Gudiña, Eduardo J; Rangarajan, Vivek; Sen, Ramkrishna; Rodrigues, Lígia R
Biosurfactants have recently emerged as promising molecules for their structural novelty, versatility, and diverse properties that are potentially useful for many therapeutic applications. Mainly due to their surface activity, these molecules interact with cell membranes of several organisms and/or with the surrounding environments, and thus can be viewed as potential cancer therapeutics or as constituents of drug delivery systems. Some types of microbial surfactants, such as lipopeptides and glycolipids, have been shown to selectively inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and to disrupt cell membranes causing their lysis through apoptosis pathways. Moreover, biosurfactants as drug delivery vehicles offer commercially attractive and scientifically novel applications. This review covers the current state-of-the-art in biosurfactant research for therapeutic purposes, providing new directions towards the discovery and development of molecules with novel structures and diverse functions for advanced applications.
Richard T. Layer
Full Text Available The pharmacological variety of conotoxins, diverse peptides found in the venoms of marine cone snails, is well recognized. Venoms from each of the estimated 500 species of cone snails contain 50 to 200 distinct biologically active peptides. Most conotoxins characterized to date target receptors and ion channels of excitable tissues, such as ligandgated nicotinic acetylcholine, N-methyl-D-aspartate, and type 3 serotonin receptors, as well as voltage-gated calcium, sodium, and potassium channels, and G-protein-coupled receptors including ÃŽÂ±-adrenergic, neurotensin, and vasopressin receptors, and the norepinephrine transporter. Several conotoxins have shown promise in preclinical models of pain, convulsive disorders, stroke, neuromuscular block, and cardioprotection. The pharmacological selectivity of the conotoxins, coupled with the safety and efficacy demonstrated in preclinical models, has led to their investigation as human therapeutic agents. In the following review, we will survey the pharmacology and therapeutic rationale of those conotoxins with potential clinical application, and discuss the unique challenges that each will face in the course of their transition from venom component to human therapeutic.
Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R
Psilocybin and other 5-hydroxytryptamine2A agonist classic psychedelics have been used for centuries as sacraments within indigenous cultures. In the mid-twentieth century they were a focus within psychiatry as both probes of brain function and experimental therapeutics. By the late 1960s and early 1970s these scientific inquires fell out of favor because classic psychedelics were being used outside of medical research and in association with the emerging counter culture. However, in the twenty-first century, scientific interest in classic psychedelics has returned and grown as a result of several promising studies, validating earlier research. Here, we review therapeutic research on psilocybin, the classic psychedelic that has been the focus of most recent research. For mood and anxiety disorders, three controlled trials have suggested that psilocybin may decrease symptoms of depression and anxiety in the context of cancer-related psychiatric distress for at least 6 months following a single acute administration. A small, open-label study in patients with treatment-resistant depression showed reductions in depression and anxiety symptoms 3 months after two acute doses. For addiction, small, open-label pilot studies have shown promising success rates for both tobacco and alcohol addiction. Safety data from these various trials, which involve careful screening, preparation, monitoring, and follow-up, indicate the absence of severe drug-related adverse reactions. Modest drug-related adverse effects at the time of medication administration are readily managed. US federal funding has yet to support therapeutic psilocybin research, although such support will be important to thoroughly investigate efficacy, safety, and therapeutic mechanisms.
Craft, Jeffrey M; Watterson, D Martin; Van Eldik, Linda J
The increased appreciation of the importance of glial cell-propagated inflammation (termed 'neuroinflammation') in the progression of pathophysiology for diverse neurodegenerative diseases, has heightened interest in the rapid discovery of neuroinflammation-targeted therapeutics. Efforts include searches among existing drugs approved for other uses, as well as development of novel synthetic compounds that selectively downregulate neuroinflammatory responses. The use of existing drugs to target neuroinflammation has largely met with failure due to lack of efficacy or untoward side effects. However, the de novo development of new classes of therapeutics based on targeting selective aspects of glia activation pathways and glia-mediated pathophysiologies, versus targeting pathways of quantitative importance in non-CNS inflammatory responses, is yielding promising results in preclinical animal models. The authors briefly review selected clinical and preclinical data that reflect the prevailing approaches targeting neuroinflammation as a pathophysiological process contributing to onset or progression of neurodegenerative diseases. The authors conclude with opinions based on recent experimental proofs of concept using preclinical animal models of pathophysiology. The focus is on Alzheimer's disease, but the concepts are transferrable to other neurodegenerative disorders with an inflammatory component.
Pescosolido, Nicola; Giannotti, Rossella; Plateroti, Andrea Maria; Pascarella, Antonia; Nebbioso, Marcella
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is the main curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric (Curcuma longa). In the last 50 years, in vitro and in vivo experiments supported the main role of polyphenols and curcumin for the prevention and treatment of many different inflammatory diseases and tumors.The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antitumor properties of curcumin are due to different cellular mechanisms: this compound, in fact, produces different responses in different cell types. Unfortunately, because of its low solubility and oral bioavailability, the biomedical potential of curcumin is not easy to exploit; for this reason more attention has been given to nanoparticles and liposomes, which are able to improve curcumin's bioavailability. Pharmacologically, curcumin does not show any dose-limiting toxicity when it is administered at doses of up to 8 g/day for three months. It has been demonstrated that curcumin has beneficial effects on several ocular diseases, such as chronic anterior uveitis, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and dry eye syndrome. The purpose of this review is to report what has so far been elucidated about curcumin properties and its potential use in ophthalmology.
Mir, Rafia; Karim, Sajjad; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Wilson, Cornelia M; Mirza, Zeenat
Cone snails, also known as marine gastropods, from Conus genus produce in their venom a diverse range of small pharmacologically active structured peptides called conotoxins. The cone snail venoms are widely unexplored arsenal of toxins with therapeutic and pharmacological potential, making them a treasure trove of ligands and peptidic drug leads. Conotoxins are small disulfide bonded peptides, which act as remarkable selective inhibitors and modulators of ion channels (calcium, sodium, potassium), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, noradrenaline transporters, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and neurotensin receptors. They are highly potent and specific against several neuronal targets making them valuable as research tools, drug leads and even therapeutics. In this review, we discuss their gene superfamily classification, nomenclature, post-translational modification, structural framework, pharmacology and medical applications of the active conopeptides. We aim to give an overview of their structure and therapeutic potential. Understanding these aspects of conopeptides will help in designing more specific peptidic analogues.
Smits, L.P.; Bouter, K.E.C.; Vos, de W.M.; Borody, T.J.; Nieuwdorp, M.
There has been growing interest in the use of fecal microbiota for the treatment of patients with chronic gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. Lately, there has also been interest in its therapeutic potential for cardiometabolic, autoimmune, and other extraintestinal conditio
Smits, L.P.; Bouter, K.E.C.; Vos, de W.M.; Borody, T.J.; Nieuwdorp, M.
There has been growing interest in the use of fecal microbiota for the treatment of patients with chronic gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. Lately, there has also been interest in its therapeutic potential for cardiometabolic, autoimmune, and other extraintestinal conditio
Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Bregenholt, S;
This review deals with potential and possibly primary therapeutics that, through insight into the inflammatory cascade, result in more rational treatment principles replacing the classical therapy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e. Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). These ne...
Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S
Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.
Alexander, Stephen P H
In this review, I will consider the dual nature of Cannabis and cannabinoids. The duality arises from the potential and actuality of cannabinoids in the laboratory and clinic and the 'abuse' of Cannabis outside the clinic. The therapeutic areas currently best associated with exploitation of Cannabis-related medicines include pain, epilepsy, feeding disorders, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. As with every other medicinal drug of course, the 'trick' will be to maximise the benefit and minimise the cost. After millennia of proximity and exploitation of the Cannabis plant, we are still playing catch up with an understanding of its potential influence for medicinal benefit.
Domínguez-Clavé, Elisabet; Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Pascual, Juan C; Álvarez, Enrique; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Riba, Jordi
Ayahuasca is the Quechua name for a tea obtained from the vine Banisteriopsis caapi, and used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. The use of a variation of the tea that combines B. caapi with the leaves of the shrub Psychotria viridis has experienced unprecedented expansion worldwide for its psychotropic properties. This preparation contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from P. viridis, plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties from B. caapi. Acute administration induces a transient modified state of consciousness characterized by introspection, visions, enhanced emotions and recollection of personal memories. A growing body of evidence suggests that ayahuasca may be useful to treat substance use disorders, anxiety and depression. Here we review the pharmacology and neuroscience of ayahuasca, and the potential psychological mechanisms underlying its therapeutic potential. We discuss recent findings indicating that ayahuasca intake increases certain mindfulness facets related to acceptance and to the ability to take a detached view of one's own thoughts and emotions. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that ayahuasca shows promise as a therapeutic tool by enhancing self-acceptance and allowing safe exposure to emotional events. We postulate that ayahuasca could be of use in the treatment of impulse-related, personality and substance use disorders and also in the handling of trauma. More research is needed to assess the full potential of ayahuasca in the treatment of these disorders.
Leo, Antonio; Russo, Emilio; Elia, Maurizio
Despite the introduction of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the quality of life and therapeutic response for patients with epilepsy remains still poor. Unfortunately, besides several advantages, these new AEDs have not satisfactorily reduced the number of refractory patients. Therefore, the need for different other therapeutic options to manage epilepsy is still a current issue. To this purpose, emphasis has been given to phytocannabinoids, which have been medicinally used since ancient time in the treatment of neurological disorders including epilepsy. In particular, the nonpsychoactive compound cannabidiol (CBD) has shown anticonvulsant properties, both in preclinical and clinical studies, with a yet not completely clarified mechanism of action. However, it should be made clear that most phytocannabinoids do not act on the endocannabinoid system as in the case of CBD. In in vivo preclinical studies, CBD has shown significant anticonvulsant effects mainly in acute animal models of seizures, whereas restricted data exist in chronic models of epilepsy as well as in animal models of epileptogenesis. Likewise, clinical evidence seems to indicate that CBD is able to manage epilepsy both in adults and children affected by refractory seizures, with a favourable side effect profile. However, to date, clinical trials are both qualitatively and numerically limited, thus yet inconsistent. Therefore, further preclinical and clinical studies are undoubtedly needed to better evaluate the potential therapeutic profile of CBD in epilepsy, although the actually available data is promising. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kapoor, V K
Plants have been extensively investigated for exploring their therapeutic potentials, but there are comparatively scanty reports on drugs derived from animal kingdom, except for hormones. During last decade, the toxins that are used for defense by the animals, have been isolated and found useful tools for physiological and pharmacological studies, besides giving valuable leads to drug development. Toxins with interesting results have been isolated from the venoms of snakes, scorpions, spiders, snails, lizards, frogs and fish. The present review describe about some toxins as drugs and their biological activities. Some fungal, bacterial and marine toxins have also been covered in this article.
Miller, W R; Jackson, J
The third generation aromatase inhibitors are both remarkably potent and specific endocrine agents inhibiting aromatase activity and reducing circulating oestrogen levels in postmenopausal women to levels never previously seen. Their therapeutic potential is consequently much greater than the earlier prototype drugs. Their excellent side-effect profile also allows for potential wider indications in the treatment of oestrogen-related diseases, including breast cancer. It still remains to determine whether their potent endocrine effects translate into increased therapeutic benefit. In advanced breast cancer, aromatase inhibitors have been shown to have improved efficacy and toxicity profiles when compared with progestins, aminoglutethimide and tamoxifen. Aromatase inhibitors have also been used in the neoadjuvant setting, where they have been shown to achieve higher response rates than tamoxifen and to be more successful at downstaging tumours. Early results comparing an aromatase inhibitor with tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting in early breast cancer show anastrozole to be superior to tamoxifen in terms of both disease-free survival and a lower incidence of new contralateral tumours. There was also a more favourable side-effect profile, which has implications for potential future prophylactic treatment. Additionally, since aromatase inhibitors have different mechanisms of action, unlike antioestrogens, they may be particularly useful as chemopreventive agents if oestrogens are themselves genotoxic. Aromatase inhibitors have been used to date almost exclusively in postmenopausal women. The potential of combining them with luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogues allows the possibility of treating premenopausal women with either oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer or benign conditions such as cyclical breast pain, fibroadenomata, recurrent cystic disease or endometriosis. There is also the potential for their use in men with conditions such as
Subhash R Yende
Full Text Available Sargassum species are tropical and sub-tropical brown macroalgae (seaweed of shallow marine meadow. These are nutritious and rich source of bioactive compounds such as vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fibers, proteins, and minerals. Also, many biologically active compounds like terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, sulfated polysaccharides, polyphenols, sargaquinoic acids, sargachromenol, pheophytine were isolated from different Sargassum species. These isolated compounds exhibit diverse biological activities like analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-microbial, anti-tumor, fibrinolytic, immune-modulatory, anti-coagulant, hepatoprotective, anti-viral activity etc., Hence, Sargassum species have great potential to be used in pharmaceutical and neutralceutical areas. This review paper explores the current knowledge of phytochemical, therapeutic potential, and health benefits of different species of genus Sargassum.
Zhang, Christiana Xin; Lippard, Stephen J
The many activities of metal ions in biology have stimulated the development of metal-based therapeutics. Cisplatin, as one of the leading metal-based drugs, is widely used in treatment of cancer, being especially effective against genitourinary tumors such as testicular. Significant side effects and drug resistance, however, have limited its clinical applications. Biological carriers conjugated to cisplatin analogs have improved specificity for tumor tissue, thereby reducing side effects and drug resistance. Platinum complexes with distinctively different DNA binding modes from that of cisplatin also exhibit promising pharmacological properties. Ruthenium and gold complexes with antitumor activity have also evolved. Other metal-based chemotherapeutic compounds have been investigated for potential medicinal applications, including superoxide dismutase mimics and metal-based NO donors/scavengers. These compounds have the potential to modulate the biological properties of superoxide anion and nitric oxide.
Satheeshkumar, N; Vijayan, R S K; Lingesh, A; Santhikumar, S; Vishnuvardhan, Ch
India has traditionally been known to all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Spices exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. In contemporary, Indian spices are used to rustle up delicious delicacies. However, the Indian spices are more than just adjuvant which adds aroma and fragrance to foods. A few spices are very widely used and grown commercially in many countries, contain many important chemical constituents in the form of essential oil, oleoresin, oleogum, and resins, which impart flavor, pungency, and color to the prepared dishes, simultaneously exerts diverse therapeutic benefits. Ayurveda, the traditional systems of medicine in India has many evidences for the utilization of spices to cure various diseases. Some of the activities have been scientifically proven. Among various indications central nervous system disorders are of prime importance and it has been evident in traditional books and published reports that spices in fact protect and cure neuronal ailments. Likewise there are many spices found in India used for culinary purpose and have been found to have reported specific activities against brain disorders. About 400 B.C., Hippocrates rightly said "Let food be thy medicine and medicine thy food." This review focuses on the importance of spices in therapeutics and the till date scientific findings of Indian spices in CNS pharmacology and explores the potential of Indian spices to cure CNS disorders.
Jie CUI; Ming ZHANG; Yong-qing ZHANG; Zhi-heng XU
c-Jun N-terminal protein kinases (JNK), also known as stress-activated protein kinases, were originally identified by their ability to phosphorylate the N-terminal of the transcription factor c-Jun and by their activation in response to a variety of stresses. JNK are multifunctional kinases involved in many physiological processes. The JNK pathway has been shown to play a major role in apoptosis in many cell death paradigms and its association with a variety of pathological pro-cesses is gradually been recognized. This review will concentrate on describing the involvement of the JNK pathway in the context of different diseases and the potential to adopt the JNK pathway components as therapeutic targets.
Serakinci, Nedime; Keith, W. Nicol
is the necessity to be able to identify, select, expand and manipulate cells outside the body. Recent advances in adult stem cell technologies and basic biology have accelerated therapeutic opportunities aimed at eventual clinical applications. Adult stem cells with the ability to differentiate down multiple...... lineages are an attractive alternative to human embryonic stem cells (hES) in regenerative medicine. In many countries, present legislation surrounding hES cells makes their use problematic, and indeed the origin of hES cells may represent a controversial issue for many communities. However, adult stem...... cells are not subject to these issues. This review will therefore focus on adult stem cells. Based on their extensive differentiation potential and, in some cases, the relative ease of their isolation, adult stem cells are appropriate for clinical development. Recently, several observations suggest...
Edelstein, Leonard C; Bray, Paul F
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21-23 nucleotide RNAs that regulate more than 60% of mammalian protein coding genes. miRNAs play critical roles in hematopoiesis and megakaryocyte function and development. Platelets, in addition to possessing functional miRNA processing machinery, have miRNA levels that have been correlated with platelet reactivity, and these miRNAs have been shown to target mRNAs that encode proteins that alter platelet function. There are potential uses of platelet miRNA as biomarkers and therapeutic agents. Due to the ability of platelets to release miRNA-containing microparticles at sites of activation, including angiogenic regions, tumors, and atherosclerotic plaques, there is the possibility of engineering platelets to deliver miRNA-based therapies to these sites. Cellpreferential expression of miRNAs could be exploited to restrict transgene expression in hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy to the desired lineage, including megakaryocytes and platelets. Finally, manipulation of gene expression in stored platelets may allow more effective platelet storage. Although much work remains to be done, there is great potential in miRNA-based platelet therapies.
Smits, Loek P; Bouter, Kristien E C; de Vos, Willem M; Borody, Thomas J; Nieuwdorp, Max
There has been growing interest in the use of fecal microbiota for the treatment of patients with chronic gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. Lately, there has also been interest in its therapeutic potential for cardiometabolic, autoimmune, and other extraintestinal conditions that were not previously considered to be associated with the intestinal microbiota. Although it is not clear if changes in the microbiota cause these conditions, we review the most current and best methods for performing fecal microbiota transplantation and summarize clinical observations that have implicated the intestinal microbiota in various diseases. We also discuss case reports of fecal microbiota transplantations for different disorders, including Clostridium difficile infection, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases, insulin resistance, multiple sclerosis, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. There has been increasing focus on the interaction between the intestinal microbiome, obesity, and cardiometabolic diseases, and we explore these relationships and the potential roles of different microbial strains. We might someday be able to mine for intestinal bacterial strains that can be used in the diagnosis or treatment of these diseases. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mahapatra, Debarshi Kar; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death affecting 17.3 million people across the globe and are estimated to affect 23.3 million people by year 2030. In recent years, about 7.3 million people died due to coronary heart disease, 9.4 million deaths due to high blood pressure and 6.2 million due to stroke, where obesity and atherosclerotic progression remain the chief pathological factors. The search for newer and better cardiovascular agents is the foremost need to manage cardiac patient population across the world. Several natural and (semi) synthetic chalcones deserve the credit of being potential candidates to inhibit various cardiovascular, hematological and anti-obesity targets like angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), pancreatic lipase (PL), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), calcium (Ca(2+))/potassium (K(+)) channel, COX-1, TXA2 and TXB2. In this review, a comprehensive study of chalcones, their therapeutic targets, structure activity relationships (SARs), mechanisms of actions (MOAs) have been discussed. Chemically diverse chalcone scaffolds, their derivatives including structural manipulation of both aryl rings, replacement with heteroaryl scaffold(s) and hybridization through conjugation with other pharmacologically active scaffold have been highlighted. Chalcones which showed promising activity and have a well-defined MOAs, SARs must be considered as prototype for the design and development of potential anti-hypertensive, anti-anginal, anti-arrhythmic and cardioprotective agents. With the knowledge of these molecular targets, structural insights and SARs, this review may be helpful for (medicinal) chemists to design more potent, safe, selective and cost effective chalcone derivatives as potential cardiovascular agents.
Monfalouti, Hanae El; Guillaume, Dom; Denhez, Clément; Charrouf, Zoubida
The therapeutic benefits of argan oil consumption have been claimed by natives of Morocco and explorers for more than eight centuries. However, argan oil has remained unresearched for a long time. Traditionally, argan oil has been well known for its cardioprotective properties and it is also used in the treatment of skin infections. Argan oil is principally composed of mono-unsaturated (up to 80%) and saturated (up to 20%) fatty acids. As minor components, it contains polyphenols, tocopherols, sterols, squalene, and triterpene alcohols. Together with the mono-unsaturated fatty acids, these minor components are likely to be responsible for its beneficial effects. This review aims to present an overview of the known pharmacological properties of argan oil. Antiproliferative, antidiabetic, and cardiovascular-protective effects of argan oil have been particularly actively evaluated over the last 5 years in order to build on phytochemical studies that indicate the presence of large amounts of possibly pharmacologically active compounds. This review shows that a lack of clinical data constitutes a serious weakness in our knowledge about argan oil, therefore it is difficult to correlate the reported pharmacological activities to any potential clinical relevance. © 2010 The Authors. JPP © 2010 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.
Chen, Rui; Qi, Qiao-Ling; Wang, Meng-Ting; Li, Qi-Yan
Naringin is a natural flavanone glycoside that is found in the Chinese herbal medicines and citrus fruits. Studies have demonstrated that naringin possesses numerous biological and pharmacological properties, but few reviews of these studies have been performed. The present review gathers the fragmented information available in the literature describing the extraction of naringin, its pharmacology and its controlled release formulations. Current research progress and the therapeutic potential of naringin are also discussed. A literature survey for relevant information regarding the biological and pharmacological properties of naringin was conducted using Pubmed, Sciencedirect, MEDLINE, Springerlink and Google Scholar electronic databases from the year 2007-2015. Naringin modulates signalling pathways and interacts with signalling molecules and thus has a wide range of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer activities, as well as effects on bone regeneration, metabolic syndrome, oxidative stress, genetic damage and central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Information was gathered that showed the extraction of naringin can be improved using several modifications. There has been some progress in the development of controlled release formulations of naringin. Naringin is a promising candidate for further in vivo studies and clinical use. More detailed studies regarding its mechanism of action are required.
The thesis provide insights into the production and possible therapeutic effect of the gaseous molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in preeclampsia (PE). H2S is an important molecule in the (human) body. It is among others involved in blood pressure regulation, stimulation of vascular growth and
The thesis provide insights into the production and possible therapeutic effect of the gaseous molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in preeclampsia (PE). H2S is an important molecule in the (human) body. It is among others involved in blood pressure regulation, stimulation of vascular growth and modulati
Full Text Available The introduction of biologic therapy has revolutionized the treatment of many chronic diseases, including several dermatological disorders. Biological agents promise to satisfy medical needs previously unmet by conventional medicines. Unfortunately, these agents are expensive and out of reach for the majority of patients who need them. Biosimilars are copies of the innovator biological agents and represent an important advance in the field of biological therapeutics. Although they are similar to the original biologic, differences in terms of structure, efficacy, safety and immunogenicity remain a concern. Thus, biosimilars cannot be regarded as bio-generics. Awareness of the key differences between a biosimilar and its reference biological agent is essential for optimal treatment and safety of patients. The increasing availability of biosimilars provides patients and doctors with less expensive alternatives and increases the accessibility of biologic therapy to needy patients. In this review, we discuss the concept of biosimilars, the need for appropriate regulatory pathways and their current status in dermatology.
Recently, four groups reported the cloning of thrombopoietin (TPO), also called c-Mpl ligand, from various species. In this study, we examined the in vitro and in vivo biological activity of TPO and its therapeutic efficacy in experimental animal models. Recombinant human TPO (rhTPO) supported the formation of only megakaryocyte (MK) colonies from rat marrow MK progenitor cells [colony-forming units-megakaryocyte (CFU-MK)] and predominantly acted on GpIIb/IIIa+ CFU-MK at the late stage of differentiation. MKs generated from rat GpIIb/IIIa+ CFU-MK after 3 days of liquid culture in the presence of rhTPO had mature characteristics. rhTPO stimulated an increase in the size of TPO-induced cultured rat MKs and in the number of elongated cytoplasmic processes, also called proplatelets, from these MKs in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of rhTPO to normal BALB/c mice daily for 5 days caused dose-dependent thrombocytosis. Treatment with rhTPO induced an increase in the size and number of marrow MKs and an expansion of the marrow CFU-MK pool. We further examined the effects of rhTPO on chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia in animal models. Following treatment with mitomycin C, mice received daily injections of various doses of rhTPO. Administration of rhTPO reduced the severity of thrombocytopenia and accelerated the recovery of platelets in a dose-dependent fashion: there was a significant reduction in the decrease in numbers of marrow MKs and CFU-MK with rhTPO treatment. Treatment with rhTPO also significantly improved neutropenia in mitomycin C-treated mice. Similar therapeutic efficacy was observed in cynomolgus monkeys with thrombocytopenia induced by nimustine. In addition, there was no significant change in several serum-chemistry parameters, in C-reactive protein, an acute phase protein, or in some variables involved in the blood-coagulation system. Furthermore, platelets from mice made thrombocytotic by repeated administration of rhTPO showed normal
Lee-Ann H Allen
Full Text Available The central role of neutrophils in innate immunity and host defense has long been recognized, and the ability of these cells to efficiently engulf and kill invading bacteria has been extensively studied, as has the role of neutrophil apoptosis in resolution of the inflammatory response. In the past few years additional immunoregulatory properties of neutrophils were discovered, and it is now clear that these cells play a much greater role in control of the immune response than was previously appreciated. In this regard, it is noteworthy that Francisella tularensis is one of relatively few pathogens that can successfully parasitize neutrophils as well as macrophages, DC and epithelial cells. Herein we will review the mechanisms used by F. tularensis to evade elimination by neutrophils. We will also reprise effects of this pathogen on neutrophil migration and lifespan as compared with other infectious and inflammatory disease states. In addition, we will discuss the evidence which suggests that neutrophils contribute to disease progression rather than effective defense during tularemia, and consider whether manipulation of neutrophil migration or turnover may be suitable adjunctive therapeutic strategies.
Ho C S, James; Rydström, Anna; Trulsson, Maria; Bålfors, Johannes; Storm, Petter; Puthia, Manoj; Nadeem, Aftab; Svanborg, Catharina
Human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) is the first member in a new family of protein-lipid complexes that kills tumor cells with high selectivity. The protein component of HAMLET is α-lactalbumin, which in its native state acts as a substrate specifier in the lactose synthase complex, thereby defining a function essential for the survival of lactating mammals. In addition, α-lactalbumin acquires tumoricidal activity after partial unfolding and binding to oleic acid. The lipid cofactor serves the dual role as a stabilizer of the altered fold of the protein and a coactivator of specific steps in tumor cell death. HAMLET is broadly tumoricidal, suggesting that the complex identifies conserved death pathways suitable for targeting by novel therapies. Sensitivity to HAMLET is defined by oncogene expression including Ras and c-Myc and by glycolytic enzymes. Cellular targets are located in the cytoplasmic membrane, cytoskeleton, mitochondria, proteasomes, lysosomes and nuclei, and specific signaling pathways are rapidly activated, first by interactions of HAMLET with the cell membrane and subsequently after HAMLET internalization. Therapeutic effects of HAMLET have been demonstrated in human skin papillomas and bladder cancers, and HAMLET limits the progression of human glioblastomas, with no evidence of toxicity for normal brain or bladder tissue. These findings open up new avenues for cancer therapy and the understanding of conserved death responses in tumor cells.
Vingtdeux, Valérie; Dreses-Werringloer, Ute; Zhao, Haitian; Davies, Peter; Marambaud, Philippe
Several epidemiological studies indicate that moderate consumption of red wine is associated with a lower incidence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Red wine is enriched in antioxidant polyphenols with potential neuroprotective activities. Despite scepticism concerning the bioavailability of these polyphenols, in vivo data have clearly demonstrated the neuroprotective properties of the naturally occurring polyphenol resveratrol in rodent models for stress and diseases. Furthermore, recent...
improving the quality of life and maintaining human health. It also serves as important ... reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators. ... of diabetes in both developed and developing countries which ..... animal model in a more extensive study could potentially ... and reproduction in any medium, provided the.
Uterine sarcomas are rare tumors accounting for 3,4% of all uterine cancers. Even after radical hysterectomy, most patients relapse or present with distant metastases. The very limited clinical benefit of adjuvant cytotoxic treatments is reflected by high mortality rates, emphasizing the need for new treatment strategies. This review summarizes rising potential targets in four distinct subtypes of uterine sarcomas: leiomyosarcoma, low-grade and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undi...
Daly, Norelle L; Seymour, Jamie; Wilson, David
The venom of certain jellyfish has long been known to be potentially fatal to humans, but it is only recently that details of the proteomes of these fascinating creatures are emerging. The molecular contents of the nematocysts from several jellyfish species have now been analyzed using proteomic MS approaches and include the analysis of Chironex fleckeri, one of the most venomous jellyfish known. These studies suggest that some species contain toxins related to peptides and proteins found in other venomous creatures. The detailed characterization of jellyfish venom is likely to provide insight into the diversification of toxins and might be a valuable resource in drug design.
Full Text Available Uterine sarcomas are rare tumors accounting for 3,4% of all uterine cancers. Even after radical hysterectomy, most patients relapse or present with distant metastases. The very limited clinical benefit of adjuvant cytotoxic treatments is reflected by high mortality rates, emphasizing the need for new treatment strategies. This review summarizes rising potential targets in four distinct subtypes of uterine sarcomas: leiomyosarcoma, low-grade and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma. Based on clinical reports, promising approaches for uterine leiomyosarcoma patients include inhibition of VEGF and mTOR signaling, preferably in combination with other targeted or cytotoxic compounds. Currently, the only targeted therapy approved in leiomyosarcoma patients is pazopanib, a multitargeted inhibitor blocking VEGFR, PDGFR, FGFR, and c-KIT. Additionally, preclinical evidence suggests effect of the inhibition of histone deacetylases, tyrosine kinase receptors, and the mitotic checkpoint protein aurora kinase A. In low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, antihormonal therapies including aromatase inhibitors and progestins have proven activity. Other potential targets are PDGFR, VEGFR, and histone deacetylases. In high-grade ESS that carry the YWHAE/FAM22A/B fusion gene, the generated 14-3-3 oncoprotein is a putative target, next to c-KIT and the Wnt pathway. The observation of heterogeneity within uterine sarcoma subtypes warrants a personalized treatment approach.
Cuppens, Tine; Tuyaerts, Sandra; Amant, Frédéric
Uterine sarcomas are rare tumors accounting for 3,4% of all uterine cancers. Even after radical hysterectomy, most patients relapse or present with distant metastases. The very limited clinical benefit of adjuvant cytotoxic treatments is reflected by high mortality rates, emphasizing the need for new treatment strategies. This review summarizes rising potential targets in four distinct subtypes of uterine sarcomas: leiomyosarcoma, low-grade and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma. Based on clinical reports, promising approaches for uterine leiomyosarcoma patients include inhibition of VEGF and mTOR signaling, preferably in combination with other targeted or cytotoxic compounds. Currently, the only targeted therapy approved in leiomyosarcoma patients is pazopanib, a multitargeted inhibitor blocking VEGFR, PDGFR, FGFR, and c-KIT. Additionally, preclinical evidence suggests effect of the inhibition of histone deacetylases, tyrosine kinase receptors, and the mitotic checkpoint protein aurora kinase A. In low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, antihormonal therapies including aromatase inhibitors and progestins have proven activity. Other potential targets are PDGFR, VEGFR, and histone deacetylases. In high-grade ESS that carry the YWHAE/FAM22A/B fusion gene, the generated 14-3-3 oncoprotein is a putative target, next to c-KIT and the Wnt pathway. The observation of heterogeneity within uterine sarcoma subtypes warrants a personalized treatment approach. PMID:26576131
Abdulrazzak, Hassan; De Coppi, Paolo; Guillot, Pascale V
Human amniotic fluid cells have been used traditionally as a diagnostic tool for genetic anomalies. More recently it has been recognized that amniotic fluid contains populations of stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC) were first to be described. These cells are able to differentiate towards mesodermal lineages. More recently cells with broader potential, defined as amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC), were also isolated. They have intermediate characteristics between embryonic and adult stem cells and are able to differentiate into lineages representative of all three germ layers but unlike ES cells they do not form tumours in vivo. Furthermore, AFSC have been reverted to functional pluripotency in a transgene-free approach using an epigenetics modifier. These characteristics, together with absence of ethical issues concerning their employment, have made stem cells from amniotic fluid a promising candidate for cell therapy and tissue engineering.
In different inflammatory diseases, many metalloproteinases are over expressed and thought to promote progression of the disease. Understanding roles of these enzymes in disease progression as well as in normal homeostasis is crucial to identify target enzymes for the disease. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the autoimmune inflammatory diseases in which around 1-2 % of the world populations are suffered from. Roles of metalloproteinases are well documented in RA, but so far none of them is proposed to be a target enzyme. However, there are at least three enzymes that can potentially be molecular targets to inhibit progression of RA. Understanding roles of these enzymes in more detail and developing highly selective inhibitors to these enzymes would be essential for novel antimetalloproteinase therapies in future.
Mojžišová, Gabriela; Mojžiš, Ján; Vašková, Janka
Metal-containing drugs have long been used for medicinal purposes in more or less empirical way. The potential of these anticancer agents has only been fully realised and explored since the discovery of the biological activity of cisplatin. Cisplatin and carboplatin have been two of the most successful anti-cancer agents ever developed, and are currently used to treat ovarian, lung and testicular cancers. They share certain side effects, so their clinical use is severely limited by dose-limiting toxicity. Inherent or acquired resistance is a second problem often associated with platinum-based drugs, with further limits of their clinical use. These problems have prompted chemists to employ different strategies in development of the new metal-based anticancer agents with different mechanisms of action. There are various metal complexes still under development and investigation for the future cancer treatment use. In the search for novel bio-organometallic molecules, iron containing anti-tumoral agents are enjoying an increasing interest and appear very promising as the potential drug candidates. Iron, as an essential cofactor in a number of enzymes and physiological processes, may be less toxic than non essential metals, such as platinum. Up to now, some of iron complexes have been tested as cytotoxic agents and found to be endowed with an antitumor activity in several in vitro tests (on cultured cancer cell lines) and few in vivo experiments (e. g. on Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma). Although the precise molecular mechanism is yet to be defined, a number of observations suggest that the reactive oxygen species can play important role in iron-induced cytotoxicty. This review covers some relevant examples of research on the novel iron complexes.
Rastogi, Subha; Pandey, Madan Mohan; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh
Dietary factors play a key role in the development as well as prevention of certain human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Currently there has been an increase in global interest to identify medicinal plants that are pharmacologically effective and have low or no side effects for use in preventive medicine. Culinary herbs and spices are an important part of human nutrition in all the cultures of the world. There is a growing amount of literature concerning the potential benefits of these herbs and spices from a health perspective especially in conferring protection against cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this review is to provide information on the recent scientific findings on some common spices that have a distinct place in folk medicine in several of the Asian countries as well as on their traditional uses for the role they can play in the management of heart diseases and which may be useful in defining cost effective and inexpensive interventions for the prevention and control of CVDs. Systematic literature searches were carried out and the available information on various medicinal plants traditionally used for cardiovascular disorders was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, SciFinder, Scirus, GoogleScholar, JCCC@INSTIRC and Web of Science) and a library search for articles published in peerreviewed journals. No restrictions regarding the language of publication were imposed. This article highlights the recent scientific findings on four common spices viz. Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), for the role they can play in the management of heart diseases. Although they have been used by many cultures since ancient times and have been known to exhibit several medicinal properties, current research shows that they can also be effectively used for the prevention and control of CVDs. Although scientific evidences supporting
Olsen, Lars Rønn
or abundance in cancer cells is often unique and their roles and functions in tumorigenesis are, in many cases, studied extensively. They, therefore, have the potential to be highly specific biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets, but complex analysis combining basic science, high-throughput methods...... and therapeutic agents, by developing and implementing several computational tools and databases for immunotherapy target discovery, and have analyzed the potential of tumor antigens as proteogenomic biomarkers in invasive ductal carcinomas. In this analysis I have shown that the combination of proteomics...
Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to reconstruct a therapeutic potential of phenomenology, in particular, within Edmund Husserl’s and Eugen Fink’s program of transcendental inquiry about time. However, the Project of objective claims of phenomenology, which is presented in the Logical Investigations seems to exclude all therapeutic approach. Rather, the program postulates the striving for abstract “truths in themselves,” also it ignores the surrounding world, as well as intersubjectivity, and finally leads to the solitary life of a phenomenologist. How then is the therapeutic potential of phenomenology possible? The case of questioning plays the crucial role in the context of objective science. According to Husserl, each science which does not allow to ask “the most burning questions” is naļve, and therefore it limits the therapeutic potential. While focusing on propositions, objective phenomenology excludes all questions, indeed. In contrast to such a view, transcendental phenomenology allows to ask over and over again, and by doing so, it introduces the world, as well as intersubjectivity as horizons of phenomenological inquiry. Concluding, Husserl’s collaboration with Fink presents such a communal effort into questioning about time. Therefore, “therapeutic potential” of phenomenology means precisely the methodological movement of the possibility for communal formulation of transcendental investigation.
Chang Youn Lee
Full Text Available Despite development of medicine, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are still the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Over the past 10 years, various stem cells have been utilized in therapeutic strategies for the treatment of CVDs. CVDs are characterized by a broad range of pathological reactions including inflammation, necrosis, hyperplasia, and hypertrophy. However, the causes of CVDs are still unclear. While there is a limit to the currently available target-dependent treatments, the therapeutic potential of stem cells is very attractive for the treatment of CVDs because of their paracrine effects, anti-inflammatory activity, and immunomodulatory capacity. Various studies have recently reported increased therapeutic potential of transplantation of microRNA- (miRNA- overexpressing stem cells or small-molecule-treated cells. In addition to treatment with drugs or overexpressed miRNA in stem cells, stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles also have therapeutic potential because they can deliver the stem cell-specific RNA and protein into the host cell, thereby improving cell viability. Here, we reported the state of stem cell-based therapy for the treatment of CVDs and the potential for cell-free based therapy.
Nickell, Justin R; Grinevich, Vladimir P; Siripurapu, Kiran B; Smith, Andrew M; Dwoskin, Linda P
Mecamylamine (3-methylaminoisocamphane hydrochloride) is a nicotinic parasympathetic ganglionic blocker, originally utilized as a therapeutic agent to treat hypertension. Mecamylamine administration produces several deleterious side effects at therapeutically relevant doses. As such, mecamylamine's use as an antihypertensive agent was phased out, except in severe hypertension. Mecamylamine easily traverses the blood-brain barrier to reach the central nervous system (CNS), where it acts as a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, inhibiting all known nAChR subtypes. Since nAChRs play a major role in numerous physiological and pathological processes, it is not surprising that mecamylamine has been evaluated for its potential therapeutic effects in a wide variety of CNS disorders, including addiction. Importantly, mecamylamine produces its therapeutic effects on the CNS at doses 3-fold lower than those used to treat hypertension, which diminishes the probability of peripheral side effects. This review focuses on the pharmacological properties of mecamylamine, the differential effects of its stereoisomers, S(+)- and R(-)-mecamylamine, and the potential for effectiveness in treating CNS disorders, including nicotine and alcohol addiction, mood disorders, cognitive impairment and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Full Text Available As the defining feature of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML is a maturation arrest, a highly desirable therapeutic strategy is to induce leukemic cell maturation. This therapeutic strategy has the potential of avoiding the significant side effects that occur with the traditional AML therapeutics. We identified a natural compound securinine, as a leukemia differentiation-inducing agent. Securinine is a plant-derived alkaloid that has previously been used clinically as a therapeutic for primarily neurological related diseases. Securinine induces monocytic differentiation of a wide range of myeloid leukemia cell lines as well as primary leukemic patient samples. Securinine's clinical potential for AML can be seen from its ability to induce significant growth arrest in cell lines and patient samples as well as its activity in significantly impairing the growth of AML tumors in nude mice. In addition, securinine can synergize with currently employed agents such as ATRA and decitabine to induce differentiation. This study has revealed securinine induces differentiation through the activation of DNA damage signaling. Securinine is a promising new monocytic differentiation inducing agent for AML that has seen previous clinical use for non-related disorders.
Kluger, Benzi; Triolo, Piera; Jones, Wallace; Jankovic, Joseph
There is growing interest in the therapeutic potential of marijuana (cannabis) and cannabinoid-based chemicals within the medical community and, particularly, for neurological conditions. This interest is driven both by changes in the legal status of cannabis in many areas and increasing research into the roles of endocannabinoids within the central nervous system and their potential as symptomatic and/or neuroprotective therapies. We review basic science as well as preclinical and clinical studies on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids specifically as it relates to movement disorders. The pharmacology of cannabis is complex, with over 60 neuroactive chemicals identified to date. The endocannabinoid system modulates neurotransmission involved in motor function, particularly within the basal ganglia. Preclinical research in animal models of several movement disorders have shown variable evidence for symptomatic benefits, but more consistently suggest potential neuroprotective effects in several animal models of Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). Clinical observations and clinical trials of cannabinoid-based therapies suggests a possible benefit of cannabinoids for tics and probably no benefit for tremor in multiple sclerosis or dyskinesias or motor symptoms in PD. Data are insufficient to draw conclusions regarding HD, dystonia, or ataxia and nonexistent for myoclonus or RLS. Despite the widespread publicity about the medical benefits of cannabinoids, further preclinical and clinical research is needed to better characterize the pharmacological, physiological, and therapeutic effects of this class of drugs in movement disorders.
Full Text Available In the last decade, considerable efforts have been made to develop health promising nutritional supplements. Quercetin is a plant-derived bioflavonoid which is recently gaining scientific interest for its antioxidant free radical scavenging effects and anti-inflammatory properties. This wonder flavanol exhibits therapeutic potential in various ailments like cancer, coronary artery, asthma and alzheimer (neurodegeneration diseases. Additional clinical uses include treatment of inflammatory conditions like gout, pancreatitis and prostatitis. It has been extensively studied for its gastroprotective effects, anti-obesity action, immune booster, reducing risk of cataract and reduction of diabetic complications. The present review briefly discusses about biological activity, mechanism of action and therapeutic potential of quercetin in prevention and mitigation of diseases.
Mo, Miaohua; Wang, Shan; Zhou, Ying; Li, Hong; Wu, Yaojiong
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are capable of differentiating into cells of multiple cell lineages and have potent paracrine effects. Due to their easy preparation and low immunogenicity, MSC have emerged as an extremely promising therapeutic agent in regenerative medicine for diverse diseases. However, MSC are heterogeneous with respect to phenotype and function in current isolation and cultivation regimes, which often lead to incomparable experimental results. In addition, there may be specific stem cell subpopulations with definite differentiation capacity toward certain lineages in addition to stem cells with multi-differentiation potential. Recent studies have identified several subsets of MSC which exhibit distinct features and biological activities, and enhanced therapeutic potentials for certain diseases. In this review, we give an overview of these subsets for their phenotypic, biological and functional properties.
Full Text Available Abstract The pathophysiology of migraine remains largely unknown. However, evidence regarding the molecules participating in the pathophysiology of migraine has been accumulating. Water channel proteins, known as aquaporins (AQPs, notably AQP-1 and AQP-4, appears to be involved in the pathophysiology of several neurological diseases. This review outlines newly emerging evidence indicating that AQP-1 plays an important role in pain signal transduction and migraine and could therefore serve as a potential therapeutic target for these diseases.
Battistella, M; Marsden, P A
The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) holds the potential to alter the paradigm of medical therapeutics. With the ability to selectively silence the function of a gene, RNAi not only provides an indispensable research tool for determining the function of a gene, but also offers potential for the development of novel therapeutics that will inhibit specific genes involved in disease. New concepts in therapeutics have been uncovered through the study of RNAi. Nuances have emerged. For instance, global RNAi pathways can be affected by somatic mutations in cancer and cellular stress, such as hypoxia. Also, viral gene therapy can have unexpected effects on endogenous short noncoding RNA pathways. Therefore, it is important to understand where RNAi therapeutics enter the processing pathways. We highlight the evolving use of RNAi as a new class of therapeutics, such as for amyloidosis, and address some of the anticipated challenges associated with its clinical application.
Jensen, Henrik S; Grunnet, Morten; Bastlund, Jesper F
Sodium channel inhibitors have been developed and approved as drugs to treat a variety of indications. By contrast, sodium channel activators have not previously been considered relevant in a therapeutic setting owing to their high risk of toxicity and side effects. Here we present an opinion that selective activators of the Na(V)1.1 sodium channel may hold therapeutic potential for diseases such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Central to this novel avenue of sodium channel drug discovery is that fact that Na(V)1.1 comprises the majority of the sodium current in specific inhibitory interneurons. Conversely, it plays only a modest role in excitatory neurons owing to the high redundancy of other types of sodium channels in these cells. We discuss the biological background and rationale and present reflections on how to identify activators of Na(V)1.1.
Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is one of the most well-known neurodegenerative diseases and explains 50–60% of dementia in patients. The prevalence rate of AD is positively correlated with age and AD affects ≥ 40% of those over 85 years old. The major AD therapeutics available on the market are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as tacrine and donepezil. New therapeutic agents that can block the disease-inducing mechanisms are essential. Diverse efforts have been made to discover anti-AD agents from natural sources. In this review article, we describe some representative terpenoids such as ginsenosides, gingkolides, and canabinoids as potential anti-AD agents. These compounds exhibit promising in vitro and in vivo biological activities, but are still waiting clinical trials. Additionally, we also discuss some terpenoids including cornel iridoid glycoside, oleanolic acid, tenuifolin, cryptotanshinone, and ursolic acid, which are under investigation for their in vitro and in vivo animal studies.
Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis (HF is a progressive condition with serious clinical complications arising from abnormal proliferation and amassing of tough fibrous scar tissue. This defiance of collagen fibers becomes fatal due to ultimate failure of liver functions. Participation of various cell types, interlinked cellular events, and large number of mediator molecules make the fibrotic process enormously complex and dynamic. However, with better appreciation of underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of fibrosis, the assumption that HF cannot be cured is gradually changing. Recent findings have underlined the therapeutic potential of a number of synthetic compounds as well as plant derivatives for cessation or even the reversal of the processes that transforms the liver into fibrotic tissue. It is expected that future inputs will provide a conceptual framework to develop more specific strategies that would facilitate the assessment of risk factors, shortlist early diagnosis biomarkers, and eventually guide development of effective therapeutic alternatives.
Nitin E Gade
Full Text Available Stem cell research acquired great attention during last decade inspite of incredible therapeutic potential of these cells the ethical controversies exists. Stem cells have enormous uses in animal cloning, drug discovery, gene targeting, transgenic production and regenerative therapy. Stem cells are the naïve cells of body which can self-renew and differentiate into other cell types to carry out multiple functions, these properties have been utilized in therapeutic application of stem cells in human and veterinary medicine. The application of stem cells in human medicine is well established and it is commonly used for chronic and accidental injuries. In Veterinary sciences previous studies mostly focused on establishing protocols for isolation and their characterization but with advancement in array of techniques for in vitro studies, stem cells rapidly became a viable tool for regenerative therapy of chronic, debilitating and various unresponsive clinical diseases and disorders. Multipotent adult stem cells have certain advantages over embryonic stem cells like easy isolation and expansion from numerous sources, less immunogenicity and no risk of teratoma formation hence their use is preferred in therapeutics. Adult stem cells have been utilized for treatment of spinal injuries, tendonitis, cartilage defects, osteoarthritis and ligament defects, liver diseases, wounds, cardiac and bone defects in animals. The multi-potential capability of these cells can be better utilized in near future to overcome the challenges faced by the clinicians. This review will emphasize on the therapeutic utilization and success of stem cell therapies in animals. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 499-507
Intini, G; Katsuragi, Y; Kirkwood, K L; Yang, S
This article reviews recent research into mechanisms underlying bone resorption and highlights avenues of investigation that may generate new therapies to combat alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. Several proteins, signaling pathways, stem cells, and dietary supplements are discussed as they relate to periodontal bone loss and regeneration. RGS12 is a crucial protein that mediates osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction, and a potential therapeutic target. RGS12 likely regulates osteoclast differentiation through regulating calcium influx to control the calcium oscillation-NFATc1 pathway. A working model for RGS10 and RGS12 in the regulation of Ca(2+) oscillations during osteoclast differentiation is proposed. Initiation of inflammation depends on host cell-microbe interactions, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Oral p38 inhibitors reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone destruction in a rat periodontitis model but showed unsatisfactory safety profiles. The p38 substrate MK2 is a more specific therapeutic target with potentially superior tolerability. Furthermore, MKP-1 shows anti-inflammatory activity, reducing inflammatory cytokine biosynthesis and bone resorption. Multipotent skeletal stem cell (SSC) populations exist within the bone marrow and periosteum of long bones. These bone-marrow-derived SSCs and periosteum-derived SSCs have shown therapeutic potential in several applications, including bone and periodontal regeneration. The existence of craniofacial bone-specific SSCs is suggested based on existing studies. The effects of calcium, vitamin D, and soy isoflavone supplementation on alveolar and skeletal bone loss in post-menopausal women were investigated. Supplementation resulted in stabilization of forearm bone mass density and a reduced rate of alveolar bone loss over 1 yr, compared with placebo. Periodontal attachment levels were also well-maintained and alveolar bone loss suppressed during 24 wk of
Mockett, Bruce G.; Richter, Max; Abraham, Wickliffe C.; Müller, Ulrike C.
Cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by α-secretase generates an extracellularly released fragment termed secreted APP-alpha (APPsα). Not only is this process of interest due to the cleavage of APP within the amyloid-beta sequence, but APPsα itself has many physiological properties that suggest its great potential as a therapeutic target. For example, APPsα is neurotrophic, neuroprotective, neurogenic, a stimulator of protein synthesis and gene expression, and enhances long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. While most early studies have been conducted in vitro, effectiveness in animal models is now being confirmed. These studies have revealed that either upregulating α-secretase activity, acutely administering APPsα or chronic delivery of APPsα via a gene therapy approach can effectively treat mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other disorders such as traumatic head injury. Together these findings suggest the need for intensifying research efforts to harness the therapeutic potential of this multifunctional protein.
Parry, Ingrid S; Bagley, Anita; Kawada, Jason; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L
Commercially available interactive video games (IVG) like the Nintendo Wii™ (NW) and PlayStation™II Eye Toy (PE) are increasingly used in the rehabilitation of patients with burn. Such games have gained popularity in burn rehabilitation because they encourage range of motion (ROM) while distracting from pain. However, IVGs were not originally designed for rehabilitation purposes but rather for entertainment and may lack specificity for achieving rehabilitative goals. Objectively evaluating the specific demands of IVGs in relation to common burn therapy goals will determine their true therapeutic benefit and guide their use in burn rehabilitation. Upper extremity (UE) motion of 24 normal children was measured using 3D motion analysis during play with the two types of IVGs most commonly described for use after burn: NW and PE. Data was analyzed using t-tests and One-way Analysis of Variance. Active range of motion for shoulder flexion and abduction during play with both PE and NW was within functional range, thus supporting the idea that IVGs offer activities with therapeutic potential to improve ROM. PE resulted in higher demands and longer duration of UE motion than NW, and therefore may be the preferred tool when UE ROM or muscular endurance are the goals of rehabilitation. When choosing a suitable IVG for application in rehabilitation, the user's impairment together with the therapeutic attributes of the IVG should be considered to optimize outcome.
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder occurring almost exclusively in females and is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) in the majority of cases. MeCP2 is essential for the normal function of nerve cells, including neuronal development, maturation, and synaptic activity. RTT is characterized by normal early development followed by autistic-like features, slowed brain and head growth, gait abnormalities, seizures, breathing irregularities, and cognitive disabilities. Medical management in RTT remains supportive and symptomatic. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of RTT. Recent studies have shown a phenotypic reversal by increasing BDNF expression in a RTT mouse model. Thus, manipulation of BDNF expression/signaling in the brain could be therapeutic for this disease. Transcranial focused ultrasound for (tFUS) can noninvasively focally modulate human cortical function, stimulate neurogenesis, and increase BDNF in animal studies. Consequently, tFUS may be of therapeutic potential for Rett syndrome. Further evaluation of the therapeutic effects of tFUS in Mecp2 deficient animal models is needed before clinical trials can begin. PMID:27786169
Paul D. Drew
Full Text Available The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs in altering lipid and glucose metabolism is well established. More recent studies indicate that PPARs also play critical roles in controlling immune responses. We and others have previously demonstrated that PPAR-γ agonists modulate the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. This review will discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which these agonists are believed to modulate disease. The therapeutic potential of PPAR-γ agonists in the treatment of multiple sclerosis will also be considered.
Pithadia, Anand B.; Jain, Sunita M.
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has become one of the most investigated and complex biogenic amines. The main receptors and their subtypes, e.g., 5-HTI (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HTID, 5-HTIE and 5-HT1F), 5-HT2 (5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C), 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT5 (5-HT5A, 5-HT5B), 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 have been identified. Specific drugs which are capable of either selectively stimulating or inhibiting these receptor subtypes are being designed. This has generated therapeutic potentials of 5-HT receptor modulators...
Stelma, Tamara; Chi, Alicia; van der Watt, Pauline J; Verrico, Annalisa; Lavia, Patrizia; Leaner, Virna D
The Karyopherin superfamily is a major class of soluble transport receptors consisting of both import and export proteins. The trafficking of proteins involved in transcription, cell signalling and cell cycle regulation among other functions across the nuclear membrane is essential for normal cellular functioning. However, in cancer cells, the altered expression or localization of nuclear transporters as well as the disruption of endogenous nuclear transport inhibitors are some ways in which the Karyopherin proteins are dysregulated. The value of nuclear transporters in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer is currently being elucidated with recent studies highlighting their potential as biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
Full Text Available Anthraquinones are a class of aromatic compounds with a 9,10-dioxoanthracene core. So far, 79 naturally occurring anthraquinones have been identified which include emodin, physcion, cascarin, catenarin, and rhein. A large body of literature has demonstrated that the naturally occurring anthraquinones possess a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as cathartic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, diuretic, vasorelaxing, and phytoestrogen activities, suggesting their possible clinical application in many diseases. Despite the advances that have been made in understanding the chemistry and biology of the anthraquinones in recent years, research into their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential in autoimmune disorders is still at an early stage. In this paper, we briefly introduce the etiology of autoimmune diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that affects as many as 10 million worldwide, and the role of chemotaxis in autoimmune diabetes. We then outline the chemical structure and biological properties of the naturally occurring anthraquinones and their derivatives with an emphasis on recent findings about their immune regulation. We discuss the structure and activity relationship, mode of action, and therapeutic potential of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes, including a new strategy for the use of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes.
Sarko, Diana K.; McKinney, Cindy E.
Exosomes, small lipid bilayer vesicles, are part of the transportable cell secretome that can be taken up by nearby recipient cells or can travel through the bloodstream to cells in distant organs. Selected cellular cytoplasm containing proteins, RNAs, and other macromolecules is packaged into secreted exosomes. This cargo has the potential to affect cellular function in either healthy or pathological ways. Exosomal content has been increasingly shown to assist in promoting pathways of neurodegeneration such as β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) accumulation forming amyloid plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, and pathological aggregates of proteins containing α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease transferred to the central nervous system via exosomes. In attempting to address such debilitating neuropathologies, one promising utility of exosomes lies in the development of methodology to use exosomes as natural delivery vehicles for therapeutics. Because exosomes are capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier, they can be strategically engineered to carry drugs or other treatments, and possess a suitable half-life and stability for this purpose. Overall, analyses of the roles that exosomes play between diverse cellular sites will refine our understanding of how cells communicate. This mini-review introduces the origin and biogenesis of exosomes, their roles in neurodegenerative processes in the central nervous system, and their potential utility to deliver therapeutic drugs to cellular sites. PMID:28289371
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease characterized by aberrant epidermal differentiation, surface scale formation, and marked cutaneous inflammation. To better understand the pathogenesis of this disease and identify potential mediators, we used whole genome array analysis to profile paired lesional and nonlesional psoriatic skin and skin from healthy donors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed robust overexpression of type I interferon (IFN-inducible genes and genomic signatures that indicate T cell and dendritic cell infiltration in lesional skin. Up-regulation of mRNAs for IFN-alpha subtypes was observed in lesional skin compared with nonlesional skin. Enrichment of mature dendritic cells and 2 type I IFN-inducible proteins, STAT1 and ISG15, were observed in the majority of lesional skin biopsies. Concordant overexpression of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha-inducible gene signatures occurred at the same disease sites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Up-regulation of TNF-alpha and elevation of the TNF-alpha-inducible gene signature in lesional skin underscore the importance of this cytokine in psoriasis; these data describe a molecular basis for the therapeutic activity of anti-TNF-alpha agents. Furthermore, these findings implicate type I IFNs in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Consistent and significant up-regulation of type I IFNs and their associated gene signatures in psoriatic skin suggest that type I IFNs may be potential therapeutic targets in psoriasis treatment.
Namekata, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Atsuko; Kawamura, Kazuto; Harada, Chikako; Harada, Takayuki
The dedicator of cytokinesis (Dock) family is composed of atypical guanine exchange factors (GEFs) that activate the Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42. Rho GTPases are best documented for their roles in actin polymerization and they regulate important cellular functions, including morphogenesis, migration, neuronal development, and cell division and adhesion. To date, 11 Dock family members have been identified and their roles have been reported in diverse contexts. There has been increasing interest in elucidating the roles of Dock proteins in recent years and studies have revealed that they are potential therapeutic targets for various diseases, including glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and combined immunodeficiency. Among the Dock proteins, Dock3 is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system and recent studies have revealed that Dock3 plays a role in protecting retinal ganglion cells from neurotoxicity and oxidative stress as well as in promoting optic nerve regeneration. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the 11 Dock GEFs and their therapeutic potential, with a particular focus on Dock3 as a novel target for the treatment of glaucoma and other neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Klinger, Neil V.
Brain malignancies currently carry a poor prognosis despite the current multimodal standard of care that includes surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. As new therapies are desperately needed, naturally occurring chemical compounds have been studied for their potential chemotherapeutic benefits and low toxicity profile. Curcumin, found in the rhizome of turmeric, has extensive therapeutic promise via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative properties. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo data have shown it to be an effective treatment for brain tumors including glioblastoma multiforme. These effects are potentiated by curcumin's ability to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest, activation of apoptotic pathways, induction of autophagy, disruption of molecular signaling, inhibition of invasion, and metastasis and by increasing the efficacy of existing chemotherapeutics. Further, clinical data suggest that it has low toxicity in humans even at large doses. Curcumin is a promising nutraceutical compound that should be evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of human brain tumors.
Lao, Yeh-Hsing; Phua, Kyle K L; Leong, Kam W
Aptamer nanomedicine, including therapeutic aptamers and aptamer nanocomplexes, is beginning to fulfill its potential in both clinical trials and preclinical studies. Especially in oncology, aptamer nanomedicine may perform better than conventional or antibody-based chemotherapeutics due to specificity compared to the former and stability compared to the latter. Many proof-of-concept studies on applying aptamers to drug delivery, gene therapy, and cancer imaging have shown promising efficacy and impressive safety in vivo toward translation. Yet, there remains ample room for improvement and critical barriers to be addressed. In this review, we will first introduce the recent progress in clinical trials of aptamer nanomedicine, followed by a discussion of the barriers at the design and in vivo application stages. We will then highlight recent advances and engineering strategies proposed to tackle these barriers. Aptamer cancer nanomedicine has the potential to address one of the most important healthcare issues of the society.
Jiang, Qi-Wei; Chen, Mei-Wan; Cheng, Ke-Jun; Yu, Pei-Zhong; Wei, Xing; Shi, Zhi
Steroidal alkaloids are a class of secondary metabolites isolated from plants, amphibians, and marine invertebrates. Evidence accumulated in the recent two decades demonstrates that steroidal alkaloids have a wide range of bioactivities including anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, etc., suggesting their great potential for application. It is therefore necessary to comprehensively summarize the bioactivities, especially anticancer activities and mechanisms of steroidal alkaloids. Here we systematically highlight the anticancer profiles both in vitro and in vivo of steroidal alkaloids such as dendrogenin, solanidine, solasodine, tomatidine, cyclopamine, and their derivatives. Furthermore, other bioactivities of steroidal alkaloids are also discussed. The integrated molecular mechanisms in this review can increase our understanding on the utilization of steroidal alkaloids and contribute to the development of new drug candidates. Although the therapeutic potentials of steroidal alkaloids look promising in the preclinical and clinical studies, further pharmacokinetic and clinical studies are mandated to define their efficacy and safety in cancer and other diseases.
Yende, Subhash R; Harle, Uday N; Chaugule, Bhupal B
Sargassum species are tropical and sub-tropical brown macroalgae (seaweed) of shallow marine meadow. These are nutritious and rich source of bioactive compounds such as vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fibers, proteins, and minerals. Also, many biologically active compounds like terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, sulfated polysaccharides, polyphenols, sargaquinoic acids, sargachromenol, pheophytine were isolated from different Sargassum species. These isolated compounds exhibit diverse biological activities like analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-microbial, anti-tumor, fibrinolytic, immune-modulatory, anti-coagulant, hepatoprotective, anti-viral activity etc., Hence, Sargassum species have great potential to be used in pharmaceutical and neutralceutical areas. This review paper explores the current knowledge of phytochemical, therapeutic potential, and health benefits of different species of genus Sargassum.
Full Text Available Griffithsin (GRFT, an algae-derived lectin, is one of the most potent viral entry inhibitors discovered to date. It is currently being developed as a microbicide with broad-spectrum activity against several enveloped viruses. GRFT can inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection at picomolar concentrations, surpassing the ability of most anti-HIV agents. The potential to inhibit other viruses as well as parasites has also been demonstrated. Griffithsin’s antiviral activity stems from its ability to bind terminal mannoses present in high-mannose oligosaccharides and crosslink these glycans on the surface of the viral envelope glycoproteins. Here, we review structural and biochemical studies that established mode of action and facilitated construction of GRFT analogs, mechanisms that may lead to resistance, and in vitro and pre-clinical results that support the therapeutic potential of this lectin.
Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal; Khan, Md. Arif; Hashem, Abu; Islam, Md. Monirul; Morshed, Mohammad Neaz; Keya, Chaman Ara; Salimullah, Md.
Background: Shigella flexneri is a gram negative bacteria that causes the infectious disease “shigellosis.” S. flexneri is responsible for developing diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps in human. Antibiotics are mostly given to patients infected with shigella. Resistance to antibiotics can hinder its treatment significantly. Upon identification of essential therapeutic targets, vaccine and drug could be effective therapy for the treatment of shigellosis. Methods: The study was designed for the identification and qualitative characterization for potential drug targets from S. flexneri by using the subtractive proteome analysis. A set of computational tools were used to identify essential proteins those are required for the survival of S. flexneri. Total proteome (13,503 proteins) of S. flexneri was retrieved from NCBI and further analyzed by subtractive channel analysis. After identification of the metabolic proteins we have also performed its qualitative characterization to pave the way for the identification of promising drug targets. Results: Subtractive analysis revealed that a list of 53 targets of S. flexneri were human non-homologous essential metabolic proteins that might be used for potential drug targets. We have also found that 11 drug targets are involved in unique pathway. Most of these proteins are cytoplasmic, can be used as broad spectrum drug targets, can interact with other proteins and show the druggable properties. The functionality and drug binding site analysis suggest a promising effective way to design the new drugs against S. flexneri. Conclusion: Among the 53 therapeutic targets identified through this study, 13 were found highly potential as drug targets based on their physicochemical properties whilst only one was found as vaccine target against S. flexneri. The outcome might also be used as module as well as circuit design in systems biology. PMID:27920755
Junn, Eunsung; Mouradian, M Maral
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are abundant, endogenous, short, noncoding RNAs that act as important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression by base-pairing with their target mRNA. During the last decade, substantial knowledge has accumulated regarding the biogenesis of miRNAs, their molecular mechanisms and functional roles in a variety of cellular contexts. Altered expression of certain miRNA molecules in the brains of patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson suggests that miRNAs could have a crucial regulatory role in these disorders. Polymorphisms in miRNA target sites may also constitute an important determinant of disease risk. Additionally, emerging evidence points to specific miRNAs targeting and regulating the expression of particular proteins that are key to disease pathogenesis. Considering that the amount of these proteins in susceptible neuronal populations appears to be critical to neurodegeneration, miRNA-mediated regulation represents a new target of significant therapeutic prospects. In this review, the implications of miRNAs in several neurodegenerative disorders and their potential as therapeutic interventions are discussed.
Liu, Yang; Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiaohu; Chen, Rui; Sun, Tingting; Fok, Kin Lam; Dong, Jianda; Tsang, Lai Ling; Yi, Shaoqiong; Ruan, Yechun; Guo, Jinghui; Yu, Mei Kuen; Tian, Yuemin; Chung, Yiu Wa; Yang, Mo; Xu, Wenming; Chung, Chin Man; Li, Tingyu; Chan, Hsiao Chang
Stem cell transplantation has been shown to improve functional outcome in degenerative and ischemic disorders. However, low in vivo survival and differentiation potential of the transplanted cells limits their overall effectiveness and thus clinical usage. Here we show that, after in vitro induction of neuronal differentiation and dedifferentiation, on withdrawal of extrinsic factors, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow, which have already committed to neuronal lineage, revert to a primitive cell population (dedifferentiated MSCs) retaining stem cell characteristics but exhibiting a reprogrammed phenotype distinct from their original counterparts. Of therapeutic interest, the dedifferentiated MSCs exhibited enhanced cell survival and higher efficacy in neuronal differentiation compared to unmanipulated MSCs both in vitro and in vivo, with significantly improved cognition function in a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage rat model. Increased expression of bcl-2 family proteins and microRNA-34a appears to be the important mechanism giving rise to this previously undefined stem cell population that may provide a novel treatment strategy with improved therapeutic efficacy.
Cheryl K. Zogg
Full Text Available Exemplified by cancer cells’ preference for glycolysis, for example, the Warburg effect, altered metabolism in tumorigenesis has emerged as an important aspect of cancer in the past 10–20 years. Whether due to changes in regulatory tumor suppressors/oncogenes or by acting as metabolic oncogenes themselves, enzymes involved in the complex network of metabolic pathways are being studied to understand their role and assess their utility as therapeutic targets. Conversion of glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate into phosphohydroxypyruvate by the enzyme phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH—a rate-limiting step in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to serine—represents one such mechanism. Forgotten since classic animal studies in the 1980s, the role of PHGDH as a potential therapeutic target and putative metabolic oncogene has recently reemerged following publication of two prominent papers near-simultaneously in 2011. Since that time, numerous studies and a host of metabolic explanations have been put forward in an attempt to understand the results observed. In this paper, I review the historic progression of our understanding of the role of PHGDH in cancer from the early work by Snell through its reemergence and rise to prominence, culminating in an assessment of subsequent work and what it means for the future of PHGDH.
Velayudhan, Latha; Van Diepen, Erik; Marudkar, Mangesh; Hands, Oliver; Suribhatla, Srinivas; Prettyman, Richard; Murray, Jonathan; Baillon, Sarah; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is now recognised as an important modulator of various central nervous system processes. More recently, an increasing body of evidence has accumulated to suggest antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective roles of ECS. In this review we discuss the role and therapeutic potential of ECS in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Tourette's syndrome, brain ischemia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Elements of the ECS, such as fatty acid amide hydrolase or the cannabinoid receptors are now considered as promising pharmacological targets for some diseases. Although still preliminary, recent reports suggest that modulation of the ECS may constitute a novel approach for the treatment of AD. There are windows of opportunity in conditions caused by acute events such as trauma and ischemia as well in conditions that may involve altered functionality of the target receptors of the ECS, such as in AD. The ECS changes in Parkinson's disease could be compensatory as well as pathogenic of the illness process and needs further understanding and clinical studies are still in the preliminary stage. There is not enough evidence to support use of cannabinoids in treating Huntington's disease, tics and obsessive compulsive behaviour in Tourette's syndrome. Evidence on therapeutic use of cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis and ALS is currently limited. A major challenge for future research is the development of novel compounds with more selectivity for various components of the ECS which could target different neurotoxic pathways and be used in combination therapy.
Full Text Available Embryonal tumors include a heterogeneous group of highly malignant neoplasms that primarily affect infants and children and are characterized by a high rate of mortality and treatment-related morbidity, hence improved therapies are clearly needed. G-quadruplexes are special secondary structures adopted in guanine (G-rich DNA sequences that are often present in biologically important regions, e.g. at the end of telomeres and in the regulatory regions of oncogenes such as MYC. Owing to the significant roles that both telomeres and MYC play in cancer cell biology, G-quadruplexes have been viewed as emerging therapeutic targets in oncology and as tools for novel anticancer drug design. Several compounds that target these structures have shown promising anticancer activity in tumor xenograft models and some of them have entered Phase II clinical trials. In this review we examine approaches to DNA targeted cancer therapy, summarize the recent developments of G-quadruplex ligands as anticancer drugs and speculate on the future direction of such structures as a potential novel therapeutic strategy for embryonal tumors of the nervous system.
S. Sujatha et al.
Full Text Available Nature has always been stands as a golden mark to amplify the outstanding phenomenon of symbiosis. Ayurvedic remedies for diabetes are usually mixed formulations containing blood sugar lowering herbs in combinations with immunomodulator, detoxicants with the rationale behind such formulations being provided by modern research. Polyherbal formulations have plant-based pharmacological agents which may exert synergistic, potentiative, agonistic antagonistic actions by virtue of its diverse active principles within themselves. These pharmacological principles work together in a dynamic way to produce maximum therapeutic efficiency with minimum side effects. Medicinal plants existing even before human being made their appearance on the earth. The development procedures of herbal drugs for world-wide use has to been different form that of synthetic drugs. The raw materials for Ayurvedic medicines were mostly obtained from plant sources in the form of crude drugs such as dried herbal powders or their extracts or mixture of products or mixture of product. Apart from these systems there has been a rich heritage of Ethno-botanical usage of herbs by various colorful tribal communities in the country. Hence, the present review provides the supportive evidence consideration of a therapeutic approach combining the beneficial effects of Polyherbal preparation in association with adaptive physical activity for effective management of diabetic complications.
Wang, Tao; Liu, Qian; Tjhioe, William; Zhao, Jinmin; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge; Tan, Renxiang; Zhou, Mengyu; Xu, Jiake; Feng, Haotian
Osteoporosis, a bone disease resulting in loss of bone density and microstructure quality, is often associated with fragility fractures, and the latter imposes a great burden on the patient and society. Although there are several different treatments available for osteoporosis such as hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphonates, Denosumab, and parathyroid hormone some concern has been raised regarding the inherent side effects of their long term use. It would be of great relevance to search for alternative natural compounds, which could complementarily overcome the limitations of the currently available therapy. Herein, we review current literature on natural compounds that might have therapeutic values for osteoporosis. Search terms included bone resorption, bone density, osteoporosis, postmenopausal, osteoporosis or bone density conservation agents, and any of the terms related to traditional, herbal, natural therapy, natural health, diet, or phytoestrogens. All the compounds and herbs included in the review are naturally bioactive or are used in folk herbal medicine and have been reported to be capable of attenuating osteopenia or osteoporosis in vivo or in vitro, through various mechanisms - estrogen-like activity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, or by modulating the key signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Through our assessment of the therapeutic potential and outlook of alternative medicine, we aim to provide an appealing perspective for the consideration of the application of a complementary anti-osteoporotic treatment option and prevention strategy for osteoporosis or osteolytic bone disorders.
Brodek, Paulina; Olas, Beata
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a signaling gasotransmitter, involved in different physiological and pathological processes. H2S regulates apoptosis, the cell cycle and oxidative stress. H2S exerts powerful effects on smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, inflammatory cells, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and nuclear transcription factors. H2S is known to be produced from L-cysteine, D-cysteine and L-homocysteine in the body. Four enzymes - cystathionine-b synthase (CBS), mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST), cystathionine-γ lyase (CSE) and cysteine aminotransferase (CAT) - are involved in H2S synthesis. The biosynthetic pathway for the production of H2S from D-cysteine involves 3-MST and D-amino acid oxidase (DAO). The therapeutic potential of H2S is not clear. However, recently results have demonstrated that H2S has protective action for ischemic heart disease or hypertension, and protects against ischemia of the brain. This review summarizes the negative and the positive roles of H2S in various biological systems, for example the cardiovascular system and nervous system. We also discuss the function of classical, therapeutic and natural (for example garlic) donors of H2S in pre-clinical and clinical studies.
Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Stowe, David F.
Abstract The mitochondrion is the most important organelle in determining continued cell survival and cell death. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to many human maladies, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. These mitochondria-related pathologies range from early infancy to senescence. The central premise of this review is that if mitochondrial abnormalities contribute to the pathological state, alleviating the mitochondrial dysfunction would contribute to attenuating the severity or progression of the disease. Therefore, this review will examine the role of mitochondria in the etiology and progression of several diseases and explore potential therapeutic benefits of targeting mitochondria in mitigating the disease processes. Indeed, recent advances in mitochondrial biology have led to selective targeting of drugs designed to modulate and manipulate mitochondrial function and genomics for therapeutic benefit. These approaches to treat mitochondrial dysfunction rationally could lead to selective protection of cells in different tissues and various disease states. However, most of these approaches are in their infancy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 279–347. PMID:20001744
Full Text Available Numerous investigations of microbial surface-active compounds or biosurfactants over the past two decades have led to the discovery of many interesting physicochemical and biological properties including antimicrobial, anti-biofilm and therapeutic among many other pharmaceutical and medical applications. Microbial control and inhibition strategies involving the use of antibiotics are becoming continually challenged due to the emergence of resistant strains mostly embedded within biofilm formations that are difficult to eradicate. Different aspects of antimicrobial and anti-biofilm control are becoming issues of increasing importance in clinical, hygiene, therapeutic and other applications. Biosurfactants research has resulted in increasing interest into their ability to inhibit microbial activity and disperse microbial biofilms in addition to being mostly nontoxic and stable at extremes conditions. Some biosurfactants are now in use in clinical, food and environmental fields, whilst others remain under investigation and development. The dispersal properties of biosurfactants have been shown to rival that of conventional inhibitory agents against bacterial, fungal and yeast biofilms as well as viral membrane structures. This presents them as potential candidates for future uses in new generations of antimicrobial agents or as adjuvants to other antibiotics and use as preservatives for microbial suppression and eradication strategies.
Sun, Miao-Kun; Alkon, Daniel L
Bryostatin-1 is a powerful protein kinase C (PKC) agonist, activating PKC isozymes at nanomolar concentrations. Pharmacological studies of bryostatin-1 have mainly been focused on its action in preventing tumor growth. Emerging evidence suggests, however, that bryostatin-1 exhibits additional important pharmacological activities. In preclinical studies bryostatin-1 has been shown at appropriate doses to have cognitive restorative and antidepressant effects. The underlying pharmacological mechanisms may involve an activation of PKC isozymes, induction of synthesis of proteins required for long-term memory, restoration of stress-evoked inhibition of PKC activity, and reduction of neurotoxic amyloid accumulation and tau protein hyperphosphorylation. The therapeutic potential of bryostatin-1 as a CNS drug should be further explored.
Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used in herbalism. They form the easily available source for healthcare purposes in rural and tribal areas. In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the phytochemical and pharmacological studies done on an important medicinal plant Aegle marmelos. Extensive experimental and clinical studies prove that Aegle marmelos possesses antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antiviral, radioprotective, anticancer, chemopreventive, antipyretic, ulcer healing, antigenotoxic, diuretic, antifertility and anti-inflammatory properties, which help it to play role in prevention and treatment of many disease. Therefore, it is worthwhile to review its therapeutic properties to give an overview of its status to scientist both modern and ancient. This review also encompasses on the potential application of the above plant in the pharmaceutical field due to its wide pharmacological activities.
Dalakas, Marinos C
Although the majority of patients with CIDP variably respond to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), steroids, or plasmapheresis, 30% of them are unresponsive or insufficiently responsive to these therapies. The heterogeneity in therapeutic responses necessitates the need to search for biomarkers to determine the most suitable therapy from the outset and explore the best means for monitoring disease activity. The ICE study, which led to the first FDA-approved indication for IVIg in CIDP, has shown that maintenance therapy prevents relapses and axonal loss. In this paper, the multiple actions exerted by IVIg on the immunoregulatory network of CIDP are discussed as potential predictors of response to therapies. Emerging molecular markers, promising in identifying responders to IVIg from non-responders, include modulation of FcγRIIB receptors on monocytes and genome-wide transcription studies related to inflammatory mediators, demyelination, or axonal degeneration. Skin biopsies, Peripheral Blood Lymhocytes, CSF, and sera are accessible surrogate tissues for further exploring these molecules during therapies.
Czopek, Alicja; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Webb, David J; Dhaun, Neeraj
Our growing understanding of the role of the endothelin (ET) system in renal physiology and pathophysiology is from emerging studies of renal disease in animal models and humans. ET receptor antagonists reduce blood pressure and proteinuria in chronic kidney disease and cause regression of renal injury in animals. However, the therapeutic potential of ET receptor antagonism has not been fully explored and clinical studies have been largely limited to patients with diabetic nephropathy. There remains a need for more work in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease (patients requiring maintenance dialysis and those with a functioning kidney transplant), ischemia reperfusion injury, and sickle cell disease. The current review summarizes the most recent advances in both preclinical and clinical studies of ET receptor antagonists in the field of kidney disease.
Rahman, Shahedur; Parvin, Rashida
Medicinal plants are used in herbalism. They form the easily available source for healthcare purposes in rural and tribal areas. In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the phytochemical and pharmacological studies done on an important medicinal plant Aegle marmelos. Extensive experimental and clinical studies prove that Aegle marmelos possesses antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antiviral, radioprotective, anticancer, chemopreventive, antipyretic, ulcer healing, antigenotoxic, diuretic, antifertility and anti-inflammatory properties, which help it to play role in prevention and treatment of many disease. Therefore, it is worthwhile to review its therapeutic properties to give an overview of its status to scientist both modern and ancient. This review also encompasses on the potential application of the above plant in the pharmaceutical field due to its wide pharmacological activities.
Full Text Available Medicinal plants have shown tremendous potential for the development of the new drug molecules for various serious diseases. Many plant derived products have found to play an important role in various disease conditions. Piper longum Linn. is a native of the Indo-Malaya region, belongs to family Piperaceae. Piper longum Linn. (Piperaceae has been used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of various pathological conditions. The tribal population uses the plant for cardiovascular activities, anti-inflammatory activity and as a spice. Alkaloids, Lignans and volatile oil are reported in this plant. Extract of Piper longum fruits have been shown to posses various activities like Bio-availibity enhancer, immunomodulatory effect, antiasthamatic and hepatoprotective activity. In the present review an attempt has been made to explore different aspects of Piper longum.
Navarrete-Opazo, Angela; Mitchell, Gordon S
Intermittent hypoxia (IH) has been the subject of considerable research in recent years, and triggers a bewildering array of both detrimental and beneficial effects in multiple physiological systems. Here, we review the extensive literature concerning IH and its impact on the respiratory, cardiovascular, immune, metabolic, bone, and nervous systems. One major goal is to define relevant IH characteristics leading to safe, protective, and/or therapeutic effects vs. pathogenesis. To understand the impact of IH, it is essential to define critical characteristics of the IH protocol under investigation, including potentially the severity of hypoxia within episodes, the duration of hypoxic episodes, the number of hypoxic episodes per day, the pattern of presentation across time (e.g., within vs. consecutive vs. alternating days), and the cumulative time of exposure. Not surprisingly, severe/chronic IH protocols tend to be pathogenic, whereas any beneficial effects are more likely to arise from modest/acute IH exposures. Features of the IH protocol most highly associated with beneficial vs. pathogenic outcomes include the level of hypoxemia within episodes and the number of episodes per day. Modest hypoxia (9-16% inspired O2) and low cycle numbers (3-15 episodes per day) most often lead to beneficial effects without pathology, whereas severe hypoxia (2-8% inspired O2) and more episodes per day (48-2,400 episodes/day) elicit progressively greater pathology. Accumulating evidence suggests that "low dose" IH (modest hypoxia, few episodes) may be a simple, safe, and effective treatment with considerable therapeutic potential for multiple clinical disorders.
Neil V. Klinger
Full Text Available Brain malignancies currently carry a poor prognosis despite the current multimodal standard of care that includes surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. As new therapies are desperately needed, naturally occurring chemical compounds have been studied for their potential chemotherapeutic benefits and low toxicity profile. Curcumin, found in the rhizome of turmeric, has extensive therapeutic promise via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative properties. Preclinical in vitro and in vivo data have shown it to be an effective treatment for brain tumors including glioblastoma multiforme. These effects are potentiated by curcumin’s ability to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest, activation of apoptotic pathways, induction of autophagy, disruption of molecular signaling, inhibition of invasion, and metastasis and by increasing the efficacy of existing chemotherapeutics. Further, clinical data suggest that it has low toxicity in humans even at large doses. Curcumin is a promising nutraceutical compound that should be evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of human brain tumors.
José Manuel Calderón-Montaño
Full Text Available Cardiac glycosides, also known as cardiotonic steroids, are a group of natural products that share a steroid-like structure with an unsaturated lactone ring and the ability to induce cardiotonic effects mediated by a selective inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase. Cardiac glycosides have been used for many years in the treatment of cardiac congestion and some types of cardiac arrhythmias. Recent data suggest that cardiac glycosides may also be useful in the treatment of cancer. These compounds typically inhibit cancer cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations, and recent high-throughput screenings of drug libraries have therefore identified cardiac glycosides as potent inhibitors of cancer cell growth. Cardiac glycosides can also block tumor growth in rodent models, which further supports the idea that they have potential for cancer therapy. Evidence also suggests, however, that cardiac glycosides may not inhibit cancer cell proliferation selectively and the potent inhibition of tumor growth induced by cardiac glycosides in mice xenografted with human cancer cells is probably an experimental artifact caused by their ability to selectively kill human cells versus rodent cells. This paper reviews such evidence and discusses experimental approaches that could be used to reveal the cancer therapeutic potential of cardiac glycosides in preclinical studies.
Bystrom, Jonas; Taher, Taher E; Muhyaddin, M Sherwan; Clanchy, Felix I; Mangat, Pamela; Jawad, Ali S; Williams, Richard O; Mageed, Rizgar A
Th17 cells provide protective immunity to infections by fungi and extracellular bacteria as well as cancer but are also involved in chronic inflammation. The cells were first identified by their ability to produce interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and, subsequently, associated with chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Th17 cells have some gene profile similarity with stem cells and can remain dormant in mucosal tissues for long periods. Indeed, recent studies suggest that functionally distinct subsets of pro- and anti-inflammatory Th17 cells can interchange phenotype and functions. For development, Th17 cells require activation of the transcription factors STAT3 and RORγt while RUNX1, c-Maf, and Aiolos are involved in changes of phenotype/functions. Attempts to harness Th17 cells against pathogens and cancer using vaccination strategies are being explored. The cells gain protective abilities when induced to produce interferon γ (IFNγ). In addition, treatment with antibodies to IL-17 is effective in treating patients with psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and refectory rheumatoid arthritis. Moreover, since RORγt is a nuclear receptor, it is likely to be a potential future drug target for modulating Th17 functions. This review explores pathways through which Th17 subsets are induced, the molecular basis of their plasticity, and potential therapeutic strategies for their modulation in diseases.
Amadou K. S. Camara
Full Text Available Mitochondria are the key source of ATP that fuels cellular functions, and they are also central in cellular signaling, cell division and apoptosis. Dysfunction of mitochondria has been implicated in a wide range of diseases, including neurodegenerative and cardiac diseases, and various types of cancer. One of the key proteins that regulate mitochondrial function is the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1, the most abundant protein on the outer membrane of mitochondria. VDAC1 is the gatekeeper for the passages of metabolites, nucleotides, and ions; it plays a crucial role in regulating apoptosis due to its interaction with apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins, namely members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins and hexokinase. Therefore, regulation of VDAC1 is crucial not only for metabolic functions of mitochondria, but also for cell survival. In fact, multiple lines of evidence have confirmed the involvement of VDAC1 in several diseases. Consequently, modulation or dysregulation of VDAC1 function can potentially attenuate or exacerbate pathophysiological conditions. Understanding the role of VDAC1 in health and disease could lead to selective protection of cells in different tissues and diverse diseases. The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of VDAC1 in the pathogenesis of diseases and as a potentially effective target for therapeutic management of various pathologies.
Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma, closely linked with occupational asbestos exposure, is relatively rare in the frequency, but the patient numbers are going to increase in the next few decades all over the world. The current treatment modalities are not effective in terms of the overall survival and the quality of life. Mesothelioma mainly develops in the thoracic cavity and infrequently metastasizes to extrapleural organs. A local treatment can thereby be beneficial to the patients, and gene therapy with an intrapleural administration of vectors is one of the potential therapeutics. Preclinical studies demonstrated the efficacy of gene medicine for mesothelioma, and clinical trials with adenovirus vectors showed the safety of an intrapleural injection and a possible involvement of antitumor immune responses. Nevertheless, low transduction efficiency remains the main hurdle that hinders further clinical applications. Moreover, rapid generation of antivector antibody also inhibits transgene expressions. In this paper, we review the current status of preclinical and clinical gene therapy for malignant mesothelioma and discuss potential clinical directions of gene medicine in terms of a combinatory use with anticancer agents and with immunotherapy.
Abhijit Dey; Anuradha Mukherjee
Bryophytes, taxonomically placed between the algae and the pteridophytes, are divided into three classes such as Liverworts, Hornworts and Mosses. Indigenous use involves this small group of plants to treat various diseases. Bryophytes have been investigated pharmacologically for active biomolecules. Several constituents with therapeutic potential have been isolated, characterized and investigated for antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidative, antiinflamatory and anticancerous efficacy. The present review deals with the literature covering the anticancerous potential of bryophytes. Apart from the examples of the compounds and the containing bryophyte genera, the authors have tried to include the examples of cancer cell lines on which the efficacy have been tested and the mode of action of certain cytotoxic agents. Crude extracts and isolated compounds from bryophytes were found to possess potent cytotoxic properties. Different types of terpenoids and bibenzyls have been reported among the most potent cytotoxic compounds. Most of these compounds were found to induce apoptosis by activating a number of genes and enzymes. Biochemical markers such as DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, proteolysis of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, activation of caspases, inhibition of antiapoptotic nuclear transcriptional factor-kappaB, activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase etc. have been found to be associated with apoptotic and necrotic response. This review summarizes recent scientific findings and suggests further investigations to evaluate the cytotoxic efficacy of bryophytes.
Full Text Available Th17 cells provide protective immunity to infections by fungi and extracellular bacteria as well as cancer but are also involved in chronic inflammation. The cells were first identified by their ability to produce interleukin 17A (IL-17A and, subsequently, associated with chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Th17 cells have some gene profile similarity with stem cells and can remain dormant in mucosal tissues for long periods. Indeed, recent studies suggest that functionally distinct subsets of pro- and anti-inflammatory Th17 cells can interchange phenotype and functions. For development, Th17 cells require activation of the transcription factors STAT3 and RORγt while RUNX1, c-Maf, and Aiolos are involved in changes of phenotype/functions. Attempts to harness Th17 cells against pathogens and cancer using vaccination strategies are being explored. The cells gain protective abilities when induced to produce interferon γ (IFNγ. In addition, treatment with antibodies to IL-17 is effective in treating patients with psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and refectory rheumatoid arthritis. Moreover, since RORγt is a nuclear receptor, it is likely to be a potential future drug target for modulating Th17 functions. This review explores pathways through which Th17 subsets are induced, the molecular basis of their plasticity, and potential therapeutic strategies for their modulation in diseases.
Cornara, Laura; Xiao, Jianbo; Burlando, Bruno
The discovery of bioactive molecules from botanical sources is an expanding field, preferentially oriented to plants having a tradition of use in medicine and providing high yields and availability. Temperate forage legumes are Fabaceae species that include worldwide-important crops. These plants possess therapeutic virtues that have not only been used in veterinary and folk medicine, but have also attracted the interest of official medicine. We have examined here Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Trifolium pratense and T. repens (clovers), Melilotus albus and M. officinalis (sweet clovers), Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil), Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin), Lespedeza capitata (roundhead lespedeza), and Galega officinalis (goat's rue). The phytochemical complexes of these species contain secondary metabolites whose pharmacological potentials deserve investigation. Major classes of compounds include alkaloids and amines, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins, condensed tannins, and saponins. Some of these phytochemicals have been related to antihypercholesterolemia, antidiabetic, antimenopause, anti-inflammatory, antiedema, anthelmintic, and kidney protective effects. Two widely prescribed drugs have been developed starting from temperate forage legumes, namely, the antithrombotic warfarin, inspired from sweet clover's coumarin, and the antidiabetic metformin, a derivative of sainfoin's guanidine. Available evidence suggests that temperate forage legumes are a potentially important resource for the extraction of active principles to be used as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.
Devang M. Patel
Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are stromal cells that have the ability to self-renew and also exhibit multilineage differentiation into both mesenchymal and nonmesenchymal lineages. The intrinsic properties of these cells make them an attractive candidate for clinical applications. MSCs are of keen interest because they can be isolated from a small aspirate of bone marrow or adipose tissues and can be easily expanded in vitro. Moreover, their ability to modulate immune responses makes them an even more attractive candidate for regenerative medicine as allogeneic transplant of these cells is feasible without a substantial risk of immune rejection. MSCs secrete various immunomodulatory molecules which provide a regenerative microenvironment for a variety of injured tissues or organ to limit the damage and to increase self-regulated tissue regeneration. Autologous/allogeneic MSCs delivered via the bloodstream augment the titers of MSCs that are drawn to sites of tissue injury and can accelerate the tissue repair process. MSCs are currently being tested for their potential use in cell and gene therapy for a number of human debilitating diseases and genetic disorders. This paper summarizes the current clinical and nonclinical data for the use of MSCs in tissue repair and potential therapeutic role in various diseases.
Full Text Available We investigated whether one of the Wnt receptors, frizzled-7 (FZD7, functions in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway of colorectal cancer (CRC cells harboring an APC or CTNNB1 mutation and may be a potential therapeutic target for sporadic CRCs. The expression level of FZD gene family members in colon cancer cells and primary CRC tissues were determined by real-time PCR. Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway was evaluated by TOPflash assay. The expression level of Wnt target genes was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and/or Western blot analysis. Cell growth and cell invasion were assessed by MTS and matrigel assays, respectively. Among 10 FZD gene family members, FZD7 mRNA was predominantly expressed in six colon cancer cell lines with APC or CTNNB1 mutation. These six cell lines were transfected with FZD7 cDNA together with a TOPflash reporter plasmid, resulting in a 1.5- to 24.3-fold increase of Tcf transcriptional activity. The mRNA expression levels of seven known Wnt target genes were also increased by 1.5- to 3.4-fold after transfection of FZD7 cDNA into HCT-116 cells. The six cell lines were then cotransfected with FZD7-siRNA and a TOPflash reporter plasmid, which reduced Tcf transcriptional activity to 20% to 80%. FZD7-siRNA was shown to significantly decrease cell viability and in vitro invasion activity after transfection into HCT-116 cells. Our present data demonstrated that FZD7 activates the canonical Wnt pathway in colon cancer cells despite the presence of APC or CTNNB1 mutation and that FZD7-siRNA may be used as a therapeutic reagent for CRCs.
Thomas, Alexandra L; Coarfa, Cristian; Qian, Jun; Wilkerson, Joseph J; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Krett, Nancy L; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Rosen, Steven T
Glucocorticoids (GC) are a cornerstone of combination therapies for multiple myeloma. However, patients ultimately develop resistance to GCs frequently based on decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. An understanding of the direct targets of GC actions, which induce cell death, is expected to culminate in potential therapeutic strategies for inducing cell death by regulating downstream targets in the absence of a functional GR. The specific goal of our research is to identify primary GR targets that contribute to GC-induced cell death, with the ultimate goal of developing novel therapeutics around these targets that can be used to overcome resistance to GCs in the absence of GR. Using the MM.1S glucocorticoid-sensitive human myeloma cell line, we began with the broad platform of gene expression profiling to identify glucocorticoid-regulated genes further refined by combination treatment with phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase inhibition (PI3Ki). To further refine the search to distinguish direct and indirect targets of GR that respond to the combination GC and PI3Ki treatment of MM.1S cells, we integrated 1) gene expression profiles of combination GC treatment with PI3Ki, which induces synergistic cell death; 2) negative correlation between genes inhibited by combination treatment in MM.1S cells and genes over-expressed in myeloma patients to establish clinical relevance and 3) GR chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) in myeloma cells to identify global chromatin binding for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Using established bioinformatics platforms, we have integrated these data sets to identify a subset of candidate genes that may form the basis for a comprehensive picture of glucocorticoid actions in multiple myeloma. As a proof of principle, we have verified two targets, namely RRM2 and BCL2L1, as primary functional targets of GR involved in GC-induced cell death.
Jonathan R Aspe
Full Text Available Jonathan R Aspe, Nathan R WallCenter for Health Disparities Research and Molecular Medicine, Division of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USAAbstract: The inhibitor of apoptosis protein survivin's threonine 34 to alanine (T34A mutation abolishes a phosphorylation site for p34(cdc2–cyclin B1, resulting in initiation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in cancer cells; however, it has little known direct effects on normal cells. The possibility that targeting survivin in this way may provide a novel approach for selective cancer gene therapy has yet to be fully evaluated. Although a flurry of work was undertaken in the late 1990s and early 2000s, only minor advances on this mutant have recently taken place. We recently described that cells generated to express a stable form of the mutant protein released this survivin-T34A to the conditioned medium. When this conditioned medium was collected and deposited on naive tumor cells, conditioned medium T34A was as effective as some chemotherapeutics in the induction of tumor cell apoptosis, and when combined with other forms of genotoxic stressors potentiated their killing effects. We hope with this review to revitalize the T34A field, as there is still much that needs to be investigated. In addition to determining the therapeutic dose and the duration of drug therapy required at the disease site, a better understanding of other key factors is also important. These include knowledge of target cell populations, cell-surface receptors, changes that occur in the target tissue at the molecular and cellular level with progression of the disease, and the mechanism and site of therapeutic action.Keywords: survivin, T34A, apoptosis, proliferation, therapy
Thonel, Aurelie de [INSERM U866, Dijon (France); Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Burgundy, 21033 Dijon (France); Mezger, Valerie, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [CNRS, UMR7216 Epigenetics and Cell Fate, Paris (France); University Paris Diderot, 75013 Paris (France); Garrido, Carmen, E-mail: email@example.com [INSERM U866, Dijon (France); Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Burgundy, 21033 Dijon (France); CHU, Dijon BP1542, Dijon (France)
Heat Shock Factors (HSF) form a family of transcription factors (four in mammals) which were named according to the discovery of their activation by a heat shock. HSFs trigger the expression of genes encoding Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) that function as molecular chaperones, contributing to establish a cytoprotective state to various proteotoxic stresses and in pathological conditions. Increasing evidence indicates that this ancient transcriptional protective program acts genome-widely and performs unexpected functions in the absence of experimentally defined stress. Indeed, HSFs are able to re-shape cellular pathways controlling longevity, growth, metabolism and development. The most well studied HSF, HSF1, has been found at elevated levels in tumors with high metastatic potential and is associated with poor prognosis. This is partly explained by the above-mentioned cytoprotective (HSP-dependent) function that may enable cancer cells to adapt to the initial oncogenic stress and to support malignant transformation. Nevertheless, HSF1 operates as major multifaceted enhancers of tumorigenesis through, not only the induction of classical heat shock genes, but also of “non-classical” targets. Indeed, in cancer cells, HSF1 regulates genes involved in core cellular functions including proliferation, survival, migration, protein synthesis, signal transduction, and glucose metabolism, making HSF1 a very attractive target in cancer therapy. In this review, we describe the different physiological roles of HSFs as well as the recent discoveries in term of non-cogenic potential of these HSFs, more specifically associated to the activation of “non-classical” HSF target genes. We also present an update on the compounds with potent HSF1-modulating activity of potential interest as anti-cancer therapeutic agents.
Geetha, Thiraviam; Rohit, Bhandari; Pal, Kaur Indu
Sesamol has been shown earlier to exhibit antimutagenic (reactive oxygen mediated) and antiageing activity in our lab and it has also been found to exert chemopreventive effect. Here we report the in vitro antioxidant activity of sesamol. As most of the antioxidants act due to their property to auto-oxidise and the pro- or antioxidant activity would depend on the concentration of the agent used and the free radical source, at least 6 dilutions in concentration range of 5-1000 nmoles of sesamol were selected for each test system. Further the antioxidant activity was compared with a water soluble antioxidant (ascorbic acid). Eventhough some preliminary studies on the antioxidant activity of sesamol have been reported in DPPH assay & inhibition of lipid peroxidation, it is not complete. We, here in report comprehensively (both in terms of the no. of doses and also a variety of test systems being employed) on the antioxidant activity of sesamol. Furthermore, since all the data has been generated by the same workers and under same laboratory conditions, hence is scientifically significant. Also the process of dose selection as discussed earlier is more scientific; and the data treatment, i.e. calculation of IC(50) values and comparisons with ascorbic acid has been statistically validated. In conclusion, sesamol was found to be an efficient scavenger of the entire range of ROS in several test systems pointing towards the potential of sesamol to be developed as a possible therapeutic.
C. S. Barik
Full Text Available Nature has been a source of medicinal agents for more than thousands of years and herbal therapy predominates in traditional systems of medicine as well as in alternative medicine practiced in various cultures such as Indian system of medicine, Chinese Traditional Medicine, Unani classical literature. The present review deals with various polyherbal formulations used by different countries of the world. Information on traditional herbal formulations was documented in the form of research and review articles in various journals. The aim of this review is to summarize the different types of herbs used for the preparation of polyherbal formulations, their therapeutic potentials including clinical and preclinical results along with their safety and efficacy. This review will facilitate to gain all about the past scientific research and the necessary information about the enormous pharmacological activities of polyherbal formulations which will insist the young researchers for future research to protect human beings from various types of diseases and may serves as a natural gold for the promotion of mankind.
Mattová, Jana; Poučková, Pavla; Kučka, Jan; Skodová, Michaela; Vetrík, Miroslav; Stěpánek, Petr; Urbánek, Petr; Petřík, Miloš; Nový, Zbyněk; Hrubý, Martin
Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder caused by a malfunction of ATPase 7B that leads to high accumulation of copper in the organism and consequent toxic effects. We propose a gentle therapy to eliminate the excessive copper content with oral administration of insoluble non-resorbable polymer sorbents containing selective chelating groups for copper(II). Polymeric beads with the chelating agents triethylenetetramine, N,N-di(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQB) were investigated. In a preliminary copper uptake experiment, we found that 8HQB significantly reduced copper uptake (using copper-64 as a radiotracer) after oral administration in Wistar rats. Furthermore, we measured organ radioactivity in rats to demonstrate that 8HQB radiolabelled with iodine-125 is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration. Non-resorbability and the blockade of copper uptake were also confirmed with small animal imaging (PET/CT) in mice. In a long-term experiment with Wistar rats fed a diet containing the polymers, we have found that there were no signs of polymer toxicity and the addition of polymers to the diet led to a significant reduction in the copper contents in the kidneys, brains, and livers of the rats. We have shown that polymers containing specific ligands could potentially be novel therapeutics for Wilson's disease.
Nanna H. Jensen
Full Text Available Serotonin 2C receptors are G protein-coupled receptors expressed by GABAergic, glutamatergic, and dopaminergic neurons. Anatomically, they are present in various brain regions, including cortical areas, hippocampus, ventral midbrain, striatum, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, and amygdala. A large body of evidence supports a critical role of serotonin 2C receptors in mediating the interaction between serotonergic and dopaminergic systems, which is at the basis of their proposed involvement in the regulation of mood, affective behavior, and memory. In addition, their expression in specific neuronal populations in the hypothalamus would be critical for their role in the regulation of feeding behavior. Modulation of these receptors has therefore been proposed to be of interest in the search for novel pharmacological strategies for the treatment of various pathological conditions, including schizophrenia and mood disorders, as well as obesity. More precisely, blockade of serotonin 2C receptors has been suggested to provide antidepressant and anxiolytic benefit, while stimulation of these receptors may offer therapeutic benefit for the treatment of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia and obesity. In addition, modulation of serotonin 2C receptors may offer cognitive-enhancing potential, albeit still a matter of debate. In the present review, the most compelling evidence from the literature is presented and tentative hypotheses with respect to existing controversies are outlined.
Choi, Dong-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kim, Sung Min; Kang, Kyuree; Han, Dong Wook; Lee, Jongmin
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, neurodegenerative disorder that results from the loss of cells in the substantia nigra (SN) which is located in the midbrain. However, no cure is available for PD. Recently, fibroblasts have been directly converted into induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) via the forced expression of specific transcription factors. Therapeutic potential of iNSC in PD has not been investigated yet. Here, we show that iNSCs directly converted from mouse fibroblasts enhanced functional recovery in an animal model of PD. The rotational behavior test was performed to assess recovery. Our results indicate that iNSC transplantation into the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-injected mice can significantly reduce apomorphine-induced rotational asymmetry. The engrafted iNSCs were able to survive in the striatum and migrated around the medial forebrain bundle and the SN pars compacta. Moreover, iNSCs differentiated into all neuronal lineages. In particular, the transplanted iNSCs that committed to the glial lineage were significantly increased in the striatum of 6-OHDA-injected mice. Engrafted iNSCs differentiated to dopaminergic (DA) neurons and migrated into the SN in the 6-OHDA lesion mice. Therefore, iNSC transplantation serves as a valuable tool to enhance the functional recovery in PD.
Alimova, Irina; Ng, June; Harris, Peter; Birks, Diane; Donson, Andrew; Taylor, Michael D.; Foreman, Nicholas K.; Venkataraman, Sujatha; Vibhakar, Rajeev
Medulloblastoma is the most common type of malignant brain tumor that affects children. Although recent advances in chemotherapy and radiation have improved outcomes, high-risk patients perform poorly with significant morbidity. Gene expression profiling has revealed that monopolar spindle 1 (MPS1) (TTK1) is highly expressed in medulloblastoma patient samples compared to that noted in normal cerebellum. MPS1 is a key regulator of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a mitotic mechanism specifically required for proper chromosomal alignment and segregation. The SAC can be activated in aneuploid cancer cells and MPS1 is overexpressed in many types of cancers. A previous study has demonstrated the effectiveness of inhibiting MPS1 with small-molecule inhibitors, but the role of MPS1 in medulloblastoma is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that MPS1 inhibition by shRNA or with a small-molecule drug, NMS-P715, resulted in decreased cell growth, inhibition of clonogenic potential and induction of apoptosis in cells belonging to both the Shh and group 3 medulloblastoma genomic signature. These findings highlight MPS1 as a rational therapeutic target for medulloblastoma. PMID:27633003
Booth, John W R; Tam, Frederick W K; Unwin, Robert J
P2 purinoceptors, categorized into P2X and P2Y receptors, bind extracellular ATP and related di- and tri-phosphate nucleotides and are expressed throughout the kidney. P2X receptors are non-selective cation channels and P2Y receptors are metabotropic G protein-coupled receptors. Both families may couple to a range of second messenger systems and provoke outcomes including cell proliferation, cytokine secretion, membrane channel regulation and cell death. The cellular response to ATP release may vary widely and depends on both the pattern of local receptor expression and the action of ectonucleotidases altering agonist availability, creating a finely tuned network. P2 signaling participates in disparate physiological processes, including control of water and solute transport and autoregulation of renal blood flow. Given the ubiquity, complexity and diversity of the P2 network, it is not surprising that P2 signaling also contributes to mechanisms of renal disease. This review summarizes the current evidence for P2 receptor involvement in a range of kidney diseases, and highlights areas that may lead to potential therapeutic advances. Particular attention is paid to the pro-inflammatory P2X7 receptor, currently at the heart of renal P2 pathophysiology and for which selective receptor antagonists are now available.
Carey, Robert M
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is arguably the most important and best studied hormonal system in the control of blood pressure (BP) and the pathogenesis of hypertension. The RAS features its main effector angiotensin II (Ang II) acting via its 2 major receptors, angiotensin type-1(AT1R) and type-2 (AT2R). In general, AT2Rs oppose the detrimental actions of Ang II via AT1Rs. AT2R activation induces vasodilation and natriuresis, but its effects to lower BP in hypertension have not been as clear as anticipated. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that acute and chronic AT2R stimulation can induce natriuresis and lower BP in the Ang II infusion model of experimental hypertension. AT2R activation induces receptor recruitment from intracellular sites to the apical plasma membranes of renal proximal tubule cells via a bradykinin, nitric oxide, and cyclic guanosine 3',5' monophosphate signaling pathway that results in internalization and inactivation of sodium (Na+) transporters Na+-H+ exchanger-3 and Na+/K+ATPase. These responses do not require the presence of concurrent AT1R blockade and are effective both in the prevention and reversal of hypertension. This review will address the role of AT2Rs in the control of BP and Na+ excretion and the case for these receptors as potential therapeutic targets for hypertension in humans. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kim, Jong Youl; Kawabori, Masahito; Yenari, Midori A.
Stroke is a frequent cause of long-term disability and death worldwide. Ischemic stroke is more commonly encountered compared to hemorrhagic stroke, and leads to tissue death by ischemia due to occlusion of a cerebral artery. Inflammation is known to result as a result of ischemic injury, long thought to be involved in initiating the recovery and repair process. However, work over the past few decades indicates that aspects of this inflammatory response may in fact be detrimental to stroke outcome. Acutely, inflammation appears to have a detrimental effect, and anti-inflammatory treatments have been been studied as a potential therapeutic target. Chronically, reports suggest that post-ischemic inflammation is also essential for the tissue repairing and remodeling. The majority of the work in this area has centered around innate immune mechanisms, which will be the focus of this review. This review describes the different key players in neuroinflammation and their possible detrimental and protective effects in stroke. A better understanding of the roles of the different immune cells and their temporal profile of damage versus repair will help to clarify more effective modulation of inflammation post stroke. Introduction Stroke refers to conditions caused by occlusion and/or rupture of blood vessels in the brain, and is a leading cause of death and disability in the industrialized world. PMID:24372209
Ashitani, Jun-ichi; Matsumoto, Nobuhiro; Nakazato, Masamitsu
The discovery of ghrelin has resulted in the development of approaches to appetite, enabling a better understanding of the mechanisms regulating appetite through molecular analyses. Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide that was isolated from the stomach only a decade ago, and has recently been investigated as a potential therapeutic endogenous agent. This peptide increases appetite, adjusts energy balance, suppresses inflammation, and enhances the release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland. Although many bioactive substances such as peptide YY, leptin, adiponectin and obestatin are involved in appetite control, ghrelin is the only known peptide to signal starvation information from a peripheral organ to the central nervous system, contributing to an increase in appetite. Clinical trials have revealed the effectiveness of ghrelin in increasing lean body mass and activity in cachectic patients. As shown in clinical research on humans and basic research using animal models, cachexia often occurs in response to excess release of proinflammatory cytokines and induces further appetite loss, which aggravates the physiological status of underlying diseases. Ghrelin functions as a protector against the vicious cycle of the cachectic paradigm through orexigenic, anabolic and anti-inflammatory effects, so administration of ghrelin may be able to improve quality of life in cachectic patients. We show here a significant role of ghrelin in the pathophysiology of cachectic diseases and the possibility of clinical applications.
Kumar, Anil; Mittal, Ruchika
Different aspects involved in pathophysiology of diabetic neuropathy are related to inflammatory and apoptotic pathways. This article summarizes evidence that Nrf2 acts as a bridging link in various inflammatory and apoptotic pathways impacting progression of diabetic neuropathy. Nrf2 is involved in expression of various antioxidant proteins (such as detoxifying enzymes) via antioxidant response element (ARE) binding site. Under normal conditions, Nrf2 is inactive and remains in the cytosol. Hyperglycemia is a strong stimulus for oxidative stress and inflammation that downregulates the activity of Nrf2 through various neuroinflammatory pathways. Acute hyperglycemia increases the expression of Nrf2, but persistent hyperglycemia decreases its expression. This downregulation of Nrf2 causes various microvascular changes, which result in diabetic neuropathy. The key contribution of Nrf2 in progression of diabetic neuropathy has been summarized in the article. Despite involvement of Nrf2 in progression of diabetic neuropathy, targeting Nrf2 activators as a therapeutic potential will provide important new insights into the ways that influence treatment of diabetic neuropathy.
Gu, Yisu; Masiero, Massimo; Banham, Alison H
Notch is a highly conserved signaling system that allows neighboring cells to communicate, thereby controlling their differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, with the outcome of its activation being highly dependent on signal strength and cell type. As such, there is growing evidence that disturbances in physiological Notch signaling contribute to cancer development and growth through various mechanisms. Notch was first reported to contribute to tumorigenesis in the early 90s, through identification of the involvement of the Notch1 gene in the chromosomal translocation t(7;9)(q34;q34.3), found in a small subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Since then, Notch mutations and aberrant Notch signaling have been reported in numerous other precursor and mature hematological malignancies, of both myeloid and lymphoid origin, as well as many epithelial tumor types. Of note, Notch has been reported to have both oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles, dependent on the cancer cell type. In this review, we will first give a general description of the Notch signaling pathway, and its physiologic role in hematopoiesis. Next, we will review the role of aberrant Notch signaling in several hematological malignancies. Finally, we will discuss current and potential future therapeutic approaches targeting this pathway.
Huang, Yen Ta; Cheng, Chuan Chu; Chiu, Ted H; Lai, Pei Chun
Controversial effects of thalidomide for solid malignancies have been reported. In the present study, we evaluate the effects of thalidomide for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), the most common type of bladder cancer. Thalidomide precipitates were observed when its DMSO solution was added to the culture medium. No precipitation was found when thalidomide was dissolved in 45% γ-cyclodextrin, and this concentration of γ-cyclodextrin elicited slight cytotoxicity on TCC BFTC905 and primary human urothelial cells. Thalidomide-γ-cyclodextrin complex exerted a concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in TCC cells, but was relatively less cytotoxic (with IC50 of 200 µM) in BFTC905 cells than the other 3 TCC cell lines, possibly due to upregulation of Bcl-xL and HIF-1α mediated carbonic anhydrase IX, and promotion of quiescence. Gemcitabine-resistant BFTC905 cells were chosen for additional experiments. Thalidomide induced apoptosis through downregulation of survivin and securin. The secretion of VEGF and TNF-α was ameliorated by thalidomide, but they did not affect cell proliferation. Immune-modulating lenalidomide and pomalidomide did not elicit cytotoxicity. In addition, cereblon did not play a role in the thalidomide effect. Oxidative DNA damage was triggered by thalidomide, and anti-oxidants reversed the effect. Thalidomide also inhibited TNF-α induced invasion through inhibition of NF-κB, and downregulation of effectors, ICAM-1 and MMP-9. Thalidomide inhibited the growth of BFTC905 xenograft tumors in SCID mice via induction of DNA damage and suppression of angiogenesis. Higher average body weight, indicating less chachexia, was observed in thalidomide treated group. Sedative effect was observed within one-week of treatment. These pre-clinical results suggest therapeutic potential of thalidomide for gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer.
Therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) initially consisted on administering ribavirin - having a broad spectrum of action - and pegylated interferon, and was only effective in 40-50% of patients. Appropriate was to find effective inhibitors of viral replication e.g. by inhibition of a viral enzyme, NTPase/helicase required in the process of translation and RNA replication of the HCV. We developed methods of synthesis of many compounds belonging to different groups - derivatives of nucleosides, benzotriazole, benzimidazole, tropolone and epirubicine. Some of the derivatives inhibit HCV helicase activity at low concentrations and reduces replication of the viral RNA in subgenomic replicon system. In the process of HCV replication casein kinase CK2 plays an important role. It regulates the level of phosphorylation of HCV protein NS5A, which affects the production of infectious virions of HCV. Effective and selective inhibitors of kinase CK2 could be of use in the treatment of HCV in combination with other drugs. CK2 kinase phosphorylates approximately 300 proteins that affect the growth, differentiation, proliferation or apoptosis. Elevated CK2 kinase activity has been observed in several types of cancer and other diseases, therefore, inhibitors of this enzyme are potential therapeutic importance, particularly for anti-cancer treatment. Research carried out in collaboration with prof. Shugar led to the synthesis of one of the most selective inhibitors of this enzyme which is 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzotriazole, used for the study of the role of kinase CK2 in a number of metabolic processes in tumor cells.
Garaicoechea, Lorena; Aguilar, Andrea; Parra, Gabriel I; Bok, Marina; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Canziani, Gabriela; Green, Kim Y; Bok, Karin; Parreño, Viviana
Noroviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis, but no vaccines or therapeutic drugs are available. Llama-derived single chain antibody fragments (also called VHH) are small, recombinant monoclonal antibodies of 15 kDa with several advantages over conventional antibodies. The aim of this study was to generate recombinant monoclonal VHH specific for the two major norovirus (NoV) genogroups (GI and GII) in order to investigate their potential as immunotherapy for the treatment of NoV diarrhea. To accomplish this objective, two llamas were immunized with either GI.1 (Norwalk-1968) or GII.4 (MD2004) VLPs. After immunization, peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected and used to generate two VHH libraries. Using phage display technology, 10 VHH clones specific for GI.1, and 8 specific for GII.4 were selected for further characterization. All VHH recognized conformational epitopes in the P domain of the immunizing VP1 capsid protein, with the exception of one GII.4 VHH that recognized a linear P domain epitope. The GI.1 VHHs were highly specific for the immunizing GI.1 genotype, with only one VHH cross-reacting with GI.3 genotype. The GII.4 VHHs reacted with the immunizing GII.4 strain and showed a varying reactivity profile among different GII genotypes. One VHH specific for GI.1 and three specific for GII.4 could block the binding of homologous VLPs to synthetic HBGA carbohydrates, saliva, and pig gastric mucin, and in addition, could inhibit the hemagglutination of red blood cells by homologous VLPs. The ability of Nov-specific VHHs to perform well in these surrogate neutralization assays supports their further development as immunotherapy for NoV treatment and immunoprophylaxis.
Newman, Mary B; Bakay, Roy A E
.... The isolation, differentiation, and long-term cultivation of human embryonic stem cells and the therapeutic research discovery made in relation to the beneficial properties of neurotrophic and neural...
Kameda, Yusuke; Takahata, Masahiko; Mikuni, Shintaro; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Hamano, Hiroki; Angata, Takashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu; Kinjo, Masataka; Iwasaki, Norimasa
organization of osteoclasts in both RANKL and TNF-α induced osteoclastogenesis. The present findings indicate that Siglec-15 is involved in estrogen deficiency-induced differentiation of osteoclasts and is thus a potential therapeutic target for postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Thorsen, Susanne; Obad, S.; Jensen, N.F.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been uncovered as important posttranscriptional regulators of nearly every biological process in the cell. Furthermore, mounting evidence implies that miRNAs play key roles in the pathogenesis of cancer and that many miRNAs can function either as oncogenes or tumor...... suppressors. Thus, miRNAs have rapidly emerged as promising targets for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics. The development of miRNA-based cancer therapeutics relies on restoring the activity of tumor suppressor miRNAs using double-stranded miRNA mimics or inhibition of oncogenic miRNAs using...... single-stranded antisense oligonucleotides, termed antimiRs. In the present review, we focus on recent advancements in the discovery and development of miRNA-based cancer therapeutics using these 2 approaches. In addition, we summarize selected studies, in which modulation of miRNA activity...
Ball, Jennifer; Archer, Sophie; Ward, Stephen
Aberrant overactivation of the immune system can give rise to chronic and persistent self-attack, culminating in autoimmune disease. This is currently managed therapeutically using potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory drugs. Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) have been identified as ideal therapeutic targets for autoimmune diseases given their wide-ranging roles in immunological processes. Recent studies into the function of selective PI3K inhibitors in vitro and in vivo have yielded encouraging results, allowing progression into the clinic. Here, we review their recent progress across a range of autoimmune diseases.
Martín-Martín, Natalia; Piva, Marco; Urosevic, Jelena; Aldaz, Paula; Sutherland, James D.; Fernández-Ruiz, Sonia; Arreal, Leire; Torrano, Verónica; Cortazar, Ana R.; Planet, Evarist; Guiu, Marc; Radosevic-Robin, Nina; Garcia, Stephane; Macías, Iratxe; Salvador, Fernando; Domenici, Giacomo; Rueda, Oscar M.; Zabala-Letona, Amaia; Arruabarrena-Aristorena, Amaia; Zúñiga-García, Patricia; Caro-Maldonado, Alfredo; Valcárcel-Jiménez, Lorea; Sánchez-Mosquera, Pilar; Varela-Rey, Marta; Martínez-Chantar, Maria Luz; Anguita, Juan; Ibrahim, Yasir H.; Scaltriti, Maurizio; Lawrie, Charles H.; Aransay, Ana M.; Iovanna, Juan L.; Baselga, Jose; Caldas, Carlos; Barrio, Rosa; Serra, Violeta; dM Vivanco, Maria; Matheu, Ander; Gomis, Roger R.; Carracedo, Arkaitz
Patient stratification has been instrumental for the success of targeted therapies in breast cancer. However, the molecular basis of metastatic breast cancer and its therapeutic vulnerabilities remain poorly understood. Here we show that PML is a novel target in aggressive breast cancer. The acquisition of aggressiveness and metastatic features in breast tumours is accompanied by the elevated PML expression and enhanced sensitivity to its inhibition. Interestingly, we find that STAT3 is responsible, at least in part, for the transcriptional upregulation of PML in breast cancer. Moreover, PML targeting hampers breast cancer initiation and metastatic seeding. Mechanistically, this biological activity relies on the regulation of the stem cell gene SOX9 through interaction of PML with its promoter region. Altogether, we identify a novel pathway sustaining breast cancer aggressiveness that can be therapeutically exploited in combination with PML-based stratification. PMID:27553708
Martín-Martín, Natalia; Piva, Marco; Urosevic, Jelena; Aldaz, Paula; Sutherland, James D; Fernández-Ruiz, Sonia; Arreal, Leire; Torrano, Verónica; Cortazar, Ana R; Planet, Evarist; Guiu, Marc; Radosevic-Robin, Nina; Garcia, Stephane; Macías, Iratxe; Salvador, Fernando; Domenici, Giacomo; Rueda, Oscar M; Zabala-Letona, Amaia; Arruabarrena-Aristorena, Amaia; Zúñiga-García, Patricia; Caro-Maldonado, Alfredo; Valcárcel-Jiménez, Lorea; Sánchez-Mosquera, Pilar; Varela-Rey, Marta; Martínez-Chantar, Maria Luz; Anguita, Juan; Ibrahim, Yasir H; Scaltriti, Maurizio; Lawrie, Charles H; Aransay, Ana M; Iovanna, Juan L; Baselga, Jose; Caldas, Carlos; Barrio, Rosa; Serra, Violeta; Vivanco, Maria dM; Matheu, Ander; Gomis, Roger R; Carracedo, Arkaitz
Patient stratification has been instrumental for the success of targeted therapies in breast cancer. However, the molecular basis of metastatic breast cancer and its therapeutic vulnerabilities remain poorly understood. Here we show that PML is a novel target in aggressive breast cancer. The acquisition of aggressiveness and metastatic features in breast tumours is accompanied by the elevated PML expression and enhanced sensitivity to its inhibition. Interestingly, we find that STAT3 is responsible, at least in part, for the transcriptional upregulation of PML in breast cancer. Moreover, PML targeting hampers breast cancer initiation and metastatic seeding. Mechanistically, this biological activity relies on the regulation of the stem cell gene SOX9 through interaction of PML with its promoter region. Altogether, we identify a novel pathway sustaining breast cancer aggressiveness that can be therapeutically exploited in combination with PML-based stratification.
Rao, Naren P.; Varambally, Shivarama; Bangalore N Gangadhar
Yoga is a traditional life-style practice used for spiritual reasons. However, the physical components like the asanas and pranayaamas have demonstrated physiological and therapeutic effects. There is evidence for Yoga as being a potent antidepressant that matches with drugs. In depressive disorder, yoga ‘corrects’ an underlying cognitive physiology. In schizophrenia patients, yoga has benefits as an add-on intervention in pharmacologically stabilized subjects. The effects are particularly no...
Austermann, Judith; Zenker, Stefanie; Roth, Johannes
In arthritis, inflammatory processes are triggered by numerous factors that are released from joint tissues, promoting joint destruction and pathological progression. During inflammation, a novel family of pro-inflammatory molecules called alarmins is released, amplifying inflammation and joint damage. Areas covered: With regard to the role of the alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 in the pathogenesis of arthritis, recent advances and the future prospects in terms of therapeutic implications are considered. Expert opinion: There is still an urgent need for novel treatment strategies addressing the local mechanisms of joint inflammation and tissue destruction, offering promising therapeutic alternatives. S100A8 and S100A9, which are the most up-regulated alarmins during arthritis, are endogenous triggers of inflammation, defining these proteins as promising targets for local suppression of arthritis. In murine models, the blockade of S100A8/S100A9 ameliorates inflammatory processes, including arthritis, and there are several lines of evidence that S100-alarmins may already be targeted in therapeutic approaches in man.
Bover, Jordi; Ureña-Torres, Pablo; Górriz, José Luis; Lloret, María Jesús; da Silva, Iara; Ruiz-García, César; Chang, Pamela; Rodríguez, Mariano; Ballarín, José
Cardiovascular (CV) calcification is a highly prevalent condition at all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is directly associated with increased CV and global morbidity and mortality. In the first part of this review, we have shown that CV calcifications represent an important part of the CKD-MBD complex and are a superior predictor of clinical outcomes in our patients. However, it is also necessary to demonstrate that CV calcification is a modifiable risk factor including the possibility of decreasing (or at least not aggravating) its progression with iatrogenic manoeuvres. Although, strictly speaking, only circumstantial evidence is available, it is known that certain drugs may modify the progression of CV calcifications, even though a direct causal link with improved survival has not been demonstrated. For example, non-calcium-based phosphate binders demonstrated the ability to attenuate the progression of CV calcification compared with the liberal use of calcium-based phosphate binders in several randomised clinical trials. Moreover, although only in experimental conditions, selective activators of the vitamin D receptor seem to have a wider therapeutic margin against CV calcification. Finally, calcimimetics seem to attenuate the progression of CV calcification in dialysis patients. While new therapeutic strategies are being developed (i.e. vitamin K, SNF472, etc.), we suggest that the evaluation of CV calcifications could be a diagnostic tool used by nephrologists to personalise their therapeutic decisions.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to research and retrieve patent information regarding the therapeutic use of truffles. Truffles have a unique value as a foodstuff and impact positively on human health and well-being. They are applied in such industries as the pharmaceutical industry and the cosmetic industry. Patent documentation available in the Espacenet network and the Patentscope service were analyzed by key word and patent specifications were examined to describe state of the art and to identify scientific research trends in therapeutic applications of truffles. Medicinal properties of truffles such as the anticancer or cardiovascular effect, a reduction in blood lipids, immunological resistance and increased energy were identified. Other therapeutic benefits include sedative action, prevention of hormonal imbalances in women, pre-menopause symptom relief, senile urethritis and prostate disorders, sleep disorders and increased absorption of calcium from milk. Truffles can also be used to alleviate symptoms of milk intolerance such as diarrhoea or bloating, to ease rheumatic pains and to treat and prevent further development or recurrence of senile cataract.
Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Mishima, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Michihiro
Cannabis contains the psychoactive component delta⁸-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta⁸-THC), and the non-psychoactive components cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol, and cannabigerol. It is well-known that delta⁸-THC and other cannabinoid CB₁ receptor agonists are neuroprotective during global and focal ischemic injury. Additionally, delta⁸-THC also mediates psychological effects through the activation of the CB₁ receptor in the central nervous system. In addition to the CB₁ receptor agonists, cannabis also contains therapeutically active components which are CB₁ receptor independent. Of the CB₁ receptor-independent cannabis, the most important is CBD. In the past five years, an increasing number of publications have focused on the discovery of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and neuroprotective effects of CBD. In particular, CBD exerts positive pharmacological effects in ischemic stroke and other chronic diseases, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. The cerebroprotective action of CBD is CB₁ receptor-independent, long-lasting, and has potent anti-oxidant activity. Importantly, CBD use does not lead to tolerance. In this review, we will discuss the therapeutic possibility of CBD as a cerebroprotective agent, highlighting recent pharmacological advances, novel mechanisms, and therapeutic time window of CBD in ischemic stroke.
Full Text Available Cannabis contains the psychoactive component delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC, and the non-psychoactive components cannabidiol (CBD, cannabinol, and cannabigerol. It is well-known that delta9-THC and other cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists are neuroprotective during global and focal ischemic injury. Additionally, delta9-THC also mediates psychological effects through the activation of the CB1 receptor in the central nervous system. In addition to the CB1 receptor agonists, cannabis also contains therapeutically active components which are CB1 receptor independent. Of the CB1 receptor-independent cannabis, the most important is CBD. In the past five years, an increasing number of publications have focused on the discovery of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and neuroprotective effects of CBD. In particular, CBD exerts positive pharmacological effects in ischemic stroke and other chronic diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. The cerebroprotective action of CBD is CB1 receptor-independent, long-lasting, and has potent anti-oxidant activity. Importantly, CBD use does not lead to tolerance. In this review, we will discuss the therapeutic possibility of CBD as a cerebroprotective agent, highlighting recent pharmacological advances, novel mechanisms, and therapeutic time window of CBD in ischemic stroke.
Areti, Aparna; Yerra, Veera Ganesh; Komirishetty, Prashanth; Kumar, Ashutosh
Peripheral neuropathies are a group of diseases characterized by malfunctioning of peripheral nervous system. Neuropathic pain, one of the core manifestations of peripheral neuropathy remains as the most severe disabling condition affecting the social and daily routine life of patients suffering from peripheral neuropathy. The current review is aimed at unfolding the possible role of mitochondrial dysfunction in peripheral nerve damage and to discuss on the probable therapeutic strategies against neuronal mitotoxicity. The article also highlights the therapeutic significance of maintaining a healthy mitochondrial environment in neuronal cells via pharmacological management in context of peripheral neuropathies. Aberrant cellular signaling coupled with changes in neurotransmission, peripheral and central sensitization are found to be responsible for the pathogenesis of variant toxic neuropathies. Current research reports have indicated the possible involvement of mitochondria mediated redox imbalance as one of the principal causes of neuropathy aetiologies. In addition to imbalance in redox homeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction is also responsible for alterations in physiological bioenergetic metabolism, apoptosis and autophagy pathways. In spite of various etiological factors, mitochondrial dysfunction has been found to be a major pathomechanism underlying the neuronal dysfunction associated with peripheral neuropathies. Pharmacological modulation of mitochondria either directly or indirectly is expected to yield therapeutic relief from various primary and secondary mitochondrial diseases.
Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Yu, Yingjie; Vasudevan, Anita; Farhana, Lulu; Rajendra, Sindhu G.; Levi, Edi; Majumdar, Adhip P. N.
Accumulating evidence suggests that metformin, a biguanide class of anti-diabetic drugs, possesses anti-cancer properties. However, most of the studies to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of metformin have been on primary cancer. No information is available whether metformin could be effectively used for recurrent cancer, specifically colorectal cancer (CRC) that affects up to 50% of patients treated by conventional chemotherapies. Although the reasons for recurrence are not fully understood, it is thought to be due to re-emergence of chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem/stem-like cells (CSCs/CSLCs). Therefore, development of non-toxic treatment strategies targeting CSCs would be of significant therapeutic benefit. In the current investigation, we have examined the effectiveness of metformin, in combination with 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FuOx), the mainstay of colon cancer therapeutics, on survival of chemo-resistant colon cancer cells that are highly enriched in CSCs/CSLCs. Our data show that metformin acts synergistically with FuOx to (a) induce cell death in chemo resistant (CR) HT-29 and HCT-116 colon cancer cells, (b) inhibit colonospheres formation and (c) enhance colonospheres disintegration. In vitro cell culture studies have further demonstrated that the combinatorial treatment inhibits migration of CR colon cancer cells. These changes were associated with increased miRNA 145 and reduction in miRNA 21. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was also down-regulated indicating its pivotal role in regulating the growth of CR colon cancer cells. Data from SCID mice xenograft model of CR HCT-116 and CR HT-29 cells show that the combination of metformin and FuOX is highly effective in inhibiting the growth of colon tumors as evidenced by ∼50% inhibition in growth following 5 weeks of combination treatment, when compared with the vehicle treated controls. Our current data suggest that metformin together with conventional chemotherapy could be an effective treatment
Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that metformin, a biguanide class of anti-diabetic drugs, possesses anti-cancer properties. However, most of the studies to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of metformin have been on primary cancer. No information is available whether metformin could be effectively used for recurrent cancer, specifically colorectal cancer (CRC that affects up to 50% of patients treated by conventional chemotherapies. Although the reasons for recurrence are not fully understood, it is thought to be due to re-emergence of chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem/stem-like cells (CSCs/CSLCs. Therefore, development of non-toxic treatment strategies targeting CSCs would be of significant therapeutic benefit. In the current investigation, we have examined the effectiveness of metformin, in combination with 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FuOx, the mainstay of colon cancer therapeutics, on survival of chemo-resistant colon cancer cells that are highly enriched in CSCs/CSLCs. Our data show that metformin acts synergistically with FuOx to (a induce cell death in chemo resistant (CR HT-29 and HCT-116 colon cancer cells, (b inhibit colonospheres formation and (c enhance colonospheres disintegration. In vitro cell culture studies have further demonstrated that the combinatorial treatment inhibits migration of CR colon cancer cells. These changes were associated with increased miRNA 145 and reduction in miRNA 21. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was also down-regulated indicating its pivotal role in regulating the growth of CR colon cancer cells. Data from SCID mice xenograft model of CR HCT-116 and CR HT-29 cells show that the combination of metformin and FuOX is highly effective in inhibiting the growth of colon tumors as evidenced by ∼ 50% inhibition in growth following 5 weeks of combination treatment, when compared with the vehicle treated controls. Our current data suggest that metformin together with conventional chemotherapy could be an
Procházka, Václav; Jurčíková, Jana; Laššák, Ondrej; Vítková, Kateřina; Pavliska, Lubomír; Porubová, Ludmila; Buszman, Piotr P; Krauze, Agata; Fernandez, Carlos; Jalůvka, František; Špačková, Iveta; Lochman, Ivo; Jana, Dvořáčková; Merfeld-Clauss, Stephanie; March, Keith L; Traktuev, Dmitry O; Johnstone, Brian H
Transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) is an emerging therapeutic option for addressing intractable diseases such as critical limb ischemia (CLI). Evidence suggests that therapeutic effects of ADSCs are primarily mediated through paracrine mechanisms rather than transdifferentiation. These secreted factors can be captured in conditioned medium (CM) and concentrated to prepare a therapeutic factor concentrate (TFC) composed of a cocktail of beneficial growth factors and cytokines that individually and in combination demonstrate disease-modifying effects. The ability of a TFC to promote reperfusion in a rabbit model of CLI was evaluated. A total of 27 adult female rabbits underwent surgery to induce ischemia in the left hindlimb. An additional five rabbits served as sham controls. One week after surgery, the ischemic limbs received intramuscular injections of either (1) placebo (control medium), (2) a low dose of TFC, or (3) a high dose of TFC. Limb perfusion was serially assessed with a Doppler probe. Blood samples were analyzed for growth factors and cytokines. Tissue was harvested postmortem on day 35 and assessed for capillary density by immunohistochemistry. At 1 month after treatment, tissue perfusion in ischemic limbs treated with a high dose of TFC was almost double (p < 0.05) that of the placebo group [58.8 ± 23 relative perfusion units (RPU) vs. 30.7 ± 13.6 RPU; mean ± SD]. This effect was correlated with greater capillary density in the affected tissues and with transiently higher serum levels of the angiogenic and prosurvival factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). The conclusions from this study are that a single bolus administration of TFC demonstrated robust effects for promoting tissue reperfusion in a rabbit model of CLI and that a possible mechanism of revascularization was promotion of angiogenesis by TFC. Results of this study demonstrate that TFC represents a potent
Full Text Available Stroke is a disease of ageing affecting millions of people worldwide, and recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (r-tPA the only treatment approved. However, r-tPA has a low therapeutic window and secondary effects which limit its beneficial outcome, urging thus the search for new more efficient therapies. Among them, neuroprotection based on melatonin or nitrones, as free radical traps, have arisen as drug candidates due to their strong antioxidant power. In this Perspective, an update on the specific results of the melatonin and several new nitrones are presented.
Muyal, Jai Prakash; Muyal, Vandana; Kotnala, Sudhir; Kumar, Dhananjay; Bhardwaj, Harsh
Pulmonary emphysema is a major manifestation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is characterized by progressive destruction of alveolar parenchyma with persistent inflammation of the small airways. Such destruction in the distal respiratory tract is irreversible and irreparable. All-trans-retinoic acid was suggested as a novel therapy for regeneration of lost alveoli in emphysema. However, profound discrepancies were evident between studies. At present, no effective therapeutic options are available that allow for the regeneration of lost alveoli in emphysematous human lungs. Recently, some reports on rodent's models have suggested the beneficial effects of various growth factors toward alveolar maintenance and repair processes.
McIntire, Kevin L; Hoffman, Andrew R
Age related muscle loss, known as sarcopenia, is a major factor in disability, loss of mobility and quality of life in the elderly. There are many proposed mechanisms of age-related muscle loss that include the endocrine system. A variety of hormones regulate growth, development and metabolism throughout the lifespan. Hormone activity may change with age as a result of reduced hormone secretion or decreased tissue responsiveness. This review will focus on the complex interplay between the endocrine system, aging and skeletal muscle and will present possible benefits of therapeutic interventions for sarcopenia.
Echeverria, Valentina; Zeitlin, Ross
Tobacco smoking has been correlated with a lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This negative correlation has been attributed to nicotine's properties. However, the undesired side-effects of nicotine and the absence of clear evidence of positive effects of this drug on the cognitive abilities of AD patients have decreased the enthusiasm for its therapeutic use. In this review, we discuss evidence showing that cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, has many of the beneficial effects but none of the negative side-effects of its precursor. Cotinine has been shown to be neuroprotective, to improve memory in primates as well as to prevent memory loss, and to lower amyloid-beta (Aβ)) burden in AD mice. In AD, cotinine's positive effect on memory is associated with the inhibition of Aβ aggregation, the stimulation of pro-survival factors such as Akt, and the inhibition of pro-apoptotic factors such as glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β). Because stimulation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) positively modulates these factors and memory, the involvement of these receptors in cotinine's effects are discussed. Because of its beneficial effects on brain function, good safety profile, and nonaddictive properties, cotinine may represent a new therapeutic agent against AD.
Full Text Available Introduction: Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill is one of the oldest spice plants which, due to its economic importance and significant pharmaceutical industry applications, is considered as one of the world’s most important medicinal plants. The purpose of this study is to investigate and collect scientific reports such as morphological characteristics, phytochemical compounds and evaluation of the therapeutic properties of this valuable medicinal plant that have been published. Methods: In order to gather the information the keywords Fennel and Foeniculum vulgare mill, therapeutic, and pharmacology have been searched until January 1, 2015 from journals accessible in databases such as ScienceDirect, Scopus, EBSCO, Medline, PubMed, Embase, SID and Iran Medex. Results: The results showed that this plant has various pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, anti-bacterial and estrogenic effects which are probably due to the presence of aromatic compounds such as anethole, estragole and fenshon. Conclusion: Fennel possesses various pharmacological properties and the fennel bioactive molecules play an important role in human health, hence, it might be used for different drug productions.
Full Text Available Valproic acid (VPA, a branched short-chain fatty acid, is widely used as an antiepileptic drug and a mood stabilizer. Antiepileptic properties have been attributed to inhibition of Gamma Amino Butyrate (GABA transaminobutyrate and of ion channels. VPA was recently classified among the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors, acting directly at the level of gene transcription by inhibiting histone deacetylation and making transcription sites more accessible. VPA is a widely used drug, particularly for children suffering from epilepsy. Due to the increasing number of clinical trials involving VPA, and interesting results obtained, this molecule will be implicated in an increasing number of therapies. However side effects of VPA are substantially described in the literature whereas they are poorly discussed in articles focusing on its therapeutic use. This paper aims to give an overview of the different clinical-trials involving VPA and its side effects encountered during treatment as well as its molecular properties.
Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Goodwin, Guy M
Plant-based psychedelics, such as psilocybin, have an ancient history of medicinal use. After the first English language report on LSD in 1950, psychedelics enjoyed a short-lived relationship with psychology and psychiatry. Used most notably as aids to psychotherapy for the treatment of mood disorders and alcohol dependence, drugs such as LSD showed initial therapeutic promise before prohibitive legislature in the mid-1960s effectively ended all major psychedelic research programs. Since the early 1990s, there has been a steady revival of human psychedelic research: last year saw reports on the first modern brain imaging study with LSD and three separate clinical trials of psilocybin for depressive symptoms. In this circumspective piece, RLC-H and GMG share their opinions on the promises and pitfalls of renewed psychedelic research, with a focus on the development of psilocybin as a treatment for depression.
Moreira, P I; Siedlak, S L; Aliev, G; Zhu, X; Cash, A D; Smith, M A; Perry, G
Oxidative damage of biological macromolecules is a hallmark of most neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer, Parkinson and diffuse Lewy body diseases. Another important phenomenon involved in these disorders is the alteration of iron and copper homeostasis. Data from the literature support the involvement of metal homeostasis in mitochondrial dysfunction, protein alterations and nucleic acid damage which are relevant in brain function and consequently, in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. Although alterations in transition metal homeostasis, redox activity, and localization are well documented, it must be determined how alterations of specific copper- and iron-containing metalloenzymes are also involved in Alzheimer disease. The clarification of these phenomena can open a new window for understanding the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and, consequently, for the development of new therapeutic strategies such as gene therapy and new pharmaceutical formulations with antioxidant and chelating properties.
Puliaeva, I.; Puliaev, R.; Via, C.S.
Recent evidence supports the idea that following a break in tolerance, CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) may be an important but unrecognized mechanism for limiting expansion of autoreactive B cells. Failure of this mechanism could allow persistence of CD4 T cell driven polyclonal B cell activation resulting in clinical lupus. Although CD8 CTL failure may occur early in disease, work in mice supports the concept that therapeutic CTL enhancement may be both practical and beneficial in lupus. Devising such therapy for humans will first require an understanding of the in vivo mechanisms critical in CTL expansion and down regulation, particularly in the lupus setting which may differ from CTL generation in other clinical settings (e.g. tumors, infections). PMID:18725326
Poon, Ivan K H; Lucas, Christopher D; Rossi, Adriano G; Ravichandran, Kodi S
The prompt removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis. The molecular and cellular events that underpin apoptotic cell recognition and uptake, and the subsequent biological responses, are increasingly better defined. The detection and disposal of apoptotic cells generally promote an anti-inflammatory response at the tissue level, as well as immunological tolerance. Consequently, defects in apoptotic cell clearance have been linked with various inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Conversely, under certain conditions, such as the killing of tumour cells by specific cell-death inducers, the recognition of apoptotic tumour cells can promote an immunogenic response and antitumour immunity. Here, we review the current understanding of the complex process of apoptotic cell clearance in physiology and pathology, and discuss how this knowledge could be harnessed for new therapeutic strategies.
Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Hoshino-Shimizu, Sumie; Jacob, Cristina Miuki Abe; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Ferreira, Antonio Walter
In human toxocariasis, there are few approaches using immunological markers for diagnosis and therapeutic assessment. An immunoblot (IB) assay using excretory-secretory Toxocara canis antigen was standardized for monitoring IgG, IgE and IgA antibodies in 27 children with toxocariasis (23 visceral, three mixed visceral and ocular, and one ocular form) for 22-116 months after chemotherapy. IB sensitivity was 100% for IgG antibodies to bands of molecular weight 29-38, 48-54, 95-116, 121-162, >205 kDa, 80.8% for IgE to 29-38, 48-54, 95-121, > 205 kDa, and 65.4% for IgA to 29-38, 48-54, 81-93 kDa. Candidates for diagnostic markers should be IgG antibodies to bands of low molecular weight (29-38 and 48-54 kDa). One group of patients presented the same antibody reactivity to all bands throughout the follow-up study; in the other group, antibodies decayed partially or completely to some or all bands, but these changes were not correlated with time after chemotherapy. Candidates for monitoring patients after chemotherapy may be IgG antibodies to > 205 kDa fractions, IgA to 29-38, 48-54, 81-93 kDa and IgE to 95-121 kDa. Further identification of antigen epitopes related to these markers will allow the development of sensitive and specific immunoassays for the diagnosis and therapeutic assessment of toxocariasis.
Pällmann, Nora; Braig, Melanie; Sievert, Henning; Preukschas, Michael; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Schweizer, Michaela; Nagel, Claus Henning; Neumann, Melanie; Wild, Peter; Haralambieva, Eugenia; Hagel, Christian; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Hauber, Joachim; Balabanov, Stefan
Hypusine modification of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) is emerging as a crucial regulator in cancer, infections, and inflammation. Although its contribution in translational regulation of proline repeat-rich proteins has been sufficiently demonstrated, its biological role in higher eukaryotes remains poorly understood. To establish the hypusine modification system as a novel platform for therapeutic strategies, we aimed to investigate its functional relevance in mammals by generating and using a range of new knock-out mouse models for the hypusine-modifying enzymes deoxyhypusine synthase and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase as well as for the cancer-related isoform eIF-5A2. We discovered that homozygous depletion of deoxyhypusine synthase and/or deoxyhypusine hydroxylase causes lethality in adult mice with different penetrance compared with haploinsufficiency. Network-based bioinformatic analysis of proline repeat-rich proteins, which are putative eIF-5A targets, revealed that these proteins are organized in highly connected protein-protein interaction networks. Hypusine-dependent translational control of essential proteins (hubs) and protein complexes inside these networks might explain the lethal phenotype observed after deletion of hypusine-modifying enzymes. Remarkably, our results also demonstrate that the cancer-associated isoform eIF-5A2 is dispensable for normal development and viability. Together, our results provide the first genetic evidence that the hypusine modification in eIF-5A is crucial for homeostasis in mammals. Moreover, these findings highlight functional diversity of the hypusine system compared with lower eukaryotes and indicate eIF-5A2 as a valuable and safe target for therapeutic intervention in cancer. PMID:26037925
Pällmann, Nora; Braig, Melanie; Sievert, Henning; Preukschas, Michael; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Schweizer, Michaela; Nagel, Claus Henning; Neumann, Melanie; Wild, Peter; Haralambieva, Eugenia; Hagel, Christian; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Hauber, Joachim; Balabanov, Stefan
Hypusine modification of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) is emerging as a crucial regulator in cancer, infections, and inflammation. Although its contribution in translational regulation of proline repeat-rich proteins has been sufficiently demonstrated, its biological role in higher eukaryotes remains poorly understood. To establish the hypusine modification system as a novel platform for therapeutic strategies, we aimed to investigate its functional relevance in mammals by generating and using a range of new knock-out mouse models for the hypusine-modifying enzymes deoxyhypusine synthase and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase as well as for the cancer-related isoform eIF-5A2. We discovered that homozygous depletion of deoxyhypusine synthase and/or deoxyhypusine hydroxylase causes lethality in adult mice with different penetrance compared with haploinsufficiency. Network-based bioinformatic analysis of proline repeat-rich proteins, which are putative eIF-5A targets, revealed that these proteins are organized in highly connected protein-protein interaction networks. Hypusine-dependent translational control of essential proteins (hubs) and protein complexes inside these networks might explain the lethal phenotype observed after deletion of hypusine-modifying enzymes. Remarkably, our results also demonstrate that the cancer-associated isoform eIF-5A2 is dispensable for normal development and viability. Together, our results provide the first genetic evidence that the hypusine modification in eIF-5A is crucial for homeostasis in mammals. Moreover, these findings highlight functional diversity of the hypusine system compared with lower eukaryotes and indicate eIF-5A2 as a valuable and safe target for therapeutic intervention in cancer. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Kwilasz, A J; Grace, P M; Serbedzija, P; Maier, S F; Watkins, L R
Neuroimmune diseases have diverse symptoms and etiologies but all involve pathological inflammation that affects normal central nervous system signaling. Critically, many neuroimmune diseases also involve insufficient signaling/bioavailability of interleukin-10 (IL-10). IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine released by immune cells and glia, which drives the regulation of a variety of anti-inflammatory processes. This review will focus on the signaling pathways and function of IL-10, the current evidence for insufficiencies in IL-10 signaling/bioavailability in neuroimmune diseases, as well as the implications for IL-10-based therapies to treating such problems. We will review in detail four pathologies as examples of the common etiologies of such disease states, namely neuropathic pain (nerve trauma), osteoarthritis (peripheral inflammation), Parkinson's disease (neurodegeneration), and multiple sclerosis (autoimmune). A number of methods to increase IL-10 have been developed (e.g. protein administration, viral vectors, naked plasmid DNA, plasmid DNA packaged in polymers to enhance their uptake into target cells, and adenosine 2A agonists), which will also be discussed. In general, IL-10-based therapies have been effective at treating both the symptoms and pathology associated with various neuroimmune diseases, with more sophisticated gene therapy-based methods producing sustained therapeutic effects lasting for several months following a single injection. These exciting results have resulted in IL-10-targeted therapeutics being positioned for upcoming clinical trials for treating neuroimmune diseases, including neuropathic pain. Although further research is necessary to determine the full range of effects associated with IL-10-based therapy, evidence suggests IL-10 may be an invaluable target for the treatment of neuroimmune disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Neuroimmunology and Synaptic Function'.
Full Text Available In human toxocariasis, there are few approaches using immunological markers for diagnosis and therapeutic assessment. An immunoblot (IB assay using excretory-secretory Toxocara canis antigen was standardized for monitoring IgG, IgE and IgA antibodies in 27 children with toxocariasis (23 visceral, three mixed visceral and ocular, and one ocular form for 22-116 months after chemotherapy. IB sensitivity was 100% for IgG antibodies to bands of molecular weight 29-38, 48-54, 95-116, 121-162, >205 kDa, 80.8% for IgE to 29-38, 48-54, 95-121, > 205 kDa, and 65.4% for IgA to 29-38, 48-54, 81-93 kDa. Candidates for diagnostic markers should be IgG antibodies to bands of low molecular weight (29-38 and 48-54 kDa. One group of patients presented the same antibody reactivity to all bands throughout the follow-up study; in the other group, antibodies decayed partially or completely to some or all bands, but these changes were not correlated with time after chemotherapy. Candidates for monitoring patients after chemotherapy may be IgG antibodies to > 205 kDa fractions, IgA to 29-38, 48-54, 81-93 kDa and IgE to 95-121 kDa. Further identification of antigen epitopes related to these markers will allow the development of sensitive and specific immunoassays for the diagnosis and therapeutic assessment of toxocariasis.
Frommer, Klaus W; Schäffler, Andreas; Büchler, Christa; Steinmeyer, Jürgen; Rickert, Markus; Rehart, Stefan; Brentano, Fabia; Gay, Steffen; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Neumann, Elena
Several clinical studies have suggested the adipocytokine adiponectin is involved in the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). From this point of view, adiponectin might present a new therapeutic target. However, as adiponectin also exerts beneficial effects in the human organism, a strategy that would allow its detrimental effects to be abolished while maintaining the positive effects would be highly favourable. To elucidate such a strategy, the authors analysed whether the different adiponectin isoforms induce diverging effects, especially with regard to rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF), a central cell type in RA pathogenesis capable of invading into and destroying cartilage. Affymetrix microarrays were used to screen for changes in gene expression of RASF. Messenger RNA levels were quantified by real-time PCR, protein levels by immunoassay. The migration of RASF and primary human lymphocytes was analysed using a two-chamber migration assay. In RASF, the individual adiponectin isoforms induced numerous genes/proteins relevant in RA pathogenesis to clearly different extents. In general, the most potent isoforms were the high molecular weight/middle molecular weight isoforms and the globular isoform, while the least potent isoform was the adiponectin trimer. The chemokines secreted by RASF upon adiponectin stimulation resulted in an increased migration of RASF and lymphocytes. The results clearly suggest a pro-inflammatory and joint-destructive role of all adiponectin isoforms in RA pathophysiology, indicating that in chronic inflammatory joint diseases the detrimental effects outweigh the beneficial effects of adiponectin.
Farini, Andrea; Sitzia, Clementina; Cassani, Barbara; Cassinelli, Letizia; Rigoni, Rosita; Colleoni, Federica; Fusco, Nicola; Gatti, Stefano; Bella, Pamela; Villa, Chiara; Napolitano, Filomena; Maiavacca, Rita; Bosari, Silvano; Villa, Anna; Torrente, Yvan
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an inherited fatal genetic disease characterized by mutations in dystrophin gene, causing membrane fragility leading to myofiber necrosis and inflammatory cell recruitment in dystrophic muscles. The resulting environment enriched in proinflammatory cytokines, like IFN-γ and TNF-α, determines the transformation of myofiber constitutive proteasome into the immunoproteasome, a multisubunit complex involved in the activation of cell-mediate immunity. This event has a fundamental role in producing peptides for antigen presentation by MHC class I, for the immune response and also for cytokine production and T-cell differentiation. Here, we characterized for the first time the presence of T-lymphocytes activated against revertant dystrophin epitopes, in the animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the mdx mice. Moreover, we specifically blocked i-proteasome subunit LMP7, which was up-regulated in dystrophic skeletal muscles, and we demonstrated the rescue of the dystrophin expression and the amelioration of the dystrophic phenotype. The i-proteasome blocking lowered myofiber MHC class I expression and self-antigen presentation to T cells, thus reducing the specific antidystrophin T cell response, the muscular cell infiltrate, and proinflammatory cytokine production, together with muscle force recovery. We suggest that i-proteasome inhibition should be considered as new promising therapeutic approach for Duchenne muscular dystrophy pathology.
Perez, Dominique R.; Smagley, Yelena; Garcia, Matthew; Carter, Mark B.; Evangelisti, Annette; Matlawska-Wasowska, Ksenia; Winter, Stuart S.; Sklar, Larry A.; Chigaev, Alexandre
Apoptotic evasion is a hallmark of cancer. We propose that some cancers may evade cell death by regulating 3′-5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which is associated with pro-apoptotic signaling. We hypothesize that leukemic cells possess mechanisms that efflux cAMP from the cytoplasm, thus protecting them from apoptosis. Accordingly, cAMP efflux inhibition should result in: cAMP accumulation, activation of cAMP-dependent downstream signaling, viability loss, and apoptosis. We developed a novel assay to assess cAMP efflux and performed screens to identify inhibitors. In an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) model, several identified compounds reduced cAMP efflux, appropriately modulated pathways that are responsive to cAMP elevation (cAMP-responsive element-binding protein phosphorylation, and deactivation of Very Late Antigen-4 integrin), and induced mitochondrial depolarization and caspase activation. Blocking adenylyl cyclase activity was sufficient to reduce effects of the most potent compounds. These compounds also decreased cAMP efflux and viability of B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) cell lines and primary patient samples, but not of normal primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our data suggest that cAMP efflux is a functional feature that could be therapeutically targeted in leukemia. Furthermore, because some of the identified drugs are currently used for treating other illnesses, this work creates an opportunity for repurposing. PMID:27129155
Prasan R Bhandari
Full Text Available Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as Indian gooseberry or Amla, is perhaps the most important medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda. Several parts of the plant are used to treat a variety of diseases, but the most important is the fruit. Many ailments are treated by the fruit which is used either alone or in combination with other plants. These include common cold and fever; as a diuretic, laxative, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, restorative, alterative, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hair tonic; to prevent peptic ulcer and dyspepsia, and as a digestive. E. officinalis possesses antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive, antiatherogenic, adaptogenic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antianemic, antihypercholesterolemic, wound healing, antidiarrheal, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties as demonstrated in numerous preclinical studies. Furthermore, experimental studies have reported that E. officinalis and some of its phytochemicals also exhibit anticarcinogenic properties. E. officinalis is also reported to possess radiomodulatory, chemomodulatory, chemopreventive, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and immunomodulatory activities. These properties are efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. This review summarizes the results related to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research establishing its activity and utility as a cancer preventive and therapeutic drug in humans.
She, Meihua; Laudon, Moshe; Yin, Weidong
Melatonin is synthesized and secreted mainly by the pineal gland in a circadian fashion, and it thus mediates endogenous circadian rhythms and influences other physiological functions. Both the G-protein coupled receptors MT1 (encoded by MTNR1A) and MT2 (encoded by MTNR1B) in mammals mediate the actions of melatonin. Evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies proved a key role of melatonin in the regulation of glucose metabolism and the pathogenesis of diabetes, as further confirmed by the recent studies of human genetic variants of MTNR1B. Remarkably, it was also suggested that genetic variations within MTNR1B disordered β-cells function directly, i.e. insulin secretion. This indicated the functional link between MT2 and T2D risk at the protein level, and it may represent the prevailing pathomechanism for how impaired melatonin signaling causes metabolic disorders and increases the T2D risk. It is speculated that melatonin and its receptors may be a new therapeutic avenue in diabetes.
Brunden, Kurt R; Trojanowski, John Q; Smith, Amos B; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Ballatore, Carlo
Microtubules (MTs), cytoskeletal elements found in all mammalian cells, play a significant role in cell structure and in cell division. They are especially critical in the proper functioning of post-mitotic central nervous system neurons, where MTs serve as the structures on which key cellular constituents are trafficked in axonal projections. MTs are stabilized in axons by the MT-associated protein tau, and in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and Parkinson's disease, tau function appears to be compromised due to the protein dissociating from MTs and depositing into insoluble inclusions referred to as neurofibrillary tangles. This loss of tau function is believed to result in alterations of MT structure and function, resulting in aberrant axonal transport that likely contributes to the neurodegenerative process. There is also evidence of axonal transport deficiencies in other neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington's disease, which may result, at least in part, from MT alterations. Accordingly, a possible therapeutic strategy for such neurodegenerative conditions is to treat with MT-stabilizing agents, such as those that have been used in the treatment of cancer. Here, we review evidence of axonal transport and MT deficiencies in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, and summarize the various classes of known MT-stabilizing agents. Finally, we highlight the growing evidence that small molecule MT-stabilizing agents provide benefit in animal models of neurodegenerative disease and discuss the desired features of such molecules for the treatment of these central nervous system disorders.
M. K. Sukanya
Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles are applied in nanomedicine from time immemorial and are still used as powerful antibiotic and anti-inflammatory agents. Antibiotics produced by actinomycetes are popular in almost all the therapeutic measures, and this study has proven that these microbes are also helpful in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles with good surface and size characteristics. Silver can be synthesized by various chemical methodologies, and most of them have turned to be toxic. This study has been successful in isolating the microbes from polluted environment, and subjecting them to the reduction of silver nanoparticles, characterizing the nanoparticles by UV spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles produced were tested for their antimicrobial property, and the zone of inhibition was greater than those produced by their chemically synthesized counterparts. Actinomycetes, helpful in bioremediating heavy metals, are useful for the production of metallic nanoparticles. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles loaded with antibiotics prove to be better in killing the pathogens and have opened up new areas for developing nanobiotechnological research based on microbial applications.
Md Abdul Hakim
Full Text Available Venomous animals have evolved with sophisticated bio-chemical strategies to arrest prey and defend themselves from natural predators. In recent years, peptide toxins from venomous animals have drawn considerable attention from researchers due to their surprising chemical, biochemical, and pharmacological diversity. Similar to other venomous animals, centipedes are one of the crucial venomous arthropods that have been used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years in China. Despite signifying pharmacological importance, very little is known about the active components of centipede venoms. More than 500 peptide sequences have been reported in centipede venomous glands by transcriptome analysis, but only a small number of peptide toxins from centipede has been functionally described. Like other venomous animals such as snakes, scorpions, and spiders, the venom of centipedes could be an excellent source of peptides for developing drugs for treatments as well as bio-insecticides for agrochemical applications. Although centipede venoms are yet to be adequately studied, the venom of centipedes as well as their components described to date, should be compiled to help further research. Therefore, based on previous reports, this review focusses on findings and possible therapeutic applications of centipede venoms as well as their components.
Gonzalez, Janneth; Jurado-Coronel, Juan Camilo; Ávila, Marcos Fidel; Sabogal, Angélica; Capani, Francisco; Barreto, George E
N-methyl-D-aspartate ionotropic glutamate receptor (NMDARs) is a ligand-gated ion channel that plays a critical role in excitatory neurotransmission, brain development, synaptic plasticity associated with memory formation, central sensitization during persistent pain, excitotoxicity and neurodegenerative diseases in the central nervous system (CNS). Within iGluRs, NMDA receptors have been the most actively investigated for their role in neurological diseases, especially neurodegenerative pathologies such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. It has been demonstrated that excessive activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) plays a key role in mediating some aspects of synaptic dysfunction in several CNS disorders, so extensive research has been directed on the discovery of compounds that are able to reduce NMDARs activity. This review discusses the role of NMDARs on neurological pathologies and the possible therapeutic use of agents that target this receptor. Additionally, we delve into the role of NMDARs in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and the receptor antagonists that have been tested on in vivo models of these pathologies. Finally, we put into consideration the importance of antioxidants to counteract oxidative capacity of the signaling cascade in which NMDARs are involved.
Lanznaster, Débora; Dal-Cim, Tharine; Piermartiri, Tetsadê C. B.; Tasca, Carla I.
Guanosine is a purine nucleoside with important functions in cell metabolism and a protective role in response to degenerative diseases or injury. The past decade has seen major advances in identifying the modulatory role of extracellular action of guanosine in the central nervous system (CNS). Evidence from rodent and cell models show a number of neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of guanosine preventing deleterious consequences of seizures, spinal cord injury, pain, mood disorders and aging-related diseases, such as ischemia, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. The present review describes the findings of in vivo and in vitro studies and offers an update of guanosine effects in the CNS. We address the protein targets for guanosine action and its interaction with glutamatergic and adenosinergic systems and with calcium-activated potassium channels. We also discuss the intracellular mechanisms modulated by guanosine preventing oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory burden and modulation of glutamate transport. New and exciting avenues for future investigation into the protective effects of guanosine include characterization of a selective guanosine receptor. A better understanding of the neuromodulatory action of guanosine will allow the development of therapeutic approach to brain diseases. PMID:27699087
Raymond, Steven L.; Stortz, Julie A.; Mira, Juan C.; Larson, Shawn D.; Wynn, James L.; Moldawer, Lyle L.
Despite advances in critical care medicine, neonatal sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with the greatest risk affecting very low birth weight, preterm neonates. The presentation of neonatal sepsis varies markedly from its presentation in adults, and there is no clear consensus definition of neonatal sepsis. Previous work has demonstrated that when neonates become septic, death can occur rapidly over a matter of hours or days and is generally associated with inflammation, organ injury, and respiratory failure. Studies of the transcriptomic response by neonates to infection and sepsis have led to unique insights into the early proinflammatory and host protective responses to sepsis. Paradoxically, this early inflammatory response in neonates, although lethal, is clearly less robust relative to children and adults. Similarly, the expression of genes involved in host protective immunity, particularly neutrophil function, is also markedly deficient. As a result, neonates have both a diminished inflammatory and protective immune response to infection which may explain their increased risk to infection, and their reduced ability to clear infections. Such studies imply that novel approaches unique to the neonate will be required for the development of both diagnostics and therapeutics in this high at-risk population. PMID:28224121
Full Text Available This paper concerns the potential use of compounds, including lipid A, chitosan, and carrageenan, from marine sources as agents for treating endotoxemic complications from Gram-negative infections, such as sepsis and endotoxic shock. Lipid A, which can be isolated from various species of marine bacteria, is a potential antagonist of bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide (LPSs. Chitosan is a widespread marine polysaccharide that is derived from chitin, the major component of crustacean shells. The potential of chitosan as an LPS-binding and endotoxin-neutralizing agent is also examined in this paper, including a discussion on the generation of hydrophobic chitosan derivatives to increase the binding affinity of chitosan to LPS. In addition, the ability of carrageenan, which is the polysaccharide of red alga, to decrease the toxicity of LPS is discussed. We also review data obtained using animal models that demonstrate the potency of carrageenan and chitosan as antiendotoxin agents.
Hudson, Brian D.; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme
G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most historically successful therapeutic targets. Despite this success there are many important aspects of GPCR pharmacology and function that have yet to be exploited to their full therapeutic potential. One in particular that has been gaining attention in recent times is that of GPCR ligands that bind to allosteric sites on the receptor distinct from the orthosteric site of the endogenous ligand. As therapeutics, allosteric ligands possess many th...
Đuričić, Dražen; Valpotić, Hrvoje; Samardžija, Marko
Ozone therapy has been in use since 1896 in the USA. As a highly reactive molecule, ozone may inactivate bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeasts and protozoans, stimulate the oxygen metabolism of tissue, treat diseases, activate the immune system, and exhibit strong analgesic activity. More recently, ozone has been used in veterinary medicine, particularly in buiatrics, but still insufficiently. Medical ozone therapy has shown effectiveness as an alternative to the use of antibiotics, which are restricted to clinical use and have been withdrawn from non-clinical use as in-feed growth promoters in animal production. This review is an overview of current knowledge regarding the preventive and therapeutic effects of ozone in ruminants for the treatment of puerperal diseases and improvement in their fertility. In particular, ozone preparations have been tested in the treatment of reproductive tract lesions, urovagina and pneumomovagina, metritis, endometritis, fetal membrane retention and mastitis, as well as in the functional restoration of endometrium in dairy cows and goats. In addition, the preventive use of the intrauterine application of ozone has been assessed in order to evaluate its effectiveness in improving reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. No adverse effects were observed in cows and goats treated with ozone preparations. Moreover, there is a lot of evidence indicating the advantages of ozone preparation therapy in comparison to the application of antibiotics. However, there are certain limitations on ozone use in veterinary medicine and buiatrics, such as inactivity against intracellular microbes and selective activity against the same bacterial species, as well as the induction of tissue inflammation through inappropriate application of the preparation.
Van Linthout, Sophie; Frias, Miguel; Singh, Neha; De Geest, Bart
Epidemiological studies support a strong association between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and heart failure incidence. Experimental evidence from different angles supports the view that low HDL is unlikely an innocent bystander in the development of heart failure. HDL exerts direct cardioprotective effects, which are mediated via its interactions with the myocardium and more specifically with cardiomyocytes. HDL may improve cardiac function in several ways. Firstly, HDL may protect the heart against ischaemia/reperfusion injury resulting in a reduction of infarct size and thus in myocardial salvage. Secondly, HDL can improve cardiac function in the absence of ischaemic heart disease as illustrated by beneficial effects conferred by these lipoproteins in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Thirdly, HDL may improve cardiac function by reducing infarct expansion and by attenuating ventricular remodelling post-myocardial infarction. These different mechanisms are substantiated by in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo intervention studies that applied treatment with native HDL, treatment with reconstituted HDL, or human apo A-I gene transfer. The effect of human apo A-I gene transfer on infarct expansion and ventricular remodelling post-myocardial infarction illustrates the beneficial effects of HDL on tissue repair. The role of HDL in tissue repair is further underpinned by the potent effects of these lipoproteins on endothelial progenitor cell number, function, and incorporation, which may in particular be relevant under conditions of high endothelial cell turnover. Furthermore, topical HDL therapy enhances cutaneous wound healing in different models. In conclusion, the development of HDL-targeted interventions in these strategically chosen therapeutic areas is supported by a strong clinical rationale and significant preclinical data.
Krystal Lynn Parker
Full Text Available The cognitive role of the cerebellum is critically tied to its distributed connections throughout the brain. Accumulating evidence from anatomical, structural and functional imaging, and lesion studies advocate a cognitive network involving indirect connections between the cerebellum and non-motor areas in the prefrontal cortex. Cerebellar stimulation dynamically influences activity in several regions of the frontal cortex and effectively improves cognition in schizophrenia. In this manuscript, we summarize current literature on the cingulocerebellar circuit and we introduce a method to interrogate this circuit combining opotogenetics, neuropharmacology, and electrophysiology in awake-behaving animals while minimizing incidental stimulation of neighboring cerebellar nuclei. We propose the novel hypothesis that optogenetic cerebellar stimulation can restore aberrant frontal activity and rescue impaired cognition in schizophrenia. We focus on how a known cognitive region in the frontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, is influenced by the cerebellum. This circuit is of particular interest because it has been confirmed using tracing studies, neuroimaging reveals its role in cognitive tasks, it is conserved from rodents to humans, and diseases such as schizophrenia and autism appear in its aberrancy. Novel tract tracing results presented here provide support for how these two areas communicate. The primary pathway involves a disynaptic connection between the cerebellar dentate nuclei and the anterior cingulate cortex. Secondarily, the pathway from cerebellar fastigial nuclei to the ventral tegmental area, which supplies dopamine to the prefrontal cortex, may play a role as schizophrenia characteristically involves dopamine deficiencies. We hope that the hypothesis described here will inspire new therapeutic strategies targeting currently untreatable cognitive impairments in schizophrenia.
Over the past decade we have witnessed a renewed scientific interest in the classic hallucinogens (psychedelic drugs). These are substances which exert their effects by an agonist action on the 5-HT2A receptors. The purpose of this paper is to provide a short review and discussion of the psychedelic drugs, their safety profile and their potential antidepressive, anxiolytic and antiaddictive effects. The article primarily focusses on the most recent clinical trials.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carboxyethylpyrrole (CEP adducts are oxidative modifications derived from docosahexaenoate-containing lipids that are elevated in ocular tissues and plasma in age-related macular degeneration (AMD and in rodents exposed to intense light. The goal of this study was to determine whether light-induced CEP adducts and autoantibodies are modulated by pretreatment with AL-8309A under conditions that prevent photo-oxidative damage of rat retina. AL-8309A is a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonist. METHODS: Albino rats were dark adapted prior to blue light exposure. Control rats were maintained in normal cyclic light. Rats were injected subcutaneously 3x with 10 mg/kg AL-8309A (2 days, 1 day and 0 hours before light exposure for 6 h (3.1 mW/cm(2, λ=450 nm. Animals were sacrificed immediately following light exposure and eyes, retinas and plasma were collected. CEP adducts and autoantibodies were quantified by Western analysis or ELISA. RESULTS: ANOVA supported significant differences in mean amounts of CEP adducts and autoantibodies among the light + vehicle, light + drug and dark control groups from both retina and plasma. Light-induced CEP adducts in retina were reduced ~20% following pretreatment with AL-8309A (n = 62 rats, p = 0.006 and retinal CEP immunoreactivity was less intense by immunohistochemistry. Plasma levels of light-induced CEP adducts were reduced at least 30% (n = 15 rats, p = 0.004 by drug pretreatment. Following drug treatment, average CEP autoantibody titer in light exposed rats (n = 22 was unchanged from dark control levels, and ~20% (p = 0.046 lower than in vehicle-treated rats. CONCLUSIONS: Light-induced CEP adducts in rat retina and plasma were significantly decreased by pretreatment with AL-8309A. These results are consistent with and extend previous studies showing AL-8309A reduces light-induced retinal lesions in rats and support CEP biomarkers as possible tools for monitoring the efficacy of select therapeutics.
Full Text Available Introduction. Kurunga is a dairy drink made of a mix of lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation, characterized by high biological value based on protein composition, amino acid spectrum, fatty acid composition of lipids, vitamin and mineral substances, and physiological activity of microbiota containing lactobacilli, lactococci, bifidobacteria, and yeast. Among the probiotic correctors of normal microbiota isolated from national products, lactobacilli was of particular interest, with regards to a therapeutic – preventive effect. The aim of the study was to examine the probiotic properties of lactobacilli from kurunga.Methods. We isolated lactic acid bacteria strains from kurunga. The isolated cultures were identified using common microbiological methods and phylogenetic analysis. The antibiotic activities of these strains were determined by measuring the growth inhibition zone of test cultures. The probiotic properties were measured as levels of resistance to bile and hydrochloric acids, in addition to the presence of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity using the xanthine oxidase-cytochrome method. Proteolitic activity was determined at the various levels of pH (3.0, 4.2, 5.3, and 7.0.Results. According to the morphological, cultural, physiological, biochemical properties and the genotypic analysis of the oligonucleotides sequence of specific genes, the most effective strain was identified as Lactobacillus diolivorans KL-2 (GenBank database KC438372. The isolated strain suppressed the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Listeria sp., as well as Gram-negative bacteria, such as E.coli, Proteus, Salmonella sp. They also possessed fungicidal action (based on Penicillum, Aspergillus sp, and Candida sp.. The strain was resistant to the action of the bile acids at concentrations of 0.8% to 1.0% and hydrochloric acid. The strain KL-2 possessed a relatively high SOD activity (25.74 U/mg of protein, a low
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are essential signaling enzymes that, together with protein tyrosine kinases, regulate tyrosine phosphorylation inside the cell. Proper level of tyrosine phosphorylation is important for a diverse array of cellular processes, such as proliferation, metabolism, motility, and survival. Aberrant tyrosine phosphorylation, resulting from alteration of PTP expression, misregulation, and mutation, has been linked to the etiology of many human ailments including cancer, diabetes/obesity, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. However, despite the fact that PTPs have been garnering attention as compelling drug targets, they remain a largely underexploited resource for therapeutic intervention. Indeed, PTPs have been widely dismissed as "undruggable", due to concerns that (1) the highly conserved active site (i.e., pTyr-binding pocket) makes it difficult to achieve inhibitor selectivity among closely related family members, and (2) the positive-charged active site prefers negatively charged molecules, which usually lack cell permeability. To address the issue of selectivity, we advanced a novel paradigm for the acquisition of highly potent and selective PTP inhibitors through generation of bivalent ligands that interact with both PTP active site and adjacent unique peripheral pockets. To overcome the bioavailability issue, we have identified nonhydrolyzable pTyr mimetics that are sufficiently polar to bind the PTP active site, yet still capable of efficiently penetrating cell membranes. We show that these pTyr mimetics interact in the desired inhibitory fashion with the PTP active site and tethering them to appropriate molecular fragments to engage less conserved interactions outside of PTP active site can increase PTP inhibitor potency and selectivity. We demonstrate through three pTyr mimetics fragment-based approaches that it is completely feasible to obtain highly potent and selective PTP inhibitors with robust in vivo
Tsai, Louis M; Yu, Di
1. Evidence gathered in recent years has revealed microRNAs (miRNAs) fine-tune gene expression and play an important role in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. 2. The present review summarizes current knowledge of miRNA pathways in the pathogenesis of cancer, cardiac diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, autoimmune/inflammatory diseases and infection. 3. There is considerable potential to target miRNAs as a novel approach in the treatment of human diseases. Currently, miRNA-based therapies are being examined in both animal models and human clinical trials.
Sapolsky, R M; Pulsinelli, W A
Sustained exposure to glucocorticoids, the adrenocortical stress hormones, is toxic to neurons, and such toxicity appears to play a role in neuron loss during aging. Previous work has shown that glucocorticoids compromise the capacity of neurons to survive a variety of metabolic insults. This report extends those observations by showing that ischemic injury to neurons in rat brain is also potentiated by exposure to high physiological titers of glucocorticoids and is attenuated by adrenalectomy. The synergy between ischemic and glucocorticoid brain injury was seen even when glucocorticoid levels were manipulated after the ischemic insult. Pharmacological interventions that diminish the adrenocortical stress response may improve neurological outcome from stroke or cardiac arrest.
Siebel, Andrew L; Heywood, Sarah Elizabeth; Kingwell, Bronwyn A
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and its principal apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) have now been convincingly shown to influence glucose metabolism through multiple mechanisms. The key clinically relevant observations are that both acute HDL elevation via short-term reconstituted HDL (rHDL) infusion and chronically raising HDL via a cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor reduce blood glucose in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). HDL may mediate effects on glucose metabolism through actions in multiple organs (e.g., pancreas, skeletal muscle, heart, adipose, liver, brain) by three distinct mechanisms: (i) Insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, (ii) Insulin-independent glucose uptake, (iii) Insulin sensitivity. The molecular mechanisms appear to involve both direct HDL signaling actions as well as effects secondary to lipid removal from cells. The implications of glucoregulatory mechanisms linked to HDL extend from glycemic control to potential anti-ischemic actions via increased tissue glucose uptake and utilization. Such effects not only have implications for the prevention and management of diabetes, but also for ischemic vascular diseases including angina pectoris, intermittent claudication, cerebral ischemia and even some forms of dementia. This review will discuss the growing evidence for a role of HDL in glucose metabolism and outline related potential for HDL therapies.
Bulle, Saradamma; Reddyvari, Hymavathi; Nallanchakravarthula, Varadacharyulu; Vaddi, Damodara Reddy
Recently there has been increasing interest in plants and plant-derived compounds as raw food and medicinal agents. In Ayurveda, an Indian system of traditional medicine, a wide spectrum of medicinal properties of Pterocarpus santalinus is described. Many important bioactive phytocompounds have been extracted and identified from the heartwood of P. santalinus. Bioactive compounds typically occur in small amounts and have more subtle effects than nutrients. These bioactive compounds influence cellular activities that modify the risk of disease rather than prevent deficiency diseases. A wide array of biological activities and potential health benefits of P. santalinus have been reported, including antioxidative, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties, and protective effects on the liver, gastric mucosa, and nervous system. All these protective effects were attributed to bioactive compounds present in P. santalinus. The major bioactive compounds present in the heartwood of P. santalinus are santalin A and B, savinin, calocedrin, pterolinus K and L, and pterostilbenes. The bioactive compounds have potentially important health benefits: These compounds can act as antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors and inducers, inhibitors of receptor activities, and inducers and inhibitors of gene expression, among other actions. The present review aims to understand the pharmacological effects of P. santalinus on health and disease with "up-to-date" discussion.
Kamran, Sophia C; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Ng, Andrea; Haas-Kogan, Daphne; Viswanathan, Akila N
Radiation has long been associated with carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, it is an important part of multimodality therapy for many malignancies. It is critical to assess the risk of secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after radiation treatment. The authors reviewed the literature with a focus on radiation and associated SMNs for primary hematologic, breast, gynecologic, and pediatric tumors. Radiation appeared to increase the risk of SMN in all of these; however, this risk was found to be associated with age, hormonal influences, chemotherapy use, environmental influences, genetic predisposition, infection, and immunosuppression. The risk also appears to be altered with modern radiotherapy techniques. Practitioners of all specialties who treat cancer survivors in follow-up should be aware of this potential risk. Cancer 2016;122:1809-21. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Full Text Available Background. Cerebral palsy (CP is a severe disabling disease with worldwide incidence being 2 to 3 per 1000 live births. CP was considered as a noncurable, nonreparative disorder, but stem cell therapy offers a potential treatment for CP. Objective. The present study evaluates the safety and efficacy of autologous bone-marrow-derived mononuclear cell (BMMNCs transplantation in CP patient. Material and Methods. In the present study, five infusions of autologous stem cells were injected intrathecally. Changes in neurological deficits and improvements in function were assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS-E&R scale. Results. Significant motor, sensory, cognitive, and speech improvements were observed. Bowel and bladder control has been achieved. On the GMFCS-E&R level, the patient was promoted from grade III to I. Conclusion. In this study, we report that intrathecal infusion of autologous BMMNCs seems to be feasible, effective, and safe with encouraging functional outcome improvements in CP patient.
Carey, Andrew L; Kingwell, Bronwyn A
Harnessing the considerable capacity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) to consume energy was first proposed as a potential target to control obesity nearly 40years ago. The plausibility of this approach was, however, questioned due to the prevailing view that BAT was either not present or not functional in adult humans. Recent definitive identification of functional BAT in adult humans as well as a number of important advances in the understanding of BAT biology has reignited interest in BAT as an anti-obesity target. Proof-of-concept evidence demonstrating drug-induced BAT activation provides an important foundation for development of targeted pharmacological approaches with clinical application. This review considers evidence from both human and relevant animal studies to determine whether harnessing BAT for the treatment of obesity via pharmacological intervention is a realistic goal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ha, Soyang; Seo, Young-Ju; Kwon, Min-Seok; Chang, Byung-Ha; Han, Cheol-Kyu; Yoon, Jeong-Hyeok
Pharmaceutical industry has been striving to reduce the costs of drug development and increase productivity. Among the many different attempts, drug repositioning (retargeting existing drugs) comes into the spotlight because of its financial efficiency. We introduce IDMap which predicts novel relationships between targets and chemicals and thus is capable of repositioning the marketed drugs by using text mining and chemical structure information. Also capable of mapping commercial chemicals to possible drug targets and vice versa, IDMap creates convenient environments for identifying the potential lead and its targets, especially in the field of drug repositioning. IDMap executable and its user manual including color images are freely available to non-commercial users at http://www.equispharm.com/idmap
Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Yusoff, Mashitah M; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief; Soundharrajan, Ilavenil; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj
Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis.
Purandare, Chaitanya; Shitole, D G; Belle, Vaijayantee; Kedari, Aarti; Bora, Neeta; Joshi, Meghnad
Background. Cerebral palsy (CP) is a severe disabling disease with worldwide incidence being 2 to 3 per 1000 live births. CP was considered as a noncurable, nonreparative disorder, but stem cell therapy offers a potential treatment for CP. Objective. The present study evaluates the safety and efficacy of autologous bone-marrow-derived mononuclear cell (BMMNCs) transplantation in CP patient. Material and Methods. In the present study, five infusions of autologous stem cells were injected intrathecally. Changes in neurological deficits and improvements in function were assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS-E&R) scale. Results. Significant motor, sensory, cognitive, and speech improvements were observed. Bowel and bladder control has been achieved. On the GMFCS-E&R level, the patient was promoted from grade III to I. Conclusion. In this study, we report that intrathecal infusion of autologous BMMNCs seems to be feasible, effective, and safe with encouraging functional outcome improvements in CP patient.
Shahedur Rahman; Rezuanul Islam; AM Swaraz; Anesa Ansari; Anowar Khasru Parvez; Depak Kumar Paul
Genistein recognized as phytoestrogens is one of the most extensively studied isoflavones. It comprises of significant portion of Asian diet including Japanese and Chinese cuisine in the form of Soy food products. Evidence showed that geinstein increases osteoblasts formation as well as decreases osteoclast production. It plays an important role in immunity; such as suppression of delayed hypersensitivity and increases host resistance to B16F10 tumor by proliferating cytotoxic T and NK cells. It also decreases the activity of lipoprotein lipase which in turn inhibits lipogenesis and prevents the uptake of glucose in type 2 diabetic in rats. Geinstein play important role in reproductive system where it regulates the productive of oestrogen and progesterone. Moreover Geinstein has the ability to inhibit the tumor and cancer cell proliferation. Numerous beneficial effect of Geinstein including cancer treatment and function in immunity, obesity, diabetes and reproductivity Geinstein proves the potentiality of phytoestrogens as a source of bioactive substance.
Full Text Available Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis.
Marshall, C T; Lu, C; Winstead, W; Zhang, X; Xiao, M; Harding, G; Klueber, K M; Roisen, F J
Stem cells from fetal and adult central nervous system have been isolated and characterized, providing populations for potential replacement therapy for traumatic injury repair and neurodegenerative diseases. The regenerative capacity of the olfactory system has attracted scientific interest. Studies focusing on animal and human olfactory bulb ensheathing cells (OECs) have heightened the expectations that OECs can enhance axonal regeneration and repair demyelinating diseases. Harvest of OECs from the olfactory bulb requires highly invasive surgery, which is a major obstacle. In contrast, olfactory epithelium (OE) has a unique regenerative capacity and is readily accessible from its location in the nasal cavity, allowing for harvest without lasting damage to the donor. Adult OE contains progenitors responsible for the normal life-long continuous replacement of neurons and supporting cells. Culture techniques have been established for human OE that generate populations of mitotically active neural progenitors that form neurospheres (Roisen et al., 2001; Winstead et al., 2005). The potential application of this technology includes autologous transplantation where minimal donor material can be isolated, expanded ex vivo, and lineage restricted to a desired phenotype prior to/or after re-implantation. Furthermore, these strategies circumvent the ethical issues that arise with embryonic or fetal tissues. The long term goal is to develop procedures through which a victim of a spinal cord injury or neurodegenerative condition would serve as a source of progenitors for his/her own regenerative grafts, avoiding the need for immunosuppression and ethical controversy. In addition, these cells can provide populations for pharmacological and/or diagnostic evaluation.
Rahigude, A B; Kaulaskar, S V; Bhutada, P S
Diabetic osteopathy is a complication that leads to decreased bone mineral density, bone formation and having high risk of fractures that heals slowly. Diabetic osteopathy is a result of increase in osteoclastogenesis and decrease in osteoblastogenesis. Various factors viz., oxidative stress, increased inflammatory markers, PPAR-γ activation in osteoblast, activation of apoptotic pathway, increased glucose levels and inhibitory effect on parathyroid hormone etc. are mainly responsible for decreased bone mineral density. Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid widely used in Asian countries as a traditional medicine. Berberine is extensively reported to be an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and having potential to treat diabetic complications and glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis. The osteoclastogenesis decreasing property of berberine can be hypothesized for inhibiting diabetic osteopathy. In addition, chronic treatment of berberine will be helpful for increasing the osteoblastic activity and expression of the modulators that affect osteoblastic differentiation. The apoptotic pathways stimulated due to increased inflammatory markers and nucleic acid damages could be reduced due to berberine. Another important consideration that berberine is having stimulatory effect on glucagon like peptide release and insulin sensitization that will be helpful for decreasing glucose levels and therefore, may exerts osteogenesis. Thiazolidinediones show bone loss due to activation of PPAR-γ in osteoblasts, whereas berberine stimulates PPAR-γ only in adipocytes and not in osteoblasts, and therefore the decreased bone loss due to use of thiazolidinediones may not be observed in berberine treatment conditions. Berberine decreases the advanced glycation end-products (AGE) formation in diabetic condition which will be ultimately helpful to decrease the stiffness of collagen fibers due to AGE-induced cross linking. Lastly, it is also reported that berberine has
Tovmasyan, Artak; Sampaio, Romulo S; Boss, Mary-Keara; Bueno-Janice, Jacqueline C; Bader, Bader H; Thomas, Milini; Reboucas, Julio S; Orr, Michael; Chandler, Joshua D; Go, Young-Mi; Jones, Dean P; Venkatraman, Talaignair N; Haberle, Sinisa; Kyui, Natalia; Lascola, Christopher D; Dewhirst, Mark W; Spasojevic, Ivan; Benov, Ludmil; Batinic-Haberle, Ines
Ascorbate (Asc) as a single agent suppressed growth of several tumor cell lines in a mouse model. It has been tested in a Phase I Clinical Trial on pancreatic cancer patients where it exhibited no toxicity to normal tissue yet was of only marginal efficacy. The mechanism of its anticancer effect was attributed to the production of tumoricidal hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) during ascorbate oxidation catalyzed by endogenous metalloproteins. The amount of H2O2 could be maximized with exogenous catalyst that has optimized properties for such function and is localized within tumor. Herein we studied 14 Mn porphyrins (MnPs) which differ vastly with regards to their redox properties, charge, size/bulkiness and lipophilicity. Such properties affect the in vitro and in vivo ability of MnPs (i) to catalyze ascorbate oxidation resulting in the production of H2O2; (ii) to subsequently employ H2O2 in the catalysis of signaling proteins oxidations affecting cellular survival pathways; and (iii) to accumulate at site(s) of interest. The metal-centered reduction potential of MnPs studied, E1/2 of Mn(III)P/Mn(II)P redox couple, ranged from -200 to +350 mV vs NHE. Anionic and cationic, hydrophilic and lipophilic as well as short- and long-chained and bulky compounds were explored. Their ability to catalyze ascorbate oxidation, and in turn cytotoxic H2O2 production, was explored via spectrophotometric and electrochemical means. Bell-shape structure-activity relationship (SAR) was found between the initial rate for the catalysis of ascorbate oxidation, vo(Asc)ox and E1/2, identifying cationic Mn(III) N-substituted pyridylporphyrins with E1/2>0 mV vs NHE as efficient catalysts for ascorbate oxidation. The anticancer potential of MnPs/Asc system was subsequently tested in cellular (human MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and mouse 4T1) and animal models of breast cancer. At the concentrations where ascorbate (1mM) and MnPs (1 or 5 µM) alone did not trigger any alteration in cell viability, combined
Balszuweit, Frank; John, Harald; Schmidt, Annette; Kehe, Kai; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicating chemical warfare agent causing skin blistering, ulceration, impaired wound healing, prolonged hospitalization and permanent lesions. Silibinin, the lead compound from Silybum marianum, has also been discussed as a potential antidote to SM poisoning. However, its efficacy has been demonstrated only with regard to nitrogen mustards. Moreover, there are no data on the efficacy of the water-soluble prodrug silibinin-bis-succinat (silibinin-BS). We investigated the effect of SIL-BS treatment against SM toxicity in HaCaT cells with regard to potential reduction of necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation including dose-dependency of any protective effects. We also demonstrated the biotransformation of the prodrug into free silibinin. HaCaT cells were exposed to SM (30, 100, and 300μM) for 30min and treated thereafter with SIL-BS (10, 50, and 100μM) for 24h. Necrosis and apoptosis were quantified using the ToxiLight BioAssay and the nucleosome ELISA (CDDE). Pro-inflammatory interleukins-6 and -8 were determined by ELISA. HaCaT cells, incubated with silibinin-BS were lysed and investigated by LC-ESI MS/MS. LC-ESI MS/MS results suggest that SIL-BS is absorbed by HaCaT cells and biotransformed into free silibinin. SIL-BS dose-dependently reduced SM cytotoxicity, even after 300μM exposure. Doses of 50-100μM silibinin-BS were required for significant protection. Apoptosis and interleukin production remained largely unchanged by 10-50μM silibinin-BS but increased after 100μM treatment. Observed reductions of SM cytotoxicity by post-exposure treatment with SIL-BS suggest this as a promising approach for treatment of SM injuries. While 100μM SIL-BS is most effective to reduce necrosis, 50μM may be safer to avoid pro-inflammatory effects. Pro-apoptotic effects after high doses of SIL-BS are in agreement with findings in literature and might even be useful to eliminate cells irreversibly damaged by SM. Further investigations will focus on the
Goldsmith, Edie C; Bradshaw, Amy D; Zile, Michael R; Spinale, Francis G
The cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic structure, adapting to physiological and pathological stresses placed on the myocardium. Deposition and organization of the matrix fall under the purview of cardiac fibroblasts. While often overlooked compared to myocytes, fibroblasts play a critical role in maintaining ECM homeostasis under normal conditions and in response to pathological stimuli assume an activated, myofibroblast phenotype associated with excessive collagen accumulation contributing to impaired cardiac function. Complete appreciation of fibroblast function is hampered by the lack of fibroblast-specific reagents and the heterogeneity of fibroblast precursors. This is further complicated by our ability to dissect the role of myofibroblasts versus fibroblasts in myocardial in remodeling. This review highlights critical points in the regulation of collagen deposition by fibroblasts, the current panel of molecular tools used to identify fibroblasts and the role of fibroblast-matrix interactions in fibroblast function and differentiation into the myofibroblast phenotype. The clinical potential of exploiting differences between fibroblasts and myofibroblasts and using them to target specific fibroblast populations is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Myocyte-Fibroblast Signalling in Myocardium." Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
LUIZ HENRIQUE CÉSAR VASCONCELOS
Full Text Available Obesity is a multifactorial disease related to metabolic disorders and associated with genetic determinants. Currently, ion channels activity has been linked to many of these disorders, in addition to the central regulation of food intake, energetic balance, hormone release and response, as well as the adipocyte cell proliferation. Therefore, the objective of this work is to review the current knowledge about the influence of ion channels in obesity development. This review used different sources of literature (Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science to assess the role of ion channels in the pathophysiology of obesity. Ion channels present diverse key functions, such as the maintenance of physiological homeostasis and cell proliferation. Cell biology and pharmacological experimental evidences demonstrate that proliferating cells exhibit ion channel expression, conductance and electrical properties different from the resting cells. Thereby, a large variety of ion channels has been identified in the pathogenesis of obesity such as potassium, sodium, calcium and chloride channels, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and transient receptor potential channels. The fundamental involvement of these channels on the generation of obesity leads to the progress in the knowledge about the mechanisms responsible for the obesity pathophysiology, consequently emerging as new targets for pharmacological modulation.
Mathur, Harsh; Rea, Mary C; Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin
Clostridium difficile is mainly a nosocomial pathogen and is a significant cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. It is also implicated in the majority of cases of pseudomembranous colitis. Recently, advancements in next generation sequencing technology (NGS) have highlighted the extent of damage to the gut microbiota caused by broad-spectrum antibiotics, often resulting in C. difficile infection (CDI). Currently the treatment of choice for CDI involves the use of metronidazole and vancomycin. However, recurrence and relapse of CDI, even after rounds of metronidazole/vancomycin administration is a problem that must be addressed. The efficacy of alternative antibiotics such as fidaxomicin, rifaximin, nitazoxanide, ramoplanin and tigecycline, as well as faecal microbiota transplantation has been assessed and some have yielded positive outcomes against C. difficile. Some bacteriocins have also shown promising effects against C. difficile in recent years. In light of this, the potential for emerging treatment options and efficacy of anti-C. difficile vaccines are discussed in this review. PMID:25564777
Vasconcelos, Luiz H C; Souza, Iara L L; Pinheiro, Lílian S; Silva, Bagnólia A
Obesity is a multifactorial disease related to metabolic disorders and associated with genetic determinants. Currently, ion channels activity has been linked to many of these disorders, in addition to the central regulation of food intake, energetic balance, hormone release and response, as well as the adipocyte cell proliferation. Therefore, the objective of this work is to review the current knowledge about the influence of ion channels in obesity development. This review used different sources of literature (Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) to assess the role of ion channels in the pathophysiology of obesity. Ion channels present diverse key functions, such as the maintenance of physiological homeostasis and cell proliferation. Cell biology and pharmacological experimental evidences demonstrate that proliferating cells exhibit ion channel expression, conductance, and electrical properties different from the resting cells. Thereby, a large variety of ion channels has been identified in the pathogenesis of obesity such as potassium, sodium, calcium and chloride channels, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and transient receptor potential channels. The fundamental involvement of these channels on the generation of obesity leads to the progress in the knowledge about the mechanisms responsible for the obesity pathophysiology, consequently emerging as new targets for pharmacological modulation.
Full Text Available Diabetic wounds are unlike typical wounds in that they are slower to heal, making treatment with conventional topical medications an uphill process. Among several different alternative therapies, honey is an effective choice because it provides comparatively rapid wound healing. Although honey has been used as an alternative medicine for wound healing since ancient times, the application of honey to diabetic wounds has only recently been revived. Because honey has some unique natural features as a wound healer, it works even more effectively on diabetic wounds than on normal wounds. In addition, honey is known as an “all in one” remedy for diabetic wound healing because it can combat many microorganisms that are involved in the wound process and because it possesses antioxidant activity and controls inflammation. In this review, the potential role of honey’s antibacterial activity on diabetic wound-related microorganisms and honey’s clinical effectiveness in treating diabetic wounds based on the most recent studies is described. Additionally, ways in which honey can be used as a safer, faster, and effective healing agent for diabetic wounds in comparison with other synthetic medications in terms of microbial resistance and treatment costs are also described to support its traditional claims.
Full Text Available Gingival overgrowth is a side effect of certain medications. The most fibrotic drug-induced lesions develop in response to therapy with phenytoin, the least fibrotic lesions are caused by cyclosporin A, and the intermediate fibrosis occurs in nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth. Fibrosis is one of the largest groups of diseases for which there is no therapy but is believed to occur because of a persistent tissue repair program. During connective tissue repair, activated gingival fibroblasts synthesize and remodel newly created extracellular matrix. Proteins such as transforming growth factor (TGF, endothelin-1 (ET-1, angiotensin II (Ang II, connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF, insulin-like growth factor (IGF, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF appear to act in a network that contributes to the development of gingival fibrosis. Since inflammation is the prerequisite for gingival overgrowth, mast cells and its protease enzymes also play a vital role in the pathogenesis of gingival fibrosis. Drugs targeting these proteins are currently under consideration as antifibrotic treatments. This review summarizes recent observations concerning the contribution of TGF-β, CTGF, IGF, PDGF, ET-1, Ang II, and mast cell chymase and tryptase enzymes to fibroblast activation in gingival fibrosis and the potential utility of agents blocking these proteins in affecting the outcome of drug-induced gingival overgrowth.
Natalie T. Y. Leung
Full Text Available Affective dysregulation is at the root of many psychopathologies, including stress induced disorders, anxiety disorders, and depression. The root of these disorders appears to be an attenuated, top-down cognitive control from the prefrontal cortices over the maladaptive subcortical emotional processing. A form of mental training, long-term meditation practice can trigger meditation-specific neuroplastic changes in the brain regions underlying cognitive control and affective regulation, suggesting that meditation can act as a kind of mental exercise to foster affective regulation and possibly a cost-effective intervention in mood disorders. Increasing research has suggested that the cultivation of awareness and acceptance along with a nonjudgmental attitude via meditation promotes adaptive affective regulation. This review examined the concepts of affective regulation and meditation and discussed behavioral and neural evidence of the potential clinical application of meditation. Lately, there has been a growing trend toward incorporating the “mindfulness” component into existing psychotherapeutic treatment. Promising results have been observed thus far. Future studies may consider exploring the possibility of integrating the element of “compassion” into current psychotherapeutic approaches.
Thomas, Jackson; Carson, Christine F; Peterson, Greg M; Walton, Shelley F; Hammer, Kate A; Naunton, Mark; Davey, Rachel C; Spelman, Tim; Dettwiller, Pascale; Kyle, Greg; Cooper, Gabrielle M; Baby, Kavya E
Globally, scabies affects more than 130 million people at any time. In the developed world, outbreaks in health institutions and vulnerable communities result in a significant economic burden. A review of the literature demonstrates the emergence of resistance toward classical scabicidal treatments and the lack of effectiveness of currently available scabicides in reducing the inflammatory skin reactions and pyodermal progression that occurs in predisposed patient cohorts. Tea tree oil (TTO) has demonstrated promising acaricidal effects against scabies mites in vitro and has also been successfully used as an adjuvant topical medication for the treatment of crusted scabies, including cases that did not respond to standard treatments. Emerging acaricide resistance threatens the future usefulness of currently used gold standard treatments (oral ivermectin and topical permethrin) for scabies. The imminent development of new chemical entities is doubtful. The cumulative acaricidal, antibacterial, antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing effects of TTO may have the potential to successfully reduce the burden of scabies infection and the associated bacterial complications. This review summarizes current knowledge on the use of TTO for the treatment of scabies. On the strength of existing data for TTO, larger scale, randomized controlled clinical trials are warranted.
Davies, N; Cooke, T G; Jenkins, S A
Octreotide is a synthetic analogue of somatostatin that has clear inhibitory effects on the growth of many animal and human cell lines, including colorectal cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver is clinically important, both in terms of the number of patients affected and the lack of any effective treatment for the majority of patients. Octreotide inhibits the growth of colorectal liver tumour in a number of experimental models and, in at least three tumour types, inhibits the growth of established micro-metastases. The precise mechanism of action is not known. However, the drug is likely to be most beneficial in the treatment of liver metastases when the tumour burden is relatively small. The available evidence, although experimental, suggests that octreotide may also have a beneficial effect on the development of liver metastases when used as an adjuvant to surgery in colorectal cancer and this area warrants urgent clinical investigation. The cytotoxics which are currently used as an adjuvant to surgery for colorectal cancer have unpleasant side effects which can be life-threatening. There will also be a proportion of patients who have undergone a truly curative resection of their tumour and will thus be treated unnecessarily. The potential benefits of octreotide in the adjuvant setting, although promising, remain speculative, but octreotide has an acceptably low incidence of side effects and can be administered safely for a prolonged period of time.
Full Text Available Introduction. Nanoparticles made of noble metals, such as gold and silver, have a great potential to be effectively employed for wound management. The nano-size of such particles provides an opportunity to enlarge the contacting area, which results in more effective anti-bacterial action and faster wound repair. It must be noted that the shape of noble nanoparticles might play a crucial role in the manifestation of their anti-microbial properties. The modern state of technology allows fabrication of the nanoparticles with the desired shape and physical properties. In order to provide efficacy and close contact with the wound, the noble nanoparticles can be incorporated into a special matrix made of a cryogel (based on polymethyl methacrylate. This combination might serve as a foundation for developing completely new types of wound dressing.Materials and methods. We have developed a few methods for synthesizing gold and silver nanoparticles of different shapes and sizes. After fabrication of metallic nanoparticles, they were characterized by using Tunneling Electron Microscopy (TEM and Malvern Zetasizer system in order to determine the average population size and consistency. The silver nanoparticles was synthesized using sodium borohydride reduction of silver nitrate. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles was conducted by using the Turkevich method.Results. We have developed a synthetic cryogel based on polyacrylamide (by cryogelation reaction at several temperatures. At the second step, we developed a method for conjugating fabricated gold and silver nanoparticles to the surface (or pores of cryogel through covalent bonds so they can provide antibacterial action within the wound. By following the developed protocol, we were able to obtain an approximate cryogel layer (1 cm thickness with embedded gold and silver nanoparticles. This conjugate was analyzed and confirmed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and TEM.Discussion. The obtained
Kittel, A; Falus, A; Buzás, E
Cell derived extracellular vesicles are submicron structures surrounded by phospholipid bilayer and released by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The sizes of these vesicles roughly fall into the size ranges of microbes, and they represent efficient delivery platforms targeting complex molecular information to professional antigen presenting cells. Critical roles of these naturally formulated units of information have been described in many physiological and pathological processes. Extracellular vesicles are not only potential biomarkers and possible pathogenic factors in numerous diseases, but they are also considered as emerging therapeutic targets and therapeutic vehicles. Strikingly, current drug delivery systems, designed to convey therapeutic proteins and peptides (such as liposomes), show many similarities to extracellular vesicles. Here we review some aspects of therapeutic implementation of natural, cell-derived extracellular vesicles in human diseases. Exploration of molecular and functional details of extracellular vesicle release and action may provide important lessons for the design of future drug delivery systems.
Bakhtiar, Athirah; Sayyad, Mustak; Rosli, Rozita; Maruyama, Atsushi; Chowdhury, Ezharul H
Conventional therapies for malignant cancer such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with poor survival rates owing to the development of cellular resistance to cancer drugs and the lack of targetability, resulting in unwanted adverse effects on healthy cells and necessitating the lowering of therapeutic dose with consequential lower efficacy of the treatment. Gene therapy employing different types of viral and non-viral carriers to transport gene(s) of interest and facilitating production of the desirable therapeutic protein(s) has tremendous prospects in cancer treatments due to the high-level of specificity in therapeutic action of the expressed protein(s) with diminished off-target effects, although cancer cell-specific delivery of transgene(s) still poses some challenges to be addressed. Depending on the potential therapeutic target genes, cancer gene therapy could be categorized into tumor suppressor gene replacement therapy, immune gene therapy and enzyme- or prodrug-based therapy. This review would shed light on the current progress of delivery of potentially therapeutic genes into various cancer cells in vitro and animal models utilizing a variety of viral and non-viral vectors.
Full Text Available Rodbav Baths, former seasonal spa resort of local interest, due of its geographical position and therapeutic factors still available, may become again in the future, an important location for treatment but also for relaxation, rest as well as physical and psychological rehabilitation. On the other hand, its specific therapeutic natural potential may represent an alternative to drug treatment as the use of mineral water and therapeutic mud in spa treatment has had obvious results in improving or remedying certain illnesses throughout time.This paper aims to highlight the therapeutic potential of Rodbav Baths, which consists in natural and anthropogenic resources, as well as the need to harness the best of it, through appropriate infrastructure and sustained promotion, so that the touristic product offer should be of good quality. The paper is based on information and data obtained from specialized sources or documents from the national archives of Braşov as well as from field investigations and measurements performed in the period 2010 - 2012. They were then processed and systematized to achieve the graphic and cartographic material. Last, but not least, images, illustrating the observed phenomena were used. The final results are highlighted in this paper. Thus, it presents the types of mineral waters of Rodbav Baths and their therapeutic importance, their spreading around the studied site, the spa features of the area, and current and future means of developing spa and healthcare tourism.
Muhammad ShoaibAmjad; Huma Qureshi; MuhammadArshad; Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari; Maria Masood
Moringa oleifera, rightly called as the miracle tree, is the extensively grown and highly valuable species of Moringaceae family. The tree has a pantropical distribution with nativity to Indian subcontinent. Nutritionally and therapeutically, it is a highly valued plant. Vitamins, proteins, β-carotene, aminoacids and various phenolics such as β-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid, kaempferol, quercetin and zeatin with potential for nutritional and therapeutic applications are enriched in different plant parts. Different plant parts of this plant such as roots, leaves, bark, flowers, fruit of immature pods and seeds possess a number of therapeutic properties such as diuretic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antitumor, antiulcer, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, cholesterol lowering, hepatoprotective and antimicrobial activities, and are being operational in various traditional medicine system for curing different health problems. Moringa is higly beneficial in depression, malnutrition, general weakness and osteoporosis. The present review is intended to emphasize the phytochemical constitution, traditional medicinal uses along pharmacological properties with the purpose to create public awareness regarding therapeutic and nutritive potential of this multipurpose tree as well as to facilitate the pharmacists and the researchers to fill the gap by exploring novel therapeutic compounds that will, of course, be in favor of humanity.
Muhammad Shoaib Amjad
Full Text Available Moringa oleifera, rightly called as the miracle tree, is the extensively grown and highly valuable species of Moringaceae family. The tree has a pantropical distribution with nativity to Indian subcontinent. Nutritionally and therapeutically, it is a highly valued plant. Vitamins, proteins, β-carotene, aminoacids and various phenolics such as β-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid, kaempferol, quercetin and zeatin with potential for nutritional and therapeutic applications are enriched in different plant parts. Different plant parts of this plant such as roots, leaves, bark, flowers, fruit of immature pods and seeds possess a number of therapeutic properties such as diuretic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antitumor, antiulcer, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, cholesterol lowering, hepatoprotective and antimicrobial activities, and are being operational in various traditional medicine system for curing different health problems. Moringa is higly beneficial in depression, malnutrition, general weakness and osteoporosis. The present review is intended to emphasize the phytochemical constitution, traditional medicinal uses along pharmacological properties with the purpose to create public awareness regarding therapeutic and nutritive potential of this multipurpose tree as well as to facilitate the pharmacists and the researchers to fill the gap by exploring novel therapeutic compounds that will, of course, be in favor of humanity.
Degirolamo, Chiara; Sabbà, Carlo; Moschetta, Antonio
The endocrine fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23, are critical for maintaining whole-body homeostasis, with roles in bile acid, glucose and lipid metabolism, modulation of vitamin D and phosphate homeostasis and metabolic adaptation during fasting. Given these functions, the endocrine FGFs have therapeutic potential in a wide array of chronic human diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and kidney and cardiovascular disease. However, the safety and feasibility of chronic endocrine FGF administration has been challenged, and FGF analogues and mimetics are now being investigated. Here, we discuss current knowledge of the complex biology of the endocrine FGFs and assess how this may be harnessed therapeutically.
Hudson, Brian D; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme
G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most historically successful therapeutic targets. Despite this success there are many important aspects of GPCR pharmacology and function that have yet to be exploited to their full therapeutic potential. One in particular that has been gaining attention...... in recent times is that of GPCR ligands that bind to allosteric sites on the receptor distinct from the orthosteric site of the endogenous ligand. As therapeutics, allosteric ligands possess many theoretical advantages over their orthosteric counterparts, including more complex modes of action, improved...... safety, more physiologically appropriate responses, better target selectivity, and reduced likelihood of desensitisation and tachyphylaxis. Despite these advantages, the development of allosteric ligands is often difficult from a medicinal chemistry standpoint due to the more complex challenge...
Choi, Hee Soon; Kim, Hee Jin; Oh, Jin-Hwan; Park, Hyeong-Geun; Ra, Jeong Chan; Chang, Keun-A; Suh, Yoo-Hun
The treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) using stem cells has long been the focus of many researchers, but the ideal therapeutic strategy has not yet been developed. The consistency and high reliability of the experimental results confirmed by animal models are considered to be a critical factor in the stability of stem cell transplantation for PD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the preventive and therapeutic potential of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC) for PD and was to identify the related factors to this therapeutic effect. The hASC were intravenously injected into the tail vein of a PD mouse model induced by 6-hydroxydopamine. Consequently, the behavioral performances were significantly improved at 3 weeks after the injection of hASC. Additionally, dopaminergic neurons were rescued, the number of structure-modified mitochondria was decreased, and mitochondrial complex I activity was restored in the brains of the hASC-injected PD mouse model. Overall, this study underscores that intravenously transplanted hASC may have therapeutic potential for PD by recovering mitochondrial functions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Psoriasis is well known as a chronic inflammatory dermatosis. The disease affects persons of all ages and is a burden worldwide. Psoriasis is associated with various diseases such as arthritis. The disease is characterized by well-demarcated lesions on the skin of the elbows and knees. Various genetic and environmental factors are related to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In order to identify enzymes that are potential therapeutic targets for psoriasis, we utilized a computational approach, combining microarray analysis and protein interaction prediction. We found 6,437 genes (3,264 upregulated and 3,173 downregulated that have significant differences in expression between regions with and without lesions in psoriasis patients. We identified potential candidates through protein-protein interaction predictions made using various protein interaction resources. By analyzing the hub protein of the networks with metrics such as degree and centrality, we detected 32 potential therapeutic candidates. After filtering these candidates through the ENZYME nomenclature database, we selected 5 enzymes: DNA helicase (RUVBL2, proteasome endopeptidase complex (PSMA2, nonspecific protein-tyrosine kinase (ZAP70, I-kappa-B kinase (IKBKE, and receptor protein-tyrosine kinase (EGFR. We adopted a computational approach to detect potential therapeutic targets; this approach may become an effective strategy for the discovery of new drug targets for psoriasis.
Mostafa Wanees Ahmed El husseny
Full Text Available Adipokines are bioactive molecules that regulate several physiological functions such as energy balance, insulin sensitization, appetite regulation, inflammatory response, and vascular homeostasis. They include proinflammatory cytokines such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as adiponectin, as well as vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules. In obesity and type II diabetes mellitus (DM, insulin resistance causes impairment of the endocrine function of the perivascular adipose tissue, an imbalance in the secretion of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator molecules, and an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Recent studies have shown that targeting plasma levels of adipokines or the expression of their receptors can increase insulin sensitivity, improve vascular function, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several reviews have discussed the potential of adipokines as therapeutic targets for type II DM and obesity; however, this review is the first to focus on their therapeutic potential for vascular dysfunction in type II DM and obesity.
Full Text Available It was only relatively recently discovered that nucleic acids participate in a variety of biological functions, besides the storage and transmission of genetic information. Quite apart from the nucleotide sequence, it is now clear that the structure of a nucleic acid plays an essential role in its functionality, enabling catalysis and specific binding reactions. In vitro selection and evolution strategies have been extremely useful in the analysis of functional RNA and DNA molecules, helping to expand our knowledge of their functional repertoire and to identify and optimize DNA and RNA molecules with potential therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The great progress made in this field has prompted the development of ex vivo methods for selecting functional nucleic acids in the cellular environment. This review summarizes the most important and most recent applications of in vitro and ex vivo selection strategies aimed at exploring the therapeutic potential of nucleic acids.
Full Text Available An increasing number of patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus eventually develop severe coronary atherosclerosis disease. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus increase the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with atherosclerosis. The cellular and molecular mechanisms affecting the incidence of diabetic atherosclerosis are still unclear, as are appropriate strategies for the prevention and treatment of diabetic atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss progress in the study of herbs as potential therapeutic agents for diabetic atherosclerosis.
Duffield, Jeremy S; Grafals, Monica; Portilla, Didier
Chronic disease of the kidneys has reached epidemic proportions in industrialized nations. New therapies are urgently sought. Using a combination of animal models of kidney disease and human biopsy samples, a pattern of dysregulated microRNA expression has emerged which is common to chronic diseases. A number of these dysregulated microRNA have recently been shown to have functional consequences for the disease process and therefore may be potential therapeutic targets. We highlight microRNA-...
Cadilla, Rodolfo; Turnbull, Philip
Modulation of the androgen receptor has the potential to be an effective treatment for hypogonadism, andropause, and associated conditions such as sarcopenia, osteoporosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and sexual dysfunction. Side effects associated with classical anabolic steroid treatments have driven the quest for drugs that demonstrate improved therapeutic profiles. Novel, non-steroidal compounds that show tissue selective activity and improved pharmacokinetic properties have been developed. This review provides an overview of current advances in the development of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs).
Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Jong Kil; Lee, Hyun; Shin, Ji-woong; Carter, Janet E; Sakamoto, Toshiro; Jin, Hee Kyung; Bae, Jae-sung
The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include the presence of extracellular amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) in the form of amyloid plaques in the brain parenchyma and neuronal loss. The mechanism associated with neuronal death by amyloid plaques is unclear but oxidative stress and glial activation has been implicated. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) are being scrutinized as a potential therapeutic tool to prevent various neurodegenerative diseases including AD. However, the therapeutic impact of hUCB-MSCs in AD has not yet been reported. Here we undertook in vitro work to examine the potential impact of hUCB-MSCs treatment on neuronal loss using a paradigm of cultured hippocampal neurons treated with Abeta. We confirmed that hUCB-MSCs co-culture reduced the hippocampal apoptosis induced by Abeta treatment. Moreover, in an acute AD mouse model to directly test the efficacy of hUCB-MSCs treatment on AD-related cognitive and neuropathological outcomes, we demonstrated that markers of glial activation, oxidative stress and apoptosis levels were decreased in AD mouse brain. Interestingly, hUCB-MSCs treated AD mice demonstrated cognitive rescue with restoration of learning/memory function. These data suggest that hUCB-MSCs warrant further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent in AD.
Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy is considered to be one of the most common and severe forms of focal epilepsies. Patients often develop cognitive deficits and emotional blunting along the progression of the disease. The high incidence of resistance to antiepileptic drugs and a frequent lack of admissibility to surgery poses an unmet medical challenge. In the urgent quest of novel treatment strategies, neuropeptides are interesting candidates, however, their therapeutic potential has not yet been exploited. This review focuses on the functional role of the endogenous opioid system with respect to temporal lobe epilepsy, specifically in the hippocampus. The role of dynorphins and kappa opioid receptors (KOPr as modulators of neuronal excitability is well understood: both the reduced release of glutamate as well of postsynaptic hyperpolarization were shown in glutamatergic neurons. In line with this, low levels of dynorphin in humans and mice increase the risk of epilepsy development. The role of enkephalins is not understood so well. On one hand, some agonists of the delta opioid receptors (DOPr display pro-convulsant properties probably through inhibition of GABAergic interneurons. On the other hand, enkephalins play a neuro-protective role under hypoxic or anoxic conditions, most probably through positive effects on mitochondrial function. Despite the supposed absence of endorphins in the hippocampus, exogenous activation of the mu opioid receptors (MOPr induces pro-convulsant effects. Recently-expanded knowledge of the complex ways opioid receptors ligands elicit their effects (including biased agonism, mixed binding, and opioid receptor heteromers, opens up exciting new therapeutic potentials with regards to seizures and epilepsy. Potential adverse side effects of KOPr agonists may be minimized through functional selectivity. Preclinical data suggest a high potential of such compounds to control seizures, with a strong predictive validity toward human
Burtscher, Johannes; Schwarzer, Christoph
Temporal lobe epilepsy is considered to be one of the most common and severe forms of focal epilepsies. Patients often develop cognitive deficits and emotional blunting along the progression of the disease. The high incidence of resistance to antiepileptic drugs and a frequent lack of admissibility to surgery poses an unmet medical challenge. In the urgent quest of novel treatment strategies, neuropeptides are interesting candidates, however, their therapeutic potential has not yet been exploited. This review focuses on the functional role of the endogenous opioid system with respect to temporal lobe epilepsy, specifically in the hippocampus. The role of dynorphins and kappa opioid receptors (KOPr) as modulators of neuronal excitability is well understood: both the reduced release of glutamate as well of postsynaptic hyperpolarization were shown in glutamatergic neurons. In line with this, low levels of dynorphin in humans and mice increase the risk of epilepsy development. The role of enkephalins is not understood so well. On one hand, some agonists of the delta opioid receptors (DOPr) display pro-convulsant properties probably through inhibition of GABAergic interneurons. On the other hand, enkephalins play a neuro-protective role under hypoxic or anoxic conditions, most probably through positive effects on mitochondrial function. Despite the supposed absence of endorphins in the hippocampus, exogenous activation of the mu opioid receptors (MOPr) induces pro-convulsant effects. Recently-expanded knowledge of the complex ways opioid receptors ligands elicit their effects (including biased agonism, mixed binding, and opioid receptor heteromers), opens up exciting new therapeutic potentials with regards to seizures and epilepsy. Potential adverse side effects of KOPr agonists may be minimized through functional selectivity. Preclinical data suggest a high potential of such compounds to control seizures, with a strong predictive validity toward human patients. The
Bajpai, Vikas; Pandey, Renu; Negi, Mahendra Pal Singh; Kumar, Nikhil; Kumar, Brijesh
Piper betle Linn. leaves are traditionally used as a folk medicine in India and other Asiatic countries. Twenty-one P. betle landraces were analyzed using a Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) mass spectral technique and evaluated on the basis of molecules detected in the leaves. Clustering of landraces based on three well known biologically active phenols (m/z 151,165,193) showed two broad groups with high and low phenol contents suggesting differences in their therapeutic potential. Findings of this study could be useful in rapid screening of the landraces for determining their medicinal potential and optimum utilization of the bioresource.
Full Text Available Diverse environmental and physiological factors are known to induce the transcription of a set of genes encoding special protective molecules known as "molecular chaperones" within our cells. Literature abounds in evidence regarding the varied roles; these "guides" can effectively perform in our system. Highly conserved through evolution, from the prokaryotes to the eukaryotes, these make perfect study tools for verifying their role in both the pathogenesis as well as the therapeutics of varied neurodegenerative, autoimmune and potentially malignant disorders and varied cancer states. We present a concise review of this ever dynamic molecule, highlighting the probable role in a potentially malignant disorder, oral lichen planus.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ has recently been found to ameliorate cognitive impairment in rodent models of Down syndrome (DS. The mechanism underlying PTZ's therapeutic effect in DS is however not clear. Microarray profiling has previously reported differential expression, both up- and down-regulation, of genes in DS. Given this, transcriptomic data related to PTZ treatment, if available, could be used to understand the drug's therapeutic mechanism in DS. No such mammalian data however exists. Nevertheless, a Drosophila model inspired by PTZ induced kindling plasticity in rodents has recently been described. Microarray profiling has shown PTZ's downregulatory effect on gene expression in the fly heads. Methods In a comparative transcriptomics approach, I have analyzed the available microarray data in order to identify potential therapeutic mechanism of PTZ in DS. In the analysis, summary data of up- and down-regulated genes reported in human DS studies and of down-regulated genes reported in the Drosophila model has been used. Results I find that transcriptomic correlate of chronic PTZ in Drosophila counteracts that of DS. Genes downregulated by PTZ significantly over-represent genes upregulated in DS and under-represent genes downregulated in DS. Further, the genes which are common in the downregulated and upregulated DS set show enrichment for MAP kinase pathway. Conclusion My analysis suggests that downregulation of MAP kinase pathway may mediate therapeutic effect of PTZ in DS. Existing evidence implicating MAP kinase pathway in DS supports this observation.
Stephen, Jillian; Bravo, Elena Lopez; Colligan, David; Fraser, Alasdair R; Petrik, Juraj; Campbell, John D M
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), multipotent cells present in tissues throughout the body, can reconstitute adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic tissues, but are also of great interest as mediators of immune modulation and suppression. MSCs are able to improve transplant engraftment, treat graft versus host disease and suppress T cell responses and therefore have great potential as therapeutic agents. Their immune modulatory capacity is mediated through both cell-to-cell contact and cytokine secretion, but it is becoming clear that extracellular vesicles (EV) produced by MSC also possess immunomodulatory properties. These vesicles are easy to prepare and store, do not carry nuclear material and cannot form tumours, and therefore also represent a highly desirable therapeutic agent. This review outlines the formation and characterisation of extracellular vesicles, the reported function of MSC-EVs in vitro and in vivo, and addresses some of the emerging issues with nomenclature, EV therapeutic dose and tissue source. The development of GMP-grade production protocols and effective characterisation of MSC extracellular vesicles is essential to their successful use as immune modulating therapeutic agents, and this review outlines the current status of the research in this area.
Materials at nanoscale are finding manifold applications in the various fields like sensing, plasmonics, therapeutics, to mention a few. Large amount of development has taken place regarding synthesis and exploring the novel applications of the various types of nanomaterials like organic, inorganic and hybrid of both. Yet, it is believed that the full potential of different nanomaterials is yet to be fully established stimulating researchers to explore more in the field of nanotechnology. Building on the same premise, in the following studies we have developed the nanomaterials in the class of optically active nanoparticles. First part of the study we have successfully designed, synthesized, and characterized Ag-Fe3O4 nanocomposite substrate for potential applications in quantitative Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) measurements. Quantitative SERS-based detection of dopamine was performed successfully. In subsequent study, facile, single-step synthesis of polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated lanthanide based NaYF4 (Yb, Er) nanoparticles was developed and their application as potential photodynamic therapy agent was studied using excitations by light in near infra-red and visible region. In the following and last study, synthesis and characterization of the conjugated polymer nanoparticles was attempted successfully. Functionalization of the conjugated nanoparticles, which is a bottleneck for their potential applications, was successfully performed by encapsulating them in the silica nanoparticles, surface of which was then functionalized by amine group. Three types of optically active nanoparticles were developed for potential applications in sensing, therapeutics and imaging.
Kasote, Deepak M; Katyare, Surendra S; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V; Bae, Hanhong
Oxidative stress has been identified as the root cause of the development and progression of several diseases. Supplementation of exogenous antioxidants or boosting endogenous antioxidant defenses of the body is a promising way of combating the undesirable effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced oxidative damage. Plants have an innate ability to biosynthesize a wide range of non-enzymatic antioxidants capable of attenuating ROS- induced oxidative damage. Several in vitro methods have been used to screen plants for their antioxidant potential, and in most of these assays they revealed potent antioxidant activity. However, prior to confirming their in vivo therapeutic efficacy, plant antioxidants have to pass through several physiopharmacological processes. Consequently, the findings of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential assessment studies are not always the same. Nevertheless, the results of in vitro assays have been irrelevantly extrapolated to the therapeutic application of plant antioxidants without undertaking sufficient in vivo studies. Therefore, we have briefly reviewed the physiology and redox biology of both plants and humans to improve our understanding of plant antioxidants as therapeutic entities. The applications and limitations of antioxidant activity measurement assays were also highlighted to identify the precise path to be followed for future research in the area of plant antioxidants.
Full Text Available The intense research focus on stem and progenitor cells could be attributed to their differentiation potential to generate new cells to replace diseased or lost cells in many highly intractable degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease, multiple sclerosis, and heart diseases. However, experimental and clinical studies have increasingly attributed the therapeutic efficacy of these cells to their secretion. While stem and progenitor cells secreted many therapeutic molecules, none of these molecules singly or in combination could recapitulate the functional effects of stem cell transplantations. Recently, it was reported that extracellular vesicles (EVs could recapitulate the therapeutic effects of stem cell transplantation. Based on the observations reported thus far, the prevailing hypothesis is that stem cell EVs exert their therapeutic effects by transferring biologically active molecules such as proteins, lipids, mRNA, and microRNA from the stem cells to injured or diseased cells. In this respect, stem cell EVs are similar to EVs from other cell types. They are both primarily vehicles for intercellular communication. Therefore, the differentiating factor is likely due to the composition of their cargo. The cargo of EVs from different cell types are known to include a common set of proteins and also proteins that reflect the cell source of the EVs and the physiological or pathological state of the cell source. Hence, elucidation of the stem cell EV cargo would provide an insight into the multiple physiological or biochemical changes necessary to affect the many reported stem cell-based therapeutic outcomes in a variety of experimental models and clinical trials.
Liu, Jia; Shui, Sai-Lan
The advent of site-specific nucleases, particularly CRISPR/Cas9, provides researchers with the unprecedented ability to manipulate genomic sequences. These nucleases are used to create model cell lines, engineer metabolic pathways, produce transgenic animals and plants, perform genome-wide functional screen and, most importantly, treat human diseases that are difficult to tackle by traditional medications. Considerable efforts have been devoted to improving the efficiency and specificity of nucleases for clinical applications. However, safe and efficient delivery methods remain the major obstacle for therapeutic gene editing. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on nuclease delivery methods, highlight their impact on the outcomes of gene editing and discuss the potential of different delivery approaches for therapeutic gene editing.
Madharasi VA Pichai; Lynnette R Ferguson
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as Crohn's disease are highly debilitating.There are inconsistencies in response to and side effects in the current conventional medications,failures in adequate drug delivery,and the lack of therapeutics to offer complete remission in the presently available treatments of IBD.This suggests the need to explore beyond the horizons of conventional approaches in IBD therapeutics.This review examines the arena of the evolving IBD nanomedicine,studied so far in animal andin vitro models,before comprehensive clinical testing in humans.The investigations carried out so far in IBD models have provided substantial evidence of the nanotherapeutic approach as having the potential to overcome some of the current drawbacks to conventional IBD therapy.We analyze the pros and cons of nanotechnology in IBD therapies studied in different models,aimed at different targets and mechanisms of IBD pathogenesis,in an attempt to predict its possible impact in humans.
Increasing evidence from clinical as well as from epidemiological and basic research shows that oestrogens exert protective effects in schizophrenia. A brief overview of these protective effects will be provided, and potential therapeutic implications will be discussed. If these effects are confirmed, they could have important implications for prophylaxis and treatment. For instance, consideration would need to be given to oestrogen replacement in peri- and postmenopausal women with schizophrenia, adjunct oestrogen therapy in women with oestrogen deficiency syndromes, cycle-modulated neuroleptic therapy in women with frequent perimenstrual relapses, and/or emphasis on prolactin-sparing atypical neuroleptics in women with hypoestrogenism. Further research is urgently needed since there may be direct therapeutic benefits for women.
Farra, Rossella; Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele; Dapas, Barbara
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the predominant form of primary liver cancer and represents the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Current available therapeutic approaches are poorly effective, especially for the advanced forms of the disease. In the last year, short double stranded RNA molecules termed small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and micro interfering RNAs (miRNA), emerged as interesting molecules with potential therapeutic value for HCC. The practical use of these molecules is however limited by the identification of optimal molecular targets and especially by the lack of effective and targeted HCC delivery systems. Here we focus our discussion on the most recent advances in the identification of siRNAs/miRNAs molecular targets and on the development of suitable siRNA/miRNAs delivery systems.
Wang, S Z; Rui, Y F; Lu, J; Wang, C
Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a chronic, complex process associated with low back pain; mechanisms of its occurrence have not yet been fully elucidated. Its process is not only accompanied by morphological changes, but also by systematic changes in its histological and biochemical properties. Many cellular and molecular mechanisms have been reported to be related with IDD and to reverse degenerative trends, abnormal conditions of the living cells and altered cell phenotypes would need to be restored. Promising biological therapeutic strategies still rely on injection of active substances, gene therapy and cell transplantation. With advanced study of tissue engineering protocols based on cell therapy, combined use of seeding cells, bio-active substances and bio-compatible materials, are promising for IDD regeneration. Recently reported progenitor cells within discs themselves also hold prospects for future IDD studies. This article describes the background of IDD, current understanding and implications of potential therapeutic strategies.
Deng, Yan; Wang, Chi Chiu; Choy, Kwong Wai; Du, Quan; Chen, Jiao; Wang, Qin; Li, Lu; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung; Tang, Tao
During recent decades there have been remarkable advances in biology, in which one of the most important discoveries is RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is a specific post-transcriptional regulatory pathway that can result in silencing gene functions. Efforts have been done to translate this new discovery into clinical applications for disease treatment. However, technical difficulties restrict the development of RNAi, including stability, off-target effects, immunostimulation and delivery problems. Researchers have attempted to surmount these barriers and improve the bioavailability and safety of RNAi-based therapeutics by optimizing the chemistry and structure of these molecules. This paper aimed to describe the principles of RNA interference, review the therapeutic potential in various diseases and discuss the new strategies for in vivo delivery of RNAi to overcome the challenges.
Mullen, Lisa M; Chamberlain, Giselle; Sacre, Sandra
The pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system are part of the first line of defence against pathogens. However, they also have the ability to respond to danger signals that are frequently elevated during tissue damage and at sites of inflammation. Inadvertent activation of pattern recognition receptors has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of many conditions including inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Prolonged inflammation most often results in pain and damage to tissues. In particular, the Toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-like receptors that form inflammasomes have been postulated as key contributors to the inflammation observed in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gout and systemic lupus erythematosus. As such, there is increasing interest in targeting these receptors for therapeutic treatment in the clinic. Here the role of pattern recognition receptors in the pathogenesis of these diseases is discussed, with an update on the development of interventions to modulate the activity of these potential therapeutic targets.
Purohit, Meena K; Chakka, Sai Kumar; Scovell, Iain; Neschadim, Anton; Bello, Angelica M; Salum, Noruê; Katsman, Yulia; Bareau, Madeleine C; Branch, Donald R; Kotra, Lakshmi P
Idiopathic or immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a serious clinical disorder involving the destruction of platelets by macrophages. Small molecule therapeutics are highly sought after to ease the burden on current therapies derived from human sources. Earlier, we discovered that dimers of five-membered heterocycles exhibited potential to inhibit phagocytosis of human RBCs by macrophages. Here, we reveal a structure-activity relationship of the bis-pyrazole class of molecules with -C-C-, -C-N- and -C-O- linkers, and their evaluation as inhibitors of phagocytosis of antibody-opsonized human RBCs as potential therapeutics for ITP. We have uncovered three potential candidates, 37, 47 and 50, all carrying a different linker connecting the two pyrazole moieties. Among these compounds, hydroxypyrazole derivative 50 is the most potent compound with an IC50 of 14 ± 9 μM for inhibiting the phagocytosis of antibody-opsonized human RBCs by macrophages. None of the compounds exhibited significant potential to induce apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Current study has revealed specific functional features, such as up to 2-atom spacer arm and alkyl substitution at one of the N(1) positions of the bivalent pyrazole core to be important for the inhibitory activity.
Full Text Available Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive brew of two main components. Its active agents are β-carboline and tryptamine derivatives. As a sacrament, ayahuasca is still a central element of many healing ceremonies in the Amazon Basin and its ritual consumption has become common among the mestizo populations of South America. Ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of traditional medicine and cultural psychiatry. During the last two decades, the substance has become increasingly known among both scientists and laymen, and currently its use is spreading all over in the Western world. In the present paper we describe the chief characteristics of ayahuasca, discuss important questions raised about its use, and provide an overview of the scientific research supporting its potential therapeutic benefits. A growing number of studies indicate that the psychotherapeutic potential of ayahuasca is based mostly on the strong serotonergic effects, whereas the sigma-1 receptor agonist effect of its active ingredient dimethyltryptamine raises the possibility that the ethnomedical observations on the diversity of treated conditions can be scientifically verified. Moreover, in the right therapeutic or ritual setting with proper preparation and mindset of the user, followed by subsequent integration of the experience, ayahuasca has proven effective in the treatment of substance dependence. This article has two important take-home messages: 1 the therapeutic effects of ayahuasca are best understood from a bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model, and 2 on the biological level ayahuasca may act against chronic low grade inflammation and oxidative stress via the sigma-1 receptor which can explain its widespread therapeutic indications.
Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Winkelman, Michael
Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive brew of two main components. Its active agents are β-carboline and tryptamine derivatives. As a sacrament, ayahuasca is still a central element of many healing ceremonies in the Amazon Basin and its ritual consumption has become common among the mestizo populations of South America. Ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of traditional medicine and cultural psychiatry. During the last two decades, the substance has become increasingly known among both scientists and laymen, and currently its use is spreading all over in the Western world. In the present paper we describe the chief characteristics of ayahuasca, discuss important questions raised about its use, and provide an overview of the scientific research supporting its potential therapeutic benefits. A growing number of studies indicate that the psychotherapeutic potential of ayahuasca is based mostly on the strong serotonergic effects, whereas the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) agonist effect of its active ingredient dimethyltryptamine raises the possibility that the ethnomedical observations on the diversity of treated conditions can be scientifically verified. Moreover, in the right therapeutic or ritual setting with proper preparation and mindset of the user, followed by subsequent integration of the experience, ayahuasca has proven effective in the treatment of substance dependence. This article has two important take-home messages: (1) the therapeutic effects of ayahuasca are best understood from a bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model, and (2) on the biological level ayahuasca may act against chronic low grade inflammation and oxidative stress via the Sig-1R which can explain its widespread therapeutic indications. PMID:26973523
Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Winkelman, Michael
Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive brew of two main components. Its active agents are β-carboline and tryptamine derivatives. As a sacrament, ayahuasca is still a central element of many healing ceremonies in the Amazon Basin and its ritual consumption has become common among the mestizo populations of South America. Ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of traditional medicine and cultural psychiatry. During the last two decades, the substance has become increasingly known among both scientists and laymen, and currently its use is spreading all over in the Western world. In the present paper we describe the chief characteristics of ayahuasca, discuss important questions raised about its use, and provide an overview of the scientific research supporting its potential therapeutic benefits. A growing number of studies indicate that the psychotherapeutic potential of ayahuasca is based mostly on the strong serotonergic effects, whereas the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) agonist effect of its active ingredient dimethyltryptamine raises the possibility that the ethnomedical observations on the diversity of treated conditions can be scientifically verified. Moreover, in the right therapeutic or ritual setting with proper preparation and mindset of the user, followed by subsequent integration of the experience, ayahuasca has proven effective in the treatment of substance dependence. This article has two important take-home messages: (1) the therapeutic effects of ayahuasca are best understood from a bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model, and (2) on the biological level ayahuasca may act against chronic low grade inflammation and oxidative stress via the Sig-1R which can explain its widespread therapeutic indications.
Marco, Eva M; García-Gutiérrez, María S; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco-Javier; Moreira, Fabricio A; Guimarães, Francisco; Manzanares, Jorge; Viveros, María-Paz
Public concern on mental health has noticeably increased given the high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders. Cognition and emotionality are the most affected functions in neuropsychiatric disorders, i.e., anxiety disorders, depression, and schizophrenia. In this review, most relevant literature on the role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in neuropsychiatric disorders will be presented. Evidence from clinical and animal studies is provided for the participation of CB1 and CB2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R) in the above mentioned neuropsychiatric disorders. CBRs are crucial in some of the emotional and cognitive impairments reported, although more research is required to understand the specific role of the eCB system in neuropsychiatric disorders. Cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotropic component of the Cannabis sativa plant, has shown therapeutic potential in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Although further studies are needed, recent studies indicate that CBD therapeutic effects may partially depend on facilitation of eCB-mediated neurotransmission. Last but not least, this review includes recent findings on the role of the eCB system in eating disorders. A deregulation of the eCB system has been proposed to be in the bases of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including eating disorders. Cannabis consumption has been related to the appearance of psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia. In contrast, the pharmacological manipulation of this eCB system has been proposed as a potential strategy for the treatment of anxiety disorders, depression, and anorexia nervosa. In conclusion, the eCB system plays a critical role in psychiatry; however, detrimental consequences of manipulating this endogenous system cannot be underestimated over the potential and promising perspectives of its therapeutic manipulation.
Eva M Marco
Full Text Available Public concern on mental health has noticeably increased given the high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders. Cognition and emotionality are the most affected functions in neuropsychiatric disorders, i.e. anxiety disorders, depression and schizophrenia. In this review, most relevant literature on the role of the endocannabinoid (eCB system in neuropsychiatric disorders will be presented. Evidence from clinical and animal studies is provided for the participation of CB1 and CB2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R in the above mentioned neuropsychiatric disorders. CBRs are crucial in some of the emotional and cognitive impairments reported, although more research is required to understand the specific role of the eCB system in neuropsychiatric disorders. Cannabidiol (CBD, the main non-psychotropic component of the Cannabis sativa plant, has shown therapeutic potential in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Although further studies are needed, recent studies indicate that CBD therapeutic effects may partially depend on facilitation of eCB-mediated neurotransmission. Last but not least, this review includes recent findings on the role of the eCB system in eating disorders. A deregulation of the eCB system has been proposed to be in the bases of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including eating disorders. Cannabis consumption has been related to the appearance of psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia. In contrast, the pharmacological manipulation of this eCB system has been proposed as a potential strategy for the treatment of anxiety disorders, depression, and anorexia nervosa. In conclusion, the eCB system plays a critical role in psychiatry; however, detrimental consequences of manipulating this endogenous system cannot be underestimated over the potential and promising perspectives of its therapeutic manipulation.
Full Text Available Plants growing in the Judea region are widely used in traditional medicine of the Levant region. Nevertheless, they have not so far been sufficiently analyzed and their medicinal potential has not been evaluated. This study is the first attempt to fill the gap in the knowledge of the plants growing in the region. Comprehensive data mining of online botanical databases and peer-reviewed scientific literature including ethno-pharmacological surveys from the Levant region was applied to compile a full list of plants growing in the Judea region, with the focus on their medicinal applications. Around 1300 plants growing in the Judea region were identified. Of them, 25% have medicinal applications which were analyzed in this study. Screening for chemical-protein interactions, together with the network-based analysis of potential targets, will facilitate discovery and therapeutic applications of the Judea region plants. Such an approach could also be applied as an integrative platform for further searching the potential therapeutic targets of plants growing in other regions of the world.
Nien Yee Kow
Full Text Available System lupus erythematosus (SLE is an immune-complex-mediated autoimmune condition with protean immunological and clinical manifestation. While SLE has classically been advocated as a B-cell or T-cell disease, it is unlikely that a particular cell type is more pathologically predominant than the others. Indeed, SLE is characterized by an orchestrated interplay amongst different types of immunopathologically important cells participating in both innate and adaptive immunity including the dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes, as well as traditional nonimmune cells such as endothelial, epithelial, and renal tubular cells. Amongst the antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes, and between lymphocytes, the costimulatory pathways which involve mutual exchange of information and signalling play an essential role in initiating, perpetuating, and, eventually, attenuating the proinflammatory immune response. In this review, advances in the knowledge of established costimulatory pathways such as CD28/CTLA-4-CD80/86, ICOS-B7RP1, CD70-CD27, OX40-OX40L, and CD137-CD137L as well as their potential roles involved in the pathophysiology of SLE will be discussed. Attempts to target these costimulatory pathways therapeutically will pave more potential treatment avenues for patients with SLE. Preliminary laboratory and clinical evidence of the potential therapeutic value of manipulating these costimulatory pathways in SLE will also be discussed in this review.
Full Text Available The increasing frequency of multi-drug resistant microorganisms has driven research into alternative therapeutic strategies. In this respect, natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs hold much promise as candidates for the development of novel antibiotics. However, AMPs have some intrinsic drawbacks, such as partial degradation by host proteases or inhibition by host body fluid composition, potential toxicity, and high production costs. This review focuses on the hepcidins, which are peptides produced by the human liver with a known role in iron homeostasis, as well by numerous other organisms (including fish, reptiles, other mammals, and their potential as antibacterial and antifungal agents. Interestingly, the antimicrobial properties of human hepcidins are enhanced at acidic pH, rendering these peptides appealing for the design of new drugs targeting infections that occur in body areas with acidic physiological pH. This review not only considers current research on the direct killing activity of these peptides, but evaluates the potential application of these molecules as coating agents preventing biofilm formation and critically assesses technical obstacles preventing their therapeutic application.
Hagedorn, Peter H.; Yakimov, Victor; Ottosen, Søren; Kammler, Susanne; Nielsen, Niels F.; Høg, Anja M.; Hedtjärn, Maj; Meldgaard, Michael; Møller, Marianne R.; Ørum, Henrik; Koch, Troels
Antisense oligonucleotides that recruit RNase H and thereby cleave complementary messenger RNAs are being developed as therapeutics. Dose-dependent hepatic changes associated with hepatocyte necrosis and increases in serum alanine-aminotransferase levels have been observed after treatment with certain oligonucleotides. Although general mechanisms for drug-induced hepatic injury are known, the characteristics of oligonucleotides that determine their hepatotoxic potential are not well understood. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the hepatotoxic potential of locked nucleic acid-modified oligonucleotides in mice. We developed a random forests classifier, in which oligonucleotides are regarded as being composed of dinucleotide units, which distinguished between 206 oligonucleotides with high and low hepatotoxic potential with 80% accuracy as estimated by out-of-bag validation. In a validation set, 17 out of 23 oligonucleotides were correctly predicted (74% accuracy). In isolation, some dinucleotide units increase, and others decrease, the hepatotoxic potential of the oligonucleotides within which they are found. However, a complex interplay between all parts of an oligonucleotide can influence the hepatotoxic potential. Using the classifier, we demonstrate how an oligonucleotide with otherwise high hepatotoxic potential can be efficiently redesigned to abate hepatotoxic potential. These insights establish analysis of sequence and modification patterns as a powerful tool in the preclinical discovery process for oligonucleotide-based medicines. PMID:23952551
Full Text Available Capsaicin is the most predominant and naturally occurring alkamide found in Capsicum fruits. Since its discovery in the 19th century, the therapeutic roles of capsaicin have been well characterized. The potential applications of capsaicin range from food flavorings to therapeutics. Indeed, capsaicin and few of its analogues have featured in clinical research covered by more than a thousand patents. Previous records suggest pleiotropic pharmacological activities of capsaicin such as an analgesic, anti-obesity, anti-pruritic, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, and neuro-protective functions. Moreover, emerging data indicate its clinical significance in treating vascular-related diseases, metabolic syndrome, and gastro-protective effects. The dearth of potent drugs for management of such disorders necessitates the urge for further research into the pharmacological aspects of capsaicin. This review summarizes the historical background, source, structure and analogues of capsaicin, and capsaicin-triggered TRPV1 signaling and desensitization processes. In particular, we will focus on the therapeutic roles of capsaicin and its analogues in both normal and pathophysiological conditions.
Alotaibi, Salman A; Alanazi, Abdulrazaq; Bakheet, Saleh A; Alharbi, Naif O; Nagi, Mahmoud N
Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of acetylcarnitine against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity were studied in mice. To evaluate the prophylactic effects of acetylcarnitine, mice were supplemented with acetylcarnitine (2 mmol/kg/day per oral (p.o.) for 5 days) before a single dose of acetaminophen (350 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.)). Animals were sacrificed 6 h after acetaminophen injection. Acetaminophen significantly increased the markers of liver injury, hepatic reactive oxygen species, and nitrate/nitrite, and decreased hepatic glutathione (GSH) and the antioxidant enzymes. Acetylcarnitine supplementation resulted in reversal of all biochemical parameters toward the control values. To explore the therapeutic effects of acetylcarnitine, mice were given a single dose of acetylcarnitine (0.5, 1, and 2 mmol/kg p.o.) 1.5 h after acetaminophen. Animals were sacrificed 6 h after acetaminophen. Acetylcarnitine administration resulted in partial reversal of liver injury only at 2 mmol/kg p.o. At equimolar doses, N-acetylcystiene was superior as therapeutic agent to acetylcarnitine. However, acetylcarnitine potentiated the effect of N-acetylcystiene in the treatment of acetaminophen toxicity.
Kanashiro, Alexandre; Sônego, Fabiane; Ferreira, Raphael G; Castanheira, Fernanda V S; Leite, Caio A; Borges, Vanessa F; Nascimento, Daniele C; Cólon, David F; Alves-Filho, José Carlos; Ulloa, Luis; Cunha, Fernando Q
Sepsis is one of the main causes of mortality in hospitalized patients. Despite the recent technical advances and the development of novel generation of antibiotics, severe sepsis remains a major clinical and scientific challenge in modern medicine. Unsuccessful efforts have been dedicated to the search of therapeutic options to treat the deleterious inflammatory components of sepsis. Recent findings on neuronal networks controlling immunity raised expectations for novel therapeutic strategies to promote the regulation of sterile inflammation, such as autoimmune diseases. Interesting studies have dissected the anatomical constituents of the so-called "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway", suggesting that electrical vagus nerve stimulation and pharmacological activation of beta-2 adrenergic and alpha-7 nicotinic receptors could be alternative strategies for improving inflammatory conditions. However, the literature on infectious diseases, such as sepsis, is still controversial and, therefore, the real therapeutic potential of this neuroimmune pathway is not well defined. In this review, we will discuss the beneficial and detrimental effects of neural manipulation in sepsis, which depend on the multiple variables of the immune system and the nature of the infection. These observations suggest future critical studies to validate the clinical implications of vagal parasympathetic signaling in sepsis treatment.
Wang, Qi; Rosa, Bruce A; Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka
The nematode intestine is continuous with the outside environment, making it easily accessible to anthelmintics for parasite control, but the development of new therapeutics is impeded by limited knowledge of nematode intestinal cell biology. We established the most comprehensive nematode intestinal functional database to date by generating transcriptional data from the dissected intestines of three parasitic nematodes spanning the phylum, and integrating the results with the whole proteomes of 10 nematodes (including 9 pathogens of humans or animals) and 3 host species and 2 outgroup species. We resolved 10,772 predicted nematode intestinal protein families (IntFams), and studied their presence and absence within the different lineages (births and deaths) among nematodes. Conserved intestinal cell functions representing ancestral functions of evolutionary importance were delineated, and molecular features useful for selective therapeutic targeting were identified. Molecular patterns conserved among IntFam proteins demonstrated large potential as therapeutic targets to inhibit intestinal cell functions with broad applications towards treatment and control of parasitic nematodes.
Siamak; Sandoghchian; Shotorbani
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are found on the membranes of pattern recognition receptors and not only play important roles in activating immune responses but are also involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease, injury and cancer. Furthermore, TLRs are also able to recognize endogenous alarmins released by damaged tissue and necrosis and/or apoptotic cells and are present in numerous autoimmune diseases. Therefore, the release of endogenous TLR ligands plays an important role in initiating and driving inflammatory diseases. Increasing data suggest a role for TLR signaling in rheumatoid arthritis, which is an autoimmune disease. Although their involvement is not comprehensively understood, the TLRs signaling transducers may provide potential therapeutic targets.
Full Text Available The present study was an endeavor to evaluate antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Cucumis melo var. agrestis seeds for their therapeutic potential. In- vitro antioxidant activity was performed by 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. The methanolic seed extract was found to have significant scavenging activity 75.59% at 300 µg/ml by 1,1- diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl method and 69.86% at 400 µg/ml by Hydrogen peroxide method as compared to standard (ascorbic acid. Presence of phytochemicals like triterpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, coumarin glycosides, carbohydrates might contribute to observed antioxidant activity.
Jensen, Louise; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine; Dalhoff, Kim Peder
CONTEXT: Atomoxetine (ATX) is the treatment of choice for attention deficit hyperactivity disorders with co-morbid risk of drug abuse, although its abuse potential needs to be qualified. The purpose of this study is to analyse ATX misuse in relation to therapeutic use and compare our results.......018), but not the enquiries/sale relationship. The proportion of exposures motivated by recreational drug use was significantly lower for ATX (19%) than that for MPH (40%) (p = 0.038). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: These results suggest that ATX is used by adults for non-medical purposes including recreational use...
Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hsu, Yih-Chih
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) over-regulation related to uncontrolled cell division and promotes progression in tumor. Over-expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been detected in oral cancer cells. EGFR-targeting agents are potential therapeutic modalities for treating oral cancer based on our in vitro study. Liposome nanotechnology is used to encapsulate siRNA and were modified with target ligand to receptors on the surface of tumor cells. We used EGFR siRNA to treat oral cancer in vitro.
Das, Nibhriti; Biswas, Bintili; Khera, Rohan
For the last two decades, there had been remarkable advancement in understanding the role of complement regulatory proteins in autoimmune disorders and importance of complement inhibitors as therapeutics. Systemic lupus erythematosus is a prototype of systemic autoimmune disorders. The disease, though rare, is potentially fatal and afflicts women at their reproductive age. It is a complex disease with multiorgan involvement, and each patient presents with a different set of symptoms. The diagnosis is often difficult and is based on the diagnostic criteria set by the American Rheumatology Association. Presence of antinuclear antibodies and more specifically antidouble-stranded DNA indicates SLE. Since the disease is multifactorial and its phenotypes are highly heterogeneous, there is a need to identify multiple noninvasive biomarkers for SLE. Lack of validated biomarkers for SLE disease activity or response to treatment is a barrier to the efficient management of the disease, drug discovery, as well as development of new therapeutics. Recent studies with gene knockout mice have suggested that membrane-bound complement regulatory proteins (CRPs) may critically determine the sensitivity of host tissues to complement injury in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Case-controlled and followup studies carried out in our laboratory suggest an intimate relation between the level of DAF, MCP, CR1, and CD59 transcripts and the disease activity in SLE. Based on comparative evaluation of our data on these four membrane-bound complement regulatory proteins, we envisaged CR1 and MCP transcripts as putative noninvasive disease activity markers and the respective proteins as therapeutic targets for SLE. Following is a brief appraisal on membrane-bound complement regulatory proteins DAF, MCP, CR1, and CD59 as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for SLE.
Full Text Available Human gastric cancer (GC is characterized by a high incidence and mortality rate, largely because it is normally not identified until a relatively advanced stage owing to a lack of early diagnostic biomarkers. Gastroscopy with biopsy is the routine method for screening, and gastrectomy is the major therapeutic strategy for GC. However, in more than 30% of GC surgical patients, cancer has progressed too far for effective medical resection. Thus, useful biomarkers for early screening or detection of GC are essential for improving patients’ survival rate. MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an important role in tumorigenesis. They contribute to gastric carcinogenesis by altering the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Because of their stability in tissues, serum/plasma and other body fluids, miRNAs have been suggested as novel tumor biomarkers with suitable clinical potential. Recently, aberrantly expressed miRNAs have been identified and tested for clinical application in the management of GC. Aberrant miRNA expression profiles determined with miRNA microarrays, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing approaches could be used to establish sample specificity and to identify tumor type. Here, we provide an up-to-date summary of tissue-based GC-associated miRNAs, describing their involvement and that of their downstream targets in tumorigenic and biological processes. We examine correlations among significant clinical parameters and prognostic indicators, and discuss recurrence monitoring and therapeutic options in GC. We also review plasma/serum-based, GC-associated, circulating miRNAs and their clinical applications, focusing especially on early diagnosis. By providing insights into the mechanisms of miRNA-related tumor progression, this review will hopefully aid in the identification of novel potential therapeutic targets.
Da Hye Kim
Full Text Available The therapeutic properties of Epimedium koreanum are presumed to be due to the flavonoid component icariin, which has been reported to have broad pharmacological potential and has demonstrated anti-diabetic, anti-Alzheimer’s disease, anti-tumor, and hepatoprotective activities. Considering these therapeutic properties of icariin, its deglycosylated icaritin and glycosylated flavonoids (icaeriside II, epimedin A, epimedin B, and epimedin C were evaluated for their ability to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B and α-glucosidase. The results show that icaritin and icariside II exhibit potent inhibitory activities, with 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 values of 11.59 ± 1.39 μM and 9.94 ± 0.15 μM against PTP1B and 74.42 ± 0.01 and 106.59 ± 0.44 μM against α-glucosidase, respectively. With the exceptions of icaritin and icariside II, glycosylated flavonoids did not exhibit any inhibitory effects in the two assays. Enzyme kinetics analyses revealed that icaritin and icariside II demonstrated noncompetitive-type inhibition against PTP1B, with inhibition constant (Ki values of 11.41 and 11.66 μM, respectively. Moreover, molecular docking analysis confirmed that icaritin and icariside II both occupy the same site as allosteric ligand. Thus, the molecular docking simulation results were in close agreement with the experimental data with respect to inhibition activity. In conclusion, deglycosylated metabolites of icariin from E. koreanum might offer therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Full Text Available Brian Casserly, James R KlingerDivision of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island, Pawtucket, RI, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP is a member of the natriuretic peptide family, a group of widely distributed, but evolutionarily conserved, polypeptide mediators that exert myriad cardiovascular effects. BNP is a potent vasodilator with mitogenic, hypertrophic and pro-inflammatory properties that is upregulated in pulmonary hypertensive diseases. Circulating levels of BNP correlate with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Elevated plasma BNP levels are associated with increased mortality in patients with PAH and a fall in BNP levels after therapy is associated with improved survival. These findings have important clinical implications in that a noninvasive blood test may be used to identify PAH patients at high-risk of decompensation and to guide pulmonary vasodilator therapy. BNP also has several biologic effects that could be beneficial to patients with PAH. However, lack of a convenient method for achieving sustained increases in circulating BNP levels has impeded the development of BNP as a therapy for treating pulmonary hypertension. New technologies that allow transdermal or oral administration of the natriuretic peptides have the potential to greatly accelerate research into therapeutic use of BNP for cor pulmonale and pulmonary vascular diseases. This review will examine the basic science and clinical research that has led to our understanding of the role of BNP in cardiovascular physiology, its use as a biomarker of right ventricular function and its therapeutic potential for managing patients with pulmonary vascular disease.Keywords: brain natriuretic peptide, pulmonary artery hypertension
Chiu, Chi-Tso; Wang, Zhifei; Hunsberger, Joshua G.
The mood stabilizers lithium and valproic acid (VPA) are traditionally used to treat bipolar disorder (BD), a severe mental illness arising from complex interactions between genes and environment that drive deficits in cellular plasticity and resiliency. The therapeutic potential of these drugs in other central nervous system diseases is also gaining support. This article reviews the various mechanisms of action of lithium and VPA gleaned from cellular and animal models of neurologic, neurodegenerative, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Clinical evidence is included when available to provide a comprehensive perspective of the field and to acknowledge some of the limitations of these treatments. First, the review describes how action at these drugs’ primary targets—glycogen synthase kinase-3 for lithium and histone deacetylases for VPA—induces the transcription and expression of neurotrophic, angiogenic, and neuroprotective proteins. Cell survival signaling cascades, oxidative stress pathways, and protein quality control mechanisms may further underlie lithium and VPA’s beneficial actions. The ability of cotreatment to augment neuroprotection and enhance stem cell homing and migration is also discussed, as are microRNAs as new therapeutic targets. Finally, preclinical findings have shown that the neuroprotective benefits of these agents facilitate anti-inflammation, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, blood-brain barrier integrity, and disease-specific neuroprotection. These mechanisms can be compared with dysregulated disease mechanisms to suggest core cellular and molecular disturbances identifiable by specific risk biomarkers. Future clinical endeavors are warranted to determine the therapeutic potential of lithium and VPA across the spectrum of central nervous system diseases, with particular emphasis on a personalized medicine approach toward treating these disorders. PMID:23300133
Liu, Xiu-Fen; Hao, Ji-Long; Xie, Tian; Mukhtar, Nour Jama; Zhang, Wiley; Malik, Tayyab Hamid; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Zhou, Dan-Dan
Curcumin, the major curcuminoid of the turmeric, has been extensively used in many countries since ancient time for preventing and/or treating a multitude of diseases. This review is to illustrate the researches on the properties of curcumin and its potential therapeutic efficacy in major anterior segment eye diseases. The bio-medical potential of curcumin is restricted because of its low solubility and digestive bioavailability. This review will discuss promising research in improving curcumin bioavailability through structural modification. In vitro and in vivo research made progress in studying the beneficial effects of curcumin on major anterior segment eye diseases, including anti-angiogenesis effect in corneal diseases; anti-inflammation or anti-allergy effects in dry eye disease, conjunctivitis, anterior uveitis; anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis effects in pterygium; anti-oxidative stress, anti-osmotic stress, anti-lipid peroxidation, pro-apoptosis, regulating calcium homeostasis, sequestrating free radicals, protein modification and degradation effects in cataracts; neuroprotective effects in glaucoma. Curcumin exhibited to be a potent therapeutic candidate for treating those anterior segment eye diseases.
Umesh D. Wankhade
Full Text Available Nonshivering thermogenesis is the process of biological heat production in mammals and is primarily mediated by brown adipose tissue (BAT. Through ubiquitous expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1 on the mitochondrial inner membrane, BAT displays uncoupling of fuel combustion and ATP production in order to dissipate energy as heat. Because of its crucial role in regulating energy homeostasis, ongoing exploration of BAT has emphasized its therapeutic potential in addressing the global epidemics of obesity and diabetes. The recent appreciation that adult humans possess functional BAT strengthens this prospect. Furthermore, it has been identified that there are both classical brown adipocytes residing in dedicated BAT depots and “beige” adipocytes residing in white adipose tissue depots that can acquire BAT-like characteristics in response to environmental cues. This review aims to provide a brief overview of BAT research and summarize recent findings concerning the physiological, cellular, and developmental characteristics of brown adipocytes. In addition, some key genetic, molecular, and pharmacologic targets of BAT/Beige cells that have been reported to have therapeutic potential to combat obesity will be discussed.
Zhang, Yanhong; Yao, Honghong
Stem cell therapy is a promising potential therapeutic strategy to treat cerebral ischemia in preclinical and clinical trials. Currently proposed treatments for stroke employing stem cells include the replacement of lost neurons and integration into the existing host circuitry, the release of growth factors to support and promote endogenous repair processes, and the secretion of extracellular vesicles containing proteins, noncoding RNA, or DNA to regulate gene expression in recipient cells and achieve immunomodulation. Progress has been made to elucidate the precise mechanisms underlying stem cell therapy and the homing, migration, distribution, and differentiation of transplanted stem cells in vivo using various imaging modalities. Noninvasive and safe tracer agents with high sensitivity and image resolution must be combined with long-term monitoring using imaging technology to determine the optimal therapy for stroke in terms of administration route, dosage, and timing. This review discusses potential therapeutic mechanisms of stem cell transplantation for the treatment of stroke and the limitations of current therapies. Methods to label transplanted cells and existing imaging systems for stem cell labeling and in vivo tracking will also be discussed.
Full Text Available Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera is an angiosperm plant, native of the Indian subcontinent, where its various parts have been utilized throughout history as food and medicine. It is now cultivated in all tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The nutritional, prophylactic, and therapeutic virtues of this plant are being extolled on the Internet. Dietary consumption of its part is therein promoted as a strategy of personal health preservation and self-medication in various diseases. The enthusiasm for the health benefits of M. oleifera is in dire contrast with the scarcity of strong experimental and clinical evidence supporting them. Fortunately, the chasm is slowly being filled. In this article, I review current scientific data on the corrective potential of M. oleifera leaves in chronic hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, as symptoms of diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. Reported studies in experimental animals and humans, although limited in number and variable in design, seem concordant in their support for this potential. However, before M. oleifera leaf formulations can be recommended as medication in the prevention or treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, it is necessary that the scientific basis of their efficacy, the therapeutic modalities of their administration and their possible side effects be more rigorously determined.
Evans, Laura; Chen, Lindi; Milazzo, Giorgio; Gherardi, Samuele; Perini, Giovanni; Willmore, Elaine; Newell, David R; Tweddle, Deborah A
SKP2 is the substrate recognition subunit of the ubiquitin ligase complex which targets p27(KIP1) for degradation. Induced at the G1/S transit of the cell cycle, SKP2 is frequently overexpressed in human cancers and contributes to malignancy. We previously identified SKP2 as a possible MYCN target gene and hence hypothesise that SKP2 is a potential therapeutic target in MYCN amplified disease. A positive correlation was identified between MYCN activity and SKP2 mRNA expression in Tet21N MYCN-regulatable cells and a panel of MYCN amplified and non-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines. In chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter gene assays, MYCN bound directly to E-boxes within the SKP2 promoter and induced transcriptional activity which was decreased by the removal of MYCN and E-box mutation. Although SKP2 knockdown inhibited cell growth in both MYCN amplified and non-amplified cells, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were induced only in non-MYCN amplified neuroblastoma cells. In conclusion these data identify SKP2 as a direct transcriptional target of MYCN and supports SKP2 as a potential therapeutic target in neuroblastoma.
Weissenberger, S; Klicperova-Baker, M; Zimbardo, P; Schonova, K; Akotia, D; Kostal, J; Goetz, M; Raboch, J; Ptacek, R
The article draws primarily from the behavioral findings (mainly psychiatric and psychological observations) and points out the important relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and time orientation. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a significant overlap between the symptoms of ADHD and Present Hedonism. Present Hedonism is defined by Zimbardo’s time perspective theory and assessed by Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Developmental data on Present Hedonism of males and females in the Czech population sample (N=2201) are also presented. The hypothesis of relationship between ADHD and Present Hedonism is mainly derived from the prevalence of addictive behavior (mainly excessive Internet use, alcohol abuse, craving for sweets, fatty foods, and fast foods), deficits in social learning, and increased aggressiveness both in ADHD and in the population scoring high on Present Hedonism in the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. We conclude that Zimbardo’s time perspective offers both: 1) a potential diagnostic tool – the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, particularly its Present Hedonism scale, and 2) a promising preventive and/or therapeutic approach by the Time Perspective Therapy. Time Perspective Therapy has so far been used mainly to treat past negative trauma (most notably, posttraumatic stress disorder); however, it also has value as a potential therapeutic tool for possible behavioral compensation of ADHD. PMID:27895485
Derry K Mercer
Full Text Available Superficial mycoses are fungal infections of the outer layers of the skin, hair and nails that affect 20-25% of the world's population, with increasing incidence. Treatment of superficial mycoses, predominantly caused by dermatophytes, is by topical and/or oral regimens. New therapeutic options with improved efficacy and/or safety profiles are desirable. There is renewed interest in natural product-based antimicrobials as alternatives to conventional treatments, including the treatment of superficial mycoses. We investigated the potential of coumarins as dermatophyte-specific antifungal agents and describe for the first time their potential utility as topical antifungals for superficial mycoses using a prodrug approach. Here we demonstrate that an inactive coumarin glycone, esculin, is hydrolysed to the antifungal coumarin aglycone, esculetin by dermatophytes. Esculin is hydrolysed to esculetin β-glucosidases. We demonstrate that β-glucosidases are produced by dermatophytes as well as members of the dermal microbiota, and that this activity is sufficient to hydrolyse esculin to esculetin with concomitant antifungal activity. A β-glucosidase inhibitor (conduritol B epoxide, inhibited antifungal activity by preventing esculin hydrolysis. Esculin demonstrates good aqueous solubility (<6 g/l and could be readily formulated and delivered topically as an inactive prodrug in a water-based gel or cream. This work demonstrates proof-of-principle for a therapeutic application of glycosylated coumarins as inactive prodrugs that could be converted to an active antifungal in situ. It is anticipated that this approach will be applicable to other coumarin glycones.
Andrea eGras Navarro
Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are innate lymphoid cells that hold tremendous potential for effective immunotherapy for a broad range of cancers. Due to the mode of NK cell killing requiring one–to-one target engagement and site directed release of cytolytic granules, the therapeutic potential of NK cells has been most extensively explored in hematological malignancies. However, their ability to precisely kill antibody coated cells, cancer stem cells (CSCs and genotoxically altered cells, while maintaining tolerance to healthy cells makes them appealing therapeutic effectors for all cancer forms, including metastases. Due to their release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, NK cells may potently reverse the anti-inflammatory tumor microenvironment (TME and augment adaptive immune responses by promoting differentiation, activation and/ or recruitment of accessory immune cells to sites of malignancy. Nevertheless, integrated and coordinated mechanisms of subversion of NK cell activity against the tumor and its microenvironment exist. Although our understanding of the receptor ligand interactions that regulate NK cell functionality has evolved remarkably, the diversity of ligands and receptors is complex, as is their mechanistic foundations in regulating NK cell function. In this article, we review the literature and highlight how the TME manipulates the NK cell phenotypes, genotypes and tropism to evade tumor recognition and elimination. We discuss counter strategies that may be adopted to augment the efficacy of NK cell anti-tumor surveillance, the clinical trials that have been undertaken so far in solid malignancies, critically weighing the challenges and opportunities with this approach.
Xiao, Chuan-Le; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Xiong, Sheng; Lu, Chun-Hua; Wei, Hong-Ping; Zeng, Hui-Lan; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Xian-En; Ge, Feng
To clarify the molecular mechanisms that participate in the formation of multiple myeloma (MM) and to detect any tumor-related biomarkers, we performed proteomic analysis of cellular protein extracts from MM cells and normal plasma cells. Plasma cells from nine patients with newly diagnosed MM and nine healthy donors were purified by using anti-CD138 based immunomagnetic bead-positive selection. The protein profiles of purified MM and normal plasma cells were compared using 2-DE. We identified a total of 43 differentially expressed proteins, and confirmed with Western blotting six proteins. The altered proteins were analyzed using the software program Pathway Studio and the biological network can be accessed via (http://life-health.jnu.edu.cn/pathway/pathway.html). Further functional studies showed that annexin A1 knock down modestly induces lethality alone and potentiates the effects of dexamethasone on both dexamethasone-sensitive and dexamethasone-resistant MM cells. By correlating the proteomic data with these functional studies, the current results provide not only new insights into the pathogenesis of MM but also direct implications for the development of novel anti-MM therapeutic strategies and could lead to the discovery of potential therapeutic targets. Future molecular and functional studies would provide novel insights into the roles of these dysregulated proteins in the molecular etiology of MM.
Full Text Available Heme oxygenase (HO, a catabolic enzyme, provides the rate-limiting step in the oxidative breakdown of heme, to generate carbon monoxide (CO, iron, and biliverdin-IXα. Induction of the inducible form, HO-1, in tissues is generally regarded as a protective mechanism. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made in defining the therapeutic potential of HO-1 in a number of preclinical models of lung tissue injury and disease. Likewise, tissue-protective effects of CO, when applied at low concentration, have been observed in many of these models. Recent studies have expanded this concept to include chemical CO-releasing molecules (CORMs. Collectively, salutary effects of the HO-1/CO system have been demonstrated in lung inflammation/acute lung injury, lung and vascular transplantation, sepsis, and pulmonary hypertension models. The beneficial effects of HO-1/CO are conveyed in part through the inhibition or modulation of inflammatory, apoptotic, and proliferative processes. Recent advances, however, suggest that the regulation of autophagy and the preservation of mitochondrial homeostasis may serve as additional candidate mechanisms. Further preclinical and clinical trials are needed to ascertain the therapeutic potential of HO-1/CO in human clinical disease.
Liu, Xiu-Fen; Hao, Ji-Long; Xie, Tian; Mukhtar, Nour Jama; Zhang, Wiley; Malik, Tayyab Hamid; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Zhou, Dan-Dan
Curcumin, the major curcuminoid of the turmeric, has been extensively used in many countries since ancient time for preventing and/or treating a multitude of diseases. This review is to illustrate the researches on the properties of curcumin and its potential therapeutic efficacy in major anterior segment eye diseases. The bio-medical potential of curcumin is restricted because of its low solubility and digestive bioavailability. This review will discuss promising research in improving curcumin bioavailability through structural modification. In vitro and in vivo research made progress in studying the beneficial effects of curcumin on major anterior segment eye diseases, including anti-angiogenesis effect in corneal diseases; anti-inflammation or anti-allergy effects in dry eye disease, conjunctivitis, anterior uveitis; anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis effects in pterygium; anti-oxidative stress, anti-osmotic stress, anti-lipid peroxidation, pro-apoptosis, regulating calcium homeostasis, sequestrating free radicals, protein modification and degradation effects in cataracts; neuroprotective effects in glaucoma. Curcumin exhibited to be a potent therapeutic candidate for treating those anterior segment eye diseases. PMID:28261099
Weissenberger, S; Klicperova-Baker, M; Zimbardo, P; Schonova, K; Akotia, D; Kostal, J; Goetz, M; Raboch, J; Ptacek, R
The article draws primarily from the behavioral findings (mainly psychiatric and psychological observations) and points out the important relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and time orientation. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a significant overlap between the symptoms of ADHD and Present Hedonism. Present Hedonism is defined by Zimbardo's time perspective theory and assessed by Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Developmental data on Present Hedonism of males and females in the Czech population sample (N=2201) are also presented. The hypothesis of relationship between ADHD and Present Hedonism is mainly derived from the prevalence of addictive behavior (mainly excessive Internet use, alcohol abuse, craving for sweets, fatty foods, and fast foods), deficits in social learning, and increased aggressiveness both in ADHD and in the population scoring high on Present Hedonism in the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. We conclude that Zimbardo's time perspective offers both: 1) a potential diagnostic tool - the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, particularly its Present Hedonism scale, and 2) a promising preventive and/or therapeutic approach by the Time Perspective Therapy. Time Perspective Therapy has so far been used mainly to treat past negative trauma (most notably, posttraumatic stress disorder); however, it also has value as a potential therapeutic tool for possible behavioral compensation of ADHD.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prolonged time course of Huntington's disease (HD neurodegeneration increases both the time and cost of testing potential therapeutic compounds in mammalian models. An alternative is to initially assess the efficacy of compounds in invertebrate models, reducing time of testing from months to days. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened candidate therapeutic compounds that were identified previously in cell culture/animal studies in a C. elegans HD model and found that two FDA approved drugs, lithium chloride and mithramycin, independently and in combination suppressed HD neurotoxicity. Aging is a critical contributor to late onset neurodegenerative diseases. Using a genetic strategy and a novel assay, we demonstrate that lithium chloride and mithramycin remain neuroprotective independent of activity of the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16, which mediates the effects of the insulin-like signaling pathway on aging. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that pathways involved in polyglutamine-induced degeneration are distinct from specific aging pathways. The assays presented here will be useful for rapid and inexpensive testing of other potential HD drugs and elucidating pathways of drug action. Additionally, the neuroprotection conferred by lithium chloride and mithramycin suggests that these drugs may be useful for polyglutamine disease therapy.
Fouad, Amr A; Jresat, Iyad
The therapeutic potential of cannabidiol, the major non-psychotropic Cannabis constituent, was investigated in rats exposed to ischemia/reperfusion liver injury. Ischemia was induced by clamping the pedicle of the left hepatic lobe for 30 min, and cannabidiol (5mg/kg, i.v.) was given 1h following the procedure and every 24h thereafter for 2 days. Ischemia/reperfusion caused significant elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase and hepatic malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide levels, associated with significant decrease in hepatic reduced glutathione. Cannabidiol significantly attenuated the deterioration in the measured biochemical parameters mediated by ischemia/reperfusion. Histopathological examination showed that cannabidiol ameliorated ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver damage. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cannabidiol significantly reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand and caspase-3, and increased the expression of survivin protein in ischemic/reperfused liver tissue. These results emphasize that cannabidiol represents a potential therapeutic option to protect the liver against hypoxia-reoxygenation injury.
Full Text Available American hantaviruses cause a highly lethal acute pulmonary edema termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. Hantaviruses nonlytically infect endothelial cells and cause dramatic changes in barrier functions of the endothelium without disrupting the endothelium. Instead hantaviruses cause changes in the function of infected endothelial cells that normally regulate fluid barrier functions of capillaries. The endothelium of arteries, veins, and lymphatic vessels is unique and central to the function of vast pulmonary capillary beds, which regulate pulmonary fluid accumulation. The endothelium maintains vascular barrier functions through a complex series of redundant receptors and signaling pathways that serve to both permit fluid and immune cell efflux into tissues and restrict tissue edema. Infection of the endothelium provides several mechanisms for hantaviruses to alter capillary permeability but also defines potential therapeutic targets for regulating acute pulmonary edema and HPS disease. Here we discuss interactions of HPS causing hantaviruses with the endothelium, potential endothelial cell-directed permeability mechanisms, and therapeutic targeting of the endothelium as a means of reducing the severity of HPS disease.
Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is an angiosperm plant, native of the Indian subcontinent, where its various parts have been utilized throughout history as food and medicine. It is now cultivated in all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The nutritional, prophylactic, and therapeutic virtues of this plant are being extolled on the Internet. Dietary consumption of its part is therein promoted as a strategy of personal health preservation and self-medication in various diseases. The enthusiasm for the health benefits of M. oleifera is in dire contrast with the scarcity of strong experimental and clinical evidence supporting them. Fortunately, the chasm is slowly being filled. In this article, I review current scientific data on the corrective potential of M. oleifera leaves in chronic hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, as symptoms of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Reported studies in experimental animals and humans, although limited in number and variable in design, seem concordant in their support for this potential. However, before M. oleifera leaf formulations can be recommended as medication in the prevention or treatment of diabetes and CVD, it is necessary that the scientific basis of their efficacy, the therapeutic modalities of their administration and their possible side effects be more rigorously determined. PMID:22403543
Kokabee, Leila; Wang, Xianhui; Sevinsky, Christopher J; Wang, Wei Lin Winnie; Cheu, Lindsay; Chittur, Sridar V; Karimipoor, Morteza; Tenniswood, Martin; Conklin, Douglas S
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that has mainly been studied in haematopoietic cells. We have investigated whether BTK is a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer. We find that BTK is expressed in prostate cells, with the alternate BTK-C isoform predominantly expressed in prostate cancer cells and tumors. This isoform is transcribed from an alternative promoter and results in a protein with an amino-terminal extension. Prostate cancer cell lines and prostate tumors express more BTK-C transcript than the malignant NAMALWA B-cell line or human lymphomas. BTK protein expression is also observed in tumor tissue from prostate cancer patients. Down regulation of this protein with RNAi or inhibition with BTK-specific inhibitors, Ibrutinib, AVL-292 or CGI-1746 decrease cell survival and induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Microarray results show that inhibiting BTK under these conditions increases expression of apoptosis related genes, while overexpression of BTK-C is associated with elevated expression of genes with functions related to cell adhesion, cytoskeletal structure and the extracellular matrix. These results are consistent with studies that show that BTK signaling is important for adhesion and migration of B cells and suggest that BTK-C may confer similar properties to prostate cancer cells. Since BTK-C is a survival factor for these cells, it represents both a potential biomarker and novel therapeutic target for prostate cancer.
Grönberg, Malin; Ahlin, Cecilia; Naeser, Ylva; Janson, Eva Tiensuu; Holmberg, Lars; Fjällskog, Marie-Louise
Ghrelin and obestatin are gastrointestinal peptides, encoded by the same preproghrelin gene. Both are expressed in breast cancer tissue and ghrelin has been implicated in breast cancer tumorigenesis. Despite recent advances in breast cancer management the need for new prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer remains high. We studied the prognostic impact of ghrelin and obestatin in women with node negative breast cancer. Within a cohort of women with breast cancer with tumor size ≤ 50 mm, no lymph node metastases and no initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy, 190 women were identified who died from breast cancer and randomly selected 190 women alive at the corresponding time as controls. Tumor tissues were immunostained with antibodies versus the peptides. Ghrelin expression was associated with better breast cancer specific survival in univariate analyses (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36-0.84) and in multivariate models, adjusted for endocrine treatment and age (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.36-0.89). Obestatin expression was non-informative (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.60-2.46). Ghrelin expression is independent prognostic factor for breast cancer death in node negative patients-halving the risk for dying of breast cancer. Our data implies that ghrelin could be a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer treatment.
Gras Navarro, Andrea; Björklund, Andreas T.; Chekenya, Martha
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that hold tremendous potential for effective immunotherapy for a broad range of cancers. Due to the mode of NK cell killing, requiring one-to-one target engagement and site-directed release of cytolytic granules, the therapeutic potential of NK cells has been most extensively explored in hematological malignancies. However, their ability to precisely kill antibody coated cells, cancer stem cells, and genotoxically altered cells, while maintaining tolerance to healthy cells makes them appealing therapeutic effectors for all cancer forms, including metastases. Due to their release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, NK cells may potently reverse the anti-inflammatory tumor microenvironment (TME) and augment adaptive immune responses by promoting differentiation, activation, and/or recruitment of accessory immune cells to sites of malignancy. Nevertheless, integrated and coordinated mechanisms of subversion of NK cell activity against the tumor and its microenvironment exist. Although our understanding of the receptor ligand interactions that regulate NK cell functionality has evolved remarkably, the diversity of ligands and receptors is complex, as is their mechanistic foundations in regulating NK cell function. In this article, we review the literature and highlight how the TME manipulates the NK cell phenotypes, genotypes, and tropism to evade tumor recognition and elimination. We discuss counter strategies that may be adopted to augment the efficacy of NK cell anti-tumor surveillance, the clinical trials that have been undertaken so far in solid malignancies, critically weighing the challenges and opportunities with this approach. PMID:25972872
Pacchiana, Giovanni; Chiriaco, Cristina; Stella, Maria C.; Petronzelli, Fiorella; De Santis, Rita; Galluzzo, Maria; Carminati, Paolo; Comoglio, Paolo M.; Michieli, Paolo; Vigna, Elisa
Met, the high affinity receptor for hepatocyte growth factor, is one of the most frequently activated tyrosine kinases in human cancer and a validated target for cancer therapy. We previously developed a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular portion of Met (DN-30) that induces Met proteolytic cleavage (receptor “shedding”) followed by proteasome-mediated receptor degradation. This translates into inhibition of hepatocyte growth factor/Met-mediated biological activities. However, DN-30 binding to Met also results in partial activation of the Met kinase due to antibody-mediated receptor homodimerization. To safely harness the therapeutic potential of DN-30, its shedding activity must be disassociated from its agonistic activity. Here we show that the DN-30 Fab fragment maintains high affinity Met binding, elicits efficient receptor shedding and down-regulation, and does not promote kinase activation. In Met-addicted tumor cell lines, DN-30 Fab displays potent cytostatic and cytotoxic activity in a dose-dependent fashion. DN-30 Fab also inhibits anchorage-independent growth of several tumor cell lines. In mouse tumorigenesis assays using Met-addicted carcinoma cells, intratumor administration of DN-30 Fab or systemic delivery of a chemically stabilized form of the same molecule results in reduction of Met phosphorylation and inhibition of tumor growth. These data provide proof of concept that monovalency unleashes the full therapeutic potential of the DN-30 antibody and point at DN-30 Fab as a promising tool for Met-targeted therapy. PMID:20833723
Pacchiana, Giovanni; Chiriaco, Cristina; Stella, Maria C; Petronzelli, Fiorella; De Santis, Rita; Galluzzo, Maria; Carminati, Paolo; Comoglio, Paolo M; Michieli, Paolo; Vigna, Elisa
Met, the high affinity receptor for hepatocyte growth factor, is one of the most frequently activated tyrosine kinases in human cancer and a validated target for cancer therapy. We previously developed a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular portion of Met (DN-30) that induces Met proteolytic cleavage (receptor "shedding") followed by proteasome-mediated receptor degradation. This translates into inhibition of hepatocyte growth factor/Met-mediated biological activities. However, DN-30 binding to Met also results in partial activation of the Met kinase due to antibody-mediated receptor homodimerization. To safely harness the therapeutic potential of DN-30, its shedding activity must be disassociated from its agonistic activity. Here we show that the DN-30 Fab fragment maintains high affinity Met binding, elicits efficient receptor shedding and down-regulation, and does not promote kinase activation. In Met-addicted tumor cell lines, DN-30 Fab displays potent cytostatic and cytotoxic activity in a dose-dependent fashion. DN-30 Fab also inhibits anchorage-independent growth of several tumor cell lines. In mouse tumorigenesis assays using Met-addicted carcinoma cells, intratumor administration of DN-30 Fab or systemic delivery of a chemically stabilized form of the same molecule results in reduction of Met phosphorylation and inhibition of tumor growth. These data provide proof of concept that monovalency unleashes the full therapeutic potential of the DN-30 antibody and point at DN-30 Fab as a promising tool for Met-targeted therapy.
Full Text Available Decades of research dedicated towards Alzheimer's disease (AD has culminated in much of the current understanding of the neurodegeneration associated with disease. However, delineating the pathophysiology and finding a possible cure for the disease is still wanting. This is in part due to the lack of knowledge pertaining to the connecting link between neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory pathways. Consequently, the inefficacy and ill-effects of the drugs currently available for AD encourage the need for alternative and safe therapeutic intervention. In this review we highlight the potential of mGluR5, a metabotropic glutamatergic receptor, in understanding the mechanism underlying the neuronal death and neuroinflammation in AD. We also discuss the role of mGlu5 receptor in mediating the neuron-glia interaction in the disease. Finally, we discuss the potential of mGluR5 as target for treating AD.
Singh, Rajinder; De, Subrata; Belkheir, Asma
The aim of the present review article is to summarize the available information related to the availability, production, chemical composition, pharmacological activity, and traditional uses of Avena sativa to highlight its potential to contribute to human health. Oats are now cultivated worldwide and form an important dietary staple for the people in number of countries. Several varieties of oats are available. It is a rich source of protein, contains a number of important minerals, lipids, β-glucan, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide, which forms an important part of oat dietary fiber, and also contains various other phytoconstituents like avenanthramides, an indole alkaloid-gramine, flavonoids, flavonolignans, triterpenoid saponins, sterols, and tocols. Traditionally oats have been in use since long and are considered as stimulant, antispasmodic, antitumor, diuretic, and neurotonic. Oat possesses different pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, anticholesterolaemic, etc. A wide spectrum of biological activities indicates that oat is a potential therapeutic agent.
Mokhber Dezfouli, Mohammad Reza; Chaleshtori, Sirous Sadeghian; Dehghan, Mohammad Mehdi; Tavanaeimanesh, Hamid; Baharvand, Hossein; Tahamtani, Yaser
Lung diseases cause great morbidity and mortality. The choice of effective medical treatment is limited and the number of lung diseases are difficult to treat with current treatments. The embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the potential to differentiate into cell types of all three germinal layers, including lung epithelial cells. So they can be a potential source for new cell therapies for hereditary or acquired diseases of the airways and lungs. One method for treatment of lung diseases is cell therapy and the use of ESCs that can replace the damaged epithelial and endothelial cells. Progress using ESCs has developed slowly for lung regeneration because differentiation of lung cells from ESCs is more difficult as compared to differentiation of other cells. The review studies the therapeutic effects of differentiated lung cells from embryonic stem cells in lung diseases. There are few studies of differentiation of ESCs into a lineage of respiratory and then investigation of this cell in experimental model of lung diseases.
Marshall, Jamie L; Kwok, Yukwah; McMorran, Brian J; Baum, Linda G; Crosbie-Watson, Rachelle H
Three adhesion complexes span the sarcolemma and facilitate critical connections between the extracellular matrix and the actin cytoskeleton: the dystrophin- and utrophin-glycoprotein complexes and α7β1 integrin. Loss of individual protein components results in a loss of the entire protein complex and muscular dystrophy. Muscular dystrophy is a progressive, lethal wasting disease characterized by repetitive cycles of myofiber degeneration and regeneration. Protein-replacement therapy offers a promising approach for the treatment of muscular dystrophy. Recently, we demonstrated that sarcospan facilitates protein-protein interactions amongst the adhesion complexes and is an important potential therapeutic target. Here, we review current protein-replacement strategies, discuss the potential benefits of sarcospan expression, and identify important experiments that must be addressed for sarcospan to move to the clinic.
Full Text Available Sarcoma includes some of the most heterogeneous tumors, which make the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of these rare yet diverse neoplasms especially challenging. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are important regulators of cancer initiation and progression, which implies their potential as neoteric prognostic and diagnostic markers in cancer, including sarcoma. A relationship between lncRNAs and sarcoma pathogenesis and progression is emerging. Recent studies demonstrate that lncRNAs influence sarcoma cell proliferation, metastasis, and drug resistance. Additionally, lncRNA expression profiles are predictive of sarcoma prognosis. In this review, we summarize contemporary advances in the research of lncRNA biogenesis and functions in sarcoma. We also highlight the potential for lncRNAs to become innovative diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets in sarcoma.
Tom J. Burdon
Full Text Available During the past several years, there has been intense research in the field of bone marrow-derived stem cell (BMSC therapy to facilitate its translation into clinical setting. Although a lot has been accomplished, plenty of challenges lie ahead. Furthermore, there is a growing body of evidence showing that administration of BMSC-derived conditioned media (BMSC-CM can recapitulate the beneficial effects observed after stem cell therapy. BMSCs produce a wide range of cytokines and chemokines that have, until now, shown extensive therapeutic potential. These paracrine mechanisms could be as diverse as stimulating receptor-mediated survival pathways, inducing stem cell homing and differentiation or regulating the anti-inflammatory effects in wounded areas. The current review reflects the rapid shift of interest from BMSC to BMSC-CM to alleviate many logistical and technical issues regarding cell therapy and evaluates its future potential as an effective regenerative therapy.
Full Text Available The Conus genus includes around 500 species of marine mollusks with a peculiar production of venomous peptides known as conotoxins (CTX. Each species is able to produce up to 200 different biological active peptides. Common structure of CTX is the low number of amino acids stabilized by disulfide bridges and post-translational modifications that give rise to different isoforms. µ and µO-CTX are two isoforms that specifically target voltage-gated sodium channels. These, by inducing the entrance of sodium ions in the cell, modulate the neuronal excitability by depolarizing plasma membrane and propagating the action potential. Hyperexcitability and mutations of sodium channels are responsible for perception and transmission of inflammatory and neuropathic pain states. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of µ-CTX interacting with the different sodium channels subtypes, the mechanism of action and their potential therapeutic use as analgesic compounds in the clinical management of pain conditions.
Full Text Available Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs are a heterogeneous population of cells that consists of myeloid progenitor cells and immature myeloid cells. They have been identified as a cell population that may affect the activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells to regulate the immune response negatively, which makes them attractive targets for the treatment of transplantation and autoimmune diseases. Several studies have suggested the potential suppressive effect of MDSCs on allo- and autoimmune responses. Conversely, MDSCs have also been found at various stages of differentiation, accumulating during pathological situations, not only during tumor development but also in a variety of inflammatory immune responses, bone marrow transplantation, and some autoimmune diseases. These findings appear to be contradictory. In this review, we summarize the roles of MDSCs in different transplantation and autoimmune diseases models as well as the potential to target these cells for therapeutic benefit.
Kang, N-H; Hwang, K-A; Kim, S U; Kim, Y-B; Hyun, S-H; Jeung, E-B; Choi, K-C
As stem cells are capable of self-renewal and can generate differentiated progenies for organ development, they are considered as potential source for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. Along with this capacity, stem cells have the therapeutic potential for treating human diseases including cancers. According to the origins, stem cells are broadly classified into two types: embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and adult stem cells. In terms of differentiation potential, ESCs are pluripotent and adult stem cells are multipotent. Amnion, which is a membranous sac that contains the fetus and amniotic fluid and functions in protecting the developing embryo during gestation, is another stem cell source. Amnion-derived stem cells are classified as human amniotic membrane-derived epithelial stem cells, human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells. They are in an intermediate stage between pluripotent ESCs and lineage-restricted adult stem cells, non-tumorigenic, and contribute to low immunogenicity and anti-inflammation. Furthermore, they are easily available and do not cause any controversial issues in their recovery and applications. Not only are amnion-derived stem cells applicable in regenerative medicine, they have anticancer capacity. In non-engineered stem cells transplantation strategies, amnion-derived stem cells effectively target the tumor and suppressed the tumor growth by expressing cytotoxic cytokines. Additionally, they also have a potential as novel delivery vehicles transferring therapeutic genes to the cancer formation sites in gene-directed enzyme/prodrug combination therapy. Owing to their own advantageous properties, amnion-derived stem cells are emerging as a new candidate in anticancer therapy.
Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Franquesa, Alba; Barker, Steven; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Pascual, Juan C; Riba, Jordi
Ayahuasca is a psychotropic plant tea used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. In the last two decades, its use has expanded worldwide. The tea contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties. Acute administration induces an introspective dream-like experience characterized by visions and autobiographic and emotional memories. Studies of long-term users have suggested its therapeutic potential, reporting that its use has helped individuals abandon the consumption of addictive drugs. Furthermore, recent open-label studies in patients with treatment-resistant depression found that a single ayahuasca dose induced a rapid antidepressant effect that was maintained weeks after administration. Here, we conducted an exploratory study of the psychological mechanisms that could underlie the beneficial effects of ayahuasca. We assessed a group of 25 individuals before and 24 h after an ayahuasca session using two instruments designed to measure mindfulness capacities: The Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ). Ayahuasca intake led to significant increases in two facets of the FFMQ indicating a reduction in judgmental processing of experiences and in inner reactivity. It also led to a significant increase in decentering ability as measured by the EQ. These changes are classic goals of conventional mindfulness training, and the scores obtained are in the range of those observed after extensive mindfulness practice. The present findings support the claim that ayahuasca has therapeutic potential and suggest that this potential is due to an increase in mindfulness capacities.
Full Text Available This study examines the role of s-nitrosylation in the growth of ovarian cancer using cell culture based and in vivo approaches. Using the nitrosylating agent, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, a physiological nitric oxide molecule, we show that GSNO treatment inhibited proliferation of chemoresponsive and chemoresistant ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, C200, SKVO3, ID8, OVCAR3, OVCAR4, OVCAR5, OVCAR7, OVCAR8, OVCAR10, PE01 and PE04 in a dose dependent manner. GSNO treatment abrogated growth factor (HB-EGF induced signal transduction including phosphorylation of Akt, p42/44 and STAT3, which are known to play critical roles in ovarian cancer growth and progression. To examine the therapeutic potential of GSNO in vivo, nude mice bearing intra-peritoneal xenografts of human A2780 ovarian carcinoma cell line (2 × 10(6 were orally administered GSNO at the dose of 1 mg/kg body weight. Daily oral administration of GSNO significantly attenuated tumor mass (p<0.001 in the peritoneal cavity compared to vehicle (phosphate buffered saline treated group at 4 weeks. GSNO also potentiated cisplatin mediated tumor toxicity in an A2780 ovarian carcinoma nude mouse model. GSNO's nitrosylating ability was reflected in the induced nitrosylation of various known proteins including NFκB p65, Akt and EGFR. As a novel finding, we observed that GSNO also induced nitrosylation with inverse relationship at tyrosine 705 phosphorylation of STAT3, an established player in chemoresistance and cell proliferation in ovarian cancer and in cancer in general. Overall, our study underlines the significance of S-nitrosylation of key cancer promoting proteins in modulating ovarian cancer and proposes the therapeutic potential of nitrosylating agents (like GSNO for the treatment of ovarian cancer alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs.
Full Text Available HDAC isoform-specific inhibitors may improve the therapeutic window while limiting toxicities. Developing inhibitors against class I isoforms poses difficulties as they share high homology among their catalytic sites; however, HDAC8 is structurally unique compared to other class I isoforms. HDAC8 inhibitors are novel compounds and have affinity for class I HDAC isoforms demonstrating anti-cancer effects; little is known about their activity in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST. Recently, we demonstrated anti-MPNST efficacy of HDAC8i in human and murine-derived MPNST pre-clinical models; we now seek to consider the potential therapeutic inhibition of HDAC8 in MPNST.Four Human MPNST cell lines, a murine-derived MPNST cell line, and two HDAC8 inhibitors (PCI-34051, PCI-48012; Pharmacyclics, Inc. Sunnyvale, CA were studied. Proliferation was determined using MTS and clonogenic assays. Effects on cell cycle were determined via PI FACS analysis; effects on apoptosis were determined using Annexin V-PI FACS analysis and cleaved caspase 3 expression. In vivo growth effects of HDAC8i were evaluated using MPNST xenograft models. 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to identify potential HDAC8 deacetylation substrates.HDAC8i induced cell growth inhibition and marked S-phase cell cycle arrest in human and murine-derived MPNST cells. Relative to control, HDAC8i induced apoptosis in both human and murine-derived MPNST cells. HDAC8i exhibited significant effects on MPNST xenograft growth (p=0.001 and tumor weight (p=0.02. Four potential HDAC8 substrate targets were identified using a proteomic approach: PARK7, HMGB1, PGAM1, PRDX6.MPNST is an aggressive sarcoma that is notoriously therapy-resistant, hence the urgent need for improved anti-MPNST therapies. HDAC8 inhibition may be useful for MPNST by improving efficacy while limiting toxicities as compared to pan-HDACis.
Man, Dede K W; Chow, Michael Y T; Casettari, Luca; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Lam, Jenny K W
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), continues to pose a serious threat to public health, and the situation is worsening with the rapid emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) TB. Current TB regimens require long duration of treatment, and their toxic side effects often lead to poor adherence and low success rates. There is an urgent need for shorter and more effective treatment for TB. In recent years, RNA interference (RNAi) has become a powerful tool for studying gene function by silencing the target genes. The survival of Mtb in host macrophages involves the attenuation of the antimicrobial responses mounted by the host cells. RNAi technology has helped to improve our understanding of how these bacilli interferes with the bactericidal effect and host immunity during TB infection. It has been suggested that the host-directed intervention by modulation of host pathways can be employed as a novel and effective therapy against TB. This therapeutic approach could be achieved by RNAi, which holds enormous potential beyond a laboratory to the clinic. RNAi therapy targeting TB is being investigated for enhancing host antibacterial capacity or improving drug efficacy on drug resistance strains while minimizing the associated adverse effects. One of the key challenges of RNAi therapeutics arises from the delivery of the RNAi molecules into the target cells, and inhalation could serve as a direct administration route for the treatment of pulmonary TB in a non-invasive manner. However, there are still major obstacles that need to be overcome. This review focuses on the RNAi candidates that are currently explored for the treatment of TB and discusses the major barriers of pulmonary RNAi delivery. From this, we hope to stimulate further studies of local RNAi therapeutics for pulmonary TB treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kong, Wei-Lin; Peng, Yuan-Yuan; Peng, Bi-Wen
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1), as a ligand-gated non-selective cation channel, has recently been demonstrated to have wide expression in the neuro-immune axis, where its multiple functions occur through regulation of both neuronal and non-neuronal activities. Growing evidence has suggested that TRPV1 is functionally expressed in glial cells, especially in the microglia and astrocytes. Glial cells perform immunological functions in response to pathophysiological challenges through pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in which TRPV1 is involved. Sustaining inflammation might mediate a positive feedback loop of neuroinflammation and exacerbate neurological disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that TRPV1 is closely related to immune responses and might be recognized as a molecular switch in the neuroinflammation of a majority of seizures and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we evidenced that inflammation modulates the expression and activity of TRPV1 in the central nervous system (CNS) and TRPV1 exerts reciprocal actions over neuroinflammatory processes. Together, the literature supports the hypothesis that TRPV1 may represent potential therapeutic targets in the neuro-immune axis.
Kinoshita, Kahori; Kuno, Shinichiro; Ishimine, Hisako; Aoi, Noriyuki; Mineda, Kazuhide; Kato, Harunosuke; Doi, Kentaro; Kanayama, Koji; Feng, Jingwei; Mashiko, Takanobu; Kurisaki, Akira; Yoshimura, Kotaro
Stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 (SSEA-3)-positive multipotent mesenchymal cells (multilineage differentiating stress-enduring [Muse] cells) were isolated from cultured human adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cells (hASCs) and characterized, and their therapeutic potential for treating diabetic skin ulcers was evaluated. Cultured hASCs were separated using magnetic-activated cell sorting into positive and negative fractions, a SSEA-3+ cell-enriched fraction (Muse-rich) and the remaining fraction (Muse-poor). Muse-rich hASCs showed upregulated and downregulated pluripotency and cell proliferation genes, respectively, compared with Muse-poor hASCs. These cells also released higher amounts of certain growth factors, particularly under hypoxic conditions, compared with Muse-poor cells. Skin ulcers were generated in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice with type 1 diabetes, which showed delayed wound healing compared with nondiabetic SCID mice. Treatment with Muse-rich cells significantly accelerated wound healing compared with treatment with Muse-poor cells. Transplanted cells were integrated into the regenerated dermis as vascular endothelial cells and other cells. However, they were not detected in the surrounding intact regions. Thus, the selected population of ASCs has greater therapeutic effects to accelerate impaired wound healing associated with type 1 diabetes. These cells can be achieved in large amounts with minimal morbidity and could be a practical tool for a variety of stem cell-depleted or ischemic conditions of various organs and tissues.
Mohammad Reza Nikravesh
Full Text Available Introduction: Human cord blood-derived stem cells are a rich source of stem cells as well as precursors. With regard to the researchers have focused on the therapeutic potential of stem cell in the neurological disease such as stroke, the aim of this study was the investiga-tion of the therapeutic effects of human cord blood-derived stem cells in cerebral ischemia on rat. Methods: This study was carried out on young rats. Firstly, to create a laboratory model of ischemic stroke, carotid artery of animals was occluded for 30 minutes. Then, umbilical cord blood cells were isolated and labeled using bromodeoxyuridine and 2×105 cells were injected into the experimental group via the tail vein. Rats with hypoxic condi-tions were used as a sham group. A group of animals did not receive any injection or sur-geries were used as a control. Results: Obtained results were evaluated based on behavior-al responses and immunohistochemistry, with emphasis on areas of putamen and caudate nucleus in the control, sham and experimental groups. Our results indicated that behavioral recovery was observed in the experimental group compared to the either the sham or the control group. However, histological studies demonstrated a low percent of tissue injury in the experimental group in comparison with the sham group. Conclusion: Stem cell trans-plantation is beneficial for the brain tissue reparation after hypoxic ischemic cell death.
Michael S. Wolfe
Full Text Available The abnormal deposition of proteins in and around neurons is a common pathological feature of many neurodegenerative diseases. Among these pathological proteins, the microtubule-associated protein tau forms intraneuronal filaments in a spectrum of neurological disorders. The discovery that dominant mutations in the MAPT gene encoding tau are associated with familial frontotemporal dementia strongly supports abnormal tau protein as directly involved in disease pathogenesis. This and other evidence suggest that tau is a worthwhile target for the prevention or treatment of tau-associated neurodegenerative diseases, collectively called tauopathies. However, it is critical to understand the normal biological roles of tau, the specific molecular events that induce tau to become neurotoxic, the biochemical nature of pathogenic tau, the means by which pathogenic tau exerts neurotoxicity, and how tau pathology propagates. Based on known differences between normal and abnormal tau, a number of approaches have been taken toward the discovery of potential therapeutics. Key questions still remain open, such as the nature of the connection between the amyloid-β protein of Alzheimer’s disease and tau pathology. Answers to these questions should help better understand the nature of tauopathies and may also reveal new therapeutic targets and strategies.
Schreibelt, Gerty; van Horssen, Jack; van Rossum, Saskia; Dijkstra, Christine D; Drukarch, Benjamin; de Vries, Helga E
Reactive oxygen species contribute to the formation and persistence of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions by acting on distinct pathological processes. To counteract the detrimental effects of ROS the central nervous system is endowed with a protective mechanism consisting of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Expression of most antioxidant enzymes is regulated through the transcription factor nuclear factor-E2-related factor (Nrf2) and antioxidant response elements (ARE) in the genes encoding enzymatic antioxidants and is induced by oxidative stress. In brain tissue of MS patients, enhanced expression of Nrf2/ARE-regulated antioxidants is suggestive of the occurrence of oxidative stress in these lesions. Antioxidant therapy may therefore represent an attractive treatment of MS. Several studies have shown that antioxidant therapy is beneficial in vitro and in vivo in animal models for MS. However, the use of exogenous antioxidants for MS treatment has drawbacks, as large amounts of antioxidants are required to achieve functional antioxidant levels in the central nervous system. Therefore, the induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes by activators of the Nrf2/ARE pathway may be an interesting approach to obtain sufficient levels of antioxidants to interfere with pathological processes underlying MS lesion formation. In this review we summarize and discuss the biological role, regulation and potential therapeutic effects of endogenous antioxidant enzymes in MS. We propose that antioxidants may inhibit the development and progression of MS lesions and may therefore represent an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of MS and other oxidative stress-related neurological diseases.
Owaga, Eddy; Hsieh, Rong-Hong; Mugendi, Beatrice; Masuku, Sakhile; Shih, Chun-Kuang; Chang, Jung-Su
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by wasting and chronic intestinal inflammation triggered by various cytokine-mediated pathways. In recent years, it was shown that T helper 17 (Th17) cells are involved in the pathogenesis of IBD, which makes them an attractive therapeutic target. Th17 cells preferentially produce interleukin (IL)-17A-F as signature cytokines. The role of the interplay between host genetics and intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBD was demonstrated. Probiotics are live microorganisms that when orally ingested in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host by modulating the enteric flora or by stimulating the local immune system. Several studies indicated the effectiveness of probiotics in preventing and treating IBD (ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease). Furthermore, there is mounting evidence of probiotics selectively targeting the Th17 lineage in the prevention and management of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases such as IBD. This review highlights critical roles of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of IBD and the rationale for using probiotics as a novel therapeutic approach for IBD through manipulation of Th17 cells. The potential molecular mechanisms by which probiotics modulate Th17 cells differentiation and production are also discussed.
Full Text Available Introduction. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutations are known as oncogene driver mutations and with EGFR mutations exhibit good response to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor Gefitinib. Some studies have shown that activation of estrogen and estrogen receptor α or β (ERα/β promote adenocarcinoma. We evaluated the relationship between the two receptors and the potential therapeutic benefit with Gefitinib and Tamoxifen. Methods. We assessed the association between EGFR mutations as well as ERα/β expression/location and overall survival in a cohort of 55 patients with LAC from a single hospital. PC9 (EGFR exon 19 deletion mutant; Gefitinib-vulnerable cells and A549 (EGFR wild type; Gefitinib-resistant cells cancer cells were used to evaluate the in vitro therapeutic benefits of combining Gefitinib and Tamoxifen. Results. We found that the cytosolic but not the nuclear expression of ERβ was associated with better OS in LAC tumors but not associated with EGFR mutation. The in vitro study showed that combined Gefitinib and Tamoxifen resulted in increased apoptosis and cytosolic expression of ERβ. In addition, combining both medications resulted in reduced cell growth and increased the cytotoxic effect of Gefitinib. Conclusion. Tamoxifen enhanced advanced LAC cytotoxic effect induced by Gefitinib by arresting ERβ in cytosol.
Ljubicic, Vladimir; Burt, Matthew; Jasmin, Bernard J
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a life-limiting, neuromuscular disorder that causes progressive, severe muscle wasting in boys and young men. Although there is no cure, scientists and clinicians can leverage the fact that slower, more oxidative skeletal muscle fibers possess an enhanced degree of resistance to the dystrophic pathology relative to their faster, more glycolytic counterparts, and can thus use this knowledge when investigating novel therapeutic avenues. Several factors have been identified as powerful regulators of muscle plasticity. Some proteins, such as calcineurin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), PPARβ/δ, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), when chronically stimulated in animal models, remodel skeletal muscle toward the slow, oxidative myogenic program, whereas others, such as receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) and E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1), repress this phenotype. Recent studies demonstrating that pharmacologic and physiological activation of targets that shift dystrophic muscle toward the slow, oxidative myogenic program provide appreciable molecular and functional benefits. This review surveys the rationale behind, and evidence for, the study of skeletal muscle plasticity in preclinical models of DMD and highlights the potential therapeutic opportunities in advancing a strategy focused on remodeling skeletal muscle in patients with DMD toward the slow, oxidative phenotype.
Chang, Da-Jeong; Lee, Nayeon; Park, In-Hyun; Choi, Chunggab; Jeon, Iksoo; Kwon, Jihye; Oh, Seung-Hun; Shin, Dong Ah; Do, Jeong Tae; Lee, Dong Ryul; Lee, Hyunseung; Moon, Hyeyoung; Hong, Kwan Soo; Daley, George Q; Song, Jihwan
Ischemic stroke mainly caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) is a major type of stroke, but there are currently very limited therapeutic options for its cure. Neural stem cells (NSCs) or neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from various sources are known to survive and improve neurological functions when they are engrafted in animal models of stroke. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from somatic cells of patients are novel cells that promise the autologous cell therapy for stroke. In this study, we successfully differentiated iPSCs derived from human fibroblasts into NPCs and found their robust therapeutic potential in a rodent MCAo stroke model. We observed the significant graft-induced behavioral recovery, as well as extensive neural tissue formation. Animal MRI results indicated that the majority of contralaterally transplanted iPSC-derived NPCs migrated to the peri-infarct area, showing a pathotropism critical for tissue recovery. The transplanted animals exhibited the significant reduction of stroke-induced inflammatory response, gliosis and apoptosis, and the contribution to the endogenous neurogenesis. Our results demonstrate that iPSC-derived NPCs are effective cells for the treatment of stroke.
Bader, Augustinus; Lorenz, Katrin; Richter, Anja; Scheffler, Katja; Kern, Larissa; Ebert, Sabine; Giri, Shibashish; Behrens, Maria; Dornseifer, Ulf; Macchiarini, Paolo; Machens, Hans-Günther
If controllable, stem cell activation following injury has the therapeutic potential for supporting regeneration in acute or chronic wounds. Human dermally-derived stem cells (FmSCs) were exposed to the cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the presence of erythropoietin (EPO). Cells were cultured under ischemic conditions and phenotypically characterized using flow cytometry. Topical EPO application was performed in three independent clinical wound healing attempts. The FmSCs expressed the receptor for EPO. EPO had a strong inhibitory effect on FmSC growth in the absence of IL-6 and TNF-α. With IL-6, the EPO effects were reversed to that of growth stimulation. TNF-α had the strongest stimulatory effect. In contrast, IL-1β had an inhibitory effect. Topically applied EPO considerably enhanced wound healing and improved wound conditions of acute and chronic wounds. Site specificity of stem cell activation is mediated by IL-6 and TNF-α. In trauma, EPO ceases its inhibitory role and reverts to a clinically relevant boosting function. EPO may be an important therapeutic tool for the topical treatment of acute and chronic wounds.
Shergis, J L; Di, Y M; Zhang, A L; Vlahos, R; Helliwell, R; Ye, J M; Xue, C C
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health burden and will become the third largest cause of death in the world by 2030. It is currently believed that an exaggerated inflammatory response to inhaled irritants, in particular cigarette smoke, cause progressive airflow limitation. This inflammation, where macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes are prominent, leads to oxidative stress, emphysema, airways fibrosis and mucus hypersecretion. COPD responds poorly to current anti-inflammatory treatments including corticosteroids, which produce little or no benefit. Panax ginseng has a long history of use in Chinese medicine for respiratory conditions, including asthma and COPD. In this perspective we consider the therapeutic potential of Panax ginseng for the treatment of COPD. Panax ginseng and its compounds, ginsenosides, have reported effects through multiple mechanisms but primarily have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. Ginsenosides are functional ligands of glucocorticoid receptors and appear to inhibit kinase phosphorylation including MAPK and ERK1/2, NF-κB transcription factor induction/translocation, and DNA binding. They also inhibit pro-inflammatory mediators, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, ROS, and proteases such as MMP-9. Panax ginseng protects against oxidative stress by increasing anti-oxidative enzymes and reducing the production of oxidants. Given that Panax ginseng and ginsenosides appear to inhibit processes related to COPD pathogenesis, they represent an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of COPD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Ka-Eun; Park, Soon-Kwon; Nam, Sang-Yun; Han, Tae-Jong; Cho, Il-Young
The aim of this survey was to provide background theory based on previous research to elucidate the potential pathway by which medical devices using extremely low-frequency high-voltage electric fields (ELF-HVEF) exert therapeutic effects on the human body, and to increase understanding of the AC high-voltage electrotherapeutic apparatus for consumers and suppliers of the relevant devices. Our review revealed that an ELF field as weak as 1-10 μ V/m can induce diverse alterations of membrane proteins such as transporters and channel proteins, including changes in Ca + + binding to a specific site of the cell surface, changes in ion (e.g., Ca + + ) influx or efflux, and alterations in the ligand-receptor interaction. These alterations then induce cytoplasmic responses within cells (Ca + + , cAMP, kinases, etc.) that can have impacts on cell growth, differentiation, and other functional properties by promoting the synthesis of macromolecules. Moreover, increased cytoplasmic Ca + + involves calmodulin-dependent signaling and consequent Ca + + /calmodulin-dependent stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis. This event in turn induces the nitric oxide-cGMP-protein kinase G pathway, which may be an essential factor in the observed physiological and therapeutic responses.
Full Text Available Abnormal osteoclast formation and resorption play a fundamental role in osteoporosis pathogenesis. Over the past two decades, much progress has been made to target osteoclasts. The existing therapeutic drugs include bisphosphonates, hormone replacement therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, calcitonin and receptor activator of nuclear factor NF-κB ligand (RANKL inhibitor (denosumab, etc. Among them, bisphosphonates are most widely used due to their low price and high efficiency in reducing the risk of fracture. However, bisphosphonates still have their limitations, such as the gastrointestinal side-effects, osteonecrosis of the jaw, and atypical subtrochanteric fracture. Based on the current situation, research for new drugs to regulate bone resorption remains relevant. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a new group of small, noncoding RNAs of 19–25 nucleotides, which negatively regulate gene expression after transcription. Recent studies discovered miRNAs play a considerable function in bone remodeling by regulating osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function. An increasing number of miRNAs have been identified to participate in osteoclast formation, differentiation, apoptosis, and resorption. miRNAs show great promise to serve as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for osteoporosis. In this review, we will summarize our current understanding of how miRNAs regulate osteoclastogenesis and function. We will further discuss the approach to develop drugs for osteoporosis based on these miRNA networks.
Guang-Biao Huang; Soo-Hyun Park; Eun-Ock Park; Eun-Kyung Choi; Young-Chul Chung; Tong Zhao; Sushma Shrestha Muna; Hong-Mei Jin; Jong-Il Park; Kyu-Sik Jo; Bo-Hee Lee; Soo-Wan Chae; Sun-Young Kim
Several studies have demonstrated that the Chinese herb Gastrodia elata Blume can protect against amyloid beta-peptide (Aβ)-induced cell death. To investigate the possible therapeutic effects of Gastrodia elata Blume on Alzheimer's disease, we established a rat model of Alzheimer's disease by injecting Aβ25 35 into bilateral hippocampi. These rats were intragastrically administered 500 or 1 000 mg/kg Gastrodia elata Blume per day for 52 consecutive days. Morris water maze tests showed that Gastrodia elata Blume treatment significantly improved the spatial memory of Alzheimer's disease rats. Congo red staining revealed that Gastrodia elata Blume significantly reduced the number of amyloid deposits in the hippocampus of these rats. Western blot analysis showed that choline acetyltransferase expression in the medial septum and hippocampus was significantly increased by the treatment of Gastrodia elata Blume, while Ellman method showed significant decrease in the activity of acetylcholinesterase in all three regions (prefrontal cortex, medial septum and hippocampus). These findings suggest that long-term administration of Gastrodia elata Blume has therapeutic potential for Alzheimer's disease.
Ikeda, K; Schiltz, E; Fujii, T; Takahashi, M; Mitsui, K; Kodera, Y; Matsushima, A; Inada, Y; Schulz, G E; Nishimura, H
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease caused by the defects in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Individuals homozygous for defective PAH alleles show elevated levels of systemic phenylalanine and should be under strict dietary control to reduce the risk of neuronal damage associated with high levels of plasma phenylalanine. Researchers predict that plant phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), which converts phenylalanine to nontoxic t-cinnamic acid, will be an effective therapeutic enzyme for the treatment of PKU. The problems of this potential enzyme therapy have been the low stability in the circulation and the antigenicity of the plant enzyme. Recombinant PAL originated from parsley (Petroselinum crispum) chemically conjugated with activated PEG2 [2,4-bis(O-methoxypolyethyleneglycol)-6-chloro-s-triazine] showed greatly enhanced stability in the circulation and was effective in reducing the plasma concentration of phenylalanine in the circulation of mice. PEG-PAL conjugate will be an effective therapeutic enzyme for the treatment of PKU.
Katharina; B; Wagner; Stephan; B; Felix; Alexander; Riad
Heart failure(HF) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in western countries and occasions major expenses for public health systems. Although optimal medical treatment is widely available according to current guidelines, the prognosis of patients with HF is still poor. Despite the etiology of the disease, increased systemic or cardiac activation of the innate immune system is well documented in several types of HF. In some cases there is evidence of an association between innate immune activation and clinical outcome of patients with this disease. However, the few large trials conducted with the use of anti-inflammatory medication in HF have not revealed its benefits. Thus, greater understanding of the relationship between alteration in the immune system and development and progression of HF is urgently necessary: prior to designing therapeutic interventions that target pathological inflammatory processes in preventing harmful cardiac effects of immune modulatory therapy. In this regard, relatively recently discovered receptors of the innate immune system, i.e., namely toll-like receptors(TLRs) and nodlike receptors(NLRs)-are the focus of intense cardiovascular research. These receptors are main up-stream regulators of cytokine activation. This review will focus on current knowledge of the role of TLRs and NLRs, as well as on downstream cytokine activation, and will discuss potential therapeutic implications.
Batzir, Nurit Assia; Tovin, Adi; Hendel, Ayal
Genome editing with engineered nucleases is a rapidly growing field thanks to transformative technologies that allow researchers to precisely alter genomes for numerous applications including basic research, biotechnology, and human gene therapy. The genome editing process relies on creating a site-specific DNA double-strand break (DSB) by engineered nucleases and then allowing the cell's repair machinery to repair the break such that precise changes are made to the DNA sequence. The recent development of CRISPR-Cas systems as easily accessible and programmable tools for genome editing accelerates the progress towards using genome editing as a new approach to human therapeutics. Here we review how genome editing using engineered nucleases works and how using different genome editing outcomes can be used as a tool set for treating human diseases. We then review the major challenges of therapeutic genome editing and we discuss how its potential enhancement through CRISPR guide RNA and Cas9 protein modifications could resolve some of these challenges. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.
Full Text Available Lung cancer has a very high mortality-to-incidence ratio, representing one of the main causes of cancer mortality worldwide. Therefore, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Several diseases including lung cancer have been associated with the action of reactive oxygen species (ROS from which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is one of the most studied. Despite the fact that H2O2 may have opposite effects on cell proliferation depending on the concentration and cell type, it triggers several antiproliferative responses. H2O2 produces both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA lesions, increases the expression of cell adhesion molecules, and increases p53 activity and other transcription factors orchestrating cancer cell death. In addition, H2O2 facilitates the endocytosis of oligonucleotides, affects membrane proteins, induces calcium release, and decreases cancer cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, the MAPK pathway and the expression of genes related to inflammation including interleukins, TNF-α, and NF-κB are also affected by H2O2. Herein, we will summarize the main effects of hydrogen peroxide on human lung cancer leading to suggesting it as a potential therapeutic tool to fight this disease. Because of the multimechanistic nature of this molecule, novel therapeutic approaches for lung cancer based on the use of H2O2 may help to decrease the mortality from this malignancy.
Abubakar, Sani; Isa, Nasiru Fage [Bayero University, Kano Nigeria (Nigeria); Usman, Ahmed Rufa’i [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina Nigeria (Nigeria); Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Abubakar, Nuraddeen [Center for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Nigeria (Nigeria)
Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments.
Farley, Lisa; Mishra Tarc, Aparna
Countertransference plays an often neglected role in witnessing children's testimony of war and trauma. A dual notion of countertransference, based on the work of Winnicott and Klein, is offered that involves both internal conflict related to early life experience and socially mediated notions of childhood, war, and trauma circulating in a given time and place. A drawing by a thirteen-year-old boy living in the refugee camps in Darfur is used to show how countertransference affects our interpretation of the image, even while its symbolization in language establishes the conditions for a potentially therapeutic response. It is argued that a psychoanalytic reading can supplement the "legal-conscious terminology" in which the Darfur archive has been predominantly framed (Felman 2002, p. 5). This expanded view of witnessing involves reading the child's testimony both for the history of violence it conveys and for the social and emotional histories it calls up in the witness as the ground and possibility of justice.
Fucoidan is a heterogeneous group of sulfated polysaccharide with a high content of l-fucose, which can be extracted from brown algae and marine invertebrates. It has many beneficial biological activities that make fucoidan an interesting candidate for therapeutic application in a variety of diseases. Age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy are major causes for vision loss and blindness in the industrialized countries and increasingly in the developing world. Some of the characteristics found in certain fucoidans, such as its anti-oxidant activity, complement inhibition or interaction with the Vascular Endothelial Growth factor, which would be of high interest for a potential application of fucoidan in age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. However, the possible usage of fucoidan in ophthalmological diseases has received little attention so far. In this review, biological activities of fucoidan that could be of interest regarding these diseases will be discussed.
Jiang, Hailong; Qin, Guixin; Zhang, Xuefeng; Che, Dongsheng
Clinical observations support the postulate that chronic low-grade inflammation underlies metabolic diseases and inflammatory mediators can trigger some metabolic diseases. In disorder condition, what is the first one: metabolic diseases cause inflammation or conversely? This "chicken or egg" type question was hard to answer. However, instead of focusing on this difficult issue, we should ask another challenging question: what are the links between inflammation and metabolic diseases? Seizing the key from this chaos may be the best way to solve the problem and break the cycle. To answer this question, we review the regulators (such as NF-κB, PPARs, mTOR, and STAT3) that have important roles in both metabolism and inflammation. These "bridge proteins" that link metabolic diseases and inflammation not only increase our understanding of these two diseases, but also provide potential targets for therapeutics and practical clinical applications.
Podar, Klaus; Anderson, Kenneth C
Caveolae are specialized flask-shaped lipid rafts enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids, and structural marker proteins termed caveolins. Caveolins are highly conserved hairpin loop-shaped, oligomeric proteins of 22-24 kDa. Besides the plasma cell membrane, caveolins are also present in mitochondria, the endoplasmatic reticulum, the Golgi/trans-Golgi network, and secretory vesicles. They play a critical role in normal vesicular transport, cholesterol homeostasis, and signal transduction. Conversely, dysregulation of caveolin-1 has been associated with several human diseases including multiple myeloma, an incurable malignancy characterized by excess monoclonal plasma cells within the bone marrow. In this mini-review, we characterize the functional role of caveolin-1 in multiple myeloma, and present the preclinical rationale for novel potential therapeutic approaches targeting caveolin-1 in multiple myeloma.
Bagger, J I; Knop, F K; Holst, Jens Juul
Glucagon is a hormone secreted from the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets. Through its effect on hepatic glucose production (HGP), glucagon plays a central role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), abnormal regulation of glucagon secretion....... This review focuses on the mechanism of action, safety and efficacy of glucagon antagonists in the treatment of T2DM and discusses the challenges associated with this new potential antidiabetic treatment modality....... has been implicated in the development of fasting and postprandial hyperglycaemia. Therefore, new therapeutic agents based on antagonizing glucagon action, and hence blockade of glucagon-induced HGP, could be effective in lowering both fasting and postprandial hyperglycaemia in patients with T2DM...
Zhang, Qingchun; Jin, Bo; Shi, Zhaotao; Wang, Xiaofang; Liu, Qiangqiang; Lei, Shan; Peng, Rufang
A series of novel hexadentate enterobactin analogues, which contain three catechol chelating moieties attached to different molecular scaffolds with flexible alkyl chain lengths, were prepared. The solution thermodynamic stabilities of the complexes with uranyl, ferric(III), and zinc(II) ions were then investigated. The hexadentate ligands demonstrate effective binding ability to uranyl ion, and the average uranyl affinities are two orders of magnitude higher than 2,3-dihydroxy-N1,N4-bis[(1,2-hydroxypyridinone-6-carboxamide)ethyl]terephthalamide [TMA(2Li-1,2-HOPO)2] ligand with similar denticity. The high affinity of hexadentate ligands could be due to the presence of the flexible scaffold, which favors the geometric agreement between the ligand and the uranyl coordination preference. The hexadentate ligands also exhibit higher antiradical efficiency than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). These results provide a basis for further studies on the potential applications of hexadentate ligands as therapeutic chelating agents.
Abubakar, Sani; Usman, Ahmed Rufa'i.; Isa, Nasiru Fage; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Abubakar, Nuraddeen
Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments.
Bergin, David A
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) has long been thought of as an important anti-protease in the lung where it is known to decrease the destructive effects of major proteases such as neutrophil elastase. In recent years, the perception of this protein in this simple one dimensional capacity as an anti-protease has evolved and it is now recognised that AAT has significant anti-inflammatory properties affecting a wide range of inflammatory cells, leading to its potential therapeutic use in a number of important diseases. This present review aims to discuss the described anti-inflammatory actions of AAT in modulating key immune cell functions, delineate known signalling pathways and specifically to identify the models of disease in which AAT has been shown to be effective as a therapy.
Hualin Yan; Peiwei Hong; Mei Jiang; Hedong Li
MicroRNAs are a class of recently discovered, small non-coding RNAs that have been shown to play essential roles in a vast majority of biological processes. Very little is known about the role of microRNAs during spinal cord injury. This review summarizes the changes in expression levels of microRNAs after spinal cord injury. These aberrant changes suggest that microRNAs play an important role in inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, glial scar formation and axonal regeneration. Given their small size and specificity of action, microRNAs could be potential therapeutics for treating spinal cord injury in the future. There are rapidly developing techniques for manipulating microRNA levels in animals; we review different chemical modification and delivery strategies. These may provide platforms for designing efficient microRNA delivery protocols for use in the clinic.
Zasloff, Michael; Adams, A Paige; Beckerman, Bernard; Campbell, Ann; Han, Ziying; Luijten, Erik; Meza, Isaura; Julander, Justin; Mishra, Abhijit; Qu, Wei; Taylor, John M; Weaver, Scott C; Wong, Gerard C L
Antiviral compounds that increase the resistance of host tissues represent an attractive class of therapeutic. Here, we show that squalamine, a compound previously isolated from the tissues of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity against human pathogens, which were studied in vitro as well as in vivo. Both RNA- and DNA-enveloped viruses are shown to be susceptible. The proposed mechanism involves the capacity of squalamine, a cationic amphipathic sterol, to neutralize the negative electrostatic surface charge of intracellular membranes in a way that renders the cell less effective in supporting viral replication. Because squalamine can be readily synthesized and has a known safety profile in man, we believe its potential as a broad-spectrum human antiviral agent should be explored.
Full Text Available In a number of microbial pathogens that undergoes antigenic variation to evade the host’s immune attack, genes encoding surface antigens are located at subtelomeric loci, and recent studies have revealed that telomere components play important roles in regulation of surface antigen expression in several of these pathogens, indicating that telomeres play critical roles in microbial pathogen virulence regulation. Importantly, although telomere protein components and their functions are largely conserved from protozoa to mammals, telomere protein homologues in microbial pathogens and humans have low sequence homology. Therefore, pathogen telomere components are potential drug targets for therapeutic approaches because first, most telomere proteins are essential for pathogens’ survival, and second, disruption of pathogens’ antigenic variation mechanism would facilitate host’s immune system to clear the infection.
Froyen, G; Billiau, A
IFN-gamma is an important regulator of immune responses and inflammation. Studies in animal models of inflammation, autoimmunity, cancer, transplant rejection and delayed-type hypersensitivity have indicated that administration of antibodies against IFN-gamma can prevent the occurrence of diseases or alleviate disease manifestations. Therefore, it is speculated that such antibodies may have therapeutical efficacy in human diseases. Since animal-derived antibodies are immunogenic in patients several strategies are being developed in order to reduce or abolish this human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) response. In our laboratory, we have constructed a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from a mouse antibody with neutralizing potential for human IFN-gamma. A scFv consists of only variable domains tethered together by a flexible linker. The scFv was demonstrated to neutralize the antiviral activity of HuIFN-gamma in vitro and therefore might be considered as a candidate for human therapy.
Hovhannisyan, Amalya; Matz, Madlen; Gebhardt, Rolf
Steroidal alkaloids from Veratrum californicum (Durand) are known to exert teratogenic effects (e.g., cyclopia, holoprosencephaly) by blocking the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway, which plays a considerable role in embryonic development and organogenesis. Most surprisingly, recent studies demonstrate that this complex signaling network is active even in the healthy adult organism, where it seems to control important aspects of basic metabolism and interorgan homeostasis. Abnormal activation of Hh signaling, however, can lead to the development of different tumors, psoriasis, and other diseases. This review provides an overview of how the principle teratogenic and hazardous constituent of Veratrum californicum, cyclopamine, interferes with Hh signaling and can potentially serve as a beneficial therapeutic for different tumors and psoriasis.
Ostadhadi, Sattar; Rahmatollahi, Mahdieh; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza; Rahimian, Reza
Cannabinoids (the active constituents of Cannabis sativa) and their derivatives have got intense attention during recent years because of their extensive pharmacological properties. Cannabinoids first developed as successful agents for alleviating chemotherapy associated nausea and vomiting. Recent investigations revealed that cannabinoids have a wide range of therapeutic effects such as appetite stimulation, inhibition of nausea and emesis, suppression of chemotherapy or radiotherapy-associated bone loss, chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity and cardiotoxicity, pain relief, mood amelioration, and last but not the least relief from insomnia. In this exploratory review, we scrutinize the potential of cannabinoids to counteract chemotherapy-induced side effects. Moreover, some novel and yet important pharmacological aspects of cannabinoids such as antitumoral effects will be discussed.
Segundo J. Guzman
Full Text Available ATP released from neurons and astrocytes during neuronal activity or under pathophysiological circumstances is able to influence information flow in neuronal circuits by activation of ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors and subsequent modulation of cellular excitability, synaptic strength, and plasticity. In the present paper we review cellular and network effects of P2Y receptors in the brain. We show that P2Y receptors inhibit the release of neurotransmitters, modulate voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, and differentially influence the induction of synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. The findings discussed here may explain how P2Y1 receptor activation during brain injury, hypoxia, inflammation, schizophrenia, or Alzheimer’s disease leads to an impairment of cognitive processes. Hence, it is suggested that the blockade of P2Y1 receptors may have therapeutic potential against cognitive disturbances in these states.
Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu; Blasiak, Janusz; Salminen, Antero
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central vision loss in the elderly in the developed countries. The number of AMD patients will double during the next decades due to increasing number of aged people. Chronic oxidative stress, inflammation and accumulation of protein-rich deposits both in the retinal pigment epithelium lysosomes and under the retinal pigment epithelium herald the onset of AMD. The disease can be divided into dry and wet AMD forms. The dry form of the disease is more prevalent accounting for up to 90% of all cases. Continued intraocular injections are the current treatment strategy to prevent progression of wet AMD. It is a major challenge to develop new drugs that could prevent or at least ease the symptoms of the increasing population of AMD patients. Since AMD pathology is clearly associated with accumulated protein deposits, the autophagy clearance system might represent a potential future therapeutic target for AMD as is thoroughly discussed here.
Fucoidan is a heterogeneous group of sulfated polysaccharide with a high content of l-fucose, which can be extracted from brown algae and marine invertebrates. It has many beneficial biological activities that make fucoidan an interesting candidate for therapeutic application in a variety of diseases. Age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy are major causes for vision loss and blindness in the industrialized countries and increasingly in the developing world. Some of the characteristics found in certain fucoidans, such as its anti-oxidant activity, complement inhibition or interaction with the Vascular Endothelial Growth factor, which would be of high interest for a potential application of fucoidan in age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. However, the possible usage of fucoidan in ophthalmological diseases has received little attention so far. In this review, biological activities of fucoidan that could be of interest regarding these diseases will be discussed. PMID:26848666
Full Text Available High frequency yoga breathing (HFYB results in a shifting of the autonomic nervous system balance towards sympathetic nervous system dominance. In an effort to more fully understand the complex effects of this form of yogic breath-work, tests are being conducted on practitioners’ physiological and neurological response processes. Studies on heart rate variability (HRV indicating cardiac autonomic control have shown a resulting reduction of vagal activity following HFYB, leading to passive sympathetic dominance without overt excitation or exhaustion. Comparative cognitive tests taken after the practice have shown that HFYB results in reduced auditory and visual reaction times, and a decrease in optical illusion. The vigilant, wakeful, yet relaxed state induced by HFYB has been associated with improvements in attention, memory, sensorimotor performance, and mood. As breathing bridges conscious and unconscious functions, the potential role of HFYB as an adjunctive therapeutic intervention as well as its possible application in preparation for meditation is considered.
Full Text Available S Weissenberger,1 M Klicperova-Baker,2 P Zimbardo,3 K Schonova,1 D Akotia,1 J Kostal,2 M Goetz,4 J Raboch,1 R Ptacek1 1First Medical Faculty, Charles University, 2Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Praha, Czech Republic; 3Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; 4Second Faculty of Medicine, Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University, Motol University Hospital, Praha, Czech RepublicAbstract: The article draws primarily from the behavioral findings (mainly psychiatric and psychological observations and points out the important relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms and time orientation. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a significant overlap between the symptoms of ADHD and Present Hedonism. Present Hedonism is defined by Zimbardo’s time perspective theory and assessed by Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Developmental data on Present Hedonism of males and females in the Czech population sample (N=2201 are also presented. The hypothesis of relationship between ADHD and Present Hedonism is mainly derived from the prevalence of addictive behavior (mainly excessive Internet use, alcohol abuse, craving for sweets, fatty foods, and fast foods, deficits in social learning, and increased aggressiveness both in ADHD and in the population high on Present Hedonism. We conclude that Zimbardo’s time perspective offers both: 1 a potential diagnostic tool – the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, particularly its Present Hedonism scale, and 2 a promising preventive and/or therapeutic approach by the Time Perspective Therapy. Time Perspective Therapy has so far been used mainly to treat past negative trauma (most notably, posttraumatic stress disorder; however, it also has value as a potential therapeutic tool for possible behavioral compensation of ADHD.Keywords: ADHD, time perspective, ZTPI, Zimbardo, addiction, alcoholism, delinquency
Elosta, Abdulhakim; Ghous, Tahseen; Ahmed, Nessar
Diabetes mellitus is characterised by hyperglycaemia, lipidaemia and oxidative stress and predisposes affected individuals to long-term complications afflicting the eyes, skin, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels. Increased protein glycation and the subsequent build-up of tissue advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) contribute towards the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Protein glycation is accompanied by generation of free radicals through autoxidation of glucose and glycated proteins and via interaction of AGEs with their cell surface receptors (referred to as RAGE). Glycationderived free radicals can damage proteins, lipids and nucleic acids and contribute towards oxidative stress in diabetes. There is interest in compounds with anti-glycation activity as they may offer therapeutic potential in delaying or preventing the onset of diabetic complications. Although many different compounds are under study, only a few have successfully entered clinical trials but none have yet been approved for clinical use. Whilst the search for new synthetic inhibitors of glycation continues, little attention has been paid to anti-glycation compounds from natural sources. In the last few decades the traditional system of medicine has become a topic of global interest. Various studies have indicated that dietary supplementation with combined anti-glycation and antioxidant nutrients may be a safe and simple complement to traditional therapies targeting diabetic complications. Data for forty two plants/constituents studied for anti-glycation activity is presented in this review and some commonly used medicinal plants that possess anti-glycation activity are discussed in detail including their active ingredients, mechanism of action and therapeutic potential.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma (MM is a disease of cell cycle dysregulation while cell cycle modulation can be a target for MM therapy. In this study we investigated the effects and mechanisms of action of a sesquiterpene lactone 6-O-angeloylplenolin (6-OAP on MM cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MM cells were exposed to 6-OAP and cell cycle distribution were analyzed. The role for cyclin B1 to play in 6-OAP-caused mitotic arrest was tested by specific siRNA analyses in U266 cells. MM.1S cells co-incubated with interleukin-6 (IL-6, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I, or bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs were treated with 6-OAP. The effects of 6-OAP plus other drugs on MM.1S cells were evaluated. The in vivo therapeutic efficacy and pharmacokinetic features of 6-OAP were tested in nude mice bearing U266 cells and Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively. We found that 6-OAP suppressed the proliferation of dexamethasone-sensitive and dexamethasone-resistant cell lines and primary CD138+ MM cells. 6-OAP caused mitotic arrest, accompanied by activation of spindle assembly checkpoint and blockage of ubiquitiniation and subsequent proteasomal degradation of cyclin B1. Combined use of 6-OAP and bortezomib induced potentiated cytotoxicity with inactivation of ERK1/2 and activation of JNK1/2 and Casp-8/-3. 6-OAP overcame the protective effects of IL-6 and IGF-I on MM cells through inhibition of Jak2/Stat3 and Akt, respectively. 6-OAP inhibited BMSCs-facilitated MM cell expansion and TNF-α-induced NF-κB signal. Moreover, 6-OAP exhibited potent anti-MM activity in nude mice and favorable pharmacokinetics in rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that 6-OAP is a new cell cycle inhibitor which shows therapeutic potentials for MM.
Full Text Available Tumor cells adapt to their high metabolic state by increasing energy production. To this end, current efforts in molecular cancer therapeutics have been focused on signaling pathways that modulate cellular metabolism. However, targeting such signaling pathways is challenging due to heterogeneity of tumors and recurrent oncogenic mutations. A critical need remains to develop antitumor drugs that target tumor specific pathways. Here, we discuss an energy metabolic pathway that is preferentially activated in several cancers as a potential target for molecular cancer therapy. In vitro studies have revealed that many cancer cells synthesize guanosine triphosphate (GTP, via the de novo purine nucleotide synthesis pathway by upregulating the rate limiting enzyme of this pathway, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH. Non-proliferating cells use an alternative purine nucleotide synthesis pathway, the salvage pathway, to synthesize GTP. These observations pose IMPDH as a potential target to suppress tumor cell growth. The IMPDH inhibitor, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, is an FDA-approved immunosuppressive drug. Accumulating evidence shows that, in addition to its immunosuppressive effects, MMF also has antitumor effects via IMPDH inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Here, we review the literature on IMPDH as related to tumorigenesis and the use of MMF as a potential antitumor drug.
Khan, Imtiaz; Ibrar, Aliya; Ahmed, Waqas; Saeed, Aamer
The presence of N-heterocycles as an essential structural motif in a variety of biologically active substances has stimulated the development of new strategies and technologies for their synthesis. Among the various N-heterocyclic scaffolds, quinazolines and quinazolinones form a privileged class of compounds with their diverse spectrum of therapeutic potential. The easy generation of complex molecular diversity through broadly applicable, cost-effective, practical and sustainable synthetic methods in a straightforward fashion along with the importance of these motifs in medicinal chemistry, received significant attention from researchers engaged in drug design and heterocyclic methodology development. In this perspective, the current review article is an effort to recapitulate recent developments in the eco-friendly and green procedures for the construction of highly challenging and potentially bioactive quinazoline and quinazolinone compounds in order to help medicinal chemists in designing and synthesizing novel and potent compounds for the treatment of different disorders. The key mechanistic insights for the synthesis of these heterocycles along with potential applications and manipulations of the products have also been conferred. This article also aims to highlight the promising future directions for the easy access to these frameworks in addition to the identification of more potent and specific products for numerous biological targets.
Mubashir Hussain; Yamin Bibi; Naveed Iqbal Raja; Muhammad Iqbal; Sumaira Aslam; Nida Tahir; Muhammad Imran; Anam Iftikhar
Medicinal plants are the nature’s gift for the humanity to treat various ailments and to spend a prosperous healthy life. There are almost 300 species ofAjuga. Among them,Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth (A. bracteosa) is an important medicinal plant of Himalaya regions. Its medicinal potential is due to the presence of various pharmacologically active compounds such as neo-clerodane diterpenoids, flavonol glycosides, iridoid glycosides, ergosterol-5,8-endoperoxide and phytoecdysones. The aim of this review article was to gather information aboutA. bracteosa which is currently scattered in form of various publications. This review article tried to attract the attention from people for therapeutic potential ofA. bracteosa. The present review comprises upto date information of botanical aspects, active ingredients, traditional uses, and pharmacological activities such as antitumor, antimicrobial, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic activity, antiarthritic activity, antioxidant activity andin vitro production of secondary metabolites for pharmaceuticals. Due to remarkable medicinal potential and commercialization, this species is indexed into critically endangered category and it is facing extremely high risk of extinction. Conservation practices and management techniques should be carried out to protect this important species from extinction. Recent biotechnological approaches will be quite helpful for its conservation.
Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the nature’s gift for the humanity to treat various ailments and to spend a prosperous healthy life. There are almost 300 species of Ajuga. Among them, Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth (A. bracteosa is an important medicinal plant of Himalaya regions. Its medicinal potential is due to the presence of various pharmacologically active compounds such as neo-clerodane diterpenoids, flavonol glycosides, iridoid glycosides, ergosterol-5,8- endoperoxide and phytoecdysones. The aim of this review article was to gather information about A. bracteosa which is currently scattered in form of various publications. This review article tried to attract the attention from people for therapeutic potential of A. bracteosa. The present review comprises upto date information of botanical aspects, active ingredients, traditional uses, and pharmacological activities such as antitumor, antimicrobial, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic activity, antiarthritic activity, antioxidant activity and in vitro production of secondary metabolites for pharmaceuticals. Due to remarkable medicinal potential and commercialization, this species is indexed into critically endangered category and it is facing extremely high risk of extinction. Conservation practices and management techniques should be carried out to protect this important species from extinction. Recent biotechnological approaches will be quite helpful for its conservation.
Full Text Available Kerala state is famous for its medicinal plant wealth and the tradition of indigenous system of therapy, specifically the Ayurveda. Dashapushpam constitute a group of ten potential herbs which are culturally and medicinally significant to the people of Kerala state. They are a group of ten herbs with which the ladies decorate their hairs and dance the thiruvathira kali on the day of thiruvathira in the Malayalam month of dhanu (December to January. Dashapushpas are also been eaten in the form of karkkadaka kanji in karkkidaka masam (during mid-July to mid August to get better health in the upcoming monsoon season. Also these plants are used in folklore practice in lithiasis, gonorrhea, vomiting, indigestion, skin diseases, intermittent fever, flatulence, urogenital diseases etc. Most of them are scientifically validated for various bioactivities. Still there are lots of possibilities for potential pharmacological activities from these herbs, yet to be explored. This article would throw light on the therapeutic potential of these ten sacred plants aiding to further propagation of these plants.
Kazuo Hayakawa; Christopher Haas; Itzhak Fischer
In the aftermath of spinal cord injury, glial restricted precursors (GRPs) and immature astrocytes offer the potential to modulate the inlfammatory environment of the injured spinal cord and promote host axon re-generation. Nevertheless clinical application of cellular therapy for the repair of spinal cord injury requires strict quality-assured protocols for large-scale production and preservation that necessitates long-term in vitro expansion. Importantly, such processes have the potential to alter the phenotypic and functional properties and thus therapeutic potential of these cells. Furthermore, clinical use of cellular therapies may be limited by the inlfammatory microenvironment of the injured spinal cord, altering the phenotypic and functional properties of grafted cells. This report simulates the process of large-scale GRP production and demonstrates the permissive properties of GRP following long-termin vitro culture. Furthermore, we de-ifned the phenotypic and functional properties of GRP in the presence of inlfammatory factors, and call attention to the importance of the microenvironment of grafted cells, underscoring the importance of modulating the environment of the injured spinal cord.
Full Text Available Liliana Dell’Osso, Claudia Del Grande, Camilla Gesi, Claudia Carmassi, Laura Musetti Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Increasing evidence highlights bipolar disorder as being associated with impaired neurogenesis, cellular plasticity, and resiliency, as well as with cell atrophy or loss in specific brain regions. This has led most recent research to focus on the possible neuroprotective effects of medications, and particularly interesting findings have emerged for lithium. A growing body of evidence from preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies has in fact documented its neuroprotective effects from different insults acting on cellular signaling pathways, both preventing apoptosis and increasing neurotrophins and cell-survival molecules. Furthermore, positive effects of lithium on neurogenesis, brain remodeling, angiogenesis, mesenchymal stem cells functioning, and inflammation have been revealed, with a key role played through the inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase-3, a serine/threonine kinase implicated in the pathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders. These recent evidences suggest the potential utility of lithium in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, neurodevelopmental disorders, and hypoxic–ischemic/traumatic brain injury, with positive results at even lower lithium doses than those traditionally considered to be antimanic. The aim of this review is to briefly summarize the potential benefits of lithium salts on neuroprotection and neuroregeneration, emphasizing preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting new therapeutic potentials of this drug beyond its mood stabilizing properties. Keywords: bipolar disorder, GSK-3, neurodegeneration, neurogenesis, neurodevelopmental disorders
Tewari-Singh, Neera, E-mail: Neera.Tewari-Singh@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Jain, Anil K., E-mail: Anil.Jain@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Inturi, Swetha, E-mail: Swetha.Inturi@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Ammar, David A., E-mail: David.Ammar@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Chapla, E-mail: Chapla.Agarwal@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Tyagi, Puneet, E-mail: Puneet.Tyagi@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Kompella, Uday B., E-mail: Uday.Kompella@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Enzenauer, Robert W., E-mail: Robert.Enzenauer@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Petrash, J. Mark, E-mail: Mark.Petrash@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)
There are no effective and approved therapies against devastating ocular injuries caused by vesicating chemical agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM). Herein, studies were carried out in rabbit corneal cultures to establish relevant ocular injury biomarkers with NM for screening potential efficacious agents in laboratory settings. NM (100 nmol) exposure of the corneas for 2 h (cultured for 24 h), showed increases in epithelial thickness, ulceration, apoptotic cell death, epithelial detachment microbullae formation, and the levels of VEGF, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Employing these biomarkers, efficacy studies were performed with agent treatments 2 h and every 4 h thereafter, for 24 h following NM exposure. Three agents were evaluated, including prescription drugs dexamethasone (0.1%; anti-inflammatory steroid) and doxycycline (100 nmol; antibiotic and MMP inhibitor) that have been studied earlier for treating vesicant-induced eye injuries. We also examined silibinin (100 μg), a non-toxic natural flavanone found to be effective in treating SM analog-induced skin injuries in our earlier studies. Treatments of doxycycline + dexamethasone, and silibinin were more effective than doxycycline or dexamethasone alone in reversing NM-induced epithelial thickening, microbullae formation, apoptotic cell death, and MMP-9 elevation. However, dexamethasone and silibinin alone were more effective in reversing NM-induced VEGF levels. Doxycycline, dexamethasone and silibinin were all effective in reversing NM-induced COX-2 levels. Apart from therapeutic efficacy of doxycycline and dexamethasone, these results show strong multifunctional efficacy of silibinin in reversing NM-induced ocular injuries, which could help develop effective and safe therapeutics against ocular injuries by vesicants. -- Highlights: ► Established injury biomarkers in rabbit corneal culture with nitrogen mustard (NM) ► This NM model is a cost effective
Zents, Karlijn; Copray, Sjef
Stroke is the second most common cause of death and the leading cause of disability in the world. About 30% of the people that are affected by stroke die within a year; 25% of the patients that survive stroke remain in need of care after a year. Therefore, stroke is a major burden for health care costs. The most common subtype is ischemic stroke. This type is characterized by a reduced and insufficient blood supply to a certain part of the brain. Despite the high prevalence of stroke, the currently used therapeutic interventions are limited. No therapies that aim to restore damaged neuronal tissue or to promote recovery are available nowadays. Transplantation of stem cell-derived cells has been investigated as a potential regenerative and protective treatment. Embryonic stem cell (ESC)-based cell therapy in rodent models of stroke has been shown to improve functional outcome. However, the clinical use of ESCs still raises ethical questions and implantation of ESC-derived cells requires continuous immunosuppression. The groundbreaking detection of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has provided a most promising alternative. This mini-review summarizes current literature in which the potential use of iPSC-derived cells has been tested in rodent models of stroke. iPSC-based cell therapy has been demonstrated to improve motor function, decrease stroke volume, promote neurogenesis and angiogenesis and to exert immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory effects in the brain of stroke-affected rodents.
Full Text Available The IL-1R/TLR family has been receiving considerable attention as potential regulators of inflammation through their ability to act as either activators or suppressors of inflammation. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, allergic inflammation, elevated serum total, allergen-specific IgE levels, and increased Th2 cytokine production. The discovery that the IL-1RI–IL-1 and ST2–IL-33 pathways are crucial for allergic inflammation has raised interest in these receptors as potential targets for developing new therapeutic strategies for bronchial asthma. This paper discusses the current use of neutralizing mAb or soluble receptor constructs to deplete cytokines, the use of neutralizing mAb or recombinant receptor antagonists to block cytokine receptors, and gene therapy from experimental studies in asthma. Targeting IL-1RI–IL-1 as well as ST2–IL-33 pathways may promise a disease-modifying approach in the future.
Protus Arrey Tarkang
Full Text Available Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf, Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves, used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, total phenolic content (TPC, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP methods and, in vivo, Nefang (100 and 500 mg kg−1 activity was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation by the malondialdehyde and total proteins assays were carried out. P. guajava, M. indica leaf, and bark extracts had the highest antioxidant properties in all three assays, with no statistically significant difference. Rats treated with the carbon tetrachloride had a statistically significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (P<0.05 and increase in malondialdehyde activity, total protein levels, and liver and renal function markers, whereas rats treated with Nefang showed increased levels in the former and dose-dependent decrease towards normal levels in the later. These results reveal the constituent plants of Nefang that contribute to its in vivo antioxidant potential. This activity is a good indication of the therapeutic potential of Nefang.
Mahmoud Fahmi Elsebai
Full Text Available The different pharmacologic properties of plants-containing cynaropicrin, especially artichokes, have been known for many centuries. More recently, cynaropicrin exhibited a potential activity against all genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV. Cynaropicrin has also shown a wide range of other pharmacologic properties such as anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-trypanosomal, anti-malarial, antifeedant, antispasmodic, anti-photoaging, and anti-tumor action, as well as activation of bitter sensory receptors, and anti-inflammatory properties (e.g., associated with the suppression of the key pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway. These pharmacological effects are very supportive factors to its outstanding activity against HCV. Structurally, cynaropicrin might be considered as a potential drug candidate, since it has no violations for the rule of five and its water-solubility could allow formulation as therapeutic injections. Moreover, cynaropicrin is a small molecule that can be easily synthesized and as the major constituent of the edible plant artichoke, which has a history of safe dietary use. In summary, cynaropicrin is a promising bioactive natural product that, with minor hit-to-lead optimization, might be developed as a drug for HCV.
Li, Q; Zhou, J-M
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a series of neurodevelopmental disorders that are characterized by deficits in both social and cognitive functions. Although the exact etiology and pathology of ASD remain unclear, a disorder of the microbiota-gut-brain axis is emerging as a prominent factor in the generation of autistic behaviors. Clinical studies have shown that gastrointestinal symptoms and compositional changes in the gut microbiota frequently accompany cerebral disorders in patients with ASD. A disturbance in the gut microbiota, which is usually induced by a bacterial infection or chronic antibiotic exposure, has been implicated as a potential contributor to ASD. The bidirectional microbiota-gut-brain axis acts mainly through neuroendocrine, neuroimmune, and autonomic nervous mechanisms. Application of modulators of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, such as probiotics, helminthes and certain special diets, may be a promising strategy for the treatment of ASD. This review mainly discusses the salient observations of the disruptions of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in the pathogenesis of ASD and reveals its potential therapeutic role in autistic deficits.
Meikle, Peter J; Wong, Gerard; Barlow, Christopher K; Kingwell, Bronwyn A
Lipidomics has developed rapidly over the past decade to the point where clinical application may soon be possible. Developments including high throughput technologies enable the simultaneous quantification of several hundred lipid species, thereby providing a global assessment of lipid metabolism. Given the key role of lipids in the pathophysiology of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, lipidomics has the potential to: i) Significantly improve prediction of future disease risk, ii) Inform on mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, iii) Identify patient groups responsive to particular therapies and iv) More closely monitor response to therapy. Lipidomic analyses of both whole plasma and lipoprotein subfractions are integral to the current initiative to understand the relationships between lipoprotein composition and function and how these are affected by disease and treatment. This approach will not only aid in appropriate targeting of existing lipid lowering therapies such as statins and fibrates, but will be important in unravelling the controversies surrounding HDL-based therapies which have failed in clinical trials to date. The ultimate utility of lipidomics to clinical practice will depend firstly on the ability of risk prediction models incorporating lipidomic parameters to significantly improve upon conventional clinical risk markers in predicting future disease risk. Secondly, for widespread application, lipidomic-based measurements must be practical and accessible through standard pathology laboratories. This review will cover developments in lipidomics including methodology, bioinformatics/statistics, insights into disease pathophysiology, the effect of therapeutic interventions, the role of large clinical outcome trials in validating lipidomic approaches to patient management and potential applications in clinical practice.
Pearn, Matthew L; Niesman, Ingrid R; Egawa, Junji; Sawada, Atsushi; Almenar-Queralt, Angels; Shah, Sameer B; Duckworth, Josh L; Head, Brian P
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death of young people in the developed world. In the United States alone, 1.7 million traumatic events occur annually accounting for 50,000 deaths. The etiology of TBI includes traffic accidents, falls, gunshot wounds, sports, and combat-related events. TBI severity ranges from mild to severe. TBI can induce subtle changes in molecular signaling, alterations in cellular structure and function, and/or primary tissue injury, such as contusion, hemorrhage, and diffuse axonal injury. TBI results in blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage and leakage, which allows for increased extravasation of immune cells (i.e., increased neuroinflammation). BBB dysfunction and impaired homeostasis contribute to secondary injury that occurs from hours to days to months after the initial trauma. This delayed nature of the secondary injury suggests a potential therapeutic window. The focus of this article is on the (1) pathophysiology of TBI and (2) potential therapies that include biologics (stem cells, gene therapy, peptides), pharmacological (anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic, progrowth), and noninvasive (exercise, transcranial magnetic stimulation). In final, the review briefly discusses membrane/lipid rafts (MLR) and the MLR-associated protein caveolin (Cav). Interventions that increase Cav-1, MLR formation, and MLR recruitment of growth-promoting signaling components may augment the efficacy of pharmacologic agents or already existing endogenous neurotransmitters and neurotrophins that converge upon progrowth signaling cascades resulting in improved neuronal function after injury.
Rishi, Praveen; Bhogal, Akanksha; Arora, Sumeha; Pandey, Satish K; Verma, Indu; Kaur, Indu Pal
An encapsulated system for cryptdin-2 (a Paneth cell antimicrobial peptide) was developed, with a view to help it sustain adverse gut conditions and to ensure its bioavailability on oral administration. The formulation was characterized on the basis of particle size, zeta potential and polydispersity index. Cryptdin-2 loaded nanoparticles of size 105±7 nm, formulated by ionotropic gelation method using chitosan: tripolyphosphate (5:2), revealed 60% drug entrapment efficiency with 65% in vitro release in 4.5 h. Developed system was evaluated for its therapeutic application against Salmonella Typhimurium infection in mice, on the basis of survivability of animals, bacterial load in tissues, histo-architecture and oxidative damage markers. Infected mice when treated with the encapsulated peptide showed 83% survivability and approximately 2 log unit reductions in the bacterial load in the tissues versus 100% mortality observed with the free peptide. The encapsulated cryptdin-2 also achieved a decrease in the level of oxidants, particularly nitrite by 3.25 folds and increased the level of antioxidant catalase by 2 folds when compared to the levels exhibited by the free peptide. The bacteriological and biochemical alterations illustrated by encapsulated peptide co-related well with the histo-architectural studies. The study is a first pre-clinical report on the oral effectiveness of cryptdin-2 by its suitable encapsulation and has potential for future clinical applications.
Mazarei, Gelareh; Leavitt, Blair R
Within the past decade, there has been increasing interest in the role of tryptophan (Trp) metabolites and the kynurenine pathway (KP) in diseases of the brain such as Huntington's disease (HD). Evidence is accumulating to suggest that this pathway is imbalanced in neurologic disease states. The KP diverges into two branches that can lead to production of either neuroprotective or neurotoxic metabolites. In one branch, kynurenine (Kyn) produced as a result of tryptophan (Trp) catabolism is further metabolized to neurotoxic metabolites such as 3-hydroxykunurenine (3-HK) and quinolinic acid (QA). In the other branch, Kyn is converted to the neuroprotective metabolite kynurenic acid (KA). The enzyme Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO1) catalyzes the conversion of Trp into Kyn, the first and rate-limiting enzymatic step of the KP. This reaction takes place throughout the body in multiple cell types as a required step in the degradation of the essential amino acid Trp. Studies of IDO1 in brain have focused primarily on a potential role in depression, immune tolerance associated with brain tumours, and multiple sclerosis; however the role of this enzyme in neurodegenerative disease has garnered significant attention in recent years. This review will provide a summary of the current understanding of the role of IDO1 in Huntington's disease and will assess this enzyme as a potential therapeutic target for HD.
Martinelli, Erika; Morgillo, Floriana; Troiani, Teresa; Tortora, Giampaolo; Ciardiello, Fortunato
Introduction: Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common malignant disease. Of newly diagnosed patients, 40% have metastatic disease at diagnosis, and approximately 25% of patients with localized disease at diagnosis will ultimately develop metastatic disease. The benefits of systemic chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer over best supportive care have been established. Panitumumab (ABX-EGF) is the first fully human monoclonal antibody developed for use in colorectal cancer that targets the extracellular domains of epidermal growth factor receptor. Aims: The goal of this article is to review the published evidence for the use of panitumumab in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer to define its therapeutic potential. Evidence review: The major evidence of panitumumab activity in colorectal cancer has appeared in meeting report abstracts. One phase II study in monotherapy, one in combination with chemotherapy, and one phase III study have included only patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Clinical potential: To date, in phase II clinical studies panitumumab has demonstrated antitumor activity in advanced, refractory colorectal cancer. As monotherapy it resulted in a 10% response rate with 38% of patients having stable disease, and a 36% response rate with 46% stable disease when combined with chemotherapy. A phase III study indicates a clinically significant advantage of panitumumab as third-line monotherapy over best supportive care. Panitumumab appears to have a good tolerability profile, with no maximum tolerated dose yet defined. PMID:21221177
Inzaugarat, María Eugenia; De Matteo, Elena; Baz, Placida; Lucero, Diego; García, Cecilia Claudia; Gonzalez Ballerga, Esteban; Daruich, Jorge; Sorda, Juan Antonio; Wald, Miriam Ruth
Introduction The immune system acts on different metabolic tissues that are implicated in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Leptin and linoleic acid have the ability to potentially affect immune cells, whereas curcumin is a known natural polyphenol with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Aims This study was designed to evaluate the pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant effects of leptin and linoleic acid on immune cells from patients with NAFLD and to corroborate the modulatory effects of curcumin and its preventive properties against the progression of NAFLD using a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis mouse model. Results The ex vivo experiments showed that linoleic acid increased the production of reactive oxygen species in monocytes and liver macrophages, whereas leptin enhanced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production in monocytes and interferon-γ production in circulating CD4+ cells. Conversely, oral administration of curcumin prevented HFD-induced liver injury, metabolic alterations, intrahepatic CD4+ cell accumulation and the linoleic acid- and leptin- induced pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant effects on mouse liver macrophages. Conclusion Our findings provide new evidence for the therapeutic potential of curcumin to treat human NAFLD. However, the development of a preventive treatment targeting human circulating monocytes and liver macrophages as well as peripheral and hepatic CD4+ cells requires additional research. PMID:28257515
Nelson S. Yee
Full Text Available The transient receptor potential melastatin-subfamily member 7 (TRPM7 is a ubiquitously expressed ion channel with intrinsic kinase activity. Molecular and electrophysiological analyses of the structure and activity of TRPM7 have revealed functional coupling of its channel and kinase activity. Studies have indicated the important roles of TRPM7 channel-kinase in fundamental cellular processes, physiological responses, and embryonic development. Accumulating evidence has shown that TRPM7 is aberrantly expressed and/or activated in human diseases including cancer. TRPM7 plays a variety of functional roles in cancer cells including survival, cell cycle progression, proliferation, growth, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Data from a study using mouse xenograft of human cancer show that TRPM7 is required for tumor growth and metastasis. The aberrant expression of TRPM7 and its genetic mutations/polymorphisms have been identified in various types of carcinoma. Chemical modulators of TRPM7 channel produced inhibition of proliferation, growth, migration, invasion, invadosome formation, and markers of EMT in cancer cells. Taken together, these studies suggest the potential value of exploiting TRPM7 channel-kinase as a molecular biomarker and therapeutic target in human malignancies.
Moens, An L; Vrints, Christiaan J; Claeys, Marc J; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Champion, Hunter C; Kass, David A
Folic acid (FA) is a member of the B-vitamin family with cardiovascular roles in homocysteine regulation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Its interaction with eNOS is thought to be due to the enhancement of tetrahydrobiopterin bioavailability, helping maintain eNOS in its coupled state to favor the generation of nitric oxide rather than oxygen free radicals. FA also plays a role in the prevention of several cardiac and noncardiac malformations, has potent direct antioxidant and antithrombotic effects, and can interfere with the production of the endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor. These multiple mechanisms of action have led to studies regarding the therapeutic potential of FA in cardiovascular disease. To date, studies have demonstrated that FA ameliorates endothelial dysfunction and nitrate tolerance and can improve pathological features of atherosclerosis. These effects appear to be homocysteine independent but rather related to their role in eNOS function. Given the growing evidence that nitric oxide synthase uncoupling plays a major role in many cardiovascular disorders, the potential of exogenous FA as an inexpensive and safe oral therapy is intriguing and is stimulating ongoing investigations.
Sokolowski, Kevin M; Koprowski, Steven; Kunnimalaiyaan, Selvi; Balamurugan, Mariappan; Gamblin, T Clark; Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy
Primary liver cancer is one of the most commonly occurring cancers worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the majority of primary liver cancer and is the 3rd most common cause of cancer-related deaths globally. Survival rates of patients with HCC are dependent upon early detection as concomitant liver dysfunction and advanced disease limits traditional therapeutic options such as resection or ablation. Unfortunately, at the time of diagnosis, most patients are not eligible for curative surgery and have a five-year relative survival rate less than 20%, leading to systemic therapy as the only option. Currently, sorafenib is the only approved systemic therapy; however, it has a limited survival advantage and low efficacy prompting alternative strategies. The inception of sorafenib for HCC systemic therapy and the understanding involved of cancer therapy have led to an enhanced focus of the PI3-k/Akt/mTOR pathway as a potential area of targeting including pan and isoform-specific PI3-K inhibitors, Akt blockade, and mTOR suppression. The multitude, expanding roles, and varying clinical trials of these inhibitors have led to an increase in knowledge and availability for current and future studies. In this review, we provide a review of the literature with the aim to focus on potential targets for HCC therapies as well as an in depth focus on Akt inhibition.
Vijayakumar, S; Manogar, P; Prabhu, S
Cyanobacteria find several applications in pharmacology as potential candidates for drug design. The need for new compounds that can be used as drugs has always been on the rise in therapeutics. Cyanobacteria have been identified as promising targets of research in the quest for new pharmaceutical compounds as they can produce secondary metabolites with novel chemical structures. Cyanobacteria is now recognized as a vital source of bioactive molecules like Curacin A, Largazole and Apratoxin which have succeeded in reaching Phase II and Phase III into clinical trials. The discovery of several new clinical cannabinoid drugs in the past decade from diverse marine life should translate into a number of new drugs for cannabinoid in the years to come. Conventional cannabinoid drugs have high toxicity and as a result, they affect the efficacy of chemotherapy and patients' life very much. The present review focuses on how potential, safe and affordable drugs used for cannabinoid treatment could be developed from cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ciccarese, Chiara; Massari, Francesco; Blanca, Ana; Tortora, Giampaolo; Montironi, Rodolfo; Cheng, Liang; Scarpelli, Marina; Raspollini, Maria R; Vau, Nuno; Fonseca, Jorge; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio
Despite more than 30 years of research on p53 resulting in >50,000 publications, we are now beginning to figure out the complexity of the p53 pathway, gene ontology and conformational structure of the molecule. Recent years brought great advances in p53 related drugs and the potencial ways in which p53 is inactivated in cancer. Areas covered: We searched for related publications on Pubmed and ClinicalTrial.gov using the following keywords 'p53, Tp53, p53 and bladder cancer, p53 and therapeutic target'. Relevant articles improved the understanding on p53 pathways and their potential as candidate to targeted therapy in bladder cancer. Expert opinion: Novel strategies developed to restore the function of mutants with chemical chaperones or by using compounds to improved pharmacokinetic properties are in development with potential to be applied in the oncology clinic. Other strategies targeting aberrantly overexpressed p53 regulators with wild-type p53 are also an active area of research. In particular, studies inhibiting the interaction of p53 with its negative regulators MDMX and MDM2 are an important field in drug discovery. Small molecules for inhibition of MDM2 are now in clinical trials process. However, personalized anticancer therapy might eventually advance through analyses of p53 status in cancer patients.
Chapdelaine, Pierre; Coulombe, Zoé; Chikh, Amina; Gérard, Catherine; Tremblay, Jacques P
TALEs targeting a promoter sequence and fused with a transcription activation domain (TAD) may be used to specifically induce the expression of a gene as a potential treatment for haploinsufficiency. This potential therapeutic approach was applied to increase the expression of frataxin in fibroblasts of Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) patients. FRDA fibroblast cells were nucleofected with a pCR3.1 expression vector coding for TALEFrat#8 fused with VP64. A twofold increase of the frataxin mRNA (detected by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR)) associated with a similar increase of the mature form of the frataxin protein was observed. The frataxin mRNA and protein were also increased by this TALE in the fibroblasts of the YG8R mouse model. The addition of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) or of valproic acid (VPA) to the TALE treatment did not produce significant improvement. Other TADs (i.e., p65, TFAP2α, SRF, SP1, and MyoD) fused with the TALEFrat#8 gene did not produce a significant increase in the frataxin protein. Thus the TALEFrat#8-VP64 recombinant protein targeting the frataxin promoter could eventually be used to increase the frataxin expression and alleviate the FRDA symptoms.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e119; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.41; published online 3 September 2013.
McKenna, Dennis J
Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that is prominent in the ethnomedicine and shamanism of indigenous Amazonian tribes. Its unique pharmacology depends on the oral activity of the hallucinogen, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), which results from inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) by beta-carboline alkaloids. MAO is the enzyme that normally degrades DMT in the liver and gut. Ayahuasca has long been integrated into mestizo folk medicine in the northwest Amazon. In Brazil, it is used as a sacrament by several syncretic churches. Some of these organizations have incorporated in the United States. The recreational and religious use of ayahuasca in the United States, as well as "ayahuasca tourism" in the Amazon, is increasing. The current legal status of ayahuasca or its source plants in the United States is unclear, although DMT is a Schedule I controlled substance. One ayahuasca church has received favorable rulings in 2 federal courts in response to its petition to the Department of Justice for the right to use ayahuasca under the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. A biomedical study of one of the churches, the Uñiao do Vegetal (UDV), indicated that ayahuasca may have therapeutic applications for the treatment of alcoholism, substance abuse, and possibly other disorders. Clinical studies conducted in Spain have demonstrated that ayahuasca can be used safely in normal healthy adults, but have done little to clarify its potential therapeutic uses. Because of ayahuasca's ill-defined legal status and variable botanical and chemical composition, clinical investigations in the United States, ideally under an approved Investigational New Drug (IND) protocol, are complicated by both regulatory and methodological issues. This article provides an overview of ayahuasca and discusses some of the challenges that must be overcome before it can be clinically investigated in the United States.
Mahima; Rahal, Anu; Deb, Rajib; Latheef, Shyma K; Abdul Samad, Hari; Tiwari, Ruchi; Verma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Dhama, K
Herbs/Botanical plants are considered as God's gift to human beings in the form of natural medicines, like the one well known "Sanjeevani booti" described in Hindu Mythology. The traditional and ethno-veterinary practices have been in use for centuries, transferring the knowledge from generation to generation and they are accessible, easy to prepare and administer, with little or no cost at all. Even though the modern developments in therapeutic field brought about a rapid decline in traditional medicine, the plant-based remedies are still having a crucial role as potential source of therapeutic aids in health systems all over the world for both humans and animals. Among the 21,000 medicinal plants listed by the World Health Organization (WHO), 2500 species are native to India, which stands first in the production of medicinal herbs. This innumerable treasure of medicinal herbs brings India the distinction of 'the botanical garden of the world'. Nowadays immune-based therapies are gaining more importance than monovalent approaches which are having limited benefits. Apart from the actions like treating diseases, control of ecto- and endo-parasites, fertility enhancement, bone setting and poor mothering management, an array of herbal medicines have been reported which are having immunomodulatory effects like modulation of cytokine secretion, histamine release, immunoglobulin secretion, class switching, cellular co-receptor expression, lymphocyte expression, phagocytosis and so on. The present article describes in brief few of these important ones viz., ashwagandha, amla, tulsi, arjuna, aloe vera, garlic, turmeric, ginger, shatavari, neem, guduchi, kiwifruit, tut, kamala, palashlata, kokilaksha etc. being used for human and animal health benefits.
Full Text Available Dopamine (DA transmission is deeply affected by drugs of abuse, and alterations in DA function are involved in various phases of drug addiction and potentially exploitable therapeutically. In particular, basic studies have documented a reduction in the electrophysiological activity of DA neurons in alcohol, opiate, cannabinoid and other drug-dependent rats. Further, DA release in the Nacc is decreased in virtually all drug-dependent rodents. In parallel, these studies are supported by increments in intracranial self stimulation (ICSS thresholds during withdrawal from alcohol, nicotine, opiates, and other drugs of abuse, thereby suggesting a hypofunction of the neural substrate of ICSS. Accordingly, morphological evaluations fed into realistic computational analysis of the Medium Spiny Neuron (MSN of the Nucleus accumbens (Nacc, post-synaptic counterpart of DA terminals, show profound changes in structure and function of the entire mesolimbic system. In line with these findings, human imaging studies have shown a reduction of dopamine receptors accompanied by a lesser release of endogenous DA in the ventral striatum of cocaine, heroin and alcohol-dependent subjects, thereby offering visual proof of the ‘dopamine-impoverished’ addicted human brain.The reduction in physiological activity of the DA system leads to the idea that an increment in its activity, to restore pre-drug levels, may yield significant clinical improvements (reduction of craving, relapse and drug-seeking/taking. In theory, it may be achieved pharmacologically and/or with novel interventions such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS. Its anatomo-physiological rationale as a possible therapeutic aid in alcoholics and other addicts will be described and proposed as a theoretical framework to be subjected to experimental testing in human addicts.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common respiratory disorder for which new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are required. Hallmarks of COPD are matrix destruction and neutrophilic airway inflammation in the lung. We have previously described two tri-peptides, N-α-PGP and PGP, which are collagen fragments and neutrophil chemoattractants. In this study, we investigate if N-α-PGP and PGP are biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for COPD. Methods Induced sputum samples from COPD patients, healthy controls and asthmatics were examined for levels of N-α-PGP and PGP using mass spectrometry and for the ability to generate PGP de novo from collagen. Proteases important in PGP generation in the lung were identified by the use of specific inhibitors in the PGP generation assay and by instillation of proteases into mouse lungs. Serum levels of PGP were compared between COPD patients and controls. Results N-α-PGP was detected in most COPD sputum samples but in no asthmatics or controls. PGP was detected in a few controls and in all COPD sputum samples, where it correlated with levels of myeloperoxidase. COPD sputum samples had the ability to generate N-α-PGP and PGP de novo from collagen. PGP generation by COPD sputum was blocked by inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases (MMP's 1 and 9 and prolyl endopeptidase. MMP's 1 and 9 and prolyl endopeptidase acted synergistically to generate PGP in vivo when instilled into mouse lungs. Serum levels of PGP were also significantly higher in COPD patients than in controls Conclusion N-α-PGP and PGP may represent novel diagnostic tests and biomarkers for COPD. Inhibition of this pathway may provide novel therapies for COPD directed at the chronic, neutrophilic, airway inflammation which underlies disease progression.
Full Text Available Abstract Glycosylation is the most complex post-translational modification of proteins. Altered glycans on the tumor- and host-cell surface and in the tumor microenvironment have been identified to mediate critical events in cancer pathogenesis and progression. Tumor-associated glycan changes comprise increased branching of N-glycans, higher density of O-glycans, generation of truncated versions of normal counterparts, and generation of unusual forms of terminal structures arising from sialylation and fucosylation. The functional role of tumor-associated glycans (Tn, sTn, T, and sLea/x is dependent on the interaction with lectins. Lectins are expressed on the surface of immune cells and endothelial cells or exist as extracellular matrix proteins and soluble adhesion molecules. Expression of tumor-associated glycans is involved in the dysregulation of glycogenes, which mainly comprise glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Furthermore, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms on many glycogenes are associated with malignant transformation. With better understanding of all aspects of cancer-cell glycomics, many tumor-associated glycans have been utilized for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic purposes. Glycan-based therapeutics has been applied to cancers from breast, lung, gastrointestinal system, melanomas, and lymphomas but rarely to neuroblastomas (NBs. The success of anti-disialoganglioside (GD2, a glycolipid antigen antibodies sheds light on glycan-based therapies for NB and also suggests the possibility of protein glycosylation-based therapies for NB. This review summarizes our understanding of cancer glycobiology with a focus of how protein glycosylation and associated glycosyltransferases affect cellular behaviors and treatment outcome of various cancers, especially NB. Finally, we highlight potential applications of glycosylation in drug and cancer vaccine development for NB.
Li, Ning; Ma, Zhongjun; Li, Mujie; Xing, Yachao; Hou, Yue
Dragon's blood has been used as a famous traditional medicine since ancient times by many cultures. It is a deep red resin, obtained from more than 20 different species of four distinct genera. Red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis S.C. Chen, known as Chinese dragon's blood or Yunnan dragon's blood, has been shown to promote blood circulation, alleviate inflammation, and to treat stomach ulcers, diarrhea, diabetes, and bleeding. This study investigated an effective approach to identify natural therapeutic agents for neurodegeneration from herbal medicine. The dichloride extract and isolated effective constituents of Chinese dragon's blood showed quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) inducing activity and anti-inflammatory effect significantly, which are therapy targets of various neurodegenerative diseases. Multiple chromatography and spectra analysis were utilized to afford effective constituents. Then Hepa 1c1c7 and BV-2 cells were employed to assay their NQO1 inducing and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively. Bioactivities guided isolation afforded 21 effective constituents, including two new polymers cochinchinenene E (1), cochinchinenene F (2) and a new steroid dracaenol C (16). The main constituent 3 (weight percent 0.2%), 5 (weight percent 0.017%), 4 (weight percent 0.009%), 9 (weight percent 0.094%), 10 (weight percent 0.017%) and 8 (weight percent 0.006%) are responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities of Chinese dragon's blood. While, new compounds 1, 2 and known compounds 5, 11 showed good NQO1 inducing activities. The brief feature of the activities and structures was discussed accordingly. Overviewing the bioactivities and phytochemical study result, 4'-hydroxy-2,4-dimethoxydihydrochalcone (3) and pterostilbene (5) as effective constituents of Chinese dragon's blood, were found to be potential candidate therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shukla, Gaurav; Khera, Harvinder Kour; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Khare, Piush; Patidar, Rahul; Saxena, Rajiv
Stem cell research is a rapidly developing field that offers effective treatment for a variety of malignant and non-malignant diseases. Stem cell is a regenerative medicine associated with the replacement, repair, and restoration of injured tissue. Stem cell research is a promising field having maximum therapeutic potential. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the cells within the tumor that posses capacity of selfrenewal and have a root cause for the failure of traditional therapies leading to re-occurrence of cancer. CSCs have been identified in blood, breast, brain, and colon cancer. Traditional therapies target only fast growing tumor mass, but not slow-dividing cancer stem cells. It has been shown that embryonic pathways such as Wnt, Hedgehog and Notch, control self-renewal capacity and involved in cancer stem cell maintenance. Targeting of these pathways may be effective in eradicating cancer stem cells and preventing chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance. Targeting CSCs has become one of the most effective approaches to improve the cancer survival by eradicating the main root cause of cancer. The present review will address, in brief, the importance of cancer stem cells in targeting cancer as better and effective treatment along with a concluding outlook on the scope and challenges in the implication of cancer stem cells in translational oncology.
Yang, Lei; Tan, Dewei; Piao, Hua
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial demyelinating disease characterized by neurodegenerative events and autoimmune response against myelin component. Citrullination or deimination, a post-translational modification of protein-bound arginine into citrulline, catalyzed by Ca(2+) dependent peptidylarginine deiminase enzyme (PAD), plays an essential role in physiological processes include gene expression regulation, apoptosis and the plasticity of the central nervous system, while aberrant citrullination can generate new epitopes, thus involving in the initiation and/or progression of autoimmune disorder like MS. Myelin basic protein (MBP) is the major myelin protein and is generally considered to maintain the stability of the myelin sheath. This review describes the MBP citrullination and its consequence, as well as offering further support for the "inside-out" hypothesis that MS is primarily a neurodegenerative disease with secondary inflammatory demyelination. In addition, it discusses the role of MBP citrullination in the immune inflammation and explores the potential of inhibition of PAD enzymes as a therapeutic strategy for the disease.
Yang, Qian; Scheie, Anne Aamdal; Benneche, Tore; Defoirdt, Tom
Disease caused by antibiotic resistant pathogens is becoming a serious problem, both in human and veterinary medicine. The inhibition of quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, is a promising alternative strategy to control disease. In this study, we determined the quorum sensing-disrupting activity of 20 thiophenones towards the quorum sensing model bacterium V. harveyi. In order to exclude false positives, we propose a new parameter (AQSI) to describe specific quorum sensing activity. AQSI is defined as the ratio between inhibition of quorum sensing-regulated activity in a reporter strain and inhibition of the same activity when it is independent of quorum sensing. Calculation of AQSI allowed to exclude five false positives, whereas the six most active thiophenones (TF203, TF307, TF319, TF339, TF342 and TF403) inhibited quorum sensing at 0.25 μM, with AQSI higher than 10. Further, we determined the protective effect and toxicity of the thiophenones in a highly controlled gnotobiotic model system with brine shrimp larvae. There was a strong positive correlation between the specific quorum sensing-disrupting activity of the thiophenones and the protection of brine shrimp larvae against pathogenic V. harveyi. Four of the most active quorum sensing-disrupting thiophenones (TF 203, TF319, TF339 and TF342) were considered to be promising since they have a therapeutic potential of at least 10.
Kobayashi, Akiko; Hashizume, Chieko; Dowaki, Takayuki; Wong, Richard W
Spindle poles are defined by centrosomes; therefore, an abnormal number or defective structural organization of centrosomes can lead to loss of spindle bipolarity and genetic integrity. Previously, we showed that Tpr (translocated promoter region), a component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), interacts with Mad1 and dynein to promote proper chromosome segregation during mitosis. Tpr also associates with p53 to induce autophagy. Here, we report that Tpr depletion induces mitotic catastrophe and enhances the rate of tetraploidy and polyploidy. Mechanistically, Tpr interacts, via its central domain, with Aurora A but not Aurora B kinase. In Tpr-depleted cells, the expression levels, centrosomal localization and phosphorylation of Aurora A were all reduced. Surprisingly, an Aurora A inhibitor, Alisertib (MLN8237), also disrupted centrosomal localization of Tpr and induced mitotic catastrophe and cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Strikingly, over-expression of Aurora A disrupted Tpr centrosomal localization only in cells with supernumerary centrosomes but not in bipolar cells. Our results highlight the mutual regulation between Tpr and Aurora A and further confirm the importance of nucleoporin function in spindle pole organization, bipolar spindle assembly, and mitosis; functions that are beyond the conventional nucleocytoplasmic transport and NPC structural roles of nucleoporins. Furthermore, the central coiled-coil domain of Tpr binds to and sequesters extra Aurora A to safeguard bipolarity. This Tpr domain merits further investigation for its ability to inhibit Aurora kinase and as a potential therapeutic agent in cancer treatment.
Chhibber, Sanjay; Kaur, Sandeep; Kumari, Seema
Klebsiella pneumoniae causes infections in humans especially in immunocompromised patients. About 80 % of nosocomial infections caused by K. pneumoniae are due to multidrug-resistant strains. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains necessitates the exploration of alternative antibacterial therapies, which led our group to study the ability of bacterial viruses (known as bacteriophages or simply phages) to treat mice challenged with K. pneumoniae. Phage SS specific for K. pneumoniae B5055 was isolated and characterized, and its potential as a therapeutic agent was evaluated in an experimental model of K. pneumoniae-mediated lobar pneumonia in mice. Mice were challenged by intranasal (i.n.) inoculation with bacteria (10(8) c.f.u. ml(-1)). A single intraperitoneal injection of 10(10) p.f.u. ml(-1) phage administered immediately after i.n. challenge was sufficient to rescue 100 % of animals from K. pneumoniae-mediated respiratory infections. Administration of the phage preparation 3 h prior to i.n. bacterial challenge provided significant protection in infected mice, while even 6 h delay of phage administration after the induction of infection rendered the phage treatment ineffective. The results of this study therefore suggest that the timing of starting the phage therapy after initiation of infection significantly contributes towards the success of the treatment.
Fierabracci, Alessandra; Pellegrino, Marsha
p53 is a sequence-specific short-lived transcription factor expressed at low concentrations in various tissues while it is upregulated in damaged, tumoral or inflamed tissue. In normally proliferating cells, p53 protein levels and function are tightly controlled by main regulators, i.e., MDM2 (mouse double minute 2) and MDM4 proteins. p53 plays an important role due to its ability to mediate tumor suppression. In addition to its importance as a tumor suppressor, p53 coordinates diverse cellular responses to stress and damage and plays an emerging role in various physiological processes, including fertility, cell metabolism, mitochondrial respiration, autophagy, cell adhesion, stem cell maintenance and development. Interestingly, it has been recently implicated in the suppression of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in both mice and humans. In this review based on current knowledge on the functional properties of p53 and its regulatory pathways, we discuss the potential utility of p53 reactivation from a therapeutic perspective in oncology and chronic inflammatory disorders leading to autoimmunity.
Lindahl, Maria; Saarma, Mart; Lindholm, Päivi
Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) promote the survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons which degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, CDNF and MANF are structurally and functionally clearly distinct from the classical, target-derived neurotrophic factors (NTFs) that are solely secreted proteins. In cells, CDNF and MANF localize in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and evidence suggests that MANF, and possibly CDNF, is important for the maintenance of ER homeostasis. MANF expression is particularly high in secretory tissues with extensive protein production and thus a high ER protein folding load. Deletion of MANF in mice results in a diabetic phenotype and the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) in the pancreatic islets. However, information about the intracellular and extracellular mechanisms of MANF and CDNF action is still limited. Here we will discuss the structural motifs and physiological functions of CDNF and MANF as well as their therapeutic potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes. Currently available knockout models of MANF and CDNF in mice, zebrafish and fruit fly will increase information about the biology of these interesting proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract It is well known that the natural history of chronic heart failure (CHF,regardless of age and aetiology,is characterized by progressive cardiac dysfunction refractory to conventional cardiokinetic, diuretic and peripheral vasodilator therapy. Several previous studies, both in animals and humans, showed that the key pathogenetic element of CHF negative clinical evolution is constituted by myocardial remodeling. This is a complex pathologic process of ultrastructural rearrangement of the heart induced by various neuro-humoral factors released by cardiac fibrocells in response to biomechanical stress connected to chronic haemodynamic overload. Typical features of myocardial remodeling are represented by cardiomyocytes hypertrophy and apoptosis, extracellular matrix alterations, mesenchymal fibrotic and phlogistic processes and by cardiac gene expression modifications with fetal genetic program reactivation. In the last years, increasing knowledge of subtle molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in myocardial remodeling has led to the discovery of some new potential therapeutic targets capable of inducing its regression. In this paper our attention is focused on the possible use of antiapoptotic and antifibrotic agents, and on the fascinating perspectives offered by the development of myocardial gene therapy and, in particular, by myocardial regenerative therapy.
Distefano, Giuseppe; Sciacca, Pietro
It is well known that the natural history of chronic heart failure (CHF),regardless of age and aetiology,is characterized by progressive cardiac dysfunction refractory to conventional cardiokinetic, diuretic and peripheral vasodilator therapy. Several previous studies, both in animals and humans, showed that the key pathogenetic element of CHF negative clinical evolution is constituted by myocardial remodeling. This is a complex pathologic process of ultrastructural rearrangement of the heart induced by various neuro-humoral factors released by cardiac fibrocells in response to biomechanical stress connected to chronic haemodynamic overload. Typical features of myocardial remodeling are represented by cardiomyocytes hypertrophy and apoptosis, extracellular matrix alterations, mesenchymal fibrotic and phlogistic processes and by cardiac gene expression modifications with fetal genetic program reactivation. In the last years, increasing knowledge of subtle molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in myocardial remodeling has led to the discovery of some new potential therapeutic targets capable of inducing its regression. In this paper our attention is focused on the possible use of antiapoptotic and antifibrotic agents, and on the fascinating perspectives offered by the development of myocardial gene therapy and, in particular, by myocardial regenerative therapy.
Meijer, Laurent; Nelson, Deborah J; Riazanski, Vladimir; Gabdoulkhakova, Aida G; Hery-Arnaud, Geneviève; Le Berre, Rozenn; Loaëc, Nadège; Oumata, Nassima; Galons, Hervé; Nowak, Emmanuel; Gueganton, Laetitia; Dorothée, Guillaume; Prochazkova, Michaela; Hall, Bradford; Kulkarni, Ashok B; Gray, Robert D; Rossi, Adriano G; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique; Norez, Caroline; Becq, Frédéric; Ravel, Denis; Mottier, Dominique; Rault, Gilles
(R)-Roscovitine, a pharmacological inhibitor of kinases, is currently in phase II clinical trial as a drug candidate for the treatment of cancers, Cushing's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. We here review the data that support the investigation of (R)-roscovitine as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF). (R)-Roscovitine displays four independent properties that may favorably combine against CF: (1) it partially protects F508del-CFTR from proteolytic degradation and favors its trafficking to the plasma membrane; (2) by increasing membrane targeting of the TRPC6 ion channel, it rescues acidification in phagolysosomes of CF alveolar macrophages (which show abnormally high pH) and consequently restores their bactericidal activity; (3) its effects on neutrophils (induction of apoptosis), eosinophils (inhibition of degranulation/induction of apoptosis) and lymphocytes (modification of the Th17/Treg balance in favor of the differentiation of anti-inflammatory lymphocytes and reduced production of various interleukins, notably IL-17A) contribute to the resolution of inflammation and restoration of innate immunity, and (4) roscovitine displays analgesic properties in animal pain models. The fact that (R)-roscovitine has undergone extensive preclinical safety/pharmacology studies, and phase I and II clinical trials in cancer patients, encourages its repurposing as a CF drug candidate. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Tarr, Tyler B.; Malick, Waqas; Liang, Mary; Valdomir, Guillermo; Frasso, Michael; Lacomis, David; Reddel, Stephen W.; Garcia-Ocano, Adolfo
We developed a novel calcium (Ca2+) channel agonist that is selective for N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels, which are the Ca2+ channels that regulate transmitter release at most synapses. We have shown that this new molecule (GV-58) slows the deactivation of channels, resulting in a large increase in presynaptic Ca2+ entry during activity. GV-58 was developed as a modification of (R)-roscovitine, which was previously shown to be a Ca2+ channel agonist, in addition to its known cyclin-dependent kinase activity. In comparison with the parent molecule, (R)-roscovitine, GV-58 has a ∼20-fold less potent cyclin-dependent kinase antagonist effect, a ∼3- to 4-fold more potent Ca2+ channel agonist effect, and ∼4-fold higher efficacy as a Ca2+ channel agonist. We have further evaluated GV-58 in a passive transfer mouse model of Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome and have shown that weakened Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome-model neuromuscular synapses are significantly strengthened following exposure to GV-58. This new Ca2+ channel agonist has potential as a lead compound in the development of new therapeutic approaches to a variety of disorders that result in neuromuscular weakness. PMID:23785168
Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A.; Lozano-Cuenca, Jair; López-Canales, Jorge S.; Muñoz-Islas, Enriqueta; Ramírez-Rosas, Martha B.; Villalón, Carlos M.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino-acid neuropeptide belonging to the calcitonin gene peptide superfamily. CGRP is a potent vasodilator with potential therapeutic usefulness for treating vascular-related disease. This peptide is primarily located on C- and Aδ-fibers, which have extensive perivascular presence and a dual sensory-efferent function. Although CGRP has two major isoforms (α-CGRP and β-CGRP), the α-CGRP is the isoform related to vascular actions. Release of CGRP from afferent perivascular nerve terminals has been shown to result in vasodilatation, an effect mediated by at least one receptor (the CGRP receptor). This receptor is an atypical G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) composed of three functional proteins: (i) the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR; a seven-transmembrane protein), (ii) the activity-modifying protein type 1 (RAMP1), and (iii) a receptor component protein (RCP). Although under physiological conditions, CGRP seems not to play an important role in vascular tone regulation, this peptide has been strongly related as a key player in migraine and other vascular-related disorders (e.g., hypertension and preeclampsia). The present review aims at providing an overview on the role of sensory fibers and CGRP release on the modulation of vascular tone. PMID:28116293
Kreis, N-N; Louwen, F; Yuan, J
p21(Cip1) is a multifunctional protein and a key player in regulating different cellular processes. The transcription of p21 is regulated by p53-dependent and -independent pathways. The expression of p21 is increased in response to various cellular stresses to arrest the cell cycle and ensure genomic stability. p21 has been shown to be a tumor suppressor and an oncogene as well. The function of p21 in mitosis has been proposed but not systematically studied. We have recently shown that p21 binds to and inhibits the activity of Cdk1/cyclin B1, and is important for a fine-tuned mitotic progression. Loss of p21 prolongs the duration of mitosis and results in severe mitotic defects like chromosome segregation and cytokinesis failures promoting consequently genomic instability. Moreover, p21 is dramatically stabilized in mitotic tumor cells upon treatment with mitotic agents like paclitaxel or mitotic kinase inhibitors. Increased p21 is mainly localized in the cytoplasm and associates with cell survival indicating a crucial role of p21 in susceptibility to mitotic agents in tumor cells. In this review we will briefly summarize the structure and general physiological functions as well as regulation of p21, discuss in detail its role in mitosis and its potential to serve as a therapeutic target.
Full Text Available Recent studies have focused on evidence-based interventions to prevent mobility decline and enhance physical performance in older adults. Several modalities, in addition to traditional strengthening programs, have been designed to manage age-related functional decline more effectively. In this study, we reviewed the current relevant literatures to assess the therapeutic potential of eccentric exercises for age-related muscle atrophy (sarcopenia. Age-related changes in human skeletal muscle, and their relationship with physical performance, are discussed with reference to in vitro physiologic and human biomechanics studies. An overview of issues relevant to sarcopenia is provided in the context of the recent consensus on the diagnosis and management of the condition. A decline in mobility among the aging population is closely linked with changes in the muscle force–velocity relationship. Interventions based specifically on increasing velocity and eccentric strength can improve function more effectively compared with traditional strengthening programs. Eccentric strengthening programs are introduced as a specific method for improving both muscle force and velocity. To be more effective, exercise interventions for older adults should focus on enhancing the muscle force–velocity relationship. Exercises that can be performed easily, and that utilize eccentric strength (which is relatively spared during the aging process, are needed to improve both muscle force and velocity.
Xia, Xi; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yizhen
Resistance is increasing to several critical antimicrobials used to treat Salmonella typhimurium infection, urging people to search for new antimicrobial agents. In this work, we reported the possibility of a potent antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin-BF found in the venom of the snake Bungarus fasciatus in treating Salmonella typhimurium infection. We tested its activity in biological fluids and in vivo using a mouse model of Salmonella typhimurium infection, and examined the effect of cathelicidin-BF on Salmonella invasion to epithelial cells. In addition, the biodistribution of cathelicidin-BF was evaluated by using in vivo optical imaging. The results revealed that cathelicidin-BF was unstable in gastrointestinal tract, but retained substantially active in murine serum. Cathelicidin-BF attenuated the clinical symptoms of Salmonella infected-mice, significantly reduced the number of internalized Salmonella and attenuated Salmonella-induced decreases in TER in epithelial cells. Our results provide a first indication for the potential of cathelicidin-BF as a novel therapeutic option for salmonellosis.
Sarna, Lindsei K; Siow, Yaw L; O, Karmin
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a broad spectrum liver disorder diagnosed in patients without a history of alcohol abuse. NAFLD is growing at alarming rates worldwide. Its pathogenesis is complex and incompletely understood. The cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) system regulates homocysteine and cysteine metabolism and contributes to endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) biosynthesis. This review summarizes our current understanding of the hepatic CBS/CSE system, and for the first time, positions this system as a potential therapeutic target in NAFLD. As will be discussed, the CBS/CSE system is highly expressed and active in the liver. Its dysregulation, presenting as alterations in circulating homocysteine and (or) H2S levels, has been reported in NAFLD patients and in NAFLD-associated co-morbidities such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Intricate links between the CBS/CSE system and a number of metabolic and stress related molecular mediators have also emerged. Various dysfunctions in the hepatic CBS/CSE system have been reported in animal models representative of each NAFLD spectrum. It is anticipated that a newfound appreciation for the hepatic CBS/CSE system will emerge that will improve our understanding of NAFLD pathogenesis, and give rise to new prospective targets for management of this disorder.
Full Text Available Resistance to cytotoxic drugs is thought to be a major cause of treatment failure in childhood neuroblastoma, and members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter superfamily may contribute to this phenomenon by active efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from cancer cells. As a member of the C subfamily of ABC transporters, multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP4/ABCC4 has the ability to export a variety of endogenous and exogenous substances across the plasma membrane. In light of its capacity for chemotherapeutic drug efflux, MRP4 has been studied in the context of drug resistance in a number of cancer cell types. However, MRP4 also influences cancer cell biology independently of chemotherapeutic drug exposure, which highlights the potential importance of endogenous MRP4 substrates in cancer biology. Furthermore, MRP4 is a direct transcriptional target of Myc family oncoproteins and expression of this transporter is a powerful independent predictor of clinical outcome in neuroblastoma. Together these features suggest that inhibition of MRP4 may be an attractive therapeutic approach for neuroblastoma and other cancers that rely on MRP4. In this respect, existing options for MRP4 inhibition are relatively non-selective and thus development of more specific anti-MRP4 compounds should be a major focus of future work in this area.
Zhao, Peng; Yu, Hai-Zheng; Cai, Jian-Hui
Colon cancer is associated with a severe demographic and economic burden worldwide. The pathogenesis of colon cancer is highly complex and involves sequential genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Despite extensive investigation, the pathogenesis of colon cancer remains to be elucidated. As the third most common type of cancer worldwide, the treatment options for colon cancer are currently limited. Human trophoblast cell‑surface marker (TROP‑2), is a cell‑surface transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed by several types of epithelial carcinoma. In addition, TROP‑2 has been demonstrated to be associated with tumorigenesis and invasiveness in solid types of tumor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protein expression of TROP‑2 in colon cancer tissues, and further explore the association between the expression of TROP‑2 and clinicopathological features of patients with colon cancer. The expression and localization of the TROP‑2 protein was examined using western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. Finally, the expression of TROP‑2 expression was correlated to conventional clinicopathological features of colon cancer using a χ2 test. The results revealed that TROP‑2 protein was expressed at high levels in the colon cancer tissues, which was associated with the development and pathological process of colon cancer. Therefore, TROP‑2 may be used as a biomarker to determine the clinical prognosis, and as a potential therapeutic target in colon cancer.
Full Text Available BRG1, a core component of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, has been implicated in cancer development; however, the biological significance of BRG1 in breast cancer remains unknown. We explored the role of BRG1 in human breast cancer pathogenesis. Using tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry, we evaluated BRG1 staining in 437 breast cancer specimens and investigated its role in breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Our Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that high BRG1 expression is inversely correlated with both overall (P = 0.000 and disease-specific (P = 0.000 5-year patient survival. Furthermore, we found that knockdown of BRG1 by RNA interference markedly inhibits cell proliferation and causes cessation of cell cycle. This reduced cell proliferation is due to G1 phase arrest as cyclin D1 and cyclin E are diminished whereas p27 is upregulated. Moreover, BRG1 depletion induces the expression of TIMP-2 but reduces MMP-2, thereby inhibiting the ability of cells to migrate and to invade. These results highlight the importance of BRG1 in breast cancer pathogenesis and BRG1 may serve as a prognostic marker as well as a potentially selective therapeutic target.
Toscano-Tejeida, D; Ibarra, A; Phillips-Farfán, B V; Fuentes-Farías, A L; Meléndez-Herrera, E
The progressive loss of neurons and inflammation characterizes neurodegenerative diseases. Although the etiology, progression and outcome of different neurodegenerative diseases are varied, they share chronic inflammation maintained largely by central nervous system (CNS)-derived antigens recognized by T cells. Inflammation can be beneficial by recruiting immune cells to kill pathogens or to clear cell debris resulting from the primary insult. However, chronic inflammation exacerbates and perpetuates tissue damage. An increasing number of therapies that attempt to modulate neuroinflammation have been developed. However, so far none has succeeded in decreasing the secondary damage associated with chronic inflammation. A potential strategy to modulate the immune system is related to the induction of tolerance to CNS antigens. In this line, it is our hypothesis that this could be accomplished by using anterior chamber associated immune deviation (ACAID) as a strategy. Thus, we review current knowledge regarding some neurodegenerative diseases and the associated immune response that causes inflammation. In addition, we discuss further our hypothesis of the possible usefulness of ACAID as a therapeutic strategy to ameliorate damage to the CNS.
Full Text Available Leydig cells are the primary source of testosterone in the male, and differentiation of Leydig cells in the testes is one of the primary events in the development of the male body and fertility. Stem Leydig cells (SLCs exist in the testis throughout postnatal life, but a lack of cell surface markers previously hindered attempts to obtain purified SLC fractions. Once isolated, the properties of SLCs provide interesting clues for the ontogeny of these cells within the embryo. Moreover, the clinical potential of SLCs might be used to reverse age-related declines in testosterone levels in aging men, and stimulate reproductive function in hypogonadal males. This review focuses on the source, identification and outlook for therapeutic applications of SLCs. Separate pools of SLCs may give rise to fetal and adult generations of Leydig cell, which may account for their observed functional differences. These differences should in turn be taken into account when assessing the consequences of environmental pollutants such as the phthalate ester, diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP.
Zheng, B.; Liao, Z.; Locascio, J.J.;
Parkinson's disease affects 5 million people worldwide, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are still unclear. Here, we report a genome-wide meta-analysis of gene sets (groups of genes that encode the same biological pathway or process) in 410 samples from patients with sympt......Parkinson's disease affects 5 million people worldwide, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are still unclear. Here, we report a genome-wide meta-analysis of gene sets (groups of genes that encode the same biological pathway or process) in 410 samples from patients...... with symptomatic Parkinson's and subclinical disease and healthy controls. We analyzed 6.8 million raw data points from nine genome-wide expression studies, and 185 laser-captured human dopaminergic neuron and substantia nigra transcriptomes, followed by two-stage replication on three platforms. We found 10 gene...... by mutant Î±-synuclein or the pesticide rotenone in cellular disease models. Our systems biology analysis of Parkinson's disease identifies PGC-1Î± as a potential therapeutic target for early intervention....
Liu, Gang; Men, Ping; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A
Oxidative stress is known to play a key role in the initiation and promotion of the neurodegeneration that characterizes the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). An accumulation of redox active transition metals, including iron and copper, is likely a major generator of reactive oxidative species and other free radicals and is thought to induce a detrimental cycle of oxidative stress, amyloid-beta aggregation, and neurodegeneration. As such, metal chelators may provide an alternative therapeutic approach to sequester redox active metals and prevent the onslaught of oxidative damage. Unfortunately, however, metal chelation approaches are currently limited in their potential, since many cannot readily pass the blood-brain barrier (BBB), due to their hydrophilicity, and many are neurotoxic at high concentrations. To circumvent such issues, here we describe the development of iron chelator-nanoparticle conjugation that allows delivery of target chelator to the brain in the absence of neurotoxicity. Such nanoparticle delivery of iron chelators will likely provide a highly advantageous mode of attack on the oxidative stress that plagues AD as well as other conditions characterized by excess metal accumulation.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) encompasses 2 independent but related entities: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn\\'s disease. Crohn\\'s disease is characterised by transmural patchy inflammation which can involve any portion of the gastrointestinal tract. UC is characterised by superficial inflammation that begins in the rectum and extends proximally along the colon. In Europe, approximately 2.2 million people have a diagnosis of IBD. The aetiology of IBD is unknown, however, immune, environmental and genetic factors are thought to be involved. Individuals with IBD are at risk of developing osteoporosis. In line with this, there are clear guidelines that recommend vitamin D supplementation for IBD patients to prevent bone disease, especially when undergoing steroid treatment. Despite an established role for vitamin D in IBD, deficiency is common. More novel effects of vitamin D beyond bone are emerging. It is now well established that vitamin D is an important regulator of the immune system which may have implications for the development, severity and management of immune related disorders such as IBD. The efficacy of vitamin D as an immune modulator in IBD remains to be proven. This review aims to evaluate the evidence implicating vitamin D deficiency in IBD pathogenesis, to examine vitamin D\\'s anti-inflammatory mechanisms and to explore its therapeutic potential, optimal serum levels and dietary intakes which may support immune function in this disease.
Full Text Available Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP is a 37-amino-acid neuropeptide belonging to the calcitonin gene peptide superfamily. CGRP is a potent vasodilator with potential therapeutic usefulness for treating vascular-related disease. This peptide is primarily located on C- and Aδ-fibers, which have extensive perivascular presence and a dual sensory-efferent function. Although CGRP has two major isoforms (α-CGRP and β-CGRP, the α-CGRP is the isoform related to vascular actions. Release of CGRP from afferent perivascular nerve terminals has been shown to result in vasodilatation, an effect mediated by at least one receptor (the CGRP receptor. This receptor is an atypical G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR composed of three functional proteins: (i the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR; a seven-transmembrane protein, (ii the activity-modifying protein type 1 (RAMP1, and (iii a receptor component protein (RCP. Although under physiological conditions, CGRP seems not to play an important role in vascular tone regulation, this peptide has been strongly related as a key player in migraine and other vascular-related disorders (e.g., hypertension and preeclampsia. The present review aims at providing an overview on the role of sensory fibers and CGRP release on the modulation of vascular tone.
Inclusions comprising the microtubule (MT)-stabilizing protein, tau, are found within neurons in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and related neurodegenerative disorders that are broadly referred to as tauopathies. The sequestration of tau into inclusions is believed to cause a loss of tau function, such that MT structure and function are compromised, leading to neuronal damage. Recent data reveal that the brain-penetrant MT-stabilizing agent, epothilone D (EpoD), improves cognitive function and decreases both neuron loss and tau pathology in transgenic mouse models of tauopathy. There is thus a need to identify additional MT-stabilizing compounds with blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability and slow brain clearance, as observed with EpoD. We report here that the MT-stabilizing natural product, dictyostatin, crosses the BBB in mice and has extended brain retention. Moreover, a single administration of dictyostatin to mice causes prolonged stabilization of MTs in the brain. In contrast, the structurally related MT-stabilizer, discodermolide, shows significantly less brain exposure. Thus, dictyostatin merits further investigation as a potential tauopathy therapeutic. PMID:24900764
Brunden, Kurt R; Gardner, Nicola M; James, Michael J; Yao, Yuemang; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Paterson, Ian; Ballatore, Carlo; Smith, Amos B
Inclusions comprising the microtubule (MT)-stabilizing protein, tau, are found within neurons in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative disorders that are broadly referred to as tauopathies. The sequestration of tau into inclusions is believed to cause a loss of tau function, such that MT structure and function are compromised, leading to neuronal damage. Recent data reveal that the brain-penetrant MT-stabilizing agent, epothilone D (EpoD), improves cognitive function and decreases both neuron loss and tau pathology in transgenic mouse models of tauopathy. There is thus a need to identify additional MT-stabilizing compounds with blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and slow brain clearance, as observed with EpoD. We report here that the MT-stabilizing natural product, dictyostatin, crosses the BBB in mice and has extended brain retention. Moreover, a single administration of dictyostatin to mice causes prolonged stabilization of MTs in the brain. In contrast, the structurally related MT-stabilizer, discodermolide, shows significantly less brain exposure. Thus, dictyostatin merits further investigation as a potential tauopathy therapeutic.
Talafová, Klaudia; Hrabárová, Eva; Chorvát, Dušan; Nahálka, Jozef
Adhesins of pathogens recognise the glycans on the host cell and mediate adherence. They are also crucial for determining the tissue preferences of pathogens. Currently, glyco-nanomaterials provide potential tool for antimicrobial therapy. We demonstrate that properly glyco-tailored inclusion bodies can specifically bind pathogen adhesins and release therapeutic substances. In this paper, we describe the preparation of tailored inclusion bodies via the conjugation of indicator protein aggregated to form inclusion bodies with soluble proteins. Whereas the indicator protein represents a remedy, the soluble proteins play a role in pathogen recognition. For conjugation, glutaraldehyde was used as linker. The treatment of conjugates with polar lysine, which was used to inactivate the residual glutaraldehyde, inhibited unwanted hydrophobic interactions between inclusion bodies. The tailored inclusion bodies specifically interacted with the SabA adhesin from Helicobacter pylori aggregated to form inclusion bodies that were bound to the sialic acids decorating the surface of human erythrocytes. We also tested the release of indicator proteins from the inclusion bodies using sortase A and Ssp DNAB intein self-cleaving modules, respectively. Sortase A released proteins in a relatively short period of time, whereas the intein cleavage took several weeks. The tailored inclusion bodies are promising "nanopills" for biomedical applications. They are able to specifically target the pathogen, while a self-cleaving module releases a soluble remedy. Various self-cleaving modules can be enabled to achieve the diverse pace of remedy release.
Nesiel-Nuttman, Liron; Schwartz, Betty; Shoseyov, Oded
Human RNASET2 has been implicated in antitumorigenic and antiangiogenic activities, independent of its ribonuclease capacities. We constructed a truncated version of human RNASET2, starting at E50 (trT2-50) and devoid of ribonuclease activity. trT2-50 maintained its ability to bind actin and to inhibit angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. trT2-50 binds to cell surface actin and formed a complex with actin in vitro. The antiangiogenic effect of this protein was demonstrated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by its ability to arrest tube formation on Matrigel, induced by angiogenic factors. Immunofluorescence staining of HUVECs showed nuclear and cytosolic RNASET2 protein that was no longer detectable inside the cell following trT2-50 treatment. This effect was associated with disruption of the intracellular actin network. trT2-50 co-localized with angiogenin, suggesting that both molecules bind (or compete) for similar cellular epitopes. Moreover, trT2-50 led to a significant inhibition of tumor development. Histological analysis demonstrated abundant necrotic tissue and a substantial loss of endothelial structure in trT2-50-treated tumors. Collectively, the present results indicate that trT2-50, a molecule engineered to be deficient of its catalytic activity, still maintained its actin binding and anticancer-related biological activities. We therefore suggest that trT2-50 may serve as a potential cancer therapeutic agent. PMID:25426551
Choi, Dong-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kim, Sung Min; Kang, Kyuree; Han, Dong Wook; Lee, Jongmin
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic, neurodegenerative disorder that results from the loss of cells in the substantia nigra (SN) which is located in the midbrain. However, no cure is available for PD. Recently, fibroblasts have been directly converted into induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) via the forced expression of specific transcription factors. Therapeutic potential of iNSC in PD has not been investigated yet. Here, we show that iNSCs directly converted from mouse fibroblasts enhanced functional recovery in an animal model of PD. The rotational behavior test was performed to assess recovery. Our results indicate that iNSC transplantation into the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-injected mice can significantly reduce apomorphine-induced rotational asymmetry. The engrafted iNSCs were able to survive in the striatum and migrated around the medial forebrain bundle and the SN pars compacta. Moreover, iNSCs differentiated into all neuronal lineages. In particular, the transplanted iNSCs that committed to the glial lineage were significantly increased in the striatum of 6-OHDA-injected mice. Engrafted iNSCs differentiated to dopaminergic (DA) neurons and migrated into the SN in the 6-OHDA lesion mice. Therefore, iNSC transplantation serves as a valuable tool to enhance the functional recovery in PD. PMID:28117752
Full Text Available Fanconi anemia (FA is the most common inherited bone marrow failure syndrome. FA patients suffer to varying degrees from a heterogeneous range of developmental defects and, in addition, have an increased likelihood of developing cancer. Almost all FA patients develop a severe, progressive bone marrow failure syndrome, which impacts upon the production of all hematopoietic lineages and, hence, is thought to be driven by a defect at the level of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC. This hypothesis would also correlate with the very high incidence of MDS and AML that is observed in FA patients. In this paper, we discuss the evidence that supports the role of dysfunctional HSC biology in driving the etiology of the disease. Furthermore, we consider the different model systems currently available to study the biology of cells defective in the FA signaling pathway and how they are informative in terms of identifying the physiologic mediators of HSC depletion and dissecting their putative mechanism of action. Finally, we ask whether the insights gained using such disease models can be translated into potential novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the hematologic disorders in FA patients.
Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Muhamad, Salina; Pecze, Laszlo
In etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), involvement of amyloid β (Aβ) plaque accumulation and oxidative stress in the brain have important roles. Several nanoparticles such as titanium dioxide, silica dioxide, silver and zinc oxide have been experimentally using for treatment of neurological disease. In the last decade, there has been a great interest on combination of antioxidant bioactive compounds such as selenium (Se) and flavonoids with the oxidant nanoparticles in AD. We evaluated the most current data available on the physiological effects of oxidant and antioxidant nanoparticles. Areas covered: Oxidative nanoparticles decreased the activities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in the brain of rats and mice. However, Se-rich nanoparticles in small size (5-15 nm) depleted Aβ formation through decreasing ROS production. Reports on low levels of Se in blood and tissue samples and the low activities of GSH-Px, catalase and SOD enzymes in AD patients and animal models support the proposed crucial role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of AD. Expert commentary: In conclusion, present literature suggests that Se-rich nanoparticles appeared to be a potential therapeutic compound for the treatment of AD.
Alanazi, Abdulrazaq; Algfeley, Saleh G; Al-Hosaini, Khaled A; Korashy, Hesham M; Imam, Faisal; Nagi, Mahmoud N
Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) is often associated with hepatotoxicity. Carfilzomib (CFZ) shows multiple pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory potential. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of CFZ against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administration of APAP (350 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Mice were given CFZ (0.125, 0.25, or 0.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) 1.5 h after APAP administration. Animals were sacrificed on 6 h and blood and liver tissue samples were collected for analysis. In CFZ-post-treated group, there was significant and dose-dependent decrease in serum alanine aminotransferase levels. The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), reactive oxygen species, and NO decreased, whereas glutathione increased significantly by CFZ post-treatment. Upregulated mRNA expression of COX-II and iNOS were significantly downregulated by CFZ post-treatment. CFZ may exert its hepatoprotective action by alleviating inflammatory, oxidative, and nitrosative stress via inhibition of TNF-α, COX-II, and iNOS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zeidan, Bashar; Jackson, Thomas R; Larkin, Samantha E T; Cutress, Ramsey I; Coulton, Gary R; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Murray, Nick; Packham, Graham; Gorgoulis, Vassilis; Garbis, Spiros D; Townsend, Paul A
Breast cancers are the most common cancer-affecting women; critically the identification of novel biomarkers for improving early detection, stratification and differentiation from benign tumours is important for the reduction of morbidity and mortality.To identify and functionally characterise potential biomarkers, we used mass spectrometry (MS) to analyse serum samples representing control, benign breast disease (BBD) and invasive breast cancer (IDC) patients. Complementary and multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to identify and validate novel serum markers.Annexin A3 (ANX A3) was found to be differentially expressed amongst different breast pathologies. The diagnostic value of serum ANX A3 was subsequently validated by ELISA in an independent serum set representing the three groups. Here, ANX A3 was significantly upregulated in the benign disease group sera compared with other groups (P A3 was abundantly expressed in benign and to a lesser extent malignant neoplastic epithelium. Finally, we illustrated ANX A3 expression in cell culture lysates and conditioned media from neoplastic breast cell lines, and its role in neoplastic breast cell migration in vitro.This study confirms the novel role of ANX A3 as a mammary biomarker, regulator and therapeutic target.
He, Binbin; Li, Xia; Yu, Haibo; Zhou, Zhiguang
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disorder that results from autoimmune-mediated destruction of pancreatic islet β-cells. However, to date, no conventional intervention has successfully treated the disease. The optimal therapeutic method for T1DM should effectively control the autoimmunity, restore immune homeostasis, preserve residual β-cells, reverse β-cell destruction, and protect the regenerated insulin-producing cells against re-attack. Umbilical cord blood is rich in regulatory T (T(reg)) cells and multiple types of stem cells that exhibit immunomodulating potential and hold promise in their ability to restore peripheral tolerance towards pancreatic islet β-cells through remodeling of immune responses and suppression of autoreactive T cells. Recently, reinfusion of autologous umbilical cord blood or immune cells from cord blood has been proposed as a novel therapy for T1DM, with the advantages of no risk to the donors, minimal ethical concerns, a low incidence of graft-versus-host disease and easy accessibility. In this review, we revisit the role of autologous umbilical cord blood or immune cells from cord blood-based applications for the treatment of T1DM.
Nguyen, Christelle; Savouret, Jean-François; Widerak, Magdalena; Corvol, Marie-Thérèse; Rannou, François
Trans-resveratrol (t-Res) is a natural compound of a family of hydroxystilbenes found in a variety of spermatophyte plants. Because of its effects on lipids and arachidonic acid metabolisms, and its antioxidant activity, t-Res is considered as the major cardioprotective component of red wine, leading to the "French Paradox" health concept. In the past decade, research on the effects of resveratrol on human health has developed considerably in diverse fields such as cancer, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic disorders. In the field of rheumatic disorders, in vitro evidence suggest anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties of t-Res in various articular cell types, including chondrocytes and synoviocytes, along with immunomodulation properties on T and B lymphocytes. In preclinical models of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, resveratrol has shown joint protective effects, mainly mediated by decreased production of pro-inflammatory and pro-degradative soluble factors, and modulation of cellular and humoral responses. Herein, we comprehensively reviewed evidence supporting a potential therapeutic interest of t-Res in treating symptoms related to rheumatic disorders.
Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is now recognized as a third gaseous mediator along with nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO, though it was originally considered as a malodorous and toxic gas. H2S is produced endogenously from cysteine by three enzymes in mammalian tissues. An increasing body of evidence suggests the involvement of H2S in different physiological and pathological processes. Recent studies have shown that H2S has the potential to protect the heart against myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, hypertrophy, fibrosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and heart failure. Some mechanisms, such as antioxidative action, preservation of mitochondrial function, reduction of apoptosis, anti-inflammatory responses, angiogenic actions, regulation of ion channel, and interaction with NO, could be responsible for the cardioprotective effect of H2S. Although several mechanisms have been identified, there is a need for further research to identify the specific molecular mechanism of cardioprotection in different cardiac diseases. Therefore, insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying H2S action in the heart may promote the understanding of pathophysiology of cardiac diseases and lead to new therapeutic targets based on modulation of H2S production.
Yoshimoto, Ryo; Miyamoto, Yasuhisa; Shimamura, Ken; Ishihara, Akane; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Kotani, Hidehito; Chen, Airu S; Chen, Howard Y; Macneil, Douglas J; Kanatani, Akio; Tokita, Shigeru
Histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) are located on the presynaptic membranes and cell soma of histamine neurons, where they negatively regulate the synthesis and release of histamine. In addition, H3Rs are also located on nonhistaminergic neurons, acting as heteroreceptors to regulate the releases of other amines such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. The present study investigated the effects of H3R ligands on appetite and body-weight regulation by using WT and H3R-deficient mice (H3RKO), because brain histamine plays a pivotal role in energy homeostasis. The results showed that thioperamide, an H3R inverse agonist, increases, whereas imetit, an H3R agonist, decreases appetite and body weight in diet-induced obese (DiO) WT mice. Moreover, in DiO WT mice, but not in DiO H3RKO mice, imetit reduced fat mass, plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin, and hepatic triglyceride content. The anorexigenic effects of imetit were associated with a reduction in histamine release, but a comparable reduction in histamine release with alpha-fluoromethylhistidine, an inhibitor of histamine synthesis, increased appetite. Moreover, the anorexigenic effects of imetit were independent of the melanocortin system, because imetit comparably reduced appetite in melanocortin 3 and 4 receptor-deficient mice. The results provide roles of H3Rs in energy homeostasis and suggest a therapeutic potential for H3R agonists in the treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.
Meseure, Didier; Drak Alsibai, Kinan; Nicolas, Andre; Bieche, Ivan; Morillon, Antonin
Recent advances in genome-wide analysis have revealed that 66% of the genome is actively transcribed into noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) while less than 2% of the sequences encode proteins. Among ncRNAs, high-resolution microarray and massively parallel sequencing technologies have identified long ncRNAs (>200 nucleotides) that lack coding protein function. LncRNAs abundance, nuclear location, and diversity allow them to create in association with protein interactome, a complex regulatory network orchestrating cellular phenotypic plasticity via modulation of all levels of protein-coding gene expression. Whereas lncRNAs biological functions and mechanisms of action are still not fully understood, accumulating data suggest that lncRNAs deregulation is pivotal in cancer initiation and progression and metastatic spread through various mechanisms, including epigenetic effectors, alternative splicing, and microRNA-like molecules. Mounting data suggest that several lncRNAs expression profiles in malignant tumors are associated with prognosis and they can be detected in biological fluids. In this review, we will briefly discuss characteristics and functions of lncRNAs, their role in carcinogenesis, and their potential usefulness as diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets.
Skaper, Stephen D; Facci, Laura
Communication between the immune and nervous systems depends a great deal on pro-inflammatory cytokines. Both astroglia and microglia, in particular, constitute an important source of inflammatory mediators and may have fundamental roles in central nervous system (CNS) disorders from neuropathic pain and epilepsy to neurodegenerative diseases. Glial cells respond also to pro-inflammatory signals released from cells of immune origin. In this context, mast cells are of particular relevance. These immune-related cells, while resident in the CNS, are able to cross a compromised blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barrier in cases of CNS pathology. Emerging evidence suggests the possibility of mast cell-glia communication, and opens exciting new perspectives for designing therapies to target neuroinflammation by differentially modulating the activation of non-neuronal cells normally controlling neuronal sensitization-both peripherally and centrally. This review aims to provide an overview of recent progress relating to the pathobiology of neuroinflammation, the role of glia, neuro-immune interactions involving mast cells and the possibility that glia-mast cell interactions contribute to exacerbation of acute symptoms of chronic neurodegenerative disease and accelerated disease progression, as well as promotion of pain transmission pathways. Using this background as a starting point for discussion, we will consider the therapeutic potential of naturally occurring fatty acid ethanolamides, such as palmitoylethanolamide in treating systemic inflammation or blockade of signalling pathways from the periphery to the brain in such settings.
Lee, Chun-Ting; Kuo, Heng-Chun; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Tsai, Ming-Yen
The polysaccharides in many plants are attracting worldwide attention because of their biological activities and medical properties, such as anti-viral, anti-oxidative, anti-chronic inflammation, anti-hypertensive, immunomodulation, and neuron-protective effects, as well as anti-tumor activity. Denodrobium species, a genus of the family orchidaceae, have been used as herbal medicines for hundreds of years in China due to their pharmacological effects. These effects include nourishing the Yin, supplementing the stomach, increasing body fluids, and clearing heat. Recently, numerous researchers have investigated possible active compounds in Denodrobium species, such as lectins, phenanthrenes, alkaloids, trigonopol A, and polysaccharides. Unlike those of other plants, the biological effects of polysaccharides in Dendrobium are a novel research field. In this review, we focus on these novel findings to give readers an overall picture of the intriguing therapeutic potential of polysaccharides in Dendrobium, especially those of the four commonly-used Denodrobium species: D. huoshanense, D. offininale, D. nobile, and D. chrysotoxum. . Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Ada I. Regalado
Full Text Available Check the properties attributed to medicinal plants is of vital importance as an alternative in the medical therapy and as a source of development of new drugs. Medicinal plants offer a path with great possibilities, an encouraging alternative for the control of various diseases in man. Mangroves are a resource of great significance for Cuba and the world, mangrove vegetation is represented in this country for four tree species, where Rhizophora mangle L. also known as red mangrove, is now the dominant species. Due to the pharmacological results found in this species as healing, antiseptic, antimicrobial, anti-ulcer, treatment of open wounds, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, insecticide, larvicide among others; it could be an important source of new products aimed at solving health problems of great current relevance, but using this species for drug development has been limited by the damage it can cause to the ecosystem over-exploitation of mangroves. The objective of this scientific review is to show the benefits and therapeutic potential of R. mangle from a review of existing information and the main results in the researches on this species.
Tatiana V. Serebrovskaya
Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia often occurs in early infancy in both preterm and term infants and especially at 36 to 44 weeks postmenstrual age. These episodes of intermittent hypoxia could result from sleep-disordered breathing or may be temporally unrelated to apnea or bradycardia events. There are numerous reports indicating adverse effects of intermittent hypoxia on development, behavior, academic achievement and cognition in children with sleep apnea syndrome. It remains uncertain the exact causative relationship between the neurocognitive and behavioral morbidities and intermittent hypoxia and/or its associated sleep fragmentation. On the other hand, well-controlled and moderate intermittent hypoxia conditioning/training has been used in sick children for treating their various forms of bronchial asthma, allergic dermatoses, autoimmune thyroiditis, cerebral palsy, and obesity. This review article provides an updated and impartial analysis on the currently available evidence in supporting either side of the seemingly contradictory scenarios. We wish to stimulate a comprehensive understanding of such a complex physiological phenomenon as intermittent hypoxia, which may be accompanied by other confounding factors (e.g. hypercapnia, polycythemia, in order to prevent or reduce its harmful consequences, while maximize its potential utility as an effective therapeutic tool in pediatric patients.
Nguyen, Christelle; Savouret, Jean-François; Widerak, Magdalena; Corvol, Marie-Thérèse; Rannou, François
Trans-resveratrol (t-Res) is a natural compound of a family of hydroxystilbenes found in a variety of spermatophyte plants. Because of its effects on lipids and arachidonic acid metabolisms, and its antioxidant activity, t-Res is considered as the major cardioprotective component of red wine, leading to the “French Paradox” health concept. In the past decade, research on the effects of resveratrol on human health has developed considerably in diverse fields such as cancer, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic disorders. In the field of rheumatic disorders, in vitro evidence suggest anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties of t-Res in various articular cell types, including chondrocytes and synoviocytes, along with immunomodulation properties on T and B lymphocytes. In preclinical models of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, resveratrol has shown joint protective effects, mainly mediated by decreased production of pro-inflammatory and pro-degradative soluble factors, and modulation of cellular and humoral responses. Herein, we comprehensively reviewed evidence supporting a potential therapeutic interest of t-Res in treating symptoms related to rheumatic disorders. PMID:28067817
Gabani, Prashant; Singh, Om V
Extremophiles are organisms able to thrive in extreme environmental conditions. Microorganisms with the ability to survive high doses of radiation are known as radioresistant or radiation-resistant extremophiles. Excessive or intense exposure to radiation (i.e., gamma rays, X-rays, and particularly UV radiation) can induce a variety of mutagenic and cytotoxic DNA lesions, which can lead to different forms of cancer. However, some populations of microorganisms thrive under different types of radiation due to defensive mechanisms provided by primary and secondary metabolic products, i.e., extremolytes and extremozymes. Extremolytes (including scytonemin, mycosporine-like amino acids, shinorine, porphyra-334, palythine, biopterin, and phlorotannin, among others) are able to absorb a wide spectrum of radiation while protecting the organism's DNA from being damaged. The possible commercial applications of extremolytes include anticancer drugs, antioxidants, cell-cycle-blocking agents, and sunscreens, among others. This article aims to review the strategies by which microorganisms thrive in extreme radiation environments and discuss their potential uses in biotechnology and the therapeutic industry. The major challenges that lie ahead are also discussed.
Full Text Available Recently, numerous studies have shown that disruption of the mucus barrier plays an important role in the exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, particularly in ulcerative colitis. Alterations in the mucus barrier are well supported by published data and are widely accepted. The use of fluorescence in situ hybridization and Carnoy’s fixation has revealed the importance of the mucus barrier in maintaining a mutualistic relationship between host and bacteria. Studies have raised the possibility that modulation of the mucus barrier may provide therapies for the disease, using agents such as short-chain fatty acids, prebiotics and probiotics. This review describes changes in the mucus barrier of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and in animal models of the disease. We also review the involvement of the mucus barrier in the exacerbation of the disease and explore the therapeutic potential of modifying the mucus barrier with short-chain fatty acids, prebiotics, probiotics, fatty acid synthase, H2S, neutrophil elastase inhibitor and phophatidyl choline.
Berna, Marc J.; Tapia, Jose A.; Sancho, Veronica; Jensen, Robert T.
Summary Gastrin and CCK are two of the oldest hormones and within the last 15 years there has been an exponential increase in knowledge of their pharmacology, cell biology, receptors (CCK1R, CCK2R) and roles in physiology and pathological conditions. Despite these advances there is no approved disease indication for CCK receptor antagonists and only minor use of agonists. In this review the important factors determining this slow therapeutic development are reviewed. To assess this it is necessary to briefly review what is known about the roles of CCK receptors (CCK1R, CCK2R) in normal human physiology, their role in pathologic conditions, the selectivity of available potent CCKR agonists/antagonists as well as review their use in human conditions to date and the results. Despite extensive studies in animals and some in humans, recent studies suggest that monotherapy with CCK1R agonists will not be effective in obesity, nor CCK2R antagonists in panic disorders or CCK2R antagonists to inhibit growth of pancreatic cancer. Areas that require more study include the use of CCK2R agonists for imaging tumors and radiotherapy, CCK2R antagonists in hypergastrinemic states especially with long term PPI use and for potentiation of analgesia as well as use of CCK1R antagonists for a number of gastrointestinal disorders [motility disorders (irritable bowel syndrome, dyspepsia, constipation) and pancreatitis (acute, chronic)]. PMID:17997137
Kim D. Johnson
Full Text Available Angiosarcoma (ASA in humans, hemangiosarcoma (HSA in dogs are deadly neoplastic diseases characterized by an aggressive growth of malignant cells with endothelial phenotype, widespread metastasis, poor response to chemotherapy. Galectin-3 (Gal-3, a p-galactoside-binding lectin implicated in tumor progression, metastasis, endothelial cell biology, angiogenesis, regulation of apoptosis, neoplastic cell response to cytotoxic drugs, has not been studied before in tumors arising from malignant endothelia. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Gal-3 could be widely expressed in human ASA, canine HSA, could play an important role in malignant endothelial cell biology. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that 100% of the human ASA (10 of 10, canine HSA (17 of 17 samples analyzed expressed Gal-3. Two carbohydrate-based Gal-3 inhibitors, modified citrus pectin (MCP, lactulosyl-l-leucine (LL, caused a dose-dependent reduction of SVR murine ASA cell clonogenic survival through the inhibition of Gal-3 antiapoptotic function. Furthermore, both MCP, LL sensitized SVR cells to the cytotoxic drug doxorubicin to a degree sufficient to reduce the in vitro IC50 of doxorubicin by 10.7-fold, 3.64old, respectively. These results highlight the important role of Gal-3 in the biology of ASA, identify Gal-3 as a potential therapeutic target in tumors arising from malignant endothelial cells.
Giagounidis, Aristoteles A N; Germing, Ulrich; Haase, Sabine; Aul, Carlo
Lenalidomide is a novel thalidomide analogue with enhanced immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic action lacking most of the typical thalidomide-associated adverse events. In myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), it has been used primarily in the IPSS low- and intermediate-1 risk setting. Several trials have demonstrated its potential to lead to both erythroid and cytogenetic responses in these disease groups. In a clinical trial of patients with a del(5q) chromosomal abnormality, lenalidomide treatment resulted in red blood cell (RBC) transfusion independence in 67% of patients. Moreover, 45% of patients achieved a complete cytogenetic remission, and 28% achieved a minor cytogenetic remission. This result was independent of karyotype complexity. Lenalidomide might also induce long-term remissions in del(5q) patients with an elevated medullary blast count. In non-del(5q) patients, 43% of patients with confirmed low- and intermediate-1 risk achieved transfusion independence or a reduction of at least 50% of pre-treatment RBC transfusion levels. Adverse events are common but manageable and include neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, pruritus, rash, diarrhea, and others. Lenalidomide will prove an essential part in the armamentarium of MDS therapeutics. Combination therapies with cytokines, demethylating agents, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, or chemotherapy are being investigated and may show additional benefit in both low- and high risk MDS. PMID:18472976
Singh, Anukriti; Nunes, Jessica J; Ateeq, Bushra
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise a large family of cell-surface receptors, which have recently emerged as key players in tumorigenesis, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this review, we discussed our current understanding of the many roles played by GPCRs in general, and particularly Angiotensin II type I receptor (AGTR1), a member of the seven-transmembrane-spanning G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and its significance in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We have also discussed different strategies for targeting AGTR1, and its ligand Angiotension II (Ang II), which might unravel unique opportunities for breast cancer prevention and treatment. For example, AGTR1 blockers (ARBs) which are already in clinical use for treating hypertension, merit further investigation as a therapeutic strategy for AGTR1-positive cancer patients and may have the potential to prevent Ang II-AGTR1 signalling mediated cancer pathogenesis and metastases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Trans-resveratrol (t-Res is a natural compound of a family of hydroxystilbenes found in a variety of spermatophyte plants. Because of its effects on lipids and arachidonic acid metabolisms, and its antioxidant activity, t-Res is considered as the major cardioprotective component of red wine, leading to the “French Paradox” health concept. In the past decade, research on the effects of resveratrol on human health has developed considerably in diverse fields such as cancer, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic disorders. In the field of rheumatic disorders, in vitro evidence suggest anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties of t-Res in various articular cell types, including chondrocytes and synoviocytes, along with immunomodulation properties on T and B lymphocytes. In preclinical models of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, resveratrol has shown joint protective effects, mainly mediated by decreased production of pro-inflammatory and pro-degradative soluble factors, and modulation of cellular and humoral responses. Herein, we comprehensively reviewed evidence supporting a potential therapeutic interest of t-Res in treating symptoms related to rheumatic disorders.
Fratta, Elisabetta; Coral, Sandra; Covre, Alessia; Parisi, Giulia; Colizzi, Francesca; Danielli, Riccardo; Nicolay, Hugues Jean Marie; Sigalotti, Luca; Maio, Michele
Cancer testis antigens (CTA) are a large family of tumor-associated antigens expressed in human tumors of different histological origin, but not in normal tissues except for testis and placenta. This tumor-restricted pattern of expression, together with their strong in vivo immunogenicity, identified CTA as ideal targets for tumor-specific immunotherapeutic approaches, and prompted the development of several clinical trials of CTA-based vaccine therapy. Driven by this practical clinical interest, a more detailed characterization of CTA biology has been recently undertaken. So far, at least 70 families of CTA, globally accounting for about 140 members, have been identified. Most of these CTA are expressed during spermatogenesis, but their function is still largely unknown. Epigenetic events, particularly DNA methylation, appear to be the primary mechanism regulating CTA expression in both normal and transformed cells, as well as in cancer stem cells. In view of the growing interest in CTA biology, the aim of this review is to provide the most recent information on their expression, regulation and function, together with a brief summary of the major clinical trials involving CTA as therapeutic agents. The pharmacologic modulation of CTA expression profiles on neoplastic cells by DNA hypomethylating drugs will also be discussed as a feasible approach to design new combination therapies potentially able to improve the clinical efficacy of currently adopted CTA-based immunotherapeutic regimens in cancer patients.
Funakoshi, Shunsuke; Miki, Kenji; Takaki, Tadashi; Okubo, Chikako; Hatani, Takeshi; Chonabayashi, Kazuhisa; Nishikawa, Misato; Takei, Ikue; Oishi, Akiko; Narita, Megumi; Hoshijima, Masahiko; Kimura, Takeshi; Yamanaka, Shinya; Yoshida, Yoshinori
Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) are a promising tool for cardiac cell therapy. Although transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived CMs have been reported in several animal models, the treatment effect was limited, probably due to poor optimization of the injected cells. To optimize graft cells for cardiac reconstruction, we compared the engraftment efficiency of intramyocardially-injected undifferentiated-iPSCs, day4 mesodermal cells, and day8, day20, and day30 purified iPSC-CMs after initial differentiation by tracing the engraftment ratio (ER) using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. This analysis revealed the ER of day20 CMs was significantly higher compared to other cells. Transplantation of day20 CMs into the infarcted hearts of immunodeficient mice showed good engraftment, and echocardiography showed significant functional improvement by cell therapy. Moreover, the imaging signal and ratio of Ki67-positive CMs at 3 months post injection indicated engrafted CMs proliferated in the host heart. Although this graft growth reached a plateau at 3 months, histological analysis confirmed progressive maturation from 3 to 6 months. These results suggested that day20 CMs had very high engraftment, proliferation, and therapeutic potential in host mouse hearts. They also demonstrate this model can be used to track the fate of transplanted cells over a long time. PMID:26743035
Full Text Available An intrinsic clindamycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, the most common single species present in teeth after failed root canal therapy, often possesses acquired tetracycline resistance. In these cases, root canal infections are commonly treated with Ledermix® paste, which contains demeclocycline, or the new alternative endodontic paste Odontopaste, which contains clindamycin; however, these treatments are often ineffective. We studied the killing activity of the cyclic antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S (GS against planktonic and biofilm cells of tetracycline-resistant clinical isolates of E. faecalis. The high therapeutic potential of GS for the topical treatment of problematic teeth is based on the rapid bactericidal effect toward the biofilm-forming, tetracycline-resistant E. faecalis. GS reduces the cell number of planktonic cells within 20–40 min at a concentration of 40–80 μg/mL. It kills the cells of pre-grown biofilms at concentrations of 100–200 μg/mL, such that no re-growth is possible. The translocation of the peptide into the cell interior and its complexation with intracellular nucleotides, including the alarmon ppGpp, can explain its anti-biofilm effect. The successful treatment of persistently infected root canals of two volunteers confirms the high effectiveness of GS. The broad GS activity towards resistant, biofilm-forming E. faecalis suggests its applications for approval in root canal medication.
Berditsch, Marina; Lux, Hannah; Babii, Oleg; Afonin, Sergii; Ulrich, Anne S.
An intrinsic clindamycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, the most common single species present in teeth after failed root canal therapy, often possesses acquired tetracycline resistance. In these cases, root canal infections are commonly treated with Ledermix® paste, which contains demeclocycline, or the new alternative endodontic paste Odontopaste, which contains clindamycin; however, these treatments are often ineffective. We studied the killing activity of the cyclic antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S (GS) against planktonic and biofilm cells of tetracycline-resistant clinical isolates of E. faecalis. The high therapeutic potential of GS for the topical treatment of problematic teeth is based on the rapid bactericidal effect toward the biofilm-forming, tetracycline-resistant E. faecalis. GS reduces the cell number of planktonic cells within 20–40 min at a concentration of 40–80 μg/mL. It kills the cells of pre-grown biofilms at concentrations of 100–200 μg/mL, such that no re-growth is possible. The translocation of the peptide into the cell interior and its complexation with intracellular nucleotides, including the alarmon ppGpp, can explain its anti-biofilm effect. The successful treatment of persistently infected root canals of two volunteers confirms the high effectiveness of GS. The broad GS activity towards resistant, biofilm-forming E. faecalis suggests its applications for approval in root canal medication. PMID:27618065
Pajovic, Bogdan; Radojevic, Nemanja; Dimitrovski, Antonio; Tomovic, Savo; Vukovic, Marko
The aim of this study is to establish the scientific benefit of royal jelly (RJ) on prostatic-specific antigen (PSA), post-void residual (PVR) volume and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) in benign prostatic hyperplasia. For the study, a group of 40 men were administered 38 mg of RJ over a period of three months, their PSA values, prostate volumes and the volumes of their transitory prostate zones, PVR and IPPS values were measured at the end of the first month, and at the end of the third month. The results of this study confirm the potential of RJ in reducing PSA scores and improving IPSS values. Since the use of RJ did not lead to any significant reduction in PVR, prostate volume, or to any involution of the transitory zone, it appears that it may only affect the blood marker of prostatic hyperplasia and to improve quality-of-life (QoL) in those patients. Overall, in comparison to phytotherapy and conventional therapy, RJ had similar positive effects on QoL in patients with BPH, however it exhibited markedly better effects on reducing PSA levels in blood. The therapeutical use of RJ exhibited no side effects.
TieLi Peng; Jie Chen; Wei Mao; Xin Liu; Yu Tao; Lian-Zhou Chen; Min-Hu Chen
AIM: To determine the functional significance of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in gastric carcinogenesis, and to explore the possible role of AhR in gastric cancer (GC) treatment. METHODS: RT-PCR, real-time PCR, and Western blotting were performed to detect AhR expression in 39 GC tissues and five GC cell lines. AhR protein was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 190 samples: 30 chronic superficial gastritis (CSG), 30 chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), 30 intestinal metaplasia (IM), 30 atypical hyperplasia (AH), and 70 GC. The AhR agonist tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) was used to treat AGS cells. MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis were performed to measure the viability, cell cycle and apoptosis of AGS cells. RESULTS: AhR expression was significantly increased in GC tissues and GC cell lines. IHC results indicated that the levels of AhR expression gradually increased, with the lowest levels in CSG, followed by CAG, IM, AH and GC. AhR expression and nuclear translocation were significantly higher in GC than in precancerous tissues. TCDD inhibited proliferation of AGS cells via induction of growth arrest at the G1-S phase. CONCLUSION: AhR plays an important role in gastric carcinogenesis. AhR may be a potential therapeutic target for GC treatment.
Gentile, Christopher L.; Nivala, Angela M.; Gonzales, Jon C.; Pfaffenbach, Kyle T.; Wang, Dong; Wei, Yuren; Jiang, Hua; Orlicky, David J.; Petersen, Dennis R.; Maclean, Kenneth N.
The incidence of obesity is now at epidemic proportions and has resulted in the emergence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a common metabolic disorder that can lead to liver injury and cirrhosis. Excess sucrose and long-chain saturated fatty acids in the diet may play a role in the development and progression of NAFLD. One factor linking sucrose and saturated fatty acids to liver damage is dysfunction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although there is currently no proven, effective therapy for NAFLD, the amino sulfonic acid taurine is protective against various metabolic disturbances, including alcohol-induced liver damage. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine to serve as a preventative treatment for diet-induced NAFLD. We report that taurine significantly mitigated palmitate-mediated caspase-3 activity, cell death, ER stress, and oxidative stress in H4IIE liver cells and primary hepatocytes. In rats fed a high-sucrose diet, dietary taurine supplementation significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation, liver injury, inflammation, plasma triglycerides, and insulin levels. The high-sucrose diet resulted in an induction of multiple components of the unfolded protein response in the liver consistent with ER stress, which was ameliorated by taurine supplementation. Treatment of mice with the ER stress-inducing agent tunicamycin resulted in liver injury, unfolded protein response induction, and hepatic lipid accumulation that was significantly ameliorated by dietary supplementation with taurine. Our results indicate that dietary supplementation with taurine offers significant potential as a preventative treatment for NAFLD. PMID:21957160
Full Text Available Erika Martinelli1, Floriana Morgillo1, Teresa Troiani1, Giampaolo Tortora2, Fortunato Ciardiello11Cattedra di Oncologia Medica, Dipartimento Medico-Chirurgico di Internistica Clinica e Sperimentale “F. Magrassi e A. Lanzara”, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, Napoli, Italy; 2Dipartimento di Endocrinologia ed Oncologia Molecolare e Clinina, Università di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, ItalyIntroduction: Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common malignant disease. Of newly diagnosed patients, 40% have metastatic disease at diagnosis, and approximately 25% of patients with localized disease at diagnosis will ultimately develop metastatic disease. The benefits of systemic chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer over best supportive care have been established. Panitumumab (ABX-EGF is the first fully human monoclonal antibody developed for use in colorectal cancer that targets the extracellular domains of epidermal growth factor receptor.Aims: The goal of this article is to review the published evidence for the use of panitumumab in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer to define its therapeutic potential.Evidence review: The major evidence of panitumumab activity in colorectal cancer has appeared in meeting report abstracts. One phase II study in monotherapy, one in combination with chemotherapy, and one phase III study have included only patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.Clinical potential: To date, in phase II clinical studies panitumumab has demonstrated antitumor activity in advanced, refractory colorectal cancer. As monotherapy it resulted in a 10% response rate with 38% of patients having stable disease, and a 36% response rate with 46% stable disease when combined with chemotherapy. A phase III study indicates a clinically significant advantage of panitumumab as third-line monotherapy over best supportive care. Panitumumab appears to have a good tolerability profile, with no maximum tolerated
Agostinelli, Claudio; Rizvi, Hasan; Paterson, Jennifer; Shende, Vishvesh; Akarca, Ayse U; Agostini, Elena; Fuligni, Fabio; Righi, Simona; Spagnolo, Sebastiano; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Clark, Edward A; Pileri, Stefano A; Marafioti, Teresa
Despite the immunologic functions of T-cell receptor signaling molecules being extensively investigated, their potential as immunohistochemical markers has been poorly explored. With this background, we evaluated the expression of 5 intracellular proteins-GADS, DOK2, SKAP55, ITK, and PKCα-involved in T-cell receptor signaling in normal and neoplastic hematologic tissue samples, using antibodies raised against fixation-resistant epitopes of the 5 molecules. All 5 antibodies were associated with normal T-cell differentiation. GADS, DOK2, SKAP55, and ITK turned out to be T-cell lineage-specific markers in the setting of lymphoid and myeloid precursor neoplasms but showed differential expression in peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) subtypes, being detected in PTCL/not otherwise specified (NOS) and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma but negative in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). Peripheral B-cell lymphomas were consistently negative for ITK, with occasional cases showing expression of DOK2 and SKAP55, and a proportion (47%) of hairy cell leukemias were GADS. Notably, PKCα highlighted a defective antigen in both PTCL/NOS (6%) and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (10%), mostly negative in ALCL, and was aberrantly expressed in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (65%), Burkitt lymphoma (48%), and plasma cell myeloma (48%). In conclusion, all five molecules evaluated play a role in T-cell differentiation in normal and neoplastic tissues. They can be applied confidently to routine sections contributing primarily to assignment of T-lineage differentiation in the setting of hematopoietic precursor neoplasms (GADS/DOK2/SKAP55/ITK) and for the differential diagnosis between ALCL and PTCL/NOS (GADS/DOK2/SKAP55/ITK) or classical Hodgkin lymphoma (PKCα). Finally, association with specific tumor subtypes may have therapeutic potential.
Voorwald, Fabiana Azevedo; Marchi, Fabio Albuquerque; Villacis, Rolando Andre Rios; Alves, Carlos Eduardo Fonseca; Toniollo, Gilson Hélio; Amorim, Renee Laufer; Drigo, Sandra Aparecida; Rogatto, Silvia Regina
Cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH), mucometra, and pyometra are common uterine diseases in intact dogs, with pyometra being a life threatening disease. This study aimed to determine the gene expression profile of these lesions and potential biomarkers for closed-cervix pyometra, the most severe condition. Total RNA was extracted from 69 fresh endometrium samples collected from 21 healthy female dogs during diestrus, 16 CEH, 15 mucometra and 17 pyometra (eight open and nine closed-cervixes). Global gene expression was detected using the Affymetrix Canine Gene 1.0 ST Array. Unsupervised analysis revealed two clusters, one mainly composed of diestrus and CEH samples and the other by 12/15 mucometra and all pyometra samples. When comparing pyometra with other groups, 189 differentially expressed genes were detected. SLPI, PTGS2/COX2, MMP1, S100A8, S100A9 and IL8 were among the top up-regulated genes detected in pyometra, further confirmed by external expression data. Notably, a particular molecular profile in pyometra from animals previously treated with exogenous progesterone compounds was observed in comparison with pyometra from untreated dogs as well as with other groups irrespective of exogenous hormone treatment status. In addition to S100A8 and S100A9 genes, overexpression of the inflammatory cytokines IL1B, TNF and IL6 as well as LTF were detected in the pyometra from treated animals. Interestingly, closed pyometra was more frequently detected in treated dogs (64% versus 33%), with IL1B, TNF, LBP and CXCL10 among the most relevant overexpressed genes. This molecular signature associated with potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets, such as CXCL10 and COX2, should guide future clinical studies. Based on the gene expression profile we suggested that pyometra from progesterone treated dogs is a distinct molecular entity.
Fabiana Azevedo Voorwald
Full Text Available Cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH, mucometra, and pyometra are common uterine diseases in intact dogs, with pyometra being a life threatening disease. This study aimed to determine the gene expression profile of these lesions and potential biomarkers for closed-cervix pyometra, the most severe condition. Total RNA was extracted from 69 fresh endometrium samples collected from 21 healthy female dogs during diestrus, 16 CEH, 15 mucometra and 17 pyometra (eight open and nine closed-cervixes. Global gene expression was detected using the Affymetrix Canine Gene 1.0 ST Array. Unsupervised analysis revealed two clusters, one mainly composed of diestrus and CEH samples and the other by 12/15 mucometra and all pyometra samples. When comparing pyometra with other groups, 189 differentially expressed genes were detected. SLPI, PTGS2/COX2, MMP1, S100A8, S100A9 and IL8 were among the top up-regulated genes detected in pyometra, further confirmed by external expression data. Notably, a particular molecular profile in pyometra from animals previously treated with exogenous progesterone compounds was observed in comparison with pyometra from untreated dogs as well as with other groups irrespective of exogenous hormone treatment status. In addition to S100A8 and S100A9 genes, overexpression of the inflammatory cytokines IL1B, TNF and IL6 as well as LTF were detected in the pyometra from treated animals. Interestingly, closed pyometra was more frequently detected in treated dogs (64% versus 33%, with IL1B, TNF, LBP and CXCL10 among the most relevant overexpressed genes. This molecular signature associated with potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets, such as CXCL10 and COX2, should guide future clinical studies. Based on the gene expression profile we suggested that pyometra from progesterone treated dogs is a distinct molecular entity.
Full Text Available Objective: Alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG is a cellular intermediary metabolite of Krebs cycle, involved in energy metabolism, amino acid synthesis, and nitrogen transport. It is available over-the-counter and marketed as a nutritional supplement. There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that dietary α-KG has the potential to maintain cellular redox status and thus can protect various oxidative stress induced disease states. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective role of α-KG in acetaminophen (APAP induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. Group I (Vehicle control: Normal Saline, Group II (APAP: A single intraperitoneal injection of 0.6 g/kg, Group III (APAP + α-KG: APAP as in Group II with α-KG treatment at a dose of 2 g/kg, orally for 5 days. Then the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP with oxidative stress markers including malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and histopathology were analyzed. Results: The results indicate that APAP caused significant elevations in ALT, AST, ALP, and MDA levels, while GSH, SOD, and CAT were significantly depleted while co-administration of α-KG showed a significant (P < 0.05 reduction in the severity of these damages. Histologically, the liver showed inflammation and necrosis after APAP treatment, which were significantly restored with co-administration of α-KG. Conclusion: These results indicate the possible therapeutic potential of α-KG in protecting liver damage by APAP in rats.
Deng, Xiaohong; Zheng, Xuxu; Yang, Huanming;
Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in breast cancer. With the availability of therapeutic antibodies against HER2, great strides have been made in the clinical management of HER2 overexpressing breast cancer...... for potential therapeutic application. Thus, this novel computational process for predicting or searching for potential epitopes or key target sites may contribute to epitope-based vaccine and function-selected drug design, especially when x-ray crystal structure protein data is not available....
Wei-Dong Du; Song-Bai Zheng; Zu-Rong Yuan; Jian Sun; Jian-Xiong Tang; Ai-Qun Cheng; Da-Ming Shen; Chun-Jin Huang; Xiao-Hua Song; Xiao-Feng Yu
AIM: To observe the therapeutic efficacy of high-dose Vitamin C (Vit. C) on acute pancreatitis (AP), and to explore its potential mechanisms.METHODS: Eghty-four AP patients were divided into treatment group and control group, 40 healthy subjects were taken as a normal group. In the treatment group,Vit. C (10 g/day) was given intravenously for 5 days,whereas in the control group, Vit. C (1 g/day) was given intravenously for 5 days. Symptoms, physical signs, duration of hospitalization, complications and mortality rate were monitored. Meanwhile, serum amylase, urine amylase and leukocyte counts were also determined. The concentration of plasma vitamin C (P-VC), plasma lipid peroxide (P-LPO),plasma vitamin E (P-VE), plasma β-carotene (P-13-CAR),whole blood glutathione (WB-GSH) and the activity of erythrocyte surperoxide dimutase (E-SOD) and erythrocyte catalase (E-CAT) as well as T lymphocyte phenotype were measured by spectrophotometry in the normal group and before and after treatment with Vit. C in the treatment and the control group.RESULTS: Compared with the normal group, the average values of P-VC, P-VE, P-β-CAR, WB-GSH and the activity of E-SOD and E-CAT in AP patients were significantly decreased and the average value of P-LPO was significantly increased, especially in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients (P<0.05. P-VC, P=0.045; P-VE, P=0.038; P=0.041;P-β-CAR, P=0.046; WB-GSH, P=0.039; E-SOD, P=0.019;E-CAT, P =0.020; P-LPO, P =0.038). Compared with the normal group, CD3 and CD4 positive cells in AP patients were significantly decreased. The ratio of CD4/CD8 and CD4 positive cells were decreased, especially in SAP patients (P<0.05. CD4/CD8, P =0.041; CD4, P =0.019). Fever and vomiting disappeared, and leukocyte counts and amylase in urine and blood become normal quicker in the treatment group than in the control group. Moreover, patients in treatment group also had a higher cure rate, a lower complication rate and a shorter in-ward days compared with
Pradhan, Lina; Thakur, Bhushan; Srivastava, Rohit; Ray, Pritha; Bahadur, Dhirendra
Smart drug delivery system with strategic drug distribution is the future state-of-the-art treatment for any malignancy. To investigate therapeutic potential of such nanoparticle mediated delivery system, we examined the efficacy of dual drug-loaded, pH and thermo liable lipid coated mesoporous iron oxide-based magnetic nanoassemblies (DOX:TXL-LMMNA) in mice bearing both drug sensitive (A2780(S)) and drug resistant (A2780-CisR) ovarian cancer tumor xenografts. In presence of an external AC magnetic field (ACMF), DOX:TXL-LMMNA particles disintegrate to release encapsulated drug due to hyperthermic temperatures (41-45 ºC). In vivo bio distribution study utilizing the optical and magnetic properties of DOX:TXL-LMMNA particles demonstrated minimum organ specific toxicity. Noninvasive bioluminescence imaging of mice bearing A2780(S) tumors and administered with DOX-TXL-LMMNA followed by the application of ACMF revealed 65% less luminescence signal and 80% mice showed complete tumor regression within eight days. A six months follow-up study revealed absence of relapse in 70% of the mice. Interestingly, the A2780-CisR tumors which did not respond to drug alone (DOX:TXL) showed 80% reduction in luminescence and tumor volume with DOX:TXL-LMMNA after thermo-chemotherapy within eight days. Cytotoxic effect of DOX:TXL-LMMNA particles was more pronounced in A2780-CisR cells than in their sensitive counterpart. Thus these novel stimuli sensitive nanoassemblies hold great promise for therapy resistant malignancies and future clinical applications.
Full Text Available In the recent past, deorphanization studies have described intermediates of energy metabolism to activate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and to thereby regulate metabolic functions. GPR81, GPR109A and GPR109B, formerly known as the nicotinic acid receptor family, are encoded by clustered genes and share a high degree of sequence homology. Recently, hydroxy-carboxylic acids were identified as endogenous ligands of GPR81, GPR109A and GPR109B, and therefore these receptors have been placed into a novel receptor family of hydroxy-carboxylic acid (HCA receptors. The HCA1 receptor (GPR81 is activated by the glycolytic metabolite 2-hydroxy-propionic acid (lactate, the HCA2 receptor is activated by the ketone body 3-hydroxy-butyric acid and the HCA3 receptor (GPR109B is a receptor for the β-oxidation intermediate 3-hydroxy-octanoic acid. While HCA1 and HCA2 receptors are present in most mammalian species, the HCA3 receptor is exclusively found in humans and higher primates. HCA receptors are expressed in adipose tissue and mediate anti-lipolytic effects in adipocytes through Gi-type G-protein-dependent inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. HCA2 and HCA3 inhibit lipolysis during conditions of increased β-oxidation such as prolonged fasting, whereas HCA1 mediates the anti-lipolytic effects of insulin in the fed state. As HCA2 is a receptor for the established anti-dyslipidemic drug nicotinic acid, HCA1 and HCA3 also represent promising drug targets and several synthetic ligands for HCA receptors have been developed. In this article, we will summarize the deorphanization and pharmacological characterization of HCA receptors. Moreover, we will discuss recent progress in elucidating the physiological and pathophysiological role to further evaluate the therapeutic potential of the HCA receptor family for the treatment of metabolic disease.
Fogli, Stefano; Banti, Irene; Stefanelli, Fabio; Picchianti, Luca; Digiacomo, Maria; Macchia, Marco; Breschi, Maria Cristina; Lapucci, Annalina
The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) sulindac exhibits cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent and COX-independent chemopreventive properties in human cancer. The present study was aimed at investigating whether the hydroxamic acid substitution for the carboxylic acid group could enhance the in vitro antitumor and antiangiogenic activities of sulindac. Characterization tools used on this study included analyses of cell viability, caspase 3/7 induction, DNA fragmentation, and gene expression. Our findings demonstrate that the newly synthesized hydroxamic acid derivative of sulindac and its sulfone and sulfide metabolites were characterized by a good anticancer activity on human pancreatic and colon cancer cells, both in terms of potency (IC(50) mean values from 6 ± 1.1 μM to 64 ± 1.1 μM) and efficacy (E(max) of ∼100%). Hydroxamic acid derivatives trigger a higher degree of apoptosis than carboxylic acid counterparts, increase bax/bcl-2 expression ratio and induce caspase 3/7 activation. Most notably, these compounds significantly inhibit proangiogenic growth factor-stimulated proliferation of vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) at sub-micromolar concentrations. Our data also provide evidence that the COX-active metabolite of sulindac hydroxamic acid were the most active of the series and selective inhibition of COX-1 but not COX-2 can mimic its effects, suggesting that COX inhibition could only play a partial role in the mechanism of compound action. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that substitution of the carboxylic acid group with the hydroxamic acid moiety enhances in vitro antiproliferative, proapoptotic and antiangiogenic properties of sulindac, therefore increasing the therapeutic potential of this drug.
Bali, Kiran Kumar; Kuner, Rohini
Neuropathic pain is an integral component of several chronic pain conditions and poses a major health problem worldwide. Despite emerging understanding of mechanisms behind neuropathic pain, the available treatment options are still limited in efficacy or associated with side effects, therefore making it necessary to find viable alternatives. In a genetic screen, we recently identified SerpinA3N, a serine protease inhibitor secreted in response to nerve damage by the dorsal root ganglion neurons and we showed that SerpinA3N acts against induction of neuropathic pain by inhibiting the T-cell- and neutrophil-derived protease, leucocyte elastase (LE). In the current study, via detailed in vivo pharmacology combined with analyses of evoked- and spontaneous pain-related behaviors in mice, we report that on systemic delivery, a single dose of 3 independent LE inhibitors can block established nociceptive hypersensitivity in early and late phases in the spared nerve injury model of traumatic neuropathic pain in mice. We further report the strong efficacy of systemic LE inhibitors in reversing ongoing pain in 2 other clinically relevant mouse models-painful diabetic neuropathy and cancer pain. Detailed immunohistochemical analyses on the peripheral tissue samples revealed that both T-Lymphocytes and neutrophils are the sources of LE on peripheral nerve injury, whereas neutrophils are the primary source of LE in diabetic neuropathic conditions. In summary, our results provide compelling evidence for a strong therapeutic potential of generic LE inhibitors for the treatment of neuropathic pain and other chronic pain conditions harboring a neuropathic pain component.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission
Priestley, Richard S; Nickolls, Sarah A; Alexander, Stephen P H; Kendall, David A
Cannabinoids are reported to have actions through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which led us to investigate PPAR agonists for activity at the cannabinoid receptors. Radio-ligand binding and functional assays were conducted using human recombinant cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) or cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors, as well as the guinea pig isolated ileum, using the full agonist CP55940 as a positive control. The PPAR-α agonist fenofibrate exhibited submicromolar affinity for both receptors (pKi CB1, 6.3 ± 0.1; CB2, 7.7 ± 0.1). Functionally, fenofibrate acted as an agonist at the CB2 receptor (pEC50, 7.7 ± 0.1) and a partial agonist at the CB1 receptor, although with a decrease in functional response at higher concentrations, producing bell-shaped concentration-response curves. High concentrations of fenofibrate were able to increase the dissociation rate constant for [(3)H]-CP55940 at the CB1 receptor, (kfast without: 1.2 ± 0.2/min; with: 3.8 ± 0.1 × 10(-2)/min) and decrease the maximal response to CP55940 (Rmax, 86 ± 2%), which is consistent with a negative allosteric modulator. Fenofibrate also reduced electrically induced contractions in isolated guinea pig ileum via CB1 receptors (pEC50, 6.0 ± 0.4). Fenofibrate is thus identified as an example of a new class of cannabinoid receptor ligand and allosteric modulator, with the potential to interact therapeutically with cannabinoid receptors in addition to its primary PPAR target. © FASEB.
Full Text Available Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is a chronic, recurrent and severe ocular allergic disease, which is characterized by persistent allergic inflammation of the conjunctiva. It can be accompanied by ocular discomfort and visual disturbance. All forms are characterized by intense itching, tearing, mucous secretions and a severe photophobia, which often forces children to live virtually in dark places. Conjunctival proliferative changes, such as the formation of giant papillae are the characteristic findings of affected individuals. Giant papillae develop as a result of infiltration of inflammatory cells, changes in the epithelial layer, and increased deposition of extracellular matrix molecules such as collagen and proliferation of conjunctival fibroblasts. Currently several therapeutic options such as corticosteroids, mast cell stabilizers and cyclosporine are applied for treatment of Vernal keratoconjunctivitis but in long-term, the chronic and recurrent nature of this problem leads to failure or appearance of side effects of current treatment in many patients. Recently, Green tea extract and its principal active ingredient, epigallocatechin gallate , are gaining attention and increased usage due to its healthful properties. It has considerable anticatactogenic effect by inducing apoptosis in lens epithelial cells and antioxidant effects. Also its great benefits were achieved in attenuation of damaging influences to the retina caused by ischemia/reperfusion. Based on evidences supported beneficial effects of green tea, we hypothesize that local administration of green tea and its extract seems to be a proper substitute or adjunct to current treatments of Vernal keratoconjunctivitis. This plant contains a series of antioxidants that can abolish the process of allergic cascade. Moreover, by suppressing TNF-alpha potentially, it can reduce proinflammatory reaction, as well as fibroblast proliferation and subsequently decrease giant papilla formation
Papasergi, Makaía M.; Patel, Bharti R.
Resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase (Ric-8)A and Ric-8B are essential genes that encode positive regulators of heterotrimeric G protein α subunits. Controversy persists surrounding the precise way(s) that Ric-8 proteins affect G protein biology and signaling. Ric-8 proteins chaperone nucleotide-free Gα-subunit states during biosynthetic protein folding prior to G protein heterotrimer assembly. In organisms spanning the evolutionary window of Ric-8 expression, experimental perturbation of Ric-8 genes results in reduced functional abundances of G proteins because G protein α subunits are misfolded and degraded rapidly. Ric-8 proteins also act as Gα-subunit guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) in vitro. However, Ric-8 GEF activity could strictly be an in vitro phenomenon stemming from the ability of Ric-8 to induce partial Gα unfolding, thereby enhancing GDP release. Ric-8 GEF activity clearly differs from the GEF activity of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). G protein βγ is inhibitory to Ric-8 action but obligate for receptors. It remains an open question whether Ric-8 has dual functions in cells and regulates G proteins as both a molecular chaperone and GEF. Clearly, Ric-8 has a profound influence on heterotrimeric G protein function. For this reason, we propose that Ric-8 proteins are as yet untested therapeutic targets in which pharmacological inhibition of the Ric-8/Gα protein–protein interface could serve to attenuate the effects of disease-causing G proteins (constitutively active mutants) and/or GPCR signaling. This minireview will chronicle the understanding of Ric-8 function, provide a comparative discussion of the Ric-8 molecular chaperoning and GEF activities, and support the case for why Ric-8 proteins should be considered potential targets for development of new therapies. PMID:25319541
Insects are increasingly being recognized not only as a source of food to feed the ever growing world population but also as potential sources of new products and therapeutic agents, among which are sterols. In this study, we sought to profile sterols and their derivatives present in the desert locu...
Hofman, Susan; Bolhuis, Mathieu S.; Koster, Remco A.; Akkerman, Onno W.; van Assen, Sander; Stove, Christophe; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.
Respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections in men. We reviewed literature to document their pharmacological treatments, and the extent to which therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is needed during treatment. We subsequently examined potential use of dried blood spots as sample p
Canto, Rômulo F S; Barbosa, Flavio A R; Nascimento, Vanessa; de Oliveira, Aldo S; Brighente, Inês M C; Braga, Antonio Luiz
In this paper we report the design, synthesis and evaluation of a series of seleno-dihydropyrimidinones as potential multi-targeted therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease. The compounds show excellent results as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, being as active as the standard drug. All these compounds also show very good antioxidant activity through different mechanisms of action.
Abu-Gharbieh, Eman; Shehab, Naglaa Gamil
Hyperglycemia is a complicated condition accompanied with high incidence of infection and dyslipidemia. This study aimed to explore the phyto-constituents of Crataegus azarolus var. eu- azarolus Maire leaves, and to evaluate the therapeutic potentials particularly antimicrobial, antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic of the extract and the isolated compound (3β-O-acetyl ursolic acid). Total phenolics and flavonoidal contents were measured by RP-HPLC analysis. Free radicals scavenging activity of different extraction solvents was tested in-vitro on DPPH free radicals. The antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract and its fractions as well as the isolated compounds were evaluated in-vitro on variable microorganisms. Animal models were used to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of the ethanolic extract along with the isolated compound (3β-O acetyl ursolic acid). RP- HPLC analysis of the phenolics revealed high content of rutin, salicylic and ellagic acids. Six compounds belonging to triterpenes and phenolics were isolated from chloroform and n-butanol fractions namely: ursolic acid, 3β-O-acetyl ursolic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin 3-O-β methyl ether, rutin and apigenin7-O-rutinoside. Ethanolic extract showed the highest DPPH radical scavenger activity compared to other solvents. Ethanolic extract, hexane fraction, ursolic acid, 3β-O acetyl ursolic acid and quercetin 3-O-methyl ether showed variable antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and C. albicans. Administration of the ethanolic extract or 3β-O acetyl ursolic acid orally to the mice reduced blood glucose significantly in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Ethanolic extract significantly reduced LDL-C, VLDL-C, TC and TG and increased HDL-C in rats. Ethanolic extract and 3β-O acetyl ursolic acid reduced in-vitro activity of pancreatic lipase. This study reveals that Crataegus azarolus var. eu- azarolus Maire has the efficiency to control
Mo, Charlie Y; Manning, Sara A; Roggiani, Manuela; Culyba, Matthew J; Samuels, Amanda N; Sniegowski, Paul D; Goulian, Mark; Kohli, Rahul M
The bacterial SOS response is a DNA damage repair network that is strongly implicated in both survival and acquired drug resistance under antimicrobial stress. The two SOS regulators, LexA and RecA, have therefore emerged as potential targets for adjuvant therapies aimed at combating resistance, although many open questions remain. For example, it is not well understood whether SOS hyperactivation is a viable therapeutic approach or whether LexA or RecA is a better target. Furthermore, it is important to determine which antimicrobials could serve as the best treatment partners with SOS-targeting adjuvants. Here we derived Escherichia coli strains that have mutations in either lexA or recA genes in order to cover the full spectrum of possible SOS activity levels. We then systematically analyzed a wide range of antimicrobials by comparing the mean inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and induced mutation rates for each drug-strain combination. We first show that significant changes in MICs are largely confined to DNA-damaging antibiotics, with strains containing a constitutively repressed SOS response impacted to a greater extent than hyperactivated strains. Second, antibiotic-induced mutation rates were suppressed when SOS activity was reduced, and this trend was observed across a wider spectrum of antibiotics. Finally, perturbing either LexA or RecA proved to be equally viable strategies for targeting the SOS response. Our work provides support for multiple adjuvant strategies, while also suggesting that the combination of an SOS inhibitor with a DNA-damaging antibiotic could offer the best potential for lowering MICs and decreasing acquired drug resistance. IMPORTANCE Our antibiotic arsenal is becoming depleted, in part, because bacteria have the ability to rapidly adapt and acquire resistance to our best agents. The SOS pathway, a widely conserved DNA damage stress response in bacteria, is activated by many antibiotics and has been shown to play central role in
Aislyn D W Boran
Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is involved in many cancers and EGFR has been heavily pursued as a drug target. Drugs targeting EGFR have shown promising clinical results for several cancer types. However, resistance to EGFR inhibitors often occurs, such as with KRAS mutant cancers, therefore new methods of targeting EGFR are needed. The juxtamembrane (JXM domain of EGFR is critical for receptor activation and targeting this region could potentially be a new method of inhibiting EGFR. We hypothesized that the structural role of the JXM region could be mimicked by peptides encoding a JXM amino acid sequence, which could interfere with EGFR signaling and consequently could have anti-cancer activity. A peptide encoding EGFR 645-662 conjugated to the Tat sequence (TE-64562 displayed anti-cancer activity in multiple human cancer cell types with diminished activity in non-EGFR expressing cells and non-cancerous cells. In nude mice, TE-64562 delayed MDA-MB-231 tumor growth and prolonged survival, without inducing toxicity. TE-64562 induced non-apoptotic cell death after several hours and caspase-3-mediated apoptotic cell death with longer treatment. Mechanistically, TE-64562 bound to EGFR, inhibited its dimerization and caused its down-regulation. TE-64562 reduced phosphorylated and total EGFR levels but did not inhibit kinase activity and instead prolonged it. Our analysis of patient data from The Cancer Genome Atlas supported the hypothesis that down-regulation of EGFR is a potential therapeutic strategy, since phospho- and total-EGFR levels were strongly correlated in a large majority of patient tumor samples, indicating that lower EGFR levels are associated with lower phospho-EGFR levels and presumably less proliferative signals in breast cancer. Akt and Erk were inhibited by TE-64562 and this inhibition was observed in vivo in tumor tissue upon treatment with TE-64562. These results are the first to indicate that the JXM domain of EGFR
Full Text Available Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC is considered a model autoimmune disease, with the most highly directed and specific autoantibody in both murine and human autoimmunity, the anti-mitochondrial autoantibody (AMA. However, therapeutic advances in this disease have lagged behind. Herein we have taken advantage of our unique model of murine PBC in which mice immunized with 2-octynoic acid coupled to BSA (2OA-BSA, a compound identified by quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR of human AMA binding, develop an intense inflammatory cholangitis with striking similarities to humans with PBC. In particular, we have constructed several unique gene-deleted mice, including mice deleted of IL-12p40, IL-12p35, IFN-γ, IL-23p19, IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22, immunized these animals with 2OA-BSA and followed the natural history of immunopathology to identify key pathways that might provide clues for successful therapy. Our data indicate that whereas both IL-12/Th1 and IL-23/Th17 are involved in cholangitis, it is the IL-12/Th1 signaling pathway that elicits pathology. In fact, deletion of IFN-γ prevents disease and suppresses autoantibodies. Importantly, deletion of the Th17 cytokines IL-17A and IL-22, but not IL-17F, reduces biliary damage; IL-17A-knockout mice have reduced levels of anti-mitochondrial antibody. We further demonstrate that the production of IFN-γ is significantly decreased in the liver of IL-23p19(-/-, IL-17A(-/- and IL-22(-/- mice compared with controls. However, the ability of T cells to produce IFN-γ was not affected in Th17 cytokine-deficient mice. Our data indicate that a deficient Th17 pathway suppresses the accumulation of IFN-γ producing cells in liver during the early phase of cholangitis. In conclusion, whereas IFN-γ has a pivotal role in the early events involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune cholangitis induced by 2OA-BSA, the IL-23/Th17 pathway potentiates the effects of IL-12/IFN-γ-mediated immunopathology.
target dog bladder cancer cells and potentially be developed as imaging and therapeutic agents in a clinical setting. Preclinical studies of targeting micelles can be performed in dogs with spontaneous bladder cancer before proceeding with studies using human patients.Keywords: bladder urothelial carcinoma, nanoparticle, bladder cancer-specific peptide, targeted therapy, diagnostic imaging
Full Text Available Manal Fouad Ismail,1 Aliaa Nabil ElMeshad,2 Neveen Abdel-Hameed Salem31Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Narcotics and Ergogenic Aids and Poisons, National Research Center, Giza, EgyptBackground: To sustain the effect of rivastigmine, a hydrophilic cholinesterase inhibitor, nanobased formulations were prepared. The efficacy of the prepared rivastigmine liposomes (RLs in comparison to rivastigmine solution (RS was assessed in an aluminium chloride (AlCl3-induced Alzheimer’s model.Methods: Liposomes were prepared by lipid hydration (F1 and heating (F2 methods. Rats were treated with either RS or RLs (1 mg/kg/day concomitantly with AlCl3 (50 mg/kg/day.Results: The study showed that the F1 method produced smaller liposomes (67.51 ± 14.2 nm than F2 (528.7 ± 15.5 nm, but both entrapped the same amount of the drug (92.1% ± 1.4%. After 6 hours, 74.2% ± 1.5% and 60.8% ± 2.3% of rivastigmine were released from F1 and F2, respectively. Both RLs and RS improved the deterioration of spatial memory induced by AlCl3, with RLs having a superior effect. Further biochemical measurements proved that RS and RLs were able to lower plasma C-reactive protein, homocysteine and asymmetric dimethylarginine levels. RS significantly attenuated acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity, whereas Na+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase activity was enhanced compared to the AlCl3-treated animals; however, RLs succeeded in normalization of AChE and Na+/K+ ATPase activities. Gene-expression profile showed that cotreatment with RS to AlCl3-treated rats succeeded in exerting significant decreases in BACE1, AChE, and IL1B gene expression. Normalization of the expression of the aforementioned genes was achieved by coadministration of RLs to AlCl3-treated rats. The profound therapeutic effect of RLs over RS was
Wei-qin WANG; Xiao-ying ZHAO; Hai-yan WANG; Yun LIANG
Objective: To determine fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression in human multiple myeloma and verify its potential as a therapeutic target in multiple myeloma. Methods: FAS expression was determined by immunohistochemistry, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblot analysis in bone marrow samples obtained from 27 patients with multiple myeloma (MM patients) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 12 healthy donors. In parallel, additional analyses were performed on 2 human multiple myeloma cell lines, U266 and RPMI8226. U266 cells were treated with cerulenin at various concentrations (5 to 320μg/ml) for 24 h, and metabolic activity was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Apoptosis was evaluated by dual Annexin V/PI (propidium iodide) labeling and flow cytometry (FCM) in U266 cells treated with 20μg/ml cerulenin for 12 h or 24 h. Results: By immunohistochemistry, we found that 19 of 27 bone marrow samples obtained from MM patients expressed significantly high levels of FAS. Similarly, by RT-PCR, 22 of 27 bone marrow samples obtained from MM patients, U266 and RPMI8226 showed FAS expression, whereas PBMC samples from 12 healthy donors did not express detectable level of FAS. FAS protein expression was confirmed by immunoblot analysis in 16 of 27 bone marrow samples obtained from MM patients, U266 and RPMI8226 cell lines, and no FAS protein expression was detected in PBMC samples from 12 healthy donors. U266 cells were highly sensitive to cerulenin treatment, with a dosage-related effect on metabolic activity, as a measure for cell proliferation. U266 cells treated with20 μg/ml cerulenin for 12 and 24h also showed early sign of apoptosis with 56.9% and 69.3% Annexin V+/PI+ cells, and late apoptotic and necrotic cells with 3.2% and 17.6% Annexin V+/PI+ cells. Conclusion: Increased FAS expression existed in multiple myeloma samples and human myeloma cell lines
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Myostatin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 are serum markers for muscle growth and regeneration. However, their value in the clinical monitoring of Pompe disease - a muscle glycogen storage disease - is not known. In order to evaluate their possible utility for disease monitoring, we assessed the levels of these serum markers in Pompe disease patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT. DESIGN: A case-control study that included 10 patients with Pompe disease and 10 gender- and age-matched non-Pompe disease control subjects was performed in a referral medical center. Average follow-up duration after ERT for Pompe disease patients was 11.7 months (range: 6-23 months. Measurements of serum myostatin, IGF-1, and creatine kinase levels were obtained, and examinations of muscle pathology were undertaken before and after ERT in the patient group. RESULTS: Compared with control subjects, Pompe disease patients prior to undergoing ERT had significantly lower serum IGF-1 levels (98.6 ng/ml vs. 307.9 ng/ml, p = 0.010 and lower myostatin levels that bordered on significance (1.38 ng/ml vs. 3.32 ng/ml, p = 0.075. After ERT, respective myostatin and IGF-1 levels in Pompe disease patients increased significantly by 129% (from 1.38 ng/ml to 3.16 ng/ml, p = 0.047 and 74% (from 98.6 ng/ml to 171.1 ng/ml, p = 0.013; these values fall within age-matched normal ranges. In contrast, myostatin and IGF-1 serum markers did not increase in age-matched controls. Follistatin, a control marker unrelated to muscle, increased in both Pompe disease patients and control subjects. At the same time, the percentage of muscle fibers containing intracytoplasmic vacuoles decreased from 80.0±26.4% to 31.6±45.3%. CONCLUSION: The increase in myostatin and IGF-1 levels in Pompe disease patients may reflect muscle regeneration after ERT. The role of these molecules as potential therapeutic biomarkers in Pompe disease and other neuromuscular
Sinyi Kong; Pricilla Yeung; Deyu Fang
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic debilitating disease of the joints.Both the innate and adaptive immune responses participate in the development and progression of RA.While several therapeutic reagents,such as TNF-α agonists,have been successfully developed for the clinical use in the treatment of RA,more than half of the patients do not respond to anti-TNF therapy.Therefore,new therapeutic reagents are needed.Recent studies have shown that sirtuin 1 (Sirtl),a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent histone deacetylase,is a critical negative regulator of both the innate and adaptive immune response in mice,and its altered functions are likely to be involved in autoimmune diseases.Small molecules that modulate Sirt1 functions are potential therapeutic reagents for autoimmune inflammatory diseases.This review highlights the role of Sirt1 in immune regulation and RA.
Sisa, Claudia; Turroni, Silvia; Amici, Roberto; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco; Cerri, Matteo
Therapeutic hypothermia is today used in several clinical settings, among them the gut related diseases that are influenced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. This perspective paved the way to the study of hibernation physiology, in natural hibernators, highlighting an unexpected importance of the gut microbial ecosystem in hibernation and torpor. In natural hibernators, intestinal microbes adaptively reorganize their structural configuration during torpor, and maintain a mutualistic configuration regardless of long periods of fasting and cold temperatures. This allows the gut microbiome to provide the host with metabolites, which are essential to keep the host immunological and metabolic homeostasis during hibernation. The emerging role of the gut microbiota in the hibernation process suggests the importance of maintaining a mutualistic gut microbiota configuration in the application of therapeutic hypothermia as well as in the development of new strategy such as the use of synthetic torpor in humans. The possible utilization of tailored probiotics to mold the gut ecosystem during therapeutic hypothermia can also be taken into consideration as new therapeutic strategy.
The primary aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the role of CD47-SIRPα interactions in therapeutic antibody-dependent tumor cell destruction by human phagocytes and also explore the killing mechanism(s) by which human phagocytes, and in particular human neutrophils, mediat
Full Text Available Microglia are macrophage-like resident immune cells that contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS. Abnormal activation of microglia can cause damage in the CNS, and accumulation of activated microglia is a characteristic pathological observation in neurologic conditions such as trauma, stroke, inflammation, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases. Activated microglia secrete high levels of glutamate, which damages CNS cells and has been implicated as a major cause of neurodegeneration in these conditions. Glutamate-receptor blockers and microglia inhibitors (e.g. minocycline have been examined as therapeutic candidates for several neurodegenerative diseases; however, these compounds exerted little therapeutic benefit because they either perturbed physiological glutamate signals or suppressed the actions of protective microglia. The ideal therapeutic approach would hamper the deleterious roles of activated microglia without diminishing their protective effects. We recently found that abnormally activated microglia secrete glutamate via gap-junction hemichannels on the cell surface. Moreover, administration of gap-junction inhibitors significantly suppressed excessive microglial glutamate release and improved disease symptoms in animal models of neurologic conditions such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent evidence also suggests that neuronal and glial communication via gap junctions amplifies neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Elucidation of the precise pathologic roles of gap junctions and hemichannels may lead to a novel therapeutic strategies that can slow and halt the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.
Our experiments suggests that reducing inflammation might be a promising therapeutic strategy to reduce organ damage in the critically ill patient. Hypothermia seems to be the perfect strategy as shown in our experiments. As hypo-metabolism and hypothermia are linked, we cannot conclude that reducin
Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Suzumura, Akio
Microglia are macrophage-like resident immune cells that contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). Abnormal activation of microglia can cause damage in the CNS, and accumulation of activated microglia is a characteristic pathological observation in neurologic conditions such as trauma, stroke, inflammation, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases. Activated microglia secrete high levels of glutamate, which damages CNS cells and has been implicated as a major cause of neurodegeneration in these conditions. Glutamate-receptor blockers and microglia inhibitors (e.g., minocycline) have been examined as therapeutic candidates for several neurodegenerative diseases; however, these compounds exerted little therapeutic benefit because they either perturbed physiological glutamate signals or suppressed the actions of protective microglia. The ideal therapeutic approach would hamper the deleterious roles of activated microglia without diminishing their protective effects. We recently found that abnormally activated microglia secrete glutamate via gap-junction hemichannels on the cell surface. Moreover, administration of gap-junction inhibitors significantly suppressed excessive microglial glutamate release and improved disease symptoms in animal models of neurologic conditions such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Recent evidence also suggests that neuronal and glial communication via gap junctions amplifies neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Elucidation of the precise pathologic roles of gap junctions and hemichannels may lead to a novel therapeutic strategies that can slow and halt the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25228858
Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Suzumura, Akio
Microglia are macrophage-like resident immune cells that contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). Abnormal activation of microglia can cause damage in the CNS, and accumulation of activated microglia is a characteristic pathological observation in neurologic conditions such as trauma, stroke, inflammation, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases. Activated microglia secrete high levels of glutamate, which damages CNS cells and has been implicated as a major cause of neurodegeneration in these conditions. Glutamate-receptor blockers and microglia inhibitors (e.g., minocycline) have been examined as therapeutic candidates for several neurodegenerative diseases; however, these compounds exerted little therapeutic benefit because they either perturbed physiological glutamate signals or suppressed the actions of protective microglia. The ideal therapeutic approach would hamper the deleterious roles of activated microglia without diminishing their protective effects. We recently found that abnormally activated microglia secrete glutamate via gap-junction hemichannels on the cell surface. Moreover, administration of gap-junction inhibitors significantly suppressed excessive microglial glutamate release and improved disease symptoms in animal models of neurologic conditions such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Recent evidence also suggests that neuronal and glial communication via gap junctions amplifies neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Elucidation of the precise pathologic roles of gap junctions and hemichannels may lead to a novel therapeutic strategies that can slow and halt the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.
Sisa, Claudia; Turroni, Silvia; Amici, Roberto; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco; Cerri, Matteo
Therapeutic hypothermia is today used in several clinical settings, among them the gut related diseases that are influenced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. This perspective paved the way to the study of hibernation physiology, in natural hibernators, highlighting an unexpected importance of the gut microbial ecosystem in hibernation and torpor. In natural hibernators, intestinal microbes adaptively reorganize their structural configuration during torpor, and maintain a mutualistic configuration regardless of long periods of fasting and cold temperatures. This allows the gut microbiome to provide the host with metabolites, which are essential to keep the host immunological and metabolic homeostasis during hibernation. The emerging role of the gut microbiota in the hibernation process suggests the importance of maintaining a mutualistic gut microbiota configuration in the application of therapeutic hypothermia as well as in the development of new strategy such as the use of synthetic torpor in humans. The possible utilization of tailored probiotics to mold the gut ecosystem during therapeutic hypothermia can also be taken into consideration as new therapeutic strategy. PMID:28210076
Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a complex multifactorial disease. Placental oxidative stress, a result of deficient spiral artery remodeling, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Antiangiogenic factors secreted from malperfused placenta are instrumental in mediating maternal endothelial dysfunction and consequent symptoms of preeclampsia; the mechanism is likely to involve increased ET-1 secretion and reduced NO bioavailability. Therapeutic interventions so far remain only experimental and there is no established remedy for the treatment of preeclampsia. This review concentrates on the evidence for the therapeutic potential of antioxidants, ER chaperones, NO and H2S donors, and statins. These compounds display pleitropic antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-angiogenic effects in animal and in vitro studies. Although clinical trials on the use of antioxidant vitamins in pregnancy proved largely unsuccessful, the scope for their use still exists given the beneficial cardioprotective effects of antioxidant-rich Mediterranean diet, periconceptual vitamin use and the synergistic effect of vitamin C and l-arginine. Encouraging clinical evidence exists for the use of NO donors, and a clinical trial is underway testing the effect of statins in treatment of preeclampsia. H2S recently emerged as a novel therapeutic agent for cardiovascular disease, and its beneficial effects were also tested in animal models of preeclampsia. It is risky to prescribe any medication to pregnant women on a large scale, and any future therapeutic intervention has to be well tested and safe. Many of the compounds discussed could be potential candidates.
Abbaspour Babaei M
Full Text Available Maryam Abbaspour Babaei,1 Behnam Kamalidehghan,2,3 Mohammad Saleem,4–6 Hasniza Zaman Huri,1,7 Fatemeh Ahmadipour1 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Medical Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB, Shahrak-e Pajoohesh, 3Medical Genetics Department, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Urology, 5Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, 6Section of Molecular Therapeutics & Cancer Health Disparity, The Hormel Institute, Austin, MN, USA; 7Clinical Investigation Centre, University Malaya Medical Centre, Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is involved in intracellular signaling, and the mutated form of c-Kit plays a crucial role in occurrence of some cancers. The function of c-Kit has led to the concept that inhibiting c-Kit kinase activity can be a target for cancer therapy. The promising results of inhibition of c-Kit for treatment of cancers have been observed in some cancers such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, acute myeloid leukemia, melanoma, and other tumors, and these results have encouraged attempts toward improvement of using c-Kit as a capable target for cancer therapy. This paper presents the findings of previous studies regarding c-Kit as a receptor tyrosine kinase and an oncogene, as well as its gene targets and signaling pathways in normal and cancer cells. The c-Kit gene location, protein structure, and the role of c-Kit in normal cell have been discussed. Comprehending the molecular mechanism underlying c-Kit-mediated tumorogenesis is consequently essential and may lead to the identification of future novel drug targets. The potential mechanisms by which c-Kit induces cellular transformation have been described. This study aims to elucidate the function of c
Lee, Byoung Dae; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is caused by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Although the etiology for most PD remains elusive, the identification of specific genetic defects in familial cases of PD and the signaling pathways governed by these genes has provided tremendous insight into PD pathogenesis. Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are frequently found in familial and sporadic PD. Although current knowledge regarding the regulatory mechanisms of LRRK2 activation is limited, it is becoming increasingly evident that aberrant kinase activity of the pathologic mutants of LRRK2 is associated with neurodegeneration, suggesting that the kinase activity of LRRK2 is a potential therapeutic target. In addition, LRRK2 inhibitors might provide valuable tools to understand the pathophysiological and physiological roles of LRRK2 as well as the etiology of PD. We discuss here the potential and feasibility of targeting LRRK2 as a therapeutic strategy for PD. PMID:22578536
Varzaneh, Farnaz Najmi; Keller, Bärbel; Unger, Susanne; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Warnatz, Klaus; Rezaei, Nima
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by low levels of circulating immunoglobulins and compromised specific antibody response leading to frequent infections. Cytokines play an important role in the orchestration of the antibody response. Several previous studies have attempted to identify distinct cytokines responsible for the inflammatory changes and different manifestations of CVID, but there are conflicting results regarding the cytokine profiles in CVID patients. In light of this, an extensive review regarding the level of various cytokines and their potential therapeutic role in CVID patients was performed. This review delineates the contribution of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12, IL-21, interferons, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-17, APRIL (a proliferation inducing ligand) and BAFF (B cell activating factor) in CVID disease and outline their potential therapeutic implications in these patients.
Marino, A P M P; Silva, A A; Santos, P V A; Pinto, L M O; Gazinelli, R T; Teixeira, M M; Lannes-Vieira, J
The comprehension of the pathogenesis of Trypanosoma cruzi-elicited myocarditis is crucial to delineate new therapeutic strategies aiming to ameliorate the inflammation that leads to heart dysfunction, without hampering parasite control. The augmented expression of CCL5/RANTES and CCL3/MIP-1alpha, and their receptor CCR5, in the heart of T. cruzi-infected mice suggests a role for CC-chemokines and their receptors in the pathogenesis of T. cruzi-elicited myocarditis. Herein, we discuss our recent results using a CC-chemokine receptor inhibitor (Met-RANTES), showing the participation of CC-chemokines in T. cruzi infection and unraveling CC-chemokine receptors as an attractive therapeutic target for further evaluation in Chagas disease.
Full Text Available The comprehension of the pathogenesis of Trypanosoma cruzi-elicited myocarditis is crucial to delineate new therapeutic strategies aiming to ameliorate the inflammation that leads to heart dysfunction, without hampering parasite control. The augmented expression of CCL5/RANTES and CCL3/MIP-1alpha, and their receptor CCR5, in the heart of T. cruzi-infected mice suggests a role for CC-chemokines and their receptors in the pathogenesis of T. cruzi-elicited myocarditis. Herein, we discuss our recent results using a CC-chemokine receptor inhibitor (Met-RANTES, showing the participation of CC-chemokines in T. cruzi infection and unraveling CC-chemokine receptors as an attractive therapeutic target for further evaluation in Chagas disease.
Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Ferreira-Martins, João; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F
Apelin is a recently discovered peptide, identified as an endogenous ligand of receptor APJ. Apelin and receptor APJ are expressed in a wide variety of tissues including heart, brain, kidneys and lungs. Their interaction may have relevant pathophysiologic effects in those tissues. In fact, the last decade has been rich in illustrating the possible roles played by apelin in human physiology, namely as a regulating peptide of cardiovascular, hypothalamus-hypophysis, gastrointestinal, and immune systems. The possible involvement of apelin in the pathogenesis of high prevalence conditions and comorbidities - such as hypertension, heart failure, and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (T2DM) - rank it as a likely therapeutic target to be investigated in the future. The present paper is an overview of apelin physiologic effects and presents the possible role played by this peptide in the pathogenesis of a number of conditions as well as the therapeutic implications that might, therefore, be investigated.
Prassas, Ioannis; Eissa, Azza; Poda, Gennadiy; Diamandis, Eleftherios P
Tissue kallikreins are a family of fifteen secreted serine proteases encoded by the largest protease gene cluster in the human genome. In the past decade, substantial progress has been made in characterizing the natural substrates, endogenous inhibitors and in vivo functions of kallikreins, and studies have delineated important pathophysiological roles for these proteases in a variety of tissues. Thus, kallikreins are now considered attractive targets for the development of novel therapeutics for airway, cardiovascular, tooth, brain, skin and neoplastic diseases. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the physiological functions and pathological implications of kallikrein proteases, and highlight progress in the identification of kallikrein inhibitors, which together are bringing us closer to therapeutically targeting kallikreins in selected disease settings.
Wenbin Wan; Lan Cao; Ramin Khanabdali; Bill Kalionis; Xiantao Tai; Shijin Xia
Neuropathic pain (NPP) is intolerable, persistent, and specific type of long-term pain. It is considered to be a direct consequence of pathological changes affecting the somatosensory system and can be debilitating for affected patients. Despite recent progress and growing interest in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease, NPP still presents a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) mediates inflammatory and immune reactions in nervous system and ...
Gonzalo Lopez; Bill, Kate Lynn J.; Hemant Kumar Bid; Danielle Braggio; Dylan Constantino; Bethany Prudner; Abeba Zewdu; Kara Batte; Dina Lev; Pollock, Raphael E.
Introduction HDAC isoform-specific inhibitors may improve the therapeutic window while limiting toxicities. Developing inhibitors against class I isoforms poses difficulties as they share high homology among their catalytic sites; however, HDAC8 is structurally unique compared to other class I isoforms. HDAC8 inhibitors are novel compounds and have affinity for class I HDAC isoforms demonstrating anti-cancer effects; little is known about their activity in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tu...
Antiviral compounds that increase the resistance of host tissues represent an attractive class of therapeutic. Here, we show that squalamine, a compound previously isolated from the tissues of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity against human pathogens, which were studied in vitro as well as in vivo. Both RNA- and DNA-enveloped viruses are shown to be susceptible. The proposed mechanism involves the capacit...
Recio, Carlota; Maione, Francesco; Iqbal, Asif J; Mascolo, Nicola; De Feo, Vincenzo
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Numerous therapies are currently under investigation to improve pathological cardiovascular complications, but yet, there have been very few new medications approved for intervention/treatment. Therefore, new approaches to treat CVD are urgently required. Attempts to prevent vascular complications usually involve amelioration of contributing risk factors and underlying processes such as inflammation, obesity, hyperglycaemia, or hypercholesterolemia. Historically, the development of peptides as therapeutic agents has been avoided by the Pharmaceutical industry due to their low stability, size, rate of degradation, and poor delivery. However, more recently, resurgence has taken place in developing peptides and their mimetics for therapeutic intervention. As a result, increased attention has been placed upon using peptides that mimic the function of mediators involved in pathologic processes during vascular damage. This review will provide an overview on novel targets and experimental therapeutic approaches based on peptidomimetics for modulation in CVD. We aim to specifically examine apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apoE mimetic peptides and their role in cholesterol transport during atherosclerosis, suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1-derived peptides and annexin-A1 as potent inhibitors of inflammation, incretin mimetics and their function in glucose-insulin tolerance, among others. With improvements in technology and synthesis platforms the future looks promising for the development of novel peptides and mimetics for therapeutic use. However, within the area of CVD much more work is required to identify and improve our understanding of peptide structure, interaction, and function in order to select the best targets to take forward for treatment.
Nour Erekat; Ahed Al-Khatib; Muhammed Al-Jarrah
Previous studies have conifrmed that heat shock protein 90 overexpression can lead to dopami-nergic neuronal death. This study was designed to further investigate what effects are produced by heat shock protein 90 after endurance exercise training. Immunohistochemistry results showed that exercise training signiifcantly inhibited heat shock protein 90 overexpression in the soleus and gastrocnemius in Parkinson’s disease rats, which is a potential therapeutic target for ameliorating skeletal muscle abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease.
Katsuda, Takeshi; Oki, Katsuyuki; Ochiya, Takahiro
In the last 20 years, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have attracted attention as a versatile cell-cell communication mediator. The biological significance of EVs remains to be fully elucidated, but many reports have suggested that the functions of EVs mirror, at least in part, those of the cells from which they originate. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cell that can be isolated from connective tissue including bone marrow and adipose tissue and have emerged as an attractive candidate for cell therapy applications. Accordingly, an increasing number of reports have shown that EVs derived from MSCs have therapeutic potential in multiple diseases. We recently reported a novel therapeutic potential of EVs secreted from human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hADSCs) (also known as adipose tissue-derived stem cells; ASCs) against Alzheimer's disease (AD). We found that hADSCs secrete exosomes carrying enzymatically active neprilysin, the most important β-amyloid peptide (Aβ)-degrading enzyme in the brain. In this chapter, we describe a method by which to evaluate the therapeutic potential of hADSC-derived EVs against AD from the point of view of their Aβ-degrading capacity.
Der Jiun Ooi
Full Text Available Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.
Ooi, Der Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarega, Nadarajan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah
Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders.
Zhao, Yong-Fei; Zhang, Xiang; Ding, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Xing-Wang; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Jie-Zhong; Li, Yan-Hua; Liu, Chun-Yun; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Hong-Zhen; Ma, Cun-Gen; Xiao, Bao-Guo
Although therapeutic potential of fasudil in EAE is promising, action mechanism and clinical limitations are still not fully understood and resolved. In this study, we observed the therapeutic potential of a novel Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor FaD-1, a fasudil derivative, and explored possible mechanism in MOG35-55-induced EAE. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55) immunization. The pathology of spinal cord was measured by immunohistochemistry and neurological impairment was evaluated using clinical scores. FaD-1, as a novel ROCK inhibitor, inhibited the expression of ROCK II that is mainly expressed in the CNS. We show here that FaD-1 ameliorates the neurological defects and the severity of MOG-induced EAE in mice, accompanied by the protection of demyelination and the inhibition of neuroinflammation in spinal cord of EAE. In addition, FaD-1 dampened TLR2 and TLR4 signaling as well as Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17) responses in spinal cord of EAE. FaD-1 also prevented the expression of iNOS and production of inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α which are specific markers for M1 inflammatory microglia/macrophages. This study highlights the therapeutic potential of FaD-1 as a ROCK inhibitor for the treatment of human autoimmune diseases with both inflammatory and autoimmune components.
Baumel, Amit; Faber, Keren; Mathur, Nandita; Kane, John M; Muench, Fred
concurrent validity analysis pointed to positive correlations of combined quality scores with selected variables. The combined score that did not include therapeutic persuasiveness and therapeutic alliance descriptively underperformed the other combined scores. This paper provides empirical evidence supporting the importance of persuasive design and therapeutic alliance within the context of a program's evaluation. Reliability metrics and preliminary concurrent validity analysis indicate the potential of Enlight in examining eHealth programs regardless of delivery mediums and clinical aims.
Kawato, Yasuhiko; Yasuike, Motoshige; Nakamura, Yoji; Shigenobu, Yuya; Fujiwara, Atushi; Sano, Motohiko; Nakai, Toshihiro
Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is a lethal pathogen of ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) in Japan and is responsible for substantial economic costs to ayu culture. Previously, we demonstrated the efficacy of phage therapy against P. plecoglossicida infection using two lytic phages (PPpW-3 and PPpW-4) (S. C. Park, I. Shimamura, M. Fukunaga, K. Mori, and T. Nakai, Appl Environ Microbiol 66:1416-1422, 2000, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.66.4.1416-1422.2000; S. C. Park and T. Nakai, Dis Aquat Org 53:33-39, 2003, http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao053033). In the present study, the complete genome sequences of these therapeutic P. plecoglossicida phages were determined and analyzed for deleterious factors as therapeutic agents. The genome of PPpW-3 (myovirus) consisted of 43,564 bp with a GC content of 61.1% and 66 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Approximately half of the genes were similar to the genes of the Escherichia coli phage vB_EcoM_ECO1230-10 (myovirus). The genome of PPpW-4 (podovirus) consisted of 41,386 bp with a GC content of 56.8% and 50 predicted ORFs. More than 70% of the genes were similar to the genes of Pseudomonas fluorescens phage ϕIBB-PF7A and Pseudomonas putida phage ϕ15 (podoviruses). The whole-genome analysis revealed that no known virulence genes were present in PPpW-3 and PPpW-4. An integrase gene was found in PPpW-3, but other factors used for lysogeny were not confirmed. The PCR detection of phage genes in phage-resistant variants provided no evidence of lysogenic activity in PPpW-3 and PPpW-4. We conclude that these two lytic phages qualify as therapeutic agents.
The chronic nature and associated complications of nonhealing wounds have led to the emergence of nanotechnology-based therapies that aim at facilitating the healing process and ultimately repairing the injured tissue. A number of engineered nanotechnologies have been proposed demonstrating unique properties and multiple functions that address specific problems associated with wound repair mechanisms. In this outlook, we highlight the most recently developed nanotechnology-based therapeutic agents and assess the viability and efficacy of each treatment, with emphasis on chronic cutaneous wounds. Herein we explore the unmet needs and future directions of current technologies, while discussing promising strategies that can advance the wound-healing field. PMID:28386594
Maria THOMAS; Johann GREIL; Olaf HEIDENREICH
RNA interference has become an indispensable research tool to study gene functions in a wide variety of organisms.Because of their high efficacy and specificity,RNA interference-based approaches may also translate into new therapeutic strategies to treat human diseases.In particular,oncogenes such as leukemic fusion proteins,which arise from chromosomal translocations,are promising targets for such gene silencing approaches,because they are exclusively expressed in precancerous and cancerous tissues,and because they are frequently indispensable for maintaining the malignant phenotype.This review summarizes recent developments in targeting leukemia-specific genes and discusses problems and approaches for possible clinical applications.
Oude Blenke, Erik; Evers, Martijn J W; Mastrobattista, Enrico; van der Oost, John
The CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system has taken the biomedical science field by storm, initiating rumors about future Nobel Prizes and heating up a fierce patent war, but also making significant scientific impact. The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), together with CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) are a part of the prokaryotic adaptive immune system and have successfully been repurposed for genome editing in mammalian cells. The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been used to correct genetic mutations and for replacing entire genes, opening up a world of possibilities for the treatment of genetic diseases. In addition, recently some new CRISPR-Cas systems have been discovered with interesting mechanistic variations. Despite these promising developments, many challenges have to be overcome before the system can be applied therapeutically in human patients and enabling delivery technology is one of the key challenges. Furthermore, the relatively high off-target effect of the system in its current form prevents it from being safely applied directly in the human body. In this review, the transformation of the CRISPR-Cas gene editing systems into a therapeutic modality will be discussed and the currently most realistic in vivo applications will be highlighted.
Xie, Dong; Zhao, Jun; Weng, Yiming; Park, Jong-Gu; Jiang, Hui; Platt, Jeffrey A
We have developed a novel bioactive resin-modified glass-ionomer cement system with therapeutic function to dentin capping mineralization. In the system, the newly synthesized star-shape poly(acrylic acid) was formulated with water, Fuji II LC filler, and bioactive glass S53P4 to form resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. Compressive strength (CS) was used as a screening tool for evaluation. The commercial glass-ionomer cement Fuji II LC was used as a control. All the specimens were conditioned in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 degrees C prior to testing. The effect of aging in SBF on CS and microhardness of the cements was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the in vitro dentin surface changes caused by the incorporation of bioactive glass. The results show that the system not only provided strengths comparable to original commercial Fuji II LC cement but also allowed the cement to help mineralize the dentin in the presence of SBF. It appears that this bioactive glass-ionomer cement system has direct therapeutic impact on dental restorations that require root surface fillings.
Lin, Jingmei; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Zuo, Li
As one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide, colorectal adenocarcinoma often occurs sporadically in individuals aged 50 or above and there is an increase among younger patients under 50. Routine screenings are recommended for this age group to improve early detection. The multifactorial etiology of colorectal cancer consists of both genetic and epigenetic factors. Recently, studies have shown that the development and progression of colorectal cancer can be attributed to aberrant expression of microRNA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that play a key role in cancer cell survival, can also lead to carcinogenesis and cancer exacerbations. Given the rapid accumulating knowledge in the field, an updated review regarding microRNA and ROS in colorectal cancer is necessary. An extensive literature search has been conducted in PubMed/Medline databases to review the roles of microRNAs and ROS in colorectal cancer. Unique microRNA expression in tumor tissue, peripheral blood, and fecal samples from patients with colorectal cancer is outlined. Therapeutic approaches focusing on microRNA and ROS in colorectal cancer treatment is also delineated. This review aims to summarize the newest knowledge on the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer in the hopes of discovering novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic techniques. PMID:28061475
Full Text Available D3 receptors represent a major focus of current drug design and development of therapeutics for dopamine-related pathological states. Their close homology with the D2 receptor subtype makes the development of D3 selective antagonists a challenging task. In this review, we explore the relevance and therapeutic utility of D3 antagonists or partial agonists endowed with multireceptor affinity profile in the field of central nervous system disorders such as schizophrenia and drug abuse. In fact, the peculiar distribution and low brain abundance of D3 receptors make them a valuable target for the development of drugs devoid of motor side effects classically elicited by D2 antagonists. Recent research efforts were devoted to the conception of chemical templates possibly endowed with a multi-target profile, especially with regards to other G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs.A comprehensive overview of the recent literature in the field is herein provided. In particular, the evolution of the chemical templates has been tracked, according to the growing advancements in both the structural information and the refinement of the key pharmacophoric elements.The receptor/multireceptor affinity and functional profiles for the examined compounds has been covered, together with their most significant pharmacological applications.
Mário Sérgio Ribeiro
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to replicate Babor's Typology and to explore clinical features related to personality traits that may underlie this classification, in order to improve its therapeutic possibilities. Methods Observational prospective study on a group of 273 male alcoholics. After a replication of Babor's variables, Cluster Analysis, Chi-Square – applied on clinical variables related to a Lappda Tipology – and Kappa tests were performed. Results The study identified two distinct clusters that held similar features to those described for the Type A/Type B classification. Besides presenting a lower socio-economic situation, Cluster 2 patients were associated with higher vulnerability and severe clinical features and also differed from Cluster 1 in their response to treatment. These replicated clusters retained connections and also differences in relation to the variables derived from the Lappda Typology. Conclusion Considering that each of the two replicated clusters seem to be associated to different personality traits – according to their correlations to the affective, cognitive and behavioral dimensions brought forward by the Lappda Typology – it is acceptable that this study may contribute to the development of more comprehensive and effective therapeutic strategies specifically tailored to target more specific personality traits of these subgroups of alcoholic patients.
Ramar Perumal Samy
Full Text Available The uses of traditional medicinal plants for primary health care have steadily increased worldwide in recent years. Scientists are in search of new phytochemicals that could be developed as useful anti-microbials for treatment of infectious diseases. Currently, out of 80% of pharmaceuticals derived from plants, very few are now being used as anti-microbials. Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites that have found anti-microbial properties. This review highlights the current status of traditional medicine, its contribution to modern medicine, recent trends in the evaluation of anti-microbials with a special emphasis upon some tribal medicine, in vitro and in vivo experimental design for screening, and therapeutic efficacy in safety and human clinical trails for commercial outlet. Many of these commercially available compounds are crude preparations administered without performing human clinical trials. Recent methods are useful to standardize the extraction for scientific investigation of new phytochemicals and anti-microbials of traditionally used plants. It is concluded that once the local ethnomedical preparations of traditional sources are scientifically evaluated before dispensing they should replace existing drugs commonly used for the therapeutic treatment of infection. This method should be put into practice for future investigations in the field of ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, ethnobotany and other biological fields for drug discovery.
Mauro Sergio Pavao
Full Text Available In this review, several glycosaminoglycan analogs obtained from different marine invertebrate are reported. The structure, biological activity and mechanism of action of these unique molecules are detailed reviewed and exemplified by experiments in vitro and in vivo. Among the glycans studied are low-sulfated heparin-like polymers from ascidians, containing significant anticoagulant activity and no bleeding effect; dermatan sulfates with significant neurite outgrowth promoting activity and anti-P-selectin from ascidians, and a unique fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumbers, possessing anticoagulant activity after oral administration and high anti P- and L-selectin activities. The therapeutic value and safety of these invertebrate glycans have been extensively proved by several experimental animal models of diseases, including thrombosis, inflammation and metastasis. These invertebrate glycans can be obtained in high concentrations from marine organisms that have been used as a food source for decades, and usually obtained from marine farms in sufficient quantities to be used as starting material for new therapeutics.
Shah, Palak; Bristow, Michael R; Port, J David
Heart failure is increasing in prevalence with a lack of recently developed therapies that produce major beneficial effects on its associated mortality. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression, are differentially regulated in heart failure, and are found in the circulation serving as a biomarker of heart failure. Data suggests that microRNAs may be used to detect allograft rejection in cardiac transplantation and may predict the degree of myocardial recovery in patients with a left ventricular assist device or treated with beta-blocker therapy. Given their role in regulating cellular function, microRNAs are an intriguing target for oligonucleotide therapeutics, designed to mimic or antagonize (antagomir) their biological effects. We review the current state of microRNAs as biomarkers of heart failure and associated conditions, the mechanisms by which microRNAs control cellular function, and how specific microRNAs may be targeted with novel therapeutics designed to treat heart failure.
James A. Marrs
Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD, caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, can result in craniofacial dysmorphism, cognitive impairment, sensory and motor disabilities among other defects. FASD incidences are as high as 2% to 5 % children born in the US, and prevalence is higher in low socioeconomic populations. Despite various mechanisms being proposed to explain the etiology of FASD, the molecular targets of ethanol toxicity during development are unknown. Proposed mechanisms include cell death, cell signaling defects and gene expression changes. More recently, the involvement of several other molecular pathways was explored, including non-coding RNA, epigenetic changes and specific vitamin deficiencies. These various pathways may interact, producing a wide spectrum of consequences. Detailed understanding of these various pathways and their interactions will facilitate the therapeutic target identification, leading to new clinical intervention, which may reduce the incidence and severity of these highly prevalent preventable birth defects. This review discusses manifestations of alcohol exposure on the developing central nervous system, including the neural crest cells and sensory neural placodes, focusing on molecular neurodevelopmental pathways as possible therapeutic targets for prevention or protection.
Full Text Available Currently, there is no efficient therapy for patients with peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL. The Proviral Integration site of Moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM kinases are important mediators of cell survival. We aimed to determine the therapeutic value of PIM kinases because they are overexpressed in PTCL patients, T cell lines and primary tumoral T cells. PIM kinases were inhibited genetically (using small interfering and short hairpin RNAs and pharmacologically (mainly with the pan-PIM inhibitor (PIMi ETP-39010 in a panel of 8 PTCL cell lines. Effects on cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle, key proteins and gene expression were evaluated. Individual inhibition of each of the PIM genes did not affect PTCL cell survival, partially because of a compensatory mechanism among the three PIM genes. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of all PIM kinases strongly induced apoptosis in all PTCL cell lines, without cell cycle arrest, in part through the induction of DNA damage. Therefore, pan-PIMi synergized with Cisplatin. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of PIM reduced primary tumoral T cell viability without affecting normal T cells ex vivo. Since anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ ALCL cell lines were the most sensitive to the pan-PIMi, we tested the simultaneous inhibition of ALK and PIM kinases and found a strong synergistic effect in ALK+ ALCL cell lines. Our findings suggest that PIM kinase inhibition could be of therapeutic value in a subset of PTCL, especially when combined with ALK inhibitors, and might be clinically beneficial in ALK+ ALCL.
Camacho-Villegas, Tanya; Mata-Gonzalez, Teresa; Paniagua-Solis, Jorge; Sanchez, Edna; Licea, Alexei
The therapeutic use of single domain antibodies (sdAbs) is a promising new approach because these small antibodies maintain antigen recognition and neutralization capacity, have thermal and chemical stability and have good solubility. In this study, using phage display technology, we isolated a variable domain of a IgNAR (vNAR) from a Heterodontus francisci shark immunized against the recombinant human cytokine TNFα (rhTNFα). One clone T43, which expresses the vNAR protein in the periplasmic space, was isolated from the fourth round of panning. T43 had the capacity to recognize rhTNF and neutralize it in vitro, indicating that T43 has potential as a therapeutic that can be used for diseases in which this pro-inflammatory cytokine needs to be controlled.
Gao, Aijing; Peng, Yuhua; Deng, Yulin; Qing, Hong
Difficulties in realizing persistent neurogenesis, inabilities in modeling pathogenesis of most cases, and a shortage of disease material for screening therapeutic agents restrict our progress to overcome challenges presented by neurodegenerative diseases. We propose that reprogramming primary somatic cells of patients into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides a new avenue to overcome these impediments. Their abilities in self-renewal and differentiation into various cell types will enable disease investigation and drug development. In this review, we introduce efficient approaches to generate iPSCs and distinct iPSCs differentiation stages, and critically discuss paradigms of iPSCs technology application to investigate neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD). Although iPSCs technology is in its infancy and faces many obstacles, it has great potential in helping to identify therapeutic targets for treating neurodegenerative diseases.
Jothy, Subramanion L; Chen, Yeng; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Kanwar, Jagat R; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan
Radiotherapy plays an essential primary role in cancer patients. Regardless of its significant advances in treatment options, tumor recurrence and radio-resistance in cancer cells still occur in a high percentage of patients. Furthermore, the over expression of miRNAs accompanies the development of radio-resistant cancer cells. Consequently, miRNAs might serve as therapeutic targets for the treatment of radio-resistance in cancer cells. The findings of the current research also signify that the use of a natural anti-miRNA substance could inhibit specific miRNAs, and, concurrently, these natural remedies could exhibit radioprotective activity against the healthy cells during radiotherapy. Therefore, in this review, we have reported the association of miRNAs with radio-resistance and the potential uses of natural remedies as green gene therapeutic approaches, as well as radioprotectors against the adverse effects of irradiation on healthy cells during radiotherapy.
Yamada, Tetsuya; Oka, Yoshitomo; Katagiri, Hideki
The global rate of obesity is rising alarmingly, exerting a major adverse impact on human health by increasing the prevalences of disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and heart disease. To maintain systemic energy homeostasis, metabolic information must be communicated among organs/tissues. Obesity-related disorders can be thought of as resulting from dysregulation of this vital inter-tissue communication. Remarkable advances in obesity research during this decade have shown humoral factors manufactured and secreted by adipose tissue (adipocytokines) to be of great importance. In addition to these humoral factors, such as nutrients (glucose, fatty acids and amino acids) and hormones (insulin, adipocytokines and so on), the functional significance of the autonomic nervous system has recently attracted research attention. Autonomic nerves are essential components of the endogenous system for maintaining energy homeostasis, making them potential therapeutic targets for obesity-related disorders. This review focuses on the therapeutic possibilities of targeting inter-organ communication systems.
Bahrami, Afsane; Khazaei, Majid; Hassanian, Seyed Mahdi; ShahidSales, Soodabeh; Joudi-Mashhad, Mona; Maftouh, Mina; Jazayeri, Mir Hadi; Parizade, Mohammad Reza; Ferns, Gordon A; Avan, Amir
Colorectal cancer (CC) is often diagnosed at a late stage when tumor metastasis may have already occurred. Current treatments are often ineffective in metastatic disease, and consequently late diagnosis is often associated with poor outcomes in CC. Alternative strategies are therefore urgently required. An interaction between epithelial cancer cells and their tissue microenvironment is a contributor to metastasis, and therefore recent studies are beginning to focus on the properties of the tumor microenvironment and the mechanism by which the metastatic cells exploit the tumor microenvironment for survival, immune evasion, and growth. We have reviewed the development of the combined therapeutic approaches that have focused on targeting the microenvironment of CC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumour of childhood. Despite significant advances, it currently still remains one of the most difficult childhood cancers to cure, with less than 40% of patients with high-risk disease being long-term survivors. MYCN is a proto-oncogene implicated to be directly involved in neuroblastoma development. Amplification of MYCN is associated with rapid tumour progression and poor prognosis. Novel therapeutic strategies which can improve the survival rates whilst reducing the toxicity in these patients are therefore required. Here we discuss genes regulated by MYCN in neuroblastoma, with particular reference to p53, SKP2 and DKK3 and strategies that may be employed to target them.