a TM prescription (which frequently contains various herbs or other components) has a synergistic effect in effecting a cure or reducing toxicity. Network pharmacology targets biological networks and analyzes the links among drugs, targets, and diseases in those networks. Comprehensive, systematic research into network pharmacology is consistent with the perspective of holisticity, which is a main characteristic of many TMs. By means of network pharmacology, research has demonstrated that many a TM show a synergistic effect by acting at different levels on multiple targets and pathways. This approach effectively bridges the gap between modern medicine and TM, and it greatly facilitates studies into the synergistic actions of TMs. There are different kinds of synergistic effects with TMs, such as synergy among herbs, effective parts, and pure compounds; however, for various reasons, new drug discovery should at present focus on synergy among pure compounds.

  14. Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of Olea europaea (Olive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Hashmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Review. To grasp the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Olea europaea to explore its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. Material and Methods. All the available information on O. europaea was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, Scirus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science and a library search. Results. Ethnomedical uses of O. europaea are recorded throughout the world where it has been used to treat various ailments. Phytochemical research had led to the isolation of flavonoids, secoiridoids, iridoids, flavanones, biophenols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives, isochromans, and other classes of secondary metabolites from O. europaea. The plant materials and isolated components have shown a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticancer, antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, gastroprotective, and wound healing activities. Conclusions. O. europaea emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The outcomes of phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in this review will further expand its existing therapeutic potential and provide a convincing support to its future clinical use in modern medicine.

  15. Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of Olea europaea (Olive)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Afsar; Hanif, Muhammad; Farooq, Umar; Perveen, Shagufta

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the Review. To grasp the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Olea europaea to explore its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. Material and Methods. All the available information on O. europaea was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, Scirus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) and a library search. Results. Ethnomedical uses of O. europaea are recorded throughout the world where it has been used to treat various ailments. Phytochemical research had led to the isolation of flavonoids, secoiridoids, iridoids, flavanones, biophenols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives, isochromans, and other classes of secondary metabolites from O. europaea. The plant materials and isolated components have shown a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticancer, antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, gastroprotective, and wound healing activities. Conclusions. O. europaea emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The outcomes of phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in this review will further expand its existing therapeutic potential and provide a convincing support to its future clinical use in modern medicine. PMID:25802541

  16. The pharmacology of neurokinin receptors in addiction: prospects for therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandweiss AJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexander J Sandweiss, Todd W VanderahDepartment of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Addiction is a chronic disorder in which consumption of a substance or a habitual behavior becomes compulsive and often recurrent, despite adverse consequences. Substance p (SP is an undecapeptide and was the first neuropeptide of the neurokinin family to be discovered. The subsequent decades of research after its discovery implicated SP and its neurokinin relatives as neurotransmitters involved in the modulation of the reward pathway. Here, we review the neurokinin literature, giving a brief historical perspective of neurokinin pharmacology, localization in various brain regions involved in addictive behaviors, and the functional aspects of neurokinin pharmacology in relation to reward in preclinical models of addiction that have shaped the rational drug design of neurokinin antagonists that could translate into human research. Finally, we will cover the clinical investigations using neurokinin antagonists and discuss their potential as a therapy for drug abuse.Keywords: reward, substance p, alcohol, morphine, cocaine, dopamine

  17. Pharmacological therapy for analgesia and sedation in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, K J S; Hall, R W

    2006-11-01

    Rapid advances have been made in the use of pharmacological analgesia and sedation for newborns requiring neonatal intensive care. Practical considerations for the use of systemic analgesics (opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, other drugs), local and topical anaesthetics, and sedative or anaesthetic agents (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, other drugs) are summarised using an evidence-based medicine approach, while avoiding mention of the underlying basic physiology or pharmacology. These developments have inspired more humane approaches to neonatal intensive care. Despite these advances, little is known about the clinical effectiveness, immediate toxicity, effects on special patient populations, or long-term effects after neonatal exposure to analgesics or sedatives. The desired or adverse effects of drug combinations, interactions with non-pharmacological interventions or use for specific conditions also remain unknown. Despite the huge gaps in our knowledge, preliminary evidence for the use of neonatal analgesia and sedation is available, but must be combined with a clear definition of clinical goals, continuous physiological monitoring, evaluation of side effects or tolerance, and consideration of long-term clinical outcomes.

  18. Amphetamine, past and present--a pharmacological and clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, David J; Smith, Sharon L; Gosden, Jane; Nutt, David J

    2013-06-01

    Amphetamine was discovered over 100 years ago. Since then, it has transformed from a drug that was freely available without prescription as a panacea for a broad range of disorders into a highly restricted Controlled Drug with therapeutic applications restricted to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. This review describes the relationship between chemical structure and pharmacology of amphetamine and its congeners. Amphetamine's diverse pharmacological actions translate not only into therapeutic efficacy, but also into the production of adverse events and liability for recreational abuse. Accordingly, the balance of benefit/risk is the key challenge for its clinical use. The review charts advances in pharmaceutical development from the introduction of once-daily formulations of amphetamine through to lisdexamfetamine, which is the first d-amphetamine prodrug approved for the management of ADHD in children, adolescents and adults. The unusual metabolic route for lisdexamfetamine to deliver d-amphetamine makes an important contribution to its pharmacology. How lisdexamfetamine's distinctive pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile translates into sustained efficacy as a treatment for ADHD and its reduced potential for recreational abuse is also discussed.

  19. Amphetamine, past and present – a pharmacological and clinical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sharon L; Gosden, Jane; Nutt, David J

    2013-01-01

    Amphetamine was discovered over 100 years ago. Since then, it has transformed from a drug that was freely available without prescription as a panacea for a broad range of disorders into a highly restricted Controlled Drug with therapeutic applications restricted to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. This review describes the relationship between chemical structure and pharmacology of amphetamine and its congeners. Amphetamine’s diverse pharmacological actions translate not only into therapeutic efficacy, but also into the production of adverse events and liability for recreational abuse. Accordingly, the balance of benefit/risk is the key challenge for its clinical use. The review charts advances in pharmaceutical development from the introduction of once-daily formulations of amphetamine through to lisdexamfetamine, which is the first d-amphetamine prodrug approved for the management of ADHD in children, adolescents and adults. The unusual metabolic route for lisdexamfetamine to deliver d-amphetamine makes an important contribution to its pharmacology. How lisdexamfetamine’s distinctive pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile translates into sustained efficacy as a treatment for ADHD and its reduced potential for recreational abuse is also discussed. PMID:23539642

  20. Pharmacological analyses of learning and memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jordan M; Oliveri, Anthony N; Levin, Edward D

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become valuable as a complementary model in behavioral pharmacology, opening a new avenue for understanding the relationships between drug action and behavior. This species offers a useful intermediate approach bridging the gap between in vitro studies and traditional mammalian models. Zebrafish offer great advantages of economy compared to their rodent counterparts, their complex brains and behavioral repertoire offer great translational potential relative to in vitro models. The development and validation of a variety of tests to measure behavior, including cognition, in zebrafish have set the stage for the use of this animal for behavioral pharmacology studies. This has led to research into the basic mechanisms of cognitive function as well as screening for potential cognition-improving drug therapies, among other lines of research. As with all models, zebrafish have limitations, which span pharmacokinetic challenges to difficulties quantifying behavior. The use, efficacy and limitations associated with a zebrafish model of cognitive function are discussed in this review, within the context of behavioral pharmacology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The pharmacological assay as a tool to medicinal plants domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montanari Jr., Ilio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil studies with native medicinal plants are usually performed using non-domesticated plants and as a result the genetic variability of wild species could express different levels of active principles changing their therapeutic effect. Based on that, the aim of this study was to demonstrate that extract of different half- sib families Cordia verbenacea (DC, widely used as medicinal plant in Brazil, have different efficacy in the Total Growth Inhibition (TGI of 5 different human tumor cell lines. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA follow by Tuckey test and a heritability estimation of the plant families was performed. The results showed that TGI are different for each plant family according with each human tumor cell line. For instance, extracts obtained from families 3,11 and 12 were more effective to inhibit the U-251 and Ht-29 cell lines compared to the other families, while extracts obtained from the family 32 was more effective against thethe PC-3 line. The heritability coefficient indicated that plant population selection could promote a genetic improvement related to its active principle and their pharmacological effect and could provide the identification of the best families according to their pharmacological efficacy. In conclusion, this study suggests that the domestication of a wild medicinal plant should be better monitored by its pharmacological effect.

  2. Traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Codonopsis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shi-Man; Liu, Jiu-Shi; Wang, Min; Cao, Ting-Ting; Qi, Yao-Dong; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Hai-Tao; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2018-06-12

    Species of the genus Codonopsis are perennial herbs mainly distributed throughout East, Southeast and Central Asia. As recorded, they have been used as traditional Chinese medicines since the Qing Dynasty, where they were claimed for strengthening the spleen and tonifying the lung, as well as nourishing blood and engendering liquid. Some species are also used as food materials in southern China and Southeast Asia, such as tea, wine, soup, plaster, and porridge. The review aims to assess the ethnopharmacological uses, explicit the material basis and pharmacological action, promote the safety of medical use, and suggest the future research potentials of Codonopsis. Information on the studies of Codonopsis was collected from scientific journals, books, and reports via library and electronic data search (PubMed, Elsevier, Scopus, Google Scholar, Springer, Science Direct, Wiley, Researchgate, ACS, EMBASE, Web of Science and CNKI). Meanwhile, it was also obtained from published works of material medica, folk records, ethnopharmacological literatures, Ph.D. and Masters Dissertation. Plant taxonomy was confirmed to the database "The Plant List" (www.theplantlist.org). Codonopsis has been used for medicinal purposes all around the world. Some species are also used as food materials in southern China and Southeast Asia. The chemical constituents of Codonopsis mainly are polyacetylenes, polyenes, flavonoids, lignans, alkaloids, coumarins, terpenoids, steroids, organic acids, saccharides, and so on. Extract of Codonopsis exhibit extensive pharmacological activities, including immune function regulation, hematopoiesis improvement, cardiovascular protection, neuroprotection, gastrointestinal function regulation, endocrine function regulation, cytotoxic and antibacterial effects, anti-aging and anti-oxidation, etc. Almost no obvious toxicity or side effect are observed and recorded for Codonopsis. The traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Codonopsis are

  3. The presence of comorbidity in Tourette syndrome increases the need for pharmacological treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette M M M; Hjalgrim, Helle; Skov, Liselotte

    2009-01-01

    to a better insight into the common practice in Scandinavia. Furthermore, we wanted to elaborate the influence of the presence of comorbidities and of the severity of tics on pharmacological treatment. We have examined the frequency, art, and reason for pharmacological treatment in a Danish clinical cohort...... of 314 children with Tourette syndrome. In total, 60.5% of the children once had received pharmacological treatment. Mostly, the treatment was started because of tics or ADHD. If ADHD or obsessive-compulsive disorder were present, more children received pharmacological treatment and more different agents...... were tried. The children who received pharmacological treatment had more severe tics than those without medication....

  4. Geriatric pharmacology and pharmacotherapy education for health professionals and students: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; van Hensbergen, Larissa; Jacobs, Lotte; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; ten Cate, Olle Th J; Jansen, Paul A F

    2012-01-01

    AIMS Given the reported high rates of medication errors, especially in elderly patients, we hypothesized that current curricula do not devote enough time to the teaching of geriatric pharmacology. This review explores the quantity and nature of geriatric pharmacology education in undergraduate and postgraduate curricula for health professionals. METHODS Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched (from 1 January 2000 to 11 January 2011), using the terms ‘pharmacology’ and ‘education’ in combination. Articles describing content or evaluation of pharmacology education for health professionals were included. Education in general and geriatric pharmacology was compared. RESULTS Articles on general pharmacology education (252) and geriatric pharmacology education (39) were included. The number of publications on education in general pharmacology, but not geriatric pharmacology, has increased over the last 10 years. Articles on undergraduate and postgraduate education for 12 different health disciplines were identified. A median of 24 h (from 15 min to 4956 h) devoted to pharmacology education and 2 h (1–935 h) devoted to geriatric pharmacology were reported. Of the articles on education in geriatric pharmacology, 61.5% evaluated the teaching provided, mostly student satisfaction with the course. The strength of findings was low. Similar educational interventions were not identified, and evaluation studies were not replicated. CONCLUSIONS Recently, interest in pharmacology education has increased, possibly because of the high rate of medication errors and the recognized importance of evidence-based medical education. Nevertheless, courses on geriatric pharmacology have not been evaluated thoroughly and none can be recommended for use in training programmes. Suggestions for improvements in education in general and geriatric pharmacology are given. PMID:22416832

  5. Sequential application of non-pharmacological interventions reduces the severity of labour pain, delays use of pharmacological analgesia, and improves some obstetric outcomes: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubneide Barreto Silva Gallo

    2018-01-01

    Trial registration: NCT01389128. [Gallo RBS, Santana LS, Marcolin AC, Duarte G, Quintana SM (2018 Sequential application of non-pharmacological interventions reduces the severity of labour pain, delays use of pharmacological analgesia, and improves some obstetric outcomes: a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 64: 33–40

  6. Clinical Pharmacology in Denmark in 2016 - 40 Years with the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology and 20 Years as a Medical Speciality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøsen, Kim; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Borregaard, Jeanett

    2016-01-01

    new jobs and career opportunities for clinical pharmacologists. As of July 2016, the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology has 175 members, and 70 of these are specialists in clinical pharmacology corresponding to approximately 2.5 specialists per 1000 doctors (Denmark has in total 28,000 doctors...

  7. Pharmacological treatment and therapeutic perspectives of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo; Eckel, Robert H

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a disorder based on insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome is diagnosed by a co-occurrence of three out of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressures, elevated glucose, high triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Clinical implication of metabolic syndrome is that it increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased globally, particularly in the last decade, to the point of being regarded as an epidemic. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the USA is estimated to be 34% of adult population. Moreover, increasing rate of metabolic syndrome in developing countries is dramatic. One can speculate that metabolic syndrome is going to induce huge impact on our lives. The metabolic syndrome cannot be treated with a single agent, since it is a multifaceted health problem. A healthy lifestyle including weight reduction is likely most effective in controlling metabolic syndrome. However, it is difficult to initiate and maintain healthy lifestyles, and in particular, with the recidivism of obesity in most patients who lose weight. Next, pharmacological agents that deal with obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia can be used singly or in combination: anti-obesity drugs, thiazolidinediones, metformin, statins, fibrates, renin-angiotensin system blockers, glucagon like peptide-1 agonists, sodium glucose transporter-2 inhibitors, and some antiplatelet agents such as cilostazol. These drugs have not only their own pharmacologic targets on individual components of metabolic syndrome but some other properties may prove beneficial, i.e. anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative. This review will describe pathophysiologic features of metabolic syndrome and pharmacologic agents for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, which are currently available.

  8. Physician attitudes towards pharmacological cognitive enhancement: safety concerns are paramount.

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    Opeyemi C Banjo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethical dimensions of pharmacological cognitive enhancement have been widely discussed in academic circles and the popular media, but missing from the conversation have been the perspectives of physicians - key decision makers in the adoption of new technologies into medical practice. We queried primary care physicians in major urban centers in Canada and the United States with the aim of understanding their attitudes towards cognitive enhancement. Our primary hypothesis was that physicians would be more comfortable prescribing cognitive enhancers to older patients than to young adults. Physicians were presented with a hypothetical pharmaceutical cognitive enhancer that had been approved by the regulatory authorities for use in healthy adults, and was characterized as being safe, effective, and without significant adverse side effects. Respondents overwhelmingly reported increasing comfort with prescribing cognitive enhancers as the patient age increased from 25 to 65. When asked about their comfort with prescribing extant drugs that might be considered enhancements (sildenafil, modafinil, and methylphenidate or our hypothetical cognitive enhancer to a normal, healthy 40 year old, physicians were more comfortable prescribing sildenafil than any of the other three agents. When queried as to the reasons they answered as they did, the most prominent concerns physicians expressed were issues of safety that were not offset by the benefit afforded the individual, even in the face of explicit safety claims. Moreover, many physicians indicated that they viewed safety claims with considerable skepticism. It has become routine for safety to be raised and summarily dismissed as an issue in the debate over pharmacological cognitive enhancement; the observation that physicians were so skeptical in the face of explicit safety claims suggests that such a conclusion may be premature. Thus, physician attitudes suggest that greater weight be placed upon the

  9. Pharmacologic stress-induced stunning: evaluation with quantitative gated SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, K. A.; Cho, I. H.; Won, K. J.; Lee, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    The after-effect of pharmacologic stress (adenosine) on left ventricular (LV) function, end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) were evaluated after pharmacologic stress with Tl-201 and 99m Tc-MIBI SPECT using an automated program in 153 subjects. The subjects were grouped as follows: 1) Tl-201 group (n=35, male 18, female 17, mean age: 58 years); normal scan (n=24), ischemia (n=8) and infarction (n=3). 2) 99m Tc-MIBI group (n=118, male 60, female 58, mean age: 62 years); normal scan (n=73), ischemia (n=20) and infarction (n=25) based on the interpretation of perfusion images. All patients were in sinus rhythm during the study. 1)Tl-201 group; In patients with ischemia (the mean time interval between injection and acquisition is 12.3 min), post-stress LVEF was significantly depressed after adenosine infusion (51.2 ± 6.3% vs 59.8± 8.2%, p 99m Tc-MIBI group; In patients with ischemia (the mean time interval between injection and acquisition is 80 min), post-stress LVEF was significantly depressed after adenosine infusion (p<0.001) and ΔLVEF was 5.1%. Eight patients (40%) showed an increase in LVEF greater than 5% from poststress to rest. Poststress ESV (37.1±17.3 ml) was significantly higher than ESV (31.3±15.5 ml, p<0.001) at rest, but no significant difference in EDV. These results showed that pharmacologic stress induced stunning is well noted in the early quantitative gated SPECT in ischemic patients and also observed in the delayed gated SPECT, even though the rate of stunning is less than the early SPECT

  10. Pharmacological treatment of tic disorders and Tourette Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessner, Veit; Schoenefeld, Katja; Buse, Judith; Bender, Stephan; Ehrlich, Stefan; Münchau, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    The present review gives an overview of current pharmacological treatment options of tic disorders and Tourette Syndrome (TS). After a short summary on phenomenology, clinical course and comorbid conditions we review indications for pharmacological treatment in detail. Unfortunately, standardized and large enough drug trials in TS patients fulfilling evidence based medicine standards are still scarce. Treatment decisions are often guided by individual needs and personal experience of treating clinicians. The present recommendations for pharmacological tic treatment are therefore based on both scientific evidence and expert opinion. As first-line treatment of tics risperidone (best evidence level for atypical antipsychotics) or tiapride (largest clinical experience in Europe and low rate of adverse reactions) are recommended. Aripiprazole (still limited but promising data with low risk for adverse reactions) and pimozide (best evidence of the typical antipsychotics) are agents of second choice. In TS patients with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) atomoxetine, stimulants or clonidine should be considered, or, if tics are severe, a combination of stimulants and risperidone. When mild to moderate tics are associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression or anxiety sulpiride monotherapy can be helpful. In more severe cases the combination of risperidone and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor should be given. In summary, further studies, particularly randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials including larger and/or more homogenous patient groups over longer periods are urgently needed to enhance the scientific basis for drug treatment in tic disorders. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Neurodevelopmental Disorders'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alkaloids from piper: a review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Perez; Gonzalez, Adriana Maria Neira; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos

    2013-02-01

    Piper has been used for long timelike condiment and food, but also in traditional medicine around of the world. This work resumes the available and up to date work done on members of the Piperaceae family and their uses for therapeutic purposes. Information on Piper genus was gathered via internet using scientific databases such as Scirus, Google Scholar, CAB-abstracts, MedlinePlus, Pubmed, SciFinder, Scopus and Web of Science. The largeleafed perennial plant Piper is used for its spicy aromatic scent and flavor. It has an important presence in the cuisine of different cultures. Another quality of these plants is their known medicinal properties. It has been used as emollient, antirheumatic, diuretic, stimulant, abortifacient, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antidermatophytic. A survey of the literature shows that the genus Piper is mainly known for its alkaloids with cytotoxic, chemopreventive, antimetastatic and antitumor properties in several types of cancer. Studies of its alkaloids highlight the existence of various potential leads to develop new anti-cancer agents. Modern pharmacology studies have demonstrated that its crude extracts and active compounds possess wide pharmacological activities, especially asantioxidant, anti-depressive, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, anti-obesity, neuropharmacological, to treat cognitive disorders, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-feedant, cardioactive, immuno-enhancing, and anti-inflamatory. All this evidence supporting its traditional uses. This review summarizes the up-to-date and comprehensive information concerning the botany, traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Piper together with its toxicology, and discusses the possible trend and scope for further research on Piper in the future.

  12. Parameter trajectory analysis to identify treatment effects of pharmacological interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Tiemann

    Full Text Available The field of medical systems biology aims to advance understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive disease progression and to translate this knowledge into therapies to effectively treat diseases. A challenging task is the investigation of long-term effects of a (pharmacological treatment, to establish its applicability and to identify potential side effects. We present a new modeling approach, called Analysis of Dynamic Adaptations in Parameter Trajectories (ADAPT, to analyze the long-term effects of a pharmacological intervention. A concept of time-dependent evolution of model parameters is introduced to study the dynamics of molecular adaptations. The progression of these adaptations is predicted by identifying necessary dynamic changes in the model parameters to describe the transition between experimental data obtained during different stages of the treatment. The trajectories provide insight in the affected underlying biological systems and identify the molecular events that should be studied in more detail to unravel the mechanistic basis of treatment outcome. Modulating effects caused by interactions with the proteome and transcriptome levels, which are often less well understood, can be captured by the time-dependent descriptions of the parameters. ADAPT was employed to identify metabolic adaptations induced upon pharmacological activation of the liver X receptor (LXR, a potential drug target to treat or prevent atherosclerosis. The trajectories were investigated to study the cascade of adaptations. This provided a counter-intuitive insight concerning the function of scavenger receptor class B1 (SR-B1, a receptor that facilitates the hepatic uptake of cholesterol. Although activation of LXR promotes cholesterol efflux and -excretion, our computational analysis showed that the hepatic capacity to clear cholesterol was reduced upon prolonged treatment. This prediction was confirmed experimentally by immunoblotting measurements of SR-B1

  13. VPAC receptors: structure, molecular pharmacology and interaction with accessory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvineau, Alain; Laburthe, Marc

    2012-05-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide with wide distribution in both central and peripheral nervous systems, where it plays important regulatory role in many physiological processes. VIP displays a large biological functions including regulation of exocrine secretions, hormone release, fetal development, immune responses, etc. VIP appears to exert beneficial effect in neuro-degenerative and inflammatory diseases. The mechanism of action of VIP implicates two subtypes of receptors (VPAC1 and VPAC2), which are members of class B receptors belonging to the super-family of GPCR. This article reviews the current knowledge regarding the structure and molecular pharmacology of VPAC receptors. The structure-function relationship of VPAC1 receptor has been extensively studied, allowing to understand the molecular basis for receptor affinity, specificity, desensitization and coupling to adenylyl cyclase. Those studies have clearly demonstrated the crucial role of the N-terminal ectodomain (N-ted) of VPAC1 receptor in VIP recognition. By using different approaches including directed mutagenesis, photoaffinity labelling, NMR, molecular modelling and molecular dynamic simulation, it has been shown that the VIP molecule interacts with the N-ted of VPAC1 receptor, which is itself structured as a 'Sushi' domain. VPAC1 receptor also interacts with a few accessory proteins that play a role in cell signalling of receptors. Recent advances in the structural characterization of VPAC receptor and more generally of class B GPCRs will lead to the design of new molecules, which could have considerable interest for the treatment of inflammatory and neuro-degenerative diseases. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Apomorphine and piribedil in rats: biochemical and pharmacologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, R F; Poignant, J C; Barbeau, A

    1975-01-01

    We studied the biochemical and pharmacologic modes of action of piribedil and apomorphine in the rat. Although both drugs have many points in common, they are also different in many of their manifestations. Apomorphine causes high-intensity, short-duration stereotyped behavior; it is distributed within the brain in uneven fashion, the striatum being the area of lowest concentration as measured by fluorometry. Direct stereotactic injection within the dopaminergic mesolimbic system, and particularly the tuberculum olfactorium, produced constant intense responses. All effects of apomorphine can be blocked by pimozide, but propanolol, a beta blocker, only reduces aggression and ferocity, leaving stereotyped behaviors intact. Finally, L-5-HTP tends to reduce aggression, ferocity, and to a lesser extent stereotypy; MIF or piribedil, as well as reserpine, potentiates the stereotyped behaviors induced by apomorphine, whereas L-DOPA usually decreases them. Piribedil, on the other hand, causes low-intensity, long-duration stereotyped behavior. It is distributed within the brain almost uniformly. Most effects of piribedil can be blocked by pimozide, but propanolol blocks only aggression and ferocity, leaving stereotyped behaviors intact. On the other hand, clonidine, an alpha-receptor agonist, blocks stereotyped behaviors induced by piribedil but markedly increases aggression, ferocity, and motor activity. L-5-HTP and L-DOPA have little effect on piribedil-induced manifestations. Reserpine decreases piribedil stereotypy. The main metabolite of piribedil, S 584, had no clear-cut pharmacologic action in our hands at the dosage used. It is concluded that both apomorphine and piribedil produce stereotyped behavior by modifying the physiologic balance between mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic systems. The other actions of apomorphine and piribedil upon aggression, ferocity, and motor activity are not always in parallel and depend probably on the fact that piribedil is less

  15. Systematic review of pharmacological treatments in fragile X syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejada Maria-Isabel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS is considered the most common cause of inherited mental retardation. Affected people have mental impairment that can include Attention Deficit and/or Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, autism disorder, and speech and behavioural disorders. Several pharmacological interventions have been proposed to treat those impairments. Methods Systematic review of the literature and summary of the evidence from clinical controlled trials that compared at least one pharmacological treatment with placebo or other treatment in individuals with diagnosis of FXS syndrome and assessed the efficacy and/or safety of the treatments. Studies were identified by a search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Databases using the terms fragile X and treatment. Risk of bias of the studies was assessed by using the Cochrane Collaboration criteria. Results The search identified 276 potential articles and 14 studies satisfied inclusion criteria. Of these, 10 studies on folic acid (9 with crossover design, only 1 of them with good methodological quality and low risk of bias did not find in general significant improvements. A small sample size trial assessed dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate in patients with an additional diagnosis of ADHD and found some improvements in those taking methylphenidate, but the length of follow-up was too short. Two studies on L-acetylcarnitine, showed positive effects and no side effects in patients with an additional diagnosis of ADHD. Finally, one study on patients with an additional diagnosis of autism assessed ampakine compound CX516 and found no significant differences between treatment and placebo. Regarding safety, none of the studies that assessed that area found relevant side effects, but the number of patients included was too small to detect side effects with low incidence. Conclusion Currently there is no robust evidence to support recommendations on pharmacological treatments in patients with

  16. Cardiovascular outcomes after pharmacologic stress myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Douglas S; Husain, Mansoor; Wang, Xuesong; Austin, Peter C; Iwanochko, Robert M

    2016-04-01

    While pharmacologic stress single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) is used for noninvasive evaluation of patients who are unable to perform treadmill exercise, its impact on net reclassification improvement (NRI) of prognosis is unknown. We evaluated the prognostic value of pharmacologic stress MPI for prediction of cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) within 1 year at a single-center, university-based laboratory. We examined continuous and categorical NRI of pharmacologic SPECT-MPI for prediction of outcomes beyond clinical factors alone. Six thousand two hundred forty patients (median age 66 years [IQR 56-74], 3466 men) were studied and followed for 5963 person-years. SPECT-MPI variables associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death or non-fatal MI included summed stress score, stress ST-shift, and post-stress resting left ventricular ejection fraction ≤50%. Compared to a clinical model which included age, sex, cardiovascular disease, risk factors, and medications, model χ(2) (210.5 vs. 281.9, P statistic (0.74 vs. 0.78, P stress score, stress ST-shift and stress resting left ventricular ejection fraction). SPECT-MPI predictors increased continuous NRI by 49.4% (P 3% annualized risk of cardiovascular death or non-fatal MI, yielded a 15.0% improvement in NRI (95% CI 7.6%-27.6%, P stress MPI substantially improved net reclassification of cardiovascular death or MI risk beyond that afforded by clinical factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmacological treatment of tics in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E. Cavanna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by the chronic presence of multiple motor tics (e.g. eye blinking, shoulder shrugging, etc. and at least one vocal/phonic tic (e.g. grunting or sniffing. The clinical picture of patients with Tourette syndrome is often complicated by tic-related behavioural problems and associated psychopathology. The pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome is poorly understood, however converging evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests abnormalities within the fronto-striatal pathways. The pharmacological management of the tic symptoms focuses on the dopaminergic and noradrenergic pathways and aims to improve the health-related quality of life of patients.

  18. Modern strategy and prospects in pharmacological treatment of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Kutsak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim – to analyze scientific literature to summarize data about contemporary views on the pharmacological therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD. PD is a chronic, neurodegenerative steadily progressive disease of the central nervous system, primarily associated with the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the cerebral pulp, manifested by motor and non-motor disorders and leading to permanent disability. The duration of patient’s life with PD, provided with adequate treatment, can be closer to the one of the general population. At the same time, the course of the disease may change with the increase of life expectancy of the patients. And as the result, in the clinical picture, non-motor disorders and motor complications caused by a further degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and adverse reactions of pharmacological therapy, come out in the first place. The apropos and rational correction of which improves the course of the disease and patients' quality of life. Within the age PD frequency in the population is increasing; taking into account the global trend to an increase in the duration of human life, this disease performs even bigger medical and social problem. And the need for further development of pharmacotherapy practices becomes more relevant. This review presents the current recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of PD. The attention is directed to the need for evidence when assessing the effectiveness of any treatment strategy. The data on the ongoing development of pharmaceuticals. Conclusions. At this time the existing therapeutic tactics in the pharmacological therapy of BP, despite the fact that they are quite successful in leveling manifestations of the disease, do not stop the disease, and are in fact symptomatic treatment. All successful clinical development, for the time being, are the emergence of new drugs belonging to the group of BP symptomatic therapy with the best bioavailability and tolerability

  19. Alternative Radioligands for Investigating the Molecular Pharmacology of Melatonin Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Céline; Brasseur, Chantal; Delagrange, Philippe; Ducrot, Pierre; Nosjean, Olivier; Boutin, Jean A

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin exerts a variety of physiologic activities that are mainly relayed through the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 Low expressions of these receptors in tissues have led to widespread experimental use of the agonist 2-[(125)I]-iodomelatonin as a substitute for melatonin. We describe three iodinated ligands: 2-(2-[(2-iodo-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-4,5-dimethoxy phenyl) (DIV880) and (2-iodo-N-2-[5-methoxy-2-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1H-pyrrolo[3,2-b]pyridine-3-yl])acetamide (S70254), which are specific ligands at MT2 receptors, and N-[2-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]iodoacetamide (SD6), an analog of 2-[(125)I]-iodomelatonin with slightly different characteristics. Here, we further characterized these new ligands with regards to their molecular pharmacology. We performed binding experiments, saturation assays, association/dissociation rate measurements, and autoradiography using sheep and rat tissues and recombinant cell lines. Our results showed that [(125)I]-S70254 is receptor, and can be used with both cells and tissue. This radioligand can be used in autoradiography. Similarly, DIV880, a partial agonist [43% of melatonin on guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate binding assay], selective for MT2, can be used as a tool to selectively describe the pharmacology of this receptor in tissue samples. The molecular pharmacology of both human melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2, using a series of 24 ligands at these receptors and the new radioligands, did not lead to noticeable variations in the profiles. For the first time, we described radiolabeled tools that are specific for one of the melatonin receptors (MT2). These tools are amenable to binding experiments and to autoradiography using sheep or rat tissues. These specific tools will permit better understanding of the role and implication in physiopathologic processes of the melatonin receptors. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  20. Cichorium intybus: Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée A. Street

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Cichorium (Asteraceae is made up of six species with major geographical presence in Europe and Asia. Cichorium intybus, commonly known as chicory, is well known as a coffee substitute but is also widely used medicinally to treat various ailments ranging from wounds to diabetes. Although this plant has a rich history of use in folklore, many of its constituents have not been explored for their pharmacological potential. Toxicological data on C. intybus is currently limited. This review focuses on the economic and culturally important medicinal uses of C. intybus. Traditional uses, scientific validation, and phytochemical composition are discussed in detail.