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Sample records for neuroactive steroids focus

  1. Divergent neuroactive steroid responses to stress and ethanol in rat and mouse strains: Relevance for human studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcu, Patrizia; Morrow, A. Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Neuroactive steroids are endogenous or synthetic steroids that rapidly alter neuronal excitability via membrane receptors, primarily GABAA receptors. Neuroactive steroids regulate many physiological processes including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, ovarian cycle, pregnancy, aging, and reward. Moreover, alterations in neuroactive steroid synthesis are implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Objectives This review will summarize the pharmacological properties and physiological regulation of neuroactive steroids, with a particular focus on divergent neuroactive steroid responses to stress and ethanol in rats, mice and humans. Results GABAergic neuroactive steroids exert a homeostatic regulation of the HPA axis in rats and humans, whereby the increase in neuroactive steroid levels following acute stress counteracts HPA axis hyperactivity and restores homeostasis. In contrast, in C57BL/6J mice, acute stress decreases neurosteroidogenesis and neuroactive steroids exert paradoxical excitatory effects upon the HPA axis. Rats, mice and humans also differ in the neuroactive steroid responses to ethanol. Genetic variation in neurosteroidogenesis may explain the different neuroactive steroid responses to stress or ethanol. Conclusions Rats and mouse strains show divergent effects of stress and ethanol on neuroactive steroids in both plasma and brain. The study of genetic variation in the various processes that determine neuroactive steroids levels as well as their effects on cell signaling may underlie these differences and may play a relevant role for the potential therapeutic benefits of neuroactive steroids. PMID:24770626

  2. Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome with a Neuroactive Steroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0626 TITLE: Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome with a Neuroactive Steroid PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Randi Hagerman, M.D...SUBTITLE Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome with a Neuroactive Steroid 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0626 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  3. Role of neuroactive steroids in the peripheral nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cosimo eMelcangi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews have so far pointed out on the relevant physiological and pharmacological role exerted by neuroactive steroids in the central nervous system. In the present review we summarize observations indicating that synthesis and metabolism of neuroactive steroids also occur in the peripheral nerves. Interestingly, peripheral nervous system is also a target of their action. Indeed, as here reported neuroactive steroids are physiological regulators of peripheral nerve functions and they may also represent interesting therapeutic tools for different types of peripheral neuropathy.

  4. Neuroactive steroids: mechanisms of action and neuropsychopharmacological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, R

    2003-02-01

    Steroids influence neuronal function through binding to cognate intracellular receptors which may act as transcription factors in the regulation of gene expression. In addition, certain so-called neuroactive steroids modulate ligand-gated ion channels via non-genomic mechanisms. Especially distinct 3alpha-reduced metabolites of progesterone and deoxycorticosterone are potent positive allosteric modulators of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors. However, also classical steroid hormones such as 17beta-estradiol, testosterone and progesterone are neuroactive steroids because they may act as functional antagonists at the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT(3)) receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel or distinct glutamate receptors. A structure-activity relationship for the actions of a variety of steroids at the 5-HT(3) receptor was elaborated that differed considerably from that known for GABA(A) receptors. Although a bindings site for steroids at GABA(A) receptors is still a matter of debate, meanwhile there is also evidence that steroids interact allosterically with ligand-gated ion channels at the receptor membrane interface. On the other hand, also 3alpha-reduced neuroactive steroids may regulate gene expression via the progesterone receptor after intracellular oxidation into 5alpha-pregnane steroids. Animal studies showed that progesterone is converted rapidly into GABAergic neuroactive steroids in vivo. Progesterone reduces locomotor activity in a dose-dependent fashion in male Wistar rats. Moreover, progesterone and 3alpha-reduced neuroactive steroids produce a benzodiazepine-like sleep EEG profile in rats and humans. During major depression, there is a disequilibrium of such 3alpha-reduced neuroactive steroids which is corrected by successful treatment with antidepressant drugs. Neuroactive steroids may further be involved in the treatment of depression and anxiety with antidepressants in patients during ethanol withdrawal. Studies in patients with

  5. Neuroactive Steroids: Receptor Interactions and Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kald Beshir Tuem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuroactive steroids (NASs are naturally occurring steroids, which are synthesized centrally as de novo from cholesterol and are classified as pregnane, androstane, and sulfated neurosteroids (NSs. NASs modulate many processes via interacting with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, N-methyl-d-aspartate, serotonin, voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-dependent anion channels, α-adrenoreceptors, X-receptors of the liver, transient receptor potential channels, microtubule-associated protein 2, neurotrophin nerve growth factor, and σ1 receptors. Among these, NSs (especially allopregnanolone have high potency and extensive GABA-A receptors and hence demonstrate anticonvulsant, anesthetic, central cytoprotectant, and baroreflex inhibitory effects. NSs are also involved in mood and learning via serotonin and anti-nociceptive activity via T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Moreover, they are modulators of mitochondrial function, synaptic plasticity, or regulators of apoptosis, which have a role in neuroprotective via voltage-dependent anion channels receptors. For proper functioning, NASs need to be in their normal level, whereas excess and deficiency may lead to abnormalities. When they are below the normal, NSs could have a part in development of depression, neuro-inflammation, multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. On the other hand, stress and attention deficit disorder could occur during excessive level. Overall, NASs are very important molecules with major neuropsychiatric activity.

  6. Neuroactive steroids: molecular mechanisms of action and implications for neuropsychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, R; di Michele, F; Hermann, B; Ströhle, A; Lancel, M; Romeo, E; Holsboer, F

    2001-11-01

    Besides their binding to cognate intracellular receptors gonadal steroids may also act as functional antagonists at the 5-HT3 receptor. A structure-activity relationship for the actions of a variety of steroids at the 5-HT3 receptor was elaborated that differed considerably from that known for GABA(A) receptors. Steroids appear to interact allosterically with ligand-gated ion channels at the receptor membrane interface. The functional antagonism of gonadal steroids at the 5-HT3 receptor may play a role for the development and course of nausea during pregnancy and of psychiatric disorders. Moreover, we could demonstrate that 3alpha-reduced neuroactive steroids concurrently modulate the GABA(A) receptor and regulate gene expression via the progesterone receptor after intracellular oxidation. Animal studies showed that progesterone is converted rapidly into GABAergic neuroactive steroids in vivo. Progesterone reduces locomotor activity in a dose dependent fashion in male Wister rats. Moreover, progesterone and 3alpha,5alpha-tetrahydroprogesterone produce a benzodiazepine-like sleep EEG profile in rats and humans. In addition, there is a dysequilibrium of such 3alpha-reduced neuroactive steroids during major depression which is corrected by successful treatment with antidepressants. Neuroactive steroids may further be involved in the treatment of depression and anxiety with antidepressants in patients during ethanol withdrawal. First studies in patients with panic disorder suggest that neuroactive steroids may also play a pivotal role in human anxiety. The genomic and non-genomic effects of steroids in the brain contribute to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and the mechanisms of action of antidepressants. Neuroactive steroids affect a broad spectrum of behavioral functions through their unique molecular properties and may constitute a yet unexploited class of drugs.

  7. Modification of behavioral effects of drugs in mice by neuroactive steroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ungard, JT; Beekman, M; Gasior, M; Carter, RB; Dijkstra, D; Witkin, JM

    Rationale: Neuroactive steroids represent a novel class of potential therapeutic agents (epilepsy, anxiety, migraine, drug dependence) thought to act through positive allosteric modulation of the GABA(A) receptor A synthetically derived neuroactive steroid, ganaxolone (3 alpha-hydroxy-3

  8. Profiling Neuroactive Steroid Levels After Traumatic Brain Injury in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Acaz-Fonseca, Estefania; Spezzano, Roberto; Giatti, Silvia; Caruso, Donatella; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Melcangi, Roberto C; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in humans has rapidly increased in the last ten years. The most common causes are falls and car accidents. Approximately 80 000-90 000 persons per year will suffer some permanent disability as a result of the lesion, and one of the most common symptoms is the decline of hormone levels, also known as post-TBI hormonal deficiency syndrome. This issue has become more and more important, and many studies have focused on shedding some light on it. The hormonal decline affects not only gonadal steroid hormones but also neuroactive steroids, which play an important role in TBI recovery by neuroprotective and neurotrophic actions. The present work used an adolescent close-head murine model to analyze brain and plasma neurosteroid level changes after TBI and to establish correlations with edema and neurological impairments, 2 of the hallmarks of TBI. Our results showed changes in brain pregnenolone, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and 3α-diol levels whereas in plasma, the changes were present in progesterone, DHT, 3α-diol, and 3β-diol. Within them, pregnenolone, progesterone, DHT, and 3α-diol levels positively correlated with edema formation and neurological score, whereas testosterone inversely correlated with these 2 variables. These findings suggest that changes in the brain levels of some neuroactive steroids may contribute to the alterations in brain function caused by the lesion and that plasma levels of some neuroactive steroids could be good candidates of blood markers to predict TBI outcome.

  9. Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome with a Neuroactive Steroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    fragile X syndrome . Cell. 2001;107(4):477–487. 19. Bear MF, Huber KM, Warren ST. The mGluR theory of...Trends Neurosci 2007;30(4):176-84 24. Bear MF, Huber KM, Warren ST. The mGLuR theory of fragile X mental retardation. Trends Neurosci 2004;27(7):370-7 25...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome with a Neuroactive Steroid 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  10. GABA signaling and neuroactive steroids in adrenal medullary chromaffin cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita eHarada

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available GABA is produced not only in the brain, but also in endocrine cells by the two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD, GAD65 and GAD67. In rat adrenal medullary chromaffin cells only GAD67 is expressed, and GABA is stored in large dense core vesicles, but not synaptic-like microvesicles. The 32/32 complex represents the majority of GABAA receptors expressed in rat and guinea pig chromaffin cells, whereas PC12 cells, an immortalized rat chromaffin cell line, express the 1 subunit as well as the 3. The expression of 3, but not 1, in PC12 cells is enhanced by glucocorticoid activity, which may be mediated by both the mineralocorticoid receptor and the glucocorticoid receptor. GABA has two actions mediated by GABAA receptors in chromaffin cells: it induces catecholamine secretion by itself and produces an inhibition of synaptically evoked secretion by a shunt effect. Allopregnanolone, a neuroactive steroid which is secreted from the adrenal cortex, produces a marked facilitation of GABAA receptor channel activity. Since there are no GABAergic nerve fibers in the adrenal medulla, GABA may function as a para/autocrine factor in the chromaffin cells. This function of GABA may be facilitated by expression of the immature isoforms of GAD and GABAA receptors and the lack of expression of plasma membrane GABA transporters. In this review, we will consider how the para/autocrine function of GABA is achieved, focusing on the structural and molecular mechanisms for GABA signaling.

  11. Enhanced Anticonvulsant Activity of Neuroactive Steroids in a Rat Model of Catamenial Epilepsy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reddy, Doodipala S; Rogawski, Michael A

    2001-01-01

    ...‐derived neurosteroid allopregnanolone that potentiates γ‐aminobutyric acid A (GABA A ) receptor–mediated inhibition. Here we sought to determine whether the anticonvulsant potencies of neuroactive steroids, benzodiazepines, phenobarbital...

  12. Steroids, steroid precursors, and neuroactive steroids in critically ill equine neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembek, K A; Timko, K J; Johnson, L M; Hart, K A; Barr, B S; David, B; Burns, T A; Toribio, R E

    2017-07-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) dysfunction has been associated with sepsis and mortality in foals. Most studies have focused on cortisol, while other steroids have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to characterise the adrenal steroid and steroid precursor response to disease and to determine their association with the HPAA response to illness, disease severity, and mortality in hospitalised foals. All foals (n=326) were classified by two scoring systems into three categories: based on the sepsis score (septic, sick non-septic [SNS] and healthy) and the foal survival score (Group 1: 3-18%; Group 2: 38-62%; Group 3: 82-97% likelihood of survival). Blood concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and steroids were determined by immunoassays. ACTH-cortisol imbalance (ACI) was defined as a high ACTH/cortisol ratio. Septic foals had higher ACTH, cortisol, progesterone, 17α-OH-progesterone, pregnenolone, and androstenedione concentrations as well as higher ACTH/cortisol, ACTH/progesterone, ACTH/aldosterone, and ACTH/DHEAS ratios than SNS and healthy foals (Psteroids. DHEAS and progesterone were good predictors of HPAA dysfunction and outcome in hospitalised foals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent Developments in the Significance and Therapeutic Relevance of Neuroactive Steroids – Introduction to the Special Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, A. Leslie

    2007-01-01

    The special issue heralds an exciting time in the field when the significance of neuroactive steroids in the regulation of inhibitory transmission is being realized and translated to new treatments for intractable neurologic and psychiatric conditions. In the past year, the binding sites for neuroactive steroids on γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors have been discovered and clinical trials for epilepsy and traumatic brain injury have been successful. New data in animal models points...

  14. Neuroactive steroid levels and psychiatric and andrological features in post-finasteride patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Santi, Daniele; Spezzano, Roberto; Grimoldi, Maria; Tabacchi, Tommaso; Fusco, Maria Letizia; Diviccaro, Silvia; Giatti, Silvia; Carrà, Giuseppe; Caruso, Donatella; Simoni, Manuela; Cavaletti, Guido

    2017-07-01

    Recent reports show that, in patients treated with finasteride for male pattern hair loss, persistent side effects including sexual side effects, depression, anxiety and cognitive complaints may occur. We here explored the psychiatric and andrological features of patients affected by post-finasteride syndrome (PFS) and verified whether the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma levels of neuroactive steroids (i.e., important regulators of nervous function) are modified. We found that eight out of sixteen PFS male patients considered suffered from a DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD). In addition, all PFS patients showed erectile dysfunction (ED); in particular, ten patients showed a severe and six a mild-moderate ED. We also reported abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials of the pudendal nerve in PFS patients with severe ED, the first objective evidence of a neuropathy involving peripheral neurogenic control of erection. Testicular volume by ultrasonography was normal in PFS patients. Data obtained on neuroactive steroid levels also indicate interesting features. Indeed, decreased levels of pregnenolone, progesterone and its metabolite (i.e., dihydroprogesterone), dihydrotestosterone and 17beta-estradiol and increased levels of dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone and 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol were observed in CSF of PFS patients. Neuroactive steroid levels were also altered in plasma of PFS patients, however these changes did not reflect exactly what occurs in CSF. Finally, finasteride did not only affect, as expected, the levels of 5alpha-reduced metabolites of progesterone and testosterone, but also the further metabolites and precursors suggesting that this drug has broad consequence on neuroactive steroid levels of PFS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Overlapping, but not identical, discriminative stimulus effects of the neuroactive steroid pregnanolone and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerak, Lisa R; Moerschbaecher, Joseph M; Winsauer, Peter J

    2008-05-01

    Many behavioral effects of neuroactive steroids are mediated by GABA(A) receptors; however, other receptors might be involved. Ethanol has a complex mechanism of action, and many of the same receptors have been implicated in the effects of neuroactive steroids and ethanol. The goal of this study was to determine whether actions of neuroactive steroids and ethanol at multiple receptors result in similar discriminative stimulus effects. Rats discriminated 5.6 mg/kg of pregnanolone while responding under a fixed-ratio 20 schedule of food presentation. Pregnanolone, flunitrazepam and pentobarbital produced >80% pregnanolone-lever responding. In contrast, neither morphine nor the negative GABA(A) modulator beta-CCE substituted for pregnanolone up to doses that markedly decreased response rates. Ethanol substituted only in some rats; in other rats, ethanol produced <20% pregnanolone-lever responding up to rate-decreasing doses. Thus, substitution of positive GABA(A) modulators, and not morphine or beta-CCE, for pregnanolone in all rats suggests that positive modulation of GABA(A) receptors is important in the discriminative stimulus effects of pregnanolone. Although pregnanolone might have actions at other receptors, in addition to actions at GABA(A) receptors, substitution of ethanol for pregnanolone only in some rats suggests that the mechanisms of action of pregnanolone and ethanol overlap, but are not identical.

  16. The implication of neuroactive steroids in Tourette syndrome pathogenesis: a role for 5α-reductase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolato, Marco; Frau, Roberto; Godar, Sean C; Mosher, Laura J; Paba, Silvia; Marrosu, Francesco; Devoto, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by recurring motor and phonic tics. The pathogenesis of TS is thought to reflect dysregulations in the signaling of dopamine (DA) and other neurotransmitters, which lead to excitation/inhibition imbalances in cortico-striato-thalamocortical circuits. The causes of these deficits may reflect complex gene × environment × sex (G×E×S) interactions; indeed, the disorder is markedly predominant in males, with a male-to-female prevalence ratio of ~4:1. Converging lines of evidence point to neuroactive steroids as likely molecular candidates to account for GxExS interactions in TS. Building on these premises, our group has begun examining the possibility that alterations in the steroid biosynthetic process may be directly implicated in TS pathophysiology; in particular, our research has focused on 5α-reductase (5αR), the enzyme catalyzing the key rate-limiting step in the synthesis of pregnane and androstane neurosteroids. In clinical and preclinical studies, we found that 5αR inhibitors exerted marked anti-DAergic and tic-suppressing properties, suggesting a central role for this enzyme in TS pathogenesis. Based on these data, we hypothesize that enhancements in 5αR activity in early developmental stages may lead to an inappropriate activation of the “backdoor” pathway for androgen synthesis from adrenarche until the end of puberty. We predict that the ensuing imbalances in steroid homeostasis may impair the signaling of DA and other neurotransmitters, ultimately resulting in the facilitation of tics and other behavioral abnormalities in TS. PMID:23795653

  17. Effects of neonatal and adolescent neuroactive steroid manipulation on locomotor activity induced by ethanol in male wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé, Iris; Llidó, Anna; Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc

    2017-07-14

    Neonatal neuroactive steroids levels are crucial for brain development. Alterations of neonatal neuroactive steroids levels induce anxiolytic-like effects and improve exploration in novel environments in adulthood. These behavioural traits, i.e. sensation/novelty seeking, anxiety or impulsivity, are associated with vulnerability to drug use and abuse. Adolescence is also recognized as a particularly critical developmental phase to contribute to vulnerable phenotype. However, the influence of neuroactive steroids during development in the vulnerability to drug addiction has been poorly studied. The aim of the present experiment is to study the effect of early neonatal and adolescent manipulations of neuroactive steroids on the sensitivity to the stimulant effects of ethanol in adult male rats. Therefore, allopregnanolone or finasteride, an allopregnanolone synthesis inhibitor, were injected from postnatal day 5-9. In early adolescence, half of the subjects were injected with progesterone, the main allopregnanolone precursor, and the elevated plus-maze anxiety test was performed. Results indicated that early adolescent progesterone induced anxiolytic-like effects (increase in the percentage of entries and time in open arms). Neonatal finasteride administration decreased locomotor activity induced by ethanol in adolescent vehicle subjects. Interestingly, differences induced by neonatal treatments were not present in the animals that received progesterone in the early adolescence. In conclusion, neuroactive steroid manipulations in crucial stages of development could be playing an important role in behavioural effects of alcohol such as the sensitivity to locomotor stimulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacological profile of a 17β-heteroaryl-substituted neuroactive steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, Derk J; Tran, Minhtam B; Yoshimura, Ryan F; Johnstone, Timothy B; Kanner, Richard; Gee, Kelvin W

    2014-09-01

    In order to improve upon the pharmacological properties of the neuroactive steroid ganaxolone, it was used as the starting point in the design of novel neurosteroids that replace the 17β-acetyl side chain with an isoxazole bioisostere. UCI-50027 (3-[3α-hydroxy-3β-methyl-5α-androstan-17β-yl]-5-(hydroxymethyl)isoxazole) was designed as an orally active neuroactive steroid specifically targeted at the gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor (GABAAR). UCI-50027 was tested in vitro in Xenopus oocytes expressing human GABAARs and in vivo as an anticonvulsant, for ataxic effects and for anxiolytic activity. In vitro, UCI-50027 dose-dependently enhanced the activity of GABA at human α1β2γ2L, α2β1γ2L, and α4β3δ GABAARs. Consistent with its action as a positive allosteric modulator (PAM), it had no direct activity in the absence of GABA. UCI-50027 protected against acute pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced convulsions with an ED50 of 6 mg/kg p.o. In the rotarod (RR) paradigm in mice, the AD50 (the ataxic dose where half of the animals fail the RR test) was found to be 38 mg/kg p.o., giving a therapeutic index (TI = RR AD50/PTZ ED50)∼6 versus 2.8 for ganaxolone. In the mouse-elevated plus maze (EPM) model for anxiety, UCI-50027 showed a minimum effective dose (MED) ≤0.3 mg/kg p.o. Thus, the TI (TI = RR AD50/EPM MED) for the compound as an anxiolytic is ≥127 versus 3.3 for ganaxolone. UCI-50027 is an orally active neuroactive steroid with pharmacological activity consistent with a GABAAR PAM that has an improved separation between anticonvulsant/anxiolytic and rotarod effects, potent activity as an anticonvulsant and anxiolytic when compared to ganaxolone.

  19. Antiepileptogenic effects of the novel synthetic neuroactive steroid, ganaxolone, against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindled seizures : Comparison with diazepam and valproate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasior, M; Beekman, M; Carter, RB; Goldberg, [No Value; Witkin, JM

    Pharmacological treatment of epilepsy is often unsatisfactory due to side effects and the lack of drugs that control the progressive epileptogenic process. Modulation of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurotransmission by synthetic agonists of the neuroactive steroid binding site on

  20. Enhanced anticonvulsant activity of neuroactive steroids in a rat model of catamenial epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D S; Rogawski, M A

    2001-03-01

    Perimenstrual catamenial epilepsy may in part be due to withdrawal of the endogenous progesterone-derived neurosteroid allopregnanolone that potentiates gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABA(A)) receptor-mediated inhibition. Here we sought to determine whether the anticonvulsant potencies of neuroactive steroids, benzodiazepines, phenobarbital (PB), and valproate (VPA) are altered during the heightened seizure susceptibility accompanying neurosteroid withdrawal in a rat model of perimenstrual catamenial epilepsy. Test drugs were evaluated for their ability to alter the convulsant activity of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) in young adult female rats, in pseudopregnant rats with prolonged exposure to high levels of progesterone (and its neurosteroid metabolites), and in pseudopregnant rats 24 h after acute withdrawal of neurosteroids by treatment with the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride. Test drugs were administered at doses equivalent to twice their ED50 values for protection against PTZ-induced clonic seizures in naive young adult female rats. The anticonvulsant activity of allopregnanolone (5 mg/kg, s.c.), pregnanolone (5 mg/kg, s.c.), allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (15 mg/kg, s.c.), and tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (10 mg/kg, s.c.) were enhanced by 34-127% after neurosteroid withdrawal. The anticonvulsant activity of PB (65 mg/kg, i.p.) was also enhanced by 24% in neurosteroid-withdrawn animals. In contrast, the anticonvulsant activity of diazepam (4 mg/kg, i.p.), bretazenil (0.106 mg/kg, i.p.), and VPA (560 mg/kg, i.p.) were reduced or unchanged in neurosteroid-withdrawn animals. The anticonvulsant activity of neuroactive steroids is potentiated after neurosteroid withdrawal, supporting the use of such agents in the treatment of perimenstrual catamenial epilepsy.

  1. Effects of Subchronic Finasteride Treatment and Withdrawal on Neuroactive Steroid Levels and Their Receptors in the Male Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatti, Silvia; Foglio, Benedetta; Romano, Simone; Pesaresi, Marzia; Panzica, Giancarlo; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Caruso, Donatella; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic conversion of progesterone and testosterone by the enzyme 5alpha-reductase exerts a crucial role in the control of nervous function. The effects of finasteride in the brain, an inhibitor of this enzyme used for the treatment of human benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenic alopecia, have been poorly explored. Therefore, the effects of a subchronic treatment with finasteride at low doses (3 mg/kg/day) and the consequences of its withdrawal on neuroactive steroid levels in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and some brain regions as well as on the expression of classical and non-classical steroid receptors have been evaluated in male rats. After subchronic treatment (i.e., for 20 days) the following effects were detected: (i) depending on the compartment considered, alteration in the levels of neuroactive steroids, not only in 5alpha-reduced metabolites but also in its precursors and in neuroactive steroids from other steroidogenic pathways and (ii) an upregulation of the androgen receptor in the cerebral cortex and beta3 subunit of the GABA-A receptor in the cerebellum. One month after the last treatment (i.e., withdrawal period), some of these effects persisted (i.e., the upregulation of the androgen receptor in the cerebral cortex, an increase of dihydroprogesterone in the cerebellum, a decrease of dihydrotestosterone in plasma). Moreover, other changes in neuroactive steroid levels, steroid receptors (i.e., an upregulation of the estrogen receptor alpha and a downregulation of the estrogen receptor beta in the cerebral cortex) and GABA-A receptor subunits (i.e., a decrease of alpha 4 and beta 3 mRNA levels in the cerebral cortex) were detected. These findings suggest that finasteride treatment may have broad consequences for brain function. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Beyond the HPA axis: progesterone-derived neuroactive steroids in human stress and emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eWirth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress and social isolation are well-known risk factors for psychopathology. However, more research is needed as to the physiological mechanisms by which social support buffers the impacts of stress. Research in animal models suggests important roles for progesterone (P and its product, the neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone (ALLO, in stress and psychopathology. These hormones are produced in brain and periphery during stress in rodents, and down-regulate anxiety behavior and HPA axis activity. Human clinical populations, including depressed patients, have alterations in ALLO levels, but it is unclear whether these basal hormone level differences have clinical import. To begin to address this question, this review examines the role of P and ALLO in stress physiology, and the impact of these hormones on mood, in healthy humans. Evidence largely supports that P and ALLO increase during stress in humans. However, P/ALLO administration appears to cause only mild effects on mood and subjective anxiety, while exerting effects consistent with GABA receptor modulation. Additionally, P is linked to motivation for affiliation / social contact; P (and ALLO release may be especially responsive to social rejection. These observations lead to the novel hypothesis that stress-related P/ALLO production functions not only to down-regulate stress and anxiety, but also to promote social contact as a long-term coping strategy. Malfunctioning of the P/ALLO system could therefore underlie depression partly by decreasing propensity to affiliate with others.

  3. Neuroactive steroid levels are modified in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of post-finasteride patients showing persistent sexual side effects and anxious/depressive symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Caruso, Donatella; Abbiati, Federico; Giatti, Silvia; Calabrese, Donato; Piazza, Fabrizio; Cavaletti, Guido

    2013-10-01

    Observations performed in a subset of subjects treated with finasteride (an inhibitor of the enzyme 5α-reductase) for male pattern hair loss seem to indicate that sexual dysfunction as well as anxious/depressive symptomatology may occur at the end of the treatment and continue after discontinuation. A possible hypothesis to explain depression symptoms after finasteride treatment might be impairment in the levels of neuroactive steroids. Therefore, neuroactive steroid levels were evaluated in paired plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained from male patients who received finasteride for the treatment of androgenic alopecia and who, after drug discontinuation, still show long-term sexual side effects as well as anxious/depressive symptomatology. The levels of neuroactive steroids were evaluated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in three postfinasteride patients and compared to those of five healthy controls. Neuroactive steroid levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of postfinasteride patients and healthy controls. At the examination, the three postfinasteride patients reported muscular stiffness, cramps, tremors, and chronic fatigue in the absence of clinical evidence of any muscular disorder or strength reduction. Severity and frequency of the anxious/depressive symptoms were quite variable; overall, all the subjects had a fairly complex and constant neuropsychiatric pattern. Assessment of neuroactive steroid levels in patients showed some interindividual differences. However, the most important finding was the comparison of their neuroactive steroid levels with those of healthy controls. Indeed, decreased levels of tetrahydroprogesterone, isopregnanolone and dihydrotestosterone and increased levels of testosterone and 17β-estradiol were reported in cerebrospinal fluid of postfinasteride patients. Moreover, decreased levels of dihydroprogesterone and increased levels of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and 17β-estradiol were observed in

  4. Comparing the discriminative stimuli produced by either the neuroactive steroid pregnanolone or the benzodiazepine midazolam in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiang; Gerak, Lisa R

    2011-03-01

    Neuroactive steroids might be therapeutic alternatives for benzodiazepines because they have similar anxiolytic, sedative, and anticonvulsant effects, and their actions at different modulatory sites on γ-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptors might confer differences in adverse effects. This study used drug discrimination to compare discriminative stimuli produced by positive GABA(A) modulators that vary in their site of action on GABA(A) receptors. Two groups of rats discriminated either 3.2 mg/kg of pregnanolone or 0.56 mg/kg of midazolam from vehicle while responding under a fixed ratio 10 schedule of food presentation. Pregnanolone, midazolam, and flunitrazepam produced ≥ 80% drug-lever responding in both groups; each drug was more potent in rats discriminating pregnanolone. Pentobarbital produced ≥ 80% drug-lever responding in all rats discriminating pregnanolone, and in 1/3 of the rats discriminating midazolam with larger doses decreasing response rates to <20% of control. Morphine and ketamine produced predominantly saline-lever responding in both groups. Flumazenil antagonized midazolam and flunitrazepam in both groups; slopes of Schild plots were not different from unity, and pA (2) values for flumazenil ranged from 5.86 to 6.09. Flumazenil did not attenuate the discriminative stimulus effects of pregnanolone. The midazolam and pregnanolone discriminative stimuli were qualitatively similar, although the effects of pentobarbital were not identical in the two groups. Although acute effects of midazolam and pregnanolone are similar, suggesting that neuroactive steroids might retain the therapeutic effects of benzodiazepines, differences emerge during chronic treatment, indicating that neuroactive steroids might produce fewer adverse effects than benzodiazepines.

  5. Sensitization of gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors to neuroactive steroids in rats during ethanol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaud, L L; Purdy, R H; Finn, D A; Morrow, A L

    1996-08-01

    The anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects of benzodiazepines, barbiturates, ethanol and neuroactive steroids are mediated by selective interactions with gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABA(A)) receptors. Chronic ethanol exposure decreases the sensitivity of GABA(A) receptors to benzodiazepines, barbiturates and ethanol. Ethanol withdrawing rats are cross-tolerant to the anticonvulsant effects of benzodiazepines as shown by a 16% decrease in the anticonvulsant efficacy of diazepam compared to controls. In contrast, ethanol withdrawing rats are sensitized to the anticonvulsant effects of the neuroactive steroid 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (3 alpha,5 alpha-THP), exhibiting a 46% increase in the anticonvulsant effect against bicuculline-induced seizures compared to control rats. This effect may involve a change in the sensitivity of GABA(A) receptors to 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP because potentiation of GABA(A) receptor mediated chloride uptake into cerebral cortical synaptoneurosomes is enhanced by 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP up to 50% in ethanol withdrawing rats compared to controls. 3 alpha,21-dihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (THDOC) potentiation of GABA(A) receptor-mediated chloride uptake is also enhanced during ethanol withdrawal. Moreover, the plasma levels of 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP and progesterone did not differ in ethanol withdrawing rats compared to controls. These alterations in neurosteroid sensitivity were also accompanied by selective alterations in cortical GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNA levels. Levels for the alpha 1 and alpha 4 subunit showed only slight alteration during withdrawal whereas we had previously observed a significant decrease in alpha 1 and a significant increase in alpha 4 mRNA levels in ethanol dependent (not withdrawing) animals. beta 2, beta and gamma 1 mRNA levels significantly increased during ethanol withdrawal. Taken together, these results suggest that ethanol withdrawal produces alterations in GABA(A) receptors that sensitize rats to the

  6. Comparison of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of neuroactive steroids with their brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve levels in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Donatella; Pesaresi, Marzia; Abbiati, Federico; Calabrese, Donato; Giatti, Silvia; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2013-10-01

    Physiological changes and pathological alterations in the nervous system of rodents are associated with modifications in the levels of neuroactive steroids in the brain, spinal cord and/or peripheral nerves. Measures of tissue levels of steroids in the nervous system present serious limitations for human studies and for longitudinal studies in animals. In this study we have explored whether levels of neuroactive steroids in plasma and the cerebrospinal fluid reflect their levels in neural tissues. To this aim, we have evaluated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry the levels of several neuroactive steroids in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, spinal cord and sciatic nerve of male and female rats. Data indicate that plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of steroids do not fully reflect their tissue levels. However, the interindividual variations in the levels of all the steroids assessed, with the exception of dehydroepiandrosterone, showed a positive correlation in plasma and cerebral cortex. Most steroids also showed a positive correlation in plasma and the cerebellum, the spinal cord and the sciatic nerve. In the hippocampus, the levels of tetrahydroprogesterone, testosterone and testosterone metabolites showed a significant positive correlation with their respective levels in plasma. The cerebrospinal fluid levels of some steroids, such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, showed a full correlation with tissue levels. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid levels of pregnenolone, progesterone, and 17β-estradiol showed a positive correlation with their corresponding levels in the majority of the neural structures analyzed. These findings suggest that the levels of some neuroactive steroids in cerebrospinal fluid as well as in plasma may be valuable to predict their levels in the nervous system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute and chronic effects of the synthetic neuroactive steroid, ganaxolone, against the convulsive and lethal effects of pentylenetetrazol in seizure-kindled mice : comparison with diazepam and valproate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasior, M; Ungard, JT; Beekman, M; Carter, RB; Witkin, JM

    2000-01-01

    A high-affinity positive modulator of the GABA, receptor complex, ganaxolone, is a 3 beta-methylated analog of the naturally occurring neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone. in the present study, ganaxolone was tested for its ability to (1) suppress seizures (clonic and tonic) and lethality induced

  8. Structure-activity relationship studies on neuroactive steroids in memory, alcohol and stress-related functions: a crucial benefit from endogenous level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Monique

    2014-09-01

    New research findings in the field of neuroactive steroids strongly suggest that to understand their role in physiopathology, it is essential to accurately measure their tissue levels. Through his broad chemical expertise and extensive knowledge of steroids, Dr. Robert H. Purdy pioneered structure-activity relationship studies on these compounds and developed innovative detection assays that are essential to assess their function in biological tissues. The goal of the present paper is to point out the specific contributions of Dr. Purdy and his collaborators to the current knowledge on the role of neuroactive steroids in the modulation of memory and alcohol- and stress-related effects with particular emphasis on the detection assays he developed to assess their endogenous levels. Reviewed here are the major results as well as the original and valuable methodological strategies issued by the long-term collaboration between Dr Purdy and many scientists worldwide on the investigation of the structure-activity relationship of neuroactive steroids. Altogether, the data presented herein put forward the original notion that knowledge of the chemical structure of steroids is essential for their detection and the understanding of their role in physiological and pathological conditions, including the stress response. The current challenge is to identify and quantify using appropriate methods neuroactive steroids in the context of both animal and clinical studies in order to reveal how their levels change under physiological and disease states. Dr. Purdy passed away in September 2012, but scientists all over the world will always be grateful for his pioneering work on steroid chemistry and for his great enthusiasm in research.

  9. Patients treated for male pattern hair with finasteride show, after discontinuation of the drug, altered levels of neuroactive steroids in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Donatella; Abbiati, Federico; Giatti, Silvia; Romano, Simone; Fusco, Letizia; Cavaletti, Guido; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2015-02-01

    Observations performed in a subset of patients treated for male pattern hair loss indicate that persistent sexual side effects as well as anxious/depressive symptomatology have been reported even after discontinuation of finasteride treatment. Due to the capability of finasteride to block the metabolism of progesterone (PROG) and/or testosterone (T) we have evaluated, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, the levels of several neuroactive steroids in paired plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from post-finasteride patients and in healthy controls. At the examination, post-finasteride patients reported muscular stiffness, cramps, tremors and chronic fatigue in the absence of clinical evidence of any muscular disorder or strength reduction. Although severity of the anxious/depressive symptoms was quite variable in their frequency, overall all the subjects had a fairly complex and constant neuropsychiatric pattern. Assessment of neuroactive steroid levels in CSF showed a decrease of PROG and its metabolites, dihydroprogesterone (DHP) and tetrahydroprogesterone (THP), associated with an increase of its precursor pregnenolone (PREG). Altered levels were also observed for T and its metabolites. Thus, a significant decrease of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) associated with an increase of T as well as of 3α-diol was detected. Changes in neuroactive steroid levels also occurred in plasma. An increase of PREG, T, 3α-diol, 3β-diol and 17β-estradiol was associated with decreased levels of DHP and THP. The present observations show that altered levels of neuroactive steroids, associated with depression symptoms, are present in androgenic alopecia patients even after discontinuation of the finasteride treatment. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Sex steroids and brain disorders'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Short-term exposure to a neuroactive steroid increases α4 GABAA receptor subunit levels in association with increased anxiety in the female rat

    OpenAIRE

    Gulinello, M.; Gong, Q. H.; Li, X.; Smith, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    Previous work from this laboratory has demonstrated that withdrawal from the neuroactive steroid 3α,5α-THP (3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one) after 3-week exposure to its parent compound, progesterone (P), increases anxiety and produces benzodiazepine (BDZ) insensitivity in female rats. These events were linked to upregulation of the α4 subunit of the GABAA receptor (GABAR) in the hippocampus [Brain Res. 507 (1998) 91; Nature 392 (1998) 926; J. Neurosci. 18 (1998) 5275]. The present study investi...

  11. Using drug combinations to assess potential contributions of non-GABAA receptors in the discriminative stimulus effects of the neuroactive steroid pregnanolone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppolito, Amy K; Kodeih, Hanna R; Gerak, Lisa R

    2014-10-01

    Neuroactive steroids are increasingly implicated in the development of depression and anxiety and have been suggested as possible treatments for these disorders. While neuroactive steroids, such as pregnanolone, act primarily at γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptors, other mechanisms might contribute to their behavioral effects and could increase their clinical effectiveness, as compared with drugs acting exclusively at GABAA receptors (e.g., benzodiazepines). The current study examined the role of non-GABAA receptors, including N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and serotonin3 (5-HT3) receptors, in the discriminative stimulus effects of pregnanolone. Separate groups of rats discriminated either 3.2mg/kg pregnanolone from vehicle or 0.32mg/kg of the benzodiazepine midazolam from vehicle while responding under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule for food pellets. When administered alone in both groups, pregnanolone and midazolam produced ≥80% drug-lever responding, the NMDA receptor antagonists dizocilpine and phencyclidine produced ≥60 and ≥30% drug-lever responding, respectively, and the 5-HT3 receptor agonist 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide (CPBG) and morphine produced <20% drug-lever responding up to doses that markedly decreased response rates. When studied together, neither dizocilpine, phencyclidine, CPBG nor morphine significantly altered the midazolam dose-effect curve in either group. Given that CPBG is without effect, it is unlikely that 5-HT3 receptors contribute substantially to the discriminative stimulus effects of pregnanolone. Similarities across groups in effects of dizocilpine and phencyclidine suggest that NMDA receptors do not differentially contribute to the effects of pregnanolone. Thus, NMDA and 5-HT3 receptors are not involved in the discriminative stimulus effects of pregnanolone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Short-term exposure to a neuroactive steroid increases alpha4 GABA(A) receptor subunit levels in association with increased anxiety in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulinello, M; Gong, Q H; Li, X; Smith, S S

    2001-08-10

    Previous work from this laboratory has demonstrated that withdrawal from the neuroactive steroid 3alpha,5alpha-THP (3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one) after 3-week exposure to its parent compound, progesterone (P), increases anxiety and produces benzodiazepine (BDZ) insensitivity in female rats. These events were linked to upregulation of the alpha4 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor (GABAR) in the hippocampus [Brain Res. 507 (1998) 91; Nature 392 (1998) 926; J. Neurosci. 18 (1998) 5275]. The present study investigates the role of shorter term hormone treatment on alpha4 subunit levels as well as relevant behavioral and pharmacological end-points related to GABAR function. After 2-3 days of P exposure, two- to threefold increases in alpha4 protein levels were observed, which declined to control values after 5-6 days of hormone exposure. This effect was due to the GABA-modulatory metabolite of P, 3alpha,5alpha-THP. alpha4 upregulation was inversely correlated with BDZ potentiation of GABA-gated current, assessed using whole cell patch clamp techniques on acutely isolated hippocampal pyramidal cells. A near total BDZ insensitivity was observed by 2-3 days of hormone exposure in association with the maximal increase in alpha4 levels. Up-regulation of the alpha4 GABAR subunit was also reflected by an increase in anxiety in the elevated plus maze. A significant decrease in open arm entries was observed after 72-h exposure to P, an effect which recovered by 6 days of P treatment. As demonstrated in vitro, alpha4 upregulation also resulted in a relative insensitivity to the anxiolytic actions of BDZ. These results suggest that short-term exposure to 3alpha,5alpha-THP produces changes in GABAR subunit composition similar to those that occur after chronic exposure and withdrawal from the steroid.

  13. Short-term exposure to a neuroactive steroid increases α4 GABAA receptor subunit levels in association with increased anxiety in the female rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulinello, M.; Gong, Q.H.; Li, X.; Smith, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work from this laboratory has demonstrated that withdrawal from the neuroactive steroid 3α,5α-THP (3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one) after 3-week exposure to its parent compound, progesterone (P), increases anxiety and produces benzodiazepine (BDZ) insensitivity in female rats. These events were linked to upregulation of the α4 subunit of the GABAA receptor (GABAR) in the hippocampus [Brain Res. 507 (1998) 91; Nature 392 (1998) 926; J. Neurosci. 18 (1998) 5275]. The present study investigates the role of shorter term hormone treatment on α4 subunit levels as well as relevant behavioral and pharmacological end-points related to GABAR function. After 2–3 days of P exposure, two- to threefold increases in α4 protein levels were observed, which declined to control values after 5–6 days of hormone exposure. This effect was due to the GABA-modulatory metabolite of P, 3α,5α-THP. α4 upregulation was inversely correlated with BDZ potentiation of GABA-gated current, assessed using whole cell patch clamp techniques on acutely isolated hippocampal pyramidal cells. A near total BDZ insensitivity was observed by 2–3 days of hormone exposure in association with the maximal increase in α4 levels. Up-regulation of the α4 GABAR subunit was also reflected by an increase in anxiety in the elevated plus maze. A significant decrease in open arm entries was observed after 72-h exposure to P, an effect which recovered by 6 days of P treatment. As demonstrated in vitro, α4 upregulation also resulted in a relative insensitivity to the anxiolytic actions of BDZ. These results suggest that short-term exposure to 3α,5α-THP produces changes in GABAR subunit composition similar to those that occur after chronic exposure and withdrawal from the steroid. PMID:11489254

  14. Withdrawal properties of a neuroactive steroid: implications for GABA(A) receptor gene regulation in the brain and anxiety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sheryl S

    2002-05-01

    Early work in the field established that the 5 alpha-reduced metabolite of progesterone 3 alpha-OH-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (allopregnanolone or 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP) is a potent positive modulator of the GABA(A) receptor (GABAR), the receptor mediating the effects of the primary inhibitory transmitter in the brain. This steroid acts in a manner similar to sedative drugs, such as the barbiturates, both in terms of potentiating GABA-induced inhibition in vitro and in behavioral assays, by reducing anxiety and seizure susceptibility. Because sedative compounds exhibit withdrawal properties that result in behavioral hyperexcitability, our laboratory has more recently investigated the effect of prolonged application and rapid removal (i.e. 'withdrawal') of this steroid, administered in vivo to female rats. Withdrawal from 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP produces a state of increased anxiety and lowered seizure threshold, similar to withdrawal from other GABA-modulatory drugs such as the benzodiazepines and alcohol. Hormone withdrawal also produced increases in the alpha 4-containing GABAR, an effect correlated with insensitivity of the GABAR to modulation by the benzodiazepine class of tranquilizers, as would normally occur under control conditions. In addition, changes in intrinsic channel properties, including a marked acceleration in the decay rate was also observed as a result of declining levels of 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP. Such a change would result in less inhibitory total current, and the resulting increase in neuronal excitability could then underlie the observed behavioral excitability following hormone withdrawal. These results suggest that actions of this steroid on a traditional transmitter receptor in the brain lead to alterations in GABAR subunit composition that result in changes in the intrinsic channel properties of the receptor and behavioral excitability. These results may have implications for endogenous fluctuations in this hormone which may accompany premenstrual

  15. Voluntary ethanol consumption reduces GABAergic neuroactive steroid (3α,5α)3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP) in the amygdala of the cynomolgus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Matthew C; Maldonado-Devincci, Antoniette M; Porcu, Patrizia; O'Buckley, Todd K; Daunais, James B; Grant, Kathleen A; Morrow, A Leslie

    2017-03-01

    Neuroactive steroids such as (3α,5α)3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP, allopregnanolone) enhance the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic effects of ethanol and modulate excessive drinking in rodents. Moreover, chronic ethanol consumption reduces 3α,5α-THP levels in human plasma, rat hippocampus and mouse limbic regions. We explored the relationship between 3α,5α-THP levels in limbic brain areas and voluntary ethanol consumption in the cynomolgus monkey following daily self-administration of ethanol for 12 months and further examined the relationship to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function prior to ethanol exposure. Monkeys were subjected to scheduled induction of ethanol consumption followed by free access to ethanol or water for 22 h/day over 12 months. Immunohistochemistry was performed using an anti-3α,5α-THP antibody. Prolonged voluntary drinking resulted in individual differences in ethanol consumption that ranged from 1.2 to 4.2 g/kg/day over 12 months. Prolonged ethanol consumption reduced cellular 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity by 13 ± 2 percent (P amygdala and 17 ± 2 percent (P amygdala. The effect of ethanol was most pronounced in heavy drinkers that consumed ≥3 g/kg ≥ 20 percent of days. Consequently, 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity in both the lateral and basolateral amygdala was inversely correlated with average daily ethanol intake (Spearman r = -0.87 and -0.72, respectively, P amygdala. 3α,5α-THP immunoreactivity following ethanol exposure was also correlated with HPA axis function prior to ethanol exposure. These data indicate that voluntary ethanol drinking reduces amygdala levels of 3α,5α-THP in non-human primates and that amygdala 3α,5α-THP levels may be linked to HPA axis function. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Blunted neuroactive steroid and HPA axis responses to stress are associated with reduced sleep quality and negative affect in pregnancy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Shannon K; O'Buckley, Todd K; Schiller, Crystal E; Stuebe, Alison; Morrow, A Leslie; Girdler, Susan S

    2016-04-01

    Anxiety during pregnancy has been linked to adverse maternal health outcomes, including postpartum depression (PPD). However, there has been limited study of biological mechanisms underlying behavioral predictors of PPD during pregnancy. Considering the shared etiology of chronic stress amongst antenatal behavioral predictors, the primary goal of this pilot study was to examine associations among stress-related physiological factors (including GABA-ergic neurosteroids) and stress-related behavioral indices of anxiety during pregnancy. Fourteen nulliparous women in their second trimester of a singleton pregnancy underwent speech and mental arithmetic stress, following a 2-week subjective and objective recording of sleep-wake behavior. Lower cortisol, progesterone, and a combined measure of ALLO + pregnanolone throughout the entire stressor protocol (area under the curve, AUC) were associated with greater negative emotional responses to stress, and lower cortisol AUC was associated with worse sleep quality. Lower adrenocorticotropic hormone was associated with greater anxious and depressive symptoms. Stress produced paradoxical reductions in cortisol, progesterone, and a combined measure of allopregnanolone + pregnanolone, while tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone levels were elevated. These data suggest that cortisol, progesterone, and ALLO + pregnanolone levels in the second trimester of pregnancy are inversely related to negative emotional symptoms, and the negative impact of acute stress challenge appears to exert its effects by reducing these steroids to further promote negative emotional responses.

  17. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from high school to the pros — are testing athletes for steroid use, there's a good chance the person will get caught. Then, he or she will face a lot of embarrassment and could be banned ... achievements the athlete made while on steroids could be questioned. Someone ...

  18. Circulating steroids negatively correlate with tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrbolka, Pavel; Palúch, Zoltán; Hill, Martin; Alušík, Štefan

    2017-07-01

    While not a disease entity in itself; symptoms of tinnitus (from Latin tinnio - clink) accompany a number of diseases. Tinnitus prevalence increases with age, deteriorates one's quality of life, and may even result in suicidal behavior. Tinnitus develops in response to a variety of risk factors, otoxic substances, noise exposure, hearing disorders, and psychological alterations. Tinnitus is closely related to mood, depression, and psychological state. In the present study, we focused on alterations of the steroid metabolome and particularly neuroactive, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory steroids in patients with tinnitus. The study group consisted of 28 patients without evidence of an organic cause of tinnitus as well as without associated diseases or the effect of ototoxic medications. All patients underwent a complete audiological assessment and laboratory tests including routine biochemical markers and quantification of circulating steroids using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassays. To rule out a pathology in the cerebellopontine angle area, CT scan or MRI were performed. To diagnose stem lesions, evoked potentials were also measured. Pearson's correlations and multivariate regression were used to assess any links between tinnitus intensity and frequency on the one hand, and steroid levels on the other. Results indicated a significant and consistent negative correlation between tinnitus indices and intensity of adrenal steroidogenesis. The circulating steroid metabolome including hormones and neuroactive, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory steroids negatively correlates with the degree of tinnitus due to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis malfunction. Our results may help explain the pathophysiology of tinnitus and improve its diagnosis. However, further studies are needed to verify our postulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Steroids in childhood epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandrannair Rajesh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of epileptic encephalopathies can be very challenging as most anticonvulsant drugs fail to achieve good seizure control. Steroids are disease modifying as well as anticonvulsant in these conditions. Though steroids are accepted as the first-line treatment for infantile spasms, there are many unanswered questions with regard to the preparation, dose and duration of treatment. In this review a re-exploration of the literature is attempted. Putative mechanism of action of steroids in infantile spasms is also discussed. As steroids are being increasingly used in other epileptic encephalopathies and Rasmussen′s encephalitis, a brief discussion on the role of steroids in these conditions is attempted. The review ends with the discussion on newer neuroactive steroids in the management of epilepsy.

  20. Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome with a Neuroactive Steroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Revised ( ADI -R) (Rutter et al. 2003a) which is a standardized, semi-structured, investigator-based interview for caregivers of individuals with autism...at death (years) PMI (h) Cause of death Case 1 FXS 23 16 Cardiac arrest Case 2 FXS 57 20 Choking on food Case 3 FXS 64 12 Liver neoplasm Case 4 FXS...22, 409–417. Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A. & Lord, C. (2003a) Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised ( ADI -R). Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles

  1. Differential change in neuroactive steroid sensitivity during ethanol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, D A; Gallaher, E J; Crabbe, J C

    2000-01-01

    The progesterone metabolite 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-P or allopregnanolone) is a potent positive modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptors. Although it is well documented that chronic ethanol (EtOH) administration produces cross-tolerance to the positive modulatory effect of benzodiazepines and GABA at GABA(A) receptors, recent findings suggest that sensitivity to 3alpha,5alpha-P is enhanced during EtOH withdrawal. In addition, EtOH-naive inbred strains of mice, which differ in EtOH withdrawal severity (DBA/2 > C57BL/6), had marked differences in behavioral sensitivity to 3alpha,5alpha-P. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine whether C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2 (D2) mice would be differentially sensitive to several of the pharmacological effects of 3alpha,5alpha-P during EtOH withdrawal. Male mice were exposed to EtOH vapor or air for 72 h. During withdrawal from EtOH, animals were injected with 3alpha,5alpha-P (0, 3.2, 10, or 17 mg/kg i.p.) and tested for activity and anxiolysis on the elevated plus maze, muscle relaxation, ataxia, and seizure protection following pentylenetetrazol. Sensitivity to the anticonvulsant effect of 3alpha,5alpha-P was enhanced during EtOH withdrawal in B6, but not D2 mice. In contrast, sensitivity to the muscle relaxant effects of 3alpha,5alpha-P was reduced in EtOH-withdrawing B6 and D2 mice, with a suggestion of decreased sensitivity to the anxiolytic effect of 3alpha,5alpha-P during EtOH withdrawal in B6. These results suggest that sensitization to the anticonvulsant effect of 3alpha,5alpha-P during EtOH withdrawal does not generalize across all genotypes nor does it generalize to all of the pharmacological effects of 3alpha,5alpha-P.

  2. Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome with a Neuroactive Steroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    but levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase, the rate limiting enzyme for GABA synthesis , in brain are mixed (El Idrissi et al. 2009; Olmos-Serrano...stimulation-induced synapse-associated protein synthesis and subsequent alpha-amino-3- hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4- propionate (AMPA) receptor...neurotransmission and deficits in synaptic plasticity. The use of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) blockers and gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA

  3. Adolescent Steroid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

  4. Effects of GABA active steroids in the female brain with focus on the premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixo, Marie; Johansson, Maja; Timby, Erika; Michalski, Louise; Bäckström, Torbjörn

    2017-10-26

    PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) afflicts 3-5% of women of childbearing age, and is characterized by recurrent negative mood symptoms, e.g. irritability, depression, anxiety and emotional lability during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The etiology of PMDD is unknown, but a temporal association with circulating ovarian steroids, in particular progesterone and its metabolite allopregnanolone, during the luteal phase has been established. Allopregnanolone is a positive modulator of the GABAA receptor: it is sedative in high concentrations, but may precipitate paradoxical adverse effects on mood at levels corresponding to luteal phase concentrations in susceptible women. Saccadic eye velocity (SEV) is a measure of GABAA receptor sensitivity; in experimental studies of healthy women, intravenous allopregnanolone decreases SEV. Women with PMDD display an altered sensitivity to an intravenous injection of allopregnanolone in comparison with healthy controls in this model. In fMRI studies, women with PMDD react differently to emotional stimuli in contrast with controls. A consistent finding in PMDD patients is increased amygdala reactivity during the luteal phase. Post-mortem studies in humans have revealed that allopregnanolone concentrations vary across different brain regions, but mean levels in the brain also reflect variations in peripheral serum concentrations. The amygdala processes emotions such as anxiety and aggression, which is interesting since allopregnanolone is detected at high concentrations within the region into which marked increases in blood flow are measured with fMRI following progesterone/allopregnanolone administration. Allopregnanolone effects are antagonized by its isomer isoallopregnanolone (UC1010), which significantly reduces negative mood symptoms in women with PMDD when administered subcutaneously in the premenstrual phase. This was shown in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial in which the primary outcome was

  5. Inhaled Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Long-Term Control Medications Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...

  6. The effects of smoking on steroid metabolism and fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dušková, M; Hruškovičová, H; Šimůnková, K; Stárka, L; Pařízek, A

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco addiction is a serious psychosocial and health problem. A pregnant woman who smokes not only influences the maternal organism, but also passes health risks on to the unborn child. A fetus exposed to maternal smoking is not only directly influenced, but is also endangered by a wide range of diseases up to his or her adult years. The components of tobacco smoke play a significant role in the development of a number of diseases for a large proportion of the smoking population, as well as among those pregnant. This article summarizes findings regarding the impacts on the production of steroid hormones - first describing the smoking-related changes in steroidogenesis in women, and then focusing on the influence of maternal smoking on the fetus's developing steroidogenesis. We assume that if during prenatal development the fetus has already been exposed to the effect of endocrine disruptors at the time fetal steroidogenesis begins fetal programming, this exposure can have serious pathophysiological effects both in the pregnancy as well as later in life. An example of such effects might be a delay in the creation of kidney adrenal androgens, which could also be evident on the level of steroid neuroactive metabolites that may influence the individual's psychological state and lead to later addictions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Neuroactive Peptides as Putative Mediators of Antiepileptic Ketogenic Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Carmela; Marchiò, Maddalena; Timofeeva, Elena; Biagini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Various ketogenic diet (KD) therapies, including classic KD, medium chain triglyceride administration, low glycemic index treatment, and a modified Atkins diet, have been suggested as useful in patients affected by pharmacoresistant epilepsy. A common goal of these approaches is to achieve an adequate decrease in the plasma glucose level combined with ketogenesis, in order to mimic the metabolic state of fasting. Although several metabolic hypotheses have been advanced to explain the anticonvulsant effect of KDs, including changes in the plasma levels of ketone bodies, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and brain pH, direct modulation of neurotransmitter release, especially purinergic (i.e., adenosine) and γ-aminobutyric acidergic neurotransmission, was also postulated. Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are potent modulators of synaptic activity, and their levels are regulated by metabolic states. This is the case for neuroactive peptides such as neuropeptide Y, galanin, cholecystokinin, and peptide hormones such as leptin, adiponectin, and growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs). In particular, the GHRP ghrelin and its related peptide des-acyl ghrelin are well-known controllers of energy homeostasis, food intake, and lipid metabolism. Notably, ghrelin has also been shown to regulate the neuronal excitability and epileptic activation of neuronal networks. Several lines of evidence suggest that GHRPs are upregulated in response to starvation and, particularly, in patients affected by anorexia and cachexia, all conditions in which also ketone bodies are upregulated. Moreover, starvation and anorexia nervosa are accompanied by changes in other peptide hormones such as adiponectin, which has received less attention. Adipocytokines such as adiponectin have also been involved in modulating epileptic activity. Thus, neuroactive peptides whose plasma levels and activity change in the presence of ketogenesis might be potential candidates for elucidating the neurohormonal

  8. The role of sex steroids in catamenial epilepsy and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: Implications for diagnosis and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guille, Constance; Spencer, Susan; Cavus, Idil; Epperson, C. Neill

    2014-01-01

    Despite our understanding of hormonal influences on central nervous system (CNS) function, there is still much to learn about the pathogenesis of menstrual cycle-linked disorders. A growing literature suggests that the influence of sex steroids on neurological and psychiatric disorders is in part mediated by an aberrant CNS response to neuroactive steroids. Although sex steroids such as estradiol, progesterone, and the progesterone derivative allopregnanolone (ALLO) influence numerous neurotransmitter systems, it is their potent effect on the brain's primary inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters γ aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate that links the study of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and catamenial epilepsy (CE). After providing an overview of these menstrual cycle-linked disorders, this article focuses on the preclinical and clinical research investigating the role of estradiol and progesterone (via ALLO) in the etiology of PMDD and CE. Through exploration of the phenomenological and neurobiological overlap between CE and PMDD, we aim to highlight areas for future research and development of treatments for menstrual cycle-linked neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:18346939

  9. Neuroactive peptides as putative mediators of antiepileptic ketogenic diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela eGiordano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Various ketogenic diet (KD therapies, including classic KD, medium chain triglyceride administration, low glycemic index treatment, and a modified Atkins diet, have been suggested as useful in patients affected by pharmacoresistant epilepsy. A common goal of these approaches is to achieve an adequate decrease in the plasma glucose level combined with ketogenesis, in order to mimic the metabolic state of fasting. Although several metabolic hypotheses have been advanced to explain the anticonvulsant effect of KDs, including changes in the plasma levels of ketone bodies, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and brain pH, direct modulation of neurotransmitter release, especially purinergic (i.e., adenosine and γ-aminobutyric acidergic neurotransmission, was also postulated. Neuropeptides and peptide hormones are potent modulators of synaptic activity, and their levels are regulated by metabolic states. This is the case for neuroactive peptides such as neuropeptide Y, galanin, cholecystokinin and peptide hormones such as leptin, adiponectin, and growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs. In particular, the GHRP ghrelin and its related peptide des-acyl ghrelin are well-known controllers of energy homeostasis, food intake, and lipid metabolism. Notably, ghrelin has also been shown to regulate the neuronal excitability and epileptic activation of neuronal networks. Several lines of evidence suggest that GHRPs are upregulated in response to starvation and, particularly, in patients affected by anorexia and cachexia, all conditions in which also ketone bodies are upregulated. Moreover, starvation and anorexia nervosa are accompanied by changes in other peptide hormones such as adiponectin, which has received less attention. Adipocytokines such as adiponectin have also been involved in modulating epileptic activity. Thus, neuroactive peptides whose plasma levels and activity change in the presence of ketogenesis might be potential candidates for elucidating the

  10. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma Medications Quick-Relief Medications Oral Steroids Oral Steroids Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

  11. Steroidal Saponins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

    The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

  12. Steroid biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrath, Clemens; Wudy, Stefan A; Krone, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Accurate analysis of steroid hormones represents an essential part in the evaluation of a patient with disorders or differences in sex development. Analytical methods based on mass spectrometry (MS) have become the state-of-the-art methodology allowing for the most specific qualitative and quantitative determination of steroid hormones and their metabolites. Liquid chromatography linked with tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) allows for rapid as well as highly specific and sensitive targeted steroid hormone analysis of multiple analytes from a single sample. Urinary steroid profile analysis by gas chromatography (GC)-MS is a non-invasive diagnostic approach and provides qualitative and quantitative data on the global excretion of steroid hormone metabolites. GC-MS remains the most powerful discovery tool for defining inborn errors of steroidogenesis, whereas LC-MS/MS represents a highly sensitive and specific method for targeted steroid hormone analysis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Steroid osteopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible.

  14. Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using them this way is not legal or safe. Abuse of anabolic steroids has been linked with many health problems. They include Acne Breast growth and shrinking of testicles in men Voice deepening ...

  15. Campania Preventability Assessment Committee (Italy): A Focus on the Preventability of Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs' Adverse Drug Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Sessa; Liberata Sportiello; Annamaria Mascolo; Cristina Scavone; Silvia Gallipoli; Gabriella di Mauro; Daniela Cimmaruta; Concetta Rafaniello; Annalisa Capuano

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate preventability criteria of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) involving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by analyzing individual case safety reports (ICSRs) sent through Campania region (Italy) spontaneous reporting system from July 2012 to October 2016. Methods: For all the ICSRs that reported NSAIDs as suspected drug, a trained multidisciplinary team of Campania Pharmacovigilance Regional Centre composed of clinical pharmacologists and pha...

  16. Designer steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic steroids have been studied for over 50 years and during that time numerous compounds with a variety of functional groups have been produced and many have been published. Of these only a small number have been introduced to the pharmaceutical market. WADA has continued the work begun by the IOC banning the use of these agents within sport as performance enhancing substances. Athletes, however, continue to use these anabolic steroids but tighter testing and the introduction of unannounced sample collection has made this form of cheating harder.In order to try to evade detection, athletes who continue to dope are having to resort to the use of a far more dangerous form of drug - the designer steroid. These steroids are manufactured to closely resemble existing known compounds, but with sufficient chemical diversity to ensure that their detection by the WADA accredited laboratories is more difficult. A worrying feature of the use of these compounds is that no data is available to evaluate either the efficacy or the safety of these substances. Many such drugs are now being made in clandestine ways (as demonstrated by the recent BALCO case) and then passed on to athletes who become the guinea pigs determining the potential of the substances as doping agents.Methods for the detection of these new compounds are being developed using emerging techniques such as gas chromatography or liquid chromatography attached to a variety of mass spectrometry instruments. This technology as well as vigilance by laboratories and enforcement agencies can all help in early detection of designer steroids being used for doping.

  17. In-stream attenuation of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and their metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, Jeffrey; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Ferrar, Imma; Ryan, Joseph N.; Thurman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In-stream attenuation was determined for 14 neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated metabolites. Lagrangian sampling, which follows a parcel of water as it moves downstream, was used to link hydrological and chemical transformation processes. Wastewater loading of neuro-active compounds varied considerably over a span of several hours, and thus a sampling regime was used to verify that the Lagrangian parcel was being sampled and a mechanism was developed to correct measured concentrations if it was not. In-stream attenuation over the 5.4-km evaluated reach could be modeled as pseudo-first-order decay for 11 of the 14 evaluated neuro-active pharmaceutical compounds, illustrating the capacity of streams to reduce conveyance of neuro-active compounds downstream. Fluoxetine and N-desmethyl citalopram were the most rapidly attenuated compounds (t1/2 = 3.6 ± 0.3 h, 4.0 ± 0.2 h, respectively). Lamotrigine, 10,11,-dihydro-10,11,-dihydroxy-carbamazepine, and carbamazepine were the most persistent (t1/2 = 12 ± 2.0 h, 12 ± 2.6 h, 21 ± 4.5 h, respectively). Parent compounds (e.g., buproprion, carbamazepine, lamotrigine) generally were more persistent relative to their metabolites. Several compounds (citalopram, venlafaxine, O-desmethyl-venlafaxine) were not attenuated. It was postulated that the primary mechanism of removal for these compounds was interaction with bed sediments and stream biofilms, based on measured concentrations in stream biofilms and a column experiment using stream sediments.

  18. In-stream attenuation of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and their metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, Jeffrey H; Antweiler, Ronald C; Ferrer, Imma; Ryan, Joseph N; Thurman, E Michael

    2013-09-03

    In-stream attenuation was determined for 14 neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated metabolites. Lagrangian sampling, which follows a parcel of water as it moves downstream, was used to link hydrological and chemical transformation processes. Wastewater loading of neuro-active compounds varied considerably over a span of several hours, and thus a sampling regime was used to verify that the Lagrangian parcel was being sampled and a mechanism was developed to correct measured concentrations if it was not. In-stream attenuation over the 5.4-km evaluated reach could be modeled as pseudo-first-order decay for 11 of the 14 evaluated neuro-active pharmaceutical compounds, illustrating the capacity of streams to reduce conveyance of neuro-active compounds downstream. Fluoxetine and N-desmethyl citalopram were the most rapidly attenuated compounds (t1/2 = 3.6 ± 0.3 h, 4.0 ± 0.2 h, respectively). Lamotrigine, 10,11,-dihydro-10,11,-dihydroxy-carbamazepine, and carbamazepine were the most persistent (t1/2 = 12 ± 2.0 h, 12 ± 2.6 h, 21 ± 4.5 h, respectively). Parent compounds (e.g., buproprion, carbamazepine, lamotrigine) generally were more persistent relative to their metabolites. Several compounds (citalopram, venlafaxine, O-desmethyl-venlafaxine) were not attenuated. It was postulated that the primary mechanism of removal for these compounds was interaction with bed sediments and stream biofilms, based on measured concentrations in stream biofilms and a column experiment using stream sediments.

  19. Widespread occurrence of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and metabolites in 24 Minnesota rivers and wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, Jeffrey; Ferrer, Imma; Barber, Larry B.; Thurman, E. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of 17 neuro-active pharmaceuticals and their major metabolites (bupropion, hydroxy-bupropion, erythro-hydrobupropion, threo-hydrobupropion, carbamazepine, 10,11,-dihydro-10,11,-dihydroxycarbamazepine, 10-hydroxy-carbamazepine, citalopram, N-desmethyl-citalopram, fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, 2-N-glucuronide-lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, venlafaxine and O-desmethyl-venlafaxine), were measured in treated wastewater and receiving surface waters from 24 locations across Minnesota, USA. The analysis of upstream and downstream sampling sites indicated that the wastewater treatment plants were the major source of the neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated metabolites in surface waters of Minnesota. Concentrations of parent compound and the associated metabolite varied substantially between treatment plants (concentrations ± standard deviation of the parent compound relative to its major metabolite) as illustrated by the following examples; bupropion and hydrobupropion 700 ± 1000 ng L−1, 2100 ± 1700 ng L−1, carbamazepine and 10-hydroxy-carbamazepine 480 ± 380 ng L−1, 360 ± 400 ng L−1, venlafaxine and O-desmethyl-venlafaxine 1400 ± 1300 ng L−1, 1800 ± 2300 ng L−1. Metabolites of the neuro-active compounds were commonly found at higher or comparable concentrations to the parent compounds in wastewater effluent and the receiving surface water. Neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated metabolites were detected only sporadically in samples upstream from the effluent outfall. Metabolite to parent ratios were used to evaluate transformation, and we determined that ratios in wastewater were much lower than those reported in urine, indicating that the metabolites are relatively more labile than the parent compounds in the treatment plants and in receiving waters. The widespread occurrence of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and metabolites in Minnesota effluents and surface waters indicate that

  20. Marked elevation of adrenal steroids, especially androgens, in saliva of prepubertal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Hill, Martin; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Bieńkowski, Przemysław; Namysłowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2014-06-01

    Autism is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral manifestations, but its biomarkers are not well defined. A strong gender bias typifying autism (it is 4-5 times more prevalent in males) suggests involvement of steroid hormones in autism pathobiology. In order to evaluate the potential roles of such hormones in autism, we compared the salivary levels of 22 steroids in prepubertal autistic male and female children from two age groups (3-4 and 7-9 years old) with those in healthy controls. The steroids were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) revealed that autistic children had significantly higher salivary concentrations of many steroid hormones (both C21 and C19) than control children. These anomalies were more prominent in older autistic children and in boys. The levels of androgens (androstenediol, dehydroepiandrosterone, androsterone and their polar conjugates) were especially increased, indicative of precocious adrenarche and predictive of early puberty. The concentrations of the steroid precursor, pregnenolone, and of several pregnanolones were also higher in autistic than in healthy children, but cortisol levels were not different. Some steroids, whose levels are raised in autism (allopregnanolone, androsterone, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and their sulfate conjugates) are neuroactive and modulate GABA, glutamate, and opioid neurotransmission, affecting brain development and functioning. These steroids may contribute to autism pathobiology and symptoms such as elevated anxiety, sleep disturbances, sensory deficits, and stereotypies among others. We suggest that salivary levels of selected steroids may serve as biomarkers of autism pathology useful for monitoring the progress of therapy.

  1. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND DEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IHSAN SARI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are used for sportive, cosmetic, therapeutic and occupational reasons and there are many side effects reported (George, 2005; Nieminen et al., 1996; O'Sullivan et al., 2000. Prevalence of anabolic steroids’ use also indicates the importance of this topic. Moreover, it is now known that use of anabolic steroids could lead to dependence which could be psychological or/and physiological (Copeland et al., 2000. It isimportant to know about all aspects of anabolic steroids including dependence. Therefore, this study has attempted to give an insight into use of anabolic steroids and dependence. The discussion will focus on prevalence, reasons, and side effects of use and physiological and psychological dependence

  2. Campania Preventability Assessment Committee (Italy: A Focus on the Preventability of Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs' Adverse Drug Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Sessa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to investigate preventability criteria of adverse drug reactions (ADRs involving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs by analyzing individual case safety reports (ICSRs sent through Campania region (Italy spontaneous reporting system from July 2012 to October 2016.Methods: For all the ICSRs that reported NSAIDs as suspected drug, a trained multidisciplinary team of Campania Pharmacovigilance Regional Centre composed of clinical pharmacologists and pharmacists with pluriannual experience in Pharmacovigilance assessed preventability by using the P-method.Results: In all 19,039 ICSRs were sent to Campania Pharmacovigilance Regional Centre, of which 550 reported NSAIDs as suspected drug. In total, 94 cases (17.1% out of 550 ICSRs were preventable. In the 94 preventable cases, 201 critical criteria were detected of which 182/201 (90.5% related to healthcare professionals' practices, 0/201 (0.0% to drug quality, and 19/201 (9.5% to patient behavior. The most detected critical criteria were the necessary medication not given (52/182; 28.6%, labeled drug–drug interaction (36/182; 19.7%, incorrect drug administration duration (31/182; 16.9%, wrong indication (26/182; 14.2%, therapeutic duplication (18/182; 10.0%, and documented hypersensitivity to administered drug or drug class (10/182; 5.6%. In seventeen (18.1% preventable cases, there were 19 critical criteria involving non-compliance (15/19 critical criteria; 78.9% and self-medication with the non-over-the-counter drugs (4/19 critical criteria; 21.1%. In all, 17 out 94 (18.1% preventable cases involved over-the-counter drugs.Conclusion: A call for action for Campania Pharmacovigilance Regional Centre is necessary in order to promote initiatives to increase the awareness of healthcare professionals and citizens on the risk associated with inappropriate use of NSAIDs.

  3. Identification of Marine Neuroactive Molecules in Behaviour-Based Screens in the Larval Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Mei Long

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput behavior-based screen in zebrafish is a powerful approach for the discovery of novel neuroactive small molecules for treatment of nervous system diseases such as epilepsy. To identify neuroactive small molecules, we first screened 36 compounds (1–36 derived from marine natural products xyloketals and marine isoprenyl phenyl ether obtained from the mangrove fungus. Compound 1 demonstrated the most potent inhibition on the locomotor activity in larval zebrafish. Compounds 37–42 were further synthesized and their potential anti-epilepsy action was then examined in a PTZ-induced epilepsy model in zebrafish. Compound 1 and compounds 39, 40 and 41 could significantly attenuate PTZ-induced locomotor hyperactivity and elevation of c-fos mRNA in larval zebrafish. Compound 40 showed the most potent inhibitory action against PTZ-induced hyperactivity. The structure-activity analysis showed that the OH group at 12-position played a critical role and the substituents at the 13-position were well tolerated in the inhibitory activity of xyloketal derivatives. Thus, these derivatives may provide some novel drug candidates for the treatment of epilepsy.

  4. Neuropeptide changes and neuroactive amino acids in CSF from humans and sheep with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs, Batten disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Graham W; Verbeek, Marcel M; Furlong, Julie M; Willemsen, Michèl A A P; Palmer, David N

    2009-12-01

    Anomalies in neuropeptides and neuroactive amino acids have been postulated to play a role in neurodegeneration in a variety of diseases including the inherited neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs, Batten disease). These are often indicated by concentration changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Here we compare CSF neuropeptide concentrations in patients with the classical juvenile CLN3 form of NCL and the classical late infantile CLN2 form with neuropeptide and neuroactive amino acid concentrations in CSF from sheep with the late infantile variant CLN6 form. A marked disease related increase in CSF concentrations of neuron specific enolase and tau protein was noted in the juvenile CLN3 patients but this was not observed in an advanced CLN2 patient nor CLN6 affected sheep. No changes were noted in S-100b, GFAP or MBP in patients or of S-100b, GFAP or IGF-1 in affected sheep. There were no disease related changes in CSF concentrations of the neuroactive amino acids, aspartate, glutamate, serine, glutamine, glycine, taurine and GABA in these sheep. The changes observed in the CLN3 patients may be progressive markers of neurodegeneration, or of underlying metabolic changes perhaps associated with CLN3 specific changes in neuroactive amino acids, as have been postulated. The lack of changes in the CLN2 and CLN6 subjects indicate that these changes are not shared by the CLN2 or CLN6 forms and changes in CSF concentrations of these compounds are unreliable as biomarkers of neurodegeneration in the NCLs in general.

  5. Neuropeptide changes and neuroactive amino acids in CSF from humans and sheep with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs, Batten disease).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kay, G.W.; Verbeek, M.M.; Furlong, J.M.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Palmer, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    Anomalies in neuropeptides and neuroactive amino acids have been postulated to play a role in neurodegeneration in a variety of diseases including the inherited neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs, Batten disease). These are often indicated by concentration changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

  6. Body fluid levels of neuroactive amino acids in autism spectrum disorders: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui-Fei; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Li, Xin-Min; Rauw, Gail; Baker, Glen B

    2017-01-01

    A review of studies on the body fluid levels of neuroactive amino acids, including glutamate, glutamine, taurine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, tryptophan, D-serine, and others, in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is given. The results reported in the literature are generally inconclusive and contradictory, but there has been considerable variation among the previous studies in terms of factors such as age, gender, number of subjects, intelligence quotient, and psychoactive medication being taken. Future studies should include simultaneous analyses of a large number of amino acids [including D-serine and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)] and standardization of the factors mentioned above. It may also be appropriate to use saliva sampling to detect amino acids in ASD patients in the future-this is noninvasive testing that can be done easily more frequently than other sampling, thus providing more dynamic monitoring.

  7. Discovering novel neuroactive drugs through high-throughput behavior-based chemical screening in the zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo eBruni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most neuroactive drugs were discovered through unexpected behavioral observations. Systematic behavioral screening is inefficient in most model organisms. But, automated technologies are enabling a new phase of discovery-based research in central nervous system (CNS pharmacology. Researchers are using large-scale behavior based chemical screens in zebrafish to discover compounds with new structures, targets and functions. These compounds are powerful tools for understanding CNS signaling pathways. Substantial differences between human and zebrafish biology will make it difficult to translate these discoveries to clinical medicine. However, given the molecular genetic similarities between humans and zebrafish, it is likely that some of these compounds will have translational utility. We predict that the greatest new successes in CNS drug discovery will leverage many model systems, including in vitro assays, cells, rodents, and zebrafish.

  8. Identification of hemolytic and neuroactive fractions in the venom of the sea anemone Bunodosoma cangicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagos P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones are a rich source of biologically active substances. In crayfish muscle fibers, Bunodosoma cangicum whole venom selectively blocks the I K(Ca currents. In the present study, we report for the first time powerful hemolytic and neuroactive effects present in two different fractions obtained by gel-filtration chromatography from whole venom of B. cangicum. A cytolytic fraction (Bcg-2 with components of molecular mass ranging from 8 to 18 kDa elicited hemolysis of mouse erythrocytes with an EC50 = 14 µg/ml and a maximum dose of 22 µg/ml. The effects of the neuroactive fraction, Bcg-3 (2 to 5 kDa, were studied on isolated crab nerves. This fraction prolonged the compound action potentials by increasing their duration and rise time in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was evident after the washout of the preparation, suggesting the existence of a reversible substance that was initially masking the effects of an irreversible one. In order to elucidate the target of Bcg-3 action, the fraction was applied to a tetraethylammonium-pretreated preparation. An additional increase in action potential duration was observed, suggesting a blockade of a different population of K+ channels or of tetraethylammonium-insensitive channels. Also, tetrodotoxin could not block the action potentials in a Bcg-3-pretreated preparation, suggesting a possible interaction of Bcg-3 with Na+ channels. The present data suggest that B. cangicum venom contains at least two bioactive fractions whose activity on cell membranes seems to differ from the I K(Ca blockade described previously.

  9. Epidural Steroid Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Epidural Steroid Injections Ray Baker MD Ray Baker MD Updated ... out of the spine. Why Get an Epidural Steroid Injection? Narrowing of the spinal passages can occur ...

  10. Steroids and Standardised Tests: Meritocracy and the Myth of Fair Play in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayles, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Steroid use in professional sports continues to receive much media attention in the United States. The predominant response to the use of steroids in professional sports is negative. Much of the opposition to steroid use focuses on the critical importance of fair play in American society. To the degree that steroids provide some players with an…

  11. Neuroactive compounds obtained from arthropod venoms as new therapeutic platforms for the treatment of neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Fuentes, Victoria; Gomes, Flávia Maria Medeiros; Campos, Gabriel Avohay Alves; Silva, Juliana de Castro; Biolchi, Andréia Mayer; Dos Anjos, Lilian Carneiro; Gonçalves, Jacqueline Coimbra; Lopes, Kamila Soares; Mortari, Márcia Renata

    2015-01-01

    The impact of neurological disorders in society is growing with alarming estimations for an incidence increase in the next decades. These disorders are generally chronic and can affect individuals early during productive life, imposing real limitations on the performance of their social roles. Patients can have their independence, autonomy, freedom, self-image, and self-confidence affected. In spite of their availability, drugs for the treatment of these disorders are commonly associated with side effects, which can vary in frequency and severity. Currently, no effective cure is known. Nowadays, the biopharmaceutical research community widely recognizes arthropod venoms as a rich source of bioactive compounds, providing a plethora of possibilities for the discovery of new neuroactive compounds, opening up novel and attractive opportunities in this field. Several identified molecules with a neuropharmacological profile can act in the central nervous system on different neuronal targets, rendering them useful tools for the study of neurological disorders. In this context, this review aims to describe the current main compounds extracted from arthropod venoms for the treatment of five major existing neurological disorders: stroke, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and pathological anxiety.

  12. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Anabolic Steroids Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 830.69 KB Anabolic steroids ...

  13. The role of steroids in the prediction of affective disorders in adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šrámková, Monika; Dušková, Michaela; Hill, Martin; Bičíková, Marie; Řípová, Daniela; Mohr, Pavel; Stárka, Luboslav

    2017-05-01

    Anxiety and mood disorders (AMD) are the most frequent mental disorders in the human population. They have recently shown increasing prevalence, and commonly disrupt personal and working lives. The aim of our study was to analyze the spectrum of circulating steroids in order to discover differences that could potentially be markers of affective depression or anxiety, and identify which steroids could be a predictive component for these diseases. We studied the steroid metabolome including 47 analytes in 20 men with depression (group D), 20 men with anxiety (group AN) and 30 healthy controls. OPLS and multivariate regression models were used for statistical analysis. Discrimination of group D from controls by the OPLS method was absolute, as was group AN from controls (sensitivity=1.000 (0.839, 1.000), specificity=1.000 (0.887, 1.000)). Relatively good predictivity was also found for discrimination between group D from AN (sensitivity=0.850 (0.640, 0.948), specificity=0.900 (0.699, 0.972)). Selected circulating steroids, including those that are neuroactive and neuroprotective, can be useful tools for discriminating between these affective diseases in adult men. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The Steroid Metabolome of Adrenarche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Juilee; Rainey, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenarche is an endocrine developmental process whereby humans and select nonhuman primates increase adrenal output of a series of steroids, especially dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). The timing of adrenarche varies between primates, but in humans, serum levels of DHEAS are seen to increase around 6 years of age. This phenomenon corresponds with the development and expansion of the zona reticularis (ZR) of the adrenal gland. The physiological phenomena that trigger the onset of adrenarche are still unknown; however the biochemical pathways leading to this event have been elucidated in detail. There are numerous reviews examining the process of adrenarche, most of which, have focused on the changes within the adrenal as well as the phenotypic results of adrenarche. This article reviews the recent and past studies that show the breadth of changes in the circulating steroid metabolome that occurs during the process of adrenarche. PMID:22715193

  15. Uptake and metabolism of sulphated steroids by the blood-brain barrier in the adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaiser, M Zeeshan; Dolman, Diana E M; Begley, David J; Abbott, N Joan; Cazacu-Davidescu, Mihaela; Corol, Delia I; Fry, Jonathan P

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the origin of the neuroactive steroids dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and pregnenolone sulphate (PregS) in the brain or of their subsequent metabolism. Using rat brain perfusion in situ, we have found (3) H-PregS to enter more rapidly than (3) H-DHEAS and both to undergo extensive (> 50%) desulphation within 0.5 min of uptake. Enzyme activity for the steroid sulphatase catalysing this deconjugation was enriched in the capillary fraction of the blood-brain barrier and its mRNA expressed in cultures of rat brain endothelial cells and astrocytes. Although permeability measurements suggested a net efflux, addition of the efflux inhibitors GF120918 and/or MK571 to the perfusate reduced rather than enhanced the uptake of (3) H-DHEAS and (3) H-PregS; a further reduction was seen upon the addition of unlabelled steroid sulphate, suggesting a saturable uptake transporter. Analysis of brain fractions after 0.5 min perfusion with the (3) H-steroid sulphates showed no further metabolism of PregS beyond the liberation of free steroid pregnenolone. By contrast, DHEAS underwent 17-hydroxylation to form androstenediol in both the steroid sulphate and the free steroid fractions, with some additional formation of androstenedione in the latter. Our results indicate a gain of free steroid from circulating steroid sulphates as hormone precursors at the blood-brain barrier, with implications for ageing, neurogenesis, neuronal survival, learning and memory. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  16. Epidural Steroid Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Epidural Steroid Injections Ray Baker MD Ray Baker MD Updated 7/2009 Epidural Steroid Injections (ESIs) are a common method of treating inflammation associated with low back related leg pain, or neck related arm pain. In both of ...

  17. Steroids in neuroinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Abraham

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of inflammatory response are primarily responsible for morbimortality in bacterial meningitis. Early use of steroids in these cases can reduce mortality and hearing loss and improve functional outcome without causing significant side effects. The formal recommendation towards pneumoccocal meningitis is being extended to other forms of Bacterial Meningitis. The same thought can be applied to tuberculous meningitis. In neurocysticercosis and neuroschistosomiasis steroids are more useful than parasiticides in most cases. Despite the evidence favoring the use of steroids in herpes simplex encephalitis, it is not sufficient to definitely support such indication. Among the opportunistic infections that affect AIDS patients, neurotoxoplasmosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopaty are those most often considered for the use of steroids; steroids are safe to use, but no definite benefit could be demonstrated in both conditions.

  18. Concentrating mixtures of neuroactive pharmaceuticals and altered neurotransmitter levels in the brain of fish exposed to a wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Arthur; Lange, Anke; Tyler, Charles R; Hill, Elizabeth M

    2017-12-01

    Fish can be exposed to a variety of neuroactive pharmaceuticals via the effluent discharges from wastewater treatment plants and concerns have arisen regarding their potential impacts on fish behaviour and ecology. In this study, we investigated the uptake of 14 neuroactive pharmaceuticals from a treated wastewater effluent into blood plasma and brain regions of roach (Rutilus rutilus) after exposure for 15days. We show that a complex mixture of pharmaceuticals including, 6 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, a serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, 3 atypical antipsychotics, 2 tricyclic antidepressants and a benzodiazepine, concentrate in different regions of the brain including the telencephalon, hypothalamus, optic tectum and hindbrain of effluent-exposed fish. Pharmaceuticals, with the exception of nordiazepam, were between 3-40 fold higher in brain compared with blood plasma, showing these neuroactive drugs are readily uptaken, into brain tissues in fish. To assess for the potential for any adverse ecotoxicological effects, the effect ratio was calculated from human therapeutic plasma concentrations (HtPCs) and the measured or predicted fish plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals. After accounting for a safety factor of 1000, the effect ratios indicated that fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, sertraline, and amitriptyline warrant prioritisation for risk assessment studies. Furthermore, although plasma concentrations of all the pharmaceuticals were between 33 and 5714-fold below HtPCs, alterations in serotonin, glutamate, acetylcholine and tryptophan concentrations were observed in different brain regions of effluent-exposed fish. This study highlights the importance of determining the potential health effects arising from the concentration of complex environmental mixtures in risk assessment studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicman, A T

    2008-06-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic-androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided.

  20. Maternally derived egg yolk steroid hormones and sex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the past decade, maternally derived steroid hormones in the egg yolk of oviparous vertebrates have been the focus of attention for their possible role in sex determination and hence, information on the consequences of maternal egg yolk steroids on sex determination has accumulated rapidly in reptiles and birds.

  1. Oral steroid contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sech, Laura A; Mishell, Daniel R

    2015-11-01

    Oral steroid contraception is a popular method of family planning worldwide. Over the past several decades, this method of contraception has changed significantly by decreasing the estrogen dose, changing the progestin component, and reducing the hormone free interval. Despite the popularity of oral steroid contraception, there has been much criticism regarding the associated risks of venous thromboembolism and stroke. Despite these established, yet uncommon risks, oral steroid contraception has many important health benefits. This review highlights the available formulations of oral contraceptives along with their evidence-based associated risks and benefits. Highlights regarding future directions for development of novel oral contraceptives are also addressed.

  2. The art of measuring steroids: Principles and practice of current hormonal steroid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wudy, S A; Schuler, G; Sánchez-Guijo, A; Hartmann, M F

    2017-09-28

    Steroids are small and highly important structural or signalling molecules in living organisms and their metabolism is complex. Due to the multiplicity of enzymes involved there are many different steroid related disorders. E.g., an individual enzyme defect is rather rare but can share various clinical symptoms and can thus be hardly diagnosed clinically. Therefore, reliable hormonal determination still presents the most reasonable initial diagnostic approach and helps to avoid uncritical and expensive attempts at molecular diagnostic testing. It also presents a backbone of monitoring these complex patients. In science, reliable hormone measurement is indispensable for the elucidation of new mechanisms of steroid hormone actions. Steroid analytics is highly challenging and should never be considered trivial. Most common methods for steroid determination comprise traditionally immunoassay, or more recently, mass spectrometry based methods. It is absolutely necessary that clinicians and scientists know the methods they are applying by heart. With the introduction of automated direct assays, a loss of quality could be observed over the last two decades in the field of steroid immunoassays. This review wants to meet the need for profound information and orientation in the field of steroid analysis. The pros and cons of the most important methods, such as immunoassays and mass spectrometry based methods will be discussed. The focus of the latter will lie on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Selected analytical applications from our Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Research Group FOR 1369 "Sulfated Steroids in Reproduction" will illustrate the contents. In brief, immunoassays have for long presented the traditional technique for steroid analysis. They are easy to set up. Only one analyte can be measured per immunoassay. Specificity problems can arise and caution has to be exerted especially regarding

  3. Steroids (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Talk to Your Child About the News Gun Safety Too Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating ... In the United States, it is against the law to use anabolic steroids without a prescription. Androstenedione, ...

  4. [Steroid-induced myopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Serge; Le Jeunne, Claire

    2012-04-01

    Steroid muscle-related involvement is a frequent but often underestimated adverse effect of steroid treatment. Clinical presentation may differentiate two features: the less frequent, represented by acute myopathy, essentially observed in resuscitation, in patients treated with high dosages, and the more frequent feature, insidious, painless, chronic myopathy, characterized by a progressive proximal deficit. Diagnosis is mostly based on the clinic, muscle biopsy should remain exceptional, performed to detect other myopathies, since there are no specific anatomopathological findings. Muscle enzymes are rarely increased, electrophysiological analyses demonstrate unspecific and variable abnormalities. Pathophysiology of steroid-induced myopathy is multifactorial, related to protein metabolism modifications (change of both metabolism and catabolism), cellular transcription, growth factors (IGF-1, myostatine). Treatment is unspecific, mostly based on the prevention that should firstly consider steroid dosage reduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid Overdose Reversal with Naloxone (Narcan, Evzio) Pain Prevention Recovery Substance ... Anabolic steroids are synthetic variations of the male sex hormone testosterone. The proper term for these compounds ...

  6. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Kicman, A T

    2008-01-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and ...

  7. Steroid promiscuity: Diversity of enzyme action. Preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathe, Richard; Kotelevtsev, Yuri; Mason, J Ian

    2015-07-01

    This Special Issue on the topic of Steroid and Sterol Signaling: Promiscuity and Diversity, dwells on the growing realization that the 'one ligand, one binding site' and 'one enzyme, one reaction' concepts are out of date. Focusing on cytochromes P450 (CYP), hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs), and related enzymes, the Special Issue highlights that a single enzyme can bind to diverse substrates, and in different conformations, and can catalyze multiple different conversions (and in different directions), thereby, generating an unexpectedly wide spectrum of ligands that can have subtly different biological actions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Steroid/Sterol Signaling' . Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of steroid sulfatase in steroid homeostasis and characterization of the sulfated steroid pathway: Evidence from steroid sulfatase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Neunzig, Jens; Gerber, Adrian; Oji, Vinzenz; Hartmann, Michaela F; Schuppe, Hans-Christian; Traupe, Heiko; Bernhardt, Rita; Wudy, Stefan A

    2016-12-05

    The impact of steroid sulfatase (STS) activity in the circulating levels of both sulfated and unconjugated steroids is only partially known. In addition, the sulfated steroid pathway, a parallel pathway to the one for unconjugated steroids, which uses the same enzymes, has never been characterized in detail before. Patients with steroid sulfatase deficiency (STSD) are unable to enzymatically convert sulfated steroids into their unconjugated forms, and are a good model to elucidate how STS affects steroid biosynthesis and to study the metabolism of sulfated steroids. We quantified unconjugated and sulfated steroids in STSD serum, and compared these results with data obtained from serum of healthy controls. Most sulfated steroids were increased in STSD. However, androstenediol-3-sulfate and epiandrosterone sulfate showed similar levels in both groups, and the concentrations of androsterone sulfate were notably lower. Hydroxylated forms of DHEAS and of pregnenolone sulfate were found to be increased in STSD, suggesting a mechanism to improve the excretion of sulfated steroids. STSD testosterone concentrations were normal, but cholesterol and DHEA were significantly decreased. Additionally, serum bile acids were three-fold higher in STSD. Correlations between concentrations of steroids in each group indicate that 17α-hydroxy-pregnenolone-3-sulfate in men is mainly biosynthesized from the precursor pregnenolone sulfate and androstenediol-3-sulfate from DHEAS. These findings confirm the coexistence of two steroidogenic pathways: one for unconjugated steroids and another one for sulfated steroids. Each pathway is responsible for the synthesis of specific steroids. The equal levels of testosterone, and the reduced level of unconjugated precursors in STSD, support that testosterone is primarily synthesized from sulfated steroids. In consequence, testosterone synthesis in STSD relies on an enzyme with sulfatase activity other than STS. This study reveals that STS is a key

  9. Cardiac effects of anabolic steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, J R; Kotwinski, P J; Montgomery, H E

    2004-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse in athletes has been associated with a wide range of adverse conditions, including hypogonadism, testicular atrophy, impaired spermatogenesis, gynaecomastia, and psychiatric disturbance. But what effect does steroid abuse have on the cardiovascular system?

  10. FY1995 basic research for neuroactive materials; 1995 nendo shinkei kino zairyo kaihatsu ni kansuru kiban kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Development of nenroactive materials to improve neuronal defects is one of the most important subjects in Japan that will soon become a aging society. In this project, basic research for neuroactive molecule was performed to develop technology for neuronal regeneration, regulation of synaptic activity and interface between artificial surface and living neurons. A novel neurite promoting factor was discovered and its cDNA was cloned. Mutagenesis in vitro showed that a functional region of this factor located in a polypeptide of less than 50 aminoacids. Using neuronal culture, synapse formation was found to depend on two modes of activities and long-lasting synaptic potentiation was demonstrated to depend on a macromolecules released from pre- or postsynaptic neurons. To regulate nervous activities, photoactivated caged-peptide was developed and confirmed to change in affinity to its receptor. Neurons were cultured on substrates paterned by microlithography. (NEDO)

  11. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

  12. Steroids. A Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of School Health Education and Services.

    This guide provides information on steroid use as well as prevention and intervention strategies. It is intended to serve as a supplement to drug abuse education and prevention programs in elementary and secondary schools and as the basis for local curriculum development and instructional activities. The following topics are covered: (1) history…

  13. Steroids: A Timeless Fascination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 2. Steroids: A Timeless Fascination - Cholesterol and its Bio-products. S Hari Prasad. General Article Volume 9 Issue 2 February 2004 pp 80-84. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Anabolic Steroids (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They can be. Addiction to steroids is different compared to other drugs of misuse, because users don’t become high ... Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly) Methamphetamine (Meth) Prescription Drugs Salvia Spice Tobacco, Nicotine, & E-Cigarettes Brain and ...

  15. Detection of the misuse of steroids in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Maria Kristina; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2010-08-01

    The list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) classifies the administration of several steroids in sports as doping. Their analysis is generally performed using urine specimen as matrix. Lots of the steroids are extensively metabolised in the human body. Thus, knowledge of urinary excretion is extremely important for the sensitive detection of steroid misuse in doping control. The methods routinely used in steroid screening mainly focus on substances, that are excreted unconjugated or as glucuronides. Common procedures include deconjugation using a beta-glucuronidase enzyme. Following extraction and concentration the analytes are submitted to LC-MS(/MS) analysis and/or GC-MS(/MS) analyses. Besides the classical steroids, more and more products appear on the market for "dietary supplements" containing steroids that have never been marketed as approved drugs, mostly without proper labelling of the contents. To cover the whole range of potential products comprehensive screening tools have to be utilised in addition to the classical methods. Endogenous steroids, e.g. testosterone, represent a special group of compounds. As classical chemical methodology is incapable of discriminating synthetic hormones from the biosynthesised congeners, the method of steroid profiling is used for screening purpose. Additionally, based on isotope signatures a discrimination of synthetic and natural hormones can be achieved. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of chronic ethanol consumption and withdrawal on the neuroactive steroid 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis, G C; Devaud, L L; Mitsuyama, H; Morrow, A L

    1998-12-01

    Prolonged alcohol (ethanol) consumption leads to the development of alcohol tolerance and cross-tolerance to some benzodiazepines and barbiturates. In contrast, rats undergoing alcohol withdrawal are sensitized to the anticonvulsant effects of the endogenous GABA(A) receptor modulator, 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP). Alterations in endogenous, cerebral cortical levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP during alcohol withdrawal could contribute to the observed sensitization to 3alpha,5alpha-THP. Therefore, this study investigated plasma and brain levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP, progesterone, and corticosterone during alcohol dependence and withdrawal in the rat. Plasma corticosterone, progesterone (a precursor of 3alpha,5alpha-THP) and 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels were unchanged in alcohol-dependent animals. Cerebral cortical levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP decreased in dependent male animals, but not in dependent female rats. During alcohol withdrawal, plasma corticosterone and progesterone levels increased in male, but not female rats. However, neither plasma nor cerebral cortical 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels were altered from control levels in male or female rats during alcohol withdrawal. Plasma and brain levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP were markedly higher in female compared with male rats. Cerebral cortical levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP during the diestrus phase of the estrus cycle were approximately 4 to 6 ng/g, a concentration that may approach physiological relevance. These findings suggest that sensitization to 3alpha,5alpha-THP during alcohol withdrawal is not mediated by elevations in brain levels of endogenous 3alpha,5alpha-THP in male or female rats. However, elevations in circulating corticosterone and progesterone levels during ethanol withdrawal in male rats may underlie gender differences in allopregnanolone sensitivity during ethanol withdrawal.

  17. A retrospective 30-year follow-up study of former Swedish-elite male athletes in power sports with a past anabolic androgenic steroids use: a focus on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, A S; Moberg, T; Eriksson, B O; Ehrnborg, C; Rosén, T; Fahlke, C

    2013-10-01

    The knowledge concerning the long-term effect of former anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS)-use on mental health is sparse. This study aims to investigate whether previous AAS-use affects mental health, present sociodemographic data, sport activity and substance abuse in a retrospective 30-year follow-up study of former elite athletes. Swedish male-elite power sport athletes (n=683) on the top 10 national ranking lists during any of the years 1960-1979 in wrestling, Olympic lifting, powerlifting and the throwing events in track and field answered a questionnaire. At least 20% of the former athletes admitted previous AAS-use. They had more often sought professional expertise for mental problems and had used illicit drugs compared to those not having used AAS. The AAS-users also differed in former sport activity pattern compared to non AAS-users. It is clear that a relationship exists between use of AAS and mental-health problems. Further studies need to be done in order to clarify this relationship.

  18. Nonprescription steroids on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Christen L; Marlowe, Douglas B; Patapis, Nicholas S; Festinger, David S; Forman, Robert F

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular Web sites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March 2006 and June 2006 revealed that approximately half of the Web sites advocated their "safe" use, and roughly one third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The Web sites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the Web sites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment, and policy are discussed.

  19. Nonprescription Steroids on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christen L.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Patapis, Nicholas S.; Festinger, David S.; Forman, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular websites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March and June, 2006 revealed that approximately half of the websites advocated their “safe” use, and roughly one-third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The websites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the websites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment and policy are discussed. PMID:22080724

  20. Long-term experience of steroid-free pediatric renal transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenhagen, Per; Thiesson, Helle C; Baudier, François

    2014-01-01

    Increased focus on the potential negative side effects of steroid usage in pediatric transplantation has led to steroid minimization or steroid-free transplantation. In this study, we report results after complete steroid avoidance in renal transplantation in the period 1994-2009. We evaluate...... to comorbidities. Anthropometric data were collected from 65 transplantations in 60 children. Patient survival was 93%; graft survival was 81% after five yr (N = 42) and 63% after 10 yr (N = 16). Acute rejection within the first year of transplantation was 9%. The distribution of the children's BMI before...... in the youngest (pediatric renal transplantation is safe and protects against steroid-induced obesity and short stature....

  1. [Research progresses of anabolic steroids analysis in doping control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yuanyuan; Wang, Dingzhong; Li, Ke'an; Liu, Feng

    2008-07-01

    Anabolic steroids, a kind of physiological active substance, are widely abused to improve athletic performance in human sports. They have been forbidden in sports by the International Olympic Committee since 1983. Since then, many researchers have been focusing their attentions on the establishment of reliable detection methods. In this paper, we review the research progresses of different analytical methods for anabolic steroids since 2002, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, immunoassay, electrochemistry analysis and mass spectrometry. The developing prospect of anabolic steroids analysis is also discussed.

  2. Comparison of Steroid Modulation of Spontaneous Inhibitory Postsynaptic Currents in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons and Steady-State Single-Channel Currents from Heterologously Expressed α1β2γ2L GABAA Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sampurna; Qian, Mingxing; Krishnan, Kathiresan; Covey, Douglas F.; Mennerick, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Neuroactive steroids are efficacious modulators of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA) receptor function. The effects of steroids on the GABAA receptor are typically determined by comparing steady-state single-channel open probability or macroscopic peak responses elicited by GABA in the absence and presence of a steroid. Due to differences in activation conditions (exposure duration, concentration of agonist), it is not obvious whether modulation measured using typical experimental protocols can be used to accurately predict the effect of a modulator on native receptors under physiologic conditions. In the present study, we examined the effects of 14 neuroactive steroids and analogs on the properties of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. The goal was to determine whether the magnitude of modulation of the decay time course of sIPSCs correlates with the extent of modulation and kinetic properties of potentiation as determined in previous single-channel studies. The steroids were selected to cover a wide range of efficacy on heterologously expressed rat α1β2γ2L GABAA receptors, ranging from essentially inert to highly efficacious (strong potentiators of single-channel and macroscopic peak responses). The data indicate a strong correlation between prolongation of the decay time course of sIPSCs and potentiation of single-channel open probability. Furthermore, changes in intracluster closed time distributions were the single best predictor of prolongation of sIPSCs. We infer that the information obtained in steady-state single-channel recordings can be used to forecast modulation of synaptic currents. PMID:26769414

  3. Immunochemical analysis of illegal steroid growth promoters in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Steroid hormones and their analogues can be used as growth promoters in cattle. The use of these substances is banned in the EU, and hence each member state must ensure that cattle are not being dosed with these drugs. This study focuses on the immunochemical detection of three steroidal growth promoters, ethynylestradiol (EE), diethylstilbestrol (DES) and trenbolone (TR). Polyclonal antibodies were raised against EE and TR. The anti-TR antibodies were applied to two competitive ELISA for...

  4. Sex steroids and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Julie A

    2012-09-01

    The peak in incidence for schizophrenia is during late adolescence for both sexes, but within this time frame the peak is both earlier and steeper for males. Additionally, women have a second peak in incidence following menopause. Two meta-analyses have reported that men have an overall ∼40% greater chance of developing schizophrenia than do women (Aleman et al., 2003; McGrath et al., 2004). These and other findings have led to the suggestion that ovarian hormones may be protective against schizophrenia. Less explored is the potential role of testosterone in schizophrenia, although disruptions in steroid levels have also been reported in men with the illness. The relationship between increased gonadal hormone release per se and peri-adolescent vulnerability for psychiatric illness is difficult to tease apart from other potentially contributory factors in clinical studies, as adolescence is a turbulent period characterized by many social and biological changes. Despite the obvious opportunity provided by animal research, surprisingly little basic science effort has been devoted to this important issue. On the other hand, the animal work offers an understanding of the many ways in which gonadal steroids exert a powerful impact on the brain, both shaping its development and modifying its function during adulthood. Recently, investigators using preclinical models have described a greater male vulnerability to neurodevelopmental insults that are associated with schizophrenia; such studies may provide clinically relevant insights into the role of gonadal steroids in psychiatric illness.

  5. Anabolic steroids and head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James D; Bailes, Julian E; Turner, Ryan C; Dodson, Sean C; Sakai, Jun; Maroon, Joseph C

    2012-01-01

    The suggestion has been made that neurological changes seen in the syndrome of chronic traumatic encephalopathy may be due to exogenous anabolic steroid use rather than traumatic brain injury. To determine whether administration of anabolic steroids alters the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and a linear acceleration model of traumatic brain injury were used. Experimental groups were (1) preinjury anabolic steroids, (2) preinjury placebo carrier, (3) anabolic steroids without injury, (4) no steroids and no injury, (5) postinjury placebo carrier, and (6) postinjury anabolic steroids. Following a 30-day recovery, rats were euthanized, and brainstem white matter tracts underwent fluorescent immunohistochemical processing and labeling of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), a marker of axonal injury. Digital imaging and statistical analyses were used to determine whether anabolic steroid administration resulted in a significant change in the number of injured axons. There was no statistically significant difference in number of APP-positive axons by immunohistochemical analysis between respective anabolic steroid and placebo groups. Using a standard acceleration-deceleration model of mild traumatic brain injury, we have shown successful visualization of traumatically injured axons with antibody staining of APP. Our results indicate no statistically significant effect of anabolic steroids on the number of APP-positive axons. With the use of this model, and within its limitations, we see no adverse effect or causative role of anabolic steroid administration on the brain following mild traumatic brain injury using APP counts as a marker for anatomic injury.

  6. Steroid induced huge mediastinal lipomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Min; Chung, Suk Tae; Kang, Eun Young; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-04-15

    Mediastinal lipomatosis induced by steroid is an unusual byproduct of such therapy and has been reported after prolonged and large doses of steroid therapy. The radiologic findings of mediastinal lipomatosis in simple chest film are nonspecific, but with the advent of CT scan, differentiation the fatty lesion from other mediastinal decreases can be made easily. Recently we expended steroid induced huge mediastinal lipomatosis and report the case with review including radiologic findings.

  7. Cardiac effects of anabolic steroids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Payne, J R; Kotwinski, P J; Montgomery, H E

    2004-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse in athletes has been associated with a wide range of adverse conditions, including hypogonadism, testicular atrophy, impaired spermatogenesis, gynaecomastia, and psychiatric disturbance...

  8. Steroid biosynthesis in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehan; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Vihma, Veera

    2015-11-01

    Tissue-specific expression of steroidogenic enzymes allows the modulation of active steroid levels in a local manner. Thus, the measurement of local steroid concentrations, rather than the circulating levels, has been recognized as a more accurate indicator of the steroid action within a specific tissue. Adipose tissue, one of the largest endocrine tissues in the human body, has been established as an important site for steroid storage and metabolism. Locally produced steroids, through the enzymatic conversion from steroid precursors delivered to adipose tissue, have been proven to either functionally regulate adipose tissue metabolism, or quantitatively contribute to the whole body's steroid levels. Most recently, it has been suggested that adipose tissue may contain the steroidogenic machinery necessary for the initiation of steroid biosynthesis de novo from cholesterol. This review summarizes the evidence indicating the presence of the entire steroidogenic apparatus in adipose tissue and discusses the potential roles of local steroid products in modulating adipose tissue activity and other metabolic parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bladder sensory physiology: neuroactive compounds and receptors, sensory transducers, and target-derived growth factors as targets to improve function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Eric J.; Merrill, Liana

    2014-01-01

    Urinary bladder dysfunction presents a major problem in the clinical management of patients suffering from pathological conditions and neurological injuries or disorders. Currently, the etiology underlying altered visceral sensations from the urinary bladder that accompany the chronic pain syndrome, bladder pain syndrome (BPS)/interstitial cystitis (IC), is not known. Bladder irritation and inflammation are histopathological features that may underlie BPS/IC that can change the properties of lower urinary tract sensory pathways (e.g., peripheral and central sensitization, neurochemical plasticity) and contribute to exaggerated responses of peripheral bladder sensory pathways. Among the potential mediators of peripheral nociceptor sensitization and urinary bladder dysfunction are neuroactive compounds (e.g., purinergic and neuropeptide and receptor pathways), sensory transducers (e.g., transient receptor potential channels) and target-derived growth factors (e.g., nerve growth factor). We review studies related to the organization of the afferent limb of the micturition reflex and discuss neuroplasticity in an animal model of urinary bladder inflammation to increase the understanding of functional bladder disorders and to identify potential novel targets for development of therapeutic interventions. Given the heterogeneity of BPS/IC and the lack of consistent treatment benefits, it is unlikely that a single treatment directed at a single target in micturition reflex pathways will have a mass benefit. Thus, the identification of multiple targets is a prudent approach, and use of cocktail treatments directed at multiple targets should be considered. PMID:24760999

  10. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Long-Term Control Medications About Steroids About Steroids Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient ... important considerations when your dosage changes? What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’)? Corticosteroids (steroids) are medicines that are used ...

  11. Selective amine catalysed steroidal dimerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis of steroidal dimers: Selective amine catalysed steroidal dimerization. SHAMSUZZAMANa,∗, MOHD GULFAM ALAMa,b and TABASSUM SIDDIQUIa. aDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002, India. bSchool of Distance Education (Chemical Science Programme), ...

  12. Continuous Microbiological Transformation of Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusser, F.; Koepsell, H. J.; Savage, G. M.

    1961-01-01

    Continuous fermentation trials on the bioconversions of pregnadiene to pregnatriene by Septomyxa affinis and progesterone to 11α-hydroxyprogesterone by Rhizopus nigricans were conducted successfully in an eight-stage pilot plant reactor. The first stage was used as the mycelial growth stage while the steroid solutions were added continuously to stage 2, thus using the remaining stages as conversion vessels. Recoveries of 50 to 60% oxidized steroid (based on total steroid supplied) were obtained in both cases upon a contact time of 5 hr between mycelium and steroid. Longer contact times resulted in a gradual net loss of steroid. It was concluded that two-stage reactors (one growth stage and one conversion stage) were adequate for efficient continuous operation of such processes. The reaction volumes of both stages have to be kept in proper balance to insure optimal holdup times for both the cell growth and conversion steps. PMID:13740999

  13. Outcome of single level disc prolapse treated with transforaminal steroid versus epidural steroid versus caudal steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, Prashant Chandrakant; Sharma, Ayush; Singh, Vijay; Natraj, B; Devani, Darshan; Khapane, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of fluoroscopic guided transforaminal steroid versus interlaminar epidural steroid versus caudal steroid. A total of 90 patients were studied who had complains of low back pain with radiculopathy and MRI evidence of disc prolapse. Out of this group, patients were randomly assigned to three groups each having 30 patients. First group received transforaminal steroid injection, second group received caudal steroid injection, and third group received epidural steroid. All patients were followed up for 12 months, and the results were compared using change in Visual Analogue Scale score and Oswestry Disability Index (OSD). The change in pain scores was statistically different at 1- and 6-month interval such that a higher change was observed by transforaminal route as compared to the other two. There was no difference in change of scores between interlaminar and caudal routes. For OSD, a greater change was seen in transforminal at all times as compared to the other two. There was no difference in change of scores between interlaminar and caudal routes at any time of assessment. In current study, transforaminal steroid injection group has better symptomatic improvement for both short and long term as compared to interlaminar and caudal steroid injection group.

  14. MEDICAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLIC STEROID USE: ARE THEY EXAGGERATED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Hoffman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes

  15. Medical Issues Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use: Are They Exaggerated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R.; Ratamess, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes. Key Points For many years the scientific and medical communities depicted a lack of efficacy and serious adverse effects from anabolic steroid use. Clinical case studies continue to link anabolic steroid administration with myocardial infarct, suicide, and cancer, evidence to support a cause

  16. [Body cult and use of anabolic steroids by bodybuilders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein; Chaves, José Carlos; Orleans, Roberto Ghignone de

    2009-04-01

    This study focused on the reasons for practicing bodybuilding and the use of anabolic steroids, as well as the social representations and uses of the body among bodybuilding steroid users. This ethnographic study involved participant observation in middle and lower-class bodybuilding gyms in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, and 43 in-depth interviews with steroid users. Aesthetic reasons are the main motivation for bodybuilding and steroid use in both middle and lower-class users. Dissatisfaction with one's real body as compared to the ideal standard flaunted by the mass media, fear of being devalued or shunned by one's peer groups, the symbolic capital associated with a 'pumped-up' body, and the sense of immediacy in obtaining results all contributed to steroid use. Preventive campaigns are needed, targeting young people and combining a critical view and deconstruction of the values assigned to the body by consumer society, counteracted by high-quality information on the health risks associated with anabolic steroid use.

  17. Steroids in Athletics: One University's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mike

    1990-01-01

    Presents an account of one university's experience in conducting an investigation into possible steroid use by student athletes and the development of a program to deal with the problem. Discusses why athletes use steroids and how steroids are taken. Concludes it is likely many steroid-related deaths of athletes go undetected. (Author/ABL)

  18. Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007678.htm Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint To use the sharing features on this ... can be injected into a joint, tendon, or bursa. Description Your health care provider inserts a small ...

  19. Are Steroids Worth the Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as deepening of the voice and growth of body hair. Testosterone levels can also affect how aggressive a ... associated with anabolic steroids include: increased facial and body hair growth development of masculine traits, such as deepening ...

  20. SSRIs and the female brain--potential for utilizing steroid-stimulating properties to treat menstrual cycle-linked dysphorias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovick, Thelma

    2013-12-01

    One unexpected property of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is their ability, at doses well below those that effect 5-HT systems, to raise brain concentrations of neuroactive steroids such as the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone. In women, rapid withdrawal from allopregnanolone when progesterone secretion drops sharply in the late luteal phase precipitates menstrual cycle-linked disorders such as premenstrual syndrome and catamenial epilepsy. Short-term, low-dose fluoxetine during the late luteal phase has the potential to prevent the development of such disorders, by raising brain allopregnanolone concentration. In female rats, withdrawal from allopregnanolone, as ovarian progesterone secretion falls rapidly in the late diestrus phase (similar to late luteal phase in women), induces upregulation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors on GABAergic neurons in brain regions involved in mediating anxiety-like behaviors. The functional consequence of this receptor plasticity is disinhibition of principal neurons, hyperexcitable neuronal circuitry and increased behavioral responsiveness to anxiogenic stress. These withdrawal responses were prevented by short-term treatment with fluoxetine during the late diestrus phase, which raised brain allopregnanolone concentration, so blunting the rapid physiological fall. The steroid-stimulating properties of fluoxetine offer untapped opportunities for developing new treatments for menstrual cycle-linked disorders in women, which are precipitated by abrupt falls in brain concentration of allopregnanolone.

  1. Sex hormone binding globulin and corticosteroid binding globulin as major effectors of steroid action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jack D; Jirikowski, Gustav F

    2014-03-01

    Contrary to the long-held postulate of steroid-hormone binding globulin action, these protein carriers of steroids are major players in steroid actions in the body. This manuscript will focus on our work with sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and demonstrate how they are actively involved in the uptake, intracellular transport, and possibly release of steroids from cells. This manuscript will also discuss our own findings that the steroid estradiol is taken up into the cell, as demonstrated by uptake of fluorescence labeled estradiol into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and into the cytoplasm where it may have multiple actions that do not seem to involve the cell nucleus. This manuscript will focus mainly on events in two compartments of the cell, the plasma membrane and the cytoplasm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural determination of nanomolar quantities of neuroactive peptides by nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Elena

    The specificity of the conotoxin is one of the attributes that make them a valuable diagnostic tool in the characterization of neuronal mechanisms, or therapeutic agents in medicine. It appears that Nature has provided us with a pharmaceutical tool in the form of Conus peptides. Further studies will only enhance our understanding, and use, of these molecules in medicine and science. The study of three-dimensional structure in relation to the function of cone snail peptides is an area of increasing interest. The venom of a single cone snail can contain as many as 300 different chemical components. Individual cone snail venom components, or conopeptides, can have powerful neurological effects. For many interesting species, not enough venom collected from the natural origin is available for experimental investigations. After a laborious separation procedure, only nanomole quantities of these native conopeptides are able to be obtained. Therefore, several experimental applications, such as NMR spectroscopy, are difficult to carry out using traditional methods. The research was focused on using nanoNMR spectroscopy as an alternative method to the conventional NMR spectroscopy method in order to analyze small quantities of novel peptides with unknown three-dimensional conformational arrangement. The experimental results obtained using the HR-MAS NMR technique, in addition to the use of a 3mm gHCN (with 1.7mm inserts) NMR probes, proved the capability of conformational analysis of different types of natural products at sample levels down to nanomole range. Understanding the interaction between agonist or antagonist ligands and their target receptors, at a molecular level, offer promise for the development of pharmacological therapeutics for the central nervous system. Conopeptides are of great interest as ligands in neuroscience and are valuable leads in drug design, based on their specificity and potency for therapeutically relevant receptors and ion channels. For

  3. Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, as well as pulmonary hypertension. Whether such differences are inherent and/or whether sex steroids play a role in modulating these differences is currently under investigation. The purpose of this review is to define sex differences in lung structure/function under normal and specific disease states, with exploration of whether and how sex hormone signaling mechanisms may explain these clinical observations. Focusing on adult age groups, the review addresses the following: 1) inherent sex differences in lung anatomy and physiology; 2) the importance of certain time points in life such as puberty, pregnancy, menopause, and aging; 3) expression and signaling of sex steroid receptors under normal vs. disease states; 4) potential interplay between different sex steroids; 5) the question of whether sex steroids are beneficial or detrimental to the lung; and 6) the potential use of sex steroid signaling as biomarkers and therapeutic avenues in lung diseases. The importance of focusing on sex differences and sex steroids in the lung lies in the increasing incidence of lung diseases in women and the need to address lung diseases across the life span. PMID:22240244

  4. BILATERAL STEROID INDUCED GLAUCOMA IN VERNAL KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangal Surekha V, Bankar Mahima S, Bhandari Akshay J, Kalkote Prasad R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vernal Keratoconjunctivits (VKC is a bilateral recurrent allergic interstitial conjunctival inflammation with a periodic seasonal incidence and of self limiting nature, mainly affecting the younger population. Patients of VKC on steroid therapy are at higher risk of developing steroid induced glaucoma. Raised intraocular pressure due to steroids typically occurs within few weeks of starting steroid therapy and comes back to normal on immediate stoppage of steroids. A case of steroid induced glaucoma in a 30 years old female with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. She was on topical steroids for 3-4 years. She was incompliant with the instructions to stop steroids. She eventually developed steroid induced glaucoma and glaucomatous optic neuropathy with tunnel vision.

  5. Impact of animal manure separation technologies on steroid hormone distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Popovic, Olga; Björklund, Erland

    2015-01-01

    When steroid hormones are emitted into the environment, they may have harmful effects on the reproduction system of aquatic life. Until now, research has primarily focused on human excretion, demonstrating that steroid hormones reach the aquatic environment due to insufficient removal in waste...... developed technology, which separates raw animal manure into a solid and a liquid fraction. This technology offers an improved handling and refined distribution of the manure nutrients to the farmlands and the possibility to reduce the environmental impact of manure nutrients, especially avoiding...... the surplus load of phosphorous. In the present work we investigated the distribution of 9 steroid hormones (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, 17α-estradiol and 17β-estradiol) in raw manure and manure separates from 10 to 15...

  6. Mechanisms of prenatal programing: identifying and distinguishing the impact of steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Barrett, Emily S

    2014-01-01

    Developmental programing is gaining considerable leverage as a conceptual framework for understanding individual variability in human behavioral and somatic health. The current mini-review examines some of the key conceptual and methodological challenges for developmental programing research focused on fetal sex steroid exposure and physical, behavioral, physiological, and health outcomes. Specifically, we consider the bases for focusing on sex steroids, methods for assessing prenatal steroid hormone exposure, confounding factors, and the most relevant postnatal outcomes. We conclude with a brief consideration, based on current knowledge, of the applications of the existing findings for further research and practice.

  7. Emotions and Steroid Secretion in Aging Men: A Multi—Study Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Walther

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although aging increases the risk of cognitive and socioemotional deterioration, it has also been shown to be accompanied by an increase in experienced positive emotions and a decrease in negative emotions. Steroid hormones and age-related alterations in secretion patterns have been suggested to play a crucial role in these age-related changes in emotional experience. Importantly, previous studies identified effects of neuroactive hormones on age-related alterations in emotional experience, which vary by sex and depression levels. Therefore, in three independent cross-sectional studies including a total of 776 men, we examined age-related differences in emotional experience and subsequently the moderation effect of steroid hormones. Sample one consisted of 271 self-reporting healthy (SRH men aged between 40 and 75 years, while sample two comprised 121 men in the identical age range but only including vitally exhausted (VE men. Sample three included 384 men aged between 25 and 78 years who reported having fathered (FA at least one child. For the SRH men, age was negatively associated with anxiety symptoms and aggression, while negative trends emerged for depressive symptoms. In VE men, age was negatively associated with depressive symptoms and positively associated with aggression and positive emotions. For FA men, anxiety symptoms and aggression were negatively associated with age. Age trends of steroid hormones and identified moderation effects are reported. However, with adjustment for multiple comparisons, most of the significant associations fade and the reported associations need to be regarded as exploratory starting points for the further investigation of age-related alterations in emotional experience and their relation to steroid secretion. Overall, the results indicate that salivary cortisol might be a moderator of the association between age and symptoms of anxiety for SRH and VE men, while salivary testosterone seems to moderate the

  8. Disse fire typer bruger steroider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anders Schmidt; Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2017-01-01

    Vi render i motionscentret som aldrig før, og ønsket om at forbedre sin krop lokker nogle ud i at bruge steroider. Brugerne kan inddeles i fire typer – fra den eksperimenterende YOLO-type til de, der gerne vil være klar til stranden.......Vi render i motionscentret som aldrig før, og ønsket om at forbedre sin krop lokker nogle ud i at bruge steroider. Brugerne kan inddeles i fire typer – fra den eksperimenterende YOLO-type til de, der gerne vil være klar til stranden....

  9. Steroid induced osteonecrosis: An analysis of steroid dosing risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Christian; Chang, Christopher; Naguwa, Stanley M; Cheema, Gurtej; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-09-01

    Osteonecrosis is a serious condition involving bone destruction that frequently requires surgical treatment to rebuild the joint. While there is an abundance of literature documenting corticosteroid related osteonecrosis, there is no consensus as to the relative risk of osteonecrosis after administration of steroids via parenteral, oral, topical, inhaled and other routes. This risk is an important prognostic indicator because identification and conservative intervention can potentially reduce morbidity associated with aggressive surgical treatment of osteonecrosis. This paper provides insight into establishing guidelines related to the risk of developing osteonecrosis as a result of corticosteroid use. Case studies, retrospective studies and prospective studies in humans on different corticosteroids and varied dosages were assessed. Most cases of osteonecrosis are secondary to systemically administered corticosteroids and/or high dose daily therapy, particularly in patients with underlying comorbidities including connective tissue diseases, hyperlipidemia, or previous trauma. Previous case reports of osteonecrosis related to inhaled or topical use of steroids are complicated by the fact that in the great majority of cases, the patients are also treated with systemic steroids prior to the development of osteonecrosis. Based on the literature, a set of recommendations regarding the risk of osteonecrosis in patients on steroids was formulated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of steroidomics by liquid chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry as a powerful analytical strategy for measuring human steroid perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanneret, Fabienne; Tonoli, David; Rossier, Michel F; Saugy, Martial; Boccard, Julien; Rudaz, Serge

    2016-01-22

    This review presents the evolution of steroid analytical techniques, including gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), immunoassay (IA) and targeted liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and it evaluates the potential of extended steroid profiles by a metabolomics-based approach, namely steroidomics. Steroids regulate essential biological functions including growth and reproduction, and perturbations of the steroid homeostasis can generate serious physiological issues; therefore, specific and sensitive methods have been developed to measure steroid concentrations. GC-MS measuring several steroids simultaneously was considered the first historical standard method for analysis. Steroids were then quantified by immunoassay, allowing a higher throughput; however, major drawbacks included the measurement of a single compound instead of a panel and cross-reactivity reactions. Targeted LC-MS methods with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) were then introduced for quantifying a small steroid subset without the problems of cross-reactivity. The next step was the integration of metabolomic approaches in the context of steroid analyses. As metabolomics tends to identify and quantify all the metabolites (i.e., the metabolome) in a specific system, appropriate strategies were proposed for discovering new biomarkers. Steroidomics, defined as the untargeted analysis of the steroid content in a sample, was implemented in several fields, including doping analysis, clinical studies, in vivo or in vitro toxicology assays, and more. This review discusses the current analytical methods for assessing steroid changes and compares them to steroidomics. Steroids, their pathways, their implications in diseases and the biological matrices in which they are analysed will first be described. Then, the different analytical strategies will be presented with a focus on their ability to obtain relevant information on the steroid pattern. The future technical

  11. Anabolic Steroid Use in the Adolescent Athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Potteiger, Jeffrey A.; Stilger, Vincent G.

    1994-01-01

    Recent surveys indicate that the use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (anabolic steroids) is prevalent among adolescent athletes, particularly those in high school. The cost of clinical drug testing makes it impractical to use random testing to identify users of these ergogenic aids. The athletic trainer is often in a position to identify anabolic steroid users if he/she knows the clinical signs and symptoms. In this article, we briefly discuss the history of anabolic steroid use, how they wor...

  12. Anabolic steroid abuse: physiological and anaesthetic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, P C A; Yarrow, M

    2005-07-01

    This review summarises the physiological and pharmacological effects of the anabolic steroids used to enhance performance in sports. The anabolic steroids promote muscle growth and protein synthesis. Side-effects of anabolic steroids include cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, hypercoagulopathy, hepatic dysfunction, and psychiatric and behavioural disturbances. It is therefore appropriate that the anaesthetist be familiar with the abuse of anabolic steroids, their potential adverse effects, and the peri-operative risk associated with the use of these drugs.

  13. Sources, mechanisms, and fate of steroid estrogens in wastewater treatment plants: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Yien Fang; Praveena, Sarva Mangala

    2017-04-01

    Steroid estrogens, such as estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), are natural and synthetic hormones released into the environment through incomplete sewage discharge. This review focuses on the sources of steroid estrogens in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The mechanisms and fate of steroid estrogens throughout the entire wastewater treatment system are also discussed, and relevant information on regulatory aspects is given. Municipal, pharmaceutical industry, and hospitals are the main sources of steroid estrogens that enter WWTPs. A typical WWTP comprises primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment units. Sorption and biodegradation are the main mechanisms for removal of steroid estrogens from WWTPs. The fate of steroid estrogens in WWTPs depends on the types of wastewater treatment systems. Steroid estrogens in the primary treatment unit are removed by sorption onto primary sludge, followed by sorption onto micro-flocs and biodegradation by microbes in the secondary treatment unit. Tertiary treatment employs nitrification, chlorination, or UV disinfection to improve the quality of the secondary effluent. Activated sludge treatment systems for steroid estrogens exhibit a removal efficiency of up to 100%, which is higher than that of the trickling filter treatment system (up to 75%). Moreover, the removal efficiency of advance treatment systems exceeds 90%. Regulatory aspects related to steroid estrogens are established, especially in the European Union. Japan is the only Asian country that implements a screening program and is actively involved in endocrine disruptor testing and assessment. This review improves our understanding of steroid estrogens in WWTPs, proposes main areas to be improved, and provides current knowledge on steroid estrogens in WWTPs for sustainable development.

  14. Adolescents and Steroids: A User Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids ("steroids") are synthetic derivatives of the natural male hormone testosterone. They were first used non-medically by elite athletes seeking to improve performance. More recently, however, steroid use has filtered down to high school and junior high school levels. The purpose of this study was to describe…

  15. Sundhedspolitik på steroider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2012-01-01

    Danmark er det land i verden der har valgt den måske mest drastiske metode til bekæmpelse af brug af anabole androgene steroider (AAS) i fitness- og styrketræningsmiljøerne. Ikke pga. oplysningskampagnerne, samarbejdet med SKAT eller at AAS er ulovlige. Der hvor Danmark skiller sig ud er ved brugen...

  16. Sex steroids and lipoprotein metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers Leuven, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Lipoprotein metabolism is involved in atherogenesis. Female sex-hormones have substantial effects on both lipoprotein metabolism and the vessel wall. Cholesterol, one of the major lipids in lipoproteins, is both the substrate for, and the target of, the steroidal sex hormones.

  17. Steroid profiling in doping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Daniël Henri van de

    2001-01-01

    Profiling androgens in urine samples is used in doping analysis for the detection of abused steroids of endogenous origin. These profiling techniques were originally developed for the analysis of testosterone, mostly by means of the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio). A study was

  18. Occurrence and Characterization of Steroid Growth Promoters Associated with Particulate Matter Originating from Beef Cattle Feedyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Brett R; Wooten, Kimberly J; Buser, Michael D; Johnson, Bradley J; Cobb, George P; Smith, Philip N

    2015-07-21

    Studies of steroid growth promoters from beef cattle feedyards have previously focused on effluent or surface runoff as the primary route of transport from animal feeding operations. There is potential for steroid transport via fugitive airborne particulate matter (PM) from cattle feedyards; therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the occurrence and concentration of steroid growth promoters in PM from feedyards. Air sampling was conducted at commercial feedyards (n = 5) across the Southern Great Plains from 2010 to 2012. Total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 were collected for particle size analysis and steroid growth promoter analysis. Particle size distributions were generated from TSP samples only, while steroid analysis was conducted on extracts of PM samples using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Of seven targeted steroids, 17α-estradiol and estrone were the most commonly detected, identified in over 94% of samples at median concentrations of 20.6 and 10.8 ng/g, respectively. Melengestrol acetate and 17α-trenbolone were detected in 31% and 39% of all PM samples at median concentrations of 1.3 and 1.9 ng/g, respectively. Results demonstrate PM is a viable route of steroid transportation and may be a significant contributor to environmental steroid hormone loading from cattle feedyards.

  19. Glucose transporter 1, distribution in the brain and in neural disorders: its relationship with transport of neuroactive drugs through the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiuli; Geng, Meiyu; Du, Guanhua

    2005-04-01

    Facilitative glucose transport is mediated by one or more of the members of the closely related glucose transporter (GLUT) family. Thirteen members of the GLUT family have been described thus far. GLUT1 is a widely expressed isoform that provides many cells with their basic glucose requirement. It is also the primary transporter across the blood-brain barrier. This review describes the distribution and expression of GLUT1 in brain in different pathophysiological conditions including Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, ischemia, or traumatic brain injury. Recent investigations show that GLUT1 mediates the transport of some neuroactive drugs, such as glycosylated neuropeptides, low molecular weight heparin, and D-glucose derivatives, across the blood-brain barrier as a delivery system. By utilizing such highly specific transport mechanisms, it should be possible to establish strategies to regulate the entry of candidate drugs.

  20. The current state of knowledge on the neuroactive compounds that affect the development, mating and reproduction of spiders (Araneae) compared to insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawadro, Marta; Bednarek, Agata; Babczyńska, Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    The neuroendocrine system of insects, including the presence of the main neuroactive compounds, and their role in ontogenesis are probably best understood of all the arthropods. Development, metamorphosis, the maturation of the gonads, vitellogenesis and egg production are regulated by hormones (juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids) and neuropeptides. However, knowledge about their presence and functions in spiders is fragmentary. In this paper, we present a summary of the current data about the juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids and neuropeptides in selected groups of arthropods, with particular emphasis on spiders. This is the first article that takes into account the occurrence, action and role of hormones and neuropeptides in spiders. In addition, the suggestions for possible ways to study these compounds in Araneomorphae spiders are unique and cannot be found in the arachnological literature.

  1. Steroids and endocrine disruptors--History, recent state of art and open questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, Richard; Kubátová, Jana; Stárka, Luboslav

    2016-01-01

    This introductory chapter provides an overview of the levels and sites at which endocrine disruptors (EDs) affect steroid actions. In contrast to the special issue of Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology published three years ago and devoted to EDs as such, this paper focuses on steroids. We tried to point to more recent findings and opened questions. EDs interfere with steroid biosynthesis and metabolism either as inhibitors of relevant enzymes, or at the level of their expression. Particular attention was paid to enzymes metabolizing steroid hormones to biologically active products in target cells, such as aromatase, 5α-reductase and 3β-, 11β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. An important target for EDs is also steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR), responsible for steroid precursor trafficking to mitochondria. EDs influence receptor-mediated steroid actions at both genomic and non-genomic levels. The remarkable differences in response to various steroid-receptor ligands led to a more detailed investigation of events following steroid/disruptor binding to the receptors and to the mapping of the signaling cascades and nuclear factors involved. A virtual screening of a large array of EDs with steroid receptors, known as in silico methods (≡computer simulation), is another promising approach for studying quantitative structure activity relationships and docking. New data may be expected on the effect of EDs on steroid hormone binding to selective plasma transport proteins, namely transcortin and sex hormone-binding globulin. Little information is available so far on the effects of EDs on the major hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal axes, of which the kisspeptin/GPR54 system is of particular importance. Kisspeptins act as stimulators for hormone-induced gonadotropin secretion and their expression is regulated by sex steroids via a feed-back mechanism. Kisspeptin is now believed to be one of the key factors triggering puberty in

  2. Neuroactivity of detonation nanodiamonds: dose-dependent changes in transporter-mediated uptake and ambient level of excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitters in brain nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Pastukhov, Artem; Dudarenko, Marina; Galkin, Maxim; Borysov, Arsenii; Borisova, Tatiana

    2016-03-31

    Nanodiamonds are one of the most perspective nano-sized particles with superb physical and chemical properties, which are mainly composed of carbon sp(3) structures in the core with sp(2) and disorder/defect carbons on the surface. The research team recently demonstrated neuromodulatory properties of carbon nanodots with other than nanodiamonds hybridization types, i.e., sp(2) hybridized graphene islands and diamond-like sp(3) hybridized elements. In this study, neuroactive properties of uncoated nanodiamonds produced by detonation synthesis were assessed basing on their effects on transporter-mediated uptake and the ambient level of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), in isolated rat brain nerve terminals. It was shown that nanodiamonds in a dose-dependent manner attenuated the initial velocity of Na(+)-dependent transporter-mediated uptake and accumulation of L-[(14)C]glutamate and [(3)H]GABA by nerve terminals and increased the ambient level of these neurotransmitters. Also, nanodiamonds caused a weak reduction in acidification of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of the plasma membrane of nerve terminals. Therefore, despite different types of hybridization in nanodiamonds and carbon dots, they exhibit very similar effects on glutamate and GABA transport in nerve terminals and this common feature of both nanoparticles is presumably associated with their nanoscale size. Observed neuroactive properties of pure nanodiamonds can be used in neurotheranostics for simultaneous labeling/visualization of nerve terminals and modulation of key processes of glutamate- and GABAergic neurotransmission. In comparison with carbon dots, wider medical application involving hypo/hyperthermia, external magnetic fields, and radiolabel techniques can be perspective for nanodiamonds.

  3. Canadian boreal pulp and paper feedstocks contain neuroactive substances that interact in vitro with GABA and dopaminergic systems in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waye, Andrew; Annal, Malar; Tang, Andrew; Picard, Gabriel; Harnois, Frédéric; Guerrero-Analco, José A; Saleem, Ammar; Hewitt, L Mark; Milestone, Craig B; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T

    2014-01-15

    Pulp and paper wood feedstocks have been previously implicated as a source of chemicals with the ability to interact with or disrupt key neuroendocrine endpoints important in the control of reproduction. We tested nine Canadian conifers commonly used in pulp and paper production as well as 16 phytochemicals that have been observed in various pulp and paper mill effluent streams for their ability to interact in vitro with the enzymes monoamine oxidase (MAO), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and GABA-transaminase (GABA-T), and bind to the benzodiazepine-binding site of the GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)-BZD). These neuroendocrine endpoints are also important targets for treatment of neurological disorders such as anxiety, epilepsy, or depression. MAO and GAD were inhibited by various conifer extracts of different polarities, including major feedstocks such as balsam fir, black spruce, and white spruce. MAO was selectively stimulated or inhibited by many of the tested phytochemicals, with inhibition observed by a group of phenylpropenes (e.g. isoeugenol and vanillin). Selective GAD inhibition was also observed, with all of the resin acids tested being inhibitory. GABA(A)-BZD ligand displacement was also observed. We compiled a table identifying which of these phytochemicals have been described in each of the species tested here. Given the diversity of conifer species and plant chemicals with these specific neuroactivities, it is reasonable to propose that MAO and GAD inhibition reported in effluents is phytochemical in origin. We propose disruption of these neuroendocrine endpoints as a possible mechanism of reproductive inhibition, and also identify an avenue for potential research and sourcing of conifer-derived neuroactive natural products. © 2013.

  4. Anabolic steroids for rehabilitation after hip fracture in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Vaqas; Berg, Maayken E L van den; Cameron, Ian D; Crotty, Maria

    2016-01-01

    home. The other trial compared anabolic steroid injections every three weeks for six months and daily protein supplementation versus control in 40 "lean elderly women". Both trials found some evidence of better function in the steroid plus group. One trial reported greater independence, higher Harris hip scores and gait speeds in the steroid plus group at 12 months. The second trial found fewer participants in the anabolic steroid group were either dependent in at least two functions, including bathing, or dead at six and 12 months (one person in the control group died) (1/17 versus 7/18; RR 0.15, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.10; P = 0.06). Pooled mortality data (2/51 versus 3/51) from the two trials showed no evidence of a difference between the two groups at one year. Similarly, there was no evidence of between-group differences in individual adverse events. Three participants in the steroid group of one trial reported side effects of hoarseness and increased facial hair. The other trial reported better quality of life in the steroid plus group. The available evidence is insufficient to draw conclusions on the effects, primarily in terms of functional outcome and adverse events, of anabolic steroids, either separately or in combination with nutritional supplements, after surgical treatment of hip fracture in older people. Given that the available data points to the potential for more promising outcomes with a combined anabolic steroid and nutritional supplement intervention, we suggest that future research should focus on evaluating this combination.

  5. Anabolic steroids for rehabilitation after hip fracture in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Vaqas; van den Berg, Maayken E L; Cameron, Ian D; Crotty, Maria

    2014-10-06

    three weeks for six months and daily protein supplementation versus control in 40 "lean elderly women". Both trials found some evidence of better function in the steroid plus group. One trial reported greater independence, higher Harris hip scores and gait speeds in the steroid plus group at 12 months. The second trial found fewer participants in the anabolic steroid group were either dependent in at least two functions, including bathing, or dead at six and 12 months (one person in the control group died) (1/17 versus 7/18; RR 0.15, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.10; P = 0.06). Pooled mortality data (2/51 versus 3/51) from the two trials showed no evidence of a difference between the two groups at one year. Similarly, there was no evidence of between-group differences in individual adverse events. Three participants in the steroid group of one trial reported side effects of hoarseness and increased facial hair. The other trial reported better quality of life in the steroid plus group. The available evidence is insufficient to draw conclusions on the effects, primarily in terms of functional outcome and adverse events, of anabolic steroids, either separately or in combination with nutritional supplements, after surgical treatment of hip fracture in older people. Given that the available data points to the potential for more promising outcomes with a combined anabolic steroid and nutritional supplement intervention, we suggest that future research should focus on evaluating this combination.

  6. [Antenatal Steroid Therapy in Threatened Premature Birth - State of the Art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulou, Dimitra; Hentschel, Roland

    2017-09-15

    The aim of this work is to provide an overview of the recommendations in the current literature for the induction of lung maturation therapy. In particular, special attention is focused on specific situations, such as chorioamnionitis, intrauterine growth retardation and preeclampsia, which often lead to premature birth. Additionally, some aspects of antenatal steroid therapy, despite its widespread use, still require clarification. Among them is the repetitive administration of steroid therapy. On the basis of the Cochrane analysis of 2015, advantages and disadvantages for children and pregnant women are explained. Furthermore, the data on the use of antenatal steroid therapy in multiple pregnancies remain insufficient. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Comparison of steroid pulse therapy and conventional oral steroid therapy as initial treatment for autoimmune pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Takashi; Uchida, Kazushige; Matsushita, Mitsunobu; Ikeura, Tsukasa; Fukui, Toshiro; Takaoka, Makoto; Nishio, Akiyoshi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2011-05-01

    The efficacy of oral steroid therapy for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is well known, and oral prednisolone treatment is most usually commenced at 30-40 mg/day, but there have been few reports about comparative studies of oral steroid therapy and steroid pulse therapy as the initial treatment for AIP. We studied the clinical course and image findings to estimate the utility of steroid pulse therapy for AIP, comparing it with oral steroid therapy. Laboratory and image findings were assessed retrospectively in 11 patients who received steroid pulse therapy, and the findings were compared to those in 10 patients who received conventional oral steroid therapy. Change in pancreatic size showed no significant difference between the therapies after 2 weeks of treatment. Significant improvement of lower bile duct strictures after 2 weeks of treatment and that of immunoglobulin values within 6 months were shown with both therapies. However, steroid pulse therapy showed significant improvement of γ-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) in 2 weeks and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in 2 and 8 weeks, compared with oral steroid therapy. Moreover, there was one patient in whom the lower bile duct stricture was not improved by oral steroid therapy, but it did show improvement with steroid pulse therapy. Initial steroid pulse therapy is a beneficial alternative to oral steroid therapy for the improvement of bile duct lesions. In future, the accumulation of a larger number of patients receiving steroid pulse therapy is needed, and prospective studies will be required.

  8. A review of designer anabolic steroids in equine sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Christopher C; McLeod, Malcolm D

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, the potential for anabolic steroid abuse in equine sports has increased due to the growing availability of designer steroids. These compounds are readily accessible online in 'dietary' or 'nutritional' supplements and contain steroidal compounds which have never been tested or approved as veterinary agents. They typically have unusual structures or substitution and as a result may pass undetected through current anti-doping screening protocols, making them a significant concern for the integrity of the industry. Despite considerable focus in human sports, until recently there has been limited investigation into these compounds in equine systems. To effectively respond to the threat of designer steroids, a detailed understanding of their metabolism is needed to identify markers and metabolites arising from their misuse. A summary of the literature detailing the metabolism of these compounds in equine systems is presented with an aim to identify metabolites suitable for incorporation into screening protocols by anti-doping laboratories. The future of equine anti-doping research is likely to be guided by the incorporation of alternate testing matrices into routine screening, the improvement of in vitro technologies that can mimic in vivo equine metabolism, and the improvement of instrumentation or analytical methods that allow for the development of untargeted screening, and metabolomics approaches for use in anti-doping screening protocols. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-01-01

    According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS) is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports and widespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem. Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, ...

  10. Steroidal saponins from Asparagus acutifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautour, Marc; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2007-10-01

    Six new steroidal saponins (1-6) were isolated from the roots of A. acutifolius L., together with a known spirostanol glycoside (7). Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D NMR, FABMS and HRESIMS). Compounds 4-7 demonstrated antifungal activity against the human pathogenic yeasts C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis with MICs values between 12.5 and 100 microg/ml.

  11. Cardiotoxic effects of cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids in the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welder, A A; Melchert, R B

    1993-04-01

    Cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse have become major drug problems in the United States. Cocaine has been designated as "the drug of greatest national health concern" while as many as 1 million Americans have used or are currently using anabolic-androgenic steroids to promote athletic performance and/or improve physical appearance. Unfavorable cardiovascular events have been linked to both cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse in healthy, physically active individuals. Deaths of several United States athletes in 1986 focused attention on the life-threatening cardiovascular consequences of cocaine abuse. Reports of myocardial injury with anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse are anecdotal. Nevertheless, case reports have illustrated the alarming cardiotoxic potential of these steroids in athletes. Anabolic-androgenic steroids were correlated to myocardial infarction in weight lifters and cardiomyopathy in a former professional football player. From the total emergency room episodes where cocaine was mentioned in 1990, approximately 66% of these episodes occurred in young individuals 18-29 years of age. Over 500,000 of the individuals currently taking anabolic-androgenic steroids for nonmedical purposes are high-school children. Because cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids are used improperly, more focus needs to be paid to the toxic mechanisms of their adverse effects. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss mechanisms whereby exercise and/or exercise training may alter the cardiovascular responses to these drugs. Furthermore, we would like to illustrate that contrary to the popular belief, acute and chronic abuse of cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids have a negative impact on exercise performance.

  12. Metabolism and excretion of anabolic steroids in doping control--new steroids and new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenoo, Peter; Delbeke, Frans T

    2006-11-01

    The use of anabolic steroids in sports is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Until the 1990s, anabolic steroids were solely manufactured by pharmaceutical companies, albeit sometimes on demand from national sports agencies as part of their doping program. Recently the list of prohibited anabolic steroids in sports has grown due to the addition of numerous steroids that have been introduced on the market by non-pharmaceutical companies. Moreover, several designer steroids, specifically developed to circumvent doping control, have also been detected. Because anabolic steroids are most often intensively subjected to phase I metabolism and seldom excreted unchanged, excretion studies need to be performed in order to detect their misuse. This review attempts to summarise the results of excretion studies of recent additions to the list of prohibited steroids in sports. Additionally an update and insight on new aspects for "older" steroids with respect to doping control is given.

  13. Tendo Achillis pain: steroids and outcome.

    OpenAIRE

    Read, M T; Motto, S G

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective study is presented of 83 athletes with tendo Achillis pain (TAP) treated conservatively over a 12-year period from 1976 to 1988. Local steroid injections did not contribute to an earlier return to sport, though many individuals were improved symptomatically. Local steroids were not found to have a deleterious effect on outcome. Steroids were used most frequently in the chronic cases that presented late and had been treated previously: this group had most recurrences and surgic...

  14. Anabolic Steroid Reversal of Denervation Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    anabolic steroid treatment could have a more obvious effect when given during analogous states of muscle healing or growth . Indeed, quicker and more...potentiate muscle growth and strengthening. Elashoff et al. in a meta-analysis of human anabolic steroid use studies concluded that there was no...certainly “denervation atrophy” plays a significant role. Anabolic steroids , which have been shown to cause hypertrophy of muscle fibers, increase net

  15. Analytical approach for the determination of steroid profile of humans by gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry aimed at distinguishing between endogenous and exogenous steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulska, Ewa; Gorczyca, Damian; Zalewska, Izabela; Pokrywka, Andrzej; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2015-03-15

    The contamination of commonly used supplements by unknown steroids as well as their metabolites (parent compounds) become a challenge for the analytical laboratories. Although the determination of steroids profile is not trivial because of the complex matrix and low concentration of single compound, one of the most difficult current problem is to distinguish, during analytical procedure, endogenous androgens such as testosterone, dehydrotestosterone or dehydroepiandrosterone from their synthetic equivalents. The aim of this work was to develop and validate an analytical procedure for determination of the steroid profile in human urine by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) toward distinguishing between endogenous and exogenous steroids. Beside the optimization of the experimental parameters for gas chromatography separation and mass spectrometry, attention was focused on urine sample preparation. Using an optimized sample preparation protocol it was possible to achieve better chromatographic resolutions and better sensitivity enabling the determination of 5 steroids, androsterone, etiocholanolone, testosterone, 5-androstandiol, 11-hydroxyandrdostane, pregnandiol, with the expanded uncertainty (k=2) below 1‰. This enable to evaluate the significant shift of the δ(13)C/(12)C [‰] values for each of examined steroids (excluding ERC). The analytical protocol described in this work was successfully used for the confirmation of positive founding urine by evaluation T/E ratio after GC/C/IRMS analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adalimumab treatment may replace or enhance the activity of steroids in steroid-refractory tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Su; Lee, Yumi; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Sung-Han

    2012-08-01

    We describe a paradoxical response involving the central nervous system in a patient with steroid-refractory tuberculous meningitis that was unresponsive to systemic corticosteroids but was improved with adalimumab. The immunomodulatory effect of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors may have a role in replacing or enhancing the activity of steroids in the management of steroid-refractory tuberculous meningitis.

  17. The nature of placental steroid sulphatase deficiency in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, C. M.; van Breda, A. J.; van den Berg, F. M.; Jöbsis, A. C.

    1983-01-01

    Human placental steroid sulphatase was partially purified from microsome suspensions of control and steroid sulphatase deficient placentae. After polyacrylamidegel electrophoresis, staining for protein and enzymatic activity revealed that steroid sulphatase from control placenta migrates at Rf =

  18. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gainers How is it used? Injected intramuscularly Gels, creams, transdermal patches Tablets, sublingual-tablets and capsules Paraphernalia Needle How does it affect the body? Many effects depending on age, sex, the type, ...

  19. Effect of sulfonated steroids on steroidogenic cytochrome P450-dependent steroid hydroxylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunzig, J; Bernhardt, R

    2017-07-08

    In the last decades, sulfonated steroids evolved from inactive metabolites intended for excretion to highly relevant compounds involved in many physiological processes. Investigations of the impact of sulfonated steroids on the steroid hormone biosynthesis revealed that, on the one hand, these can serve as substrate for steroidogenic cytochromes P450 and, on the other hand, these are able to influence the catalytic properties of these enzymes. In this review the relevance of sulfonated steroids for the steroid hormone biosynthesis will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. From Omics to Drug Metabolism and High Content Screen of Natural Product in Zebrafish: A New Model for Discovery of Neuroactive Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Wai Hung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The zebrafish (Danio rerio has recently become a common model in the fields of genetics, environmental science, toxicology, and especially drug screening. Zebrafish has emerged as a biomedically relevant model for in vivo high content drug screening and the simultaneous determination of multiple efficacy parameters, including behaviour, selectivity, and toxicity in the content of the whole organism. A zebrafish behavioural assay has been demonstrated as a novel, rapid, and high-throughput approach to the discovery of neuroactive, psychoactive, and memory-modulating compounds. Recent studies found a functional similarity of drug metabolism systems in zebrafish and mammals, providing a clue with why some compounds are active in zebrafish in vivo but not in vitro, as well as providing grounds for the rationales supporting the use of a zebrafish screen to identify prodrugs. Here, we discuss the advantages of the zebrafish model for evaluating drug metabolism and the mode of pharmacological action with the emerging omics approaches. Why this model is suitable for identifying lead compounds from natural products for therapy of disorders with multifactorial etiopathogenesis and imbalance of angiogenesis, such as Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, cardiotoxicity, cerebral hemorrhage, dyslipidemia, and hyperlipidemia, is addressed.

  1. In Silico Affinity Profiling of Neuroactive Polyphenols for Post-Traumatic Calpain Inactivation: A Molecular Docking and Atomistic Simulation Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-activated nonlysosomal neutral proteases, calpains, are believed to be early mediators of neuronal damage associated with neuron death and axonal degeneration after traumatic neural injuries. In this study, a library of biologically active small molecular weight calpain inhibitors was used for model validation and inhibition site recognition. Subsequently, two natural neuroactive polyphenols, curcumin and quercetin, were tested for their sensitivity and activity towards calpain’s proteolytic sequence and compared with the known calpain inhibitors via detailed molecular mechanics (MM, molecular dynamics (MD, and docking simulations. The MM and MD energy profiles (SJA6017 < AK275 < AK295 < PD151746 < quercetin < leupeptin < PD150606 < curcumin < ALLN < ALLM < MDL-28170 < calpeptin and the docking analysis (AK275 < AK295 < PD151746 < ALLN < PD150606 < curcumin < leupeptin < quercetin < calpeptin < SJA6017 < MDL-28170 < ALLM demonstrated that polyphenols conferred comparable calpain inhibition profiling. The modeling paradigm used in this study provides the first detailed account of corroboration of enzyme inhibition efficacy of calpain inhibitors and the respective calpain–calpain inhibitor molecular complexes’ energetic landscape and in addition stimulates the polyphenol bioactive paradigm for post-SCI intervention with implications reaching to experimental in vitro, in cyto, and in vivo studies.

  2. A sensitive and practical RP-HPLC-FLD for determination of the low neuroactive amino acid levels in body fluids and its application in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan-Li; Yu, Si-Yang; Wu, Shi-Hua; Bao, Ai-Min

    2016-03-11

    Ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) generally fails as a method to determine low levels of free amino acids (AAs) in body fluids. Here we present a modified reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) protocol for the determination of AAs in body fluids and its application in mood disorder patients. We improved a previous research protocol by modifying i) sample preparation, including deproteination, ii) derivitization, including derivating agent and condition, and iii) sample separation, which is mainly determined by the pH value, the components and the additives of the mobile phases. The combination of these modifications, together with fluorescence detection (FLD), allows sensitive and practical determination of free AA levels in body fluids of depressive patients. This protocol was validated by determining the postmortem cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels of 8 major depressive disorder (MDD) patients, 9 bipolar disorder (BD) patients, and 19 well-matched controls, while also testing the plasma and CSF AA levels of living MDD patients. CSF Glu and GABA levels were both significantly decreased in MDD but not in BD patients. The data indicate that this RP-HPLC-FLD protocol is applicable for detection of low levels of neuroactive AAs in body fluids, as well as for routine clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Osteonecrosis following alcohol, cocaine, and steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziraldo, Laura; O'Connor, Mortimer B; Blake, Simon P; Phelan, Mark J

    2011-07-01

    Alcohol, steroids and cocaine have all been shown to be independent risk factors for osteonecrosis when taken in excess. Here we present a case of a young girl who developed debilitating osteonecrosis secondary to low doses of alcohol, steroids and cocaine. We feel it is important to highlight to those caring for such patients of the potential devastating complication of these three agents.

  4. Anabolic Steroids May Tax the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165824.html Anabolic Steroids May Tax the Heart Weight-lifters using the ... HealthDay News) -- Long-term use of muscle-building anabolic steroids may take a toll on the heart, researchers ...

  5. Steroids Update, Part 1 and Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Calvin; Duda, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Part 1 of this two-part article describes the views of a physician who believes that athletes who want to take steroids are best protected by receiving a prescription and monitoring. Part 2 discusses the more general view of physicians that steroids should not be prescribed but perhaps should be monitored. (MT)

  6. Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Steroid Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Kent F.; Kleiman, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    Used Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory and Profile of Mood States to assess psychological characteristics in 72 adolescent males: 24 adolescent athletes who reported steroid use, 24 athletes with no steroid use, and 24 nonathletes. Although some personality variables differentiated between athletes and nonathletes, no personality variables…

  7. Steroids for Treating Cancer (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the word "steroid" you may immediately think of muscle-bound body builders and the health risks they incur from abusing anabolic steroids — drugs that were originally intended for people with growth disorders, low levels of testosterone, and other health ...

  8. Osteonecrosis following alcohol, cocaine, and steroid use.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ziraldo, Laura

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol, steroids and cocaine have all been shown to be independent risk factors for osteonecrosis when taken in excess. Here we present a case of a young girl who developed debilitating osteonecrosis secondary to low doses of alcohol, steroids and cocaine. We feel it is important to highlight to those caring for such patients of the potential devastating complication of these three agents.

  9. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  10. LC-MS based analysis of endogenous steroid hormones in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Grass, Juliane; Stalder, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    The quantification of endogenous steroid hormone concentrations in hair is increasingly used as a method for obtaining retrospective information on long-term integrated hormone exposure. Several different analytical procedures have been employed for hair steroid analysis, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) being recognized as a particularly powerful analytical tool. Several methodological aspects affect the performance of LC-MS systems for hair steroid analysis, including sample preparation and pretreatment, steroid extraction, post-incubation purification, LC methodology, ionization techniques and MS specifications. Here, we critically review the differential value of such protocol variants for hair steroid hormones analysis, focusing on both analytical quality and practical feasibility issues. Our results show that, when methodological challenges are adequately addressed, LC-MS protocols can not only yield excellent sensitivity and specificity but are also characterized by relatively simple sample processing and short run times. This makes LC-MS based hair steroid protocols particularly suitable as a high-quality option for routine application in research contexts requiring the processing of larger numbers of samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inpatient infliximab is ineffective at preventing colectomy for steroid refractory extensive colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel E; Lauria, Alexis; Puleo, Frances J; Berg, Arthur; Stewart, David B

    2017-11-01

    Despite data suggesting safety and efficacy in ulcerative colitis patients treated with inpatient infliximab, prior studies did not focus on patients with extensive colitis, the group at highest risk for requiring surgery. This was a single center, retrospective study (2008-2015) of consecutive patients who required admission because of severe extensive ulcerative colitis defined by preoperative symptoms and computed tomography scans and postoperative histology. Patients admitted for high-dose steroids were compared with steroid refractory inpatients provided with one or two infusions of infliximab. The primary study outcome was colectomy rates; secondary outcomes included mean length of stay and 60-d complication rates. A total of 174 patients required admission with steroids for extensive ulcerative colitis. Of these, 19 (10%) also received infliximab. Among the subjects treated with infliximab, 15 (78%) required total colectomy during that admission versus 81 (52%) who received steroids alone (P = 0.03). Postoperative readmission rates, surgical-site infections, return to the operating room, and all-complication rates were similar between the cohorts (P > 0.05). For steroid refractory extensive ulcerative colitis, inpatient infliximab did not lower colectomy rates or increase postoperative complications compared with patients treated with steroids alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Steroid-induced glaucoma and childhood blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shikha; Shah, Pooja; Grewal, Sartaj; Chaurasia, Abadh Kishore; Gupta, Viney

    2015-11-01

    To determine the prevalence, risk factors and the severity of visual loss caused by steroid-induced glaucoma (SIG) among children. Five-year records of all paediatric glaucoma cases presenting to the glaucoma services of our tertiary care centre were evaluated. Data of children presenting with SIG were recorded with respect to their visual acuity, highest baseline intraocular pressure, cup:disc ratio, perimetry and need of glaucoma filtering surgery. Parents were interviewed to assess the indication of steroid use, type of steroid used, person prescribing it and the duration of use. The prevalence of visual impairment was calculated based on WHO criteria. Of 1259 cases of paediatric glaucoma presenting at our centre over 5 years, 59 children (4.7%) were diagnosed with SIG. Of these, 51 (87%) had been prescribed topical steroids for vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). The median duration of steroid use was 18 months (range 1 month to 8 years). Also, 82% of children with VKC had been prescribed steroids by the treating ophthalmologist and 52% had been on topical steroids for >1 year. Glaucomatous optic neuropathy was the cause of blindness in 37.3% (22/59) and low vision in 23.7% (14/59) children. And 27% (16/59) were unilaterally blind at presentation. A third of the children presenting with SIG to our tertiary care centre were bilaterally blind at presentation. Ophthalmologists need to consider steroid-sparing agents to treat VKC and monitor these children closely for glaucoma if they prescribe topical steroids in order to prevent unnecessary childhood blindness. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Steroid Therapy - Current Indications in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Grover

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroids are a widely used group of drugs in anaesthesia practice, sometimes with definite indication and sometimes without indication. When used judiciously they have proved to be of immense help. There has been a renewed interest in the use of steroids in modern day perioperative medicine. In the following article the recent trends, relevance and consensus issues on the use of steroids as adjunct pharmacological agents in relation to anaesthesia have been discussed, along with emphasis on important clinical aspects of their perioperative usefulness.

  14. STEROIDS MOST OFTEN USED BY SPORTSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vasić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abusage of steroids can cause serious health problems some of which are incurable, such as liver cancer. They cause a series of other effects: pimples, hairiness, boldness, gynecomastness, headaches, impotence, problems with heart and kidney functions. In addition to physical disorders, there are psychological problems too, such as aggression, depression and even addiction. Why do sportsmen abuse steroids? The main reason is to improve results in sports competitions. Others do that in order to increase muscular mass and decrease fat tissue. So you should decide for yourselves – steroids or health?

  15. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the Administrator...

  16. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  17. [Steroid use in free time bodybuilders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels-Lucht, Felicitas; Schirmer, Jan; Klauer, Thomas; Freyberger, Harald; Lucht, Michael

    2011-12-01

    A sample of 74 male bodybuilders was analyzed for relationships between steroid abuse (abuse n=31; no abuse n=43) and self-esteem (Multidimensionale Selbstwertskala MSWS), body-image (Body-Image Questionnaire FK-ASA) as well as teasing (Physical Appearance Related Teasing Scale PARTS). In a logistic regression analysis age (p=0.001), low values for body expression (p=0.036) and high self-esteem (p=0.024) predicted steroid intake; training frequency or teasing experiences showed no effect. Contrary to earlier findings high and not low self-esteem was associated with steroid abuse. Because of the overlap between constructs narcissism and self-esteem further studies should disentangle the role of narcissism and self-esteem for steroid abuse in bodybuilders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El Osta, Rabih; Almont, Thierry; Diligent, Catherine; Hubert, Nicolas; Eschwège, Pascal; Hubert, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    .... Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern...

  19. Severe laryngitis following chronic anabolic steroid abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S; Masood, A; Pickles, J; Moumoulidis, I

    2008-03-01

    The effects of anabolic steroids on the quality of voice have been well documented; however, no study has established significant structural changes in the larynx as a direct result of anabolic steroid use. We report a unique case of a 47-year-old male smoker and professional body builder who presented with progressive stridor and hoarseness following abuse of anabolic steroids over a period of two years. Conservative management failed to resolve his symptoms and a planned tracheostomy was performed to secure his airway. Subsequently he was treated with multiple laser resections and eventually decannulated. No case of severe laryngitis in association with anabolic steroid usage has been reported previously in the literature.

  20. STEROIDS MOST OFTEN USED BY SPORTSMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Vasić; Dragoslav Jakonić

    2007-01-01

    Abusage of steroids can cause serious health problems some of which are incurable, such as liver cancer. They cause a series of other effects: pimples, hairiness, boldness, gynecomastness, headaches, impotence, problems with heart and kidney functions. In addition to physical disorders, there are psychological problems too, such as aggression, depression and even addiction. Why do sportsmen abuse steroids? The main reason is to improve results in sports competitions. Others do that in order t...

  1. Mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors regulate steroid biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhin, A.G.; Papadopoulos, V.; Costa, E.; Krueger, K.E. (Georgetown Univ. School of Medicine, Washington, DC (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Recent observations on the steroid synthetic capability within the brain open the possibility that benzodiazepines may influence steroid synthesis in nervous tissue through interactions with peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites, which are highly expressed in steroidogenic cells and associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. To examine this possibility nine molecules that exhibit a greater than 10,000-fold difference in their affinities for peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites were tested for their effects on a well-established steroidogenic model system, the Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cell line. 4{prime}-Chlorodiazepam, PK 11195, and PK 14067 stimulated steroid production by 2-fold in Y-1 cells, whereas diazepam, flunitrazepam, zolpidem, and PK 14068 displayed a lower (1.2- to 1.5-fold) maximal stimulation. In contrast, clonazepam and flumazenil did not stimulate steroid synthesis. The potencies of these compounds to inhibit {sup 3}H-labeled PK 11195 binding to peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition sites correlated with their potencies to stimulate steroid production. Similar findings were observed in bovine and rat adrenocortical cell preparations. These results suggest that ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine recognition site acting on this mitochondrial receptor can enhance steroid production. This action may contribute specificity to the pharmacological profile of drugs preferentially acting on the benzodiazepine recognition site associated with the outer membrane of certain mitochondrial populations.

  2. The role of sulfated steroid hormones in reproductive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Joachim; Bakhaus, Katharina; Bernhardt, Rita; Blaschka, Carina; Dezhkam, Yaser; Fietz, Daniela; Grosser, Gary; Hartmann, Katja; Hartmann, Michaela F; Neunzig, Jens; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios; Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Scheiner-Bobis, Georgios; Schuler, Gerhard; Shihan, Mazen; Wrenzycki, Christine; Wudy, Stefan A; Bergmann, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Sulfated steroid hormones, such as dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate or estrone-3-sulfate, have long been regarded as inactive metabolites as they cannot activate classical steroid receptors. Some of them are present in the blood circulation at quite high concentrations, but generally sulfated steroids exhibit low membrane permeation due to their hydrophilic properties. However, sulfated steroid hormones can actively be imported into specific target cells via uptake carriers, such as the sodium-dependent organic anion transporter SOAT, and, after hydrolysis by the steroid sulfatase (so-called sulfatase pathway), contribute to the overall regulation of steroid responsive organs. To investigate the biological significance of sulfated steroid hormones for reproductive processes in humans and animals, the research group "Sulfated Steroids in Reproduction" was established by the German Research Foundation DFG (FOR1369). Projects of this group deal with transport of sulfated steroids, sulfation of free steroids, desulfation by the steroid sulfatase, effects of sulfated steroids on steroid biosynthesis and membrane receptors as well as MS-based profiling of sulfated steroids in biological samples. This review and concept paper presents key findings from all these projects and provides a broad overview over the current research on sulfated steroid hormones in the field of reproduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Steroidal saponins from Dioscorea preussii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabopda, Turibio Kuiate; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Tanaka, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Ngadjui, Bonaventure Tchaleu; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2014-09-01

    Three new steroidal saponins, named diospreussinosides A-C (1-3), along with two known ones (4, 5) were isolated from rhizomes of Dioscorea preussii. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry as (25S)-17α,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3β-yl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (25S)-17α,25-dihydroxyspirost-5-en-3β-yl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), and (24S,25R)-17α,24,25-trihydroxyspirost-5-en-3β-yl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (3). The spirostane-type skeleton of compound 3 possessing an unusual dihydroxylation pattern on the F-ring is reported for the first time. Cytotoxicity of compounds 2-5 was evaluated against two human colon carcinoma cell lines (HT-29 and HCT 116). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The noninferiority of the nonparticulate steroid dexamethasone vs the particulate steroids betamethasone and triamcinolone in lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Yahchouchi, Christine; Geske, Jennifer R; Carter, Rickey E; Diehn, Felix E; Wald, John T; Murthy, Naveen S; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Thielen, Kent R; Morris, Jonathan M; Amrami, Kimberly K; Maus, Timothy P

    2013-11-01

    To assess whether a nonparticulate steroid (dexamethasone, 10 mg) is less clinically effective than the particulate steroids (triamcinolone, 80 mg; betamethasone, 12 mg) in lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESIs) in subjects with radicular pain with or without radiculopathy. Retrospective observational study with noninferiority analysis of dexamethasone relative to particulate steroids. Single academic radiology pain management practice. Three thousand six hundred forty-five lumbar TFESIs at the L4-5, L5-S1, or S1 neural foramina, performed on 2,634 subjects. Subjects were assessed with a pain numerical rating scale (NRS, 0-10) and Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (R-M) prior to TFESI, and at 2 weeks and 2 months follow-up. For categorical outcomes, successful pain relief was defined as either ≥50% reduction in NRS or pain 0/10; functional success was defined as ≥40% reduction in R-M score. Noninferiority analysis was performed with δ = -10% as the limit of noninferiority. Continuous outcomes (mean NRS, R-M scores) were analyzed for noninferiority with difference bounds of 0.3 for NRS scores and 1.0 for R-M scores. With categorical outcomes, dexamethasone was demonstrated to be noninferior to the particulate steroids in pain relief and functional improvement at 2 months. Using continuous outcomes, dexamethasone was demonstrated to be superior to the particulate steroids in both pain relief and functional improvement at 2 months. This retrospective observational study reveals no evidence that dexamethasone is less effective than particulate steroids in lumbar TFESIs performed for radicular pain with or without radiculopathy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. 76 FR 72355 - Classification of Two Steroids, Prostanozol and Methasterone, as Schedule III Anabolic Steroids...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... and complications of chronic use. Internal and Emergency Medicine, 4: 289-296. Ringold, H.J., Batres... veterinary use. Approved medical uses for anabolic steroids include treatment of androgen deficiency in...-androgenic steroids. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 32(2): 534-542. Fragkaki, A.G., Angelis, Y.S...

  6. Optimised deconjugation of androgenic steroid conjugates in bovine urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mikael; Frandsen, Henrik L; Andersen, Jens H

    2017-04-01

    After administration of steroids to animals the steroids are partially metabolised in the liver and kidney to phase 2 metabolites, i.e., glucuronic acid or sulphate conjugates. During analysis these conjugated metabolites are normally deconjugated enzymatically with aryl sulphatase and glucuronidase resulting in free steroids in the extract. It is well known that some sulphates are not deconjugated using aryl sulphatase; instead, for example, solvolysis can be used for deconjugation of these aliphatic sulphates. The effectiveness of solvolysis on androgenic steroid sulphates was tested with selected aliphatic steroid sulphates (boldenone sulphate, nortestosteron sulphate and testosterone sulphate), and the method was validated for analysis of androgenic steroids in bovine urine using free steroids, steroid sulphates and steroid glucuronides as standards. Glucuronidase and sulphuric acid in ethyl acetate were used for deconjugation and the extract was purified by solid-phase extraction. The final extract was evaporated to dryness, re-dissolved and analysed by LC-MS/MS.

  7. Anabolic steroid use by male and female middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, A D; Zaichkowsky, L D; Gardner, D E; Micheli, L J

    1998-05-01

    The prevalence of anabolic steroid use by high school and college students has been reported in the literature. However, rumors persist regarding the use of steroids by younger populations. To assess the extent of steroid use by male and female middle school students and to explore their attitudes and perceptions about these drugs. Methods. A confidential self-report questionnaire was administered to 466 male and 499 female students between 9 and 13 years of age (mean +/- SD, 11.4 +/- 0.9 years) in 5th, 6th, and 7th grades from four public middle schools in Massachusetts. The number of students reporting steroid use and differences between users' and nonusers' underlying attitudes and perceptions about these drugs were evaluated. The response rate was 82% (965/1175 eligible). Results indicated that 2.7% of all middle school students reported using steroids; 2.6% were males and 2.8% were females. When steroid users were compared with nonusers, 47% versus 43% thought that steroids make muscles bigger; 58% versus 31% thought that steroids make muscles stronger; 31% versus 11% thought that steroids improve athletic performance; 23% versus 13% thought that steroids make one look better; 23% versus 9% knew someone their own age who currently took steroids; 38% versus 4% were asked by someone to take steroids; 54% versus 91% thought that steroids were bad for them; and 35% versus 2% indicated that they would take steroids in the future. Additional analyses determined steroid user involvement in sports and activities. The results of this study suggest that the problem of illicit steroid use extends to children and young adolescents and that a segment of this population is mindful of the potential physiologic effects of steroids. This information will be useful to pediatricians, sport authorities, and school teachers whose guidance will become increasingly more important as steroid educational interventions for male and female middle school students are developed.

  8. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  9. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...... pace, which demand a closer look at the relations between arts and technology. The composers’ understanding of her occupation is challenged – and alongside, mediatisation and changes in distribution mark an incursion on solid conceptions of the artwork. Together, this means changing conditions for both...

  10. Review of Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Borges; G. Eisele; C. Byrd

    2001-07-31

    An area that has been overlooked within personnel security evaluations is employee use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Current drug testing within the federal government does not include testing for anabolic steroids, and the difficulties to implement such testing protocols-not to mention the cost involved-make AAS testing highly improbable. The basis of this report is to bring to the forefront the damage that anabolic steroids can cause from both a physical and a psychological standpoint. Most individuals who use AASs do so to increase their muscle mass because they wish to gain some type of competitive edge during athletic competition or they wish to enhance their physical features for self-satisfaction and self-esteem (i.e., body building). Security officers are one group of men who often take high doses of anabolic steroids, according to the Second Report of the Senate Standing Committee (1990). The negative psychological characteristics for AAS use is extensive and includes prominent hostility, aggressiveness, irritability, euphoria, grandiose beliefs, hyperactivity, reckless behavior, increased sexual appetite, unpredictability, poor impulse control, mood fluctuations, and insomnia. The drug may invoke a sense of power and invincibility (Leckman and Scahill, 1990). Depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, fatigue, impaired concentration, decreased libido, and even suicidality (Pope and Katz, 1992) have been noted with steroid withdrawal. It appears that long-term users of AAS experience similar characteristics as other substance abusers (i.e., craving, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms).

  11. Topical steroid addiction in atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukaya M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mototsugu Fukaya,1 Kenji Sato,2 Mitsuko Sato,3 Hajime Kimata,4 Shigeki Fujisawa,5 Haruhiko Dozono,6 Jun Yoshizawa,7 Satoko Minaguchi8 1Tsurumai Kouen Clinic, Nagoya, 2Department of Dermatology, Hannan Chuo Hospital, Osaka, 3Sato Pediatric Clinic, Osaka, 4Kimata Hajime Clinic, Osaka, 5Fujisawa Dermatology Clinic, Tokyo, 6Dozono Medical House, Kagoshima, 7Yoshizawa Dermatology Clinic, Yokohama, 8Department of Dermatology, Kounosu Kyousei Hospital, Saitama, Japan Abstract: The American Academy of Dermatology published a new guideline regarding topical therapy in atopic dermatitis in May 2014. Although topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome had been mentioned as possible side effects of topical steroids in a 2006 review article in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, no statement was made regarding this illness in the new guidelines. This suggests that there are still controversies regarding this illness. Here, we describe the clinical features of topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome, based on the treatment of many cases of the illness. Because there have been few articles in the medical literature regarding this illness, the description in this article will be of some benefit to better understand the illness and to spur discussion regarding topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome. Keywords: topical steroid addiction, atopic dermatitis, red burning skin syndrome, rebound, corticosteroid, eczema

  12. A unifying biology of sex steroid-induced apoptosis in prostate and breast cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahman, Balkees; Curpan, Ramona F; Hawsawi, Yousef M; Fan, Ping; Jordan, V Craig

    2018-01-01

    Prostate and breast cancer are the two cancers with the highest incidence in men and women, respectively. Here, we focus on the known biology of acquired resistance to antihormone therapy of prostate and breast cancer and compare laboratory and clinical similarities in the evolution of the disease. Laboratory studies and clinical observations in prostate and breast cancer demonstrate that cell selection pathways occur during acquired resistance to antihormonal therapy. Following sex steroid deprivation, both prostate and breast cancer models show an initial increased acquired sensitivity to the growth potential of sex steroids. Subsequently, prostate and breast cancer cells either become dependent upon the antihormone treatment or grow spontaneously in the absence of hormones. Paradoxically, the physiologic sex steroids now kill a proportion of selected, but vulnerable, resistant tumor cells. The sex steroid receptor complex triggers apoptosis. We draw parallels between acquired resistance in prostate and breast cancer to sex steroid deprivation. Clinical observations and patient trials confirm the veracity of the laboratory studies. We consider therapeutic strategies to increase response rates in clinical trials of metastatic disease that can subsequently be applied as a preemptive salvage adjuvant therapy. The goal of future advances is to enhance response rates and deploy a safe strategy earlier in the treatment plan to save lives. The introduction of a simple evidence-based enhanced adjuvant therapy as a global healthcare strategy has the potential to control recurrence, reduce hospitalization, reduce healthcare costs and maintain a healthier population that contributes to society. PMID:29162647

  13. Measurement of Steroid Concentrations in Brain Tissue: Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taves, Matthew D.; Ma, Chunqi; Heimovics, Sarah A.; Saldanha, Colin J.; Soma, Kiran K.

    2011-01-01

    It is well recognized that steroids are synthesized de novo in the brain (neurosteroids). In addition, steroids circulating in the blood enter the brain. Steroids play numerous roles in the brain, such as influencing neural development, adult neuroplasticity, behavior, neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. In order to understand the regulation and functions of steroids in the brain, it is important to directly measure steroid concentrations in brain tissue. In this brief review, we discuss methods for the detection and quantification of steroids in the brain. We concisely present the major advantages and disadvantages of different technical approaches at various experimental stages: euthanasia, tissue collection, steroid extraction, steroid separation, and steroid measurement. We discuss, among other topics, the potential effects of anesthesia and saline perfusion prior to tissue collection; microdissection via Palkovits punch; solid phase extraction; chromatographic separation of steroids; and immunoassays and mass spectrometry for steroid quantification, particularly the use of mass spectrometry for “steroid profiling.” Finally, we discuss the interpretation of local steroid concentrations, such as comparing steroid levels in brain tissue with those in the circulation (plasma vs. whole blood samples; total vs. free steroid levels). We also present reference values for a variety of steroids in different brain regions of adult rats. This brief review highlights some of the major methodological considerations at multiple experimental stages and provides a broad framework for designing studies that examine local steroid levels in the brain as well as other steroidogenic tissues, such as thymus, breast, and prostate. PMID:22654806

  14. Candida albicans keratitis modified by steroid application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Araki-Sasaki

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Kaoru Araki-Sasaki1, Hiroko Sonoyama1, Tsutomu Kawasaki1, Nariyasu Kazama1, Hidenao Ideta1, Yoshitsugu Inoue21Ideta Eye Hospital, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tottori University, Koyama-Minami, Tottori, Japan Abstract: The paper reports on Candida albicans ocular infection modified by steroid eye drops. A 74-year-old male complained of conjunctival injection and pain in his right eye three months after pterygium and cataract surgery. After treatment with antibiotics and steroid eye drops for three days, he was referred to our hospital. Clear localized corneal endothelial plaque with injection of ciliary body was observed. No erosion of the corneal epithelium, or infiltration of stromal edema was observed, suggesting that the pathological organism derived from the intracameral region. Because ocular infection was suspected, steroid eye drops were stopped, which led immediately to typical infectious keratitis in the pathological region, with epithelial erosion, fluffy abscess, stromal infiltration, and edema. For diagnostic purposes, the plaque was surgically removed with forceps and the anterior chamber was irrigated with antibiotics. The smear and culture examination from the plaque revealed C. albicans surrounded by neutrophils. However, aqueous fluid and fibrous tissue after gonio procedure contained no mycotic organisms. Topical fluconazole, micafungin, and pimaricin with oral itraconazole (150 mg/day were effective. Special attention is needed when prescribing steroid eye drops to treat corneal disease especially postoperatively. Diagnosing infectious keratitis is sometimes difficult because of modification by some factors, such as postoperative conditions, scarring, and drug-induced masking. Here, we report on mycotic keratitis modified by postoperative steroid administration. Keywords: Candida albicans, cataract surgery, steroid, mycotic keratitis

  15. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, Andrea; Iaquinto, Gaetano; Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  16. Quest for steroidomimetics: Amino acids derived steroidal and nonsteroidal architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagufta; Ahmad, Irshad; Panda, Gautam

    2017-06-16

    The chiral pool amino acids have been utilized for the construction of steroidal and non-steroidal architectures in the quest for steroidomimetics. Chirality derived from amino acid-based architectures provides new and easy to incorporate chiral chemical space, which is otherwise very difficult to introduce and comprised of several synthetic steps for asymmetric steroids. The different and exciting ligand-receptor interactions may arise from the use of each amino acid enantiomer that was introduced into the chiral steroidal backbone. The A and D rings of steroidal architectures can be mimicked by the phenyl group of the amino acid tyrosine. The Mitsunobu reaction, nucleophilic substitution and elimination, etc. were utilized for constructing diverse tri- and tetracyclic steroidal skeletons as well as benzofused seco-steroids from amino acids. These benzofused, amino acid-derived steroidal and nonsteroidal molecules had promising biological activity in hormonal related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Steroid allergy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malik, M

    2007-11-01

    Background: Contact allergy to a steroid enema leading to worsening of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has recently been reported. This study was designed to look for evidence of steroid allergy in patients with IBD.

  18. Vocational Steroid Use: Reconsidering the Effectiveness of a Prohibition Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis A. Fogel

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of literature on the topic of anabolic steroid use pertains to use by athletes and/or bodybuilders. Recent evidence suggests that performance-enhancing drugs, and anabolic steroids in particular, are used widely outside the realm of sport. In this paper, the term “vocational steroid use” is further developed and explored, referring to any form of steroid use for the purposes of enhanced performance in the workplace; a type of use uncharacteristic of most illicit substances. ...

  19. A REVIEW OF NATURAL STEROIDS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Anas Rasheed* and Mohd. Qasim

    2013-01-01

    Natural steroids, the simple mention of the word brings up topics like cheating, unfair advantages. The first misconception is that all steroids are used for muscle building. This is not at all the case, steroids are natural substances with many different effects in the human body, which begin over several days, as even birth control pills are a form of steroids. “Natural Steroids”, are the organic compounds which are not chemically altered, that mimics hormones, and obviously the hormone it ...

  20. Measurement of endogenous subcellular concentration of steroids in tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Poortman, J.; Landeghem, A.A.J. van; Helmond-Agema, A.; Thussen, J.H.H.

    1984-01-01

    A reliable method for the extraction of steroid hormones from human uterine tissue and the subsequent measurement of these hormones in the subcellular compartments by radioimmunoassay is described. Extraction of radioactive steroid hormones from in vivo labelled human uterine tissue by different methods reveals that an almost quantitative extraction of steroid hormones from the nuclear fraction is obtained by sonication in ethanol-acetone. Extraction of steroid hormones with diethylether from...

  1. Adrenal steroids as modulators of nerve cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, E.R. de

    1984-01-01

    Adrenal steroids modulate the function of nerve cells. Some, but not all actions of these steroids take place after binding to intracellular receptor systems and translocation of the steroid-receptor complex into the cell nucleus. Studies on the rat brain revealed heterogeneity of receptors. One

  2. School and Parent Factors Associated with Steroid Use among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Rebecca L.; King, Keith; Nabors, Laura; Vidourek, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Steroid use among adolescents is an increasing health concern. Literature examining factors related to steroid use is limited. Methods: We investigated steroid use among 9th through 12th grade adolescents in the Greater Cincinnati area. A total of 38,414 adolescents completed the PRIDE Questionnaire. Associations between demographics,…

  3. Physicochemical properties and transport of steroids across Caco-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faassen, F.; Kelder, J.; Lenders, J.; Onderwater, R.; Vromans, H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this work was to study the relevant physicochemical properties for the absorption of steroids. Methods. Various physicochemical properties of steroids were calculated (molecular weight, ClogP, static polar surface area [PSA], etc.). Within this series of steroids, different

  4. The Incidence of Anabolic Steroid Use among Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Ray; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated incidence of anabolic steroid use among 380 competitive male and female bodybuilders in Kansas and Missouri. Results indicated more than half (54 percent) of the male bodybuilders were using steroids on a regular basis compared to 10 percent of the female competitors. Found main reason for use of steroids was desire to win. (Author/TE)

  5. Hypercholesterolemia in Male Power Lifters Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of serum cholesterol concentrations in male power lifters who used anabolic-androgenic steroids for eight weeks, three years, or eight years indicated that mean serum cholesterol levels increased with drug use, but decreased promptly to near pre-steroid levels after steroid use ended. (Author/CB)

  6. Steroids and Other Ergogenic Aids: A Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    Steroids have become one of society's "short cuts" to athletic prowess and success. This guide includes information and teaching materials for educators and others who work with youth on how to teach that steroids are drugs, that drugs can harm and kill, and that a "no-use" policy applies to steroids as well as to alcohol and…

  7. Association between steroid hormone receptors and PSA gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with presence of steroid hormone receptors. The aim of this research was to show differential expression and association between steroid hormone receptors and PSA gene expression in breast cancer cell lines. The cell lines investigated were steroid receptor-negative breast carcinoma cell lines BT-20 and ...

  8. ABUSE OF STEROID PRESCRIPTION- A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpashri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids are widely used and highly effective in treatment for number of conditions like immunological condition inflammation, systemic lupus erythematosus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer and chronic pain conditions. Steroid-induced psychiatric disturbances appear in 3 to 6% of patient on treatment. Glucocorticoid is one of the most cause of avascular necrosis, affects hip joint, and other joints.

  9. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Mi Sook [The Catholic University of Korea, Pucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections.

  10. Leverpatologi associeret med anaboliske-androgene steroider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Katrine; Søe, Martin Jensen; Gluud, C N

    1994-01-01

    This review regards the liver damaging side-effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). It seems that AAS can cause development of peliosis hepatis, subcellular changes of hepatocytes, hepatocellular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas. On the other hand, it has not been convincingly proved...

  11. Preventing Anabolic Steroid Use: Guidelines and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June; Rauhe, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Information about anabolic steroids should be included in the school health curriculum as early as possible. The paper presents suggestions for planning education programs and offers a variety of activities and strategies appropriate for many age groups, including case studies, story completion, posters, demonstrations, projects, creative writing,…

  12. Enantioselective Transport by a Steroidal Guanidinium Receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baragaña, Beatriz; Blackburn, Adrian G.; Breccia, Perla; Davis, Anthony P.; Mendoza, Javier de; Padrón-Carrillo, José M.; Prados, Pilar; Riedner, Jens; Vries, Johannes G. de

    2002-01-01

    The cationic steroidal receptors 9 and 11 have been synthesized from cholic acid 3. Receptor 9 extracts N-acetyl-α-amino acids from aqueous media into chloroform with enantioselectivities (L:D) of 7-10:1. The lipophilic variant 11 has been employed for the enantioselective transport of

  13. [Oral hairy leukoplakia induced by topical steroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigarios, E; Fricain, J-C; Projetti, F; Boulanger, M; Sibaud, V

    2015-10-01

    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is an EBV-associated condition of the oral mucosa, which is often painless. It is found predominantly in HIV-positive patients and is considered a clinical indicator of immunosuppression. OHL has rarely been described in HIV-negative patients, being found most often in association with iatrogenic immunosuppression. OHL induced by topical steroids remains extremely rare. An 81-year-old HIV-negative woman, treated for 3 months with topical steroids for oral lichen planus, developed an asymptomatic white, corrugated, non-removable plaque with vertical folds on the lateral edge of the tongue. Associated oral candidiasis was noted. Based upon histological findings and in situ hybridisation showing numerous EBV-infected epithelial cells, a diagnosis of oral hairy leucoplakia was made. To our knowledge, we report herein only the second recorded case of OHL induced strictly by topical steroids. Self-medication and poor adherence to dosage recommendations were noted in the patient's medical history. Physicians must be aware of the rare but nevertheless possible adverse events associated with topical steroid use, particularly when such medication is prescribed over a long period for inflammatory diseases of the oral mucosa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. A NOVEL GLYCOSIDIC STEROIDAL ALKALOID FROM SOLANUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    established by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published data of similar compounds reported in literature. ... data with those of solarmargine, a steroidal alkaloid triglycoside isolated from the berries of this plant [5]. FABMS, positive ..... the residue freeze-dried to give dark-brown extract (80 g). Part of this (3 g) ...

  15. Lactose contaminant as steroid degradation enhancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwmeyer, Florentine; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort; Vromans, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. By pharmaceutical processes and in the presence of solid excipients physical-chemical changes are known to occur, leading to increased rate of chemical degradation. The purpose of this work was to determine the critical aspects in the stability of a steroid in the presence of a commonly

  16. Sox and Drugs: Baseball, Steroids and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Roger

    2008-03-01

    The sports world is in an uproar over performance-enhancing drugs. In the United States steroids in baseball have received the most attention, in part because the purported effects are much more dramatic than in any other sport. From 1995-2003 a few players hit home runs at rates 20-50% higher than the best sluggers of the preceding century. Could steroids really increase home-run performance that much? I will describe a model that combines estimates of the physiological effects of steroids, known baseball physics, and reasonable models of batting effectiveness for highly skilled hitters. A 10% increase in muscle mass, which can reasonably be expected from steroid use, increases the speed of a batted ball by 3%. Because home runs are relatively rare events on the tail of a batter's range distribution, even this modest change in ball speed can increase the proportion of batted balls that result in home runs by 30 -- 70%, enough to account for the record-shattering performances of the recent past. I will also describe some of the attention -- both welcome and not -- that comes to the unsuspecting physicist who wades into such emotionally troubled waters.

  17. Residual ovarian activity during oral steroid contraception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Heusden; B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractSteroid drugs with contraceptive properties have been available in the clinical setting for over four decades and are still subject to improvement. Estrogens, progestins and anti-progestins have been used alone or in various combinations, regimens and routes of

  18. Steroids in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossen, Ida; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Dimmen, Malene V

    2016-01-01

    . It was hypothesised that POPs may have endocrine disrupting effects on the local house sparrow population and can thus interfere with the steroid hormone homeostasis. Among female house sparrows, bivariate correlations revealed negative relationships between POPs and estrogens. Among male sparrows, positive...

  19. Steroids isolated from Millettia versicolor Baker (Fabaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steroids isolated from Millettia versicolor Baker (Fabaceae) ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The objective of this investigation was to isolate and determine the chemical constituents of the leaves of Millettia versicolor Baker, a medicinal plant used in the traditional pharmacopoeias of Central Africa, essentially for its ...

  20. Anabolic androgenic steroid-induced Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placci, Angelo; Sella, Gianluigi; Bellanti, Giancarlo; Margheri, Massimo

    2015-03-24

    Anabolic steroid abuse, aimed at increasing muscle mass, has been growing in recent years. We describe a case of a 25-year-old bodybuilder who, after taking nandrolone and stanozolol, presented with Takotsubo syndrome. The angiography showed a normal coronary anatomy with the absence of stenosis. The left ventricular function was completely normalised after 1 week. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Steroidal glycosides from the starfish Gomophia watsoni

    OpenAIRE

    Riccio, R; D'Auria, M.V.; Iorizzi, M.; Minale, L.; Laurent, Dominique; Duhet, Daniel

    1985-01-01

    Two novel steroidal glycosides have been isolated from the starfish Gomophia watsoni; they co-occur with one known glycoside and two new polyhydroxysteroids. The structures of the new metabolites, 2,3,4 and 5, were determined on the basis of spectral data. (Résumé d'auteur)

  2. Impact of the addition of maintenance steroids to a rapid steroid discontinuation immunosuppressive protocol following acute renal transplant rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Swati; Marcus, Richard J; Dikkala, Sudharani; Sureshkumar, Kalathil K

    2009-12-01

    Rapid steroid discontinuation immunosuppressive protocols are increasingly used in renal transplant. The optimal immunosuppressive regimen in patients who develop acute rejection while on a rapid steroid discontinuation protocol is less clear. We examined our experience of adding maintenance steroid therapy in renal transplant recipients who developed 1 or more acute rejection episode while on a rapid steroid discontinuation protocol. The outcome of 145 patients who underwent renal transplant from 2002 to 2007 and initiated a rapid steroid discontinuation protocol was analyzed. Patients were divided into the following 5 groups: (i): acute rejection X 1 and no maintenance steroids, (ii): acute rejection X 1 and started on maintenance steroids, (iii): acute rejection X 2 and no maintenance steroids (iv): acute rejection X 2 and started on maintenance steroids, and (v): no acute rejection Compared with patients with no acute rejection, graft survival was significantly inferior in patients who experienced 2 or more acute rejection episodes-whether they were started on maintenance steroids (P = .003) or not (P = .006) - but was similar in patients who experienced only 1 episode of acute rejection, and were started either on maintenance steroids (P = .87) or were continued on the rapid steroid discontinuation protocol (P = .69). In patients who sustained 2 episodes of acute rejection, addition of maintenance steroids had no impact on graft survival (P = .97). More than 1 episode of acute rejection in renal transplant recipients on rapid steroid discontinuation protocol is associated with poor, long-term, graft survival, which remains unchanged despite starting maintenance steroids. The use of maintenance steroids may not have a positive impact on graft survival after acute rejection.

  3. IGA nephropathy - Are intravenous steroid pulses more effective than oral steroids in relapse prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjinha, Ivo; Matias, Patrícia; Cassis, João; Branco, Patrícia; Ramos, Sância; Barata, José Diogo; Weigert, André

    2017-11-09

    It is recommended that IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is treated with steroids when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is >50ml/min and proteinuria >1g/day. Few studies have been performed comparing the two accepted steroid regimens (1g/day methylprednisolone pulses for 3 consecutive days at the beginning of months 1, 3 and 5, followed by 0.5mg/kg prednisolone on alternate days vs. 1mg/kg/day oral prednisolone). The aim of this study was to compare these two steroid regimens in IgAN treatment. We selected 39 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN treated with steroids. Mean age at diagnosis was 37.5 years, 23 males (59%), baseline proteinuria (Uprot) was 2.1 g/day and median serum creatinine (SCr) was 1.5mg/dl. The mean follow-up period was 56 months. Twenty-five patients (64%) were treated with methylprednisolone pulses and 14 (36%) with oral steroids. Patients treated with steroid pulses presented lower relapse risk, defined as the reappearance of Uprot >1g/day and an Uprot increase of more than 50% (incidence rate ratio of 0.18, 95% CI 0.02-0.5). The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed longer relapse-free period (p=0.019). This result was confirmed in a multivariate analysis (p=0.026). However, we did not find other differences between the two steroid regimens. In comparison to oral steroids, the intravenous pulse regimen was associated with a lower risk of relapse in IgAN, a known independent negative predictor of renal survival. No differences were found regarding the other renal outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Steroid and steroid glucuronide profiles in urine during pregnancy determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäntti, Sirkku E; Hartonen, Minna; Hilvo, Mika; Nygren, Heli; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Ketola, Raimo A; Kostiainen, Risto

    2013-11-13

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of steroids and their glucuronides in urine samples. The method provides high sensitivity and fast analysis, as both steroids and their glucuronides can be analyzed directly without hydrolysis or complex sample preparation. The method was applied in profiling of targeted and nontargeted steroids and steroid glucuronides during pregnancy. The concentrations of 11 of 27 targeted steroids and steroid glucuronides and the concentrations of 25 nontargeted steroid glucuronides increased about 10-400 fold during the pregnancy. The concentrations of most of these 36 compounds began to increase in the first days of the pregnancy, increased gradually during the pregnancy, achieved a maximum in late pregnancy, and decreased sharply after delivery. Exceptionally, the concentrations of allopregnanolone and 17-hydroxypregnenolone started to increase later than those of the other steroids. Moreover, the concentrations of E2 glucuronides began to decrease one week before the delivery, in contrast to most of the steroids and steroid glucuronides, whose concentrations dropped sharply during the delivery. Concentrations of 34 compounds decreased noticeably when the subject was on sick leave owing a series of painful contractions. The results suggest that steroids and especially steroid glucuronides may provide a valuable diagnostic tool to follow the course of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Androgenic anabolic steroids also impair right ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasikcioglu, Erdem; Oflaz, Huseyin; Umman, Berrin; Bugra, Zehra

    2009-05-01

    Chronic anabolic steroid use suppresses left ventricular functions. However, there is no information regarding the chronic effects of anabolic steroids on right ventricular function which also plays a key role in global cardiac function. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of androgenic anabolic steroids usage among athletes on remodeling the right part of the heart. Androgenic-anabolic steroids-using bodybuilders had smaller diastolic velocities of both ventricles than drug-free bodybuilders and sedentary counterparts. This study shows that androgenic anabolic steroids-using bodybuilders exhibited depressed diastolic functions of both ventricles.

  6. Direct comparison of steroid and non-steroid eluting small surface pacing leads: randomized, multicenter clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyifa, Valentina; Zima, Endre; Molnar, Levente; Kuehne, Christian; Theiss, Soehnke; Herrmann, Gundula; Geller, Laszlo; Merkely, Bela

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of small surface steroid-eluting atrial and ventricular pacing leads in comparison to non-steroid leads using remote monitoring system (Biotronik Home Monitoring®). In this randomized multicenter prospective trial, SIELLO T steroid-eluting ventricular leads (n = 42) were compared to BPPU T non-steroid leads (n = 46) and SIELLO JT steroid-eluting atrial leads (n = 24) to BPPU JT non-steroid leads (n = 27) (Biotronik, Berlin, Germany) in pacemaker devices with remote monitoring capabilities. Lead parameters were evaluated during implantation, at 1-week and 1, 3, 6-month outpatient follow-up. Remote monitoring data were collected weekly. Atrial and ventricular steroid-eluting leads had stable sensing and impedance as compared to non-steroid leads at implantation and during follow-up. Patients with non-steroid atrial leads had significantly higher threshold compared to steroid leads at 1-week and at 1, 3, 6-month follow-up with a peak at 1-month (1-month 1.4 ± 0.6 vs. 0.7 ± 0.3 V at 0.4 ms, p leads had significantly higher threshold compared to steroid leads at 1, 3, 6-month (6-month 1.0 ± 0.3 vs. 0.6 ± 0.2 V at 0.4 ms, p lead-related death. Lead repositioning was necessary in 2 atrial, 2 ventricular steroid leads and in 1 ventricular non-steroid lead. Atrial and ventricular pacemaker leads with steroid showed significantly lower pacing threshold compared to non-steroid leads, confirmed by remote monitoring.

  7. Steroid conversion with CYP106A2 – production of pharmaceutically interesting DHEA metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Steroids are lipophilic compounds with a gonane skeleton and play an important role in higher organisms. Due to different functionalizations - mainly hydroxylations - at the steroid molecule, they vary highly in their mode of action. The pharmaceutical industry is, therefore, interested in hydroxysteroids as therapeutic agents. The insertion of hydroxyl groups into a steroid core, however, is hardly accomplishable by classical chemical means; that is because microbial steroid hydroxylations are investigated and applied since decades. CYP106A2 is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 13368, which was first described in the late 1970s and which is capable to hydroxylate a variety of 3-oxo-delta4 steroids at position 15beta. CYP106A2 is a soluble protein, easy to express and to purify in high amounts, which makes this enzyme an interesting target for biotechnological purposes. Results In this work a focused steroid library was screened in vitro for new CYP106A2 substrates using a reconstituted enzyme assay. Five new substrates were identified, including dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone. NMR-spectroscopy revealed that both steroids are mainly hydroxylated at position 7beta. In order to establish a biotechnological system for the preparative scale production of 7beta-hydroxylated dehydroepiandrosterone, whole-cell conversions with growing and resting cells of B. megaterium ATCC1336 the native host of CYP1062 and also with resting cells of a recombinant B. megaterium MS941 strain overexpressing CYP106A2 have been conducted and conversion rates of 400 muM/h (115 mg/l/h) were obtained. Using the B. megaterium MS941 overexpression strain, the selectivity of the reaction was improved from 0.7 to 0.9 for 7beta-OH-DHEA. Conclusions In this work we describe CYP106A2 for the first time as a regio-selective hydroxylase for 3-hydroxy-delta5 steroids. DHEA was shown to be converted to 7beta-OH-DHEA which is a highly interesting human

  8. Synergistic Effects of Calcineurin Inhibitors and Steroids on Steroid Sensitivity of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hironori; Iwamoto, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Yuki; Hirano, Toshihiko; Konno, Osamu; Kihara, Yu; Chiba, Naokazu; Yokoyama, Takayoshi; Takano, Kiminori; Toraishi, Tatsunori; Okuyama, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Chie; Tanaka, Sachiko; Onda, Kenji; Soga, Akiko; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Kawachi, Shigeyuki; Unezaki, Sakae; Shimazu, Motohide

    2015-02-08

    The steroid receptor (SR) complex contains FKBP51 and FKBP52, which bind to tacrolimus (TAC) and cyclophilin 40, which, in turn, bind to cyclosporine (CYA); these influence the intranuclear mobility of steroid-SR complexes. Pharmacodynamic interactions are thought to exist between steroids and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) on the SR complex. We examined the effect of CNIs on steroid sensitivity. Methylprednisolone (MPSL) sensitivity was estimated as the concentration inhibiting mitosis in 50% (IC50) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and as the area under the MPSL concentration-proliferation suppressive rate curves (CPS-AUC) in 30 healthy subjects. MPSL sensitivity was compared between the additive group (AG) as the MPSL sensitivity that was a result of addition of the proliferation suppressive rate of CNIs to that of MPSL and the mixed culture group (MCG) as MPSL sensitivity of mixed culture with both MPSL and CNIs in identical patients. IC50 values of MPSL and cortisol sensitivity were examined before and 2 months after CNI administration in 23 renal transplant recipients. IC50 and CPS-AUC values of MPSL were lower in the MCG than in the AG with administration of TAC and CYA. The CPS-AUC ratio of MCG and AG was lower in the TAC group. IC50 values of MPSL and cortisol tended to be lower after administration of TAC and CYA, and a significant difference was observed in the IC50 of cortisol after TAC administration. Steroid sensitivity increased with both TAC and CYA. Furthermore, TAC had a greater effect on increasing sensitivity. Thus, concomitant administration of CNIs and steroids can increase steroid sensitivity.

  9. Neurosteroid influences on sensitivity to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Christa M; Rossi, David J; Grant, Kathleen A

    2012-01-01

    This review will highlight a variety of mechanisms by which neurosteroids affect sensitivity to ethanol, including physiological states associated with activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes, and the effects of chronic exposure to ethanol, in addition to behavioral implications. To date, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A)) receptor mechanisms are a major focus of the modulation of ethanol effects by neuroactive steroids. While NMDA receptor mechanisms are gaining prominence in the literature, these complex data would be best discussed separately. Accordingly, GABA(A) receptor mechanisms are emphasized in this review with brief mention of some NMDA receptor mechanisms to point out contrasting neuroactive steroid pharmacology. Overall, the data suggest that neurosteroids are virtually ubiquitous modulators of inhibitory neurotransmission. Neurosteroids appear to affect sensitivity to ethanol in specific brain regions and, consequently, specific behavioral tests, possibly related to the efficacy and potency of ethanol to potentiate the release of GABA and increase neurosteroid concentrations. Although direct interaction of ethanol and neuroactive steroids at common receptor binding sites has been suggested in some studies, this proposition is still controversial. It is currently difficult to assign a specific mechanism by which neuroactive steroids could modulate the effects of ethanol in particular behavioral tasks.

  10. Evidence for the contribution of non-covalent steroid interactions between DNA and topoisomerase in the genotoxicity of steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Ronald D; Holt, Patrick A; Maguire, Jon M; Trent, John O

    2015-04-01

    Fifty two steroids and 9 Vitamin D analogs were docked into ten crystallographically-defined DNA dinucleotide sites and two human topoisomerase II ATP binding sites using two computational programs, Autodock and Surflex. It is shown that both steroids and Vitamin D analogs exhibit a propensity for non-covalent intercalative binding to DNA. A higher predicted binding affinity was found, however, for steroids and the ATP binding site of topoisomerase; in fact these drugs exhibited among the highest topo II binding observed in over 1370 docked drugs. These findings along with genotoxicity data from 26 additional steroids not subjected to docking analysis, support a mechanism wherein the long known, but poorly understood, clastogenicity of steroids may be attributable to inhibition of topoisomerase. A "proof of principle" experiment with dexamethasone demonstrated this to be the likely mechanism of clastogenicity of, at least, this steroid. The generality of this proposed mechanism of genotoxicity across the steroids and vitamin-D analogs is discussed.

  11. Characterizing the distribution of steroid sulfatase during embryonic development: when and where might metabolites of maternal steroids be reactivated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paitz, Ryan T; Duffield, Kristin R; Bowden, Rachel M

    2017-12-15

    All vertebrate embryos are exposed to maternally derived steroids during development. In placental vertebrates, metabolism of maternal steroids by the placenta modulates embryonic exposure, but how exposure is regulated in oviparous vertebrates is less clear. Recent work in oviparous vertebrates has demonstrated that steroids are not static molecules, as they can be converted to more polar steroid sulfates by sulfotransferase enzymes. Importantly, these steroid sulfates can be converted back to the parent compound by the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS). We investigated when and where STS was present during embryonic development in the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta We report that STS is present during all stages of development and in all tissues we examined. We conclude that STS activity may be particularly important for regulating maternal steroid exposure in oviparous vertebrates. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Oral steroids alone or followed by intranasal steroids versus watchful waiting in the management of otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, A; Fathy, H; Amin, S M; Elsisy, N

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral steroids alone or followed by intranasal steroids versus watchful waiting on the resolution of otitis media with effusion in children aged 2-11 years. A total of 290 children with bilateral otitis media with effusion were assigned to 3 groups: group A was treated with oral steroids followed by intranasal steroids, group B was treated with oral steroids alone and group C was managed with watchful waiting. Patients were evaluated with audiometry and tympanometry. The complete resolution rates of otitis media with effusion were higher in groups A and B than in group C at six weeks. There were no significant differences in otitis media with effusion resolution rates between the groups at three, six and nine months. Oral steroids lead only to a quick resolution of otitis media with effusion, with no long-term benefits. There was no benefit of using intranasal steroids in the management of otitis media with effusion.

  13. Qualitative description of the prevalence and use of anabolic androgenic steroids by United States powerlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, L A; Wagman, D F

    1999-02-01

    Powerlifters have been suspected to be a population wherein use of anabolic androgenic steroids is prevalent (Yesalis, Herrick, & Buckley, 1988). To access commentary from these athletes on issues related to these drugs and the effectiveness of doping controls, a survey was developed. From 28 U.S. Powerlifting Team members who competed internationally since 1988, 26 were contacted by mail, and 15 questionnaires were returned. The questionnaire solicited yes/no responses and qualitative descriptions about current and previous use of anabolic androgenic steroids in powerlifting. Analysis indicated that ten U.S. Powerlifting Team members admitted to using these drugs, and five athletes admitted to beating the International Olympic Committee's doping control procedures. Reported use of anabolic androgenic steroids by these athletes was consistent with data presented by Yesalis, et al. and illustrated continued discrepancy between admitted use of these drugs prior to or during national and international events and the lack of reported positive test data. Discussion focused on the value of this study to elicit in an athlete's own words commentary specific to the use of anabolic androgenic steroids and the need for more effective doping controls.

  14. Paraplegia After Thoracic Epidural Steroid Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomba, Vivek; Kaveeshvar, Hirsh; Dwivedi, Samvid

    2016-09-01

    Epidural steroid injections are a common procedure performed by pain physicians. The American Society of Regional Anesthesia along with several other groups recently provided guidelines for performing epidural injections in the setting of anticoagulants. We present a case of a patient who developed an epidural hematoma and subsequent paraplegia despite strict adherence to these guidelines. Although new guidelines serve to direct practice, risks of devastating neurologic complications remain as evidenced by our case.

  15. [Intramuscular depot steroids : Possible treatment of postsurgical cystoid macula edema with steroid response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuthe, A-M; Szurman, P; Boden, K T

    2017-11-01

    We report on a patient with postsurgical cystoid macular edema (CME) after phacoemulsification and multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) implantation. At first, there was a very good reaction to intravitreal triamcinolone, inducing complete regression of the edema without increasing intraocular pressure (IOP). One year later the patient suffered from retinal detachment and was treated with vitrectomy, laser, and gas tamponade. Afterward, he developed macular pucker with edema. After surgical treatment with pucker peeling and intravitreal triamcinolone, the patient showed a steroid response and an increase IOP. Postoperatively, there was a recurrence of CME. A coincidental administration of a steroid injection intramuscularly by the general practitioner achieved a prompt reduction of the CME without increasing IOP. This case shows that an initially good reaction to triamcinolone without increasing IOP does not rule out a future steroid response, and that a potential treatment option for CME in patients with a known steroid response could consist of intramuscularly injected steroids.

  16. Lactose contaminant as steroid degradation enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwmeyer, Florentine; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees; Vromans, Herman

    2008-11-01

    By pharmaceutical processes and in the presence of solid excipients physical-chemical changes are known to occur, leading to increased rate of chemical degradation. The purpose of this work was to determine the critical aspects in the stability of a steroid in the presence of a commonly used excipient, lactose. A steroid was either mixed or wet granulated with lactose with different particle size. Small lactose particles lead to a higher degree of degradation. Degradation was enhanced under warm humid conditions although the presence of water alone could not account for this effect. Lactose-phosphate, a known intrinsic contaminant in lactose is demonstrated to enhance the degradation of the steroid. Stability was improved in high purity lactose and deteriorated upon extra addition of phosphates. Since the exposure to the contaminant is a function of the surface area of the lactose, particle size differences of the excipient have a clear consequence. High shear granulated lactose granules exhibit a heterogeneous composition; large granules consist of small primary particles and vice versa. It is shown that the large granules, composed of the small primary lactose particles reveal the highest degree of degradation. Granule composition dictates the stability profile of the granules. The lactose contaminant and granule composition dictates the stability profile of the granules and mixtures.

  17. Echocardiographic Finding in Anabolic Steroids Abuser Athletics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Haji Moradi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Abuse of anabolic steroids in body builders and competitive sports (doping is common and prevalent in our country. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs and existing controversy in published articles, this study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic finding in athletics who are current user of these drugs. Materials & Methods: Body builders with continues sport for preceding year and at least twice weekly selected and divided into steroid abuser and not abuser and compared with age and BMI matched non athletic healthy volunteers .Results: There was not significant difference in age, body mass index, ejection fraction, ventricular compliance and valve function between three groups. But diastolic size of septum and free wall is significantly thicker in both of athletics in comparison with non athletic volunteer but observed differences were only significant (Pvalue = 0.05 between first and third group. The difference between the above mentioned index was not significant between two groups of athleticConclusion: Observed differences in diastolic size of septum and free wall between first and third group and also absence of difference between two athletic groups is in favor of that long term abuse of anabolic steroid (more than one year results in augmentation of physiologic hypertrophy due to isometric exercise. Furthermore long term abuse and supra pharmacologic dose does not have significant effect in size and left ventricular function.

  18. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Osta, Rabih; Almont, Thierry; Diligent, Catherine; Hubert, Nicolas; Eschwège, Pascal; Hubert, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. These substances were first restricted to professional bodybuilders, but become more and more popular among recreational athletes. Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern. Infertility is defined by the WHO as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse and a male factor is present in up to 50 % of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH), and the more recent experimental reports on structural and genetic sperm damage.

  19. Effect of oxidizing adulterants on human urinary steroid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiumparambil, Unnikrishnan; Fu, Shanlin

    2013-02-01

    Steroid profiling is the most versatile and informative technique adapted by doping control laboratories for detection of steroid abuse. The absolute concentrations and ratios of endogenous steroids including testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol constitute the significant characteristics of a steroid profile. In the present study we report the influence of various oxidizing adulterants on the steroid profile of human urine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was carried out to develop the steroid profile of human male and female urine. Oxidants potassium nitrite, sodium hypochlorite, potassium permanganate, cerium ammonium nitrate, sodium metaperiodate, pyridinium chlorochromate, potassium dichromate and potassium perchlorate were reacted with urine at various concentrations and conditions and the effect of these oxidants on the steroid profile were analyzed. Most of the oxidizing chemicals led to significant changes in endogenous steroid profile parameters which were considered stable under normal conditions. These oxidizing chemicals can cause serious problems regarding the interpretation of steroid profiles and have the potential to act as masking agents that can complicate or prevent the detection of the steroid abuse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Update on clinical trials of growth factors and anabolic steroids in cachexia and wasting1234

    OpenAIRE

    Gullett, Norleena P; Hebbar, Gautam; Ziegler, Thomas R

    2010-01-01

    This article and others that focused on the clinical features, mechanisms, and epidemiology of skeletal muscle loss and wasting in chronic diseases, which include chronic kidney disease, cancer, and AIDS, were presented at a symposium entitled "Cachexia and Wasting: Recent Breakthroughs in Understanding and Opportunities for Intervention," held at Experimental Biology 2009. The clinical and anabolic efficacy of specific growth factors and anabolic steroids (eg, growth hormone, testosterone, m...

  1. Stability of Positively Charged Nanoemulsion Formulation Containing Steroidal Drug for Effective Transdermal Application

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Da Costa; Mahiran Basri; Norashikin Shamsudin; Hamidon Basri

    2014-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the formation of a positively charged nanoemulsion system for steroid drugs (hydrocortisone). It is believed that positively charged nanoemulsion provides more effective penetration of the skin. Therefore in our study we focused on the incorporation of phytosphingosine which serves as a positively charged cosurfactant in the nanoemulsion system. Negatively charged nanoemulsions were formulated mainly for comparison. Freshly prepared formulations were formed with particle...

  2. Screening hybridomas for anabolic androgenic steroids by steroid analog antigen microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongwu; Chen, Guangyu; Bian, Yongzhong; Xing, Cenzan; Ding, Xue; Zhu, Mengliang; Xun, Yiping; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Yabin; Li, Shaoxu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, dozens of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are forbidden in the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, however, despite extensive investigation, there are still lots of AAS without corresponding monoclonal antibodies. A steroid analog antigen microarray made up of ten AAS was fabricated to screen the hybridoma and it was found an original unsuccessful clone turned out to be a candidate anti-boldenone antibody, without any cross-reactions with endogenous AAS or 44 different AAS standard reference materials tested. Our findings suggested that steroid analog antigen microarray could be a promising tool to screen and characterize new applications of antibodies for structure analogs, and this also exhibits the potential to fast identify effective epitopes of hybridomas in a single assay.

  3. Science to Practice: What Causes Arterial Infarction in Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injections, and Which Steroid Is Safest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehn, Felix E; Murthy, Naveen S; Maus, Timothy P

    2016-06-01

    Transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESIs) are associated with rare but devastating neurologic complications. Every published case has been associated with a particulate steroid suspension, and the presumed but not proven mechanism is embolization and occlusion of end arterioles. Through an in vivo murine model and in vitro experiments on human red blood cells (RBCs), the study by Laemmel et al (1) in this issue of Radiology elucidates the potential mechanisms for steroid-induced vascular compromise. Unlike dexamethasone (a nonparticulate steroid solution), saline, and the particulate steroid cortivazol, other particulate steroids (prednisolone, methylprednisolone, and triamcinolone) caused often immediate and complete cessation of capillary blood flow, with RBC (not steroid particle) aggregates and alteration of RBC morphologic structure into spiculated RBCs. Thus, the study strengthens evidence in support of the higher safety profile in TFESI for dexamethasone, the nonparticulate and U.S. Food and Drug Administration-recommended steroid of choice, compared with particulate steroids. The results should not be considered proof that cortivazol has not or could not cause neurologic infarction during a TFESI. Rather, experiments such as those by Laemmel et al should foster more research, particularly in the arena of novel therapeutic agents (nonparticulate steroids and nonsteroidal drugs alike).

  4. Steroid responsiveness and treatment regimen of steroids in acute autoimmune pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzilli, R; Morselli-Labate, A M

    2008-12-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis is the pancreatic manifestation of a systemic inflammatory disease in which affected organs are characterized by intense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. The diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis sometimes is puzzling and its differentiation from pancreatic cancer is a clinical challenge. The features of autoimmune pancreatitis are its typical histological pattern, imaging, serology (increase of immunoglobulins and the presence of autoantibodies), associated non-pancreatic organ involvement and response to steroid therapy. Recent advances in identifying these features have resulted in enhanced recognition, diagnosis of this benign disease and the avoidance of unnecessary surgical procedures for suspected malignancy. In this article, the authors will review recent updates in the steroid treatment of autoimmune pancreatitis.

  5. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole M; Dayyeh, Barham K Abu; Chung, Raymond T

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half after his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent tumor enlargement and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in the setting of steroid abuse relapse. Given his limited hepatic reserve, he was conservatively managed with embolization of the right accessory hepatic artery. This is the first reported case of hepatic adenoma re-growth with recidivistic steroid abuse, complicated by life-threatening hemorrhage. While athletes and bodybuilders are often aware of the legal and social ramifications of steroid abuse, they should continue to be counseled about its serious medical risks. PMID:18680242

  6. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole M; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Chung, Raymond T

    2008-07-28

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half after his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent tumor enlargement and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in the setting of steroid abuse relapse. Given his limited hepatic reserve, he was conservatively managed with embolization of the right accessory hepatic artery. This is the first reported case of hepatic adenoma re-growth with recidivistic steroid abuse, complicated by life-threatening hemorrhage. While athletes and bodybuilders are often aware of the legal and social ramifications of steroid abuse, they should continue to be counseled about its serious medical risks.

  7. Steroid withdrawal in renal transplant patients: the Irish experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, P J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Steroid therapy is associated with significant morbidity in renal transplant recipients. However, there is concern that steroid withdrawal will adversely affect outcome. METHODS: We report on 241 renal transplant recipients on different doses of corticosteroids at 3 months (zero, <\\/= 5 mg\\/day, > 5 mg\\/day). Parameters analysed included blood pressure, lipid profile, weight change, new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), allograft survival and acute rejection. RESULTS: Elimination of corticosteroids had no impact on allograft survival at 1 year. There were no cases of NODAT in the steroid withdrawal group compared with over 7% in each of the steroid groups. There were no significant improvements in weight gain, blood pressure control or total cholesterol with withdrawal of steroids before 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: In renal transplant patients treated with tacrolimus and mycophenolate, early withdrawal of steroids does not appear to adversely affect allograft outcome at 1 year. It may result in less NODAT.

  8. Nuclear receptors outside the nucleus: extranuclear signalling by steroid receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Ellis R.; Hammes, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors mediate numerous crucial biological processes and are classically thought to function as transcriptional regulators in the nucleus. However, it has been known for more than 50 years that steroids evoke rapid responses in many organs that cannot be explained by gene regulation. Mounting evidence indicates that most steroid receptors in fact exist in extranuclear cellular pools, including at the plasma membrane. This latter pool, when engaged by a steroid ligand, rapidly activates signals that affect various aspects of cellular biology. Research into the mechanisms of signalling instigated by extranuclear steroid receptor pools and how this extranuclear signalling is integrated with responses elicited by nuclear receptor pools provides novel understanding of steroid hormone signalling and its roles in health and disease. PMID:27729652

  9. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Nicole M; Dayyeh, Barham K Abu; Chung, Raymond T

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half after his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent...

  10. Achilles tendon rupture as a result of oral steroid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Bryan L; Heath, Nicholas S

    2002-06-01

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture associated with long-term oral steroid use is not uncommon, particularly in older patients who use these drugs daily to treat systemic diseases. Rupture often results in a large defect, which complicates surgical repair. The authors review Achilles tendon rupture associated with systemic and local steroid use and present a case of rupture due to chronic oral steroid use in a patient with Addison's disease.

  11. Gym and tonic: a profile of 100 male steroid users.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, N A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify unsupervised anabolic steroid regimens used by athletes. METHODS: 100 athletes attending four gymnasia were surveyed using an anonymous self administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Anabolic steroid doses ranged from 250 to 3200 mg per week and users combined different drugs to achieve these doses. Injectable and oral preparations were used in cycles lasting four to 12 weeks. Eighty six per cent of users admitted to the regular use of drugs other than steroids for various r...

  12. Side Effects Exhibited by Athletes Using Anabolic Steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid S. Khodasevich; Tat'yana V. Voskoboinikova

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the general problems of the use of anabolic steroids by athletes. The main reason they are banned in sports is because they artificially increase human performance by stimulating various metabolisms, as well as stimulating the constructive and energetic metabolism processes. The prohibited anabolic steroids are not only harmful to the athletes’ health but they also pose a very real threat to their life. Information regarding the side effects of anabolic steroids can be ef...

  13. Regucalcin expression in bovine tissues and its regulation by sex steroid hormones in accessory sex glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Starvaggi Cucuzza

    Full Text Available Regucalcin (RGN is a mammalian Ca2+-binding protein that plays an important role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Recently, RGN has been identified as a target gene for sex steroid hormones in the prostate glands and testis of rats and humans, but no studies have focused on RGN expression in bovine tissues. Thus, in the present study, we examined RGN mRNA and protein expression in the different tissues and organs of veal calves and beef cattle. Moreover, we investigated whether RGN expression is controlled through sex steroid hormones in bovine target tissues, namely the bulbo-urethral and prostate glands and the testis. Sex steroid hormones are still illegally used in bovine husbandry to increase muscle mass. The screening of the regulation and function of anabolic sex steroids via modified gene expression levels in various tissues represents a new approach for the detection of illicit drug treatments. Herein, we used quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate RGN mRNA and protein expression in bovine tissues. In addition, estrogen administration down-regulated RGN gene expression in the accessory sex glands of veal calves and beef cattle, while androgen treatment reduced RGN gene expression only in the testis. The confirmation of the regulation of RGN gene expression through sex steroid hormones might facilitate the potential detection of hormone abuse in bovine husbandry. Particularly, the specific response in the testis suggests that this tissue is ideal for the detection of illicit androgen administration in veal calves and beef cattle.

  14. The alteration of the urinary steroid profile under the stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gronowska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of twentieth century anabolic-androgenic steroids were introduced into doping practice and received continuously increasing significance. In order to prove the usage of doping substances, the determination of steroid profile in the urine came into practice. Several factors may be responsible for alterations in the normal steroid profile for example age, sex and diet. The aim of this study was to find out, whether the psychological stress may cause modifications in the steroid profile and T/Et ratio. The effect of physical activity was also considered. The steroid profile was determined in the group of 34 students being in non-stress conditions and under stress immediately before an important university exam. The intensity of stress was rated by self-reported questionnaire. The GC/MS method was applied to determine the steroid profile in the urine samples. The results of the experiment have shown that psychological stress may cause significant changes in the steroid profile, especially in females. Physical activity, independently of stress significantly modified the steroid profile. In summary, observed changes in steroid profile suggest, that major fluctuations of T/Et and A/E ratios under the influence of stressogenic factors and physical activity are unlikely.

  15. Delineation of Steroid-Degrading Microorganisms through Comparative Genomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee H. Bergstrand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Steroids are ubiquitous in natural environments and are a significant growth substrate for microorganisms. Microbial steroid metabolism is also important for some pathogens and for biotechnical applications. This study delineated the distribution of aerobic steroid catabolism pathways among over 8,000 microorganisms whose genomes are available in the NCBI RefSeq database. Combined analysis of bacterial, archaeal, and fungal genomes with both hidden Markov models and reciprocal BLAST identified 265 putative steroid degraders within only Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, which mainly originated from soil, eukaryotic host, and aquatic environments. These bacteria include members of 17 genera not previously known to contain steroid degraders. A pathway for cholesterol degradation was conserved in many actinobacterial genera, particularly in members of the Corynebacterineae, and a pathway for cholate degradation was conserved in members of the genus Rhodococcus. A pathway for testosterone and, sometimes, cholate degradation had a patchy distribution among Proteobacteria. The steroid degradation genes tended to occur within large gene clusters. Growth experiments confirmed bioinformatic predictions of steroid metabolism capacity in nine bacterial strains. The results indicate there was a single ancestral 9,10-seco-steroid degradation pathway. Gene duplication, likely in a progenitor of Rhodococcus, later gave rise to a cholate degradation pathway. Proteobacteria and additional Actinobacteria subsequently obtained a cholate degradation pathway via horizontal gene transfer, in some cases facilitated by plasmids. Catabolism of steroids appears to be an important component of the ecological niches of broad groups of Actinobacteria and individual species of Proteobacteria.

  16. Persistent primary hypogonadism associated with anabolic steroid abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boregowda, Kusuma; Joels, Lisa; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Price, David E

    2011-07-01

    To report a case of primary gonadal failure due to the chronic abuse of anabolic steroids used for bodybuilding. Case report. Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Morriston Hospital, Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom. A 40-year-old man. None. Clinical symptoms, levels of serum T, FSH, and LH. Primary gonadal failure resulting from anabolic steroid use. We describe a case of initially secondary gonadal failure resulting from anabolic steroid use with subsequent primary gonadal failure and infertility. This case adds to the current literature and illustrates that the side effects of anabolic steroids can be prolonged and irreversible. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Steroid avoidance or withdrawal for kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Maria C; Royuela, Ana; Nagler, Evi V; Pascual, Julio; Webster, Angela C

    2016-08-22

    Steroid-sparing strategies have been attempted in recent decades to avoid morbidity from long-term steroid intake among kidney transplant recipients. Previous systematic reviews of steroid withdrawal after kidney transplantation have shown a significant increase in acute rejection. There are various protocols to withdraw steroids after kidney transplantation and their possible benefits or harms are subject to systematic review. This is an update of a review first published in 2009. To evaluate the benefits and harms of steroid withdrawal or avoidance for kidney transplant recipients. We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register to 15 February 2016 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which steroids were avoided or withdrawn at any time point after kidney transplantation were included. Assessment of risk of bias and data extraction was performed by two authors independently and disagreement resolved by discussion. Statistical analyses were performed using the random-effects model and dichotomous outcomes were reported as relative risk (RR) and continuous outcomes as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals. We included 48 studies (224 reports) that involved 7803 randomised participants. Of these, three studies were conducted in children (346 participants). The 2009 review included 30 studies (94 reports, 5949 participants). Risk of bias was assessed as low for sequence generation in 19 studies and allocation concealment in 14 studies. Incomplete outcome data were adequately addressed in 22 studies and 37 were free of selective reporting.The 48 included studies evaluated three different comparisons: steroid avoidance or withdrawal compared with steroid maintenance, and steroid avoidance compared with steroid withdrawal. For the adult studies there was no significant difference in patient mortality either in studies

  18. Classification of two steroids, prostanozol and methasterone, as Schedule III anabolic steroids under the Controlled Substance Act. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    With the issuance of this Final Rule, the Administrator of the DEA classifies the following two steroids as "anabolic steroids'' under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA): prostanozol (17[beta]-hydroxy-5[alpha]-androstano[3,2-c]pyrazole) and methasterone (2[alpha],17[alpha]-dimethyl-5[alpha]-androstan-17[beta]-ol-3-one). These steroids and their salts, esters, and ethers are Schedule III controlled substances subject to the regulatory control provisions of the CSA.

  19. Steroid-antivirals treatment versus steroids alone for the treatment of Bell's palsy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yabing; Zhu, Yong; Ma, Chuan; Zhao, Huaqiang

    2015-01-01

    To illustrate whether the steroid-antivirals treatment could acquire a better recovery in patients with Bell's palsy than the steroids alone treatment. We conducted an exhaustive search over Pub med/Medline, Ovid, Elsevier search engines and the Cochrane library thereby collecting the randomized controlled trials in the treatment of patients with Bell's palsy with steroid-antivirals and steroids. The qualities of relevant articles were assessed by GRADE, which was used to present the overall quality of evidence as recommended by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Two investigators evaluated these papers independently, and resolved the disagreements by discussion. At last 8 eligible papers (1816 patients included: 896 treated with steroid-antivirals and 920 treated with steroids alone) match the criteria. Owing to the result (chi(2) = 12.57, P = 0.08, I(2) = 44%) presented by the formal test for heterogeneity, the fixed effect meta-analysis model was chosen. The facial muscle recovery between the steroids-antivirals group and the steroids alone group show significant differences (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.20-1.94), while the statistical outcome of adverse effect shows no statistical significance (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 0.71-2.31). The present meta-analysis indicates that the steroid-antivirals treatment could improve the recovery rate in patients with Bell's palsy when comparing with the steroid alone treatment. This meta-analysis showed that the steroid-antivirals treatment achieved the better outcomes in patients with Bell's palsy. Clinicians should consider that steroid-antivirals therapy is an alternative choice for the patients with Bell's palsy.

  20. Steroid 5alpha-reductase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Eugenio; Bratoeff, Eugene; Cabeza, Marisa; Ramirez, Elena; Quiroz, Alexandra; Heuze, Ivonne

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this study is to synthesize new steroidal compounds based on the progesterone skeleton with a high inhibitory activity for the enzyme 5alpha-reductase. Presently similar compounds are being used for the treatment of androgen dependent diseases such as: hirsutism, androgenic alopecia, bening prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Dihydrotestosterone 2 (Fig. (1)), a 5alpha-reduced metabolite of testosterone 1 has been implicated as a causative factor in the progression of these diseases, largely through the clinical evaluation of males who are genetically deficient of steroid 5alpha-reductase enzyme. As a result of this study, the inhibition of this enzyme has become a pharmacological strategy for the design and synthesis of new antiandrogenic drugs. The advent of finasteride 8 (Fig. (4)) a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor has grately alleviated the symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. In our laboratory we recently synthesized several new 16beta-methyl-pregnadiene-3,20-diones derivatives 27 (Fig.(6)), 38-42 (Fig. (11)), 16beta-phenyl-pregnadiene-3,17a-dione derivatives 32-33 (Fig. (7)), 16beta-phenyl-pregnatriene-3,17a-diones, 30, 31 (Fig. (7)) and 16beta-methyl-pregnatriene-3,20-diones 43-46 (Fig. (11)). These compounds were evaluated as 5alpha-reductase inhibitors in the following biological models: Penicillium crustosum broths, the flank organs of gonadectomized male hamsters, the incorporation of radiolabeled sodium acetate into lipids, the effect of the new steroids on the reduction of the weight of the seminal vesicles and on the in vitro metabolism of [(3)H]T to [(3)H]DHT in seminal vesicles homogenates of gonadectomized male hamsters. All trienones 30, 31, and 43-46 in all biological models showed consistently a higher 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity than the corresponding dienones 27, 32, 33 and 38-42. We believe that with these compounds the 5alpha-reductase enzyme is inactivated by an irreversible Michael type addition

  1. Steroids for symptom control in infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezk, Emtithal; Nofal, Yazan H; Hamzeh, Ammar; Aboujaib, Muhammed F; AlKheder, Mohammad A; Al Hammad, Muhammad F

    2015-11-08

    Infectious mononucleosis, also known as glandular fever or the kissing disease, is a benign lymphoproliferative disorder. It is a viral infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous herpes virus that is found in all human societies and cultures. Epidemiological studies show that over 95% of adults worldwide have been infected with EBV. Most cases of symptomatic infectious mononucleosis occur between the ages of 15 and 24 years. It is transmitted through close contact with an EBV shedder, contact with infected saliva or, less commonly, through sexual contact, blood transfusions or by sharing utensils; however, transmission actually occurs less than 10% of the time. Precautions are not needed to prevent transmission because of the high percentage of seropositivity for EBV. Infectious mononucleosis is self-limiting and typically lasts for two to three weeks. Nevertheless, symptoms can last for weeks and occasionally months.Symptoms include fever, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, hepatosplenomegaly and fatigue. Symptom relief and rest are commonly recommended treatments. Steroids have been used for their anti-inflammatory effects, but there are no universal criteria for their use. The objectives of the review were to determine the efficacy and safety of steroid therapy versus placebo, usual care or different drug therapies for symptom control in infectious mononucleosis. For this 2015 update we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 7), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register; MEDLINE (January 1966 to August 2015) and EMBASE (January 1974 to August 2015). We also searched trials registries, however we did not identify any new relevant completed or ongoing trials for inclusion. We combined the MEDLINE search with the Cochrane search strategy for identifying randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We adapted the search terms when searching EMBASE. RCTs comparing the

  2. "Will steroids kill me if I use them once?" A qualitative analysis of inquiries submitted to the Danish anti-doping authorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest; Bojsen-Møller, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Danish strategy for fighting the use of anabolic androgenic steroids in fitness centres is likely the most comprehensive of its sort in the world. It is instituted in the national anti doping organisation, Anti Doping Denmark (ADD), and consists of doping controls, educational...... categories of inquiries were the focus of attention: 1) those addressing side effects of anabolic steroids, and 2) those addressing concerns for receiving a positive doping test after the use of supplements. Results and discussion: In the first category four different types of approaches were identified...... and inquirers' concerns analysed: a) those that lacked knowledge on anabolic steroids, b) those that had experienced side effects, c) those that expressed knowledge of anabolic steroids, and d) those that presented potential harm reduction dilemmas for the counselling service. The second category revealed...

  3. Steroid interactions with structure and function of avian song control regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoogd, T J

    1986-05-01

    Following the pioneering work of Nottebohm, the brain regions involved in song production in songbirds have become a focus of extensive research in several laboratories. As both singing behavior and the neuroanatomy of song control regions are strongly affected by sex steroids in many songbird species, this system has become regarded as an ideal model system in which one can potentially determine how steroids affect neuronal anatomy, how altered anatomy leads to altered physiology, and how the altered physiology causes changes in singing. In the initial part of this review, I shall focus on canaries and zebra finches as most of our knowledge of the song system has been obtained from these two species. I shall describe singing behavior, the constituents of the song system, what is known of how these nuclei contribute to song, and how each is affected by steroid fluctuations. I shall then speculate on new ways of posing questions on hormone--anatomy interaction in this system (which I will illustrate with preliminary data from my own lab). This review will be brief as several reviews of aspects of the song system have recently been published (Arnold, 1982; Nottebohm, 1984; Arnold and Gorski, 1984; DeVoogd, 1984; Konishi, 1985).

  4. The Buzz About Anabolic Androgenic Steroids: Electrophysiological Effects in Excitable Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Joseph G.; Penatti, Carlos A. A.; Porter, Donna M.; Henderson, Leslie P.

    2012-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) comprise a large and growing class of synthetic androgens used clinically to promote tissue-building in individuals suffering from genetic disorders, injuries and diseases. Despite these beneficial therapeutic applications, the predominant use of AAS is illicit: these steroids are self-administered to promote athletic performance and body image. Hand in hand with the desired anabolic actions of the AAS are untoward effects on the brain and behavior. While the signaling routes by which the AAS impose both beneficial and harmful actions may be quite diverse, key endpoints are likely to include ligand-gated and voltage-dependent ion channels that govern the activity of electrically excitable tissues. Here we review the known effects of AAS on molecular targets that play critical roles in controlling electrical activity, with a specific focus on the effects of AAS on neurotransmission mediated by GABAA receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:22576754

  5. Liver Toxicity of Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Use in an Adolescent with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awai, Hannah I; Yu, Elizabeth L; Ellis, Linda S; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and related morbidities such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is high among adolescents. Current treatment recommendations for NAFLD focus on lifestyle optimization via nutrition and exercise. After encouraging exercise, many adolescents choose to participate in organized sports, which may lead to use of illicit substances such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) to boost athletic performance. Approximately 3,000,000 individuals use non-therapeutic AAS at supra-physiologic doses in the United States.1 In 2012, 5.9% of adolescent boys reported steroid use in the previous year.2 We anticipate adolescents with pre-existing liver disease are at increased risk for AAS induced hepatotoxicity. We present such a case with IRB approval and written individual patient consent. PMID:23568051

  6. Tissue architecture and breast cancer: the role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R K; Bissell, M J

    2000-06-01

    The changes in tissue architecture that accompany the development of breast cancer have been the focus of investigations aimed at developing new cancer therapeutics. As we learn more about the normal mammary gland, we have begun to understand the complex signaling pathways underlying the dramatic shifts in the structure and function of breast tissue. Integrin-, growth factor-, and steroid hormone-signaling pathways all play an important part in maintaining tissue architecture; disruption of the delicate balance of signaling results in dramatic changes in the way cells interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix, leading to breast cancer. The extracellular matrix itself plays a central role in coordinating these signaling processes. In this review, we consider the interrelationships between the extracellular matrix, integrins, growth factors, and steroid hormones in mammary gland development and function.

  7. Tissue architecture and breast cancer: the role of extracellular matrix and steroid hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R K; Bissell, M J

    2010-01-01

    The changes in tissue architecture that accompany the development of breast cancer have been the focus of investigations aimed at developing new cancer therapeutics. As we learn more about the normal mammary gland, we have begun to understand the complex signaling pathways underlying the dramatic shifts in the structure and function of breast tissue. Integrin-, growth factor-, and steroid hormone-signaling pathways all play an important part in maintaining tissue architecture; disruption of the delicate balance of signaling results in dramatic changes in the way cells interact with each other and with the extracellular matrix, leading to breast cancer. The extracellular matrix itself plays a central role in coordinating these signaling processes. In this review, we consider the interrelationships between the extracellular matrix, integrins, growth factors, and steroid hormones in mammary gland development and function. PMID:10903527

  8. Modulation of sodium pumps by steroidal saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Aloa Machado; Lara, Lucienne da Silva; Previato, Jose Osvaldo; Lopes, Aníbal Gil; Caruso-Neves, Celso; da Silva, Bernadete Pereira; Parente, José Paz

    2004-01-01

    Costus spicatus, used in Brazilian traditional medicine to expel kidney stones, contains steroidal saponins with different chemical characteristics. In spite of its popular utilization as potent diuretic, no scientific reports correlate this activity with the chemical constituents of the extract. Therefore, two steroidal saponins (3 beta,22 alpha,25R)-26-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2-methoxyfurost-5-en-3-yl O-D-apio-beta-D-furanosyl-(1-->2)-O-[6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and (3 beta,22 alpha,25R)-spirostan-3-yl O-D-apio-beta-D-furanosyl-(1-->2)-O-[6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1a), were isolated from the rhizomes of this plant and their effects on the Na+-ATPase and (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activities of the proximal tubule from pig kidney were evaluated. It was observed that 1 and 1a inhibit specifically the Na+-ATPase activity.

  9. Anabolic steroids for treating pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Whittaker, Maxine A

    2017-06-20

    Pressure ulcers, also known as bed sores, pressure sores or decubitus ulcers develop as a result of a localised injury to the skin or underlying tissue, or both. The ulcers usually arise over a bony prominence, and are recognised as a common medical problem affecting people confined to a bed or wheelchair for long periods of time. Anabolic steroids are used as off-label drugs (drugs which are used without regulatory approval) and have been used as adjuvants to usual treatment with dressings, debridement, nutritional supplements, systemic antibiotics and antiseptics, which are considered to be supportive in healing of pressure ulcers. Anabolic steroids are considered because of their ability to stimulate protein synthesis and build muscle mass. Comprehensive evidence is required to facilitate decision making, regarding the benefits and harms of using anabolic steroids. To assess the effects of anabolic steroids for treating pressure ulcers. In March 2017 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched clinical trials registries for ongoing and unpublished studies, and scanned reference lists of relevant included studies as well as reviews, meta-analyses and health technology reports to identify additional studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. Published or unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of anabolic steroids with alternative treatments or different types of anabolic steroids in the treatment of pressure ulcers. Two review authors independently carried out study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment. The review contains only one trial with a total of 212 participants, all with spinal cord injury and open pressure ulcers classed as stage III and IV. The participants were

  10. Current concepts in anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nick A

    2004-03-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone. According to surveys and media reports, the legal and illegal use of these drugs is gaining popularity. Testosterone restores sex drive and boosts muscle mass, making it central to 2 of society's rising preoccupations: perfecting the male body and sustaining the male libido. The anabolic effects of AAS have been questioned for decades, but recent scientific investigation of supraphysiologic doses supports the efficacy of these regimens. Testosterone has potent anabolic effects on the musculoskeletal system, including an increase in lean body mass, a dose-related hypertrophy of muscle fibers, and an increase in muscle strength. For athletes requiring speed and strength and men desiring a cosmetic muscle makeover, illegal steroids are a powerful lure, despite the risk of subjective side effects. Recent clinical studies have discovered novel therapeutic uses for physiologic doses of AAS, without any significant adverse effects in the short term. In the wake of important scientific advances during the past decade, the positive and negative effects of AAS warrant reevaluation. Guidelines for the clinical evaluation of AAS users will be presented for sports medicine practitioners.

  11. Inhalational Steroids and Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A V, Raveendran

    2014-01-01

    Bronchial asthma (BA) and Allergic rhinitis (AR) are common clinical problems encountered in day to day practice, where inhalational corticosteroids (ICS) or intranasal steroids (INS) are the mainstay of treatment. Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome (CS) is a well known complication of systemic steroid administration. ICS /INS were earlier thought to be safe, but now more and more number of case reports of Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome have been reported, especially in those who are taking cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) inhibitors. Comparing to the classical clinical features of spontaneous Cushing syndrome, iatrogenic Cushing syndrome is more commonly associated with osteoporosis, increase in intra-ocular pressure, benign intracranial hypertension, aseptic necrosis of femoral head and pancreatitis, where as hypertension, hirsuitisum and menstrual irregularities are less common. Endocrine work up shows low serum cortisol level with evidence of HPA (hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal) axis suppression. In all patients with features of Cushing syndrome with evidence of adrenal suppression always suspect iatrogenic CS. Since concomitant administration of cytochrome P450 inhibitors in patients on ICS/INS can precipitate iatrogenic CS, avoidance of CYP450 inhibitors, its dose reduction or substitution of ICS are the available options. Along with those, measures to prevent the precipitation of adrenal crisis has to be taken. An update on ICS-/INS- associated iatrogenic CS and its management is presented here.

  12. Steroids, alkaloids, and coumarins from Gelsemium sempervirens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizhen; Wang, Ping; Yuan, Wei; Li, Shiyou

    2008-12-01

    The 95 % ethanol extract of Gelsemium sempervirens showed inhibitory activity against human DNA topoisomerase I (Topo I). Phytochemical investigations of this active extract resulted in the isolation and identification of three new steroids ( 1 - 3), together with eight known compounds 12 beta-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregn-16-ene-3,20-dione ( 4), gelsemine ( 5), sempervirine ( 6), scopoletin ( 7), 7- O- beta- D-glucopyranosylscopoletin ( 8), 7- O- beta- D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)- beta- D-glucopyranosylscopoletin ( 9), uvaol ( 10), and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl heptadecanoate ( 11). The structures of the new steroids were determined by extensive NMR and HR-ESI-MS analyses as 21-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregn-16-ene-3,20-dione ( 1), 3-oxoandrosta-16-ene-17-carboxylic acid ( 2), and 3-oxoandrosta-4,16-diene-17-carboxylic acid ( 3). This study suggests that sempervirine ( 6) intercalates to DNA and also inhibits Topo I through modulating the enzyme activity with an IC (50) of 54.5 +/- 15.9 muM.

  13. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  14. Steroid implants and markers of bone turnover in steers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jannes

    In addition to muscle growth, steroids ... and reflect steroid-induced bone maturity in the periphery: non-implanted controls; 25.7 mg estradiol-17β ..... Anabolic implant effects on steer performance, carcass traits, subprimal yields, and longissimus muscle properties. J. Anim. Sci. 75, 1256-1265. Johnson, B.J., Anderson, P.T., ...

  15. Urinary steroid profiling in the evaluation of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    11 out of 20 adult patients presented with Cushing's syndrome, including 5 presenting with a clinically evident abdominal mass. Only one of the 50 patients studied here had a normal urinary steroid profile. The pattern or the amount of overall steroid metabolites excreted was abnormal in all the other patients. There was ...

  16. Metabolic Action Of Sex Steroids: The Effects Of Testosterone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been widely reported that sex steroids affect carbohydrate metabolism and may have influences on hepatic enzymes. There have also been reports that glucocorticoids and sex steroids sometimes bind to similar receptors. All these suggest possible functional similarities or antagonism between glucocorticoids and ...

  17. Ovarian steroid sulphate functions as priming pheromone in male ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study reveals that pre-ovulatory females of the fish Barilius bendelisis (Ham.) release sex steroids and their conjugates into the water and that a steroid sulphate of these compounds functions as a potent sex pheromone which stimulates milt production in conspecific males prior to spawning. Since males exposed to the ...

  18. Ibuprofen versus steroids: risk and benefit, efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giovannini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years we have observed an upward trend in the employment of ibuprofen as anti-inflammatory and antipyretic therapy. Therefore the pediatrician has often a precious option in the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatment in children instead of using steroids and paracetamol. In clinical practice ibuprofen can be used in the treatment of headache, toothache, otalgy, dysmenorrhea, neuralgia, arthralgia, myalgia, abdominal pain and fever: it is the first choice for these common diseases. However, the use of steroids is a routine, even if non-corticosteroid anti-inflammatory molecules could be useful. Certainly steroids are powerful anti-inflammatory, indicated for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders and in acute respiratory and allergic diseases. Beside, thanks to their chemical and pharmacological profile, they also provide patients with an antipyretic effect. However, the use of steroids must be reserved to cases in which other classical antipyretics such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not effective. The possible side effects and risks associated with stepping down steroids must be considered. Although “steroids-phobia” should be discouraged, steroids are to be reserved only as the first indication. In all other cases the pediatrician can use ibuprofen, whose efficacy and safety are widely demonstrated by now.

  19. Measurement of endogenous subcellular concentration of steroids in tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, J.; Landeghem, A.A.J. van; Helmond-Agema, A.; Thussen, J.H.H.

    1984-01-01

    A reliable method for the extraction of steroid hormones from human uterine tissue and the subsequent measurement of these hormones in the subcellular compartments by radioimmunoassay is described. Extraction of radioactive steroid hormones from in vivo labelled human uterine tissue by different

  20. The Regulation of Steroid Action by Sulfation and Desulfation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jonathan W.; Gilligan, Lorna C.; Idkowiak, Jan; Arlt, Wiebke

    2015-01-01

    Steroid sulfation and desulfation are fundamental pathways vital for a functional vertebrate endocrine system. After biosynthesis, hydrophobic steroids are sulfated to expedite circulatory transit. Target cells express transmembrane organic anion-transporting polypeptides that facilitate cellular uptake of sulfated steroids. Once intracellular, sulfatases hydrolyze these steroid sulfate esters to their unconjugated, and usually active, forms. Because most steroids can be sulfated, including cholesterol, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and estrone, understanding the function, tissue distribution, and regulation of sulfation and desulfation processes provides significant insights into normal endocrine function. Not surprisingly, dysregulation of these pathways is associated with numerous pathologies, including steroid-dependent cancers, polycystic ovary syndrome, and X-linked ichthyosis. Here we provide a comprehensive examination of our current knowledge of endocrine-related sulfation and desulfation pathways. We describe the interplay between sulfatases and sulfotransferases, showing how their expression and regulation influences steroid action. Furthermore, we address the role that organic anion-transporting polypeptides play in regulating intracellular steroid concentrations and how their expression patterns influence many pathologies, especially cancer. Finally, the recent advances in pharmacologically targeting steroidogenic pathways will be examined. PMID:26213785

  1. Steroid implants and markers of bone turnover in steers | Knetter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steroidal implants are used extensively in beef cattle management to take advantage of welldocumented improvements in growth performance and efficiency. In addition to muscle growth, steroids bring about changes in bone and cartilage formation, hastening bone ageing. The current study was designed to test the ...

  2. Steroid hormone receptor phosphorylation: Is there a physiological role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G.J.M. Kuiper (George); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAll members of the steroid hormone receptor family are phosphoproteins. Additional phosphorylation occurs in the presence of hormone. This hormone-induced phosphorylation, which is 2- to 7-fold more than the basal phosphorylation, is a rapid process. All steroid receptors are

  3. Does Steroid Abuse Cause--Or Excuse--Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, Adele

    1989-01-01

    Use of anabolic steroids is believed to increase the odds of violent antisocial behavior, thus posing risks to consumers and the general public. Some research shows the danger of steroids in inducing severe adverse psychiatric effects. Certain lawyers use this abuse to plead insanity for their clients. (SM)

  4. Steroid induced diabetes mellitus in patients receiving prednisolone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Steroids are a useful component of combination chemotherapy or as a single agent in the treatment of haematological disorders even though there are adverse effects associated with its use. Methods: We report four patients who developed diabetes mellitus (DM) during treatment with steroids for ...

  5. Synthesis of Steroidal Indoxyl, and Derivatives from 3-Ketosteroid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis of Steroidal Indoxyl, and Derivatives from 3-Ketosteroid. F.N. KAMAU. 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, ... Key words: Synthesis, Steroidal Indoxyl, derivatives. INTRODUCTION. 1 7-ketosteroids condense with .... acknowledged. Financial support for this work was provided by the Deans' Committee,.

  6. Prevalence and awareness of anabolic androgenic steroid use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the prevalence and awareness of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use among male bodybuilders visiting gyms in Jazan ... Health educational programs are required to increase the awareness about the side effects of anabolic steroids ..... Brand (generic name). Testosterone (Enanthate). 54. 37.5.

  7. Steroids in teleost fishes: A functional point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Janina; Möller, Gabriele; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Adamski, Jerzy

    2015-11-01

    Steroid hormones are involved in the regulation of a variety of processes like embryonic development, sex differentiation, metabolism, immune responses, circadian rhythms, stress response, and reproduction in vertebrates. Teleost fishes and humans show a remarkable conservation in many developmental and physiological aspects, including the endocrine system in general and the steroid hormone related processes in particular. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about steroid hormone biosynthesis and the steroid hormone receptors in teleost fishes and compares the findings to the human system. The impact of the duplicated genome in teleost fishes on steroid hormone biosynthesis and perception is addressed. Additionally, important processes in fish physiology regulated by steroid hormones, which are most dissimilar to humans, are described. We also give a short overview on the influence of anthropogenic endocrine disrupting compounds on steroid hormone signaling and the resulting adverse physiological effects for teleost fishes. By this approach, we show that the steroidogenesis, hormone receptors, and function of the steroid hormones are reasonably well understood when summarizing the available data of all teleost species analyzed to date. However, on the level of a single species or a certain fish-specific aspect of physiology, further research is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. THE ROLE OF STEROID HORMONES IN LEARNING AND MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gurzu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient evidence has accumulated since the 1970s to support the hypothesis that gonadal steroids can influence processes that allow an organism to learn and remember new information. Although this conclusion quickly leads to exciting implications for our understanding of cognitive function and for the treatment of cognitive disability, it also raises questions regarding the nature, mechanism, and significance of the steroid modulation of learning and memory. In order to support the case that a steroid plays a meaningful role in cognition, several central issues must be addressed : adaptative value (the proposed effect of the steroid on learning and memory should have adaptive value to the organism; strenght of effect (empirical data supporting the role of the steroid in learning and memory should be sufficiently robust in magnitude and replicability; neural substrate (anatomical and physilogical substrates should exist to support the actions of the steroid on learning and memory ; and nonmnemonic processes (processes other than those directly mediating steroid effects on learning and memory systems should be identified (23. Sufficient evidence has accumulated since the 1970s to support the hypothesis that gonadal steroids can influence processes that allow an organism to learn and remember new information. Although this conclusion quickly leads to exciting implications for our understanding of cognitive function and for the treatment of cognitive disability, it also raises questions regarding the nature, mechanism, and significance of the steroid modulation of learning and memory. In order to support the case that a steroid plays a meaningful role in cognition, several central issues must be addressed : adaptative value (the proposed effect of the steroid on learning and memory should have adaptive value to the organism; strenght of effect (empirical data supporting the role of the steroid in learning and memory should be sufficiently robust

  9. Homicide and Associated Steroid Acute Psychosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Airagnes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of an old man treated with methylprednisolone for chronic lymphoid leukemia. After two months of treatment, he declared an acute steroid psychosis and beat his wife to death. Steroids were stopped and the psychotic symptoms subsided, but his condition declined very quickly. The clinical course was complicated by a major depressive disorder with suicidal ideas, due to the steroid stoppage, the leukemia progressed, and by a sudden onset of a fatal pulmonary embolism. This clinical case highlights the importance of early detection of steroid psychosis and proposes, should treatment not be stopped, a strategy of dose reduction combined with a mood stabilizer or antipsychotic treatment. In addition have been revised the risks of the adverse psychiatric effects of steroids.

  10. [Estimated consumption of anabolic steroids among athletes in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauner, M; Kisling, A; Nielsen, S L

    1995-01-01

    In an attempt to ascertain the types and quantities of anabolic steroids used by athletes in Denmark, a questionnaire was distributed at nine weight-training centres during the winter of 1986-1987. By comparing the results of the non-representative questionnaire study with the overall consumption of anabolic steroids in the country as a whole, the annual consumption was estimated to be the equivalent of at least 6,500 10-week courses of anabolic steroids at daily dosages eight times the recommended therapeutic level. In addition, the not inconsiderable illegal use of anabolic steroids seems to increase. The annual consumption of anabolic steroids by athletes in Denmark is estimated to be 2 million daily doses.

  11. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome following short-term intranasal steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Deep; Shivaprasad, K S; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2012-09-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is common after oral steroid use and has also been reported following topical or inhaled use, but it is extremely uncommon after intranasal administration. In this paper, we present the case of a child who developed CS after intranasal application of combined moxifloxacin-dexamethasone eye drops for epistaxis for a period of 3 months. CS caused by ocular preparations of steroids has not been reported previously. This case report highlights the fact that even eye drops can contain high doses of steroids and can lead to CS especially in children and especially if used intranasally. Ocular steroid drops should not be used intranasally. To minimize gastrointestinal absorption and therefore the risk of CS, nasal sprays should be preferred over nasal drops for intranasal steroid application.

  12. Reference ranges for urinary concentrations and ratios of endogenous steroids, which can be used as markers for steroid misuse, in a Caucasian population of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, Pieter; Van Eenoo, Peter; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Delbeke, Frans T

    2010-02-01

    The detection of misuse with naturally occurring steroids is a great challenge for doping control laboratories. Intake of natural anabolic steroids alters the steroid profile. Thus, screening for exogenous use of these steroids can be established by monitoring a range of endogenous steroids, which constitute the steroid profile, and evaluate their concentrations and ratios against reference ranges. Elevated values of the steroid profile constitute an atypical finding after which a confirmatory IRMS procedure is needed to unequivocally establish the exogenous origin of a natural steroid. However, the large inter-individual differences in urinary steroid concentrations and the recent availability of a whole range of natural steroids (e.g. dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione) which each exert a different effect on the monitored parameters in doping control complicate the interpretation of the current steroid profile. The screening of an extended steroid profile can provide additional parameters to support the atypical findings and can give specific information upon the steroids which have been administered. The natural concentrations of 29 endogenous steroids and 11 ratios in a predominantly Caucasian population of athletes were determined. The upper reference values at 97.5%, 99% and 99.9% levels were assessed for male (n=2027) and female (n=1004) populations. Monitoring minor metabolites and evaluation of concentration ratios with respect to their natural abundances could improve the interpretation of the steroid profile in doping analysis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Steroid acne vs. Pityrosporum folliculitis: the incidence of Pityrosporum ovale and the effect of antifungal drugs in steroid acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H J; Lee, S K; Son, S J; Kim, Y S; Yang, H Y; Kim, J H

    1998-10-01

    Steroid acne is a folliculitis that can result from systemic or topical administration of steroid, and has been described as showing a similar clinical picture to Pityrosporum folliculitis, but there have been few reports about the incidence of Pityrosporum ovale and the effect of antimycotic drugs in steroid acne and other acneiform eruptions. Our purpose was to describe the association between steroid acne and P. ovale, and to confirm the superior efficacy of oral antifungal drugs over anti-acne drugs in the treatment of steroid acne. The history, clinical features direct microscopy, histopathologic analysis, and therapeutic results of 125 cases with steroid acne or other acneiform eruptions were described and compared. Over 80% of patients with acneiform eruption receiving systemic steroid revealed significant numbers of P. ovale in the lesional follicle. Furthermore, oral antifungal drug (itraconazole) showed significantly better clinical and mycologic effects than any other group of medications used in this study. Steroid acne and other acneiform eruptions showing discrete follicular papules and/or pustules localized to the upper trunk and acneiform facial skin lesions associated with multiple acneiform lesions on the body in the summer period should be suspected as Pityrosporum folliculitis. In addition, oral antifungal drugs recommended for Pityrosporum folliculitis; however, it will require a larger case-control study to confirm the superiority of antifungal therapy over anti-acne treatment.

  14. Steroid hormones for contraception in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, David A; Lopez, Laureen M; Gallo, Maria F; Halpern, Vera; Nanda, Kavita; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2012-03-14

    Male hormonal contraception has been an elusive goal. Administration of sex steroids to men can shut off sperm production through effects on the pituitary and hypothalamus. However, this approach also decreases production of testosterone, so 'add-back' therapy is needed. To summarize all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of male hormonal contraception. In January and February 2012, we searched the computerized databases CENTRAL, MEDLINE, POPLINE, and LILACS. We also searched for recent trials in ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP. Previous searches included EMBASE. We wrote to authors of identified trials to seek additional unpublished or published trials. We included all RCTs that compared a steroid hormone with another contraceptive. We excluded non-steroidal male contraceptives, such as gossypol. We included both placebo and active-regimen control groups. The primary outcome measure was the absence of spermatozoa on semen examination, often called azoospermia. Data were insufficient to examine pregnancy rates and side effects. We found 33 trials that met our inclusion criteria. The proportion of men who reportedly achieved azoospermia or had no detectable sperm varied widely. A few important differences emerged. 1) Levonorgestrel implants (160 μg daily) combined with injectable testosterone enanthate (TE) were more effective than levonorgestrel 125 µg daily combined with testosterone patches. 2) Levonorgestrel 500 μg daily improved the effectiveness of TE 100 mg injected weekly. 3) Levonorgestrel 250 μg daily improved the effectiveness of testosterone undecanoate (TU) 1000 mg injection plus TU 500 mg injected at 6 and 12 weeks. 4) Desogestrel 150 μg was less effective than desogestrel 300 μg (with testosterone pellets). 5) TU 500 mg was less likely to produce azoospermia than TU 1000 mg (with levonorgestrel implants). 6) Norethisterone enanthate 200 mg with TU 1000 mg led to more azoospermia when given every 8 weeks versus 12 weeks. 7) Four implants of 7-alpha

  15. Efficacy of steroidal vs non-steroidal agents in oral lichen planus: a randomised, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A R; Rai, A; Aftab, M; Jain, S; Singh, M

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the therapeutic efficacy of steroidal and non-steroidal agents for treating oral lichen planus. Forty patients with clinical and/or histologically proven oral lichen planus were randomly placed into four groups and treated with topical triamcinolone, oral dapsone, topical tacrolimus or topical retinoid for three months. Pre- and post-treatment symptoms and signs were scored for each patient. Patients in all treatment groups showed significant clinical improvement after three months (p 0.05) and for topical retinoid vs topical tacrolimus (p > 0.05). Non-steroidal drugs such as dapsone, tacrolimus and retinoid are as efficacious as steroidal drugs for treating oral lichen planus, and avoid the side effects associated with steroids.

  16. Synthesis and cytotoxicity studies of steroid-functionalized titanocenes as potential anticancer drugs: sex steroids as potential vectors for titanocenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li Ming; Vera, José L; Matta, Jaime; Meléndez, Enrique

    2010-08-01

    Six titanocenyls functionalized with steroidal esters have been synthesized and characterized by infrared, (1)H, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Among those steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone, trans-androsterone, and androsterone are androgens and pregnenolone is a progesterone precursor. Clionasterol is a natural steroid compound. These steroid-functionalized titanocenyls were tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay for in vitro cytotoxicity for MCF-7 breast cancer and HT-29 colon cancer cells. All complexes exhibited more cytotoxicity than titanocene dichloride. The titanocenyls containing androgen and progesterone derivatives as pendant groups had higher antiproliferative activities than those with cholesterol steroid compounds. Of particular significance is titanocenyl-dehydroepiandrosterone complex, which is 2 orders of magnitude more cytotoxic than titanocene dichloride and also shows much more sensitivity and selectivity for the MCF-7 cell line.

  17. Detection of anabolic steroid abuse using a yeast transactivation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierau, Oliver; Lehmann, Sylvi; Vollmer, Günter; Schänzer, Willhelm; Diel, Patrick

    2008-10-01

    The classical analytical method for detection of anabolic steroid abuse is gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, even molecules with a chemical structure typical for this class of substances, are sometimes not identified in routine screening by GC/MS when their precise chemical structure is still unknown. A supplementary approach to identify anabolic steroid abuse could be a structure-independent identification of anabolic steroids based on their biological activity. To test the suitability of such a system, we have analyzed the yeast androgen receptor (AR) reporter gene system to identify anabolic steroids in human urine samples. Analysis of different anabolic steroids dissolved in buffer demonstrated that the yeast reporter gene system is able to detect a variety of different anabolic steroids and their metabolites with high specificity, including the so-called 'designer steroid' tetrahydrogestrinone. In contrast, other non-androgenic steroids, like glucocordicoids, progestins, mineralocordicoids and estrogens had a low potency to stimulate transactivation. To test whether the system would also allow the detection of androgens in urine, experiments with spiked urine samples were performed. The androgen reporter gene in yeast responds very sensitive to 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), even at high urine concentrations. To examine whether the test system would also be able to detect anabolic steroids in the urine of anabolic steroid abusers, anonymous urine samples previously characterized by GCMS were analyzed with the reporter gene assay. Even when the concentration of the anabolic metabolites was comparatively low in some positive samples it was possible to identify the majority of positive samples by their biological activity. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the yeast reporter gene system detects anabolic steroids and corresponding metabolites with high sensitivity even in urine of anabolic steroid abusing athletes

  18. Fluctuating Asymmetry and Steroid Hormones: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Benderlioglu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA represents random, minor deviations from perfect symmetry in paired traits. Because the development of the left and right sides of a paired trait is presumably controlled by an identical set of genetic instructions, these small imperfections are considered to reflect genetic and environmental perturbations experienced during ontogeny. The current paper aims to identify possible neuroendocrine mechanisms, namely the actions of steroid hormones that may impact the development of asymmetrical characters as a response to various stressors. In doing so, it provides a review of the published studies on the influences of glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens on FA and concomitant changes in other health and fitness indicators. It follows the premise that hormonal measures may provide direct, non-invasive indicators of how individuals cope with adverse life conditions, strengthening the associations between FA and health, fitness, and behavior.

  19. Steroid hormone receptors in male breast diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, M M; Oshima, C F; Lopes, M P; Widman, A; Franco, E L; Brentani, M M

    1986-01-01

    Estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), glucocorticoid (GR) and androgen (AR) receptors were assayed in tumor samples from 8 cases of male breast cancer (MBC) and 20 cases of male gynecomastia. Seven out of eight (87.5%) male tumor samples had positive ER assays with values ranging from 12 to 180 fmol/mg protein. Of the seven ER positive cases of MBC, six, had positive PR activity with high titers. Positive GR and AR values were also detected in 75% of MBC cases. Concentrations of all four receptors were significantly correlated with each other. With gynecomastic tissue, the proportion of receptor-positive patients was 20% ER, 20% PR, 20% AR, and 45% GR. Except for GR, steroid receptor values for MBC individuals were significantly higher than those of gynecomastia patients.

  20. [Control measures for anabolic androgenic steroid medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Mourelle, Raquel; Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo; Ces Gens, Eugenio; Cadórniga Valiño, Luis; Álvaro Esteban, Pilar; Pose Reino, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) can cause serious adverse effects when used without a therapeutic purpose. This article aims to show that the AAS are susceptible to being sold on the black market. We also aim to describe how certain limitations on the health inspection services of the Galician health service to pursue these illegal actions prompted a regulatory initiative demanding that additional actions be granted to community pharmacies when dispensing AAS. Four pharmacy inspections detected the diversion of a total of 3118 packages of AAS, which led to the opening of four disciplinary proceedings. In two of these, specialized police forces were called in as there was sufficient evidence of possible diversion to gymnasiums, resulting in a police operation called Operation Fitness. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Anabolic androgenic steroid-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Peter; Llewellyn, William; Van Mol, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been abused for decades by both professional and amateur athletes in order to improve physical performance or muscle mass. AAS abuse can cause adverse effects, among which are hepatotoxic effects. These effects include cholestatic icterus and possibly peliosis hepatis and hepatocellular carcinoma or adenoma. In particular, 17α-alkylated AAS appear to be hepatotoxic, whereas nonalkylated AAS appear not to be. The 17α-alkyl substitution retards hepatic metabolism of the AAS rendering it orally bioavailable. The mechanism responsible for the hepatotoxicity induced by 17α-alkylated AAS remains poorly understood. However, oxidative stress has been repeatedly shown to be associated with it. In this manuscript we present a hypothesis which describes a potential mechanism responsible for AAS-induced hepatotoxicity, based on several observations from the literature which suggest oxidative stress being a causal factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anabolic androgenic steroids abuse and liver toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, M; Bello, S; Bonsignore, A; Cantatore, S; Riezzo, I; Turillazzi, E; Fineschi, V

    2011-05-01

    In the athletes the wide use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) cause series damage in various organs, in particular, analyzing the liver, elevation on the levels of liver enzymes, cholestatic jaundice, liver tumors, both benign and malignant, and peliosis hepatis are described. A prolonged AAS administration provokes an increase in the activities of liver lysosomal hydrolases and a decrease in some components of the microsomal drug-metabolizing system and in the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes without modifying classical serum indicators of hepatic function. Liver is a key organ actively involved in numerous metabolic and detoxifying functions. As a consequence, it is continuously exposed to high levels of endogenous and exogenous oxidants that are by-products of many biochemical pathways and, in fact, it has been demonstrated that intracellular oxidant production is more active in liver than in tissues, like the increase of inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis and the inhibitors of apoptosis NF- κB and Heat Shock Proteins.

  3. Adolescent exposure to anabolic/androgenic steroids and the neurobiology of offensive aggression: a hypothalamic neural model based on findings in pubertal Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloni, Richard H; Ricci, Lesley A

    2010-06-01

    Considerable public attention has been focused on the issue of youth violence, particularly that associated with drug use. It is documented that anabolic steroid use by teenagers is associated with a higher incidence of aggressive behavior and serious violence, yet little is known about how these drugs produce the aggressive phenotype. Here we discuss work from our laboratory on the relationship between the development and activity of select neurotransmitter systems in the anterior hypothalamus and anabolic steroid-induced offensive aggression using pubertal male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) as an adolescent animal model, with the express goal of synthesizing these data into an cogent neural model of the developmental adaptations that may underlie anabolic steroid-induced aggressive behavior. Notably, alterations in each of the neural systems identified as important components of the anabolic steroid-induced aggressive response occurred in a sub-division of the anterior hypothalamic brain region we identified as the hamster equivalent of the latero-anterior hypothalamus, indicating that this sub-region of the hypothalamus is an important site of convergence for anabolic steroid-induced neural adaptations that precipitate offensive aggression. Based on these findings we present in this review a neural model to explain the neurochemical regulation of anabolic steroid-induced offensive aggression showing the hypothetical interaction between the arginine vasopressin, serotonin, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and glutamate neural systems in the anterior hypothalamic brain region. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Strategies for the Assessment of Metabolic Profiles of Steroid Hormones in View of Diagnostics and Drug Monitoring: Analytical Problems and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenis, Alina; Oledzka, Ilona; Kowalski, Piotr; Baczek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years there has been a growing interest in research focused on the metabolism of steroid hormones despite that the study of metabolic hormone pathways is still a difficult and demanding task because of low steroid concentrations and a complexity of the analysed matrices. Thus, there has been an increasing interest in the development of new, more selective and sensitive methods for monitoring these compounds in biological samples. A lot of bibliographic databases for world research literature were structurally searched using selected review question and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Next, the reports of the highest quality were selected using standard tools (181) and they were described to evaluate the advantages and limitations of different approaches in the measurements of the steroids and their metabolites. The overview of the analytical challenges, development of methods used in the assessment of the metabolic pathways of steroid hormones, and the priorities for future research with a special consideration for liquid chromatography (LC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques have been presented. Moreover, many LC and CE applications in pharmacological and psychological studies as well as endocrinology and sports medicine, taking into account the recent progress in the area of the metabolic profiling of steroids, have been critically discussed. The latest reports show that LC systems coupled with mass spectrometry have the predominant position in the research of steroid profiles. Moreover, CE techniques are going to gain a prominent position in the diagnosis of hormone levels in the near future.

  5. The Role of Steroid Hormones on the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rodrigues Vasconcelos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain.The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role in neurodegenerative processes, including in disorders such as in Alzheimer´s and Parkinson´s diseases. Sex hormones have also been shown to modulate cognitive functioning. Inflammation is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders, and sex hormones/glucocorticoids can act to regulate inflammatory processes. Intermittent fasting can protect the brain against cognitive decline that is induced by an inflammatory stimulus. On the other hand, obesity increases susceptibility to inflammation, whilst metabolic syndromes, like diabetes, are associated with neurodegeneration. Consequently, given that gonadal and/or adrenal steroids may significantly impact on the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration, via their effect on inflammatory processes, this review focuses on how environmental factors, like calorie intake and intermittent fasting, acting through their modulation of steroid hormones, impact on inflammation that contributes to cognitive and neurodegenerative processes.

  6. [Ingestion of anabolic steroids and ischaemic stroke. A clinical case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Esperón, Carlos; Hervás-García, José Vicente; Jiménez-González, Marta; Pérez de la Ossa-Herrero, Natalia; Gomis-Cortina, Meritxell; Dorado-Bouix, Laura; López-Cancio Martinez, Elena; Castaño-Duque, Carlos H; Millán-Torné, Mónica; Dávalos, Antonio

    2013-03-16

    INTRODUCTION. Anabolic-androgenic steroids are synthetic substances derived from testosterone that are employed for their trophic effect on muscle tissue, among other uses. Their consumption can give trigger a series of adverse side effects on the body, including the suppression of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis as well as liver, psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders. The most common effects are altered fat profiles and blood pressure values, cardiac remodelling, arrhythmias or myocardial infarcts. CASE REPORT. We report the case of a young male, with a background of anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse, who visited because of an acute neurological focus in the right hemisphere related with an ischaemic stroke. The aetiological study, including cardiac monitoring, echocardiograph and imaging studies (magnetic resonance and arteriography) and lab findings (thrombophilia, serology, autoimmunity, tumour markers) showed no alterations. CONCLUSIONS. The association between consumption of anabolic-androgenic steroids and cardiovascular pathologies is known, but its relation with cerebrovascular disease has not received so much attention from researchers.

  7. Pathways and genes involved in steroid hormone metabolism in male pigs: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robic, Annie; Faraut, Thomas; Prunier, Armelle

    2014-03-01

    This paper reviews state-of-the-art knowledge on steroid biosynthesis pathways in the pig and provides an updated characterization of the porcine genes involved in these pathways with particular focus on androgens, estrogens, and 16-androstenes. At least 21 different enzymes appear to be involved in these pathways in porcine tissues together with at least five cofactors. Until now, data on several porcine genes were scarce or confusing. We characterized the complete genomic and transcript sequences of the single porcine CYP11B gene. We analyzed the porcine AKR1 gene cluster and identified four AKR1C, one AKR1C like genes and one AKR1E2 gene. We provide evidence that porcine AKR1C genes are not orthologous to human AKR1C. A new nomenclature is thus needed for this gene family in the pig. Thirty-two genes are now described: transcript (30+2 characterized in this study) and genomic (complete: 18+1 and partial: 12+1) sequences are identified. However, despite increasing knowledge on steroid metabolism in the pig, there is still no explanation of why porcine testes can produce androstenone and epiandrosterone, but not dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is also a reduced steroid. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interactions between inflammation, sex steroids, and Alzheimer’s disease risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchoa, Mariana F.; Moser, V. Alexandra; Pike, Christian J.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder for which there are no effective strategies to prevent or slow its progression. Because AD is multifactorial, recent research has focused on understanding interactions among the numerous risk factors and mechanisms underlying the disease. One mechanism through which several risk factors may be acting is inflammation. AD is characterized by chronic inflammation that is observed before clinical onset of dementia. Several genetic and environmental risk factors for AD increase inflammation, including apolipoprotein E4, obesity, and air pollution. Additionally, sex steroid hormones appear to contribute to AD risk, with age-related losses of estrogens in women and androgens in men associated with increased risk. Importantly, sex steroid hormones have anti-inflammatory actions and can interact with several other AD risk factors. This review examines the individual and interactive roles of inflammation and sex steroid hormones in AD, as well as their relationships with the AD risk factors apolipoprotein E4, obesity, and air pollution. PMID:27651175

  9. Clinical value of transforaminal epidural steroid injection in lumbar radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S M; Chau, W W; Law, S W; Fung, K Y

    2015-10-01

    To identify the diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic values of transforaminal epidural steroid injection as interventional rehabilitation for lumbar radiculopathy. Regional hospital, Hong Kong. A total of 232 Chinese patients with lumbar radiculopathy attributed to disc herniation or spinal stenosis received transforaminal epidural steroid injection between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011. Transforaminal epidural steroid injection. Patients' immediate response, response duration, proportion of patients requiring surgery, and risk factors affecting the responses to transforaminal epidural steroid injection for lumbar radiculopathy. Of the 232 patients, 218 (94.0%) had a single level of radiculopathy and 14 (6.0%) had multiple levels. L5 was the most commonly affected level. The immediate response rate to transforaminal epidural steroid injection was 80.2% in 186 patients with clinically diagnosed lumbar radiculopathy and magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine suggesting nerve root compression. Of patients with single-level radiculopathy and multiple-level radiculopathy, 175 (80.3%) and 11 (78.6%) expressed an immediate response to transforaminal epidural steroid injection, respectively. The analgesic effect lasted for 1 to lumbar radiculopathy. Although transforaminal epidural steroid injection cannot alter the need for surgery in the long term, it is a reasonably safe procedure to provide short-term pain relief and as a preoperative assessment tool.

  10. Steroid-Functionalized Titanocenes: Docking Studies with Estrogen Receptor Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming Gao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα is a transcription factor that is activated by hormones, with 17β-estradiol being its most active agonist endogenous ligand. ERα is also activated or inactivated by exogenous ligands. ER is overexpressed in hormone-dependent breast cancer, and one of the treatments for this type of cancer is the use of an ER antagonist to halt cell proliferation. We have previously reported four steroid-functionalized titanocenes: pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, trans-androsterone, and androsterone. These steroids have hormonal activity as well as moderate antiproliferative activity, thus these steroids could act as vectors for the titanocene dichloride to target hormone-dependent cancers. Also, these steroids could increase the antiproliferative activity of the resulting titanocenes based on synergism. In order to elucidate which factors contribute to the enhanced antiproliferative activity of these steroid-functionalized titanocenes, we performed docking studies between ERα and the titanocenes and the steroids. The binding affinities and type of bonding interactions of the steroid-functionalized titanocenes with ERα are herein discussed.

  11. Embryonic modulation of maternal steroids in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paitz, Ryan T; Bowden, Rachel M; Casto, Joseph M

    2011-01-07

    In birds, maternally derived yolk steroids are a proposed mechanism by which females can adjust individual offspring phenotype to prevailing conditions. However, when interests of mother and offspring differ, parent-offspring conflict will arise and embryonic interests, not those of the mother, should drive offspring response to maternal steroids in eggs. Because of this potential conflict, we investigated the ability of developing bird embryos to process maternally derived yolk steroids. We examined how progesterone, testosterone and oestradiol levels changed in both the yolk/albumen (YA) and the embryo of European starling eggs during the first 10 days of development. Next, we injected tritiated testosterone into eggs at oviposition to characterize potential metabolic pathways during development. Ether extractions separated organic and aqueous metabolites in both the embryo and YA homogenate, after which major steroid metabolites were identified. Results indicate that the concentrations of all three steroids declined during development in the YA homogenate. Exogenous testosterone was primarily metabolized to an aqueous form of etiocholanolone that remained in the YA. These results clearly demonstrate that embryos can modulate their local steroid environment, setting up the potential for parent-offspring conflict. Embryonic regulation must be considered when addressing the evolutionary consequences of maternal steroids in eggs.

  12. Growth in Children with Steroid Sensitive Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, K R; Kanitkar, M

    2009-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome in children usually has an onset between 2-8 years of age and steroids form the mainstay of management. Therapy may affect growth in children with relapsing nephrotic syndrome. This study was carried out to correlate growth with the cumulative dose of steroids in children with steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Data of 35 children with SSNS was analysed retrospectively. They were divided into two groups. Group I received prednisolone only and Group II received levamisole and or cyclophosphamide in addition to steroids. Their heights were recorded at the time of inclusion and again one year later. The SD scores for age were determined. Growth rate as a change in the SD score over one year (Δ SD score) was correlated to the cumulative dose of steroids over the same period using the Pearson's correlation. There were 24 (68.6 %) boys and 11 (31.4 %) girls (M:F ratio 2.18:1) in the age group of 17 months to 11 years at inclusion. Group I constituted 19 (54.2 %) and Group II, 16 (45.8 %). Pearson's correlation coefficients for all children, Groups I and II were -0.341, -0.441 and -0.255 respectively indicating "Fair correlation". This indicates that as the cumulative dose of steroid increases the growth retardation becomes more apparent. Growth retardation is proportional to the cumulative dose of steroids in children with SSNS.

  13. Rate of steroid double-bond reduction catalysed by the human steroid 5β-reductase (AKR1D1) is sensitive to steroid structure: implications for steroid metabolism and bile acid synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Chen, Mo; Penning, Trevor M.

    2014-01-01

    Human AKR1D1 (steroid 5β-reductase/aldo-keto reductase 1D1) catalyses the stereospecific reduction of double bonds in Δ4-3-oxosteroids, a unique reaction that introduces a 90° bend at the A/B ring fusion to yield 5β-dihydrosteroids. AKR1D1 is the only enzyme capable of steroid 5β-reduction in humans and plays critical physiological roles. In steroid hormone metabolism, AKR1D1 serves mainly to inactivate the major classes of steroid hormones. AKR1D1 also catalyses key steps of the biosynthetic pathway of bile acids, which regulate lipid emulsification and cholesterol homoeostasis. Interestingly, AKR1D1 displayed a 20-fold variation in the kcat values, with steroid hormone substrates (e.g. aldosterone, testosterone and cortisone) having significantly higher kcat values than steroids with longer side chains (e.g. 7α-hydroxycholestenone, a bile acid precursor). Transient kinetic analysis revealed striking variations up to two orders of magnitude in the rate of the chemistry step (kchem), which resulted in different rate determining steps for the fast and slow substrates. By contrast, similar Kd values were observed for representative fast and slow substrates, suggesting similar rates of release for different steroid products. The release of NADP+ was shown to control the overall turnover for fast substrates, but not for slow substrates. Despite having high kchem values with steroid hormones, the kinetic control of AKR1D1 is consistent with the enzyme catalysing the slowest step in the catabolic sequence of steroid hormone transformation in the liver. The inherent slowness of the conversion of the bile acid precursor by AKR1D1 is also indicative of a regulatory role in bile acid synthesis. PMID:24894951

  14. Steroid withdrawal after renal transplantation: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Maria C; Kammer, Michael; Kainz, Alexander; Baer, Heather J; Heinze, Georg; Oberbauer, Rainer

    2017-01-12

    Immunosuppressive regimens in renal transplantation frequently contain corticosteroids, but many centers withdraw steroids as a consequence of unwanted side effects of steroids. The optimal timing to withdraw steroids after transplantation, however, remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine an optimal time point following kidney transplantation that is associated with reduced mortality without jeopardizing the allograft to allow safe discontinuation of steroids. We conducted a retrospective cohort study and computed a concatenated landmark-stratified Cox supermodel to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for mortality and graft loss using dynamic propensity score matching to adjust for confounding by indication. A total of 6070 first kidney transplant recipients in the Austrian Dialysis and Transplant Registry who were transplanted between 1990 and 2012 were evaluated and classified according to steroid treatment status throughout follow-up after kidney transplantation; 2142 patients were withdrawn from steroids during the study period. Overall, 1131 patients lost their graft and 821 patients in the study cohort died. Steroid withdrawal within 18 months after transplantation was associated with an increased rate of graft loss compared to steroid maintenance during that time (6 months after transplantation: HR = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.6; 18 months after transplantation: HR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6; 24 months after transplantation: HR = 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9 to 1.5), while mortality was not different between groups. Our findings suggest that steroid withdrawal after anti-IL-2 induction in the first 18 months after transplantation is associated with an increased risk of allograft loss.

  15. Focus group research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Michael

    2015-05-13

    A focus group is usually understood as a group of people brought together by a researcher to interact as a group. Focus group research explicitly uses interaction as part of its methodology. This article summarises the practice of running focus groups, explores the nature of focus group data and provides an example of focus group analysis.

  16. Hazards of steroid injection: Suppurative extensor tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon Colin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Local steroid injections are often administered in the office setting for treatment of trigger finger, carpal tunnel syndrome, de Quervain′s tenosynovitis, and basal joint arthritis. If attention is paid to sterile technique, infectious complications are rare. We present a case of suppurative extensor tenosynovitis arising after local steroid injection for vague symptoms of dorsal hand and wrist pain. The progression of signs and symptoms following injection suggests a natural history involving bacterial superinfection leading to tendon rupture. We discuss the pitfalls of local steroid injection and the appropriate management of infectious extensor tenosynovitis arising in such situations.

  17. The Central Effects of Androgenic-anabolic Steroid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mędraś, Marek; Brona, Anna; Jóźków, Paweł

    2018-02-21

    : Millions of men use androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) to stimulate muscle growth and improve physical appearance. Although 1 out of 3 people who uses androgenic-anabolic steroids develops a steroid use disorder, the effects of the drugs on the central nervous system and the psyche are still not well understood. Although most addictive substances improve mood immediately after administration, AAS exert less pronounced euphoric effects. Instead, they are primarily taken for the delayed gratification of increased muscle mass. Withdrawal from AAS may lead to a range of somatic and psychiatric symptoms, and, in many cases, comprehensive treatment supervised by an endocrinologist and a psychiatrist is required.

  18. Adolescent ischemic stroke associated with anabolic steroid and cannabis abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Scheich, Tarik; Weber, Artur-Aron; Klee, Dirk; Schweiger, Daniel; Mayatepek, Ertan; Karenfort, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We report on a 16-year-old body builder who suffered from an acute ischemic stroke. In the urine, cannabis metabolites as well as metabolites of the oral androgenic-anabolic steroid methandrostenolone were detected, both known to be associated with stroke events. This report highlights the role of cannabis and steroid abuse that induce strokes in the absence of arteriopathy, cardioembolism or thrombophilia. Owing to new upcoming socio-behavioral aspects of late childhood and early adolescent life, this formally rare abuse of cannabis and/or anabolic steroids as well as their associations with strokes becomes more current than ever.

  19. Population based evaluation of a multi-parametric steroid profiling on administered endogenous steroids in single low dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, Pieter; Van Eenoo, Peter; Delbeke, Frans T

    2010-12-12

    Steroid profiling provides valuable information to detect doping with endogenous steroids. Apart from the traditionally monitored steroids, minor metabolites can play an important role to increase the specificity and efficiency of current detection methods. The applicability of several minor steroid metabolites was tested on administration studies with low doses of oral testosterone (T), T gel, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) gel and oral dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). The collected data for all monitored parameters were evaluated with the respective population based reference ranges. Besides the traditional markers T/E, T and DHT, minor metabolites 4-OH-Adion and 6α-OH-Adion were found as most sensitive metabolites to detect oral T administration. The most sensitive metabolites for the detection of DHEA were identified as 16α-OH-DHEA and 7β-OH-DHEA but longest detection up to three days (after oral administration of 50 mg) was obtained with non-specific 5β-steroids and its ratios. Steroids applied as a gel had longer effects on the metabolism but were generally not detectable with universal decision criteria. It can be concluded that population based reference ranges show limited overall performance in detecting misuse of small doses of natural androgens. Although some minor metabolites provide additional information for the oral testosterone and DHEA formulations, the topical administered steroids could not be detected for all volunteers using universal reference limits. Application of other population based threshold limits did not lead to longer detection times. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are expressly...

  1. Exposure to media predicts use of dietary supplements and anabolic-androgenic steroids among Flemish adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Eline; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2013-10-01

    This study examined whether different types of media affect the use of dietary proteins and amino acid supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. A random sample of 618 boys aged 11-18 years from eight schools in the Flemish part of Belgium completed standardized questionnaires as part of the Media and Adolescent Health Study. The survey measured exposure to sports media, appearance-focused media, fitness media, use of dietary supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Data were analyzed using logistic regressions and are presented as adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI); 8.6 % indicated to have used dietary proteins, 3.9 % indicated to have used amino acid supplements, and 11.8 % would consider using anabolic-androgenic steroids. After adjusting for fitness activity, exposure to fitness media was associated with the use of dietary proteins (OR = 7.24, CI = 2.25-23.28) and amino acid supplements (5.16, 1.21-21.92; 44.30, 8.25-238). Intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids was associated with exposure to fitness media (2.38, 1.08-5.26; 8.07, 2.55-25.53) and appearance-focused media (6.02, 1.40-25.82; 8.94, 1.78-44.98). Sports media did not correlate with the use of dietary supplements and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Specific types of media are strong predictors of the use of supplements in adolescent boys. This provides an opportunity for intervention and prevention through the selection of fitness media as a communication channel. Health practitioners should also be aware that the contemporary body culture exerts pressure not only on girls but also on boys.

  2. Treatment of pretibial myxedema (PTM) with topical steroid ointment application with sealing cover (steroid occlusive dressing technique: steroid ODT) in Graves' patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, Nobuyuki; Higa, Haruyo; Kinjou, Yoshino

    2010-01-01

    Localized pretibial myxedema (PTM) is a sign of Graves' disease. A 53-year-old man with Graves' disease was admitted with the development of PTM following radioisotope (131)I treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism. TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) titer was also increased after (131)I treatment. TRAb was measured as thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) or TSH-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII). PTM was noted several months after (131)I treatment. The PTM-development seems to be associated with the increased TRAb-activities. The localized pretibial myxedema was effectively treated with topical steroid (triamcinolone acetonide) ointment application with sealing cover (steroid occlusive dressing technique: steroid ODT). We also report our experience of PTM-treatment with steroid ODT in 5 other PTM patients with positive TRAb. PTM was successfully treated with steroid ODT in two patients. In these two patients, the treatment was started within several months of the appearance of PTM. In the other 4 patients, the treatment was started 5-10 years after the appearance of PTM without any beneficial effects. Early detection and early treatment are necessary for the remission of PTM.

  3. Multiple arterial thromboses associated with anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Neil Arthur; Abbas, Jonathan Raihan; Simms, Malcolm Harold

    2014-03-01

    The use of supraphysiological doses of anabolic androgenic steroids can have serious side effects. This article reports the case of a young man who suffered potentially life-threatening arterial thromboses following the use of these drugs.

  4. Effects of ovariectomy and anabolic steroid implantation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of ovariectomy and anabolic steroid implantation on the somatotrophic axis in feedlot heifers. CR Bailey, GC Duff, SR Sanders, SP Cuneo, CP McMurphy, SW Limesand, JA Marchello, DW Schafer, ML Rhoads, DM Hallford ...

  5. Anabolic Steroids and Strength and Power Related Athletic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, David R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficacy of steroids in development of muscular strength in athletes is not proven. Their long-term use is increasingly being associated with liver disorders, including liver cancer, and other health problems. (JD)

  6. Steroid hormone concentrations and physiological toxicity of water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results suggest that water from Goreangab and Swakoppoort dams may have the potential to modulate endocrine systems, and shows physiological toxicity. Keywords: cytokines, cytotoxicity, endocrine disrupting chemicals, ephemeral rivers, inflammatory response, neurotoxicity, steroid hormones, water quality

  7. Helix 3-Helix 5 interactions in Steroid Hormone Receptor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhui; Geller, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Steroid hormones working through their receptors regulate a wide variety of physiologic processes necessary for normal homeostasis. Recent years have witnessed great advances in our understanding of how these hormones interact with their receptors, and have brought us closer to the era of directed drug design. We previously described a novel intramolecular interaction between helix 3 and helix 5 which is responsible for a Mendelian form of human hypertension. Further studies revealed that this interaction is highly conserved throughout the steroid hormone receptor family and functions as a key regulator of steroid hormone receptor sensitivity and specificity. Here, we review the contribution of helix 3-helix 5 interaction to steroid hormone receptor activity, with an eye towards how this knowledge may aid in the creation of novel therapeutic agonists and antagonists. PMID:18502379

  8. STEROIDAL GLYCOSIDES FROM THE ROOTS OF SOLANUM MELONGENA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepan Shvets

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One new cholestane glycoside, six steroidal glycosides of spirostane series and one pregnane glycoside have been isolated from the roots of Solanum melongena L. for the first time. Their structures were determined by physico-chemical methods.

  9. Drug Beats Steroids for Controlling Blood Vessel Inflammation in Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Drug Beats Steroids for Controlling Blood Vessel Inflammation in Study With tocilizumab's approval, there's an alternative ... treating the most common form of blood vessel inflammation known as giant cell arteritis, a new study ...

  10. Endogenous cardiac glycosides, a new class of steroid hormones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schoner, Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    The search for endogenous digitalis has led to the isolation of ouabain as well as several additional cardiotonic steroids of the cardenolide and bufadienolide type from blood, adrenals, and hypothalamus...

  11. Steroid induced diabetes mellitus in patients receiving prednisolone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... haematological disorders even though there are adverse effects ... Key words: Steroid, Diabetes Mellitus, Haematological malignancy, Chemotherapy, Adverse effect ... reported cases are children and also because it is used.

  12. Clinical aspects of patients with sarcoglycanopathies under steroids therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. V. Albuquerque

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with sarcoglycanopathies, which comprise four subtypes of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies, usually present with progressive weakness leading to early loss of ambulation and premature death, and no effective treatment is currently available. Objective To present clinical aspects and outcomes of six children with sarcoglycanopathies treated with steroids for at least one year. Method Patient files were retrospectively analyzed for steroid use. Results Stabilization of muscle strength was noted in one patient, a slight improvement in two, and a slight worsening in three. In addition, variable responses of forced vital capacity and cardiac function were observed. Conclusions No overt clinical improvement was observed in patients with sarcoglycanopathies under steroid therapy. Prospective controlled studies including a larger number of patients are necessary to determine the effects of steroids for sarcoglycanopathies.

  13. Glucocorticoid Receptors and the Pattern of Steroid Response in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CD3+) expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GCR) and the response to glucocorticoid treatment in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS). The aim of the current study is to determine whether steroid responsiveness is dependent on ...

  14. Detection and distribution of endogenous steroids in human stratum corneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ping Tseng

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The results demonstrate that, with the achievable sensitivity of current analytical technology, physiological concentrations of endogenous steroids, such as hydrocortisone and cortisone, can be found in the SC of some individuals.

  15. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Iaquinto, G; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World today. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World today. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  16. Dying to be big: a review of anabolic steroid use.

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, H M; Wright, D; Littlepage, B N

    1992-01-01

    Anabolic steroids use is commonly perceived to be the domain of the higher echelons of competitive athletes. However, a great deal of anabolic steroid use occurs in private gymnasia (non-local authority) among non-competitive recreational athletes. Our study has attempted to give an insight into the prevalence of the use of these drugs, the hazards associated with it, and the public health responses which we have adopted.

  17. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.deamicis@unical.it

    2014-11-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens

  18. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND ADVERSE EVENTS OF THEIR APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Đukanović; Vesko Drašković; Svetlana Višnjić; Zoran Mašić

    2011-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic compounds originating from testosterone. Their main effects are the control of development and expression of male secondary sexual characteristics, which are known as androgenic effects, and encourage muscle growth or anabolic effects. Anabolic androgenic steroids are most commonly used illegal substances. Besides these physiological effects, which are achieved using therapeutic doses of these preparations, higher doses than recommended, especially o...

  19. Steroid-induced Kager's fat pad atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taneja, Atul K. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Musculoskeletal Radiology Division, Imaging Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Musculoskeletal Imaging, Diagnostic Center, Hospital do Coracao (HCor) and Teleimagem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Durval C.B. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Musculoskeletal Radiology Division, Imaging Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    We report a rare case of Kager's fat pad atrophy and fibrosis in a 60-year-old woman 1 year after a steroid injection for Achilles tendinopathy. There are few published reports of steroid-induced atrophy affecting deeper layers of fat tissue. To our knowledge, this case report is the first to illustrate its features using magnetic resonance imaging. A review of the scientific literature is also presented. (orig.)

  20. Mythbusting: There is no steroid “epidemic”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anders Schmidt; Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2017-01-01

    When you watch the news, it is evident that steroid use is a growing public health concern that demands a solution. But when you look at the numbers, there is little evidence to support that claim.......When you watch the news, it is evident that steroid use is a growing public health concern that demands a solution. But when you look at the numbers, there is little evidence to support that claim....

  1. Optimised deconjugation of androgenic steroid conjugates in bovine urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2017-01-01

    After administration of steroids to animals the steroids are partially metabolised in the liver and kidney to phase 2 metabolites, i.e., glucuronic acid or sulphate conjugates. During analysis these conjugated metabolites are normally deconjugated enzymatically with aryl sulphatase and glucuronid...... in ethyl acetate were used for deconjugation and the extract was purified by solid-phase extraction. The final extract was evaporated to dryness, re-dissolved and analysed by LC-MS/MS....

  2. Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome After Topical Steroid Therapy for Psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sah?p, Birsen; Cel?k, Mehmet; Ayturk, Semra; Kucukarda, Ahmet; Mert, Onur; D?ncer, Nejla; Guld?ken, S?bel; Tugrul, Armagan

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are used for the treatment of many diseases, such as inflammatory, allergic, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases. They can be used in the form of topical, oral, inhalable, rectal, and intra-articular agents. Many topical steroid-related iatrogenic Cushing′s syndrome cases affecting especially children have been reported in the literature. Topical steroid-related Cushing′s syndrome is rarely seen in adults. In this report, we present the case of a 32-year-old male patient with ...

  3. New evidence of similarity between human and plant steroid metabolism: 5alpha-reductase activity in Solanum malacoxylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Fabiana; Danza, Giovanna; Guarna, Antonio; Cini, Nicoletta; Racchi, Milvia Luisa; Serio, Mario

    2003-01-01

    The physiological role of steroid hormones in humans is well known, and the metabolic pathway and mechanisms of action are almost completely elucidated. The role of plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids, is less known, but an increasing amount of data on brassinosteroid biosynthesis is showing unexpected similarities between human and plant steroid metabolic pathways. Here we focus our attention on the enzyme 5alpha-reductase (5alphaR) for which a plant ortholog of the mammalian system, DET2, was recently described in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that campestenone, the natural substrate of DET2, is reduced to 5alpha-campestanone by both human 5alphaR isozymes but with different affinities. Solanum malacoxylon, which is a calcinogenic plant very active in the biosynthesis of vitamin D-like molecules and sterols, was used to study 5alphaR activity. Leaves and calli were chosen as examples of differentiated and undifferentiated tissues, respectively. Two separate 5alphaR activities were found in calli and leaves of Solanum using campestenone as substrate. The use of progesterone allowed the detection of both activities in calli. Support for the existence of two 5alphaR isozymes in S. malacoxylon was provided by the differential actions of inhibitors of the human 5alphaR in calli and leaves. The evidence for the presence of two isozymes in different plant tissues extends the analogies between plant and mammalian steroid metabolic pathways.

  4. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sooner. More science news Help us find a cure. Give to BrightFocus BrightFocus Updates BrightFocus Foundation Lauds Bill Gates Alzheimer’s Initiative “BrightFocus Foundation lauds today’s historic announcement by ...

  5. Sex steroid receptor evolution and signalling in aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Heinz-R; Kloas, Werner; Schirling, Martin; Lutz, Ilka; Reye, Anna L; Langen, Jan-S; Triebskorn, Rita; Nagel, Roland; Schönfelder, Gilbert

    2007-02-01

    In vertebrate reproductive endocrinology sex steroids play a pivotal role via binding to receptors. However, information on the origin and relevance of sex steroids in invertebrates is limited. This review highlights current literature on steroid receptors in aquatic invertebrates and reports on some new findings. It has been shown that invertebrates of the deuterostome clade, such as Acrania and Echinodermata, respond to estrogens and androgens and, at least in Branchiostoma, an estrogen receptor has been cloned. Within the protostomes, most findings are related to aquatic molluscs. Sex steroid receptor-like proteins are abundant in gastropods, bivalves and cephalopods and also sex hormone signalling shows partial similarity to the deuterostomes. In ecdysozoans, however, the impact of sex steroids is still a matter of debate even though there is evidence on the presence of estrogen receptor-like proteins in Crustacea and on physiological effects of estrogens in both Nematoda and Crustacea. Recent findings suggest the presence of an estrogen receptor alpha-like protein of unclear physiological role in Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea). Binding studies revealed the crustacean Hyalella azteca to possess specific binding sites only for androgens but not for estrogens suggesting a possible limitation to functional androgen receptors in this species. Further studies have to be conducted to shed more light into the discussion about the controversy about sex steroid receptors in invertebrates.

  6. Brain Microglia Express Steroid-Converting Enzymes in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried-Blackmore, Andres; Sierra, Amanda; Jellinck, Peter H.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Bulloch, Karen

    2008-01-01

    In the CNS, steroid hormones play a major role in the maintenance of brain homeostasis and it’s response to injury. Since activated microglia are the pivotal immune cell involved in neurodegeneration, we investigated the possibility that microglia provide a discrete source for the metabolism of active steroid hormones. Using RT-PCR, our results showed that mouse microglia expressed mRNA for 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 and steroid 5α-reductase type-1, which are involved in the metabolism of androgens and estrogens. Microglia also expressed the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor and steroid acute regulatory protein; however, the enzymes required for de novo formation of progesterone and DHEA from cholesterol were not expressed. To test the function of these enzymes, primary microglia cultures were incubated with steroid precursors, DHEA and AD. Microglia preferentially produced delta-5 androgens (Adiol) from DHEA and 5α-reduced androgens from AD. Adiol behaved as an effective estrogen receptor agonist in neuronal cells. Activation of microglia with pro-inflammatory factors, LPS and INFγ did not affect the enzymatic properties of these proteins. However, PBR ligands reduced TNFα production signifying an immunomodulatory role for PBR. Collectively, our results suggest that microglia utilize steroid-converting enzymes and related proteins to influence inflammation and neurodegeneration within microenvironments of the brain. PMID:18329265

  7. Steroid withdrawal in renal transplant patients: the Irish experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, P J

    2010-10-29

    BACKGROUND: Steroid therapy is associated with significant morbidity in renal transplant recipients. However, there is concern that steroid withdrawal will adversely affect outcome. METHODS: We report on 241 renal transplant recipients on different doses of corticosteroids at 3 months (zero, ≤5 mg\\/day, >5 mg\\/day). Parameters analysed included blood pressure, lipid profile, weight change, new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), allograft survival and acute rejection. RESULTS: Elimination of corticosteroids had no impact on allograft survival at 1 year. There were no cases of NODAT in the steroid withdrawal group compared with over 7% in each of the steroid groups. There were no significant improvements in weight gain, blood pressure control or total cholesterol with withdrawal of steroids before 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: In renal transplant patients treated with tacrolimus and mycophenolate, early withdrawal of steroids does not appear to adversely affect allograft outcome at 1 year. It may result in less NODAT.

  8. Illicit anabolic steroid use in athletes. A case series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, P J; Andersen, K H; Yates, W R

    1990-01-01

    Because of recent anabolic steroid abuse scandals at all levels of athletic competition ranging from high school sports to the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, Korea, the investigators closely examined the anabolic steroid use histories of 20 competitive and noncompetitive weight lifters. Steroid efficacy studies only examine the anabolic effects of individual drugs. However, these 20 steroid users consistently practiced polypharmacy. During steroid use cycles lasting between 7 and 14 weeks, athletes commonly used two or three oral agents and two long-acting injectable products. Dosages of oral preparations tended to be similar to those used in efficacy studies, whereas dosages of the long-acting injectable agents were approximately three to eight times greater than those used in controlled studies. Subjects reported significant increases in body weight and strength. In addition, mental status changes were reported that included symptoms of depression, hostility, aggression, and paranoia. Based on the pattern of anabolic steroid use currently being practiced in the United States, it is apparent that past efficacy and toxicology studies are of limited value in delineating the benefits and hazards of these drugs.

  9. Exposure to media predicts use of dietary supplements and anabolic-androgenic steroids among Flemish adolescent boys

    OpenAIRE

    Frison, Eline; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether different types of media affect the use of dietary proteins and amino acid supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. A random sample of 618 boys aged 11-18 years from eight schools in the Flemish part of Belgium completed standardized questionnaires as part of the Media and Adolescent Health Study. The survey measured exposure to sports media, appearance-focused media, fitness media, use of dietary supplements and intent to use anabolic-androgeni...

  10. Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2009-01-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both “body-image” drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years, but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  11. Steroid use in acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karkhanis, Jamuna; Verna, Elizabeth C; Chang, Matthew S

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Drug-induced and indeterminate acute liver failure (ALF) might be due to an autoimmune-like hepatitis that is responsive to corticosteroid therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether corticosteroids improve survival in fulminant autoimmune hepatitis, drug-induced, or indete......UNLABELLED: Drug-induced and indeterminate acute liver failure (ALF) might be due to an autoimmune-like hepatitis that is responsive to corticosteroid therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether corticosteroids improve survival in fulminant autoimmune hepatitis, drug......-induced, or indeterminate ALF, and whether this benefit varies according to the severity of illness. We conducted a retrospective analysis of autoimmune, indeterminate, and drug-induced ALF patients in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group from 1998-2007. The primary endpoints were overall and spontaneous survival (SS......% versus 66%, P = 0.41), nor with improved survival in any diagnosis category. Steroid use was associated with diminished survival in certain subgroups of patients, including those with the highest quartile of the Model for Endstage Liver Disease (MELD) (>40, survival 30% versus 57%, P = 0...

  12. Steroidal saponins from two species of Dracaena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougan, Guy Beddos; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Paululat, Thomas; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Sondengam, Beibam Lucas; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2010-07-23

    Four new steroidal saponins (1-4) were isolated from the stem and bark of two species of Dracaena: deistelianosides A and B (1 and 2) from D. deisteliana and arboreasaponins A and B (3 and 4) from D. arborea. Six known saponins and one known sapogenin were also isolated. The structures of 1-4 were established as diosgenin 3-O-[3-O-sulfate-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), 1-O-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-d-fucopyranosyl(23S,24S)-spirosta-5,25(27)-diene-1beta,3beta,23alpha,24alpha-tetrol 24-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (2), pennogenin-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[6-O-acetyl]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3), and 24alpha-hydroxypennogenin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4) using extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses and mass spectrometry. Cytotoxic activity of several of these compounds was evaluated against the HT-29 and HCT 116 human colon cancer cell lines.

  13. Incidence of anabolic steroid counterfeiting in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Justa Neves, Diana Brito; Marcheti, Ravane Gracy Ament; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2013-05-10

    This retrospective study reports data obtained from the National Institute of Criminalistics of the Brazilian Federal Police Department (DPF) on 3676 anabolic products seized between 2006 and 2011. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) were declared on the labels of 96.2% of the products. About one third of the products declared to be from Paraguay, and 14.3% from Brazil. Stanozolol, testosterone and nandrolone were the substances most declared on the labels. Package and qualitative chemical analyses (performed on 2818 products) found that 31.7% of the seized products were counterfeit, with an increase in the counterfeit detection rate during the period. Almost half of the fake products did not contain the declared substances, and 28.3% had only non-declared substances. Testosterone and its esters were responsible for 45% of the 582 cases of non-declared drug detection. Package analysis alone was responsible for the identification of 4.6% of all counterfeit products. These results indicate the need for a continuous effort by the government aimed at decreasing the availability of these products in the country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Steroid glycosides from the starfish Pentaceraster gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vien, Le Thi; Ngoan, Bui Thi; Hanh, Tran Thi Hong; Vinh, Le Ba; Thung, Do Cong; Thao, Do Thi; Thanh, Nguyen Van; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van

    2017-05-01

    Using combined chromatographic separations, two new steroid glycosides namely pentacerosides A (1) and B (2), and four known compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of the starfish Pentaceraster gracilis. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data ((1)H and (13)C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, ROESY, and FT-ICR-MS) and by comparing obtained results to the literature values. Among the isolated compounds, only maculatoside (5) showed significant cytotoxic effect against Hep-G2 (IC50 = 16.75 ± 0.69 μM) and SK-Mel2 (IC50 = 19.44 ± 1.45 μM) cell lines and moderate effect on KB (IC50 = 36.53 ± 0.78 μM), LNCaP (IC50 = 39.75 ± 3.34 μM), and MCF7 (IC50 = 47.34 ± 7.01 μM) cell lines.

  15. Do mollusks use vertebrate sex steroids as reproductive hormones? II. Critical review of the evidence that steroids have biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alexander P

    2013-02-01

    In assessing the evidence as to whether vertebrate sex steroids (e.g. testosterone, estradiol, progesterone) have hormonal actions in mollusks, ca. 85% of research papers report at least one biological effect; and 18 out of 21 review papers (published between 1970 and 2012) express a positive view. However, just under half of the research studies can be rejected on the grounds that they did not actually test steroids, but compounds or mixtures that were only presumed to behave as steroids (or modulators of steroids) on the basis of their effects in vertebrates (e.g. Bisphenol-A, nonylphenol and sewage treatment effluents). Of the remaining 55 papers, some can be criticized for having no statistical analysis; some for using only a single dose of steroid; others for having irregular dose-response curves; 40 out of the 55 for not replicating the treatments; and 50 out of 55 for having no within-study repetition. Furthermore, most studies had very low effect sizes in comparison to fish-based bioassays for steroids (i.e. they had a very weak 'signal-to-noise' ratio). When these facts are combined with the fact that none of the studies were conducted with rigorous randomization or 'blinding' procedures (implying the possibility of 'operator bias') one must conclude that there is no indisputable bioassay evidence that vertebrate sex steroids have endocrinological or reproductive roles in mollusks. The only observation that has been independently validated is the ability of estradiol to trigger rapid (1-5 min) lysosomal membrane breakdown in hemocytes of Mytilus spp. This is a typical 'inflammatory' response, however, and is not proof that estradiol is a hormone - especially when taken in conjunction with the evidence (discussed in a previous review) that mollusks have neither the enzymes necessary to synthesize vertebrate steroids nor nuclear receptors with which to respond to them. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Comparative study of the conventional scheme and prolonged treatment with steroids on primary steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liern, Miguel; Codianni, Paola; Vallejo, Graciela

    In the steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) the prolonged treatment with steroids could decrease the frequency of relapses. We conducted a comparative study of prolonged steroid scheme and the usual treatment of primary SSNS to assess: the number of patients with relapses, mean time to treatment initiation, to remission and to first relapse, total number of relapses, total cumulative dose of steroids, and the steroid toxicity. Patients were divided into two groups: group A (27 patients) received 16-β-methylprednisolone for 12 weeks, reducing the steroid until week 24. Group B (29 patients) received 16-β-methylprednisolone for 12 weeks and placebo until week 24. Cumulative incidence rate of relapse (person/years) for group A was of 36/100 and 66/100 for group B (p=0.04). Average elapsed time to first relapse was of 114 days for group A and of 75 days to for group B (p=0.01). The difference in time for initial response to treatment and up to achieve remission between both groups was not significant. Total cumulative relapses were 9 for group A and 17 for group B (p=0.04). Total patients with relapses were 3 for group A and 7 for group B (p=0.17). Cumulative average dose per patient was 5,243mg/m2 for group A and 4,306mg/m2 for group B (p=0.3), and serum cortisol was 14μg/dl for group A and 16μg/dl for group B (p=0.4). There were no steroid toxicity differences between groups. The duration of the treatment had an impact on the number of relapses without increasing steroid toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disrupters 1. Analytical strategy for estrogens measurement in plasma at ultra-trace level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Maume, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Global concern has been raised in recent years over adverse effects that may result from exposure to chemicals that may interfere with the endocrine system. A specific question is related to low-dose effects and long-term exposure consequences, especially for critical populations (foetus, new born......, prepubertal children). In this context, we decided to focus our attention on steroid hormones as they are the most potent endocrine disrupters. Our general goal is to investigate whether the steroid intake through food may represent a risk for prepubertal children, from an endocrine disruption point of view...

  18. Focus Intonation in Bengali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Kamrul

    2015-01-01

    This work attempts to investigate the role of prosody in the syntax of focus in Bangla. The aim of this study is to show the intonation pattern of Bangla in emphasis and focus. In order to do that, the author has looked at the pattern of focus without-i/o as well as with the same. Do they really pose any different focus intonation pattern from…

  19. Exploratory study of the association of steroid profiles in stimulated ovarian follicular fluid with outcomes of IVF treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Mark M; Naessén, Tord; Wanggren, Kjell; Hreinsson, Julius; Rockwood, Alan L; Meikle, A Wayne; Bergquist, Jonas

    2016-09-01

    Steroid concentrations in stimulated follicular fluid (sFF) samples have been linked to the quality of oocytes used in IVF treatments. Most of the published studies focused on evaluating the association of the IVF outcomes with only a few of the steroids, measured by immunoassays (IA). We performed a treatment outcome, prospective cohort study using stimulated FF sampled from 14 infertile women undergoing IVF treatment; single oocyte was used per IVF cycle. Fourteen endogenous steroids were analyzed in 22 ovarian follicle aspirations, which corresponded to the embryos used in the IVF. Ten oocytes were associated with live birth (LB) and 12 with no pregnancy (NP). Steroids were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. Differences in distribution of concentrations in association with the pregnancy outcome (LB or NP), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis were performed for the entire cohort and for within-women data. The predominant androgen and estrogen in stimulated sFF were androstenedione (A4) and estradiol (E2), respectively. Lower concentrations of pregnenolone (Pr), lower ratios of A4/ dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (Te)/DHEA, and greater ratios of E2/Te, and estrone/A4 were observed in sFF samples associated with LB. Among the oocytes associated with NP, in four out of 12 samples total concentration of androgens was above the distribution of the concentrations in the oocytes corresponding to the LB group. Observations of the study indicated increased consumption of precursors and increased biosynthesis of estrogens in the follicles associated with LB. Our data suggest that potentially steroid profiles in sFF obtained during oocyte retrieval may serve as biomarkers for selection of the best embryo to transfer after IVF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I; Pope, Harrison G

    2010-06-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both "body image" drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years but remains little studied. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumia, Augustus R; McGinnis, Marilyn Y

    2010-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use increased dramatically among adolescent males. This review focuses on studies using animal models of AAS exposure during adolescence which is a hormonally sensitive developmental period. AAS exposure during this critical period has wide-ranging consequences, including increased dendritic spine density, altered brain serotonin levels and escalated aggression in response to physical provocation. Human data suggest that AAS induces indiscriminate and unprovoked aggression often described as "'roid rage". However, animal studies indicate that the behavioral impact of AAS is modulated by experiential and social contingencies, a perceived provocation, and the chemical composition of the AAS. The AAS, testosterone increases aggression in juvenile and adult male rats when physically provoked. In contrast, stanzolol, inhibits aggression in both juvenile and adult male rats, even when physically provoked. Nandrolone has minimal effects on aggression, unless preceded by attack training. Exposure to AAS during adolescence may have a host of unintended bio-behavioral consequences. Yet, the perception of harmlessness surrounds AAS use. The perception of harmlessness is promoted by the availability of AAS especially through internet pharmacies. The perception of acceptability is reflected in current cultural ethics that no longer condemn cheating to obtain personal achievement or success. A prevailing conviction is that although AAS are illegal they are not really bad. Reduction of the availability of AAS to adolescents requires ardent legislative and legal intervention. The problem of acceptability can be addressed by educating adolescents about the short-term and long-term effects of AAS on brain and behavior, to increase awareness of the potential consequences of AAS use that apply directly to them. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Early steroid withdrawal after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Shui; He, Fan; Zeng, Fan-Jun; Jiang, Ji-Pin; Du, Dun-Feng; Liu, Bin

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of early steroid withdrawal on the incidence of rejection, tumor recurrence and complications after liver transplantation for advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: Fifty-four patients underwent liver transplantation for advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma from April 2003 to June 2005. These cases were divided into a steroid-withdrawal group (group A, n = 28) and a steroid-maintenance group (group B, n = 26). In group A, steroid was withdrawn 3 mo after transplantation. In group B, steroid was continuously used postoperatively. The incidence of rejection, 6-mo and 1-year recurrence rate of carcinoma, 1-year survival rate, mean serum tacrolimus trough level, and liver and kidney function were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: In the two groups, no statistical difference was observed in the incidence of rejection (14.3 vs 11.5%, P > 0.05), mean serum tacrolimus trough levels (6.9 ± 1.4 vs 7.1 ± 1.1 μg/L, P > 0.05), liver and kidney function after 6 mo [alanine aminotransferase (ALT): 533 ± 183 vs 617 ± 217 nka/L, P > 0.05; creatinine: 66 ± 18 vs 71 ± 19 μmol/L, P > 0.05], 6-mo recurrence rate of carcinoma (25.0 vs 42.3%, P > 0.05), and 1-year survival rate (64.2 vs 46.1%, P > 0.05). The 1-year tumor recurrence rate (39.2 vs 69.2%, P < 0.05), serum cholesterol level (3.9 ± 1.8 vs 5.9 ± 2.6 mmol/L, P < 0.01) and fasting blood sugar (5.1 ± 2.1 vs 8.9 ± 3.6 mmol/L, P < 0.01) were significantly different. These were lower in the steroid-withdrawal group than in the steroid-maintenance group. CONCLUSION: Early steroid withdrawal was safe after liver transplantation in patients with advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. When steroids were withdrawn 3 mo post-operation, the incidence of rejection did not increase, and there was no demand to maintain tacrolimus at a high level. In contrast, the tumor recurrence rate and the potential of adverse effects decreased significantly. This may have led to an increase

  3. Occurrence of sulfonated steroids and ovarian expression of steroid sulfatase and SULT1E1 in cyclic cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschka, Carina; Schuler, Gerhard; Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Zimmer, Bettina; Feller, Sabine; Kotarski, Franziska; Wudy, Stefan A; Wrenzycki, Christine

    2017-12-17

    Historically sulfonated steroids were primarily considered as inactive metabolites destined for elimination. However, more recently they have been increasingly recognized as precursors for the production of bioactive steroids in target tissues and as functional molecules without preceding hydrolysis. In order to comprehensively characterize their occurrence in cyclic cows and their formation and hydrolysis in bovine ovarian steroidogenesis, ovaries from cyclic cows were screened for the expression of oestrogen sulfotransferase (SULTE1) and steroid sulfatase (STS) by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, a broad spectrum of 13 sulfonated steroids was measured applying liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in blood samples collected from three cycling heifers during defined stages of the ovarian cycle and in fluid obtained from ovarian follicles of different size. SULT1E1 was undetectable in ovarian tissues. For STS only a weak immunostaining was found predominantly in granulosa cells of larger follicles. However, no specific band occurred in Western blot. In blood, concentrations of all sulfonated steroids investigated were below the limit of quantification (LOQ). In follicular fluid, only cholesterol sulfate was measured in considerable concentrations (328.3 ± 63.8 ng/ml). However, the role of cholesterol sulfate in bovine follicular steroidogenesis remains unclear as concentrations were obviously unrelated to follicular size. The remaining sulfonated steroids investigated were undetectable or only slightly exceeded LOQ in a minor proportion of samples. The results are clearly contrary to a role of sulfonated steroids as important precursors, intermediates or products of bovine ovarian steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modulating Mineralocorticoid Receptor with Non-steroidal Antagonists. New Opportunities for the Development of Potent and Selective Ligands without Off-Target Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martínez, Mercedes; Pérez-Gordillo, Felipe L; Álvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Rodríguez, Yoel; Gerona-Navarro, Guillermo; González-Muñiz, Rosario; Zhou, Ming-Ming

    2017-04-13

    Steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists are used for treatment of a range of human diseases, but they present challenging issues of complex chemical synthesis, undesirable physical properties, and poor selectivity along with unwanted side effects. Therefore, there is a great interest in the discovery of non-steroidal ligands able to bind to the ligand-binding domain of the MR and recruit different co-regulators to produce tissue-specific therapeutic effects. Several academic groups and pharmaceutical companies have been developing a series of non-steroidal ligands that consist of different chemical scaffolds, yielding MR antagonists currently evaluated in clinical studies for the treatment of congestive heart failure, hypertension, or diabetic nephropathy. The main focus of this Perspective is to review the reported structure-activity relationships of the different series of compounds, as well as the structural studies that contribute to a better understanding of the receptor active site and are also helpful for optimization processes.

  5. Sex steroid blockade enhances thymopoiesis by modulating Notch signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jennifer J.; Holland, Amanda M.; Wertheimer, Tobias; Yu, Vionnie W.C.; Zakrzewski, Johannes L.; Tuckett, Andrea Z.; Singer, Natalie V.; West, Mallory L.; Smith, Odette M.; Young, Lauren F.; Kreines, Fabiana M.; Levy, Emily R.; Boyd, Richard L.; Scadden, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxical to its importance for generating a diverse T cell repertoire, thymic function progressively declines throughout life. This process has been at least partially attributed to the effects of sex steroids, and their removal promotes enhanced thymopoiesis and recovery from immune injury. We show that one mechanism by which sex steroids influence thymopoiesis is through direct inhibition in cortical thymic epithelial cells (cTECs) of Delta-like 4 (Dll4), a Notch ligand crucial for the commitment and differentiation of T cell progenitors in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with this, sex steroid ablation (SSA) led to increased expression of Dll4 and its downstream targets. Importantly, SSA induced by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor antagonism bypassed the surge in sex steroids caused by LHRH agonists, the gold standard for clinical ablation of sex steroids, thereby facilitating increased Dll4 expression and more rapid promotion of thymopoiesis. Collectively, these findings not only reveal a novel mechanism underlying improved thymic regeneration upon SSA but also offer an improved clinical strategy for successfully boosting immune function. PMID:25332287

  6. Steroid hormones in environmental matrices: extraction method comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaluri, Gangadhar; Suri, Rominder P S; Graham, Kendon

    2017-11-09

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed methods for the analysis of steroid hormones in water, soil, sediment, and municipal biosolids by HRGC/HRMS (EPA Method 1698). Following the guidelines provided in US-EPA Method 1698, the extraction methods were validated with reagent water and applied to municipal wastewater, surface water, and municipal biosolids using GC/MS/MS for the analysis of nine most commonly detected steroid hormones. This is the first reported comparison of the separatory funnel extraction (SFE), continuous liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE), and Soxhlet extraction methods developed by the U.S. EPA. Furthermore, a solid phase extraction (SPE) method was also developed in-house for the extraction of steroid hormones from aquatic environmental samples. This study provides valuable information regarding the robustness of the different extraction methods. Statistical analysis of the data showed that SPE-based methods provided better recovery efficiencies and lower variability of the steroid hormones followed by SFE. The analytical methods developed in-house for extraction of biosolids showed a wide recovery range; however, the variability was low (≤ 7% RSD). Soxhlet extraction and CLLE are lengthy procedures and have been shown to provide highly variably recovery efficiencies. The results of this study are guidance for better sample preparation strategies in analytical methods for steroid hormone analysis, and SPE adds to the choice in environmental sample analysis.

  7. Esophageal lipomatosis: another consequence of the use of steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogaert, J.; Rosseel, F.; Verhaegen, S.; Verschakelen, J. [University Hospitals Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2000-09-01

    After we incidentally found on CT extensive esophageal fat accumulations in a patient with long-term use of steroids, we prospectively evaluated during a 6-month period all CT studies of the chest for esophageal lipomatosis and related the findings to the possible use of steroids. The diagnosis of esophageal fat on CT was made by density measurements or if too small for reliable density measurements by comparison with mediastinal fat. In 21 of 1320 exclusively older male patients the diagnosis of esophageal lipomatosis was definite in 7 and likely in 14 patients. All fat accumulations were located in the upper third of the esophagus (mean length 22 {+-} 6 mm) and presented ring-like (n = 10), irregular (n = 3), or as a horseshoe sparing the posterior border (n = 8). In 20 patients there was an unequivocal history of steroid treatment. Associated centripetal fat infiltration was found in 11 patients. None of the patients had swallowing problems. Prolonged use of steroids, either orally or inhalationally administered, is associated with esophageal lipomatosis. The predisposition for the upper esophagus might be related to the presence of striated muscle cells in this part of the esophagus; moreover, inhalational steroid therapy may adversely affect the upper esophagus. (orig.)

  8. Lipidated Steroid Saponins from Dioscorea villosa (Wild Yam)†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shi-Hui; Cai, Geping; Napolitano, José G.; Nikolić, Dejan; Lankin, David C.; McAlpine, James B.; van Breemen, Richard B.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Pauli, Guido F.; Chen, Shao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Two groups of lipidated steroid saponins including seven new compounds (2, 3, 5, and 7–10) were isolated from the widely used botanical, wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), employing a fractionation protocol of metabolomic mining. This methodology has very recently led to the isolation of 14 diarylheptanoids from the same plant. Together with these lipidated steroid saponins, they establish additional new markers for Dioscorea villosa. The lipidation of steroids with analogue long-chain fatty acids containing different degrees of unsaturation generates entire series of compounds which are difficult to purify and analyze. The structures of the two series of lipidated steroid saponins (series A and B) were demonstrated by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR as well as GC-MS after chemical modification. Series A was determined to be a mixture of lipidated spirostanol glycosides (1–5), while series B (6–10) proved to be a mixture of five lipidated clionasterol glucosides. The latter group represents the first derivatives of clionasterol to be found in D. villosa. The discovery of this specific structural type of aliphatic esters of steroid saponins expands the characterization of the secondary metabolome of D. villosa. It also may inspire biological studies which take into account the lipophilic character and significantly altered physiochemical characteristics of these otherwise relatively polar phytoconstituents. PMID:23968665

  9. Steroid - induced rosacea: A clinical study of 200 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen J Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Topical corticosteroids were first introduced for use in 1951. Since then uncontrolled use (abuse has caused many different reactions resembling rosacea - steroid dermatitis or iatrosacea. Multiple pathways including rebound vasodilatation and proinflammatory cytokine release have been proposed as the mechanism for such reactions. Aim: The aim was to study the adverse effects of topical steroid abuse and the response to various treatment modalities. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients with a history of topical steroid use on face for more than 1 month were studied clinically and various treatments tried. Results: The duration of topical corticosteroid use varied from 1 month to 20 years with an average of 19.76 months. Majority of patients were using potent (class II topical steroids for trivial facial dermatoses. The common adverse effects were erythema, telangiectasia, xerosis, hyperpigmentation, photosensitivity, and rebound phenomenon. No significant change in laboratory investigations was seen. Conclusion: A combination of oral antibiotics and topical tacrolimus is the treatment of choice for steroid-induced rosacea.

  10. Steroid receptor coactivator 1 links the steroid and interferon gamma response pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortzakaki, Eleni; Spilianakis, Charalambos; Zika, Eleni; Kretsovali, Androniki; Papamatheakis, Joseph

    2003-12-01

    We show here that steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) is a coactivator of MHC class II genes that stimulates their interferon gamma (IFNgamma) and class II transactivator (CIITA)-mediated expression. SRC-1 interacts physically with the N-terminal activation domain of CIITA through two regions: one central [extending from amino acids (aa) 360-839] that contains the nuclear receptors binding region and one C-terminal (aa 1138-1441) that contains the activation domain 2. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays we show that SRC-1 recruitment on the class II promoter is enhanced upon IFNgamma stimulation. Most importantly, SRC-1 relieves the inhibitory action of estrogens on the IFNgamma-mediated induction of class II genes in transient transfection assays. We provide evidence that inhibition by estradiol is due to multiple events such as slightly reduced recruitment of CIITA and SRC-1 and severely inhibited assembly of the preinitiation complex.

  11. Profiling intact steroid sulfates and unconjugated steroids in biological fluids by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuska, Christina E; Hartmann, Michaela F; Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Bakhaus, Katharina; Geyer, Joachim; Schuler, Gerhard; Zimmer, Klaus-Peter; Wudy, Stefan A

    2013-07-07

    Within the combined DFG research project "Sulfated Steroids in Reproduction" an analytical method was needed for determining sulfated and unconjugated steroids with highest specificity out of different biological matrices such as aqueous solution, cell lysate and serum. With regard to this analytical challenge, LC-MS-MS presents the technique of choice because it permits (1) analysis of the intact steroid conjugate, (2) allows for simultaneous determination of multiple analytes (profiling, targeted metabolomics approach) and (3) is independent of phenomena such as cross-reactivity. Sample work up consisted of incubation of sample with internal standards (deuterium labeled steroids) followed by solid phase extraction. Only serum samples required a protein precipitation step prior to solid phase extraction. The extract was divided in two parts: six steroid sulfates (E1S, E2S, AS, 16-OH-DHEAS, PREGS, DHEAS) were analyzed by C18aQ-ESI-MS-MS in negative ion mode and eleven unconjugated steroids (E3, 16-OH-DHEA, E1, E2, (4)A, DHEA, T, 17-OH-PREG, Prog, An, PREG) were analyzed by C18-APCI-MS-MS in positive ion mode. For steroid sulfates, we found high sensitivities with LoQ values ranging from 0.08 to 1 ng mL(-1). Unconjugated steroids showed LoQ values between 0.5 and 10 ng mL(-1). Calibration plots showed excellent linearity. Mean intra- and inter-assay CVs were 2.4% for steroid sulfates and 6.4% for unconjugated steroids. Accuracy - determined in a two-level spike experiment - showed mean relative errors of 5.9% for steroid sulfates and 6.1% for unconjugated steroids. In summary, we describe a novel LC-MS-MS procedure capable of profiling six steroid sulfates and eleven unconjugated steroids from various biological matrices.

  12. Long-term cyclosporine A treatment of steroid-resistant and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melocoton, T L; Kamil, E S; Cohen, A H; Fine, R N

    1991-11-01

    Eighteen patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) were treated with cyclosporine A (CyA) (6 mg/kg/d) for 2 to 29 months. CyA levels were monitored monthly and plasma levels by Abbott TDX (Therapeutic Drug Analyzer System) fluorescence polarization immunoassay were maintained at 100 to 150 ng/mL. The corticosteroid dosage administered at the time CyA therapy was initiated was variable and was continued following CyA therapy. Six of these patients (all with SDNS and minimal change nephrotic syndrome [MCNS]) had been treated with one or more courses of cytotoxic drug therapy, and all had clinical evidence of corticosteroid toxicity after receiving corticosteroid therapy for 26 to 120 months. The corticosteroid dosage was reduced by slow tapering and was ultimately discontinued in six patients. These patients were maintained on CyA monotherapy for 7 to 21 months at a dose of 3.2 to 6.7 mg/kg/d. Following 11 to 29 months of CyA therapy, seven patients underwent an elective renal biopsy, which showed nephrotoxicity in all seven. This led to discontinuation of CyA in four patients. Following discontinuation of CyA monotherapy, all four patients relapsed within 2 to 4 months. CyA therapy did not achieve a remission in 10 patients with SRNS regardless of the presence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) or MCNS on renal biopsy. In conclusion, CyA has limited effectiveness in patients with SDNS who manifest corticosteroid toxicity; however, CyA should be used cautiously because of the potential for CyA nephrotoxicity and the failure to obtain a sustained remission following discontinuation of CyA monotherapy. CyA dependence is substituted for corticosteroid dependence.

  13. Infliximab in steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis: effectiveness and predictors of clinical and endoscopic remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armuzzi, Alessandro; Pugliese, Daniela; Danese, Silvio; Rizzo, Gianluca; Felice, Carla; Marzo, Manuela; Andrisani, Gialuca; Fiorino, Gionata; Sociale, Orsola; Papa, Alfredo; De Vitis, Italo; Rapaccini, Gian Lodovico; Guidi, Luisa

    2013-04-01

    Up to 20% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) become steroid-dependent during their course. Thiopurines are recommended in steroid-dependent UC, but their efficacy is debated. Data exploring the use of infliximab in these patients are scarce. Aims of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of infliximab in steroid-dependent UC and identify predictors of steroid-free remission, mucosal healing (MH), and colectomy. Steroid-dependent UC patients were enrolled and intentionally treated with infliximab. The prospectively designed analyses evaluated (1) steroid-free clinical remission at 6 and 12 months, (2) steroid-free clinical remission and MH at 12 months, and (3) colectomy within 12 months. One hundred and twenty-six active steroid-dependent UC patients were studied. Of the 126 patients, 36 patients were retrospectively included and 90 patients prospectively enrolled. Steroid-free remission was 53% and 47% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Predictors of steroid-free remission at 6 and 12 months were thiopurine-naive status (hazard ratio [HR], 2.5 and HR, 2.8, respectively) and combination therapy (HR, 2.1 and HR, 2.2, respectively). At 12 months, 32% were in steroid-free remission and MH. Thiopurine-naive status predicted steroid-free remission and MH (odds ratio, 3.6). C-reactive protein drop to normal after infliximab induction was predictive of steroid-free remission at 6 (HR, 5.9) and 12 months (HR, 4.6) and steroid-free remission and MH at 12 months (odds ratio, 6.0). Twelve patients underwent colectomy after a median of 4.7 months. Steroid sparing significantly reduced the risk of colectomy within 12 months (HR, 0.14). Infliximab seems effective in steroid-dependent UC. Thiopurine-naive status and combination therapy significantly increase the rate of steroid-free remission up to 12 months.

  14. Automation of steroid radioimmunoassays using a robotics workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonian, L; Iacolina, M D; Proulx, R R

    1995-01-01

    To automate the radioimmunoassay (RIA) of steroids in a diagnostic clinical laboratory. The Laboratory of Pediatric Endocrinology, Cornell Medical Center-New York Hospital. A tertiary-care center supporting the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric patients with endocrine disorders. PRODUCT COMPARISON: The Packard MultiPROBE Model 100 Automated Liquid Handling System (Packard Instrument Company, Meriden, CT 06450) was compared with the assays typically used to assist in the diagnosis of steroidogenic disorders in children: extraction of biologic fluids, celite partition chromatography, and RIA. The comparative efficiency, cost-effectiveness, specificity, and sensitivity of the two methods. The automated RIAs correlated (r = 0.963) with the established manual assays for steroids. The specificity and sensitivity of the assays were uniformly maintained after automation. The automation of steroid RIAs has made the method a highly efficient and cost-effective one for diagnostic clinical laboratories.

  15. Bioreactor Steroid Production and Analysis of Date Palm Embryogenic Callus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharabasy, Sherif; El-Dawayati, Maiada

    2017-01-01

    Several compounds and families of compounds of date palm secondary metabolites have been investigated. The analysis of date palm tissue has shown the abundance of secondary metabolites including phytosterols, e.g., steroids, an important group of pharmaceutical compounds. Biotechnology offers the opportunity to utilize cells, tissues, and organs grown in vitro and manipulated to obtain desired compounds. This chapter presents a protocol for the production, determination, and identification of steroids in date palm callus tissue. The addition of 0.01 mg/L pyruvic acid as a precursor to MS liquid culture medium enhances steroid production. In addition, the chapter describes the sterol analytical techniques based on gas-liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  16. Discontinuation of steroids in ABO-incompatible renal transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novosel, Marija Kristina; Bistrup, C.

    2016-01-01

    A steroid-free protocol for ABO-compatible renal transplantation has been used at our center since 1983. To minimize the adverse effects of steroids, we also developed a steroid sparing protocol for ABO-incompatible renal transplantation in 2008. The present study is a report of our results....... A retrospective review of the first 50 ABO-incompatible renal transplantations performed at a single university center. If no immunological events occurred in the post-transplant period, prednisolone tapering was initiated approximately 3 months after transplantation. Forty-three patients completed prednisolone...... to antirejection treatment. Overall, 1-year rejection rate was 19%. One- and 3-year graft survival was 94% and 91%, respectively. One-year post-transplant median serum creatinine was 123 mol/L. We found acceptable rejection rates, graft survival, and creatinine levels in patients undergoing ABO-incompatible renal...

  17. Steroid hormone profile in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Jenssen, Bjorn Munro; Bytingsvik, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The polar bear is an iconic Arctic species, threatened by anthropogenic impacts such as pollution and climate change. Successful reproduction of polar bears depends on a functioning steroid hormone system, which is susceptible to effects of persistent organic pollutants. The present study...... is the first study to report circulating concentrations of nine steroid hormones (i.e., estrogens, androgens and progestagens) in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age, condition, location and reproductive status on steroid profile in female polar...... bears. Levels of pregnenolone (PRE), progesterone, androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in blood (serum) of free-living female polar bears (n = 15) from Svalbard, Norway, by gas...

  18. Subcutaneous steroid injection as treatment for chalazion: prospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S Y; Lai, J S M

    2002-02-01

    To study the efficacy of subcutaneous steroid injection in the treatment of chalazion. Prospective consecutive case series. University teaching hospital, Hong Kong. Patients with chalazion presenting to the out-patient clinic of the Department of Ophthalmology at the Prince of Wales Hospital from January to June 1998. Size of the chalazion after steroid injection treatment. Forty-eight consecutive patients with chalazion were treated with injection of triamcinolone into the subcutaneous tissue around the lesion. In 43 (89.6%) patients, the lesion subsided completely. Twenty-six (54.2%) patients had lesions that subsided with one injection. The size and duration of the chalazion at presentation did not significantly affect the outcome of the treatment. Two patients developed depigmentation of the skin at the site of injection. No other major complications were encountered. Subcutaneous injection of the steroid triamcinolone acetonide appears to be a simple and effective treatment for chalazion. Further comparative clinical trials are indicated.

  19. Bioactive Steroids from the Formosan Soft Coral Umbellulifera petasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Yao Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Three new steroids, petasitosterones A and B (1 and 2 and a spirosteroid petasitosterone C (3, along with eight known steroids (4–11, were isolated from a Formosan marine soft coral Umbellulifera petasites. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison of spectroscopic data with those reported. Compound 3 is a marine steroid with a rarely found A/B spiro[4,5]decane ring system. Compounds 1–3 and 5 displayed inhibitory activity against the proliferation of a limited panel of cancer cell lines, whereas 2 and 5 exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity to inhibit nitric oxide (NO production. The inhibitory activities for superoxide anion generation and elastase release of compounds 1–11 were also examined to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential, and 2–4 were shown to exhibit significant activities.

  20. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome in children following nasal steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayemi, Isaac Oludare; Oduwole, Abiola Olufunmilayo; Oyenusi, Elizabeth; Onyiriuka, Alphonsus Ndidi; Abdullahi, Muhammad; Fakeye-Udeogu, Olubunmi Benedicta; Achonwa, Chidozie Jude; Kouyate, Moustapha

    2014-01-01

    Cushing syndrome is a hormonal disorder caused by prolonged exposure of body tissue to cortisol. We report two cases of iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome in two Nigerian children following intranasal administration of aristobed-N (Betamethasone + Neomycin) given at a private hospital where the children presented with feature of adenoidal hypertrophy. Two months into treatment children were noticed to have developed clinical and laboratory features of iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome with critical adrenal suppression. Serum cortisol (at presentation): 1(st) patient: 12nmol/L (reference range 240-618), 2(nd) 1.69nmol/L. Serum cortisol (3 months after weaning off steroid): 343.27 nmol/L (within normal range for the first patient; second patient newly presented and has just begun steroid weaning off process. The serum cortisol level one month into weaninig off process was 128 nmol/L). Unsupervised topical steroid administration in children can cause adrenal suppression with clinical features of Cushing's syndrome.

  1. Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome After Topical Steroid Therapy for Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahıp, Birsen; Celık, Mehmet; Ayturk, Semra; Kucukarda, Ahmet; Mert, Onur; Dıncer, Nejla; Guldıken, Sıbel; Tugrul, Armagan

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are used for the treatment of many diseases, such as inflammatory, allergic, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases. They can be used in the form of topical, oral, inhalable, rectal, and intra-articular agents. Many topical steroid-related iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome cases affecting especially children have been reported in the literature. Topical steroid-related Cushing's syndrome is rarely seen in adults. In this report, we present the case of a 32-year-old male patient with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome related to long-term clobetasol propionate treatment for psoriasis. In the context of such treatment, the glucocorticoid withdrawal problem has to be overcome. At present there is no consensus on steroid withdrawal. Patients on long-term glucocorticoid treatment must be evaluated for potential adverse effects and withdrawal symptoms by their physician and their endocrinologist.

  2. Isotretinoin treatment alters steroid metabolism in women with acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, M; Wallace, M; Cunliffe, W; Simpson, N B

    1991-04-01

    The effect of isotretinoin (Roaccutane) on serum steroids and urinary steroid metabolites was investigated in seven female patients receiving the drug for treatment of severe acne over a 16-week period. Serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHAS), androstenedione (A2), and free androgen index (FAI) were not significantly altered. There was a significant fall in testosterone during treatment and a significant reduction in the 24 h urinary excretion of androsterone, tetrahydrocortisone (THE) and tetrahydrocortisol (THF) from week 8 onwards and for aetiocholanolone and allo-THF from week 12 (P less than 0.05). Although pretreatment levels of urinary steroid metabolites were not abnormal, the ratios of the 5 alpha/5 beta metabolites (androsterone:aetiocholanolone and allo-THF:THF) were at the upper limit of the reference range and were lowered after treatment, suggesting that 5 alpha-reductase activity is sensitive to isotretinoin.

  3. Steroid hormones, stress and the adolescent brain: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G R; Spencer, K A

    2013-09-26

    Steroid hormones, including those produced by the gonads and the adrenal glands, are known to influence brain development during sensitive periods of life. Until recently, most brain organisation was assumed to take place during early stages of development, with relatively little neurogenesis or brain re-organisation during later stages. However, an increasing body of research has shown that the developing brain is also sensitive to steroid hormone exposure during adolescence (broadly defined as the period from nutritional independence to sexual maturity). In this review, we examine how steroid hormones that are produced by the gonads and adrenal glands vary across the lifespan in a range of mammalian and bird species, and we summarise the evidence that steroid hormone exposure influences behavioural and brain development during early stages of life and during adolescence in these two taxonomic groups. Taking a cross-species, comparative perspective reveals that the effects of early exposure to steroid hormones depend upon the stage of development at birth or hatching, as measured along the altricial-precocial dimension. We then review the evidence that exposure to stress during adolescence impacts upon the developing neuroendocrine systems, the brain and behaviour. Current research suggests that the effects of adolescent stress vary depending upon the sex of the individual and type of stressor, and the effects of stress could involve several neural systems, including the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. Experience of stressors during adolescence could also influence brain development via the close interactions between the stress hormone and gonadal hormone axes. While sensitivity of the brain to steroid hormones during early life and adolescence potentially leaves the developing organism vulnerable to external adversities, developmental plasticity also provides an opportunity for the developing organism to respond to current circumstances and for behavioural

  4. Fasting increases aggression and differentially modulates local and systemic steroid levels in male zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokidis, H Bobby; Prior, Nora H; Soma, Kiran K

    2013-11-01

    Aggression enables individuals to obtain and retain limited resources. Studies of the neuroendocrine regulation of aggression have focused on territorial and reproductive contexts. By contrast, little is understood concerning the neuroendocrine regulation of aggression over other resources, such as food. Here, we developed a paradigm to examine the role of steroids in food-related aggression. In groups of male zebra finches, a 6-hour fast decreased body mass and increased aggressive interactions among subjects that competed for a point source feeder. Fasting also dramatically altered circulating steroid levels by decreasing plasma testosterone but not estradiol (E2). By contrast, both plasma corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations were elevated with fasting. Interestingly, short-term access to food (15 minutes) after fasting normalized circulating steroid levels. Fasting increased corticosterone levels in a wide range of peripheral tissues but increased DHEA levels specifically in adrenal glands and liver; these effects were quickly normalized with refeeding. DHEA can be metabolized within specific brain regions to testosterone and E2, which promote the expression of aggression. We measured E2 in microdissected brain regions and found that fasting specifically increased local E2 levels in 3 regions: the periaqueductal gray, ventral tegmental area, and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. These regions are part of the vertebrate social behavior network and regulate the expression of aggression. Together, these data suggest that fasting stimulates secretion of DHEA from the adrenals and liver and subsequent conversion of DHEA to E2 within specific brain regions, to enable individuals to compete for limited food resources.

  5. Adjunctive Steroid Therapy for Treatment of Pediatric Septic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jerry J

    2017-10-01

    Septic shock remains the major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although early sepsis recognition, fluid resuscitation, timely administration of antimicrobials, and vasoactive-inotropic drug infusions are all key to achieving good sepsis outcomes, therapy using various steroid drug classes remains an attractive adjunctive intervention to minimize the duration of septic shock and transition to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. All steroid drug classes possess biological plausibility to affect a beneficial clinical effect among children with septic shock, but none has undergone rigorous, prospective assessment in a large, high-quality pediatric interventional trial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of steroid injections for bamboo nodules: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Tada, Yasuhiro; Okano, Wataru; Tani, Akiko; Omori, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Vocal nodules are generally caused by vocal abuse, and conservative treatments such as voice therapy have been advocated as a first-choice treatment for vocal nodules. Reports of vocal fold lesions related to autoimmune diseases, such as bamboo nodules, are rare in the literature. Here we report a very rare case of bamboo nodules in a 30-year-old woman treated by steroid injection into the vocal folds by videoendoscopic laryngeal surgery in an outpatient setting. She was successfully treated without further recurrence. This report indicates that a steroid injection into bamboo nodules might be a useful treatment option, especially in patients who have not shown any improvement after conservative treatments.

  7. Application of olefin metathesis in the synthesis of steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzycki, Jacek W

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, ruthenium-mediated metathesis transformations, including cross-metathesis, ring-closing metathesis, enyne metathesis, ring-opening metathesis polymerization, and also tandem processes, belong to the most intensively studied reactions. Many applications of olefin metathesis in the synthesis of natural products have been recently described. Also in the field of steroid chemistry new methods of total synthesis and hemisynthesis based on metathesis reactions have been elaborated. Various biologically active compounds, e.g. vitamin D and hormone analogues, steroid dimers and macrocycles, etc. have been prepared using a variety of olefin-metathesis protocols. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja

    2016-01-01

    regional brain activity related to the magnitude of risk during choice and to monetary reward. The GnRHa intervention caused a net reduction in ovarian sex steroids (estradiol and testosterone) and increased depression symptoms. Compared with placebo, GnRHa reduced amygdala's reactivity to high monetary...... rewards. There was a positive association between the individual changes in testosterone and changes in bilateral insula response to monetary rewards. Our data provide evidence for the involvement of sex-steroid hormones in reward processing. A blunted amygdala response to rewarding stimuli following...

  9. Trilobolide-steroid hybrids: Synthesis, cytotoxic and antimycobacterial activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurášek, M.; Džubák, P.; Rimpelová, S.; Sedlák, David; Konečný, P.; Frydrych, I.; Gurska, S.; Hajdúch, M.; Bogdanová, K.; Kolář, M.; Muller, Tomáš; Kmoníčková, Eva; Ruml, T.; Harmatha, Juraj; Drašar, P. B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 117, JAN (2017), s. 97-104 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1304; GA MŠk LO1220; GA MŠk LM2015063 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04329S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:68378041 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Trilobolide * Steroids * Click chemistry * Cytotoxicity * sar * Steroid receptor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; CC - Organic Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 2.282, year: 2016

  10. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND ADVERSE EVENTS OF THEIR APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Đukanović

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic compounds originating from testosterone. Their main effects are the control of development and expression of male secondary sexual characteristics, which are known as androgenic effects, and encourage muscle growth or anabolic effects. Anabolic androgenic steroids are most commonly used illegal substances. Besides these physiological effects, which are achieved using therapeutic doses of these preparations, higher doses than recommended, especially over the longer term, may be associated with the emergence of numerous adverse events. Adverse events may be registered in almost all organs and organ systems, but usually include changes in the reproductive system, skin, liver and cardiovascular system.

  11. Inter-laboratory exercise on steroid estrogens in aqueous samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, E.; Kosjek, T.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    matrices. As the main task three steroid estrogens. 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol, 17 beta-estradiol and estrone were determined in four spiked aqueous matrices' tap water, river water and wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS Results were compared and discussed according...... to the analytical techniques applied, the accuracy and reproducibility of the analytical methods and the nature of the sample matrices. Overall, the results obtained in this inter-laboratory exercise reveal a high level of competence among the participating laboratories for the detection of steroid estrogens...

  12. Three new steroid glycosides from the starfish Asterina pectinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanqiang; Chen, Gang; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Haifeng; Feng, Baomin; Pei, Yuehu

    2013-10-01

    Three new steroid glycosides, pectiniosides H-J (1-3), were isolated along with three known compounds (4-6) including a steroid glycoside and two polyhydroxysteroids, from the alcoholic extract of the starfish Asterina pectinifera. The structures of 1-3 were determined by extensive NMR and HR-ESI-MS experiments. Compounds 1-4 did not show cytostatic activity on HL-60 cells below 100 μM, while compounds 5-6 showed moderate cytostatic activity, with IG50 values of 80.3 and 40.5 μM, respectively.

  13. A Conserved Steroid Binding Site in Cytochrome c Oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Ling; Mills, Denise A.; Buhrow, Leann; Hiser, Carrie; Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh (Michigan)

    2010-09-02

    Micromolar concentrations of the bile salt deoxycholate are shown to rescue the activity of an inactive mutant, E101A, in the K proton pathway of Rhodobacter sphaeroides cytochrome c oxidase. A crystal structure of the wild-type enzyme reveals, as predicted, deoxycholate bound with its carboxyl group at the entrance of the K path. Since cholate is a known potent inhibitor of bovine oxidase and is seen in a similar position in the bovine structure, the crystallographically defined, conserved steroid binding site could reveal a regulatory site for steroids or structurally related molecules that act on the essential K proton path.

  14. Bardet-Biedl syndrome presenting with steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K K Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by postaxial polydactyly, retinitis pigmentosa, central obesity, mental retardation, hypogonadism, and renal involvement. Renal involvement in various forms has been seen in BBS. Cases with nephrotic range proteinuria not responding to steroid have been described in this syndrome. Here we report a case of BBS who presented with nephrotic range proteinuria. The biopsy findings were suggestive of minimal change disease. The child responded well to steroid therapy and remains in remission.

  15. Iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome caused by intranasal steroid use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Fatma; Kirmizibekmez, Heves

    2017-01-01

    Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is common after oral steroid use and has also been reported following topical or inhaled use, but it is extremely uncommon after intranasal administration. This is the case of a 6-year-old child who developed Cushing’s syndrome after intranasal application of dexamethasone sodium phosphate for a period of 6 months. Pediatricians and other clinical practitioners should be aware that high-dose and long-term nasal steroid administration may cause iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome characterized by complications of glucocorticoid excess as well as serious and even life-threatening complications of adrenal insufficiency. PMID:28752153

  16. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome caused by intranasal steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Fatma; Kirmizibekmez, Heves

    2017-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is common after oral steroid use and has also been reported following topical or inhaled use, but it is extremely uncommon after intranasal administration. This is the case of a 6-year-old child who developed Cushing's syndrome after intranasal application of dexamethasone sodium phosphate for a period of 6 months. Pediatricians and other clinical practitioners should be aware that high-dose and long-term nasal steroid administration may cause iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome characterized by complications of glucocorticoid excess as well as serious and even life-threatening complications of adrenal insufficiency.

  17. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome and steroid hepatopathy in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaer, M; Ginn, P E

    1999-01-01

    The distinguishing clinical features of Cushing's syndrome in the cat include very friable skin, a high incidence of diabetes mellitus, and the general absence of steroid hepatopathy. This case report describes a nine-year-old, spayed female domestic shorthair with triamcinolone-induced Cushing's syndrome. Unique to this cat were markedly elevated liver enzymes which prompted an expanded clinical evaluation. An ultrasonographic-guided liver biopsy demonstrated diffuse hepatocellular vacuolation that stained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive and was removed subsequently with diastase application, indicating glycogen accumulation. These findings are compatible with the rarely seen syndrome of steroid hepatopathy in the cat.

  18. Cushing's syndrome caused by use of synthetic ocular steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstyol, A; Kökali, F; Duru, N; Duman, M A; Elevli, M

    2017-12-01

    Cases of Cushing's syndrome (CS) following ocular steroid use have been reported in recent years, albeit rarely. We report a case of iatrogenic CS in a child induced by fluorometholone-containing eyedrops. Our patient was referred to our endocrinology clinic due to rapid weight gain. His history revealed that 1.5 months previously he had been started on fluorometholone eyedrops. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of CS have been reported following ocular fluorometholone use. Although eyedrops containing potent glucocorticoids may lead to CS, fluorometholone, a relatively less potent steroid, may also cause the syndrome, as in our case. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and the risk of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manthripragada, Angelika D; Schernhammer, Eva S; Qiu, Jiaheng

    2011-01-01

    Experimental evidence supports a preventative role for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD).......Experimental evidence supports a preventative role for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD)....

  20. Steroid hormones and persistent organic pollutants in plasma from North-eastern Atlantic pilot whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoydal, Katrin S; Styrishave, Bjarne; Ciesielski, Tomasz M

    2017-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are known to have endocrine disruptive effects, interfering with endogenous steroid hormones. The present study examined nine steroid hormones and their relationships with the concentrations of selected POPs in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) from the Faroe...

  1. Lymphocyte-depleting induction and steroid minimization after kidney transplantation : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naesens, Maarten; Berger, Stefan; Biancone, Luigi; Crespo, Marta; Djamali, Arjang; Hertig, Alexandre; Öllinger, Robert; Portolés, José; Zuckermann, Andreas; Pascual, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Steroid minimization after kidney transplantation has become more widely practiced as transplant clinicians seek the potential benefits such as reduced cardiovascular risk factors, improved growth in pediatric patients, and improved compliance with the immunosuppression regimen. Steroid avoidance

  2. PET imaging of brain sex steroid hormone receptors and the role of estrogen in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khayum, Mohamed Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Androgens and estrogens are steroid hormones that are involved in several neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Decreased levels of steroid hormones are associated with e.g. decreased cognition, anxiety and depression. Androgens and estrogens exert their biological effects through their

  3. FOCUS: Sustainable Mathematics Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Selina V.; Acee, Taylor W.; Gerber, Lindsey N.

    2014-01-01

    The FOCUS (Fundamentals of Conceptual Understanding and Success) Co-Requisite Model Intervention (FOCUS Intervention) for College Algebra was developed as part of the Developmental Education Demonstration Projects (DEDP) in Texas. The program was designed to use multiple services, courses, and best practices to support student completion of a…

  4. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  5. Space Focus Lead Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The Space Focus team is tasked with the definition of the Space Focused Science Topics, and with the review and ranking of the CSES proposals received in all the program areas. This is achieved by dedicated meetings or a series of informal discussions and/or e-mail reviews.

  6. A retrospective study of epidural and intravenous steroids after percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy for large lumbar disc herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Patients who underwent PELD with epidural steroid administration for large lumbar disc herniation showed favorable curative effect compared with those who underwent PELD with intravenous steroid administration.

  7. Does Pain Reduction with Oral Steroids Predict Pain Reduction after a First-Time Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection in Patients with Cervical Radicular Pain? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovo, Dana G; Craig, Wendy Y; Curry, Craig S; Richard, Janelle M; Pisini, James V

    2017-10-01

    Oral and injected steroids are used commonly in the treatment of cervical radicular pain despite a paucity of data demonstrating their efficacy. The purpose of this study is to assess whether the response to orally administered steroids among patients with acute cervical radicular pain who develop recurrent pain is associated with their subsequent response to cervical epidural steroid injections. Patients referred to our center were evaluated and then referred for cervical epidural steroid injections at the clinical discretion of the provider; those who met inclusion criteria were offered participation in the study. After the injection was administered, patients were contacted by telephone and asked to complete the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form at one week, one month, three months, and six months postinjection. Pain reduction after cervical steroid injection was not significantly different between 49 patients who reported pain reduction with a prior course of oral steroids and 22 patients who reported no pain reduction. Average pain scores decreased over six months (P steroid injection for cervical radicular pain. Of the 55 who provided baseline and six-month data, 14 (25.5%) reported complete relief at six months and 20 (36.4%) reported decreased pain. Patients can be reassured that they may experience pain reduction after a cervical epidural steroid injection even if oral steroid therapy was not effective. The majority of patients treated for cervical radicular pain with epidural steroid injection have reduced or absent pain for at least six months after treatment.

  8. MicroRNA and mRNA Expression Changes in Steroid Naïve and Steroid Treated DMD Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da Zhi; Stamova, Boryana; Hu, Shengyong; Ander, Bradley P; Jickling, Glen C; Zhan, Xinhua; Sharp, Frank R; Wong, Brenda

    2015-09-22

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive X-linked form of muscular dystrophy. Steroid therapy has clinical benefits for DMD patients, but the mechanism remains unclear. This study was designed to identify mRNAs and microRNAs regulated in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patients prior to and after steroid therapy. Genome wide transcriptome profiling of whole blood was performed to identify mRNAs and microRNAs regulated in DMD patients. The data show many regulated mRNAs and some microRNAs, including some muscle-specific microRNAs (e.g., miR-206), that were significantly altered in blood of young (age 3-10) DMD patients compared to young controls. A total of 95 microRNAs, but no mRNAs, were differentially expressed in older DMD patients compared to matched controls (age 11-20). Steroid treatment reversed expression patterns of several microRNAs (miR-206, miR-181a, miR-4538, miR-4539, miR-606, and miR-454) that were altered in the young DMD patients. As an example, the over-expression of miR-206 in young DMD patients is predicted to down-regulate a set of target genes (e.g., RHGAP31, KHSRP, CORO1B, PTBP1, C7orf58, DLG4, and KLF4) that would worsen motor function. Since steroids decreased miR-206 expression to control levels, this could provide one mechanism by which steroids improve motor function. These identified microRNA-mRNA alterations will help better understand the pathophysiology of DMD and the response to steroid treatment.

  9. Paradoxical use of oral and topical steroids in steroid-phobic patients resorting to traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Kam-Lun E; Leung, Ting Fan; Yau, Ho Chung; Chan, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Childhood-onset eczema is a common condition associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance and disrupted quality of life. The mainstay of treatment is usage of emollients and topical corticosteroid (CS). Nevertheless, many steroid-phobic parents are very skeptical about western medicine that may contain CS. Furthermore, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is popular among Chinese patients in Asia and many citizens idolize CAM and believe that traditional Chinese medicine and herbs are without any side effects. Pressed by public's quest for efficacious and safe treatment, and lucrative profits, CAM practitioners may take the risks of prescribing steroids and "western medicine" in the name of traditional Chinese herbal medicine. We report a series of illustrative cases of uninformed systemic and topical corticosteroid usage for eczema by steroid-phobic parents to alert the public of this risk. The drugs were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, or liquid chromatography ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Five cases of uninformed corticosteroid usage for moderate-to-severe eczema by steroid-phobic parents were reported. The physician caring for children with skin disease should also be aware that even steroid-phobic parents might indeed be using potent CS without awareness. The patient usually suffers chronic relapsing eczema of moderate-to-severe degree. The steroid-phobic parent is usually non-compliant in following advice on usage of emollient, topical CS, and avoidance of triggers in accordance with western doctors. The CAM practitioner, when confronted by an anxious steroidophobic parent who demands efficacious topical and/or systemic treatment, may knowingly or unknowingly be forced into prescribing potent albeit illegal products containing corticosteroids in the name of traditional Chinese herbal medicine.

  10. In vivo MRI evaluation of anabolic steroid precursor growth effects in a guinea pig model

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Haiying; Vasselli, Joseph R.; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Wu, Ed X.

    2009-01-01

    Anabolic steroids are widely used to increase skeletal muscle (SM) mass and improve physical performance. Some dietary supplements also include potent steroid precursors or active steroid analogs such as nandrolone. Our previous study reported the anabolic steroid effects on SM in a castrated guinea pig model with SM measured using a highly quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol. The aim of the current study was to apply this animal model and in vivo MRI protocol to evaluate t...

  11. 21 CFR 1308.33 - Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.33 Exemption of certain anabolic... compound, mixture, or preparation containing an anabolic steroid as defined in part 1300 of this chapter...

  12. Knowledge about Anabolic Steroids of Rhode Island Adolescents: Implications for Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June

    Although anabolic steroids are associated with short term behavior and long term health problems, few schools address this issue. Adolescents were surveyed to determine their general knowledge of anabolic steroids, attitudes related to fair play, and interest in limiting anabolic steroid use. Data from 322 boys and 331 girls in grades 7-12 were…

  13. 21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant... OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application. (a) Any person seeking...

  14. Bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendon in patients on steroid therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, J F

    1983-01-01

    Three patients are presented who sustained bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendon while on systemic steroid therapy for chest disease; a fourth patient with polymyalgia rheumatica on steroids is also presented. This is further evidence that tendon rupture can be a direct complication of steroid treatment. The English-language literature on bilateral Achilles tendon rupture is reviewed.

  15. Bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendon in patients on steroid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, J F

    1983-12-01

    Three patients are presented who sustained bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendon while on systemic steroid therapy for chest disease; a fourth patient with polymyalgia rheumatica on steroids is also presented. This is further evidence that tendon rupture can be a direct complication of steroid treatment. The English-language literature on bilateral Achilles tendon rupture is reviewed.

  16. Effect of composting on the fate of steroids in beef cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the fate of steroid hormones in beef cattle manure composting is evaluated. The fate of 16 steroids and metabolites was evaluated in composted manure from beef cattle administered growth promotants and from beef cattle with no steroid hormone implants. The fate of estrogens (primary...

  17. Preoperative low-dose steroid can prevent respiratory insufficiency after thymectomy in generalized myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Kiriyama, Takao; Kawaguchi, Takeshi; Sawa, Nobuhiro; Sugie, Kazuma; Horikawa, Hirosei; Tojo, Takashi; Ueno, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative respiratory insufficiency (PRI) in myasthenia gravis (MG) often occurs within several days after thymectomy and remains problematic. In limited studies reporting that preoperative steroids prevented PRI in patients with MG, high doses of steroids were used and detailed information on the use of steroids is limited. Because high-dose steroids significantly increase the risk of adverse effects, we studied 37 patients with generalized MG to investigate whether low-dose steroids might prevent PRI. The low-dose steroids were started orally, and the dose was gradually increased to the maximum level (30 mg/day). Immediately before thymectomy, patients received the maximum dose of oral steroids daily. PRI was defined as the development of restrictive dysfunction requiring mechanical ventilation within 3 days after thymectomy and total postoperative mechanical ventilation support time of >24 h. The rate of PRI in the low-dose steroid use group was significantly lower than that in the no-steroid use group. The postoperative stay in the intensive care unit was shorter in the steroid use group. Extended thymectomy is a well-accepted surgical treatment for selected patients with MG. However, PRI remains problematic. Our results suggest that not only preoperative high-dose steroid treatment, but also low-dose steroid treatment can prevent PRI. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. A Study of Steroid Use among Athletes: Knowledge, Attitude and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Chwee Lye; Moore, Alan

    1990-01-01

    The relationship of knowledge, attitudes, and prevalence of steroid use among college athletes and nonathletes was investigated. Results indicated that the more individuals knew about steroids, the more favorable was their attitude toward use. Powerlifters and bodybuilders were found most likely to use steroids. (JD)

  19. Steroids in Athletics: Is the Edge Worth the Risk? A Review and Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, David

    1989-01-01

    Notes that some athletes have claimed to have found superior performance in competition through hormonal manipulation with steroids. Considers the reported benefits of steroid use against the increasing research evidence revealing its harmful effects. Includes historical overview of steroid use, discussion of physical and psychological effects of…

  20. Clinical applications of gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of steroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, BG; Kraan, GPB

    1999-01-01

    This review article underlines the importance of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for determination of steroids in man. The use of steroids labelled with stable isotopes as internal standard and subsequent analysis by GC-MS yields up to now the only reliable measurement of steroids in

  1. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Prevalence, Knowledge, and Attitudes in Junior and Senior High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)

  2. Examining Athletes' Attitudes toward Using Anabolic Steroids and Their Knowledge of the Possible Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshel, Mark H.; Russell, Kenneth G.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…

  3. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Among 1,010 College Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Harrison G., Jr.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two percent of 1,010 male college students responding to a questionnaire about anabolic-androgenic steroid use reported using steroids; most of the users were competitive athletes, although some used steroids to improve their physical appearance. Users were not distinguished from non-users in terms of academic achievement or use of other illicit…

  4. Self-Reported Use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids by Elite Power Lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesalis III, Charles E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-three percent of a sample of 45 power lifters surveyed by questionnaire admitted to using steroids, while 55 percent of 20 lifters surveyed by phone admitted steroid use. The researchers suggest that there was significant underreporting by these athletes, who consider steroids primarily as a means to improve athletic performance. (IAH)

  5. The Effect of Anabolic Steroid Education on Knowledge and Attitudes of At-Risk Preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenhaile, Jay; Choi, Hee-Sook; Proctor, Theron B.; Work, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effect of anabolic steroid education on preadolescents' knowledge of and attitudes toward anabolic steroids with 35 male athletes. Information on psychological and physiological aspects of anabolic steroid use, weight training techniques, nutrition, social decision making, and self-esteem training were provided. Participants…

  6. 21 CFR 862.1385 - 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids... Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1385 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system. (a) Identification. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-ketogenic steroids) test system is a device...

  7. Anabolic steroids in athletics: how well do they work and how dangerous are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, D R

    1984-01-01

    The use of anabolic drugs by athletes who wish to increase lean body mass and improve muscular strength is widespread, especially among elite weight-trained athletes. The current regimens used for steroid doping include combinations of injectable and oral preparations of steroids at doses 10 to 40 times greater than those prescribed therapeutically. Most of the scientific studies of steroid use by healthy male athletes have used steroid doses substantially lower than those used by many athletes. Analysis of these studies suggests that most persons will gain an average of 2.2 kg of lean body weight during steroid administration but that there exist great individual differences in strength changes induced by steroids. Approximately 50% of the investigations show significant improvements in strength measurements with steroid treatment, whereas the remainder show indefinite effects. There is no substantial evidence to support the use of anabolic steroids for improving aerobic work capacity. Anabolic steroids cause interrupted growth and virilization in children, birth defects in the unborn, severe virilization in women, and testicular atrophy and reduced blood levels of gonadotropins and testosterone in adult males. In addition, the oral preparations of anabolic steroids are associated with liver dysfunction, including carcinoma and peliosis hepatis, and a number of other disorders including unpredictable changes in mood, aggression, and libido. Although there have been only rare reports of severe or life-threatening side effects in athletes who have abused steroids, such side effects may not appear obvious until 20 years or more of widespread steroid abuse.

  8. Severe Tinea corporis resulting from the use of topical steroids as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of systemic and topical steroids is associated with many side effects. Cutaneous side effects of steroid include with many others susceptibility to cutaneous infections. One of such infections is Tinea corporis. Steroids form an important component of skin lightening and toning creams. Among females in our society the ...

  9. Imaging in juvenile idiopathic arthritis with a focus on ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurell, Louise; Court-Payen, Michel; Boesen, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    unsurpassed resolution of the superficial musculoskeletal structures in children. US is also the best available technique for imaging guidance of steroid injections. Unfortunately, there are still no validated MRI or US scoring systems for evaluating inflammatory and joint damage abnormalities in JIA, and few...... US studies have been conducted. Sonographic assessment of disease activity has, however, been proven to be more informative than clinical examination and is also readily available at points of care. This review summarises the literature on imaging in JIA, focusing on US and the important role...... this technique will play in JIA in the future....

  10. Radical oxidation of 17-functionalized 14alpha-hydroxy steroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khripach, V.A.; Zhabinskii, V.N.; Kotyatkina, A.I.; Fando, G.P.; Zhiburtovich, Y.Y.; Lyakhov, A.S.; Govorova, A.A.; Groen, M.B.; Louw, van der J.; Groot, de A.

    2001-01-01

    The radical oxidation of 14a-hydroxy steroids with various functional groups at C-17 was studied. Lead tetraacetate and ceric ammonium nitrate were used as oxidizing agents. It was shown that reactions of this type afforded complex mixtures of compounds. However, the radical oxidation of

  11. Status of sex steroid hormone receptors in large bowel cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meggouh, F.; Lointier, P.; Pezet, D.; Saez, S.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the potential role of sex steroid hormones in the development of colorectal tumors in humans, specific androgen (AR), estrogen (ER), and progesterone (PGR) receptors were investigated in normal mucosa (NM) and in tumor (T) paired biopsy specimens from 94 patients. Androgen receptors

  12. Project Right Way: An Anabolic Steroid Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June

    There is increasing concern by medical experts in this country about the use of anabolic steroids by teenagers. Over one million Americans are believed to be currently using or have used the synthetic hormones in the past. While drug testing and a reduction in the supply of the drugs appear to be reducing the number of adult users, use by…

  13. Prevalence and awareness of anabolic androgenic steroid use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the prevalence and awareness of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use among male bodybuilders visiting gyms in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 500 male bodybuilders visiting gyms in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. Information on ...

  14. Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S.

    This review of the literature on the psychological and behavioral effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) first looks at aspects of the history and prevalence of AS use in competitive sports. Research suggests that one-quarter to one-half million adolescents in the United States have used, or are currently using AS. Some effects of androgens…

  15. Anabolic Steroid Use: Indications of Habituation among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesalis, Charles E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Identified characteristics of adolescent male anabolic steroid (AS) user and addictive potential. Found AS user population different from nonuser in self-perceptions of health and strength, interest in controlling AS use, and perception of peer AS use. Found subgroups with significantly different attitudes and/or behaviors. Suggests prevention…

  16. Steroid Use in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: What ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss is a disease of unknown etiology. Controversy in the literature argues whether the condition should be treated by steroid therapy. In this case study, a Medline literature search was completed to find out if there is any evidence to support its use in this condition.

  17. The effect of steroidal contraceptives on liver enzymes and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the influence of steroidal contraceptives on liver enzymes and serum total protein using 48 adult female rats in four groups -A as control and B, C and D as tests. The animals were further divided into two subgroups - treatment (A1 - D1; n=6 each) and reversal (A2 - D2; n=6 each). Groups A1&A2 ...

  18. Self-medication with steroids in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipe, Virginie; Allen, Patrick B; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The self-prescribing rates of corticosteroids in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients treated with biologicals are unknown. To investigate the frequency and modalities of self-medication with steroids in adult IBD patients. Patients with IBD who attended Nancy University Hospital between November 2012 and May 2013 were included in the study. Patients were interviewed using an 11 item questionnaire. 100 patients participated in the survey. In total 15 patients (15%) had already used corticosteroids without medical prescription since their IBD diagnosis and 4 patients of them (27%) used steroids as self-medication while on anti-TNF treatment. The mean total duration of corticosteroid treatment was 24 days (range 1.5-105). In total 4 patients (27%) used corticosteroids more than 10 times without medical prescription (range 1-20). The two main reasons were the need for quick relief of symptoms (n=6) and the unwillingness to consult a physician (n=3). A relatively high proportion of patients with IBD use corticosteroids without medical prescription. Due to their side effects, self-medication may include 'steroid dependency' as it may reflect uncontrolled disease. As steroids have significant side effects and patients may have active disease it is important to counsel patients and to monitor their self-prescribing patterns in IBD patients. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bayesian logistic regression in detection of gene–steroid interaction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The PDZ and LIM domain 5 (PDLIM5) gene may play a role in cancer, bipolar disorder, major depression, alcohol dependence and schizophrenia; however, little is known about the interaction effect of steroid and PDLIM5 gene on cancer. This study examined 47 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the PDLIM5 ...

  20. Bayesian logistic regression in detection of gene–steroid interaction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cancer. Bayesian logistic regression in PROC GENMOD in SAS statistical software, ver. 9.4 was used to detect gene– steroid interactions influencing cancer. Single marker analysis using PLINK identified 12 SNPs associated with cancer. (P < 0.05); especially, SNP rs6532496 revealed the strongest association with cancer ...

  1. A new steroidal saponin from dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Shen, Hai-Yan; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study on dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana led to a new steroidal saponin, cambodianoside G(1), and six known ones (2-7). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. Evaluation of antibacterial activities showed that compound 7 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  2. Fever of unknown origin responding to steroid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, A; Ohosone, Y; Mita, S; Obana, M; Matsuoka, Y; Irimajiri, S

    1997-02-01

    It is not uncommon to find cases of fever of unknown origin (FUO) in which no final diagnosis is made ever after various examinations. We investigated such cases of undiagnosed FUO, with fever persisting for a long periods and responding to steroid therapy. Among 4,596 patients who were hospitalized over 3-year period from September 1991, 25 met Petersdorf's definition of FUO. Among these 25 patient, six cases were steroid-responsive undiagnosed FUO (SR-FUO). Patients with SR-FUO had the following characteristics: marked inflammatory findings and severe illness; without a definite underlying disease being found despite various examinations; no findings which indicated any known diseases such as adult-onset Still's disease, polymyalgia rheumatica, or other collagen diseases; elderly onset, at 58 to 77 years of age (mean age: 67 years); no improvement with antibiotics, antituberculous agents, or antimycotic drugs; significant improvement of symptoms and signs with steroid therapy; and a relatively good prognosis. SR-FUO, which is not caused by any known disease and is highly responsive to steroids, is included among the FUO cases which we have difficulty in diagnosing and treating.

  3. Steroids in adults with acute bacterial meningitis: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan; McIntyre, Peter; Prasad, Kameshwar

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is uncommon but causes significant mortality and morbidity, despite optimum antibiotic therapy. A clinical trial in 301 patients showed a beneficial effect of adjunctive steroid treatment in adults with acute community-acquired pneumococcal meningitis, but data on other

  4. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: Adjunctive therapy with inhaled steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP is a rare form of diffuse parenchymal lung disease first identified by Carrington et al. in 1969. It is characterized by the presence of constitutional and respiratory symptoms with associated peripheral opacities on imaging and elevated serum and/or bronchoalveolar eosinophilia. Although data is limited regarding etiology or prevalence, it is known that ICEP has a 2:1 female: male predominance and typically affects non-smokers. Diagnosis rests on the clinical constellation of respiratory symptoms of at least 2–4 weeks duration, the presence of diffuse pulmonary alveolar consolidation, classically described as the “photographic negative of pulmonary edema”, the presence of eosinophils ≥40% on bronchoalveolar lavage or ≥1000/mm3 eosinophils on peripheral blood and the exclusion of other known causes of eosinophilic lung diseases such as drugs, toxins, fungi, parasites, and collagen-vascular disorders. A dramatic response is achieved with systemic corticosteroids, which is typically dosed over 6 months to 1 year. Despite this response, approximately 30–50% of patients will relapse upon cessation of steroids or during the taper. Although these patients respond well to another trial of steroids, the side effects of long term steroids are well known, including osteoporosis, diabetes, hypertension and cataracts. Inhaled corticosteroids as monotherapy has been trialed in the past without success. However, we report a case of a patient who underwent treatment with systemic corticosteroids followed by inhaled steroids who has remained in remission for 2 years.

  5. [Pharmacological properties od steroid glycosides from Ruscus ponticus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuladze, G V; Mulkidzhanian, K G; Novikova, Zh N

    2002-01-01

    Some pharmacological properties of the sum of steroidal glycosides (ruscoponin preparation) extracted from underground parts of Ruscus ponticus were studied. The drug exhibits a pronounced antiexudative effect (related to the alpha 1-adrenergic activity) on the models of formalin edema and pouch granuloma in rats and a thermal rectum inflammation in mice. The drug exhibited no hepato-, nephro-, and gastrotoxicity.

  6. Synthetic anabolic agents: steroids and nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The central role of testosterone in the development of male characteristics, as well as its beneficial effects on physical performance and muscle growth, has led to the search for synthetic alternatives with improved pharmacological profiles. Hundreds of steroidal analogs have been prepared with a superior oral bioavailability, which should also possess reduced undesirable effects. However, only a few entered the pharmaceutical market due to severe toxicological incidences that were mainly attributed to the lack of tissue selectivity. Prominent representatives of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are for instance methyltestosterone, metandienone and stanozolol, which are discussed as model compounds with regard to general pharmacological aspects of synthetic AAS. Recently, nonsteroidal alternatives to AAS have been developed that selectively activate the androgen receptor in either muscle tissue or bones. These so-called selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are currently undergoing late clinical trials (IIb) and will be prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency from January 2008. Their entirely synthetic structures are barely related to steroids, but particular functional groups allow for the tissue-selective activation or inhibition of androgen receptors and, thus, the stimulation of muscle growth without the risk of severe undesirable effects commonly observed in steroid replacement therapies. Hence, these compounds possess a high potential for misuse in sports and will be the subject of future doping control assays.

  7. Adverse cardiovascular effects of anabolic steroids : pathophysiology imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golestani, Reza; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Tio, Rene A.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.

    Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42 (7): 795803 Abstract Background Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are widely abused for enhancing muscle mass, strength, growth and improving athletic performance. Materials and methods In recent years, many observational and interventional studies have shown important

  8. Steroid responsive mononeuritis multiplex in the Cronkhite-Canada syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YL Lo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS is a rare disorder of unknown origin characterized by generalized gastrointestinal polyposis, alopecia, hyperpigmentation and onychodystrophy. We report a case of CCS with concomitant presentation of mononeuritis multiplex. The electrophysiological findings and steroid responsiveness suggests presence of an autoimmune mechanism.

  9. Oral candidiasis following steroid therapy for oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marable, D R; Bowers, L M; Stout, T L; Stewart, C M; Berg, K M; Sankar, V; DeRossi, S S; Thoppay, J R; Brennan, M T

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this multicentre study was to determine the incidence of oral candidiasis in patients treated with topical steroids for oral lichen planus (OLP) and to determine whether the application of a concurrent antifungal therapy prevented the development of an oral candidiasis in these patients. Records of 315 patients with OLP seen at four Oral Medicine practices treated for at least 2 weeks with steroids with and without the use of an antifungal regimen were retrospectively reviewed. The overall incidence of oral fungal infection in those treated with steroid therapy for OLP was 13.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of oral candidiasis development in those treated with an antifungal regimen vs those not treated prophylactically (14.3% vs 12.6%) (P = 0.68). Despite the use of various regimens, none of the preventive antifungal strategies used in this study resulted in a significant difference in the rate of development of an oral candidiasis in patients with OLP treated with steroids. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Modification of potato steroidal glycoalkaloids with silencing RNA constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs), while found in many solanaceous plants, can accumulate to unacceptably high levels in potatoes. The two primary SGAs that occur in potatoes are the tri-glycosylated alkaloids, a-solanine and a-chaconine. The first glycosylation steps in their biosynthetic pathways ...

  11. Effect of Combined Oral contraceptive Steroids on Plasma Lipids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral contraceptive (OC) usage is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The present study investigated the effect of combined OC on plasma lipids, lipid peroxidation, and biosynthesis of nitric oxide (NO). Female Sprague – Dawley rats were treated with OC steroids (10mg/kg ethinyloestradiol + 100mg/kg norgestrel) ...

  12. Prevalence of androgenicanabolic steroid use in adolescents in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of androgenicanabolic steroid (AAS) use among schoolchildren in two geographically separate regions of South Africa. Design. Self-reported questionnaire. Population. Standard 10 schoolchildren (16 - 18 years) were selected, 1 136 from region A and 1 411 from region B. Results.

  13. Psychological Predictors of Anabolic Steroid Use: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, Michael J.; Corcoran, Kevin J.; LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Fisher, Leslee; Patterson, David; Olrich, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    Examined social physique anxiety, upper body esteem, social anxiety, and body dissatisfaction as possible predictors of anabolic steroid (AS) use. Results based on 185 AS-using bodybuilders and various control groups indicated that the upper body strength subscale of two measures, along with age, were significant predictors of AS use. (RJM)

  14. Fournier\\'s gangrene secondary to prolonged use of Steroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of Fournier's gangrene in a patient that had used a steroid containing bleaching cream for five years is reported with a brief discussion on the possible mode of action of the cream. Other effects of the cream (striae, 'bleaching') are also noted. We also present this case as a rare cause of Fournier's gangrene.

  15. Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs fail to enhance healing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), meclofenamate and diclofenac, in combination with physiotherapy modalities on the rate of healing of acute hamstring muscle tears were studied in a doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-four of the 75 patients with this injury recruited were assessed ...

  16. Towards the emerging crosstalk: ERBB family and steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Uva, Gabriele; Lauriola, Mattia

    2016-02-01

    Growth factors acting through receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) of ERBB family, along with steroid hormones (SH) acting through nuclear receptors (NRs), are critical signalling mediators of cellular processes. Deregulations of ERBB and steroid hormone receptors are responsible for several diseases, including cancer, thus demonstrating the central role played by both systems. This review will summarize and shed light on an emerging crosstalk between these two important receptor families. How this mutual crosstalk is attained, such as through extensive genomic and non-genomic interactions, will be addressed. In light of recent studies, we will describe how steroid hormones are able to fine-tune ERBB feedback loops, thus impacting on cellular output and providing a new key for understanding the complexity of biological processes in physiological or pathological conditions. In our understanding, the interactions between steroid hormones and RTKs deserve further attention. A system biology approach and advanced technologies for the analysis of RTK-SH crosstalk could lead to major advancements in molecular medicine, providing the basis for new routes of pharmacological intervention in several diseases, including cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex Steroid Hormones and Reproductive Disorders : Impact on Women's Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Tarlatzis, Basil C.; Moley, Kelle H.; Critchley, Hilary O. D.; Taylor, Robert N.; Berga, Sarah L.; Mermelstein, Paul G.; Devroey, Paul; Gianaroli, Luca; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Vercellini, Paolo; Hummelshoj, Lone; Rubin, Susan; Goverde, Angelique J.; De Leo, Vincenzo; Petraglia, Felice

    The role of sex steroid hormones in reproductive function in women is well established. However, in the last two decades it has been shown that receptors for estrogens, progesterone and androgens are expressed in non reproductive tissue /organs (bone, brain, cardiovascular system) playing a role in

  18. Changes in steroid hormones during an international powerlifting competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Panse, Bénédicte; Labsy, Zakaria; Baillot, Aurélie; Vibarel-Rebot, Nancy; Parage, Gaston; Albrings, Detlev; Lasne, Françoise; Collomp, Katia

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess changes in the steroid hormone levels of elite athletes during an international powerlifting competition. Baseline cortisol, DHEA and testosterone were determined in saliva samples in 19 (8 men, 11 women) junior and sub-junior athletes on the day before competition, and then on the competition day during the official weighing and in the hour after competition. Performance was determined by total output and the Wilks formula. No change in saliva steroid concentrations was observed between samples collected on the day before competition and the weighing samples. There was no gender effect on cortisol concentrations but saliva testosterone levels were always significantly higher in men than in women (ppowerlifting competition produce a significant increase in adrenal steroid hormones in both genders, with an increase in male gonadal steroid hormone. Further studies are necessary to examine the changes in oestradiol and progesterone in women and their potential impact on performance during international powerlifting competition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Steroids have no place in the management of cervical myelopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients having been seen are placed on long term steroid therapy, vitamin C and analgesics and neuropathic pain medicines such as Carbamazepine, Gabapentin and Pregabalin. Our perspective is that such treatment especially for moderate or severe CSM is of little benefit to address the fundamental and underlying ...

  20. A pilot study on wound healing using an antibacterial steroidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost effective primary and secondary wound care is needed and have significant importance in current medicine. The steroidal saponin Flabelliferin B with a UV active binder attached (FB), isolated from palmyrah (Borassus flabellifer L.) has a known structure and proven antibacterial activity. The objectives of the study ...

  1. 77 FR 44456 - Classification of Two Steroids, Prostanozol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    .... Internal and Emergency Medicine, 4: 289-296. Ringold, H.J., Batres, E., Halpern, O., and Necoechea, E... are approved for either human or veterinary use. Approved medical uses for anabolic steroids include... Medicine, 32(2): 534-542. Fragkaki, A.G., Angelis, Y.S., Koupparis, M., Tsantili-Kakoulidou, A., Kokotos, G...

  2. Management of steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome: revised guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagga, Arvind; Ali, Uma; Banerjee, Sushmita; Kanitkar, Madhuri; Phadke, Kishore D; Senguttuvan, Prabha; Sethi, Sidharth; Shah, Mehul

    2008-03-01

    In 2001, the Indian Pediatric Nephrology Group formulated guidelines for management of patients with steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome. In view of emerging scientific evidence, it was felt necessary to review the existing recommendations. Following a preliminary meeting in March 2007, a draft statement was prepared and circulated among pediatric nephrologists in the country to arrive at a consensus on the evaluation and management of these patients. To revise and formulate recommendations for management of steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome. The need for adequate cortico-steroid therapy at the initial episode is emphasized. Guidelines regarding the initial evaluation, indications for renal biopsy and referral to a pediatric nephrologist are updated. It is proposed that patients with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome should, at the first instance, be treated with long-term, alternate-day prednisolone. The indications for use of alternative immunosuppressive agents, including levamisole, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil and cyclosporin are outlined. The principles of dietary therapy, management of edema, and prevention and management of complications related to nephrotic syndrome are described. These guidelines, formulated on basis of current best practice, are aimed to familiarize physicians regarding management of children with steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome.

  3. Final focus test beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  4. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  5. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  6. Focus Group Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    clarification.  Determine demographics and number needed for focus groups (all male, all female, mixed gender , by rank, by section, etc.; 8–15...members (based on section, rank, race, gender , etc.) view an issue? Are the concerns focused in a single section or do they seem to be unit-wide...Sexual Harassment (C) Sex Harassment Retaliation (D) Discrimination - Sex (E) Discrimination - Race (F) Discrimination - Disability (G

  7. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  8. TREATMENT OF STEROID DEPENDENT ASTHMATICS WITH LOW DOSES OF CYCLOSPORINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Šuškovič

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Asthmatics with glucocorticoid dependent asthma should be treated with systemic steroids. Cyclosporine is in many ways a potent anti-inflammatory drug. Cyclosporine is sometimes very effective in treating asthmatics and could allow us to lower the dose of oral steroid. In some randomized, double blind studies steroid dependent asthmatics were treated 12–36 weeks with cyclosporine in dose 5 mg/kg/day. We tried cyclosporine in steroid dependent asthmatics in shorter course and in lower dose.Methods. 13 steroid dependent asthmatics were in the first four weeks of the study treated by their own drugs (phase 1. Then they were for the next four weeks (phase 2 randomly and in double blind fashion treated with either cyclosporine (mean 1.7 mg/kg/day, SD 0.5, 6 patients – group 1 or by identical placebo (7 patients – group 2. To the patients in the group 2 serum concentration of cyclosporine was measured on the eight day of the study.Results. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF raised significantly in group 1 (200 L/sec to 247 L/sec or for 23%. Patients in group1 had significantly less episodes of nocturnal asthma (2.2 episodes/night to 1.5 episodes/night or for 32%. In group 2 were not found any changes between first phase and second phase of the study. Steroid consumption did not change in any group. Mean serum concentration of cyclosporine in patients of group1 was 35.7 µg/L. We did not find any adverse effects of cyclosporine or placebo.Conclusions. Cyclosporine could have dangerous side effects, which are dependent on its serum concentration. So it should be administered in the lowest possible dose and for the most possible short period. In our study it was found that it is possible to successfully treat steroid dependent asthmatics with lower daily dose and for shorter time, than was found in other similar studies.

  9. Focused critical care echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren-Grinberg, Achikam; Talmor, Daniel; Brown, Samuel M

    2013-11-01

    Portable ultrasound is now used routinely in many ICUs for various clinical applications. Echocardiography performed by noncardiologists, both transesophageal and transthoracic, has evolved to broad applications in diagnosis, monitoring, and management of critically ill patients. This review provides a current update on focused critical care echocardiography for the management of critically ill patients. Source data were obtained from a PubMed search of the medical literature, including the PubMed "related articles" search methodology. Although studies demonstrating improved clinical outcomes for critically ill patients managed by focused critical care echocardiography are generally lacking, there is evidence to suggest that some intermediate outcomes are improved. Furthermore, noncardiologists can learn focused critical care echocardiography and adequately interpret the information obtained. Noncardiologists can also successfully incorporate focused critical care echocardiography into advanced cardiopulmonary life support. Formal training and proctoring are important for safe application of focused critical care echocardiography in clinical practice. Further outcomes-based research is urgently needed to evaluate the efficacy of focused critical care echocardiography.

  10. Plutonium focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  11. [Clinical research of correlation between osteonecrosis and steroid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-rong; Sun, Wei; Qu, Hui; Zhou, Yi-xiong; Dou, Bao-xin; Shi, Zhen-cai; Zhang, Nian-fei; Cheng, Xiao-guang; Wang, Da-li; Guo, Wan-shou

    2005-08-15

    To explore the correlation between the dosage of corticosteroid, time of onset and incidence of osteonecrosis (ON) in patients with SARS. From July 2003 to January 2004, general survey carried out for ON in 551 patients with SARS. Five hundred and fifty-one patients except 12 were administrated by corticosteroid from 80 mg to 30 000 mg. The age of patients was (33 +/- 9) years old ranging from 19 to 59 years old. One hundred and thirty-one were male, and four hundred and twenty were female. MRI and X-ray film were taken in all patients including both hips, knees, shoulders, ankles and wrists. CT scan was taken in partial patients. Common classification system were used for staging of hip (ARCO), knee (Lotka) and shoulder (Cruess). Independent test, rank-sum test and multiple factor logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. No osteonecrosis was detected in 12 patients without corticosteroid. Osteonecrosis was detected in 176 patients (32.7 percent) among 539 patients. There were ON of femoral head in 130 cases (210 hips), ON of knee in 98 cases (130 knees), ON of humeral head in 21 cases (36 shoulders), ON of talus and calcaneus in 16 cases (26 ankles), ON of scaphoid and lunate in 11 cases (17 wrists), ON of patella in 3 cases (4 patella), ON of ilium in 1 case and bone infarction (femur, tibia) in 18 cases. One hundred and nineteen cases (195 hips) with ONFH were in stage I (IA 45 hips, IB 77 hips, IC 73 hips). Eleven cases (15 hips) were in stage II. All osteonecrosis of the knee and humoral head was stage I. Thirty-four patients with ON had one joint affected, 45 patients had 2 joints, 93 patients had more than 3 joints. The dosage of corticosteroid was (5842 +/- 4988) mg in ON group and (2719 +/- 2571) mg in non-ON group (P corticosteroid occurred osteonecrosis. ON is frequently multiple focuses. The actual time of onset of ON is early of steroid used. MRI is golden standard for early diagnosis of ON. The patients who were treated with a

  12. Endothelial function in male body builders taking anabolic androgenic steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hashemi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse cardiovascular events have been reported in body builders taking anabolic steroids. Adverse effects of AAS on endothelial function can initiate atherosclerosis. This study evaluates endothelial function in body builders using AAS, compared with non-steroids using athletes as controls. Methods: We recruited 30 nonsmoking male body builders taking AAS, 14 in build up phase, 8 in work out phase, and 8 in post steroid phase, and 30 nonsmoking male athletes who denied ever using steroids. Serum lipids and fasting plasma glucose were measured to exclude dyslipidemia and diabetes. Brachial artery diameter was measured by ultrasound at rest, after cuff inflation, and after sublingual glyceriltrinitrate (GTN to determine flow mediated dilation (FMD, nitro mediated dilation (NMD and ratio of FMD to NMD (index of endothelial function. Result: Use of AAS was associated with higher body mass index (BMI and low density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-C. Mean ratio of flow mediated dilatation after cuff deflation to post GTN dilatation of brachial artery (index of endothelial function in body builders taking AAS was significantly lower than control group (0.96(0.05 versus 1(0.08; p=0.03. After adjusting BMI, age and weight, no significant difference was seen in index of endothelial function between two groups (p=0 .21. Conclusion: Our study indicates that taking AAS in body builders doesn’t have direct effect on endothelial function. Future study with bigger sample size and measurement of AAS metabolites is recommended. Key words: endothelium, lipids, anabolic steroids, body builders

  13. How Does Energy Intake Influence the Levels of Certain Steroids?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Rácz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of steroid hormones on food intake is well described. However, there are only a few studies on the effect of food intake on steroid levels. The study involved eight non-smoker women (average age 29.48 ± 2.99 years; average BMI 21.3 ± 1.3 kg/m2; they did not use any kind of medication affecting steroidogenesis. We analysed the influence of four various stimuli on the levels of steroid hormones and melatonin. During their follicular phase of menstrual cycle, each woman had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT, a standard breakfast and psyllium (a non-caloric fibre. Cortisol declined during each test, which is a physiological decline in the morning hours. In all tests (except of the application of the non-caloric fibre, psyllium, however, this decline was modified. After the standard breakfast there was an increase in cortisol at 40th minute. The OGTT and IVGTT tests led to a plateau in cortisol levels. Testosterone levels and those of other steroid hormones showed no relationships to tested stimulations. Oral and intravenous glucose have influenced physiological decline of melatonin levels. During the IVGTT test, melatonin levels started to increase at 20th minute, reaching a maximum at 40th minute. The OGTT test led to a delayed increase in melatonin levels, compared to IVGTT. Despite the fact that we performed the tests in the morning hours, when steroid hormone levels physiologically start to change due to their diurnal rhythm, we still found that food intake influences some of the hormone levels.

  14. How Does Energy Intake Influence the Levels of Certain Steroids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Beáta; Dušková, Michaela; Jandíková, Hana; Hill, Martin; Vondra, Karel; Stárka, Luboslav

    2015-01-01

    The influence of steroid hormones on food intake is well described. However, there are only a few studies on the effect of food intake on steroid levels. The study involved eight non-smoker women (average age 29.48±2.99 years; average BMI 21.3±1.3 kg/m2); they did not use any kind of medication affecting steroidogenesis. We analysed the influence of four various stimuli on the levels of steroid hormones and melatonin. During their follicular phase of menstrual cycle, each woman had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), a standard breakfast and psyllium (a non-caloric fibre). Cortisol declined during each test, which is a physiological decline in the morning hours. In all tests (except of the application of the non-caloric fibre, psyllium), however, this decline was modified. After the standard breakfast there was an increase in cortisol at 40th minute. The OGTT and IVGTT tests led to a plateau in cortisol levels. Testosterone levels and those of other steroid hormones showed no relationships to tested stimulations. Oral and intravenous glucose have influenced physiological decline of melatonin levels. During the IVGTT test, melatonin levels started to increase at 20th minute, reaching a maximum at 40th minute. The OGTT test led to a delayed increase in melatonin levels, compared to IVGTT. Despite the fact that we performed the tests in the morning hours, when steroid hormone levels physiologically start to change due to their diurnal rhythm, we still found that food intake influences some of the hormone levels.

  15. Steroid determination in fish plasma using capillary electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, L.; Archer-Hartmann, S. A.; Holland, L.A.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.

    2010-01-01

    A capillary separation method that incorporates pH-mediated stacking is employed for the simultaneous determination of circulating steroid hormones in plasma from Perca flavescens (yellow perch) collected from natural aquatic environments. The method can be applied to separate eight steroid standards: progesterone, 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, estrone, 11-ketotestosterone, ethynyl estradiol, and 17β-estradiol. Based on screening of plasma, the performance of the analytical method was determined for 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 17β-estradiol. The within-day reproducibility in migration time for these four steroids in aqueous samples was ≤2%. Steroid quantification was accomplished using a calibration curve obtained with external standards. Plasma samples from fish collected from the Choptank and Severn Rivers, Maryland, USA, stored for up to one year were extracted with ethyl acetate and then further processed with anion exchange and hydrophobic solid phase extraction cartridges. The recovery of testosterone and 17β-estradiol from yellow perch plasma was 84 and 85%, respectively. Endogenous levels of testosterone ranged from 0.9 to 44 ng/ml, and when detected 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one ranged from 5 to 34 ng/ml. The reported values for testosterone correlated well with the immunoassay technique. Endogenous concentrations of 17β-estradiol were ≤1.7 ng/ml. 11-Ketotestosterone was not quantified because of a suspected interferant. Higher levels of 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one were found in male and female fish in which 17β-estradiol was not detected. Monitoring multiple steroids can provide insight into hormonal fluctuations in fish.

  16. Development of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after anabolic steroid abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitz, Leal C; Markowitz, Glen S; Farris, Alton B; Schwimmer, Joshua A; Stokes, Michael B; Kunis, Cheryl; Colvin, Robert B; D'Agati, Vivette D

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse adversely affects the endocrine system, blood lipids, and the liver, but renal injury has not been described. We identified an association of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and proteinuria in a cohort of 10 bodybuilders (six white and four Hispanic; mean body mass index 34.7) after long-term abuse of anabolic steroids. The clinical presentation included proteinuria (mean 10.1 g/d; range 1.3 to 26.3 g/d) and renal insufficiency (mean serum creatinine 3.0 mg/dl; range 1.3 to 7.8 mg/dl); three (30%) patients presented with nephrotic syndrome. Renal biopsy revealed FSGS in nine patients, four of whom also had glomerulomegaly, and glomerulomegaly alone in one patient. Three biopsies revealed collapsing lesions of FSGS, four had perihilar lesions, and seven showed > or =40% tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Among eight patients with mean follow-up of 2.2 yr, one progressed to ESRD, the other seven received renin-angiotensin system blockade, and one also received corticosteroids. All seven patients discontinued anabolic steroids, leading to weight loss, stabilization or improvement in serum creatinine, and a reduction in proteinuria. One patient resumed anabolic steroid abuse and suffered relapse of proteinuria and renal insufficiency. We hypothesize that secondary FSGS results from a combination of postadaptive glomerular changes driven by increased lean body mass and potential direct nephrotoxic effects of anabolic steroids. Because of the expected rise in serum creatinine as a result of increased muscle mass in bodybuilders, this complication is likely underrecognized.

  17. Steroid-associated hip joint collapse in bipedal emus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Zhen Zheng

    Full Text Available In this study we established a bipedal animal model of steroid-associated hip joint collapse in emus for testing potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of steroid-associated joint collapse in preclinical settings. Five adult male emus were treated with a steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON induction protocol using combination of pulsed lipopolysaccharide (LPS and methylprednisolone (MPS. Additional three emus were used as normal control. Post-induction, emu gait was observed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed, and blood was collected for routine examination, including testing blood coagulation and lipid metabolism. Emus were sacrificed at week 24 post-induction, bilateral femora were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT and histological analysis. Asymmetric limping gait and abnormal MRI signals were found in steroid-treated emus. SAON was found in all emus with a joint collapse incidence of 70%. The percentage of neutrophils (Neut % and parameters on lipid metabolism significantly increased after induction. Micro-CT revealed structure deterioration of subchondral trabecular bone. Histomorphometry showed larger fat cell fraction and size, thinning of subchondral plate and cartilage layer, smaller osteoblast perimeter percentage and less blood vessels distributed at collapsed region in SAON group as compared with the normal controls. Scanning electron microscope (SEM showed poor mineral matrix and more osteo-lacunae outline in the collapsed region in SAON group. The combination of pulsed LPS and MPS developed in the current study was safe and effective to induce SAON and deterioration of subchondral bone in bipedal emus with subsequent femoral head collapse, a typical clinical feature observed in patients under pulsed steroid treatment. In conclusion, bipedal emus could be used as an effective preclinical experimental model to evaluate potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of

  18. Long-interval Cytapheresis as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy Leading to Dosage Reduction and Discontinuation of Steroids in Steroid-dependent Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Masahiro; Etou, Takeshi; Kumagai, Makoto; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Numata, Yuka; Sagara, Shiho

    2017-10-15

    Objective This study was performed to confirm the efficacy of long-interval cytapheresis on steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods To discontinue steroids in patients with steroid-dependent UC, we previously designed a novel regimen of cytapheresis (CAP), which we termed "long-interval cytapheresis (LI-CAP)", in which CAP was performed as one session every two or three weeks and continued during the whole period of tapering steroid dosage. In this study, we performed LI-CAP therapy 20 times (11 male and 9 female; mean age 41.8 years) between April 2010 and April 2015 for 14 patients with steroid-dependent UC. We evaluated the effectiveness of LI-CAP by examining the improvement in Lichtiger's clinical activity index (CAI), the rate of clinical remission, and the rate of steroid discontinuation. We further examined the rate of sustained steroid-free clinical remission at 6 and 12 months after LI-CAP in patients who successfully discontinued steroid-use after LI-CAP. The primary endpoint was the rate of discontinuation of steroids after LI-CAP. Results The mean CAI score before LI-CAP (7.550) significantly decreased to 1.65 after LI-CAP (psteroid discontinuation after LI-CAP was 60.0%. The mean dose of daily prednisolone was significantly decreased after LI-CAP (2.30 mg) compared with that before therapy (17.30 mg) (p=0.0003). The rate of sustained steroid-free clinical remission after LI-CAP was 66.7% at 6 months and 66.7% at 12 months. Conclusion We confirmed that LI-CAP has therapeutic effects on reducing the dosage and discontinuing steroids in patients with steroid-dependent UC.

  19. Molecular characterization of a genetic variant of the steroid hormone-binding globulin gene in heterozygous subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, D.O.; Catterall, J.F. [Population Council, New York, NY (United States); Carino, C. [Instituto National de la Nutricion, Mexico City, MX (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Steroid hormone-binding globulin in human serum displays different isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns among individuals, suggesting genetic variation in the gene for this extracellular steroid carrier protein. Analysis of allele frequencies and family studies suggested the existence of two codominant alleles of the gene. Subsequent determination of the molecular basis of a variant of the gene was carried out using DNA from homozygous individuals from a single Belgian family. It was of interest to characterize other variant individuals to determine whether all variants identified by IEF phenotyping were caused by the same mutation or whether other mutations occurred in the gene in different populations. Previous studies identified Mexican subjects who were heterozygous for the variant IEF phenotype. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to localize the mutation in these subjects and to purify the variant allele for DNA sequence analysis. The results show that the mutation in this population is identical to that identified in the Belgian family, and no other mutations were detected in the gene. These data represent the first analysis of steroid hormone-binding globulin gene variation in heterozygous subjects and further support the conclusion of biallelism of the gene worldwide. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Mad men, women and steroid cocktails: a review of the impact of sex and other factors on anabolic androgenic steroids effects on affective behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakomaiya, Marie M; Henderson, Leslie P

    2016-02-01

    For several decades, elite athletes and a growing number of recreational consumers have used anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) as performance enhancing drugs. Despite mounting evidence that illicit use of these synthetic steroids has detrimental effects on affective states, information available on sex-specific actions of these drugs is lacking. The focus of this review is to assess information to date on the importance of sex and its interaction with other environmental factors on affective behaviors, with an emphasis on data derived from non-human studies. The PubMed database was searched for relevant studies in both sexes. Studies examining AAS use in females are limited, reflecting the lower prevalence of use in this sex. Data, however, indicate significant sex-specific differences in AAS effects on anxiety-like and aggressive behaviors, interactions with other drugs of abuse, and the interplay of AAS with other environmental factors such as diet and exercise. Current methods for assessing AAS use have limitations that suggest biases of both under- and over-reporting, which may be amplified for females who are poorly represented in self-report studies of human subjects and are rarely used in animal studies. Data from animal literature suggest that there are significant sex-specific differences in the impact of AAS on aggression, anxiety, and concomitant use of other abused substances. These results have relevance for human females who take these drugs as performance-enhancing substances and for transgender XX individuals who may illicitly self-administer AAS as they transition to a male gender identity.

  1. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Among 1,010 College Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, H G; Katz, D L; Champoux, R

    1988-07-01

    In brief: Little is known about the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use in the United States. To obtain some initial information, the authors sent questionnaires to male students at three US colleges. Of the 1,010 respondents, 17 (2%) reported using steroids. Most were competitive athletes, but four used steroids primarily to improve personal appearance. Steroid users were not distinguishable from nonusers based on academic achievement or the use of other illicit drugs, cigarettes, or alcohol. The authors point out that the study is exploratory and that the results probably underestimate the true prevalence of steroid use in the United States.

  2. Antiproton focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1992-01-01

    This focusing horn was developed in 1992 by Remo Maccaferri, Jean Claude Schnuriger and Lubrano di Scampamorte and is still operating in the AD complex at CERN (as of 2017). This device could pulse at 400 KA (160 KA for the previous version). This enabled an antiproton collection ten times better than the old one. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, the magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, ten antiprotons were captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 - three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. Originally magnetic focusing horns were developed by Simon van der Meer - see for example object AC-022 in this database.

  3. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  4. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...... effectively measures the intended phenomenon (i.e., journal specialisation). Only weak correlations were found between journal re-citations and obsolescence, journal self-citations, and number of references. Conclusions. The focus factor successfully measures journal specialisation over time. Measures based...

  5. Parasites and steroid hormones: corticosteroid and sex steroid synthesis, their role in the parasite physiology and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C. Romano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cases parasites display highly complex life cycles that include establishment of the larva or adults within host organs, but even in those that have only one host reciprocal intricate interactions occur. A bulk of evidence indicates that steroid hormones influence the development and course of parasitic infections, the host gender susceptibility to the infection and the associate differences in immunological response are good examples of the host-parasite interplay. However, the capacity of these organisms to synthesize their own steroidogenic hormones still has more questions than answers. It is now well known that many parasites synthesize ecdysteroids, but limited information is available on sex steroid and corticosteroid synthesis. This review intends to summarize some of the existing information in the field. In many but not all parasitosis the host hormonal environment determines the susceptibility, the course and severity of parasite infections. In most cases the infection disturbs the host environment, and activate immune responses that finally affect the endocrine system. Furthermore, sex steroids and corticosteroids may also directly modify the parasite reproduction and molting. Available information indicates that parasites synthesize some steroid hormones like ecdysteroids and sex steroids and the presence and activity of related enzymes have been demonstrated. More recently, the synthesis of corticosteroid like compounds has been shown in Taenia solium and tapeworms and in Taenia crassiceps WFU cysticerci. Deeper knowledge of the endocrine properties of parasites will contribute to understand their reproduction and reciprocal interactions with the host, and also may contribute to design tools to combat the infection in some clinical situations.

  6. Steroid profiling in H295R cells to identify chemicals potentially disrupting the production of adrenal steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strajhar, Petra; Tonoli, David; Jeanneret, Fabienne; Imhof, Raphaella M; Malagnino, Vanessa; Patt, Melanie; Kratschmar, Denise V; Boccard, Julien; Rudaz, Serge; Odermatt, Alex

    2017-04-15

    The validated OECD test guideline 456 based on human adrenal H295R cells promotes measurement of testosterone and estradiol production as read-out to identify potential endocrine disrupting chemicals. This study aimed to establish optimal conditions for using H295R cells to detect chemicals interfering with the production of key adrenal steroids. H295R cells' supernatants were characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based steroid profiling, and the influence of experimental conditions including time and serum content was assessed. Steroid profiles were determined before and after incubation with reference compounds and chemicals to be tested for potential disruption of adrenal steroidogenesis. The H295R cells cultivated according to the OECD test guideline produced progestins, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and adrenal androgens but only very low amounts of testosterone. However, testosterone contained in Nu-serum was metabolized during the 48h incubation. Thus, inclusion of positive and negative controls and a steroid profile of the complete medium prior to the experiment (t=0h) was necessary to characterize H295R cells' steroid production and indicate alterations caused by exposure to chemicals. Among the tested chemicals, octyl methoxycinnamate and acetyl tributylcitrate resembled the corticosteroid induction pattern of the positive control torcetrapib. Gene expression analysis revealed that octyl methoxycinnamate and acetyl tributylcitrate enhanced CYP11B2 expression, although less pronounced than torcetrapib. Further experiments need to assess the toxicological relevance of octyl methoxycinnamate- and acetyl tributylcitrate-induced corticosteroid production. In conclusion, the extended profiling and appropriate controls allow detecting chemicals that act on steroidogenesis and provide initial mechanistic evidence for prioritizing chemicals for further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Retrospective study of steroid therapy for patients with autoimmune pancreatitis in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Li, Jing; Yan, Lu-Nan; Sun, Hao-Ran; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang

    2013-01-28

    To explore the optimal steroid therapeutic strategy for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). This study was conducted retrospectively in two large institutions in China. Patients with clinically, radiologically and biochemically diagnosed AIP were enrolled. The performed radiological investigations and biochemical tests, the regimen of the given steroid treatment, remission and relapse whether with and without steroid therapy were analyzed. Twenty-eight patients with AIP received steroid treatment, while 40 patients were treated surgically by pancreatoduodenectomy, distal pancreatectomy and choledochojejunostomy, radiofrequency ablation for the enlarged pancreatic head, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and endoscopic biliary drainage. The starting oral prednisolone dose was 30 mg/d in 18 (64.3%) patients and 40 mg/d in 10 (35.7%) patients administered for 3 wk. The remission rate of AIP patients with steroid treatment (96.4%) was significantly higher than in those without steroid treatment (75%). Maintenance therapy (oral prednisolone dose 5 mg/d) was performed after remission for at least 6-12 mo to complete the treatment course. Similarly, the relapse rate was significantly lower in AIP patients with steroid treatment (28.6%) than in those without steroid treatment (42.5%). Steroid re-treatment was effective in all relapsed patients with or without steroid therapy. Steroid therapy should be considered in all patients with active inflammatory phase of AIP. However, the optimal regimen still should be trailed in larger numbers of patients with AIP.

  8. Accurate determination of tissue steroid hormones, precursors and conjugates in adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Emi; Suzuki, Tomokazu; Okumura, Kanako; Nomura, Sachiko; Miyasho, Taku; Haeno, Satoko; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The actual levels of steroid hormones in organs are vital for endocrine, reproductive and neuronal health and disorders. We developed an accurate method to determine the levels of steroid hormones and steroid conjugates in various organs by an efficient preparation using a solid-phase-extraction cartridge. Each steroid was identified by the precursor ion spectra using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the respective steroids were quantitatively analysed in the selected reaction monitoring mode by liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The data showed that significant levels of testosterone, corticosterone and precursors of both hormones were detected in all organs except liver. The glucuronide conjugates of steroid hormones and the precursors were detected in all organs except liver, but sulfate conjugates of these steroids were observed only in the target organs of the hormones and kidney. Interestingly, these steroids and the conjugates were not observed in the liver except pregnenolone. In conclusion, an accurate determination of tissue steroids was developed using LC-MS analysis. Biosynthesis of steroid hormones from the precursors was estimated even in the target organs, and the delivery of these steroid conjugates was also suggested via the circulation without any significant hepatic participation.

  9. Prediction of retention time in reversed-phase liquid chromatography as a tool for steroid identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randazzo, Giuseppe Marco [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva and University of Lausanne, Geneva (Switzerland); Tonoli, David [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva and University of Lausanne, Geneva (Switzerland); Swiss Centre for Applied Human Toxicology (SCAHT), Universities of Basel and Geneva, Basel (Switzerland); Human Protein Sciences Department, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Hambye, Stephanie; Guillarme, Davy [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva and University of Lausanne, Geneva (Switzerland); Jeanneret, Fabienne [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva and University of Lausanne, Geneva (Switzerland); Swiss Centre for Applied Human Toxicology (SCAHT), Universities of Basel and Geneva, Basel (Switzerland); Human Protein Sciences Department, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Nurisso, Alessandra [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva and University of Lausanne, Geneva (Switzerland); Goracci, Laura [Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Boccard, Julien [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva and University of Lausanne, Geneva (Switzerland); Rudaz, Serge, E-mail: serge.rudaz@unige.ch [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva and University of Lausanne, Geneva (Switzerland); Swiss Centre for Applied Human Toxicology (SCAHT), Universities of Basel and Geneva, Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-04-15

    The untargeted profiling of steroids constitutes a growing research field because of their importance as biomarkers of endocrine disruption. New technologies in analytical chemistry, such as ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), offer the possibility of a fast and sensitive analysis. Nevertheless, difficulties regarding steroid identification are encountered when considering isotopomeric steroids. Thus, the use of retention times is of great help for the unambiguous identification of steroids. In this context, starting from the linear solvent strength (LSS) theory, quantitative structure retention relationship (QSRR) models, based on a dataset composed of 91 endogenous steroids and VolSurf + descriptors combined with a new dedicated molecular fingerprint, were developed to predict retention times of steroid structures in any gradient mode conditions. Satisfactory performance was obtained during nested cross-validation with a predictive ability (Q{sup 2}) of 0.92. The generalisation ability of the model was further confirmed by an average error of 4.4% in external prediction. This allowed the list of candidates associated with identical monoisotopic masses to be strongly reduced, facilitating definitive steroid identification. - Highlights: • Difficulties regarding steroid identification are encountered when considering isotopomeric steroids. • Quantitative structure retention relationship (QSRR) models were developed from the linear solvent strength theory. • A dataset composed of 91 steroids and VolSurf + descriptors combined with a new dedicated molecular fingerprint, were used. • The list of candidates associated with identical monoisotopic masses was reduced, facilitating steroid identification.

  10. Deliberative Discussion Focus Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Erin; Anderson, Rebecca; Botkin, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-01

    This article discusses a new approach for the conduct of focus groups in health research. Identifying ways to educate and inform participants about the topic of interest prior to the focus group discussion can promote more quality data from informed opinions. Data on this deliberative discussion approach are provided from research within three federally funded studies. As healthcare continues to improve from scientific and technological advancements, educating the research participants prior to data collection about these complexities is essential to gather quality data. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The Insect Prothoracic Gland as a Model for Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuxiang Ou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones are ancient signaling molecules found in vertebrates and insects alike. Both taxa show intriguing parallels with respect to how steroids function and how their synthesis is regulated. As such, insects are excellent models for studying universal aspects of steroid physiology. Here, we present a comprehensive genomic and genetic analysis of the principal steroid hormone-producing organs in two popular insect models, Drosophila and Bombyx. We identified 173 genes with previously unknown specific expression in steroid-producing cells, 15 of which had critical roles in development. The insect neuropeptide PTTH and its vertebrate counterpart ACTH both regulate steroid production, but molecular targets of these pathways remain poorly characterized. Identification of PTTH-dependent gene sets identified the nuclear receptor HR4 as a highly conserved target in both Drosophila and Bombyx. We consider this study to be a critical step toward understanding how steroid hormone production and release are regulated in all animal models.

  12. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 484: Performance enhancing anabolic steroid abuse in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Anabolic steroids are composed of testosterone and other substances related to testosterone that promote growth of skeletal muscle, increase hemoglobin concentration, and mediate secondary sexual characteristics. These substances have been in use since the 1930s to promote muscle growth, improve athletic performance, and enhance cosmetic appearance. Although anabolic steroids are controlled substances, only to be prescribed by a physician, it is currently possible to obtain anabolic steroids illegally without a prescription. There are significant negative physical and psychologic effects of anabolic steroid use, which in women can cause significant cosmetic and reproductive changes. Anabolic steroid use can be addictive and, therefore, difficult to stop. Treatment for anabolic steroid abuse generally involves education, counseling, and management of withdrawal symptoms. Health care providers are encouraged to address the use of these substances, encourage cessation, and refer patients to substance abuse treatment centers to prevent the long-term irreversible consequences of anabolic steroid use.

  13. Anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse and performance-enhancing drugs among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, M S; Yesalis, C E; Brower, K J

    1998-10-01

    Adolescents use a wide variety of drugs and supplements, including anabolic steroids, to improve their sports performance and physical appearance. Prevalence rates for steroid use generally range between 4% and 12% among male adolescents and between 0.5% and 2% for female adolescents. Although the short-term health effects of anabolic steroids such as effects on the liver, serum lipids, reproductive and cardiovascular systems, and moods and behavior have been increasingly studied, the long-term health effects are not well known. Steroid users are more likely to be boys, participate in strength-related sports, and use other illicit drugs. The effects of many other potential risk factors have not been fully elucidated, however. Assessment of anabolic steroid abuse includes physical and mental status and laboratory examinations. Steroid cessation, supportive therapy, and adjunctive pharmacotherapies are all employed in treating steroid abuse and dependence.

  14. Prediction by pharmacogenetics of safety and efficacy of non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollason, Victoria; Samer, Caroline Flora; Daali, Youssef; Desmeules, Jules Alexandre

    2014-03-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most frequently used drugs, either on prescription or over-thecounter (OTC). Their daily dosage is based on randomised controlled trials and an empirical clinical assessment of their efficacy and toxicity that allows dose adjustment. The individual response can however be altered by environmental and genetic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors. This review summarizes the available pharmacogenetic data that explains part of the variability in response and occurrence of adverse drug reactions to NSAIDs treatment, with a thorough focus on CYP2C9, uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and cyclooxygenases (COX1 and COX2). Other polymorphisms that are currently being studied and could also explain the interindividual variability in the efficacy and safety of NSAIDs will also be considered.

  15. Steroidal Lactones from Withania somnifera, an Ancient Plant for Novel Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Palazón

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera, commonly known as Ashwagandha, is an important medicinal plant that has been used in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine for over 3,000 years. In view of its varied therapeutic potential, it has also been the subject of considerable modern scientific attention. The major chemical constituents of the Withania genus, the withanolides, are a group of naturally occurring C28-steroidal lactone triterpenoids built on an intact or rearranged ergostane framework, in which C-22 and C-26 are appropriately oxidized to form a six-membered lactone ring. In recent years, numerous pharmacological investigations have been carried out into the components of W. somnifera extracts. We present here an overview of the chemical structures of triterpenoid components and their biological activity, focusing on two novel activities, tumor inhibition and antiangiogenic properties of withaferin A and the effects of withanolide A on Alzheimer's disease. The most recent attempts in biotechnological production of withanolides are also discussed.

  16. Focus on Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Kirsten; Barfoed, Anne

    Background: Compared to other Nordic countries, Denmark has a high incidence of anal sphincter injury. Recent studies indicate that a strict focus on prevention of severe perineal trauma has decreased the incidence (1). This has resulted in changed clinical procedures in several Danish labour wards...

  17. Homework. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Michelle Layer

    2010-01-01

    Homework has been an integral part of the educational system for over 100 years. What likely began as simple memorization tasks has evolved into complex projects and sparked an increasingly heated debate over the purpose and value of homework assignments. This "Focus On" examines the purpose of homework, how to create homework that has value,…

  18. Focusing on the Invisible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to answer the question of whether or not the design and development of an educational laboratory really changes when the focus is on nanotechnology. It explores current laboratory building trends and the added considerations for building a nanotechnology laboratory. The author leaves the reader with additional points to consider…

  19. Compassion-Focused EMDR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, Angela

    2014-01-01

    ... and reprocessing (EMDR), particularly where shame or attachment trauma is involved or for those traumas that have impacted on the structure of the self, for example, dissociation. A structured compassion-focused EMDR (CF-EMDR) seems likely to be particularly useful for therapists wishing to pay positive attention to strengths and well-being. The primary t...

  20. Three-Year Outcomes in Kidney Transplant Patients Randomized to Steroid-Free Immunosuppression or Steroid Withdrawal, with Enteric-Coated Mycophenolate Sodium and Cyclosporine: The Infinity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a six-month, multicenter, open-label trial, de novo kidney transplant recipients at low immunological risk were randomized to steroid avoidance or steroid withdrawal with IL-2 receptor antibody (IL-2RA induction, enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS: 2160 mg/day to week 6, 1440 mg/day thereafter, and cyclosporine. Results from a 30-month observational follow-up study are presented. Of 166 patients who completed the core study on treatment, 131 entered the follow-up study (70 steroid avoidance, 61 steroid withdrawal. The primary efficacy endpoint of treatment failure (clinical biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR graft loss, death, or loss to follow-up occurred in 21.4% (95% CI 11.8–31.0% of steroid avoidance patients and 16.4% (95% CI 7.1–25.7% of steroid withdrawal patients by month 36 (P=0.46. BPAR had occurred in 20.0% and 11.5%, respectively (P=0.19. The incidence of adverse events with a suspected relation to steroids during months 6–36 was 22.9% versus 37.1% (P=0.062. By month 36, 32.4% and 51.7% of patients in the steroid avoidance and steroid withdrawal groups, respectively, were receiving oral steroids. In conclusion, IL-2RA induction with early intensified EC-MPS dosing and CNI therapy in de novo kidney transplant patients at low immunological risk may achieve similar three-year efficacy regardless of whether oral steroids are withheld for at least three months.