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Sample records for neuro linguistic programming

  1. Improving English Instruction through Neuro-Linguistic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, David Jay

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the background information and numerous applications of neuro-linguistic programming as it applies to improving English instruction. In addition, the N.L.P. modalities of eye movement, the use of predicates, and posturing are discussed. Neuro-linguistic programming presents all students of English an opportunity to reach their…

  2. Visual displays and Neuro-Linguistic Programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); VanHoozer, W.R. [Tranceformations Unlimited, Rigby, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Advancement of computer technology is forthcoming at such a rapid pace that the research concerning the interplay of humans and computer technology is lagging far behind. One area of particular concern is the design of visual displays that are pragmatic, ``user friendly,`` and ``user assisting.`` When engineers design visual displays, they generally do so methodically and logically, but only from within their own individual perspective or ``model of the world.`` They select the human aspects which make sense to them and not necessarily to non-engineers, operators, and others. The model design is what the engineer chooses to relate, based on his or her perspective of reality. These choices limit the model design thereby excluding the users` perspective. A set of techniques which can be used to assist the designers in expanding their choices and include the users` model is Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP).

  3. PENERAPAN HIPNOTEACHING MELALUI NEURO-LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING DALAM PEMBELAJARAN KIMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ismuzaroh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penerapan hypnoteaching melalui neuro linguistic programming (NLP dalam proses pembelajaran kimia adalah untuk menghilangkan pikiran negatif siswa terhadap pembelajaran kimia, yang selanjutnya meningkatkan minat, motivasi dan keaktifan belajar kimia siswa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan siswa lebih terbuka, berani mengemukakan pendapat terhadap permasalahan kimia yang pelajari, siswa merasa fresh, dan nyaman. Hypnoteaching goals through the application of neuro linguistic programming (NLP is a chemical in the learning process to eliminate the negative thoughts of students towards learning chemistry, which further increase the interest, motivation and active learning chemistry students. Results showed students were more open, daring to express opinions on issues studied chemistry, students feel fresh, and comfortable.

  4. Neuro-linguistic programming as a communication tool for management

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Com. (Business Management) The outcome of the study was to explore the use of neuro linguistic programming as a communication tool that enhances communication in the workplace, and the results revealed that NLP business communications differ from the usual workplace communications. They involve communications that identify explicit and achievable outcomes, use sensory awareness to notice responses and flexibly alter behaviour to achieve outcomes. Participants were noticing and discoverin...

  5. An exploratory study of neuro linguistic programming and communication anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Lois M.

    1993-12-01

    This thesis is an exploratory study of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), and its capabilities to provide a technique or a composite technique that will reduce the anxiety associated with making an oral brief or presentation before a group, sometimes referred to as Communication Apprehension. The composite technique comes from NLP and Time Line Therapy, which is an extension to NLP. Student volunteers (17) from a Communications course given by the Administrative Sciences Department were taught this technique. For each volunteer, an informational oral presentation was made and videotaped before the training and another informational oral presentation made and videotaped following the training. The before and after training presentations for each individual volunteer were evaluated against criteria for communications anxiety and analyzed to determine if there was a noticeable reduction of anxiety after the training. Anxiety was reduced in all of the volunteers in this study.

  6. THE PROGRAMMING NEURO-LINGUISTICS AND THEIR APPLICABILITY IN THE PROCESS OF RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilma Álamo Sánchez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available He/she is carried out a study referred to tools of Programming Neuro-linguistics (PNL for the Selection, Employment and Training that allow choosing the appropriate personnel taking the language and the behavior as a result. For their development theories were revised referred to the PNL and the recruitment process and selection sustained in the process of the interview. The summations are oriented to the importance and convenience for the Management of Human resources of applying the Programming Neuro-linguistics as selection tool of personal. Finally it is recommended to apply the proposal inside the mark of adaptability according to the necessities and demands of each organization.

  7. Investigating the Relationship between Iranian EFL Teachers' Autonomy and Their Neuro-Linguistic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Baradaran, Abdollah

    2015-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the relationship between English Language Teachers' autonomy and their Neuro-linguistic Programming (NLP). To this end, a group of 200 experienced English language teachers at various language schools in Tehran, inter alia, Asre Zaban Language Academy, were given two questionnaires namely Teaching…

  8. Neuro-Linguistic Programming as an Innovation in Education and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosey, Paul; Mathison, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP)--an emergent, contested approach to communication and personal development created in the 1970s--has become increasingly familiar in education and teaching. There is little academic work on NLP to date. This article offers an informed introduction to, and appraisal of, the field for educators. We review the…

  9. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Human Technology for Today’s Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    Part III, pp. 4-5. ’ 26. Ibid, p. 6. 27. Donald W. McCormick, " Neurolinguistic Programming : A Resource Guide and Review of the Research, The 1984...Carol Johnson, " Neurolinguistic Programming --Mystique or Mistake?" Army Organizational Effectiveness Journal, No. 1, 1985, pp. 74-80. 29. Dilts...AD-RI67 836 NEURO-LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING : HUHAN TECHNOLOGY FOR / TODAY’S AIR FORCEMU AIR COMMAND ANM STAFF COLL NAXHELL AFB AL J B CAULFIELD APR 86

  10. Bibliography of Literature on Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Donald W.

    Two bibliographies on neurolinguistic programming are updates of an earlier literature review by the same compiler. The two lists contain citations of over 160 books, research reports, dissertations, journal articles, audio and video recordings, and research projects in progress on aspects of neurolinguistic programming. Appended notes suggest…

  11. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Enhancing Teacher-Student Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, John H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Defines Neurolinguistic Programming (NCP) and discusses specific dimensions of the model that have applications for classroom teaching. Describes five representational systems individuals use to process information and gives examples of effective and ineffective teacher-student communication for each system. (MCF)

  12. Observations concerning Research Literature on Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einspruch, Eric L.; Forman, Bruce D.

    1985-01-01

    Identifies six categories of design and methodological errors contained in the 39 empirical studies of neurolinguistic programming (NLP) documented through April 1984. Representative reports reflecting each category are discussed. Suggestions are offered for improving the quality of research on NLP. (Author/MCF)

  13. Neuro-Linguistics Programming: Developing Effective Communication in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.

    1983-01-01

    Students and teachers experience the world primarily through visual, kinesthetic, or auditory representational systems. If teachers are aware of their own favored system and those of their students, classroom communication will improve. Neurolinguistic programing can help teachers become more effective communicators. (PP)

  14. A Qualitative Investigation into the Experience of Neuro-Linguistic Programming Certification Training among Japanese Career Consultants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotera, Yasuhiro

    2018-01-01

    Although the application of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) has been reported worldwide, its scientific investigation is limited. Career consulting is one of the fields where NLP has been increasingly applied in Japan. This study explored why career consultants undertake NLP training, and what they find most useful to their practice. Thematic…

  15. The Effect of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) on Reading Comprehension in English for Specific Purposes Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Fahimeh

    2018-01-01

    Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) has potential to help language learners; however, it has received scant attention. The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of NLP techniques on reading comprehension of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners at an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course. To achieve this goal, two…

  16. The eyes don't have it: lie detection and Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Wiseman

    Full Text Available Proponents of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP claim that certain eye-movements are reliable indicators of lying. According to this notion, a person looking up to their right suggests a lie whereas looking up to their left is indicative of truth telling. Despite widespread belief in this claim, no previous research has examined its validity. In Study 1 the eye movements of participants who were lying or telling the truth were coded, but did not match the NLP patterning. In Study 2 one group of participants were told about the NLP eye-movement hypothesis whilst a second control group were not. Both groups then undertook a lie detection test. No significant differences emerged between the two groups. Study 3 involved coding the eye movements of both liars and truth tellers taking part in high profile press conferences. Once again, no significant differences were discovered. Taken together the results of the three studies fail to support the claims of NLP. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. How Did an Antismoking Campaign with a Neuro Linguistic Program Work out? A Case Study of Secondary School Students' Experiences in One Finnish School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahi, Salme; Maatta, Kaarina

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a Neuro Linguistic Program (NLP) in an antismoking campaign and studies how successful this campaign was according to secondary school students. This campaign was carried out in a small town in northern Finland as an intensive three-day-long campaign. The data consisted of the essays and interviews of those…

  18. Training in Influencing Skills from Neuro-Linguistic Programming (Modelled from Hypnosis and Family Therapy), in Combination with Innovative Maths Pedagogy, Raises Maths Attainment in Adult Numeracy Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, F.; Bourne, J.; Bouch, D.; Churches, R.; Dennison, J.; Evans, J.; Fowler, J.; Jeffers, A.; Prior, E.; Rhodes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Case study research suggests that NLP [neuro-linguistic programming] influencing strategies benefit teacher effectiveness. Maths pedagogy involving higher-order questioning, challenge, problem solving and collaborative working may be a way of improving attainment in adult numeracy learning, however, such strategies may be less effective if the…

  19. The Old Brain, the New Mirror: Matching Teaching and Learning Styles in Foreign Language Class (Based on Neuro-Linguistic Programming).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, John K.

    The process of matching teaching materials and methods to the student's learning style and ability level in foreign language classes is explored. The Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) model offers a diagnostic process for the identification of style. This process can be applied to the language learning setting as a way of presenting material to…

  20. The Effect of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP on Reading Comprehension in English for Specific Purposes Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Farahani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP has potential to help language learners; however, it has received scant attention. The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of NLP techniques on reading comprehension of English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners at an English for Specific Purposes (ESP course. To achieve this goal, two intact classes of students were selected to form an experimental group (n=30 and a control group (n=30. A reading pretest (based on the course content was given to all participants. The sensory learning styles of the participants were diagnosed using Reid's (1987 leaning style questionnaire, and the participants in the experimental group were familiarized with NLP techniques to be able to implement these techniques in their reading. In the control group, the conventional approach to teach ESP reading was used. Considering the analysis of posttest results through ANCOVA, it was found that implementation of NLP techniques can have significant effect on reading comprehension of Iranian undergraduate EFL learners. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  1. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Eye Movements as Indicators of Representational Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Elizabeth A. Beck, "Test of the Eye Movement Hypothesis of Neurolinguistic Programing : A Rebuttal of Conclu- sions," Perceptual and Motor Skills, 58: 175...Meta Publications, 1980. 64 .. .] .! S ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 - ----. 14. Maron, Davida, " Neurolinguistic Programming : The Answer to Change? Training and Development... Neurolinguistic Programming ," Perceptual and Motor Skills, 51: 230 (April 1980). 65 VITA Captain William H. Moore was born on 22 October 1949. He

  2. Neuro-Linguistic Programming and Learning: Teacher Case Studies on the Impact of NLP in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John; Churches, Richard; Hutchinson, Geraldine; Jones, Jeff; Tosey, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This research paper reports on evidence from 24 teacher-led action research case studies and builds on the 2008 CfBT Education Trust published paper by Richard Churches and John West-Burnham "Leading learning through relationships: the implications of Neurolinguistic programming for personalisation and the children's agenda in England".…

  3. Evidence-based Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Cătălin; Reiner, Melita; Schütz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) Framework has enjoyed enormous popularity in the field of applied psychology. NLP has been used in business, education, law, medicine and psychotherapy to identify people's patterns and alter their responses to stimuli, so they are better able to regulate their environment and themselves. NLP looks at achieving goals, creating stable relationships, eliminating barriers such as fears and phobias, building self-confidence, and self-esteem, and achieving peak performance. Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy (NLPt) encompasses NLP as framework and set of interventions in the treatment of individuals with different psychological and/or social problems. We aimed systematically to analyse the available data regarding the effectiveness of Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy (NLPt). The present work is a meta-analysis of studies, observational or randomized controlled trials, for evaluating the efficacy of Neuro Linguistic Programming in individuals with different psychological and/or social problems. The databases searched to identify studies in English and German language: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library; PubMed; ISI Web of Knowledge (include results also from Medline and the Web of Science); PsycINFO (including PsycARTICLES); Psyndex; Deutschsprachige Diplomarbeiten der Psychologie (database of theses in Psychology in German language), Social SciSearch; National library of health and two NLP-specific research databases: one from the NLP Community (http://www.nlp.de/cgi-bin/research/nlprdb.cgi?action=res_entries) and one from the NLP Group (http://www.nlpgrup.com/bilimselarastirmalar/bilimsel-arastirmalar-4.html#Zweig154). From a total number of 425 studies, 350 were removed and considered not relevant based on the title and abstract. Included, in the final analysis, are 12 studies with numbers of participants ranging between 12 and 115 subjects. The vast majority of studies were prospective observational. The actual paper represents the first

  4. Logic Programming for Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...

  5. Spanish translation and linguistic validation of the quality of life in neurological disorders (Neuro-QoL) measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, H; Pérez, B; Arnold, B; Wong, Alex W K; Lai, J S; Kallen, M; Cella, D

    2015-03-01

    The quality of life in neurological disorders (Neuro-QoL) measurement system is a 470-item compilation of health-related quality of life domains for adults and children with neurological disorders. It was developed and cognitively debriefed in English and Spanish, with general population and clinical samples in the USA. This paper describes the Spanish translation and linguistic validation process. The translation methodology combined forward and back-translations, multiple reviews, and cognitive debriefing with 30 adult and 30 pediatric Spanish-speaking respondents in the USA. The adult Fatigue bank was later also tested in Spain and Argentina. A universal approach to translation was adopted to produce a Spanish version that can be used in various countries. Translators from several countries were involved in the process. Cognitive debriefing results indicated that most of the 470 Spanish items were well understood. Translations were revised as needed where difficulty was reported or where participants' comments revealed misunderstanding of an item's intended meaning. Additional testing of the universal Spanish adult Fatigue item bank in Spain and Argentina confirmed good understanding of the items and that no country-specific word changes were necessary. All the adult and pediatric Neuro-QoL measures have been linguistically validated with Spanish speakers in the USA. Instruments are available for use at www.assessmentcenter.net.

  6. An Exploratory Study of Neuro Linguistic Programming and Communication Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    consciously consider "what is the best thing to do with what is available now for this situation" even this might be done subconsciously . We are reacting, not...with a great deal of experience to support you during this reprogramming . 6. Reframing In 1982, Bandler and Grinder published Reframing, which

  7. Neuro-Linguistic Programming for Leaders and Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Tosey, Paul

    2010-01-01

    On few occasions in the history of modern management have leadership skills been in such sharp focus as they are now. The ability to direct often very large and diverse organizations; to make sense of the complex and turbulent markets and environments in which you operate; and to adapt and learn seems at an all time premium. The premise behind the fifth edition of this influential Handbook is that leadership, management and organizational development are all parts of the same process; enhanci...

  8. Effect of escitalopram combined neuro-linguistic programming treatment on cognitive function in patients with somatoform disorders%艾司西酞普兰合并身心语法程序治疗对躯体形式障碍患者认知功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢国军; 徐彩霞; 李晓玲; 罗伟森; 赵长江; 黎雪松

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of escitalopram combined neuro-linguistic programming treatment(NLP) on cognitive function in patients with somatoform disorders.Methods 120 cases with somatoform disorders were randomly divided into the escitalopram monotherapy group and escitalopram with NLP combined group,with 60 cases in each group for six weeks.At baseline and after six weeks for treatment,it was respectively assessed that the efficacy using Symptom Checklist 90 and Global Assessment Function,and cognitive function using the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices Test,digit span and digit symbol tests in Adult Wechsler Intelligence Test,while event related potentials P300 were detected.60 cases normal healthy adults as controls.Results Compared with the control group,the Raven scores,digit span,digit symbol scores were lower (P <0.01),N1,P3 latent periods were longer (P < 0.01 or < 0.05),N1N2,N2P2,P2P3 amplitudes were less(P =0.00) in patients with somatoform disorders.After treatment,Raven scores(91.25 ± 14.87,95.60 ± 19.95),digit span scores (11.98 ± 1.89,10.90 ± 2.76),digit symbol scores (11.71 ± 2.89,11.92 ± 2.90),N2P2 amplitudes ((11.32 ± 6.67) μV,(13.39 ± 9.31) μV),P2P3 amplitudes ((9.04 ± 6.14) μV,(9.51 ± 7.17) μV) increased,N2 latent periods ((240.60 ± 41.41) ms,(238.31 ± 41.47) ms) prolonged,N1 latent periods shortened (P < 0.05 or 0.01) in the monotherapy group and the combined group.The digit span,P2 latent periods,N1N2,N2P2,P2P3 amplitudes had statistically significant differences between monotherapy group and combined group after treatment(P < 0.05 or 0.01).Conclusion Both escitalopram monotherapy and escitalopram combined NLP have improved cognitive function in patients with somatoform disorders,but combined therapy has more prominent advantage.%目的 探讨艾司西酞普兰合并身心语法程序(NLP)治疗对躯体形式障碍患者认知功能的影响.方法 120例躯体形式障碍患者被随机分为艾司西

  9. The Importance of the Brain Neuro-Programming Technologies in National and Regional Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl H. Fatkhutdinov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors’ understanding of neuro-programming is the result of the impact on the human brain of information and communication technology (including educational one, through which in the human brain the programs of manifestation in the ontogenesis of internal creative potentials are written. This article summarizes the history of the formation of key neuro-programming technologies of the human brain as well as proves that the changes in the society’s worldview are caused by the possibilities and quality of neuro-programming technologies that society uses. Having influence over worldview stereotypes and behaviour set by the society, neuro-programming technologies essentially ensure the national security of any state and the peaceful coexistence of states in the regions and on the planet as a whole. Using historical and philosophical methods, methods of conceptualization, systematization, modeling, etc., the authors have come to the conclusion that the modern world lies in a confrontation of security strategies, in which neuro-programming technologies play a key role.

  10. Neuro-Oncology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BTTC are experts in their respective fields. Neuro-Oncology Clinical Fellowship This is a joint program with ... can increase survival rates. Learn more... The Neuro-Oncology Branch welcomes Dr. Mark Gilbert as new Branch ...

  11. NEURO-FUZZY MODELING APPLIED IN PROGRAM MANAGEMENT TO INCREASE LOCAL PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Mihai Zaharia-Radulescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges in local public administration is dealing with an increasing number of competing requests coming from the communities they serve. The traditional approach would be to handle each request as a standalone project and be prioritized according to benefits and budget available. More and more nowadays program management is becoming a standard approach in managing the initiatives of local public administration. Program management approach is itself an enabler for performance in public sector organizations by allowing an organization to better coordinate its efforts and resources in managing a portfolio of projects. This paper aims to present how neuro-fuzzy modeling applied in program management can help an organization to increase its performance. Neuro-fuzzy modeling would lead organizations one step further by allowing them to simulate different scenarios and manage better the risks accompanying their initiatives. The research done by the authors is theoretical and combines knowledge from different areas and a neuro-fuzzy model is proposed and discussed.

  12. The Use of Neuro-Linguistic Programming Model for Learning Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerner, Janet J.; Stonehouse, Harold B.

    1988-01-01

    This model is useful in identifying specific learning problems and in providing techniques for the teacher to motivate and teach students at all levels. What it is and how it can be used are discussed, illustrated by specific strategies for geometry and science. (MNS)

  13. PLENATITUDE Teacher Education for Effectiveness and Well-Being with Neuro-Linguistic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Cristina Rocha; Gaspar, Maria Filomena

    2013-01-01

    The role and functioning of schools are changing as well as what is expected of teachers (who face growing and diversified challenges); consequentially, well-being at the schools is endangered. As teachers and teachers' educators concern is: How to improve schools' and teachers' effectiveness and promote well-being. Believing that the path to…

  14. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Improving Rapport between Track/Cross Country Coaches and Significant Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, David Jay

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the background information and the components of N.L.P., being eye movements, use of predicates, and posturing, as they apply to improving rapport and empathy between track/cross country coaches and their significant others in the arena of competition to help alleviate the inherent stressors.

  15. An Online Energy Management Control for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Neuro-Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyan Qin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles are a compromise between traditional vehicles and pure electric vehicles and can be part of the solution to the energy shortage problem. Energy management strategies (EMSs are highly related to energy utilization in HEVs’ fuel economy. In this research, we have employed a neuro-dynamic programming (NDP method to simultaneously optimize fuel economy and battery state of charge (SOC. In this NDP method, the critic network is a multi-resolution wavelet neural network based on the Meyer wavelet function, and the action network is a conventional wavelet neural network based on the Morlet function. The weights and parameters of both networks are obtained by an algorithm of backpropagation type. The NDP-based EMS has been applied to a parallel HEV and compared with a previously reported NDP EMS and a stochastic dynamic programing-based method. Simulation results under ADVISOR2002 have shown that the proposed NDP approach achieves better performance than both the methods. These indicate that the proposed NDP EMS, and the CWNN and MRWNN, are effective in approximating a nonlinear system.

  16. Soil temperature modeling at different depths using neuro-fuzzy, neural network, and genetic programming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisi, Ozgur; Sanikhani, Hadi; Cobaner, Murat

    2017-08-01

    The applicability of artificial neural networks (ANN), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and genetic programming (GP) techniques in estimating soil temperatures (ST) at different depths is investigated in this study. Weather data from two stations, Mersin and Adana, Turkey, were used as inputs to the applied models in order to model monthly STs. The first part of the study focused on comparison of ANN, ANFIS, and GP models in modeling ST of two stations at the depths of 10, 50, and 100 cm. GP was found to perform better than the ANN and ANFIS-SC in estimating monthly ST. The effect of periodicity (month of the year) on models' accuracy was also investigated. Including periodicity component in models' inputs considerably increased their accuracies. The root mean square error (RMSE) of ANN models was respectively decreased by 34 and 27 % for the depths of 10 and 100 cm adding the periodicity input. In the second part of the study, the accuracies of the ANN, ANFIS, and GP models were compared in estimating ST of Mersin Station using the climatic data of Adana Station. The ANN models generally performed better than the ANFIS-SC and GP in modeling ST of Mersin Station without local climatic inputs.

  17. Barriers to Full Participation in the Individualized Education Program for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamzarian, Arpi; Menzies, Holly M.; Ricci, Leila

    2012-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004) mandates that schools facilitate parent participation in planning the Individual Education Program (IEP). However, culturally and linguistically diverse parents are less likely to feel fully included in the IEP process. In this article we examine three sources of cross-cultural…

  18. Validation of Linguistic and Communicative Oral Language Tests for Spanish-English Bilingual Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Robert L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The development, administration, and scoring of a communicative test and its validation with tests of linguistic and sociolinguistic competence in English and Spanish are reported. Correlation with measures of home language use and school achievement are also presented, and issues of test validation for bilingual programs are discussed. (MSE)

  19. Nonverbatim Captioning in Dutch Television Programs: A Text Linguistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilperoord, Joost; de Groot, Vanja; van Son, Nic

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands, as in most other European countries, closed captions for the deaf summarize texts rather than render them verbatim. Caption editors argue that in this way television viewers have enough time to both read the text and watch the program. They also claim that the meaning of the original message is properly conveyed. However, many…

  20. The Economic and Clinical Impact of Sustained Use of a Progressive Mobility Program in a Neuro-ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Jeannette M; Guin, Peggy R; Danek, Gale D; Thomas, Jaime R; Titsworth, William L; Reed, Richard K; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Fahy, Brenda G

    2017-06-01

    To investigate a progressive mobility program in a neurocritical care population with the hypothesis that the benefits and outcomes of the program (e.g., decreased length of stay) would have a significant positive economic impact. Retrospective analysis of economic and clinical outcome data before, immediately following, and 2 years after implementation of the Progressive Upright Mobility Protocol Plus program (UF Health Shands Hospital, Gainesville, FL) involving a series of planned movements in a sequential manner with an additional six levels of rehabilitation in the neuro-ICU at UF Health Shands Hospital. Thirty-bed neuro-ICU in an academic medical center. Adult neurologic and neurosurgical patients: 1,118 patients in the pre period, 731 patients in the post period, and 796 patients in the sustained period. Implementation of Progressive Upright Mobility Protocol Plus. ICU length of stay decreased from 6.5 to 5.8 days in the immediate post period and 5.9 days in the sustained period (F(2,2641) = 3.1; p = 0.045). Hospital length of stay was reduced from 11.3 ± 14.1 days to 8.6 ± 8.8 post days and 8.8 ± 9.3 days sustained (F(2,2641) = 13.0; p mobility program in the neurocritical care population has clinical and financial benefits associated with its implementation and should be considered.

  1. PROPOSAL FOR NEURAL-LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING (N.L.P. INTHE ADMINISTRATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF LEADERSHIP SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Samira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neural-linguistic programming is an organised method to know the human self construction and dealing with it in fixed means and styles so as to decesisively affect the processes of perception, thinking, imaging, ideas,feeling and also in behavior, skills and the human body and mental performance (1 Neural-linguistic programming has a private nature because it is a group of mechanisms and practicaltechniques far from likeliness, so it enters in the circle of application and employment of the human abilities and possibilities. (9 Al Fiky (2001 points out that neural linguistic programming created the favourable environment to help individuals to get rid of their diseased fears and controlling in their negative reactions and thus improving communication with themselves and with others. He shows it took its way into the human life fields because itsways and strategies are used in the sectors of health, education, marketing and administration(2. The modern administration embarks on the human element that represents the most valuable elementsof administration and is the most effective on the productivity and with the increasing the effect of the human element in the efficacy of the administrative organizations, the need increased to consider the management of the human resources as an independent function of administrative functions that cancers the human element and onwhose efficiency, abilities, experience and zeal for work, the administration efficacy depends.

  2. Quantum field theory and the linguistic Minimalist Program: a remarkable isomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piattelli-Palmarini, M.; Vitiello, G.

    2017-08-01

    By resorting to recent results, we show that an isomorphism exist between linguistic features of the Minimalist Program and the quantum field theory formalism of condensed matter physics. Specific linguistic features which admit a representation in terms of the many-body algebraic formalism are the unconstrained nature of recursive Merge, the operation of the Labeling Algorithm, the difference between pronounced and un-pronounced copies of elements in a sentence and the build-up of the Fibonacci sequence in the syntactic derivation of sentence structures. The collective dynamical nature of the formation process of Logical Forms leading to the individuation of the manifold of concepts and the computational self-consistency of languages are also discussed.

  3. Neuro Emotional Literacy Program: Does Teaching the Function of Affect and Affect Regulation Strategies Improve Affect Management and Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Kathryn E.; Campbell, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Although research on Emotion Regulation (ER) is developing at a rapid rate, much of it lacks a clear theoretical framework and most focuses on a narrow set of ER strategies. This work presents the details of a pilot project, the Neuro Emotional Literacy Program (NELP), designed for parents and based on the Somatic Appraisal Model of Affect (SAMA).…

  4. Forecasting Water Level Fluctuations of Urmieh Lake Using Gene Expression Programming and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Karimi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting lake level at various prediction intervals is an essential issue in such industrial applications as navigation, water resource planning and catchment management. In the present study, two data driven techniques, namely Gene Expression Programming and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System, were applied for predicting daily lake levels for three prediction intervals. Daily water-level data from Urmieh Lake in Northwestern Iran were used to train, test and validate the used techniques. Three statistical indexes, coefficient of determination, root mean square error and variance accounted for were used to assess the performance of the used techniques. Technique inter-comparisons demonstrated that the GEP surpassed the ANFIS model at each of the prediction intervals. A traditional auto regressive moving average model was also applied to the same data sets; the obtained results were compared with those of the data driven approaches demonstrating superiority of the data driven models to ARMA.

  5. When technology became language: the origins of the linguistic conception of computer programming, 1950-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofre, David; Priestley, Mark; Alberts, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Language is one of the central metaphors around which the discipline of computer science has been built. The language metaphor entered modern computing as part of a cybernetic discourse, but during the second half of the 1950s acquired a more abstract meaning, closely related to the formal languages of logic and linguistics. The article argues that this transformation was related to the appearance of the commercial computer in the mid-1950s. Managers of computing installations and specialists on computer programming in academic computer centers, confronted with an increasing variety of machines, called for the creation of "common" or "universal languages" to enable the migration of computer code from machine to machine. Finally, the article shows how the idea of a universal language was a decisive step in the emergence of programming languages, in the recognition of computer programming as a proper field of knowledge, and eventually in the way we think of the computer.

  6. Neuro-Linguistic Programming and Altered States: Encouraging Preparation for Learning in the Classroom for Students with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudliskis, Voldis

    2013-01-01

    In seeking to identify the processes associated with the immediate engagement of learning for students with mild special educational needs, this study examined the responses of an extraction group (n = 7) of 11- to 13-year-old students who participated in a number of lessons in which the opening episode involved the use of visualisation techniques…

  7. Teaching Assistants, Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) and Special Educational Needs: "Reframing" the Learning Experience for Students with Mild SEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudliskis, Voldis

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how an understanding of two NLP concepts, the meta-model of language and the implementation of reframing, could be used to help teaching assistants enhance class-based interactions with students with mild SEN. Participants (students) completed a pre-intervention and a post-intervention "Beliefs About my Learning…

  8. Collaborative Teaching in a Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Higher Education Setting: A Case Study of a Postgraduate Accounting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elaine; Tindale, Jen; Cable, Dawn; Mead, Suzanne Hamil

    2009-01-01

    The Language for Professional Communication in Accounting project has changed teaching practice in a linguistically and culturally diverse postgraduate accounting program at Macquarie University in Australia. This paper reflects on the project's interdisciplinary and collaborative approach to diversity in the classroom by tracing its growth and…

  9. What's in a Name? Degree Programs and What They Tell Us about "Applied Linguistics" in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Neil; Crichton, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we explore the provision of applied linguistics within Australian universities. We focus on how the "what" of applied linguistics, as captured in scholarly definitions of the discipline, accords with the "where", as captured in potential contexts of application as these are manifested in provision. In doing so, we…

  10. Linearized Programming of Memristors for Artificial Neuro-Sensor Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changju; Kim, Hyongsuk

    2016-08-19

    A linearized programming method of memristor-based neural weights is proposed. Memristor is known as an ideal element to implement a neural synapse due to its embedded functions of analog memory and analog multiplication. Its resistance variation with a voltage input is generally a nonlinear function of time. Linearization of memristance variation about time is very important for the easiness of memristor programming. In this paper, a method utilizing an anti-serial architecture for linear programming is proposed. The anti-serial architecture is composed of two memristors with opposite polarities. It linearizes the variation of memristance due to complimentary actions of two memristors. For programming a memristor, additional memristor with opposite polarity is employed. The linearization effect of weight programming of an anti-serial architecture is investigated and memristor bridge synapse which is built with two sets of anti-serial memristor architecture is taken as an application example of the proposed method. Simulations are performed with memristors of both linear drift model and nonlinear model.

  11. Designing a Computerized Neuro-Cognitive Program for Early Diagnosing Children at Risk for Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Delavarian

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: This program has an acceptable validity and reliability. It could be useful as an accurate assessment tool in predicting dyslexia before the occurrence of psychological scars and can be used as a quick screening tool for children at risk for dyslexia.

  12. A standardized motor imagery introduction program (MIIP) for neuro-rehabilitation: development and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Wondrusch, C.; Schuster-Amft, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: For patients with central nervous system (CNS) lesions and sensorimotor impairments a solid motor imagery (MI) introduction is crucial to understand and use MI to improve motor performance. The study's aim was to develop and evaluate a standardized MI group introduction program (MIIP) for patients after stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Phase 1: Based on literature a MIIP was developed comprising MI theory (def...

  13. A standardized motor imagery introduction program (MIIP) for neuro-rehabilitation: development and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Christine eWondrusch; Corina eSchuster; Corina eSchuster

    2013-01-01

    Background: For patients with central nervous system lesions and sensorimotor impairments a solid motor imagery (MI) introduction is crucial to understand and use MI to improve motor performance. The study’s aim was to develop and evaluate a standardized MI group introduction program (MIIP) for patients after stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and traumatic brain injury. Methods:Phase 1: Based on literature a MIIP was developed comprising MI theory (definition, type, mode, persp...

  14. Do all roads lead to Rome? The role of neuro-immune interactions before birth in the programming of offspring obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eJasoni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The functions of the nervous system can be powerfully modulated by the immune system. Although traditionally considered to be quite separate, neuro-immune interactions are increasingly recognized as critical for both normal and pathological nervous system function in the adult. However, a growing body of information supports a critical role for neuro-immune interactions before birth, particularly in the prenatal programming of later-life neurobehavioral disease risk. This review will focus on maternal obesity, as it represents an environment of pathological immune system function during pregnancy that elevates offspring neurobehavioral disease risk. We will first delineate the normal role of the immune system during pregnancy, including the role of the placenta as both a barrier and relayer of inflammatory information between the maternal and fetal environments. This will be followed by the current exciting findings of how immuno-modulatory molecules may elevate offspring risk of neurobehavioral disease by altering brain development and, consequently, later life function. Finally, by drawing parallels with pregnancy complications other than obesity, we will suggest that aberrant immune activation, irrespective of its origin, may lead to neuro-immune interactions that otherwise would not exist in the developing brain. These interactions could conceivably derail normal brain development and/or later life function, and thereby elevate risk for obesity and other neurobehavioral disorders later in the offspring’s life.

  15. Culturally and linguistically diverse students in health professional programs: an exploration of concerns and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, C; Outram, S

    2012-07-01

    Cultural diversity among students in tertiary institutions in Australia and globally has increased rapidly in the last decade, and is continuing to do so. Focus groups were held at the University of Newcastle, NSW to: (1) examine the specific needs of international students in the Master of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Nursing programs in relation to language and cultural considerations and (2) to understand the attitudes of domestic students to the cultural issues faced among their peers. The project explored these issues with the intention to inform curricula changes to accommodate the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students. The key themes emerging from international students were: difficulties in spoken language, differences in professional roles and expectations, differences in methods of learning, inadequate social interaction outside the classroom and acceptance of differences in cultural and religious practices. The domestic student views reinforced the comments from international students both in regard to social interaction and in regard to participation in class discussions. Although local students were interested in learning from international students about their culture and religious beliefs, there were limited initiatives from both sides. There is a need for tertiary institutions that benefit economically from increasing the numbers of international students to help them to study and live in a new environment. Assistance needs to go beyond learning the English language to helping students understand its use in a professional context (health terminology and slang used by patients), the nuances of the health professional disciplines in a western society, the approach to study and problem-based learning styles and skills to assist with social interaction. The results of the present exploration have led to a series of proposed actions for the University of Newcastle. These recommendations are applicable to any "Western

  16. A standardized motor imagery introduction program (MIIP for neuro-rehabilitation: development and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eWondrusch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: For patients with central nervous system lesions and sensorimotor impairments a solid motor imagery (MI introduction is crucial to understand and use MI to improve motor performance. The study’s aim was to develop and evaluate a standardized MI group introduction program (MIIP for patients after stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and traumatic brain injury. Methods:Phase 1: Based on literature a MIIP was developed comprising MI theory (definition, type, mode, perspective, planning and MI practice (performance, control. Phase 2: Development of a 27-item self-administered MIIP evaluation questionnaire, assessing MI knowledge self-evaluation of the ability to perform MI and patient satisfaction with the MIIP. Phase 3: Evaluation of MIIP and MI questionnaire by 2 independent MI experts based on predefined criteria and 2 patients using semi-structured interviews.Phase 4: Case series with a pre-post design to evaluate MIIP (3x30minutes using the MI questionnaire, Imaprax, Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire, and Mental Chronometry. The paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to determine significant changes.Results: Data of eleven patients were analysed (5 females; age 62.3±14.1 years. Declarative MI knowledge improved significantly from 5.4±2.2 to 8.8±2.9 (p=0.010. Patients demonstrated good satisfaction with MIIP (mean satisfaction score: 83.2±11.4 %. MI ability remained on a high level but showed no significant change, except a significant decrease in the Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire score.Conclusion: The presented MIIP seems to be valid and feasible for patients with central nervous system lesions and sensorimotor impairments resulting in improved MI knowledge. MIIP sessions can be held in groups of four or less. MI ability and Mental Chronometry remained unchanged after 3 training sessions.

  17. A standardized motor imagery introduction program (MIIP) for neuro-rehabilitation: development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondrusch, C; Schuster-Amft, C

    2013-01-01

    For patients with central nervous system (CNS) lesions and sensorimotor impairments a solid motor imagery (MI) introduction is crucial to understand and use MI to improve motor performance. The study's aim was to develop and evaluate a standardized MI group introduction program (MIIP) for patients after stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Phase 1: Based on literature a MIIP was developed comprising MI theory (definition, type, mode, perspective, planning) and MI practice (performance, control). Phase 2: Development of a 27-item self-administered MIIP evaluation questionnaire, assessing MI knowledge self-evaluation of the ability to perform MI and patient satisfaction with the MIIP. Phase 3: Evaluation of MIIP and MI questionnaire by 2 independent MI experts based on predefined criteria and 2 patients using semi-structured interviews. Phase 4: Case series with a pre-post design to evaluate MIIP (3 × 30 min) using the MI questionnaire, Imaprax, Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire, and Mental Chronometry. The paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to determine significant changes. Data of eleven patients were analysed (5 females; age 62.3 ± 14.1 years). Declarative MI knowledge improved significantly from 5.4 ± 2.2 to 8.8 ± 2.9 (p = 0.010). Patients demonstrated good satisfaction with MIIP (mean satisfaction score: 83.2 ± 11.4%). MI ability remained on a high level but showed no significant change, except a significant decrease in the Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire score. The presented MIIP seems to be valid and feasible for patients with CNS lesions and sensorimotor impairments resulting in improved MI knowledge. MIIP sessions can be held in groups of four or less. MI ability and Mental Chronometry remained unchanged after 3 training sessions.

  18. Temperature based daily incoming solar radiation modeling based on gene expression programming, neuro-fuzzy and neural network computing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeras, G.; López, J. J.; Kisi, O.; Shiri, J.

    2012-04-01

    The correct observation/estimation of surface incoming solar radiation (RS) is very important for many agricultural, meteorological and hydrological related applications. While most weather stations are provided with sensors for air temperature detection, the presence of sensors necessary for the detection of solar radiation is not so habitual and the data quality provided by them is sometimes poor. In these cases it is necessary to estimate this variable. Temperature based modeling procedures are reported in this study for estimating daily incoming solar radiation by using Gene Expression Programming (GEP) for the first time, and other artificial intelligence models such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). Traditional temperature based solar radiation equations were also included in this study and compared with artificial intelligence based approaches. Root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) RMSE-based skill score (SSRMSE), MAE-based skill score (SSMAE) and r2 criterion of Nash and Sutcliffe criteria were used to assess the models' performances. An ANN (a four-input multilayer perceptron with ten neurons in the hidden layer) presented the best performance among the studied models (2.93 MJ m-2 d-1 of RMSE). A four-input ANFIS model revealed as an interesting alternative to ANNs (3.14 MJ m-2 d-1 of RMSE). Very limited number of studies has been done on estimation of solar radiation based on ANFIS, and the present one demonstrated the ability of ANFIS to model solar radiation based on temperatures and extraterrestrial radiation. By the way this study demonstrated, for the first time, the ability of GEP models to model solar radiation based on daily atmospheric variables. Despite the accuracy of GEP models was slightly lower than the ANFIS and ANN models the genetic programming models (i.e., GEP) are superior to other artificial intelligence models in giving a simple explicit equation for the

  19. Mathematical Approaches to Cognitive Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuluundorj Begz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive linguistics, neuro-cognitive and psychological analysis of human verbal cognition present important area of multidisciplinary research. Mathematical methods and models have been introduced in number of publications with increasing attention to these theories. In this paper we have described some possible applications of mathematical methods to cognitive linguistics. Human verbal perception and verbal mapping deal with dissipative mental structures and symmetric/asymmetric relationships between objects of perception and deep (also surface structures of language. In that’s way methods of tensor analysis are ambitious candidate to be applied to analysis of human verbal thinking and mental space.

  20. Linguistic Polyphony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nølke, Henning

    on the Scandinavian variant of polyphony, ScaPoLine. ScaPoLine is a formal linguistic theory whose main purpose is to specify the instructions conveyed through linguistic form for the creation of polyphonic meaning. The theoretical introduction is followed by polyphonic analyses of linguistic phenomena...

  1. Mathematics and linguistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landauer, C.; Bellman, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we study foundational issues that we believe will help us develop a theoretically sound approach to constructing complex systems. The two theoretical approaches that have helped us understand and develop computational systems in the past are mathematics and linguistics. We describe some differences and strengths of the approaches, and propose a research program to combine the richness of linguistic reasoning with the precision of mathematics.

  2. Perspectives regarding disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in high-incidence special education programs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Jonak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The number of culturally and linguistically diverse students in the U.S. is growing, and research shows they are often underassessed, misdiagnosed, and placed into special education unnecessarily. This problem mainly concerns high-incidence, or judgmental, disabilities such as learning disability, emotional disturbance, or mental retardation. Participants and procedure In this study, the author examines how some educators perceive and address culturally and linguistically diverse students in the U.S. A survey developed by the author was used to examine how educators perceive culturally and linguistically diverse student populations and how one Midwestern school system in the United States dealt with culturally and linguistically diverse students’ needs versus expected ideal practices. Results Results indicated that most participants recognized that the issue of disproportionate representation is nationwide, but did not believe that their district shared that problem. Conclusions Participants indicated that best practices were not being followed maximally to reduce and avoid the problem of disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education programs. Difficulties in meeting students’ needs may be related to cultural differences that school personnel are unable to assess or address. Recommendations include suggestions for further studies and for applying the survey in other school systems to increase the understanding and improve their practice in working with culturally and linguistically diverse students.

  3. Probabilistic linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bod, R.; Heine, B.; Narrog, H.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic linguistics takes all linguistic evidence as positive evidence and lets statistics decide. It allows for accurate modelling of gradient phenomena in production and perception, and suggests that rule-like behaviour is no more than a side effect of maximizing probability. This chapter

  4. Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way.......The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way....

  5. Comparison of Gene Expression Programming with neuro-fuzzy and neural network computing techniques in estimating daily incoming solar radiation in the Basque Country (Northern Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeras, Gorka; López, José Javier; Kisi, Ozgur; Shiri, Jalal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solar radiation estimation based on Gene Expression Programming is unexplored. ► This approach is evaluated for the first time in this study. ► Other artificial intelligence models (ANN and ANFIS) are also included in the study. ► New alternatives for solar radiation estimation based on temperatures are provided. - Abstract: Surface incoming solar radiation is a key variable for many agricultural, meteorological and solar energy conversion related applications. In absence of the required meteorological sensors for the detection of global solar radiation it is necessary to estimate this variable. Temperature based modeling procedures are reported in this study for estimating daily incoming solar radiation by using Gene Expression Programming (GEP) for the first time, and other artificial intelligence models such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). A comparison was also made among these techniques and traditional temperature based global solar radiation estimation equations. Root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) RMSE-based skill score (SS RMSE ), MAE-based skill score (SS MAE ) and r 2 criterion of Nash and Sutcliffe criteria were used to assess the models’ performances. An ANN (a four-input multilayer perceptron with 10 neurons in the hidden layer) presented the best performance among the studied models (2.93 MJ m −2 d −1 of RMSE). The ability of GEP approach to model global solar radiation based on daily atmospheric variables was found to be satisfactory.

  6. NeuroMorpho

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NeuroMorpho.Org is a centrally curated inventory of digitally reconstructed neurons associated with peer-reviewed publications. It contains contributions from over...

  7. Collaboratively Crafting Individualized Education Program Goals for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwik, Sara L.; Cahill, Alice; Sánchez, Gilberto

    2018-01-01

    Individualized education programs (IEPs) reflect the spirit of individualized instruction that lies at the heart of special education. Quality annual goal statements, which propel the implementation of special education programming, use clear language to communicate measurable, meaningful, and standards-aligned expectations to all members of the…

  8. In Support of Military Linguists: Integrating the Internet into U.S. Air Force Language Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentine, Susan

    1999-01-01

    This thesis examines the United States Air Force's (USAF) long range goal of having ten percent of its officers proficient in a foreign language by the year 2005 and argues that current USAF programs are insufficient to reach this goal...

  9. Guatemalan Linguistics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguistic Reporter, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The general goals of the Guatemalan technical institution, the Proyecto Linguistico Francisco Marroquin, are to: create a national technical resource institution in linguistics and Mayan languages; enable Indians to influence programs for their communities; and stimulate the study of Mayan languages and their use as communication medium. (SW)

  10. Physical Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Bradley S.

    Physical linguistics is defined as the use of treatments from the field of speech pathology to enhance first and second language production in healthy individuals, resulting in increased quality and strength of phonation and articulation. A series of exercises for treating dysarthria (weakness, paralysis, discoordination, primary and secondary…

  11. Urgences en neuro-ophtalmologie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caignard, A.; Leruez, S.; Milea, D.

    2017-01-01

    Neuro-ophthalmic emergencies can cause life-threatening or sight-threatening complications. Various conditions may have acute neuro-ophthalmic manifestations, including inflammatory or ischemic processes, as well as tumoral, aneurysmal compression or metabolic and systemic diseases. Diplopia...

  12. NeuroQuiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brent, Mikkel Bo; Emmanuel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    NeuroQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til neuroanatomi. Den består af mere end 1500 spørgsmål og over 350 anatomiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Neuroanatomi af Carsten Reidies Bjarkam.......NeuroQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til neuroanatomi. Den består af mere end 1500 spørgsmål og over 350 anatomiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Neuroanatomi af Carsten Reidies Bjarkam....

  13. The linguistic repudiation of Wundt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, B; Clarke, D D

    1998-08-01

    Wilhelm Wundt's influence on the development of linguistics and psychology was pervasive. The foundations for this web of influence on the sciences of mind and language were laid down in Wundt's own research program, which was quite different from other attempts at founding a new psychology, as it was deeply rooted in German philosophy. This resulted in certain gaps in Wundt's conception of mind and language. These gaps provoked a double repudiation of Wundt's theories, by linguists and psychologists. The psychological repudiation has been studied by historians of psychology, and the linguistic repudiation has been studied by historians of linguistics. The intent of this article is to bring the linguistic repudiation to the attention of historians of psychology, especially the one outlined by two important figures in the history of psychology: Karl Buhler and George Mead.

  14. Language and the Brain. Cambridge Approaches to Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obler, Loraine K.; Gjerlow, Kris

    This book examines how the brain enables people to speak creatively and build up an understanding of language. The discussion looks at the linguistic and neuro-anatomical underpinnings of language and considers how language skills can systematically break down in individuals with different types of brain damage. By studying children with language…

  15. Cognitive linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Linguistic relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Holmes, Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    The central question in research on linguistic relativity, or the Whorfian hypothesis, is whether people who speak different languages think differently. The recent resurgence of research on this question can be attributed, in part, to new insights about the ways in which language might impact thought. We identify seven categories of hypotheses about the possible effects of language on thought across a wide range of domains, including motion, color, spatial relations, number, and false belief understanding. While we do not find support for the idea that language determines the basic categories of thought or that it overwrites preexisting conceptual distinctions, we do find support for the proposal that language can make some distinctions difficult to avoid, as well as for the proposal that language can augment certain types of thinking. Further, we highlight recent evidence suggesting that language may induce a relatively schematic mode of thinking. Although the literature on linguistic relativity remains contentious, there is growing support for the view that language has a profound effect on thought. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 253-265 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.104 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  18. Therapist-Assisted Rehabilitation of Visual Function and Hemianopia after Brain Injury: Intervention Study on the Effect of the Neuro Vision Technology Rehabilitation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Schaarup, Anne Marie Heltoft; Overgaard, Karsten

    2018-02-27

    Serious and often lasting vision impairments affect 30% to 35% of people following stroke. Vision may be considered the most important sense in humans, and even smaller permanent injuries can drastically reduce quality of life. Restoration of visual field impairments occur only to a small extent during the first month after brain damage, and therefore the time window for spontaneous improvements is limited. One month after brain injury causing visual impairment, patients usually will experience chronically impaired vision and the need for compensatory vision rehabilitation is substantial. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether rehabilitation with Neuro Vision Technology will result in a significant and lasting improvement in functional capacity in persons with chronic visual impairments after brain injury. Improving eyesight is expected to increase both physical and mental functioning, thus improving the quality of life. This is a prospective open label trial in which participants with chronic visual field impairments are examined before and after the intervention. Participants typically suffer from stroke or traumatic brain injury and will be recruited from hospitals and The Institute for the Blind and Partially Sighted. Treatment is based on Neuro Vision Technology, which is a supervised training course, where participants are trained in compensatory techniques using specially designed equipment. Through the Neuro Vision Technology procedure, the vision problems of each individual are carefully investigated, and personal data is used to organize individual training sessions. Cognitive face-to-face assessments and self-assessed questionnaires about both life and vision quality are also applied before and after the training. Funding was provided in June 2017. Results are expected to be available in 2020. Sample size is calculated to 23 participants. Due to age, difficulty in transport, and the time-consuming intervention, up to 25% dropouts are

  19. Exploring Linguistic Identity in Young Multilingual Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Roswita

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the linguistic identity of young multilingual learners through the use of a Language Portrait Silhouette. Examples from a research study of children aged 6-8 years in a German bilingual program in Canada provide teachers with an understanding that linguistic identity comprises expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. This…

  20. Neuro-ophthalmology update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Konrad P; Straumann, Dominik

    2014-07-01

    This review summarizes the most relevant articles from the field of neuro-ophthalmology published in the Journal of Neurology from January 2012 to July 2013. With the advent of video-oculography, several articles describe new applications for eye movement recordings as a diagnostic tool for a wide range of disorders. In myasthenia gravis, anti-Kv1.4 and anti-Lrp4 have been characterized as promising novel autoantibodies for the diagnosis of hitherto 'seronegative' myasthenia gravis. Several articles address new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to neuromyelitis optica, which further sharpen its profile as a distinct entity. Additionally, 4-aminopyridine has become a standard therapeutic for patients with cerebellar downbeat nystagmus. Finally, revised diagnostic criteria have been proposed for chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy based on a careful literature review over the last decade.

  1. Neuro-ophthalmology as a career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitze, Arielle; Al-Zubidi, Nagham; Lam, Peter; Yalamanchili, Sushma; Lee, Andrew G

    2014-10-01

    This essay was written to discuss the reasoning behind the personal decisions made by 2 current neuro-ophthalmology fellows to pursue neuro-ophthalmology as a career. It is meant to enlighten the reader about what role neuro-ophthalmologists play in clinical practice, what makes neuro-ophthalmology unique to all other sub-specialties, and how this contributes to making neuro-ophthalmology not only one of the most medically interesting, yet rewarding sub-specialties in ophthalmology.

  2. NIH NeuroBioBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIH NeuroBioBank (NBB), supported by the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the Eunice Kennedy...

  3. Data Acquisition and Linguistic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassel, Stephanie; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John; Staderman, William; Olive, Joseph

    All human language technology demands substantial quantities of data for system training and development, plus stable benchmark data to measure ongoing progress. While creation of high quality linguistic resources is both costly and time consuming, such data has the potential to profoundly impact not just a single evaluation program but language technology research in general. GALE's challenging performance targets demand linguistic data on a scale and complexity never before encountered. Resources cover multiple languages (Arabic, Chinese, and English) and multiple genres -- both structured (newswire and broadcast news) and unstructured (web text, including blogs and newsgroups, and broadcast conversation). These resources include significant volumes of monolingual text and speech, parallel text, and transcribed audio combined with multiple layers of linguistic annotation, ranging from word aligned parallel text and Treebanks to rich semantic annotation.

  4. Etymology and Modern Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkiel, Yakov

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the estrangement between etymology and modern linguistics, and concludes that a reconciliation between spatio-temporal linguistics and etymology must occur, because without it, both disciplines are doomed to inanition. (Author/AM)

  5. What Is Applied Linguistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Carl

    1993-01-01

    Ostensive and expository definitions of applied linguistics are assessed. It is suggested that the key to a meaningful definition lies in the dual articulation of applied linguistics: it is an interface between linguistics and practicality. Its role as an "expert system" is suggested. (45 references) (Author/LB)

  6. Linguistic Engineering and Linguistic of Engineering: Adaptation of Linguistic Paradigm for Circumstance of Engineering Epoch

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Halina

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problems of linguistic knowledge in the Engineering Epoch. Engineering Epoch is the time of adaptation to the information flows by knowledge management, The system of adaptation mechanisms is connected with linguistic and linguistic technologies, forming in new linguistic patterns Linguistic Engineering and Linguistic of Engineering.

  7. Neuro-fuzzy modeling in bankruptcy prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlachos D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 30 years the problem of bankruptcy prediction had been thoroughly studied. From the paper of Altman in 1968 to the recent papers in the '90s, the progress of prediction accuracy was not satisfactory. This paper investigates an alternative modeling of the system (firm, combining neural networks and fuzzy controllers, i.e. using neuro-fuzzy models. Classical modeling is based on mathematical models that describe the behavior of the firm under consideration. The main idea of fuzzy control, on the other hand, is to build a model of a human control expert who is capable of controlling the process without thinking in a mathematical model. This control expert specifies his control action in the form of linguistic rules. These control rules are translated into the framework of fuzzy set theory providing a calculus, which can stimulate the behavior of the control expert and enhance its performance. The accuracy of the model is studied using datasets from previous research papers.

  8. On Linguistic Abilities, Multilingualism, and Linguistic Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannàccaro Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The notion of linguistic justice should be related to the concept of linguistic ease, by which we mean the full social and communicative freedom of concern of the speaker in a given social interaction involving the use of language(s present in the society, according to the social norms of use. To acquire an acceptable degree of linguistic ease, the knowledge of at least one L2 is considered important. But the acquisition of a L2 is interfered by the previous linguistic skills of the learner/speaker who, in many cases, does not have a suitable competence even of the languages of the society in which he/she lives.

  9. Clinical neuro-oncology formal education opportunities for medical students in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Karan S; Nicholas, Martin Kelly; Lukas, Rimas V

    2014-12-01

    To develop an understanding of the availability of the formal clinical neuro-oncology educational opportunities for medical students. The curriculum websites of all medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education were reviewed for the presence of clinical neuro-oncology electives as well as other relevant data. Ten (6.8%) of medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education offer formal neuro-oncology electives. Half are clustered in the Midwest. Forty percent are at institutions with neuro-oncology fellowships. All are at institutions with neurosurgery and neurology residency programs. Formal clinical neuro-oncology elective opportunities for medical students in the United States and Canada are limited. Additional such opportunities may be of value in the education of medical students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Novice Teachers and Linguistics: Foregrounding the Functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Phil; Moore, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This forum article describes a postgraduate certificate teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) program with a strong linguistics orientation and argues that such a program provides novice language teachers with knowledge and skills superior to those of programs which focus more on methodology and practicum experience and less on…

  11. Linguistic Structure Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Noah A

    2011-01-01

    A major part of natural language processing now depends on the use of text data to build linguistic analyzers. We consider statistical, computational approaches to modeling linguistic structure. We seek to unify across many approaches and many kinds of linguistic structures. Assuming a basic understanding of natural language processing and/or machine learning, we seek to bridge the gap between the two fields. Approaches to decoding (i.e., carrying out linguistic structure prediction) and supervised and unsupervised learning of models that predict discrete structures as outputs are the focus. W

  12. Uncommon presentation of neuro- cysticercosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uncommon presentation of neuro- cysticercosis. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. The clinical presentation of NCC in children includes generalised and partial seizures with or without features of raised intracranial pressure.

  13. Translational Research in NeuroAIDS: A Neuroimmune Pharmacology-Related Course

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Amanda; Shiramizu, Bruce; Nath, Avindra; Wojna, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimmune pharmacology (NIP) can be considered a multidisciplinary science where areas of neuroscience, immunology, and pharmacology intersect in neurological disorders. The R25 training program titled “Translational Research in NeuroAIDS and Mental Health (TR-NAMH): An innovative mentoring program to promote diversity in NeuroAIDS Research (R25 MH080661)” at the Johns Hopkins University is a web-based interactive course with the goal to improve the capacity of high quality research by deve...

  14. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  15. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is an annual/biannual open access, peer-reviewed international journal, published by the Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. The papers published in SPiL are ... Poetry in South African Sign Language: What is different? EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  16. Linguistic Communications 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia).

    The present compilation of papers on linguistics is the result of joint efforts by the Classical Studies, French, Japanese, Linguistics, and Russian Departments of Monash University. Selections in the Pre-Prints and Articles section include: "For/Arabic Bilingualism in the Zalingei Area," by B. Jernudd; "Prosodic Problems in a Generative Phonology…

  17. Neuro-ophthalmology and neuro-otology update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Daniel R; Zee, David S

    2015-12-01

    This review summarizes topical papers from the fields of neuro-ophthalmology and neuro-otology published from August 2013 to February 2015. The main findings are: (1) diagnostic criteria for pseudotumor cerebri have been updated, and the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial evaluated the efficacy of acetazolamide in patients with mild vision loss, (2) categorization of vestibular disorders through history and ocular motor examination is particularly important in the acute vestibular syndrome, where timely distinction between a central or peripheral localization is essential, (3) the newly described "sagging eye syndrome" provides a mechanical explanation for an isolated esodeviation that increases at distance in the aging population and (4) eye movement recordings better define how cerebellar dysfunction and/or sixth nerve palsy may play a role in other patients with esodeviations that increase at distance.

  18. Applied Linguistics and the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B.; Grabe, William

    2000-01-01

    Examines the complexities and differences involved in granting disciplinary status to the role of applied linguistics, discusses the role of the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics" as a contributor to the development of applied linguistics, and highlights a set of publications for the future of applied linguistics. (Author/VWL)

  19. Now comes the time to defuzzify neuro-fuzzy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersini, H.; Bontempi, G.

    1996-01-01

    Fuzzy models present a singular Janus-faced : on one hand, they are knowledge-based software environments constructed from a collection of linguistic IF-THEN rules, and on the other hand, they realize nonlinear mappings which have interesting mathematical properties like low-order interpolation and universal function approximation. Neuro-fuzzy basically provides fuzzy models with the capacity, based on the available data, to compensate for the missing human knowledge by an automatic self-tuning of the structure and the parameters. A first consequence of this hybridization between the architectural and representational aspect of fuzzy models and the learning mechanisms of neural networks has been to progressively increase and fuzzify the contrast between the two Janus faces: readability or performance

  20. An Aid to Neuro-Ophthalmology

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Muhammad Shoaib AkramDepartment of Ophthalmology, King Fahad Military Hospital, Khamis Mushyat, Saudi ArabiaNeuro-ophthalmology is a very interesting field. Localizing a lesion in various pathways can be challenging, particularly for beginners. One needs a solid foundation of the neuro-anatomy of visual pathways to enhance understanding. The author aims to provide medical students and residents with the basic concepts of neuro-ophthalmology. This text attempts to simplify the complex problems...

  1. Saussure and Linguistic Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    1993-01-01

    Discusses Saussures's "Cours de linguistique generale," which was published in 1916, and devotes specific attention to the significance of Part VI, which is devoted to linguistic geography. (16 references) (Author/VWL)

  2. Language Works. Linguistic Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Anna Sofie; Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck; Skovse, Astrid Ravn

    2016-01-01

    Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested.......Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested....

  3. Having Linguistic Rules and Knowing Linguistic Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ludlow

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    'Knowledge' doesn't correctly describe our relation to linguistic rules. It is too thick a notion (for example, we don't believe linguistic rules. On the other hand, 'cognize', without further elaboration, is too thin a notion, which is to say that it is too thin to play a role in a competence theory. One advantage of the term 'knowledge'-and presumably Chomsky's original motivation for using it-is that knowledge would play the right kind of role in a competence theory: Our competence would consist in a body of knowledge which we have and which we may or may not act upon-our performance need not conform to the linguistic rules that we know.

    Is there a way out of the dilemma? I'm going to make the case that the best way to talk about grammatical rules is simply to say that we have them. That doesn't sound very deep, I know, but saying that we have individual rules leaves room for individual norm guidance in a way that 'cognize' does not. Saying we have a rule like subjacency is also thicker than merely saying we cognize it. Saying I have such a rule invites the interpretation that it is a rule for me-that I am normatively guided by it. The competence theory thus becomes a theory of the rules that we have. Whether we follow those rules is another matter entirely.

  4. Neuro-fuzzy models for systems identification applied to the operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Antonio Carlos Pinto Dias

    2000-09-01

    A nuclear power plant has a myriad of complex system and sub-systems that, working cooperatively, make the control of the whole plant. Nevertheless their operation be automatic most of the time, the integral understanding of their internal- logic can be away of the comprehension of even experienced operators because of the poor interpretability those controls offer. This difficulty does not happens only in nuclear power plants but in almost every a little more complex control system. Neuro-fuzzy models have been used for the last years in a attempt of suppress these difficulties because of their ability of modelling in linguist form even a system which behavior is extremely complex. This is a very intuitive human form of interpretation and neuro-fuzzy model are gathering increasing acceptance. Unfortunately, neuro-fuzzy models can grow up to become of hard interpretation because of the complexity of the systems under modelling. In general, that growing occurs in function of redundant rules or rules that cover a very little domain of the problem. This work presents an identification method for neuro-fuzzy models that not only allows models grow in function of the existent complexity but that beforehand they try to self-adapt to avoid the inclusion of new rules. This form of construction allowed to arrive to highly interpretative neuro-fuzzy models even of very complex systems. The use of this kind of technique in modelling the control of the pressurizer of a PWR nuclear power plant allowed verify its validity and how neuro-fuzzy models so built can be useful in understanding the automatic operation of a nuclear power plant. (author)

  5. Linguistic Error Analysis on Students' Thesis Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescante-Malimas, Mary Ann; Samson, Sonrisa C.

    2017-01-01

    This study identified and analyzed the common linguistic errors encountered by Linguistics, Literature, and Advertising Arts majors in their Thesis Proposal classes in the First Semester 2016-2017. The data were the drafts of the thesis proposals of the students from the three different programs. A total of 32 manuscripts were analyzed which was…

  6. Neuro degenerative diseases: clinical concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez, V.

    2005-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the main neuro-degenerative diseases (NDDs) seen clinically. They share some common clinical symptoms and neuro-pathological findings. The increase of life expectancy in the developed countries will inevitably contribute to enhance the prevalence of these diseases. Behavioral disorders, common in NDDs, will produce major care management challenges. Idiopathic Parkinson's disease corresponds to a histopathological diagnosis, based on the observation of a de-pigmentation and a neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, as well as on the presence of intra-neuronal inclusion bodies. AD is insidious with slowly progressive dementia in which the decline in memory constitutes the main complaint. The diagnosis of definite AD requires the presence of clinical criteria as well as the histopathological confirmation of brain lesions. The two main lesions are the presence of senile plaques and neuro-fibrillary tangles. Positron emission tomography (PET) explores cerebral metabolism and neurotransmitter kinetics in NDDs using principally [ 18 F]-deoxyglucose and [ 18 F]-dopa. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic function is altered in PD, as evidenced by the low uptake of [ 18 F]-dopa in the posterior putamen as compared to anterior putamen and caudate nucleus. In contrast, [ 18 F]-dopa uptake is equally depressed in all striatal structures in progressive supra-nuclear palsy. Regional glucose metabolism at rest is preserved in elderly once cerebral atrophy is taken into account. On the contrary, glucose metabolism is globally reduced in AD, with marked decrease in the parietal and temporal regions. PET has proved to be useful to study in vivo neurochemical processes in patients suffering from NDDs. The potential of this approach is still largely unexploited, and depends on new ligand production to establish early diagnosis and treatment follow-up. (author)

  7. Some thoughts on economy within linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URIAGEREKA Juan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the cornerstones of Chomsky's Minimalist Program is the role played by economy. This paper discusses different ways in which Chomsky's notion of economy in linguistics can be understood, given current views on dynamic systems and, in particular, on evolution in biological systems.

  8. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of reports on literacy and literacy issues includes a variety of perspectives and descriptions of diverse programs and is divided into three sections. The first examines broad questions of literacy: "On the Study of Literacy" (David Bendor-Samuel); "Linguistics and Literacy" (Gloria Kindell); and "Literacy in…

  9. From 'Hard' Neuro-Tools to 'Soft' Neuro-Toys? Refocussing the Neuro-Enhancement Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenninkmeijer, Jonna; Zwart, Hub

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1990's, the debate concerning the ethical, legal and societal aspects of 'neuro-enhancement' has evolved into a massive discourse, both in the public realm and in the academic arena. This ethical debate, however, tends to repeat the same sets of arguments over and over again. Normative disagreements between transhumanists and bioconservatives on invasive or radical brain stimulators, and uncertainties regarding the use and effectivity of nootropic pharmaceuticals dominate the field. Building on the results of an extensive European project on responsible research and innovation in neuro-enhancement (NERRI), we observe and encourage that the debate is now entering a new and, as we will argue, more realistic and societally relevant stage. This new stage concerns those technologies that enter the market as ostensibly harmless contrivances that consumers may use for self-care or entertainment. We use the examples and arguments of participants in NERRI debates to describe three case studies of such purportedly innocent 'toys'. Based upon this empirical material, we argue that these 'soft' enhancement gadgets are situated somewhere in the boundary zone between the internal and the external, between the intimate and the intrusive, between the familiar and the unfamiliar, between the friendly and the scary and, in Foucauldian terms, between technologies of the self and technologies of control. Therefore, we describe their physiognomy with the help of a term borrowed from Jacques Lacan, namely as "extimate" technologies.

  10. Conversion Rate Optimization : Visual Neuro Programming Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Berezhnaya, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the world wide web has already spread in every business. Consequently, it has become crucial to develop strong online presence and offer qualified user experience for website visitors. Website optimization undeniably has proved its importance in the recent decade. This research was conducted in order to study the practical application and structure of the stages of the CRO (Conversion Rate Optimization) framework that focuses on the most representative website metric – c...

  11. Peace linguistics for language teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco GOMES DE MATOS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This text aims at presenting the concept of Peace Linguistics - origins and recent developments -- as being implemented in the author's ongoing work in that emerging branch of Applied Linguistics. Examples of applicational possibilities are given, with a focus on language teaching-learning and a Checklist is provided, of topics for suggested linguistic-educational research, centered on communicative peace.

  12. Linguistic Corpora and Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murison-Bowie, Simon

    1996-01-01

    Examines issues raised by corpus linguistics concerning the description of language. The article argues that it is necessary to start from correct descriptions of linguistic units and the contexts in which they occur. Corpus linguistics has joined with language teaching by sharing a recognition of the importance of a larger, schematic view of…

  13. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  14. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    It could be argued that lexicography has little business with linguistic creativ- ...... The forms in which traditional proverbs are found can also vary greatly: many ... BoE has examples of the proverb every cloud has a silver lining but many more ...

  15. Variation and Linguistic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Charles-James N.

    This volume presents principles and models for describing language variation, and introduces a time-based, dynamic framework for linguistic description. The book first summarizes some of the problems of grammatical description encountered from Saussure through the present and then outlines possibilities for new descriptions of language which take…

  16. Untangling Linguistic Salience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boswijk, Vincent; Coler, Matt; Loerts, Hanneke; Hilton, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    The concept of linguistic salience is broadly used within sociolinguistics to account for processes as diverse as language change (Kerswill & Williams, 2002) and language acquisition (Ellis, 2016) in that salient forms are e.g. more likely to undergo change, or are often acquired earlier than other

  17. Formal monkey linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We argue that rich data gathered in experimental primatology in the last 40 years can benefit from analytical methods used in contemporary linguistics. Focusing on the syntactic and especially semantic side, we suggest that these methods could help clarify five questions: (i) what morphology and

  18. Linguistic Corpora and Lexicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijs, Willem

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the development of corpus linguistics, reviews the use of corpora in modern lexicography, and presents central issues in ongoing work aimed at broadening the scope of lexicographical use of corpus data. Focuses on how the field has developed in relation to the production of new monolingual English dictionaries by major British…

  19. Perspectives in Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, John T.

    Intended for the student of linguistics or the structural grammarian, who must develop an awareness of their intellectual heritage, the present work surveys the study of language in ancient times, the medieval and early modern periods, the nineteenth century, and the twentieth century to 1950. (This second edition includes additional material on…

  20. Gradual linguistic summaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbik, A.M.; Kaymak, U.; Laurent, A.; Strauss, O.; Bouchon-Meunier, xx

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new type of protoform-based linguistic summary – the gradual summary. This new type of summaries aims in capturing the change over some time span. Such summaries can be useful in many domains, for instance in economics, e.g., "prices of X are getting smaller" in eldercare,

  1. Linguistics in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  2. Linguistics and Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindell, Gloria

    1983-01-01

    Discusses four general areas of linguistics studies that are particularly relevant to literacy issues: (1) discourse analysis, including text analysis, spoken and written language, and home and school discourse; (2) relationships between speech and writing, the distance between dialects and written norms, and developmental writing; (3)…

  3. Applied Linguistics in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, Kees

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution developments in Applied Linguistics in Europe are linked to major social changes that have taken place over the last decades. These include: The decline of the USSR and the end of the cold war; The development of the EEC and the EU and fading of borders; The economic growth of

  4. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steinbjørn

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) was established by the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group as a national clinical database. It was established for the purpose of supporting research and development in adult patients with primary brain tumors in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: DNOR has...... advantage of reporting indicators is the related multidisciplinary discussions giving a better understanding of what actually is going on, thereby facilitating the work on adjusting the national guidelines in the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group. CONCLUSION: The establishment of DNOR has optimized the quality...

  5. Performance evaluation and calibration of the neuro-pet scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sank, V.J.; Brooks, R.A.; Cascio, H.E.; Di Chiro, G.; Friauf, W.S.; Leighton, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    The Neuro-PET is a circular ring seven-slice positron emission tomograph designed for imaging human heads and small animals. The scanner uses 512 bismuth germanate detectors 8.25 mm wide packed tightly together in four layers to achieve high spatial resolution (6-7 mm FWHM) without the use of beam blockers. Because of the small 38 cm ring diameter, the sensitivity is also very high: 70,000 c/s per true slice with medium energy threshold (375 keV) for a 20 cm diameter phantom containing 1 μCi/cc of positron-emitting activity, according to a preliminary measurement. There are three switch-selectable thresholds, and the sensitivity will be higher in the low threshold setting. The Neuro-PET is calibrated with a round or elliptical phantom that approximates a patient's head; this method eliminates the effects of scatter and self-attenuation to first order. Further software corrections for these artifacts are made in the reconstruction program, which reduce the measured scatter to zero, as determined with a 5 cm cold spot. With a 1 cm cold spot, the apparent activity at the center of the cold spot is 18% of the surrounding activity, which is clearly a consequence of the limits of spatial resolution, rather than scatter. The Neuro-PET has been in clinical operation since June 1982, and approximately 30 patients have been scanned to date

  6. libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine procedural and declarative modeling approaches in computational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Michael; Cannon, Robert C; Crook, Sharon; Davison, Andrew P; Ganapathy, Gautham; Robinson, Hugh P C; Silver, R Angus; Gleeson, Padraig

    2014-01-01

    NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell, and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) written in Python (http://www.python.org), which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment.

  7. libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine imperative and declarative modelling approaches in computational neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eVella

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell,and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two APIs (Application Programming Interfaces written in Python (http://www.python.org, which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment.

  8. Closed-loop, multichannel experimentation using the open-source NeuroRighter electrophysiology platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Paul Newman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Single neuron feedback control techniques, such as voltage clamp and dynamic clamp, have enabled numerous advances in our understanding of ion channels, electrochemical signaling, and neural dynamics. Although commercially available multichannel recording and stimulation systems are commonly used for studying neural processing at the network level, they provide little native support for real-time feedback. We developed the open-source NeuroRighter multichannel electrophysiology hardware and software platform for closed-loop multichannel control with a focus on accessibility and low cost. NeuroRighter allows 64 channels of stimulation and recording for around US $10,000, along with the ability to integrate with other software and hardware. Here, we present substantial enhancements to the NeuroRighter platform, including a redesigned desktop application, a new stimulation subsystem allowing arbitrary stimulation patterns, low-latency data servers for accessing data streams, and a new application programming interface (API for creating closed-loop protocols that can be inserted into NeuroRighter as plugin programs. This greatly simplifies the design of sophisticated real-time experiments without sacrificing the power and speed of a compiled programming language. Here we present a detailed description of NeuroRighter as a stand alone application, its plugin API, and an extensive set of case studies that highlight the system's abilities for conducting closed-loop, multichannel interfacing experiments.

  9. Radioisotopic Imaging of Neuro-inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkeler, A.; Boisgard, R.; Martin, M.; Tavitian, B.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory responses are closely associated with many neurologic disorders and influence their outcome. In vivo imaging can document events accompanying neuro-inflammation, such as changes in blood flow, vascular permeability, tightness of the blood-to-brain barrier, local metabolic activity, and expression of specific molecular targets. Here, we briefly review current methods for imaging neuro-inflammation, with special emphasis on nuclear imaging techniques. (authors)

  10. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... groups, the sociology of work needs to develop a better understanding of the way in which linguistic diversity influences the formation of social capital, i.e. resources such as the trust and reciprocity inherent in social relations in such workplaces. Drawing on theories about intergroup contact...... and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst...

  11. [Neuro-rehabilitation after stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murie-Fernández, M; Irimia, P; Martínez-Vila, E; John Meyer, M; Teasell, R

    2010-04-01

    the high incidence of stroke results in significant mortality and disability leading to immense health care costs. These costs lead to socioeconomic, budgetary, and staffing repercussions in developing countries. Improvements in stroke management focus mainly on acute neurological treatment, admission to stroke units, fibrinolytic treatment for ischaemic strokes and rehabilitation processes. Among these, rehabilitation has the longest therapeutic window, can be applied in both ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes, and can improve functional outcomes months after stroke. Neurologists, because of their knowledge in neuroanatomy, physiopathology, neuro-pharmacology, and brain plasticity, are in an ideal position to actively participate in the neurorehabilitation process. Several processes have been shown to play a role in determining the efficacy of rehabilitation; time from stroke onset to rehabilitation admission and the duration and intensity of treatment. neurorehabilitation is a sub-speciality in which neurologists should be incorporated into multidisciplinary neurorehabilitation teams. Early time to rehabilitation admission and greater intensity and duration of treatment are associated with better functional outcomes, lower mortality/institutionalisation, and shorter length of stay. In order to be efficient, a concerted effort must be made to ensure patients receive neurorehabilitation treatment in a timely manner with appropriate intensity to maximize patient outcomes during both inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation. Published by Elservier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuro-fuzzy models for systems identification applied to the operation of nuclear power plants; Sistemas neuro-fuzzy para identificacao de sistemas aplicados a operacao de centrais nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Antonio Carlos Pinto Dias

    2000-09-01

    A nuclear power plant has a myriad of complex system and sub-systems that, working cooperatively, make the control of the whole plant. Nevertheless their operation be automatic most of the time, the integral understanding of their internal- logic can be away of the comprehension of even experienced operators because of the poor interpretability those controls offer. This difficulty does not happens only in nuclear power plants but in almost every a little more complex control system. Neuro-fuzzy models have been used for the last years in a attempt of suppress these difficulties because of their ability of modelling in linguist form even a system which behavior is extremely complex. This is a very intuitive human form of interpretation and neuro-fuzzy model are gathering increasing acceptance. Unfortunately, neuro-fuzzy models can grow up to become of hard interpretation because of the complexity of the systems under modelling. In general, that growing occurs in function of redundant rules or rules that cover a very little domain of the problem. This work presents an identification method for neuro-fuzzy models that not only allows models grow in function of the existent complexity but that beforehand they try to self-adapt to avoid the inclusion of new rules. This form of construction allowed to arrive to highly interpretative neuro-fuzzy models even of very complex systems. The use of this kind of technique in modelling the control of the pressurizer of a PWR nuclear power plant allowed verify its validity and how neuro-fuzzy models so built can be useful in understanding the automatic operation of a nuclear power plant. (author)

  13. Linguistics and the digital humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software......, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and figures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. This article provides an overview of the main principles of corpus linguistics and the role of computer technology in relation to data...... and method and also offers a bird's-eye view of the history of corpus linguistics with a focus on its intimate relationship with digital technology and how digital technology has impacted the very core of corpus linguistics and shaped the identity of the corpus linguist. Ultimately, the article is oriented...

  14. The clinical neuro-ophthalmology of vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashii, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    To diagnose a patient with a failing visual system, it is necessary to localize the site of the lesion in the system, and identify the etiology that has produced it. Physicians do not see diseases but just their manifestations. Clinical neuro-ophthalmology provides the basic principles on how to progress from manifestations to the diseases they indicate. The Frank B. Walsh Neuro-Ophthalmology Society (the Walsh Society) that originated in 1969 in the United States has been the center of clinical neuro-ophthalmology case studies throughout the world. In Japan, the Ronald M. Burde Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology Study Group (the RMB Society) was organized in 2001 to establish and promote a clinicopathologic conference in the style of the Walsh Society. On this occasion, Prof. Burde was invited to the Annual Japanese Ophthalmological Society meeting. Based on some illustrative cases presented at the annual meetings of the RMB society, this review was carried out to present the current knowledge of clinical neuro-ophthalmology. (author)

  15. Learnability and linguistic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozd, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    of the human biological endowment for language in the form of a UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR (UG) (Chomsky, 1965). With respect to experimental design, C&T have strongly maintained that even young children know UG constraints but perform poorly in some experiments-due to the extralinguistic demands associated...... with experimental tasks, particularly those involved in presupposition accommodation and complex response planning. C&T specifically design their experiments to reduce the impact of extralinguistic demands on children's linguistic performance while at the same time providing felicitous environments for adultlike...... performance....

  16. Formal monkey linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean-Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Zuberbühler: The research leading to these results received funding from the European Research Council under ERC grant ‘Prilang 283871’ and also from the Swiss National Science Foundation under grant ‘FN 310030_143359/1’. We argue that rich data gathered in experimental primatology in the last 40 years can benefit from analytical methods used in contemporary linguistics. Focusing on the syntactic and especially semantic side, we suggest that these methods could help clarify five questions:...

  17. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012......). We employ nominal recurrence analysis (Orsucci et al 2005, Dale et al 2011) on the decision-making conversations between the participants. We report strong correlations between various indexes of recurrence and collective performance. We argue this method allows us to quantify the qualities...

  18. Teacher Perceptions of NeuroEducation: A Mixed Methods Survey of Teachers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpati, Lauren; Loughan, Ashlee R.

    2012-01-01

    Pickering and Howard-Jones (2007) reported educators' enthusiasm for NeuroEducation from a sample of teachers attending neuroscience professional development courses. Their results revealed teachers: (1) are enthusiastic about the role of neuroscience in education; (2) believe an understanding of the brain for educational program development is…

  19. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Modeling of UH-60A Pilot Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottapalli, Sesi; Malki, Heidar A.; Langari, Reza

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive neuro-fuzzy relationships have been developed to model the UH-60A Black Hawk pilot floor vertical vibration. A 200 point database that approximates the entire UH-60A helicopter flight envelope is used for training and testing purposes. The NASA/Army Airloads Program flight test database was the source of the 200 point database. The present study is conducted in two parts. The first part involves level flight conditions and the second part involves the entire (200 point) database including maneuver conditions. The results show that a neuro-fuzzy model can successfully predict the pilot vibration. Also, it is found that the training phase of this neuro-fuzzy model takes only two or three iterations to converge for most cases. Thus, the proposed approach produces a potentially viable model for real-time implementation.

  20. MRI in neuro-Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tali, E.T.; Atilla, S.; Keskin, T.; Simonson, T.; Isik, S.; Yuh, W.T.C.

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to characterise specific MRI findings and to determine their value in neuro-Behcet's disease. We examined 17 patients (14 men, 3 women) with neuro-Behcet's disease using T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo images and contrast-enhanced images at 0.5 T. There were 13 patients (76.5 %) who had single or multiple lesions. Most of these were in the basal ganglia, brain stem or deep white matter region, giving high signal on T2-weighted images and isointense or low signal on T1-weighted images. In 3 cases (17.6 %) there was linear high signal along the posterior limb of the internal capsule on T2-weighted images. This was considered as a potential differentiating feature of neuro-Behcet's disease. Contrast-enhancement was seen in 17 lesions in 7 patients. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Comparison between genetic fuzzy system and neuro fuzzy system to select oil wells for hydraulic fracturing; Comparacao entre genetic fuzzy system e neuro fuzzy system para selecao de pocos de petroleo para fraturamento hidraulico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Antonio Orestes de Salvo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The hydraulic fracture operation is wide used to increase the oil wells production and to reduce formation damage. Reservoir studies and engineer analysis are made to select the wells for this kind of operation. As the reservoir parameters have some diffuses characteristics, Fuzzy Inference Systems (SIF) have been tested for this selection processes in the last few years. This paper compares the performance of a neuro fuzzy system and a genetic fuzzy system used for hydraulic Fracture well selection, with knowledge acquisition from an operational data base to set the SIF membership functions. The training data and the validation data used were the same for both systems. We concluded that, in despite of the genetic fuzzy system would be a younger process, it got better results than the neuro fuzzy system. Another conclusion was that, as the genetic fuzzy system can work with constraints, the membership functions setting kept the consistency of variables linguistic values. (author)

  2. A Profile of Neuro-Ophthalmic Practice Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohman, Larry P

    2018-03-01

    To compare contrast neuro-ophthalmic practice in various countries, an 18-question survey was sent to the international North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society (NANOS) members in the spring of 2016. At least 1 NANOS member was contacted for each non-US nation in the NANOS membership roster. If there were multiple NANOS members from 1 country, multiple were contacted. If responses were received from more than 1 person from a single country, the first response received was used as the source data. The survey (in English) was emailed to 47 NANOS members from 31 countries. Twenty responses were received representing members from 15 nations. In all 15 nations, at least half of the neuro-ophthalmologists were trained as ophthalmologists. In 60% of nations, at least half of the neuro-ophthalmologists were trained internally, whereas in 33% of countries, at least half were trained in the United States. The number of physicians who practiced a significant amount of neuro-ophthalmology ranged from low (0.08/million, India) to high (3.10/million, Israel). Countries having the highest percentage of neuro-ophthalmologists exclusively practicing neuro-ophthalmology also were those with better patient access to neuro-ophthalmic care. Requirement of approval to see a neuro-ophthalmologist or for imaging studies requested by neuro-ophthalmologists was not typical. In most nations, academic neuro-ophthalmologists were paid a straight salary. In no nation were neuro-ophthalmologists paid more than another ophthalmic subspecialty. Individual national health care system designs and compensation models have had a profound influence on the rewards and challenges that face neuro-ophthalmologists. There seems to have been a connection between recognition of the discipline, financial rewards of neuro-ophthalmic practice, conditions that permit full-time neuro-ophthalmic practice, and patient access to care. A higher percentage of gross national product for health care did not seem to

  3. Imaging and translational research: neuro degenerative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantraye, P.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in neuroimaging of neuro-degenerative diseases over the past two decades are the product of breakthroughs in imaging technology, more powerful computers, image-processing software, and expanding knowledge in basic and clinical neuro-science. In addition to the insights into normal brain structure and function that such methods provide, and the information that can be gained from disease-related changes in structure and function, functional imaging offers the promise of monitoring brain lesions and quantifying the therapeutic efficacy of innovative treatments for these largely incurable disorders. (author)

  4. Treatment of neuro-ophthalmic sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohman, Larry P

    2015-03-01

    Because of the rarity of neuro-ophthalmic sarcoidosis, there are no therapeutic guidelines based on evidence-based medicine for this disorder. Review of literature combined with personal experience. Corticosteroids are the preferred initial therapy for neuro-ophthalmic sarcoidosis. If patients cannot tolerate the requisite dose of corticosteroid needed to control their disease, or if corticosteroids fail to adequately control the disease process, the choices of a second agent are based on the consideration of rapidity of clinical response and the safety profile. Although methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil are the medications that are often selected after corticosteroid failure, more rapidly acting agents that have been used are infliximab and intravenous cyclophosphamide.

  5. Neuro-oncology of CNS tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment modalities for neuro-oncologic diseases have made considerable advances in recent years. There is hardly a segment of the field of solid tumours that is experiencing such dynamic development with regard to basic scientific findings and clinical results. In the present book the world's leading experts have compiled the current practice-relevant knowledge of neuro-oncologic diseases. The book's clear structure and the uniform presentation of all chapters make this volume a valuable reference, especially for practice-oriented activities, allowing swift access to information about current treatment standards. Hence it will be of great value to both clinicians and researchers. (orig.)

  6. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steinbjørn; Nielsen, Jan; Laursen, René J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively registered data on patients with gliomas since January 2009. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of the DNOR and further to evaluate the database completen......BACKGROUND: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively registered data on patients with gliomas since January 2009. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of the DNOR and further to evaluate the database...

  7. Linguistics and the Literary Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Madeleine

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the opposing viewpoints of the two most influential linguists of this century--Saussure and Chomsky--suggesting that while both are interested in form as opposed to substance, Saussure sees linguistics as a branch of semiotics and Chomsky sees it as part of cognitive psychology. Evaluates the relevance of these two viewpoints to the…

  8. New Conceptualizations of Linguistic Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Adriana; Pawlak, Miroslaw

    2016-01-01

    This state-of-the art paper focuses on the issue of linguistic giftedness, somewhat neglected in the second language acquisition (SLA) literature, attempting to reconceptualize, expand and update this concept in response to latest developments in the fields of psychology, linguistics and neurology. It first discusses contemporary perspectives on…

  9. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mailing Address. Editors SPiL. Department of General Linguistics University of Stellenbosch Private Bag X1 Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch South Africa. Principal Contact. Dr Kate Huddlestone Journal Manager Department of General Linguistics. University of Stellenbosch. Private Bag X1. Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch.

  10. Linguistic Theory and Actual Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerdahl, Par

    1995-01-01

    Examines Noam Chomsky's (1957) discussion of "grammaticalness" and the role of linguistics in the "correct" way of speaking and writing. It is argued that the concern of linguistics with the tools of grammar has resulted in confusion, with the tools becoming mixed up with the actual language, thereby becoming the central…

  11. Linguistics and the TEFL Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Bruce

    This paper asserts the "unquestionable" relevance of linguistic insights in the training of and subsequent use by teachers of English as a foreign language. Although the author agrees with Chomsky's view that linguistics has nothing to offer the teacher in the form of specific proposals for language teaching methodology, he argues that linguistics…

  12. Machine Learning and Applied Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Vajjala, Sowmya

    2018-01-01

    This entry introduces the topic of machine learning and provides an overview of its relevance for applied linguistics and language learning. The discussion will focus on giving an introduction to the methods and applications of machine learning in applied linguistics, and will provide references for further study.

  13. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  14. Writing, Literacy, and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leki, Ilona

    2000-01-01

    Discusses writing and literacy in the domain of applied linguistics. Focus is on needs analysis for literacy acquisition; second language learner identity; longitudinal studies as extensions of identity work; and applied linguistics contributions to second language literacy research. (Author/VWL)

  15. Literacy in Somali: Linguistic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Hared, Mohamed

    1991-01-01

    Linguistic consequences of literacy in Somalia are examined in a review of the literature and through a study of five dimensions of variation among Somali registers and the expansion of linguistic variation in Somali resulting from the introduction of written registers. (36 references) (LB)

  16. Ontological problems of contemporary linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А В Бондаренко

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies linguistic ontology problems such as evolution of essential-existential views of language, interrelation within Being-Language-Man triad, linguistics gnosiological principles, language essence localization, and «expression» as language metalinguistic unit as well as architectonics of language personality et alia.

  17. Concise Lexicon for Sign Linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Jan Nijen Twilhaar; Dr. Beppie van den Bogaerde

    2016-01-01

    This extensive, well-researched and clearly formatted lexicon of a wide variety of linguistic terms is a long overdue. It is an extremely welcome addition to the bookshelves of sign language teachers, interpreters, linguists, learners and other sign language users, and of course of the Deaf

  18. From ‘Hard’ Neuro-Tools to ‘Soft’ Neuro-Toys? : Refocussing the Neuro-Enhancement Debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, Jonna; Zwart, Hub

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990’s, the debate concerning the ethical, legal and societal aspects of ‘neuro-enhancement’ has evolved into a massive discourse, both in the public realm and in the academic arena. This ethical debate, however, tends to repeat the same sets of arguments over and over again. Normative

  19. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... been no introduction and comprehensive study of the field. Volume 1 introduces the field of linguistic dating of biblical texts, particularly to intermediate and advanced students of biblical Hebrew who have a reasonable background in the language, having completed at least an introductory course...... in this volume are: What is it that makes Archaic Biblical Hebrew archaic , Early Biblical Hebrew early , and Late Biblical Hebrew late ? Does linguistic typology, i.e. different linguistic characteristics, convert easily and neatly into linguistic chronology, i.e. different historical origins? A large amount...

  20. Translational research in NeuroAIDS: a neuroimmune pharmacology-related course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda; Shiramizu, Bruce; Nath, Avindra; Wojna, Valerie

    2011-03-01

    Neuroimmune pharmacology (NIP) can be considered a multidisciplinary science where areas of neuroscience, immunology, and pharmacology intersect in neurological disorders. The R25 training program titled "Translational Research in NeuroAIDS and Mental Health (TR-NAMH): An innovative mentoring program to promote diversity in NeuroAIDS Research (R25 MH080661)" at the Johns Hopkins University is a web-based interactive course with the goal to improve the capacity of high quality research by developing mentoring programs for (1) doctoral and postdoctoral candidates and junior faculty from racial and ethnic minorities and (2) non-minority individuals at the same levels, whose research focuses on NeuroAIDS disparity issues such as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). This web-based interactive course overcomes the limitations of traditional education such as access to expert faculty and financial burden of scientists from racial and ethnic minority groups in the field of NeuroAIDS research and NIP and identifies rich nurturing environments for investigators to support their careers. The TR-NAMH program identifies a cadre of talented students and investigators eager to commit to innovative educational and training sessions in NeuroAIDS and NIP. The interplay between NIP changes precipitated by HIV infection in the brain makes the study of HAND an outstanding way to integrate important concepts from these two fields. The course includes activities besides those related to didactic learning such as research training and long-term mentoring; hence, the newly learned topics in NIP are continually reinforced and implemented in real-time experiences. We describe how NIP is integrated in the TR-NAMH program in the context of HAND.

  1. Constructing an XML database of linguistics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J H Kroeze

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A language-oriented, multi-dimensional database of the linguistic characteristics of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament can enable researchers to do ad hoc queries. XML is a suitable technology to transform free text into a database. A clause’s word order can be kept intact while other features such as syntactic and semantic functions can be marked as elements or attributes. The elements or attributes from the XML “database” can be accessed and proces sed by a 4th generation programming language, such as Visual Basic. XML is explored as an option to build an exploitable database of linguistic data by representing inherently multi-dimensional data, including syntactic and semantic analyses of free text.

  2. The linguistically aware teacher and the teacher-aware linguist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Elspeth; Ellis, Sue

    2013-07-01

    This review evaluates issues of teacher linguistic knowledge relating to their work with children with speech, language and communication difficulties (SLCD). Information is from Ellis and McCartney [(2011a). Applied linguistics and primary school teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press], a state-of-the-art text deriving from a British Association of Applied Linguistics/Cambridge University Press expert seminar series that details: linguistic research underpinning primary school curricula and pedagogy; the form of linguistic knowledge useful for teachers supporting children with SLCD in partnership with speech and language therapists; and how and when teachers acquire and learn to apply such knowledge. Critical analysis of the options presented for teacher learning indicate that policy enjoinders now include linguistic application as an expected part of teachers' professional knowledge, for all children including those with SLCD, but there is a large unmet learning need. It is concluded that there is a role for clinical linguists to disseminate useable knowledge to teachers in an accessible format. Ways of achieving this are considered.

  3. Development of PET tracers for neuro inflammation imaging in neuro degenerative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, F.

    2007-10-01

    Inflammatory processes such as micro-glial or endothelial activation are involved in many neuro-degenerative conditions. Neuro-inflammation imaging is considered an attractive tool for fundamental research, diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation in neuro-pathologies. First, an aptamer was selected against a recombinant fragment of the endothelial target VCAM-1, but proved unable to bind the target protein in native conformation, as expressed by a cell line. Second, five radioligands of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), a marker of micro-glial activation, were evaluated in vivo using PET (Positron Emission Tomography) imaging in a rat model of neuro-inflammation, and were compared to [11C]PK11195. Four radiotracers displayed a better contrast than [11C]PK11195. In a competitive field of research, this work demonstrates the efficiency of in vivo screening of radiotracers for fast selection of clinically relevant molecules. (author)

  4. NeuroMind : Past, present, and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubben, Pieter L

    2017-01-01

    This narrative report describes the underlying rationale and technical developments of NeuroMind, a mobile clinical decision support system for neurosurgery. From the perspective of a neurosurgeon - (app) developer it explains how technical progress has shaped the world's "most rated and highest

  5. Neuro-oxidative-nitrosative stress in sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Møller, Kirsten; Bailey, Damian M

    2011-01-01

    Neuro-oxidative-nitrosative stress may prove the molecular basis underlying brain dysfunction in sepsis. In the current review, we describe how sepsis-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) trigger lipid peroxidation chain reactions throughout the cerebrovasculature and surrounding...

  6. Neuro-oncology Thallium 201 interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, M.; Latry, C.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Ducassou, D.; Guerin, J.; Maire, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    So and in spite of its histologic specificity absence, Tl 201 has an evident interest in neuro-oncology: for the low grade astrocytoma transformation diagnosis toward one higher grad; for the neoplasm residue and recidive diagnosis; and more generally as forecasted evolution element during the therapy. 2 figs., 4 tabs., 4 graphs

  7. Intracranial Aneurysms of Neuro-Ophthalmologic Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micieli, Jonathan A; Newman, Nancy J; Barrow, Daniel L; Biousse, Valérie

    2017-12-01

    Intracranial saccular aneurysms are acquired lesions that often present with neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and signs. Recent advances in neurosurgical techniques, endovascular treatments, and neurocritical care have improved the optimal management of symptomatic unruptured aneurysms, but whether the chosen treatment has an impact on neuro-ophthalmologic outcomes remains debated. A review of the literature focused on neuro-ophthalmic manifestations and treatment of intracranial aneurysms with specific relevance to neuro-ophthalmologic outcomes was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Cavernous sinus aneurysms were not included in this review. Surgical clipping vs endovascular coiling for aneurysms causing third nerve palsies was compared in 13 retrospective studies representing 447 patients. Complete recovery was achieved in 78% of surgical patients compared with 44% of patients treated with endovascular coiling. However, the complication rate, hospital costs, and days spent in intensive care were reported as higher in surgically treated patients. Retrospective reviews of surgical clipping and endovascular coiling for all ocular motor nerve palsies (third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerves) revealed similar results of complete resolution in 76% and 49%, respectively. Improvement in visual deficits related to aneurysmal compression of the anterior visual pathways was also better among patients treated with clipping than with coiling. The time to treatment from onset of visual symptoms was a predictive factor of visual recovery in several studies. Few reports have specifically assessed the improvement of visual deficits after treatment with flow diverters. Decisions regarding the choice of therapy for intracranial aneurysms causing neuro-ophthalmologic signs ideally should be made at high-volume centers with access to both surgical and endovascular treatments. The status of the patient, location of the aneurysm, and experience of the treating physicians

  8. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    , Roger M. 1979. Linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge: some doubts and speculation. American Anthropologist 81-1, 14-36. Levinson, Stephen C. 1997. From outer to inner space: linguistic categories and non-linguistic thinking. In J. Nuyts and E. Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization, 13......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional...

  9. Linguistic coding deficits in foreign language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R; Ganschow, L; Pohlman, J

    1989-01-01

    As increasing numbers of colleges and universities require a foreign language for graduation in at least one of their degree programs, reports of students with difficulties in learning a second language are multiplying. Until recently, little research has been conducted to identify the nature of this problem. Recent attempts by the authors have focused upon subtle but ongoing language difficulties in these individuals as the source of their struggle to learn a foreign language. The present paper attempts to expand upon this concept by outlining a theoretical framework based upon a linguistic coding model that hypothesizes deficits in the processing of phonological, syntactic, and/or semantic information. Traditional psychoeducational assessment batteries of standardized intelligence and achievement tests generally are not sensitive to these linguistic coding deficits unless closely analyzed or, more often, used in conjunction with a more comprehensive language assessment battery. Students who have been waived from a foreign language requirement and their proposed type(s) of linguistic coding deficits are profiled. Tentative conclusions about the nature of these foreign language learning deficits are presented along with specific suggestions for tests to be used in psychoeducational evaluations.

  10. LANGUE AND PAROLE IN AMERICAN LINGUISTICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVIN, SAMUEL R.

    THE PROBLEM OF THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE STRUCTURE IS CONSIDERED AND THE FORM WHICH ANY LINGUISTIC DESCRIPTION SHOULD TAKE. THE AUTHOR EXAMINES THE INFLUENCE OF THE SWISS LINGUIST, FERDINAND DE SAUSSURE, ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN LINGUISTICS. THE QUESTION OF "MENTALISM" IN LINGUISTICS IS REDUCED TO THE PROBLEM OF WHETHER LINGUISTIC…

  11. Teaching Hispanic Linguistics: Strategies to Engage Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, Stephanie M.; Gupton, Timothy; Abreau, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Even though many post-secondary institutions offer a variety of Hispanic linguistics classes (Hualde 2006; Lipski 2006), research on the pedagogy of Hispanic linguistics is an underdeveloped or non-existent area of the discipline. Courses in Hispanic linguistics can present not only linguistic challenges for non-native speakers of Spanish, but…

  12. LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between linguistics and second language teaching has always been a controversial one. Many linguists have argued that linguistics has nothing to say to the teacher. Sampson (1980, p.10), for example, says: ·"1 do not believe that linguistics has any contribution to make to the teaching of English or the.

  13. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. Sources of Support. The Department of General Linguistics acknowledges the financial support provided by the Fonds ...

  14. A Neuro-Linguistic Model for Speech Recognition in Tone Language

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim for this work is to develop a speech recognition system that exploits the computational paradigm with learning ability and the inherent robustness and parallelism in ANN coupled with the capability of fuzzy logic to model vagueness, handling uncertainness and support for human reasoning. This research ...

  15. Linguistics: evolution and language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire

    2015-01-05

    Linguists have long identified sound changes that occur in parallel. Now novel research shows how Bayesian modeling can capture complex concerted changes, revealing how evolution of sounds proceeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heritage language and linguistic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence. PMID:26500595

  17. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 42 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 27 (1995) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Gesture Modelling for Linguistic Purposes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivrin, GJ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of sign languages attempts to create a coherent model that binds the expressive nature of signs conveyed in gestures to a linguistic framework. Gesture modelling offers an alternative that provides device independence, scalability...

  20. Is Rorty a linguistic idealist?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marvan, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2011), s. 272-279 ISSN 1210-3055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Rorty * linguistic idealism * internal realism * intrinsic structure of reality * representation Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  1. On the concept of a linguistic variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerre, E.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of a linguistic variable plays a crucial role in the representation of imprecise knowledge in information sciences. A variable is called linguistic as soon as its values are linguistic terms rather than numerical ones. The power of daily communication and common sense reasoning lies in the use of such linguistic values. Even when exact numerical values are available, experts tend to transform these values into linguistic ones. A physician will usually translate a numerical measurement of a blood pressure into linguistic specifications such as normal, very high, too low... Zadeh has argued that the set of values for a linguistic variable assumes a more-or-less fixed structure. Starting from an atomic value and its antonym all remaining values are constructed using logical connectives on the one hand and linguistic hedges on the other hand. In this paper we will describe how to represent the value set of a linguistic variable in general and of linguistic hedges in particular

  2. Esperanza y Vida: A Culturally and Linguistically Customized Breast and Cervical Education Program for Diverse Latinas at Three Different United States Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandorf, Lina; Ellison, Jennie; Shelton, Rachel; Thélémaque, Linda; Castillo, Anabella; Mendez, Elsa Iris; Horowitz, Carol; Treviño, Michelle; Doty, Bonnie; Hannigan, Maria; Aguirre, Elvira; Harfouche-Saad, Frances; Colon, Jomary; Matos, Jody; Pully, Leavonne; Bursac, Zoran; Erwin, Deborah O.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among Latinas in the United States. In addition, Latinas experience a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality compared with non-Hispanic White women. Lower use of breast and cervical cancer screening services may contribute to these disparities. To address the underutilization of breast and cervical cancer screening among diverse subgroups of Latinas, a peer-led education program called Esperanza y Vida (“Hope and Life”) was developed and administered at 3 sites (2 in New York and 1 in Arkansas). Immigrant Latina women and their partners were educated about the importance of breast and cervical cancer screening, with the goals of increasing their knowledge about these cancers and their screening behavior. An analysis of the intervention’s findings at baseline among female participants demonstrated significant sociodemographic, interpersonal, cultural, health care system, and program variability in 3 distinct geographic regions in the United States. These data indicate the need for and feasibility of customizing cancer outreach and educational programs for diverse Latina subgroups living in various U.S. regions, with implications for informing the expansion and replication of the program in other regions of the country. PMID:22059729

  3. Translanguaging Practices as Mobilization of Linguistic Resources in a Spanish/English Bilingual After-School Program: An Analysis of Contradictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Roldán, Carmen María

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the results of an empirical study that examined the translanguaging practices of primary-grade, bilingual Latino students, as mediated by bilingual teacher candidates (TCs), in an after-school program in the southwestern United States. Expansive Learning theory, within the cultural-historical activity tradition, guided the…

  4. Linguistic Characteristics of Advertising English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易高燕

    2010-01-01

    Advertising language takes form under the influence of linguistics,psychology and sociology,etc,and its way of choosing words and building sentences are quite different from normal English.And as a practical language,advertising English has its specific functions,and it has been distinguished from normal English as an independent language,and it has plentiful values.This paper aims to discuss some linguistic characteristics of advertising English.

  5. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  6. Copyright Essentials for Linguists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Newman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses copyright issues that linguists confront in their capacity as users and creators of scholarly work. It is organized in a simple question-answer format. Questions 1-3 present the basics of U.S. copyright law, including the fundamental nature of copyright as a bundle of intellectual property rights and the role of registration. Questions 4-5 treat issues of copyright notice. Questions 6-8 explain licenses, especially Creative Commons licenses, and the function of an Author's Addendum. Questions 9-10 look at copyright in the context of online open access publishing. Question 11 discusses the concept of Fair Use. Question 12 analyzes the problem of what are called Orphan Works. Questions 13-19 explore issues of copyright ownership, including Work for Hire, joint authorship, and attribution. Questions 20-22 deal with copyright with specific reference to fieldwork situations and indigenous rights. The paper concludes with a brief presentation of key sources for further study and clarification.

  7. The new linguistic order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Fishman

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation phenomenon that we are currently seeing has lead to major linguistic changes on a worldwide scale. English has become the leading international language, in economic and political spheres, and is becoming the language of high society and of the young. At the same time, however, regional languages are also making considerable headway, thanks to new social interaction and economic backing from their governments. In turn, and as a result of these two trends, there is impetus for feelings of belonging to local communities which see their language as a sign of their own authenticity, one that has to be defended against the phenomena of globalisation and regionalisation. We are thus heading towards a multilingual society, in which each language has its own, distinct social functions, even though it is inevitable that there will be conflict between the languages that come into contact. In this scenario, the author predicts a loss of hegemony for English, in favour of regional languages, and the future extinction of the least spoken minority languages.

  8. Computational Linguistics Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Piasecki, Maciej; Jassem, Krzysztof; Fuglewicz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing popularity of Google over the recent decade has required a specific method of man-machine communication: human query should be short, whereas the machine answer may take a form of a wide range of documents. This type of communication has triggered a rapid development in the domain of Information Extraction, aimed at providing the asker with a  more precise information. The recent success of intelligent personal assistants supporting users in searching or even extracting information and answers from large collections of electronic documents signals the onset of a new era in man-machine communication – we shall soon explain to our small devices what we need to know and expect valuable answers quickly and automatically delivered. The progress of man-machine communication is accompanied by growth in the significance of applied Computational Linguistics – we need machines to understand much more from the language we speak naturally than it is the case of up-to-date search systems. Moreover, w...

  9. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed the chronol......For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  10. Research in the School of Languages and Linguistics at Griffith University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton-Smith, Ben; Walkinshaw, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Griffith University is set across five campuses in south-east Queensland, Australia, and has a student population of 43,000. The School of Languages and Linguistics (LAL) offers programs in linguistics, international English, Chinese, Italian, Japanese and Spanish, as well as English language enhancement courses. Research strands reflect the…

  11. Clinical Nihilism in Neuro-Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, J. Claude; White, Douglas B.

    2009-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity remain high from neurological emergencies such as acute stroke, traumatic brain injury, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy after cardiac arrest. Decisions regarding initial aggressiveness of care must be made at the time of presentation and perceived prognosis is often used as part of this decision-making process. However, these decisions are predicated on the accuracy of early outcome prediction. Decisions to limit treatment early after neuro-emergencies must be balanced with avoidance of self-fulfilling prophecies of poor outcome due to clinical nihilism. This article examines the role of prognostication early after neuro-emergencies, the potential impact of early treatment limitations, and how these may relate to communication with patients and surrogate decision makers in the context of these acute neurological events. PMID:19218017

  12. Neuro-rejuvenation for neuronal function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Liu; Richard K. Lee

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative eye diseases, such as glaucoma, cause irreversible vision loss in millions of patients worldwide, creating serious medical, economic and social issues. Like other mammalian central nervous system tracts, optic nerve intrinsically lacks the capacity for axonal growth and its surrounding environment is also non-permissive to regeneration. Any axonal damage also triggers a vicious cycle of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Exploring methods that can enhance RGCs survival and promote axonal regeneration will not only enable vision restoration for millions of patients, but also shed light on the treatment of other neurodegenerative diseases. In this review article, we will go through three current approaches to cure neu-rodegenerative eye diseases, including cell based therapy, neuro-regeneration and neuro-rejuvenation.

  13. Neuro-fuzzy Control of Integrating Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vasičkaninová

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy technology is adaptive and easily applicable in different areas.Fuzzy logic provides powerful tools to capture the perceptionof natural phenomena. The paper deals with tuning of neuro-fuzzy controllers for integrating plant and for integrating plantswith time delay. The designed approach is verified on three examples by simulations and compared plants with classical PID control.Designed fuzzy controllers lead to better closed-loop control responses then classical PID controllers.

  14. A groundwork for allostatic neuro-education

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdes, Lee; Tegeler, Charles H.; Lee, Sung W.

    2015-01-01

    We propose to enliven educational practice by marrying a conception of education as guided human development, to an advanced scientific understanding of the brain known as allostasis (stability through change). The result is a groundwork for allostatic neuro-education (GANE). Education as development encompasses practices including the organic (homeschooling and related traditions), cognitive acquisition (emphasis on standards and testing), and the constructivist (aimed to support adaptive cr...

  15. Linguistic and Psycho-Linguistic Principles of Linguadidactics (theoretical interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Mauzienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers linguadidactics being closely related to linguistics, psychology, psycholinguistics and didactics and applies their theoretical statements and regularities in its scientific studies. Methodology refers to linguistics which investigates the language as a teaching subject. Methodology is linked to psychology in two ways. First of all, it is based on psychology as the teaching process is an intellectual psychical act and its regularities are necessary to know. On the other hand, methodology applies rules of pedagogy that predicts ways of learning and development of language skills. The article emphasizes that sustainable work experience and analysis of scientific research show that teaching process is more effective if consistent patterns of linguistics and psychology are appropriately applied.

  16. Linguistic Intuitions and Cognitive Penetrability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Devitt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalinguistic intuitions play a very large evidential role in both linguistics and philosophy. Linguists think that these intuitions are products of underlying linguistic competence. I call this view “the voice of competence” (“VoC”. Although many philosophers seem to think that metalinguistic intuitions are a priori many may implicitly hold the more scientifically respectable VoC. According to VoC, I argue, these intuitions can be cognitively penetrated by the central processor. But, I have argued elsewhere, VoC is false. Instead, we should hold “the modest explanation” (“ME” according to which these intuitions are fairly unreflective empirical theory-laden central-processor responses to phenomena. On ME, no question of cognitive penetration arises. ME has great methodological significance for the study of language. Insofar as we rely on intuitions as evidence we should prefer those of linguists and philosophers because they are more expert. But, more importantly, we should be seeking other evidence in linguistic usage.

  17. The Linguistic Memory of Composition and the Rhetoric and Composition PhD: Forgetting (and Remembering) Language and Language Difference in Doctoral Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilfoil, Carrie Byars

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the decline of linguistics in rhetoric and composition PhD programs in terms of the "linguistic memory" (Trimbur) of composition. Since the field of linguistics once offered the primary means for composition to address the structural, psychological, sociohistorical, and cultural dimensions of language in student…

  18. Reaching Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Young Learners with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Susanne D.; Ames, Margery E.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how cross-over training and a whole-school approach help preschool educators assist disabled students who have not yet acquired their native language, examining New York's English-as-a Second-Language/Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Training Program for Pre-K Special Education Personnel, which trains preschool personnel to meet…

  19. A neuro-immune, neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative model of prenatal and postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roomruangwong, Chutima; Anderson, George; Berk, Michael; Stoyanov, Drozdstoy; Carvalho, André F; Maes, Michael

    2018-02-02

    A large body of evidence indicates that major affective disorders are accompanied by activated neuro-immune, neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways. Postpartum depression is predicted by end of term prenatal depressive symptoms whilst a lifetime history of mood disorders appears to increase the risk for both prenatal and postpartum depression. This review provides a critical appraisal of available evidence linking IO&NS pathways to prenatal and postpartum depression. The electronic databases Google Scholar, PubMed and Scopus were sources for this narrative review focusing on keywords, including perinatal depression, (auto)immune, inflammation, oxidative, nitric oxide, nitrosative, tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), kynurenine, leaky gut and microbiome. Prenatal depressive symptoms are associated with exaggerated pregnancy-specific changes in IO&NS pathways, including increased C-reactive protein, advanced oxidation protein products and nitric oxide metabolites, lowered antioxidant levels, such as zinc, as well as lowered regulatory IgM-mediated autoimmune responses. The latter pathways coupled with lowered levels of endogenous anti-inflammatory compounds, including ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, may also underpin the pathophysiology of postpartum depression. Although increased bacterial translocation, lipid peroxidation and TRYCAT pathway activation play a role in mood disorders, similar changes do not appear to be relevant in perinatal depression. Some IO&NS biomarker characteristics of mood disorders are found in prenatal depression indicating that these pathways partly contribute to the association of a lifetime history of mood disorders and perinatal depression. However, available evidence suggests that some IO&NS pathways differ significantly between perinatal depression and mood disorders in general. This review provides a new IO&NS model of prenatal and postpartum depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. COGNITIVE METAPHOR IN MODERN LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina KARTASHOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the basic notions connected with cognitive metaphor which has lately undergone a thorough examination. The contribution made by linguists resulted in the rise of cognitive linguistics. This science regards metaphor not as a linguistic phenomenon but as a mental one that establishes connection between language and mind in the form of understanding new notions in terms of notions and categories known due to the previously gained experience. The interaction of new and previous experience can generate three main types of metaphors: structural metaphors which imply the structuring of target domain in terms of source domain, ontological metaphors which view abstract notions as concrete objects with clear outlines and orientational metaphors which represent the ways to fix the experience of spatial orientation. The classification of metaphors complemented with examples is presented below along with some controversial cases of determining the type of metaphor.

  1. Linguistics, human communication and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P; Fraser, W

    1994-11-01

    Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics have extended our understanding of the abnormal communication seen in psychosis, as well as that of people with autism and Asperger's syndrome. Psycholinguistics has the potential to increase the explanatory power of cognitive and neuropsychological approaches to psychosis and new methods of assessment and therapy are now being developed, based on linguistic theory. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Of 205 relevant articles identified, 65 were selected for review. Greater familiarity with linguistic theory could improve psychiatrists' assessment skills and their understanding of the relevance of human communication to the new cognitive models of psychosis.

  2. BEASTling: A software tool for linguistic phylogenetics using BEAST 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Maurits

    Full Text Available We present a new open source software tool called BEASTling, designed to simplify the preparation of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of linguistic data using the BEAST 2 platform. BEASTling transforms comparatively short and human-readable configuration files into the XML files used by BEAST to specify analyses. By taking advantage of Creative Commons-licensed data from the Glottolog language catalog, BEASTling allows the user to conveniently filter datasets using names for recognised language families, to impose monophyly constraints so that inferred language trees are backward compatible with Glottolog classifications, or to assign geographic location data to languages for phylogeographic analyses. Support for the emerging cross-linguistic linked data format (CLDF permits easy incorporation of data published in cross-linguistic linked databases into analyses. BEASTling is intended to make the power of Bayesian analysis more accessible to historical linguists without strong programming backgrounds, in the hopes of encouraging communication and collaboration between those developing computational models of language evolution (who are typically not linguists and relevant domain experts.

  3. BEASTling: A software tool for linguistic phylogenetics using BEAST 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, Robert; Kaiping, Gereon A.; Atkinson, Quentin D.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new open source software tool called BEASTling, designed to simplify the preparation of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of linguistic data using the BEAST 2 platform. BEASTling transforms comparatively short and human-readable configuration files into the XML files used by BEAST to specify analyses. By taking advantage of Creative Commons-licensed data from the Glottolog language catalog, BEASTling allows the user to conveniently filter datasets using names for recognised language families, to impose monophyly constraints so that inferred language trees are backward compatible with Glottolog classifications, or to assign geographic location data to languages for phylogeographic analyses. Support for the emerging cross-linguistic linked data format (CLDF) permits easy incorporation of data published in cross-linguistic linked databases into analyses. BEASTling is intended to make the power of Bayesian analysis more accessible to historical linguists without strong programming backgrounds, in the hopes of encouraging communication and collaboration between those developing computational models of language evolution (who are typically not linguists) and relevant domain experts. PMID:28796784

  4. On Norms and Linguistic Categories in Linguistic Diversity Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Due to globalization there is an increase in the appearances of languages in the multilingual linguistic landscape in urban spaces. Commentators have described this state of affairs as super-, mega- or complex diversity. Mainstream sociolinguists have argued that languages have no fixed boundaries

  5. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  6. Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development. Miami Linguistics Series No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Humboldt, Wilhelm

    Although this edition of Wilhelm von Humboldt's "Linguistic Variability and Intellectual Development" is based entirely on the original German edition, the translators (George C. Buck and Frithjof A. Raven) and the publisher have attempted to clarify certain aspects of this work for the modern-day reader. These features include the addition of…

  7. [To strengthen the education on basic knowledge and skills of neuro-ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Ning-li

    2011-12-01

    Basic knowledge and skills are cornerstone of the diagnosis and treatment of neuro-ophthalmology diseases in ophthalmology practice. Due to the interdisciplinary features of neuro-ophthalmology, neuro-anatomy, neuro-physiology related to eyes, neuro-image and neuro-electrodiagnosis, these should be included in the education for the ophthalmologist. Special attention should be paid to training on capability of logically thinking in neuro-ophthalmology. Multiple ways can be used for the education of ophthalmologists and neurologists for the enhancement of basic knowledge and skills of neuro-ophthalmology in China.

  8. Neuro-epistemology: a post-modernist analysis of the neuro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the theoretical framework in which we construct our terms of reference when examining patients from an integrated Meyerian biopsychosocial perspective. We coin the term iยDneuro-epistemologylo, defining the frame for scientific inquiry into the nature and status of knowledge in neuro-sciences, ...

  9. ALGORITAMSKA I HEURISTIČKA OBRADA LEKSIČKIH PODATAKA U RAČUNALNOM PREVODIOCU NeuroTran

    OpenAIRE

    Končar, Nenad; Šipka, Danko

    1998-01-01

    Obrada leksičkih podataka (u najširem mogućem značenju tog termina) u računalnom prevodiocu NeuroTran vrši se na osnovi pravila pod nazivom gramatika minimalne informacije (skraceno MIG, po engleskoj skraćenici za Minimal Information Grammar). Tri ideje u osnovi su programa NeuroTran i MIG-a. Prva postulira da treba minimalizirati informaciju potrebnu programu da radi, a da nove informacije program treba usvajati čitajući tekstove i komunicirajući s korisnicima, koristeći pri tom neuronske mr...

  10. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Steinbjørn Hansen Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital and Institute of Clinical Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Aim of database: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR was established by the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group as a national clinical database. It was established for the purpose of supporting research and development in adult patients with primary brain tumors in Denmark. Study population: DNOR has registered clinical data on diagnostics and treatment of all adult patients diagnosed with glioma since January 1, 2009, which numbers approximately 400 patients each year. Main variables: The database contains information about symptoms, presurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI characteristics, performance status, surgical procedures, residual tumor on postsurgical MRI, postsurgical complications, diagnostic and histology codes, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Descriptive data: DNOR publishes annual reports on descriptive data. During the period of registration, postoperative MRI is performed in a higher proportion of the patients (Indicator II, and a higher proportion of patients have no residual tumor after surgical resection of the primary tumor (Indicator IV. Further data are available in the annual reports. The indicators reflect only minor elements of handling brain tumor patients. Another advantage of reporting indicators is the related multidisciplinary discussions giving a better understanding of what actually is going on, thereby facilitating the work on adjusting the national guidelines in the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group. Conclusion: The establishment of DNOR has optimized the quality in handling primary brain tumor patients in Denmark by reporting indicators and facilitating a better multidisciplinary collaboration at a national level. DNOR provides a valuable resource for research. Keywords: brain neoplasms, brain cancer, glioma, clinical quality indicators

  11. Development of an Integrated Subspecialist Multidisciplinary Neuro-oncology Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephen J; Guilfoyle, Mathew; J Jefferies, Sarah; Harris, Fiona; Oberg, Ingela; G Burnet, Neil; Santarius, Thomas; Watts, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the poor outcome for patients with malignant brain tumours led to therapeutic nihilism. In turn, this resulted in lack of interest in neurosurgical oncology subspecialisation, and less than ideal patient pathways. One problem of concern was the low rate of tumour resection. Between 1997 and 2006, 685 treated glioblastomas were identified. In the first four years only 40% of patients underwent tumour resection, rising to 55% in the last four years. Before revision of the pathway, the median length of hospital stay was 8 days, and 35% of patients received the results of their histology outside of a clinic setting. A pathway of care was established, in which all patients were discussed pre-operatively in an MDT meeting and then directed into a new surgical neuro-oncology clinic providing first point of contact. This limited the number of surgeons operating on adult glioma patients and aided recruitment into research studies. Now, three consultant neurosurgeons run this service, easily fulfilling IOG requirement to spend >50% of programmed activities in neuro-oncology. Nursing support has been critical to provide an integrated service. This model has allowed increased recruitment to clinical trials. The introduction of this service led to an increase in patients discussed pre-operatively in an MDT (66% rising to 87%; P=0.027), an increase in the rate of surgical resection (from 40% to 80%) and more patients being admitted electively (from 25% to 80%; P<0.001). There was a reduction in the median length of stay (8 days reduced to 4.5 days; P<0.001). For the cohort of GBM patients that went on to have chemoradiotherapy we improved median survival to 18 months, with 35% of patients alive at two years, comparable to international outcomes. Implementing a specialist neurosurgical oncology service begins with understanding the patient care pathway. Our patients have benefitted from the culture of subspecialisation and the excellent inter-disciplinary working

  12. Neuro-Inspired Computing with Stochastic Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Naous, Rawan

    2016-01-06

    The extensive scaling and integration within electronic systems have set the standards for what is addressed to as stochastic electronics. The individual components are increasingly diverting away from their reliable behavior and producing un-deterministic outputs. This stochastic operation highly mimics the biological medium within the brain. Hence, building on the inherent variability, particularly within novel non-volatile memory technologies, paves the way for unconventional neuromorphic designs. Neuro-inspired networks with brain-like structures of neurons and synapses allow for computations and levels of learning for diverse recognition tasks and applications.

  13. Pediatric neuro MRI. Tricks to minimize sedation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkovich, Matthew J.; Desikan, Rahul S. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Xu, Duan; Barkovich, A.J. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF-Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Williams, Cassandra [UCSF-Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2018-01-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the workhorse modality in pediatric neuroimaging because it provides excellent soft-tissue contrast without ionizing radiation. Until recently, studies were uninterpretable without sedation; however, given development of shorter sequences, sequences that correct for motion, and studies showing the potentially deleterious effects of sedation on immature laboratory animals, it is prudent to minimize sedation when possible. This manuscript provides basic guidelines for performing pediatric neuro MRI without sedation by both modifying technical factors to reduce scan time and noise, and using a multi-disciplinary team to coordinate imaging with the patient's biorhythms. (orig.)

  14. Authenticity anyone? : the enhancement of emotions via neuro-psychopharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraemer, U.A.F.

    2011-01-01

    This article will examine how the notion of emotional authenticity is intertwined with the notions of naturalness and artificiality in the context of the recent debates about ‘neuro-enhancement’ and ‘neuro-psychopharmacology.’ In the philosophy of mind, the concept of authenticity plays a key role

  15. Roles of neuro-exocytotic proteins at the neuromuscular junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sons-Michel, Michèle S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in the thesis was to elucidate the roles of several neuro-exocytotic proteins at the motor nerve terminal in neuromuscular synaptic transmission, making use of genetic knockout (KO) mice, each missing one (or more) neuro-exocytotic proteins. In addition, it was

  16. Clinical Linguistics--Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwell, Pamela

    In the past 20 years, linguistics has gained a prominent position in speech and language pathology in Britain, evolving into a new field, clinical linguistics. It includes three related areas of activity: training of speech pathologists/therapists; professional practice; and research. Linguistics and speech/language pathology have developed as…

  17. Quantitative Research in Systemic Functional Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingshun

    2018-01-01

    The research of Systemic Functional Linguistics has been quite in-depth in both theory and practice. However, many linguists hold that Systemic Functional Linguistics has no hypothesis testing or experiments and its research is only qualitative. Analyses of the corpus, intelligent computing and language evolution on the ideological background of…

  18. Evaluating automatically annotated treebanks for linguistic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Bański, P.; Kupietz, M.; Lüngen, H.; Witt, A.; Barbaresi, A.; Biber, H.; Breiteneder, E.; Clematide, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses evaluation methods for linguists to use when employing an automatically annotated treebank as a source of linguistic evidence. While treebanks are usually evaluated with a general measure over all the data, linguistic studies often focus on a particular construction or a group

  19. The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Haspelmath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics provide a style sheet that can be used by any linguistics journal or edited book, or for teaching purposes. They regulate aspects of text-structure style such as typographic highlighting, citation style, use of capitalization, and bibliographic style (based on the LSA's Unified Stylesheet for linguistics).

  20. Critical and Alternative Directions in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Critical directions in applied linguistics can be understood in various ways. The term "critical" as it has been used in "critical applied linguistics," "critical discourse analysis," "critical literacy" and so forth, is now embedded as part of applied linguistic work, adding an overt focus on questions of power and inequality to discourse…

  1. Interdisciplinarity in pragmatics and linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mey, Jacob L.

    2017-01-01

    At the Second International Conference ‘Zeichen und System der Sprache’ (Magdeburg, September 1964), a certain East German professor took the floor during a discussion of one of the linguistic presentations. He started his comments by saying: ‘Als Mathematiker weiß ich zwar von der Sache nichts...

  2. Fuzzy linguistic model for interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasbandy, S.; Adabitabar Firozja, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy method for interpolating of smooth curves was represented. We present a novel approach to interpolate real data by applying the universal approximation method. In proposed method, fuzzy linguistic model (FLM) applied as universal approximation for any nonlinear continuous function. Finally, we give some numerical examples and compare the proposed method with spline method

  3. Desiderata for Linguistic Software Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garretson, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a series of guidelines both for researchers in search of software to be used in linguistic analysis and for programmers designing such software. A description of the intended audience and the types of software under consideration and a review of some relevant literature are followed by a discussion of several important…

  4. Saussurean structuralism and cognitive linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elffers, E.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive linguistics (CL) is often regarded as a continuation of Saussurean structuralism. This paper explores the relationship between the two paradigms, focussing on the connection between semantics and views on the language-thought relationship. As it turns out, the similarity in this respect

  5. Formal monkey linguistics : The debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413333450; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We explain why general techniques from formal linguistics can and should be applied to the analysis of monkey communication - in the areas of syntax and especially semantics. An informed look at our recent proposals shows that such techniques needn't rely excessively on categories of human language:

  6. Pairing Linguistic and Music Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiEdwardo, MaryAnn Pasda

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how music in the language classroom setting can be a catalyst for developing reading, writing, and understanding skills. Studies suggest that pairing music and linguistic intelligences in the college classroom improves students' grades and abilities to compose theses statements for research papers in courses that emphasize…

  7. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The SPiL Plus series has two main aims. Firstly, it serves as a vehicle for the distribution of new and relatively inaccessible information in the field of modern linguistics. Secondly, it aims to stimulate critical discussion in Southern African ...

  8. 140 CIRCULAR INTERACTION BETWEEN LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economy. Although a country or administrative district should have one or more official languages for obvious reasons, Nelde (1991) proposes that the ... circular interaction between linguistic departments and language departments. Finding an answer to' Plato's abovementioned problem entails that as many languages as ...

  9. Applied Linguistics Research on Asianness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    As China is increasingly occupying the world's attention, its explosively expanding economical and political clout has also been felt in the applied linguistics domain, with the discussion on China's/Chinese language issues growing by leaps and bounds (e.g. China's English education policies, Chinese language classes in the West). Amid the world's…

  10. Applied Linguistics in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard

    This paper traces the three major developmental strands that converged to contribute to the definition of the applied linguistics field in the Philippines: the institution and capacity-building work supported by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations; the forging of a vibrant consortium among three Filipino institutions of higher education to offer…

  11. Accelerating Translational Research through Open Science: The Neuro Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, E Richard

    2016-12-01

    Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro) announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science-open data, open materials, and no patenting-across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro's Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro's institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro's approach to exploring them.

  12. Accelerating Translational Research through Open Science: The Neuro Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Richard Gold

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science-open data, open materials, and no patenting-across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro's Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro's institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro's approach to exploring them.

  13. A Fuzzy Linguistic Methodology to Deal With Unbalanced Linguistic Term Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, F.; Herrera-Viedma, Enrique; Martinez, L.

    2008-01-01

    Many real problems dealing with qualitative aspects use linguistic approaches to assess such aspects. In most of these problems, a uniform and symmetrical distribution of the linguistic term sets for linguistic modeling is assumed. However, there exist problems whose assessments need to be represented by means of unbalanced linguistic term sets, i.e., using term sets that are not uniformly and symmetrically distributed. The use of linguistic variables implies processes of computing with words...

  14. Neuro-pharmacological functional MRI of epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiriyama, Hideki; Makabe, Tetsuo; Tomita, Susumu; Omoto, Takashi; Asari, Shoji [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Aihara, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Nishimoto, Akira; Ito, Takahiko

    2000-03-01

    We studied patients with epilepsy by neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam. Five normal volunteers and 7 patients with epilepsy were investigated. MRI was performed by a 1.5 T unit (SIGNA Horizon, GE) using the following parameters: TR/TE 5000 msec/80 msec, FA 90 deg, FOV 200 mm, matrix 128 x 128, slice thickness 7 mm. We performed MRI scanning over 5 minutes (2 minutes before and 3 minutes after injection of diazepam) for each 1 session; we scanned 3 sessions for each patient at intervals of 5 minutes. The diazepam was injected rapidly from the antecubital vein. The dose of diazepam was 0.05 mg/kg/injection (total dose was 0.15 mg/kg). The data were analyzed statistically using t-test. Signal change after administration of diazepam was less than 1 to 2% in healthy volunteers. By contrast, in patient with epilepsy, the signal change was almost 3%, which was significantly greater than that of the normal area (p=0.01). The neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam might be a useful method to identify epileptic foci. (author)

  15. Neuro-pharmacological functional MRI of epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Hideki; Makabe, Tetsuo; Tomita, Susumu; Omoto, Takashi; Asari, Shoji; Aihara, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Nishimoto, Akira; Ito, Takahiko

    2000-01-01

    We studied patients with epilepsy by neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam. Five normal volunteers and 7 patients with epilepsy were investigated. MRI was performed by a 1.5 T unit (SIGNA Horizon, GE) using the following parameters: TR/TE 5000 msec/80 msec, FA 90 deg, FOV 200 mm, matrix 128 x 128, slice thickness 7 mm. We performed MRI scanning over 5 minutes (2 minutes before and 3 minutes after injection of diazepam) for each 1 session; we scanned 3 sessions for each patient at intervals of 5 minutes. The diazepam was injected rapidly from the antecubital vein. The dose of diazepam was 0.05 mg/kg/injection (total dose was 0.15 mg/kg). The data were analyzed statistically using t-test. Signal change after administration of diazepam was less than 1 to 2% in healthy volunteers. By contrast, in patient with epilepsy, the signal change was almost 3%, which was significantly greater than that of the normal area (p=0.01). The neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam might be a useful method to identify epileptic foci. (author)

  16. Brain stem type neuro-Behcet's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Satoshi; Hirose, Genjiro; Kosoegawa, Hiroshi; Oda, Rokuhei; Yoshioka, Akira

    1987-01-01

    Two cases of brain stem type Neuro-Behcet's syndrome were evaluated by brain CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Super-conducting type, 0.5 tesla) to correlate with the neurological findings. In the acute phase, low density area with peripheral enhancement effect and mass effect were seen at the brain stem in brain CT. MRI revealed a extensive high intensity signal area mainly involving the corticospinal tract in the meso-diencephalon as well as pons by T 2 weighted images (spin echo, TR = 1, 600 msec, TE = 90 msec) and the value of T 1 , T 2 , at the brain stem lesion were prolonged moderately. After high dose steroid treatment, the low density area in brain CT and high signal area in MRI were gradually reduced in its size. Peripheral enhancement effect in brain CT disappeared within 10 months in case 1, one month in the other case. In the chronic stage, the reduction of low density area and atrophy of brain stem were noted in brain CT. The lesion in chronic stage had low intensity in T 1 , T 2 weighted images and the T 1 , T 2 values at the lesion were mildly prolonged in MRI. Sequentially CT with enhancement and MRI examinations with T 1 , T 2 weighted images were useful to detect the lesion and to evaluate the activity, evolution of brain stem type Neuro-Behcet's syndrome. (author)

  17. Updates from the 2013 Society for Neuro-Oncology annual and World Federation for Neuro-Oncology quadrennial meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Rimas V; Amidei, Christina

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of a number of key clinical studies in infiltrating gliomas presented at the 2013 Society for Neuro-Oncology and World Federation of Neuro-Oncology joint meeting. This review focuses on efficacy results, including quality of life studies, from larger clinical trials in both high- and low-grade infiltrating gliomas.

  18. A neuro-fuzzy model for prediction of the indoor temperature in typical Australian residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alasha' ary, Haitham; Moghtaderi, Behdad; Page, Adrian; Sugo, Heber [Priority Research Centre for Energy, Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    The Masonry Research Group at The University of Newcastle, Australia has embarked on an extensive research program to study the thermal performance of common walling systems in Australian residential buildings by studying the thermal behaviour of four representative purpose-built thermal test buildings (referred to as 'test modules' or simply 'modules' hereafter). The modules are situated on the university campus and are constructed from brick veneer (BV), cavity brick (CB) and lightweight (LW) constructions. The program of study has both experimental and analytical strands, including the use of a neuro-fuzzy approach to predict the thermal behaviour. The latter approach employs an experimental adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) which is used in this study to predict the room (indoor) temperatures of the modules under a range of climatic conditions pertinent to Newcastle (NSW, Australia). The study shows that this neuro-fuzzy model is capable of accurately predicting the room temperature of such buildings; thus providing a potential computationally efficient and inexpensive predictive tool for the more effective thermal design of housing. (author)

  19. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc.), but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten , or Turkish korkmak 'fear, be afraid' and korkutmak 'frighten, scare', or Finnish istua 'sit' and istutta 'seat (someone)', or Spanish sentarse 'sit down' and sentar 'seat (someone)' is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where 'seat' is derived from 'sit' by addition of a suffix-is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.

  20. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Nichols; Johanna Nichols; Johanna Nichols

    2018-01-01

    An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an e...

  1. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Nichols

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc., but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten, or Turkish korkmak ‘fear, be afraid’ and korkutmak ‘frighten, scare’, or Finnish istua ‘sit’ and istutta ‘seat (someone’, or Spanish sentarse ‘sit down’ and sentar ‘seat (someone’ is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where ‘seat’ is derived from ‘sit’ by addition of a suffix—is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.

  2. Video-Teleconferencing in Pediatric Neuro-Oncology: Ten Years of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Amayiri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The management of central nervous system tumors is challenging in low- and middle-income countries. Little is known about applicability of twinning initiatives with high-income countries in neuro-oncology. In 2004, a monthly neuro-oncology video-teleconference program was started between King Hussein Cancer Center (Amman, Jordan and the Hospital for Sick Children (Toronto, Ontario, Canada. More than 100 conferences were held and > 400 cases were discussed. The aim of this work was to assess the sustainability of such an initiative and the evolution of the impact over time. Methods: We divided the duration in to three eras according to the initial 2 to 3 years of work of three consecutive oncologists in charge of the neuro-oncology program at King Hussein Cancer Center. We retrospectively reviewed the written minutes and compared the preconference suggested plans with the postconference recommendations. Impact of changes on the patient care was recorded. Results: Thirty-three sets of written minutes (covering 161 cases in the middle era and 32 sets of written minutes (covering 122 cases in the last era were compared with the initial experience (20 meetings, 72 cases. Running costs of these conferences has dropped from $360/h to < $40/h. Important concepts were introduced, such as multidisciplinary teamwork, second-look surgery, and early referral. Suggestions for plan changes have decreased from 44% to 30% and 24% in the respective consecutive eras. Most recommendations involved alternative intervention modalities or pathology review. Most of these recommendations were followed. Conclusion: Video-teleconferencing in neuro-oncology is feasible and sustainable. With time, team experience is built while the percentage and the type of treatment modifications change. Commitment and motivation helped maintain this initiative rather than availability of financial resources. Improvement in patients’ care was achieved, in particular, with the

  3. A neuro-fuzzy inference system for sensor monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun

    2001-01-01

    A neuro-fuzzy inference system combined with the wavelet denoising, PCA (principal component analysis) and SPRT (sequential probability ratio test) methods has been developed to monitor the relevant sensor using the information of other sensors. The paramters of the neuro-fuzzy inference system which estimates the relevant sensor signal are optimized by a genetic algorithm and a least-squares algorithm. The wavelet denoising technique was applied to remove noise components in input signals into the neuro-fuzzy system. By reducing the dimension of an input space into the neuro-fuzzy system without losing a significant amount of information, the PCA was used to reduce the time necessary to train the neuro-fuzzy system, simplify the structure of the neuro-fuzzy inference system and also, make easy the selection of the input signals into the neuro-fuzzy system. By using the residual signals between the estimated signals and the measured signals, the SPRT is applied to detect whether the sensors are degraded or not. The proposed sensor-monitoring algorithm was verified through applications to the pressurizer water level, the pressurizer pressure, and the hot-leg temperature sensors in pressurized water reactors

  4. The human resource crisis in neuro-ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohman, Larry P

    2008-09-01

    Neuro-ophthalmology is facing a serious human resource issue. Few are entering the subspecialty, which is perceived as being poorly compensated compared with other subspecialties of ophthalmology. The low compensation comes from the fact that 1) non-procedural encounters remain undervalued, 2) efforts that benefit other medical specialists are not counted, and 3) the relatively low expenses of neuro-ophthalmologists are not factored into compensation formulas. Mission-based budgeting, which forces academic departments to be financially accountable without the expectation of fiscal relief from medical schools or practice plans, has exacerbated the compensation issue. Solutions must come from within neuro-ophthalmology, academic departments, medical schools, and medical practice plans. They include 1) providing educational resources so that neuro-ophthalmologists need not spend so much time teaching the basics, 2) factoring into compensation the impact of neuro-ophthalmologists in teaching and on revenue generation by procedure-based specialists, 3) improving the efficiency of neuro-ophthalmologists in their consultative practices by providing ample clerical support and other measures, 4) providing contractual salary compensation by departments such as neurosurgery to recognize the contributions made by neuro-ophthalmologists, and 5) reorganizing the academic clinical effort as multidisciplinary rather than departmental.

  5. The neurogenic factor NeuroD1 is expressed in post-mitotic cells during juvenile and adult Xenopus neurogenesis and not in progenitor or radial glial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Anne D'Amico

    Full Text Available In contrast to mammals that have limited proliferation and neurogenesis capacities, the Xenopus frog exhibit a great potential regarding proliferation and production of new cells in the adult brain. This ability makes Xenopus a useful model for understanding the molecular programs required for adult neurogenesis. Transcriptional factors that control adult neurogenesis in vertebrate species undergoing widespread neurogenesis are unknown. NeuroD1 is a member of the family of proneural genes, which function during embryonic neurogenesis as a potent neuronal differentiation factor. Here, we study in detail the expression of NeuroD1 gene in the juvenile and adult Xenopus brains by in situ hybridization combined with immunodetections for proliferation markers (PCNA, BrdU or in situ hybridizations for cell type markers (Vimentin, Sox2. We found NeuroD1 gene activity in many brain regions, including olfactory bulbs, pallial regions of cerebral hemispheres, preoptic area, habenula, hypothalamus, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. We also demonstrated by double staining NeuroD1/BrdU experiments, after long post-BrdU administration survival times, that NeuroD1 gene activity was turned on in new born neurons during post-metamorphic neurogenesis. Importantly, we provided evidence that NeuroD1-expressing cells at this brain developmental stage were post-mitotic (PCNA- cells and not radial glial (Vimentin+ or progenitors (Sox2+ cells.

  6. A primer in macromolecular linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, David B

    2013-03-01

    Polymeric macromolecules, when viewed abstractly as strings of symbols, can be treated in terms of formal language theory, providing a mathematical foundation for characterizing such strings both as collections and in terms of their individual structures. In addition this approach offers a framework for analysis of macromolecules by tools and conventions widely used in computational linguistics. This article introduces the ways that linguistics can be and has been applied to molecular biology, covering the relevant formal language theory at a relatively nontechnical level. Analogies between macromolecules and human natural language are used to provide intuitive insights into the relevance of grammars, parsing, and analysis of language complexity to biology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English le...... the economic and geopolitical agenda behind this English teaching business, there is clear evidence of linguistic imperialism in the functions of this global professional service. These activities serve to strengthen Western interests.......An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English...... learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...

  8. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    on applied CA, the application of basic CA's principles, methods, and findings to the study of social domains and practices that are interactionally constituted. We consider three strands—foundational, social problem oriented, and institutional applied CA—before turning to recent developments in CA research...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  9. Phonotactics in inductive logic programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nerbonne, J.; Konstantopoulos, S.; Klopotek, M.A.; Wierzchon, S.T.; Trojanowski, K.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the results of applying inductive logic programming (ILP) to a relatively simple linguistic task, that of recognizing monosyllables in one language. ILP is suited to linguistic problems given linguists' preference for formulating their theories in discrete rules, and because of ILP's

  10. Structure of neuro-endocrine and neuro-epithelial interactions in human foetal pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivova, Yuliya; Proshchina, Alexandra; Barabanov, Valeriy; Leonova, Olga; Saveliev, Sergey

    2016-12-01

    In the pancreas of many mammals including humans, endocrine islet cells can be integrated with the nervous system components into neuro-insular complexes. The mechanism of the formation of such complexes is not clearly understood. The present study evaluated the interactions between the nervous system components, epithelial cells and endocrine cells in the human pancreas. Foetal pancreas, gestational age 19-23 weeks (13 cases) and 30-34 weeks (7 cases), were studied using double immunohistochemical labeling with neural markers (S100 protein and beta III tubulin), epithelial marker (cytokeratin 19 (CK19)) and antibodies to insulin and glucagon. We first analyse the structure of neuro-insular complexes using confocal microscopy and provide immunohistochemical evidences of the presence of endocrine cells within the ganglia or inside the nerve bundles. We showed that the nervous system components contact with the epithelial cells located in ducts or in clusters outside the ductal epithelium and form complexes with separate epithelial cells. We observed CK19-positive cells inside the ganglia and nerve bundles which were located separately or were integrated with the islets. Therefore, we conclude that neuro-insular complexes may forms as a result of integration between epithelial cells and nervous system components at the initial stages of islets formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Movie Legally Multiplex Heralded As Linchpin To Growth The Shape of Cinema , Transformed At the Click of a Mouse A Peaceful Crew Puts Muppets...Linguistic Representation of Multiple Languages The formalism of WordNet has been applied to many languages from different language families, e.g. Japanese ...could be also share information gleaned from 100 reviews on Amazon.com’s Japanese and German language sites. 6.2.3 Learning Deeper Structures and Testing

  12. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The “un-Cartesian” cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where “thinking” takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith’s theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the “second factor” in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs. PMID:27322493

  13. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The "un-Cartesian" cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where "thinking" takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith's theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the "second factor" in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs.

  14. Valuation for magnetic resonance of neuro tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar c, Guillermo; Delgado, Jorge A; Toro Nancy

    1997-01-01

    The increased incidence of neuro tuberculosis (NTB), due to the world epidemic of resistant strains and AIDS, has made of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging the study of choice for the early detection of lesions that lead the clinicians to an effective treatment. We present our experience with six cases of NTB, with meningoencephalic (4 cases), spinal, (1 case) and epidural (1 case) involvement. We identified basal arachnoiditis that was also seen on CT. Two cases demonstrated non-classifying tuberculomas, the spinal lesion consisted of casseifying tuberculoma that responded to treatment and disappeared on a follow up MR study. Epidural involvement consisted of Pott's disease with displacement and edema of the spinal cord. The differential diagnosis of these lesions includes mycoses, cysticercosis, sarcoidosis and leptomeningeal metastases

  15. A Groundwork for Allostatic Neuro-Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee eGerdes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose to enliven educational practice by marrying a conception of education as guided human development, to an advanced scientific understanding of the brain known as allostasis (stability through change. The result is a groundwork for allostatic neuro-education (GANE. Education as development encompasses practices including the organic (homeschooling and related traditions, cognitive acquisition (emphasis on standards and testing, and the constructivist (aimed to support adaptive creativity for both learner and society. Allostasis views change to be the norm in biology, defines success in contexts of complex natural environments rather than controlled settings, and identifies the brain as the organ of central command. Allostatic neuro-education contrasts with education focused exclusively on testing, or neuroscience based on homeostasis (stability through constancy. The GANE perspective is to view the learner in terms of their neurodevelopmental trajectories; its objective is to support authentic freedom, mediated by competent, integrated, and expansive executive functionality (concordant with the philosophy of freedom of Rudolf Steiner; and its strategy is to be attuned to rhythms in various forms (including those of autonomic arousal described in polyvagal theory so as to enable experiential excitement for learning. The GANE presents a variety of testable hypotheses, and studies that explore prevention or mitigation of the effects of early life adversity or toxic stress on learning and development may be of particular importance. Case studies are presented illustrating use of allostatic neurotechnology by an adolescent male carrying diagnoses of Asperger’s Syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and a grade school girl with reading difficulties. The GANE is intended as a re-visioning of education that may serve both learners and society to be better prepared for the accelerating changes of the twenty-first century.

  16. A groundwork for allostatic neuro-education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Lee; Tegeler, Charles H; Lee, Sung W

    2015-01-01

    We propose to enliven educational practice by marrying a conception of education as guided human development, to an advanced scientific understanding of the brain known as allostasis (stability through change). The result is a groundwork for allostatic neuro-education (GANE). Education as development encompasses practices including the organic (homeschooling and related traditions), cognitive acquisition (emphasis on standards and testing), and the constructivist (aimed to support adaptive creativity for both learner and society). Allostasis views change to be the norm in biology, defines success in contexts of complex natural environments rather than controlled settings, and identifies the brain as the organ of central command. Allostatic neuro-education contrasts with education focused dominantly on testing, or neuroscience based on homeostasis (stability through constancy). The GANE perspective is to view learners in terms of their neurodevelopmental trajectories; its objective is to support authentic freedom, mediated by competent, integrated, and expansive executive functionality (concordant with the philosophy of freedom of Rudolf Steiner); and its strategy is to be attuned to rhythms in various forms (including those of autonomic arousal described in polyvagal theory) so as to enable experiential excitement for learning. The GANE presents a variety of testable hypotheses, and studies that explore prevention or mitigation of the effects of early life adversity or toxic stress on learning and development may be of particular importance. Case studies are presented illustrating use of allostatic neurotechnology by an adolescent male carrying diagnoses of Asperger's syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and a grade school girl with reading difficulties. The GANE is intended as a re-visioning of education that may serve both learners and society to be better prepared for the accelerating changes of the 21st century.

  17. Theories and control models and motor learning: clinical applications in neuro-rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R; Molero-Sánchez, A; Carratalá-Tejada, M; Alguacil-Diego, I M; Molina-Rueda, F; Miangolarra-Page, J C; Torricelli, D

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there has been a special interest in theories that could explain the regulation of motor control, and their applications. These theories are often based on models of brain function, philosophically reflecting different criteria on how movement is controlled by the brain, each being emphasised in different neural components of the movement. The concept of motor learning, regarded as the set of internal processes associated with practice and experience that produce relatively permanent changes in the ability to produce motor activities through a specific skill, is also relevant in the context of neuroscience. Thus, both motor control and learning are seen as key fields of study for health professionals in the field of neuro-rehabilitation. The major theories of motor control are described, which include, motor programming theory, systems theory, the theory of dynamic action, and the theory of parallel distributed processing, as well as the factors that influence motor learning and its applications in neuro-rehabilitation. At present there is no consensus on which theory or model defines the regulations to explain motor control. Theories of motor learning should be the basis for motor rehabilitation. The new research should apply the knowledge generated in the fields of control and motor learning in neuro-rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies of Standard English and Hawaiian Islands Creole English: KEEP Linguistic Research, 1971-1976. Technical Report No. 59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Ronald; Tharp, Roland G.

    This report presents a summary of the linguistic research conducted at the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) during its first five years of operation, as well as a description of relevant linguistic theories. The subjects of the research are the students in the KEEP elementary school (K-3) who were tested twice a year during the five-year…

  19. NEURO-EPISTEMOLOGY: A POST-MODERNIST ANALYSIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    support

    ontwikkel die term “neuro-epistemologie” wat die raamwerk vir wetenskaplike studies na die ... In short, this .... This means we run ..... sensory material provided by an external world. .... between short-, intermediate-, and long-term memory.

  20. Ophthalmologic Findings in Patients with Neuro-metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Narjes; Golnik, Karl; Shahriari, Mansoor; Karimzadeh, Parvaneh; Jabbehdari, Sayena

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to present the ophthalmic manifestations of neuro-metabolic disorders. Patients who were diagnosed with neuro-metabolic disorders in the Neurology Department of Mofid Pediatric Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between 2004 and 2014 were included in this study. Disorders were confirmed using clinical findings, neuroimaging, laboratory data, and genomic analyses. All enrolled patients were assessed for ophthalmological abnormalities. A total of 213 patients with 34 different neuro-metabolic disorders were included. Ophthalmological abnormalities were observed in 33.5% of patients. Abnormal findings in the anterior segment included Kayser-Fleischer rings, congenital or secondary cataracts, and lens dislocation into the anterior chamber. Posterior segment (i.e., retina, vitreous body, and optic nerve) evaluation revealed retinitis pigmentosa, cherry-red spots, and optic atrophy. In addition, strabismus, nystagmus, and lack of fixation were noted during external examination. Ophthalmological examination and assessment is essential in patients that may exhibit neuro-metabolic disorders.

  1. The UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab facility is to generate and distribute high quality, validated mouse monoclonal antibodies against molecular targets found...

  2. 2nd International Conference on NeuroRehabilitation

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Ole; Akay, Metin

    2014-01-01

    The book is the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on NeuroRehabilitation (ICNR 2014), held 24th-26th June 2014 in Aalborg, Denmark. The conference featured the latest highlights in the emerging and interdisciplinary field of neural rehabilitation engineering and identified important healthcare challenges the scientific community will be faced with in the coming years. Edited and written by leading experts in the field, the book includes keynote papers, regular conference papers, and contributions to special and innovation sessions, covering the following main topics: neuro-rehabilitation applications and solutions for restoring impaired neurological functions; cutting-edge technologies and methods in neuro-rehabilitation; and translational challenges in neuro-rehabilitation. Thanks to its highly interdisciplinary approach, the book will not only be a  highly relevant reference guide for academic researchers, engineers, neurophysiologists, neuroscientists, physicians and physiotherapists workin...

  3. Corpus linguistics and statistics with R introduction to quantitative methods in linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Desagulier, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    This textbook examines empirical linguistics from a theoretical linguist’s perspective. It provides both a theoretical discussion of what quantitative corpus linguistics entails and detailed, hands-on, step-by-step instructions to implement the techniques in the field. The statistical methodology and R-based coding from this book teach readers the basic and then more advanced skills to work with large data sets in their linguistics research and studies. Massive data sets are now more than ever the basis for work that ranges from usage-based linguistics to the far reaches of applied linguistics. This book presents much of the methodology in a corpus-based approach. However, the corpus-based methods in this book are also essential components of recent developments in sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, computational linguistics, and psycholinguistics. Material from the book will also be appealing to researchers in digital humanities and the many non-linguistic fields that use textual data analysis and t...

  4. LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY AT PORTUGUESE TEXTBOOK: SOME CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gaida Winch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is analyzed how linguistic diversity is dealt with in a Portuguese textbook, where two chapters are designated to it. In these, it is pointed out that speaker ethnic origin can be manifested differently by: morphological changes; use of foreign expressions; accent in oral language. In synthesis, the linguistic diversity is dealt with through activities of identification and reproduction of linguistic varieties to be carried out by the students.

  5. Kleptomania in Patients with Neuro-Behçet's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shugaiv, Erkingül; Kıyat-Atamer, Aslı; Tüzün, Erdem; Kürtüncü, Murat; Baral-Kulaksızoğlu, Işın; Akman Demir, Gülşen

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to characterize the prevalence and clinical features of kleptomania, an impulse control disorder, in patients with Behçet's disease involving the central nervous system. Subjects and Methods Medical records of 350 patients with neuro-Behçet's disease were evaluated, and clinical and neuropsychological features of patients with kleptomania were noted. Results Of the 350 neuro-Behçet's disease patients 6 (1.7%) had presented with symptoms that fulfilled the cr...

  6. Neuroæstetik eller kunst på hjernen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Neuroæstetikken kombinerer hjerneforskning, æstetikforskning og eksperimentel psykologi -- alt sammen for at forstå en af Homo sapiens' mest bizarre hobbyer: kunst. Forskning i kunstens neurobiologi griber om sig.......Neuroæstetikken kombinerer hjerneforskning, æstetikforskning og eksperimentel psykologi -- alt sammen for at forstå en af Homo sapiens' mest bizarre hobbyer: kunst. Forskning i kunstens neurobiologi griber om sig....

  7. Predicting panel scores by linguistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Besselaar, P.; Stout, L.; Gou, X

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we explore the use of text analysis for deriving quality indicators of project proposals. We do full text analysis of 3030 review reports. After term extraction, we aggregate the term occurrences to linguistic categories. Using thse linguistic categories as independent variables, we study how well these predict the grading by the review panels. Together, the different linguistic categories explain about 50% of the variance in the grading of the applications. The relative importance of the different linguistic categories inform us about the way the panels work. This can be used to develop altmetrics for the quality of the peer and panel review processes. (Author)

  8. English linguistic purism: history, development, criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishechko Ovsanna Savvichna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic purism as an area of linguistic analysis describes the practices of identification and acknowledgement of a certain language variety as more structurally advanced as compared to its other varieties. Linguistic protection is associated with preservation of some abstract, classical, conservative linguistic ideal and performs the regulatory function, above all. The puristic approach to the development of the English language has been subjected to heated debate for several centuries and is reflected in both scientific research and literary texts. Supporters of purification of the English language champion the idea of protection of “pure language”. The idea, however, is actively criticized by opponents.

  9. The Grammar of Linguistic Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a new typology of linguistic signs primarily based on Peirce’s sign conception. It is demonstrated that the fundamental simple sign, the symbolic nominal lexeme, has an arbitrary relationship to its object in order to make it omnipotent, that is, open to various possible...... objects (ensured by nouns) and situations (ensured by the verb)--the latter corresponding to Peirce's rhematic sign-- and in addition to the level of assertion--corresponding to Peirce's dicentic sign-- there is a third level at which verbal categories collaborate in order to make a deduction, abduction...... or induction-- corresponding to Peirce's argumentative signs....

  10. Forensic Linguistics: The Linguistic Analyst and Expert Witness of Language Evidence in Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sherilynn Nidever

    Forensic linguistics (FL) provides consultation to lawyers through the analysis of language evidence during the pre-trial investigation. Evidence commonly analyzed by linguists in criminal cases includes transcripts of police interviews and language crimes (such as bribery) and anonymous or questioned texts. Forensic linguistic testimony is rarely…

  11. Measuring Linguistic Empathy: An Experimental Approach to Connecting Linguistic and Social Psychological Notions of Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the relationship between Linguistic Empathy and Psychological Empathy by implementing a psycholinguistic experiment that measured a person's acceptability ratings of sentences with violations of Linguistic Empathy and correlating them with a measure of the person's Psychological Empathy. Linguistic Empathy…

  12. Neuro degenerative diseases: clinical concerns; Les maladies neuro-degeneratives: problemes cliniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, V. [Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve (HUG), Unite de Neuroimagerie, Dept. de Psychiatrie (Switzerland)

    2005-04-15

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the main neuro-degenerative diseases (NDDs) seen clinically. They share some common clinical symptoms and neuro-pathological findings. The increase of life expectancy in the developed countries will inevitably contribute to enhance the prevalence of these diseases. Behavioral disorders, common in NDDs, will produce major care management challenges. Idiopathic Parkinson's disease corresponds to a histopathological diagnosis, based on the observation of a de-pigmentation and a neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, as well as on the presence of intra-neuronal inclusion bodies. AD is insidious with slowly progressive dementia in which the decline in memory constitutes the main complaint. The diagnosis of definite AD requires the presence of clinical criteria as well as the histopathological confirmation of brain lesions. The two main lesions are the presence of senile plaques and neuro-fibrillary tangles. Positron emission tomography (PET) explores cerebral metabolism and neurotransmitter kinetics in NDDs using principally [{sup 18}F]-deoxyglucose and [{sup 18}F]-dopa. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic function is altered in PD, as evidenced by the low uptake of [{sup 18}F]-dopa in the posterior putamen as compared to anterior putamen and caudate nucleus. In contrast, [{sup 18}F]-dopa uptake is equally depressed in all striatal structures in progressive supra-nuclear palsy. Regional glucose metabolism at rest is preserved in elderly once cerebral atrophy is taken into account. On the contrary, glucose metabolism is globally reduced in AD, with marked decrease in the parietal and temporal regions. PET has proved to be useful to study in vivo neurochemical processes in patients suffering from NDDs. The potential of this approach is still largely unexploited, and depends on new ligand production to establish early diagnosis and treatment follow-up. (author)

  13. Language cannot be reduced to biology: perspectives from neuro-developmental disorders affecting language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanta, D

    2005-02-01

    The study of language knowledge guided by a purely biological perspective prioritizes the study of syntax. The essential process of syntax is recursion--the ability to generate an infinite array of expressions from a limited set of elements. Researchers working within the biological perspective argue that this ability is possible only because of an innately specified genetic makeup that is specific to human beings. Such a view of language knowledge may be fully justified in discussions on biolinguistics, and in evolutionary biology. However, it is grossly inadequate in understanding language-learning problems, particularly those experienced by children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as developmental dyslexia, Williams syndrome, specific language impairment and autism spectrum disorders. Specifically, syntax-centered definitions of language knowledge completely ignore certain crucial aspects of language learning and use, namely, that language is embedded in a social context; that the role of envrironmental triggering as a learning mechanism is grossly underestimated; that a considerable extent of visuo-spatial information accompanies speech in day-to-day communication; that the developmental process itself lies at the heart of knowledge acquisition; and that there is a tremendous variation in the orthographic systems associated with different languages. All these (socio-cultural) factors can influence the rate and quality of spoken and written language acquisition resulting in much variation in phenotypes associated with disorders known to have a genetic component. Delineation of such phenotypic variability requires inputs from varied disciplines such as neurobiology, neuropsychology, linguistics and communication disorders. In this paper, I discuss published research that questions cognitive modularity and emphasises the role of the environment for understanding linguistic capabilities of children with neuro-developmental disorders. The discussion pertains

  14. Youth Culture, Language Endangerment and Linguistic Survivance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Leisy

    2012-01-01

    Detailing a decade of life and language use in a remote Alaskan Yup'ik community, Youth Culture, Language Endangerment and Linguistic Survivance provides rare insight into young people's language brokering and Indigenous people's contemporary linguistic ecologies. This book examines how two consecutive groups of youth in a Yup'ik village…

  15. MODERN LINGUISTICS, ITS DEVELOPMENT AND SCOPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVIN, SAMUEL R.

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN LINGUISTICS STARTED WITH JONES' DISCOVERY IN 1786 THAT SANSKRIT IS CLOSELY RELATED TO THE CLASSICAL, GERMANIC, AND CELTIC LANGUAGES, AND HAS ADVANCED TO INCLUDE THE APPLICATION OF COMPUTERS IN LANGUAGE ANALYSIS. THE HIGHLIGHTS OF LINGUISTIC RESEARCH HAVE BEEN DE SAUSSURE'S DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE DIACHRONIC AND THE…

  16. What can literature do for linguistics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2007-01-01

      Through analyses of selected passages from James Joyce's Ulysses, this article demonstrates how the challenging of the boundaries between linguistics and literary studies can be more than a one-way process aimed at uncovering linguistic patterns of literary texts. The theoretical basis...

  17. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  18. Applied Linguistics: The Challenge of Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Language has featured prominently in contemporary social theory, but the relevance of this fact to the concerns of Applied Linguistics, with its necessary orientation to practical issues of language in context, represents an ongoing challenge. This article supports the need for a greater engagement with theory in Applied Linguistics. It considers…

  19. Political Liberalism, Linguistic Diversity and Equal Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotti, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the implications of John Rawls' political liberalism for linguistic diversity and language policy, by focusing on the following question: what kind(s) of equality between speakers of different languages and with different linguistic identities should the state guarantee under political liberalism? The article makes three…

  20. Using the Linguistic Landscape to Bridge Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Vanessa

    2018-01-01

    In this article Vanessa Mari describes how she uses the linguistic landscape to bridge two or more languages with students learning English. The linguistic landscape is defined by Landry and Bourhis (1997, 25) as "the language of public road signs, advertising billboards, street names, place names, commercial shop signs, and public signs on…

  1. Linguistic Recycling and the Open Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Probal

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistic recycling in the context of domestic Esperanto use. Argues that word-meaning recycling reflects the same fundamental principles as sentential recursion, and that a linguistics theoretically sensitive to these principles strengthens practical efforts towards the social goal of an open speech community. (Author/VWL)

  2. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Publisher contact person: Mrs Christine Smit. Email: linguis@sun.ac.za. Phone: 021 808 2052. Fax: 021 808 2009. Mailing address: Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602. Department of General ...

  3. Are Prospective English Teachers Linguistically Intelligent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, Kadir Vefa

    2017-01-01

    Language is normally associated with linguistic capabilities of individuals. In the theory of multiple intelligences, language is considered to be related primarily to linguistic intelligence. Using the theory of Multiple Intelligences as its starting point, this descriptive survey study investigated to what extent prospective English teachers'…

  4. A General Overview of Motivation in Linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王航

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the term of motivation in linguistics study has aroused the interests of scholars. Different studies of mo -tivation have been produced by different scholars. In this paper, the writer organizes the recent studies on motivation in linguistics. the paper is divided into three parts, the introduction of the term motivation, different types of motivation, and theories of moti -vation.

  5. Ghana Journal of Linguistics: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Ghana Journal of Linguistics is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal appearing twice a year, published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana. Beginning with Volume 2 (2013) it is published in electronic format only, open access, at www.ajol.info. However print-on-demand copies can be made ...

  6. Child Participant Roles in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Children's status as research participants in applied linguistics has been largely overlooked even though unique methodological and ethical concerns arise in projects where children, rather than adults, are involved. This article examines the role of children as research participants in applied linguistics and discusses the limitations of…

  7. Term Bases and Linguistic Linked Open Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for pursuing their work. The theme of this year’s TKE is ‘Term Bases and Linguistic Linked Open Data’. Mono- and multi-lingual term bases, which contain information about concepts (terms, definitions, examples of use, references, comments on equivalence etc.), have always made up valuable linguistic resources...

  8. The Transition from Animal to Linguistic Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Darwin's theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication (signaling). However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice.

  9. Applied Linguistics in Its Disciplinary Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Australia's current attempt to develop a process to evaluate the quality of research (Excellence in Research for Australia--ERA) places a central emphasis on the disciplinary organisation of academic work. This disciplinary focus poses particular problems for Applied Linguistics in Australia. This paper will examine Applied Linguistics in relation…

  10. Plenary Speeches: Applied Linguists without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Until 1989, the American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL) could have been viewed as an interest group of the Linguistics Society of America (LSA); AAAL met in two designated meeting rooms as a subsection of the LSA conference. In 1991, I was asked to organize the first independent meeting of AAAL in New York City, with the help of…

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging in neuro-Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Shigeyuki; Fukutake, Toshio; Hirayama, Keizo; Iwamoto, Itsuo

    1987-01-01

    In four patients with neuro-Behcet's disease, the findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were evaluated in comparison with the results of X-ray computed tomography (CT), especially for brainstem lesions. MRI was able to reveal brainstem lesions in three patients, in addition to lesions of basal ganglia, internal capsule and thalamus in the same patients. In contrast, X-ray CT demonstrated lesions of basal ganglia and internal capsule in only one patient, and it did not detect any brainstem lesions. Non-specific findings, including cerebral and brainstem atrophy, were revealed more clearly in inversion recovery images than in X-ray CT. Spin echo images were superior to inversion recovery images for detecting the lesions of demyelination, necrosis, gliosis and so on in neuro-Behcet's disease. The brainstem lesions visualized by MRI were situated in the regions of the basis pontis, cerebral peduncle and tectum of the midbrain. In neuro-Behcet's disease, the main pathological lesions are known occur in the ventral parts of the brainstem, but X-ray CT cannot always reveale these brainstem lesions because it produces bone artifacts. For this reason, the X-ray CT findings of neuro-Behcet's disease reported previously have been nonspecific cerebral or brainstem atrophy and decreased attenuations in the basal ganglia or subcortical white matter. Thus it is generally difficult to differentiate neuro-Behcet's disease from other intracranial lesions on the basis of the supratentorial X-ray CT findings. However, the above mentioned brainstem lesions visualized by MRI are consistent with the pathologically preferential site in neuro-Behcet's disease, and MRI can assist in the clinical diagnosis of neuro-Behcet's disease by demonstrating the brainstem lesions clearly, even when neurological involvement precedes the typical dermatologic and ophthalmologic manifestations. (author)

  12. Prediction of flood abnormalities for improved public safety using a modified adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqil, M; Kita, I; Yano, A; Nishiyama, S

    2006-01-01

    It is widely accepted that an efficient flood alarm system may significantly improve public safety and mitigate economical damages caused by inundations. In this paper, a modified adaptive neuro-fuzzy system is proposed to modify the traditional neuro-fuzzy model. This new method employs a rule-correction based algorithm to replace the error back propagation algorithm that is employed by the traditional neuro-fuzzy method in backward pass calculation. The final value obtained during the backward pass calculation using the rule-correction algorithm is then considered as a mapping function of the learning mechanism of the modified neuro-fuzzy system. Effectiveness of the proposed identification technique is demonstrated through a simulation study on the flood series of the Citarum River in Indonesia. The first four-year data (1987 to 1990) was used for model training/calibration, while the other remaining data (1991 to 2002) was used for testing the model. The number of antecedent flows that should be included in the input variables was determined by two statistical methods, i.e. autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation between the variables. Performance accuracy of the model was evaluated in terms of two statistical indices, i.e. mean average percentage error and root mean square error. The algorithm was developed in a decision support system environment in order to enable users to process the data. The decision support system is found to be useful due to its interactive nature, flexibility in approach, and evolving graphical features, and can be adopted for any similar situation to predict the streamflow. The main data processing includes gauging station selection, input generation, lead-time selection/generation, and length of prediction. This program enables users to process the flood data, to train/test the model using various input options, and to visualize results. The program code consists of a set of files, which can be modified as well to match other

  13. Neoliberalism, Applied Linguistics and the PNLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei J. Zacchi

    2016-01-01

    Based on the bookNeoliberalism and Applied Linguistics (Block, Gray & Holborow, 2012a, this paper aims at discussing the relationship between these two concepts. After a general discussion on the subject, the paper will deal with the use of celebrities in English language textbooks as an element of identification and as a means to advance neoliberal values. A second aspect refers to the promotion of social and cultural diversity and pluralism in a way that may be also attending to the market’s interests. These aspects will finally be analysed in the series Links(Santos & Marques, 2009a, 2009b, 2009c, of the National Textbook Program (PNLD for primary education. Whereas the textbooks use celebrities and present other neoliberal tendencies, they also propose activities that seek to promote citizenship and inclusion, probably in order to fulfil the Ministry of Education's demands through PNLD. This ambiguity may be related to the fact that the PNLD is a state-run program for public education that relies on the commercial editorial market to produce and sell the textbooks.

  14. Clinical linguistics: its past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    Historiography is a growing area of research within the discipline of linguistics, but so far the subfield of clinical linguistics has received virtually no systematic attention. This article attempts to rectify this by tracing the development of the discipline from its pre-scientific days up to the present time. As part of this, I include the results of a survey of articles published in Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics between 1987 and 2008 which shows, for example, a consistent primary focus on phonetics and phonology at the expense of grammar, semantics and pragmatics. I also trace the gradual broadening of the discipline from its roots in structural linguistics to its current reciprocal relationship with speech and language pathology and a range of other academic disciplines. Finally, I consider the scope of clinical linguistic research in 2011 and assess how the discipline seems likely develop in the future.

  15. Lancaster Summer School in Corpus Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Čibej

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Med 12. in 15. julijem je na Univerzi v Lancastru potekala poletna šola korpusnega jezikoslovja Lancaster Summer Schools in Corpus Linguistics and Other Digital Methods. Poletno šolo so organizirali UCREL (University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language, ERC (Evropski svet za raziskave – European Research Council, CASS (ESRC Centre for Corpus Approaches to Social Science in ESRC (Economic and Social Research Council, razdeljena pa je bila na šest programov, prilagojenih različnim področjem: Korpusno jezikoslovje za proučevanje jezikov (Corpus Linguistics for Language Studies, Korpusno jezikoslovje za družbene vede (Corpus Linguistics for Social Science, Korpusno jezikoslovje za humanistiko (Corpus Linguistics for Humanities, Statistika za korpusno jezikoslovje (Statistics for Corpus Linguistics, Geografski informacijski sistemi za digitalno humanistiko (Geographical Information Systems for the Digital Humanities in Korpusno podprta obdelava naravnih jezikov (Corpus-based Natural Language Processing.

  16. Automatic Contextual Text Correction Using The Linguistic Habits Graph Lhg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Gadamer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic text correction is an essential problem of today text processors and editors. Thispaper introduces a novel algorithm for automation of contextual text correction using a LinguisticHabit Graph (LHG also introduced in this paper. A specialist internet crawler hasbeen constructed for searching through web sites in order to build a Linguistic Habit Graphafter text corpuses gathered in polish web sites. The achieved correction results on a basis ofthis algorithm using this LHG were compared with commercial programs which also enableto make text correction: Microsoft Word 2007, Open Office Writer 3.0 and search engineGoogle. The achieved results of text correction were much better than correction made bythese commercial tools.

  17. Predicting the Proficiency of Arabic and Persian Linguists Trained at the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeRamus, Nicole

    1999-01-01

    The mission of the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (DLIFLC) is to train, sustain, and evaluate foreign language skills of linguists under the guidelines of the Defense Foreign Language Program (DFLP...

  18. Design and implementation of an adaptive critic-based neuro-fuzzy controller on an unmanned bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiekhani, Ali; Mahjoob, Mohammad J.; Akraminia, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Fuzzy critic-based learning forms a reinforcement learning method based on dynamic programming. In this paper, an adaptive critic-based neuro-fuzzy system is presented for an unmanned bicycle. The only information available for the critic agent is the system feedback which is interpreted as the last action performed by the controller in the previous state. The signal produced by the critic agent is used along with the error back propagation to tune (online) conclusion parts of the fuzzy infer...

  19. Pharmacological Aspects of Neuro-Immune Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vadim V; Kudryashov, Nikita V; Chubarev, Vladimir N; Kalinina, Tatiana S; Barreto, George E; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2018-01-01

    The use of systematic approach for the analysis of mechanism of action of drugs at different levels of biological organization of organisms is an important task in experimental and clinical pharmacology for drug designing and increasing the efficacy and safety of drugs. The analysis of published data on pharmacological effects of psychotropic drugs possessing immunomodulatory and/or antiviral properties have shown a correlation between central effects of examined drugs associated with the impact on the processes of neurogenesis of adult brain and survival of neurons, and their ability to alter levels of key proinflammatory cytokines. The changes that occur as a result of the influence of pharmacological agents at one of the systems should inevitably lead to the functional reorganization at another. Integrative mechanisms underlying the neuro-immune interactions may explain the "pleiotropic" pharmacological effects of some antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs. Amantadine, which was originally considered as an antiviral agent, was approved as anti-parkinsonic drug after its wide medical use. The prolonged administration of interferon alpha caused depression in 30-45% of patients, thus limiting its clinical use. The antiviral drug "Oseltamivir" may provoke the development of central side effects, including abnormal behavior, delirium, impaired perception and suicides. Anti-herpethetical drug "Panavir" shows pronounced neuroprotective properties. The purpose of this review is to analyze the experimental and clinical data related to central effects of drugs with antiviral or/and immunotropic activity, and to discover the relationship of these effects with changes in reactivity of immune system and proinflammatory response. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. How Linguistic Metaphor Scaffolds Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Paul H; Hendricks, Rose K; Boroditsky, Lera

    2017-11-01

    Language helps people communicate and think. Precise and accurate language would seem best suited to achieve these goals. But a close look at the way people actually talk reveals an abundance of apparent imprecision in the form of metaphor: ideas are 'light bulbs', crime is a 'virus', and cancer is an 'enemy' in a 'war'. In this article, we review recent evidence that metaphoric language can facilitate communication and shape thinking even though it is literally false. We first discuss recent experiments showing that linguistic metaphor can guide thought and behavior. Then we explore the conditions under which metaphors are most influential. Throughout, we highlight theoretical and practical implications, as well as key challenges and opportunities for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Swearing, Euphemisms, and Linguistic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Pleydell-Pearce, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form) by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context. PMID:21799832

  2. Improved Trust Prediction in Business Environments by Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Azadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trust prediction turns out to be an important challenge when cooperation among intelligent agents with an impression of trust in their mind, is investigated. In other words, predicting trust values for future time slots help partners to identify the probability of continuing a relationship. Another important case to be considered is the context of trust, i.e. the services and business commitments for which a relationship is defined. Hence, intelligent agents should focus on improving trust to provide a stable and confident context. Modelling of trust between collaborating parties seems to be an important component of the business intelligence strategy. In this regard, a set of metrics have been considered by which the value of confidence level for predicted trust values has been estimated. These metrics are maturity, distance and density (MD2. Prediction of trust for future mutual relationships among agents is a problem that is addressed in this study. We introduce a simulation-based model which utilizes linguistic variables to create various scenarios. Then, future trust values among agents are predicted by the concept of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. Mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs resulted from ANFIS are compared with confidence levels which are determined by applying MD2. Results determine the efficiency of MD2 for forecasting trust values. This is the first study that utilizes the concept of MD2 for improvement of business trust prediction.

  3. Macroscopic Rock Texture Image Classification Using a Hierarchical Neuro-Fuzzy Class Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laercio B. Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a Hierarchical Neuro-Fuzzy Class Method based on binary space partitioning (NFHB-Class Method for macroscopic rock texture classification. The relevance of this study is in helping Geologists in the diagnosis and planning of oil reservoir exploration. The proposed method is capable of generating its own decision structure, with automatic extraction of fuzzy rules. These rules are linguistically interpretable, thus explaining the obtained data structure. The presented image classification for macroscopic rocks is based on texture descriptors, such as spatial variation coefficient, Hurst coefficient, entropy, and cooccurrence matrix. Four rock classes have been evaluated by the NFHB-Class Method: gneiss (two subclasses, basalt (four subclasses, diabase (five subclasses, and rhyolite (five subclasses. These four rock classes are of great interest in the evaluation of oil boreholes, which is considered a complex task by geologists. We present a computer method to solve this problem. In order to evaluate system performance, we used 50 RGB images for each rock classes and subclasses, thus producing a total of 800 images. For all rock classes, the NFHB-Class Method achieved a percentage of correct hits over 73%. The proposed method converged for all tests presented in the case study.

  4. Teaching Standard Italian to Dialect Speakers: A Pedagogical Perspective of Linguistic Systems in Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, Marcel

    1974-01-01

    The teaching of standard Italian to speakers of Italian dialects both in Italy and in North America is discussed, specifically through a specialized pedagogical program within the framework of a sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic perspective, and based on a structural analysis of linguistic systems in contact. Italian programs in Toronto are…

  5. Overview of a Linguistic Theory of Design. AI Memo 383A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark L.; Goldstein, Ira P.

    The SPADE theory, which uses linguistic formalisms to model the planning and debugging processes of computer programming, was simultaneously developed and tested in three separate contexts--computer uses in education, automatic programming (a traditional artificial intelligence arena), and protocol analysis (the domain of information processing…

  6. Measuring the diffusion of linguistic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerbonne, John

    2010-12-12

    We examine situations in which linguistic changes have probably been propagated via normal contact as opposed to via conquest, recent settlement and large-scale migration. We proceed then from two simplifying assumptions: first, that all linguistic variation is the result of either diffusion or independent innovation, and, second, that we may operationalize social contact as geographical distance. It is clear that both of these assumptions are imperfect, but they allow us to examine diffusion via the distribution of linguistic variation as a function of geographical distance. Several studies in quantitative linguistics have examined this relation, starting with Séguy (Séguy 1971 Rev. Linguist. Romane 35, 335-357), and virtually all report a sublinear growth in aggregate linguistic variation as a function of geographical distance. The literature from dialectology and historical linguistics has mostly traced the diffusion of individual features, however, so that it is sensible to ask what sort of dynamic in the diffusion of individual features is compatible with Séguy's curve. We examine some simulations of diffusion in an effort to shed light on this question.

  7. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller of switched reluctance motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahour Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS control for switched reluctance motor (SRM speed. The ANFIS has the advantages of expert knowledge of the fuzzy inference system and the learning capability of neural networks. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller of the motor speed is then designed and simulated. Digital simulation results show that the designed ANFIS speed controller realizes a good dynamic behaviour of the motor, a perfect speed tracking with no overshoot and a good rejection of impact loads disturbance. The results of applying the adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller to a SRM give better performance and high robustness than those obtained by the application of a conventional controller (PI.

  8. The Neuro-Complex: Some Comments and Convergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Martin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this short think-piece we trace the newly emerging and rapidly expanding dimensions and dynamics of the “neuro-complex.” What this amounts to, we suggest, are a series of bio or neuro “convergences” of sorts regarding the brain and mental worlds, which in turn are traceable through what we term the bio-psych, pharma-psych, subjectivity-selves, wellness-enhancement, and the neuroculture-neurofutures relational nexuses. These issues are then illustrated through two brief case studies regarding brain scanning technologies and the problems and prospects of cognitive enhancement. The paper concludes with some final reflections on these matters and a call for further research in this rich and challenging domain as the neuro-complex continues to expand in expected and unexpected, yet equally rich and fascinating, ways.

  9. 5th International Conference on Fuzzy and Neuro Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahi, Bijaya; Das, Swagatam; Suganthan, Ponnuthurai

    2015-01-01

    This proceedings bring together contributions from researchers from academia and industry to report the latest cutting edge research made in the areas of Fuzzy Computing, Neuro Computing and hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy Computing in the paradigm of Soft Computing. The FANCCO 2015 conference explored new application areas, design novel hybrid algorithms for solving different real world application problems. After a rigorous review of the 68 submissions from all over the world, the referees panel selected 27 papers to be presented at the Conference. The accepted papers have a good, balanced mix of theory and applications. The techniques ranged from fuzzy neural networks, decision trees, spiking neural networks, self organizing feature map, support vector regression, adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system, extreme learning machine, fuzzy multi criteria decision making, machine learning, web usage mining, Takagi-Sugeno Inference system, extended Kalman filter, Goedel type logic, fuzzy formal concept analysis, biclustering e...

  10. Frequency and Pathological Phenotype of Bovine Astrovirus CH13/NeuroS1 Infection in Neurologically-Diseased Cattle: Towards Assessment of Causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija Selimovic-Hamza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS has opened up the possibility of detecting new viruses in unresolved diseases. Recently, astrovirus brain infections have been identified in neurologically diseased humans and animals by NGS, among them bovine astrovirus (BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1, which has been found in brain tissues of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis. Only a few studies are available on neurotropic astroviruses and a causal relationship between BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 infections and neurological disease has been postulated, but remains unproven. Aiming at making a step forward towards assessing the causality, we collected brain samples of 97 cases of cattle diagnosed with unresolved non-suppurative encephalitis, and analyzed them by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, to determine the frequency and neuropathological distribution of the BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 and its topographical correlation to the pathology. We detected BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 RNA or proteins in neurons throughout all parts of the central nervous system (CNS in 34% of all cases, but none were detected in cattle of the control group. In general, brain lesions had a high correlation with the presence of the virus. These findings show that a substantial proportion of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis are infected with BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 and further substantiate the causal relationship between neurological disease and astrovirus infections.

  11. Applied linguistics - a science of culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benke, Gertraud

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the status of applied linguistics as discipline is questioned and problems of establishing it - and other newly formed scientific enterprises like cultural science - as disciplines are discussed. This discussion is contextualized using the author's own experience as applied linguist working in (the institutional structure of Austria. Secondly, applied linguistics is presented as complementing cultural science, with both exploring at times the same phenomena albeit under different perspectives and focussing on different levels of experience. Two examples of research involving such a joint interest with different foci are discussed.

  12. Educational Linguistics and College English Syllabus Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ji-xin

    2016-01-01

    The direct application of linguistic theories to syllabus design gives rise to frequent change of syllabus type in the histo-ry of syllabus development, which makes language teachers feel difficult to adapt to, to adopt and to implement. The recognition and popularization of the new-born discipline educational linguistics servers as a method to ease the situation, especially in the college English syllabus design in China. The development and application of the fruitful achievements in educational linguis-tics is bound to provide us with a more scientific approach to syllabus design in the future.

  13. Linguistic fire and human cognitive powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    To view language as a cultural tool challenges much of what claims to be linguistic science while opening up a new people-centred linguistics. On this view, how we speak, think and act depends on, not just brains (or minds), but also cultural traditions. Yet, Everett is conservative: like others...... theory, bodily dynamics themselves act as cues to meaning. Linguistic exostructures resemble tools that constrain how people concert acting-perceiving bodies. The result is unending renewal of verbal structures: like artefacts and institutions, they function to sustain a species-specific cultural ecology...

  14. Collective Variables in Apphed Linguistics Research

    OpenAIRE

    ヘンスリー, ジョール; HENSLEY, Joel

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the key dynamic(al)systems theory concept of collective variables as it relates to developmental research in applied linguistics. Dynamic(al) systems theory is becoming prevalent in linguistic research and in the past two decades has jumped to the forefront of cutting edge in the field. One key concept in dynamic(al) systems theory is that of collective variables. In order to help properly orient this concept in the field of applied linguistics, this paper discusses the ...

  15. Neuro-robotics from brain machine interfaces to rehabilitation robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiadis

    2014-01-01

    Neuro-robotics is one of the most multidisciplinary fields of the last decades, fusing information and knowledge from neuroscience, engineering and computer science. This book focuses on the results from the strategic alliance between Neuroscience and Robotics that help the scientific community to better understand the brain as well as design robotic devices and algorithms for interfacing humans and robots. The first part of the book introduces the idea of neuro-robotics, by presenting state-of-the-art bio-inspired devices. The second part of the book focuses on human-machine interfaces for pe

  16. Neuro-models for discharge air temperature system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheer-uddin, M.; Tudoroiu, N.

    2004-01-01

    Nonlinear neuro-models for a discharge air temperature (DAT) system are developed. Experimental data gathered in a heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) test facility is used to develop multi-input multi-output (MIMO) and single-input single-output (SISO) neuro-models. Several different network architectures were explored to build the models. Results show that a three layer second order neural network structure is necessary to achieve good accuracy of the predictions. Results from the developed models are compared, and some observations on sensitivity and standard deviation errors are presented

  17. Neuro-fuzzy modelling of hydro unit efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliev, Atanas; Fushtikj, Vangel

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents neuro-fuzzy method for modeling of the hydro unit efficiency. The proposed method uses the characteristics of the fuzzy systems as universal function approximates, as well the abilities of the neural networks to adopt the parameters of the membership's functions and rules in the consequent part of the developed fuzzy system. Developed method is practically applied for modeling of the efficiency of unit which will be installed in the hydro power plant Kozjak. Comparison of the performance of the derived neuro-fuzzy method with several classical polynomials models is also performed. (Author)

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Neuro-Vascular Coupling in Rat Cerebellum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tina

    Activity in the neurons called climbing fibers causes blood flow changes. But the physiological mechanisms which mediate the coupling are not well understood. This PhD thesis investigates the mechanisms of neuro-vascular coupling by means of mathematical methods. In experiments, the extracellularly...... measured field potential is used as an indicator of neuronal activity, and the cortical blood flow is measured by means of laser-Doppler flowmetry. Using system identification methods, these measurements have been used to construct and validate parametric mathematical models of the neuro-vascular system...

  19. NeuroPigPen: A Scalable Toolkit for Processing Electrophysiological Signal Data in Neuroscience Applications Using Apache Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Satya S; Wei, Annan; Valdez, Joshua; Wang, Li; Zonjy, Bilal; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Loparo, Kenneth A; Lhatoo, Samden D

    2016-01-01

    The recent advances in neurological imaging and sensing technologies have led to rapid increase in the volume, rate of data generation, and variety of neuroscience data. This "neuroscience Big data" represents a significant opportunity for the biomedical research community to design experiments using data with greater timescale, large number of attributes, and statistically significant data size. The results from these new data-driven research techniques can advance our understanding of complex neurological disorders, help model long-term effects of brain injuries, and provide new insights into dynamics of brain networks. However, many existing neuroinformatics data processing and analysis tools were not built to manage large volume of data, which makes it difficult for researchers to effectively leverage this available data to advance their research. We introduce a new toolkit called NeuroPigPen that was developed using Apache Hadoop and Pig data flow language to address the challenges posed by large-scale electrophysiological signal data. NeuroPigPen is a modular toolkit that can process large volumes of electrophysiological signal data, such as Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), and blood oxygen levels (SpO2), using a new distributed storage model called Cloudwave Signal Format (CSF) that supports easy partitioning and storage of signal data on commodity hardware. NeuroPigPen was developed with three design principles: (a) Scalability-the ability to efficiently process increasing volumes of data; (b) Adaptability-the toolkit can be deployed across different computing configurations; and (c) Ease of programming-the toolkit can be easily used to compose multi-step data processing pipelines using high-level programming constructs. The NeuroPigPen toolkit was evaluated using 750 GB of electrophysiological signal data over a variety of Hadoop cluster configurations ranging from 3 to 30 Data nodes. The evaluation results demonstrate that the toolkit

  20. Formal linguistics as a cue to demographic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Giuseppe; Ceolin, Andrea; Ecay, Aaron; Ghirotto, Silvia; Guardiano, Cristina; Irimia, Monica-Alexandrina; Michelioudakis, Dimitris; Radkevich, Nina; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Barbujani, Guido

    2016-06-20

    Beyond its theoretical success, the development of molecular genetics has brought about the possibility of extraordinary progress in the study of classification and in the inference of the evolutionary history of many species and populations. A major step forward was represented by the availability of extremely large sets of molecular data suited to quantitative and computational treatments. In this paper, we argue that even in cognitive sciences, purely theoretical progress in a discipline such as linguistics may have analogous impact. Thus, exactly on the model of molecular biology, we propose to unify two traditionally unrelated lines of linguistic investigation: 1) the formal study of syntactic variation (parameter theory) in the biolinguistic program; 2) the reconstruction of relatedness among languages (phylogenetic taxonomy). The results of our linguistic analysis have thus been plotted against data from population genetics and the correlations have turned out to be largely significant: given a non-trivial set of languages/populations, the description of their variation provided by the comparison of systematic parametric analysis and molecular anthropology informatively recapitulates their history and relationships. As a result, we can claim that the reality of some parametric model of the language faculty and language acquisition/transmission (more broadly of generative grammar) receives strong and original support from its historical heuristic power. Then, on these grounds, we can begin testing Darwin's prediction that, when properly generated, the trees of human populations and of their languages should eventually turn out to be significantly parallel.

  1. The Role of Linguistic Modification in Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brenda S; Clark, Michele C

    2016-06-01

    English-as-a-second-language (ESL) nursing students fail to graduate from programs at alarming rates. For many of these students, academic failure results from poor performance on multiple choice examinations, which frequently contain linguistic errors. A remedy for these errors is to linguistically modify examination questions. This study assessed the effects of linguistic modification on examination scores. Scores of ESL and non-ESL nursing students were compared on an experimental multiple choice examination and a control examination. After exclusion, 67 ESL and 252 non-ESL students completed the experimental examination; 68 ESL and 257 non-ESL students completed the control examination. Both ESL and non-ESL students scored higher on the experimental examination than on the control examination. For ESL students, the increase in observed means between the experimental and control examination was 0.6%; for non-ESL students, the increase was 0.48%. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(6):309-315.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Clinical point of view, imaging and neuro physiology of the case with diagnosis of neuro fibrosarcomas sacrococcigeo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Hernandez, Barbara Aymee; Brown Martinez, Marta

    2004-01-01

    It was considered a case with diagnosis of neuro fibrosarcomas sacrococcigeo, which was very well studied from the clinical point of view, imaging and neuro physiology; with the objective of showing the correlation degree among these studies. He/she was carried out study of nervous conduction of nerve later, reflective tibial H, electromiografia of dependent muscles of the plexo lumbosacro, potentials evoked somatosensoriales and wave F of nerve later tibial. With this the existence of a functional dysfunction was demonstrated in the medullary segments from L4-S2 with prevalence motor. He/she was also carried out mielografia and nuclear magnetic resonance that it evidenced the existence from an expansible process to the level sacrococcigeo. The utility of the neuro physiological studies was demonstrated in the diagnosis of affections tumorales, cocktails with the imagenological studies that define the anatomical alterations and the diagnosis morfofuncional of these pathologies is completed

  3. Circular Interaction Between Linguistic Departments And Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Linguistik und Didaktik (Linguistics and Didactics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollay, Karl

    1974-01-01

    Briefly summarizes the papers presented at the 10th annual convention of the German Language Institute in Mannheim. The relationship between linguistic research and its applicability in the area of language instruction is discussed. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  5. Glossematik und Linguistik (Glossematics and Linguistics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoger, Alfons

    1974-01-01

    Provides a short summary on the background, current development and future perspectives of the glossematic theory of language and linguistics, as developed by Hjelmslev and those associated with him (Loosely called "the Danish school"). (Text is in German.) (DS)

  6. Zweiter Linguistischer Orientierungskurs (Second Linguistic Orientation Course)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosewitz, Uta; Wiegand, Herbert Ernst

    1973-01-01

    Report on the Second Linguistic Orientation Course sponsored by the Institut fur deutsche Sprache (Institute for the German Language) and funded by the Volkswagen Foundation; held at Mannheim, West Germany, February 21-March 3, 1972. (RS)

  7. LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methods, the cognitive code method and the cognitive anti-method, emerged, both drawing on .... sciences; he must have some knowledge of linguistics. ... much as the nature of the organising power that is capable of handling such data.

  8. Secure information management using linguistic threshold approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ogiela, Marek R

    2013-01-01

    This book details linguistic threshold schemes for information sharing. It examines the opportunities of using these techniques to create new models of managing strategic information shared within a commercial organisation or a state institution.

  9. Design and Practice: Enacting Functional Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Draws on experience with a transdisciplinary literacy project in writing development at the secondary level to address the sub-field of "writing-literacy," writing as a linguist working across an applied versus theoretical frontier. (Author/VWL)

  10. A New Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic TOPSIS Method for Group Multi-Criteria Linguistic Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangling Ren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hesitant fuzzy linguistic decision making is a focus point in linguistic decision making, in which the main method is based on preference ordering. This paper develops a new hesitant fuzzy linguistic TOPSIS method for group multi-criteria linguistic decision making; the method is inspired by the TOPSIS method and the preference degree between two hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets (HFLTSs. To this end, we first use the preference degree to define a pseudo-distance between two HFLTSs and analyze its properties. Then we present the positive (optimistic and negative (pessimistic information of each criterion provided by each decision maker and aggregate these by using weights of decision makers to obtain the hesitant fuzzy linguistic positive and negative ideal solutions. On the basis of the proposed pseudo-distance, we finally obtain the positive (negative ideal separation matrix and a new relative closeness degree to rank alternatives. We also design an algorithm based on the provided method to carry out hesitant fuzzy linguistic decision making. An illustrative example shows the elaboration of the proposed method and comparison with the symbolic aggregation-based method, the hesitant fuzzy linguistic TOPSIS method and the hesitant fuzzy linguistic VIKOR method; it seems that the proposed method is a useful and alternative decision-making method.

  11. Randomized, multicenter, comparative study of NEURO versus CIMT in poststroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis: the NEURO-VERIFY Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Masahiro; Kakuda, Wataru; Momosaki, Ryo; Harashima, Hiroaki; Kojima, Miki; Watanabe, Shigeto; Sato, Toshihiro; Yokoi, Aki; Umemori, Takuma; Sasanuma, Jinichi

    2014-07-01

    Many poststroke patients suffer functional motor limitation of the affected upper limb, which is associated with diminished health-related quality of life. The aim of this study is to conduct a randomized, multicenter, comparative study of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with intensive occupational therapy, NEURO (NovEl intervention Using Repetitive TMS and intensive Occupational therapy) versus constraint-induced movement therapy in poststroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. In this randomized controlled study of NEURO and constraint-induced movement therapy, 66 poststroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis were randomly assigned at 2:1 ratio to low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation plus occupational therapy (NEURO group) or constraint-induced movement therapy (constraint-induced movement therapy group) for 15 days. Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Test and Functional Ability Score of Wolf Motor Function Test were used for assessment. No differences in patients' characteristics were found between the two groups at baseline. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment score was significantly higher in both groups after the 15-day treatment compared with the baseline. Changes in Fugl-Meyer Assessment scores and Functional Ability Score of Wolf Motor Function Test were significantly higher in the NEURO group than in the constraint-induced movement therapy group, whereas the decrease in the Wolf Motor Function Test log performance time was comparable between the two groups (changes in Fugl-Meyer Assessment score, NEURO: 5·39 ± 4·28, constraint-induced movement therapy: 3·09 ± 4·50 points; mean ± standard error of the mean; P < 0·05) (changes in Functional Ability Score of Wolf Motor Function Test, NEURO: 3·98 ± 2·99, constraint-induced movement therapy: 2·09 ± 2·96 points; P < 0·05). The results of the 15-day rehabilitative protocol showed the superiority of NEURO

  12. The Unbalanced Linguistic Aggregation Operator in Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many linguistic aggregation methods have been proposed and applied in the linguistic decision-making problems. In practice, experts need to assess a number of values in a side of reference domain higher than in the other one; that is, experts use unbalanced linguistic values to express their evaluation for problems. In this paper, we propose a new linguistic aggregation operator to deal with unbalanced linguistic values in group decision making, we adopt 2-tuple representation model of linguistic values and linguistic hierarchies to express unbalanced linguistic values, and moreover, we present the unbalanced linguistic ordered weighted geometric operator to aggregate unbalanced linguistic evaluation values; a comparison example is given to show the advantage of our method.

  13. Ling An: Linguistic analysis of NPP instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, F.; Salo, L. (Helsingfors Univ., Institutionen foer allmaen spraakvetenskap (Finland)); Wahlstroem, B. (VTT (Finland))

    2008-07-15

    The project consists of two sub-projects, 1) to find out whether the available linguistic method SWECG (Swedish Constraint Grammar) might be used for analyzing the safety manuals for Forsmark nuclear power plant, and 2) to find out whether it is possible to create a working system based on the SWECG method. The conclusion of the project is that an applicable linguistic analysis system may be realized by the company Lingsoft Inc., Aabo, Finland. (ln)

  14. A Python Library for Historical Comparative Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Moran , Steven; List , Johann-Mattis

    2012-01-01

    Awarded best paper award; International audience; In this talk we will discuss a European Research Council funded collaborative effort to build a Python library for undertaking academic research in historical-comparative linguistics. Our aim of implementing quantitative methods, specifically in Python, is to transform historical-comparative linguistics from a primarily handcrafted scientific scholarly endeavor, performed by individual researchers, into a quantitative and collaborative field o...

  15. Ling An: LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF NPP INSTRUCTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, F.; Salo, L.; Wahlstroem, B.

    2008-07-01

    The project consists of two sub-projects, 1) to find out whether the available linguistic method SWECG (Swedish Constraint Grammar) might be used for analyzing the safety manuals for Forsmark nuclear power plant, and 2) to find out whether it is possible to create a working system based on the SWECG method. The conclusion of the project is that an applicable linguistic analysis system may be realized by the company Lingsoft Inc., Aabo, Finland. (ln)

  16. Automated Linguistic Personality Description and Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylyuk Illya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relevance of our research, above all, is theoretically motivated by the development of extraordinary scientific and practical interest in the possibilities of language processing of huge amount of data generated by people in everyday professional and personal life in the electronic forms of communication (e-mail, sms, voice, audio and video blogs, social networks, etc.. Purpose: The purpose of the article is to describe the theoretical and practical framework of the project "Communicative-pragmatic and discourse-grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling". The description of key techniques is given, such as machine learning for language modeling, speech synthesis, handwriting simulation. Results: Lingvopersonology developed some great theoretical foundations, its methods, tools, and significant achievements let us predict that the newest promising trend is a linguistic identity modeling by means of information technology, including language. We see three aspects of the modeling: 1 modeling the semantic level of linguistic identity – by means of the use of corpus linguistics; 2 sound level formal modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of speech synthesis; 3 formal graphic level modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of image synthesis (handwriting. For the first case, we suppose to use machine learning technics and vector-space (word2vec algorithm for textual speech modeling. Hybrid CUTE method for personality speech modeling will be applied to the second case. Finally, trained with the person handwriting images neural network can be an instrument for the last case. Discussion: The project "Communicative-pragmatic, discourse, and grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling", which is implementing by the Department of General and Applied Linguistics and Slavonic philology, selected a task to model Yuriy Shevelyov (Sherekh

  17. Legal Linguistics as a Mutual Arena for Cooperation: Recent Developments in the Field of Applied Linguistics and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on some of the recent projects and individual works in the field of Legal Linguistics as examples of cooperation between Applied Linguistics and law. The article starts by discussing relevant prototypical concepts of Legal Linguistics. Legal Linguistics scrutinizes interactions between human beings in the framework of legal…

  18. Statistically qualified neuro-analytic failure detection method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilim, Richard B.; Garcia, Humberto E.; Chen, Frederick W.

    2002-03-02

    An apparatus and method for monitoring a process involve development and application of a statistically qualified neuro-analytic (SQNA) model to accurately and reliably identify process change. The development of the SQNA model is accomplished in two stages: deterministic model adaption and stochastic model modification of the deterministic model adaptation. Deterministic model adaption involves formulating an analytic model of the process representing known process characteristics, augmenting the analytic model with a neural network that captures unknown process characteristics, and training the resulting neuro-analytic model by adjusting the neural network weights according to a unique scaled equation error minimization technique. Stochastic model modification involves qualifying any remaining uncertainty in the trained neuro-analytic model by formulating a likelihood function, given an error propagation equation, for computing the probability that the neuro-analytic model generates measured process output. Preferably, the developed SQNA model is validated using known sequential probability ratio tests and applied to the process as an on-line monitoring system. Illustrative of the method and apparatus, the method is applied to a peristaltic pump system.

  19. A POST-MODERNIST ANALYSIS OF THE NEURO-SCIENCES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    support

    Senior Lecturer, Department of Psychology, Rand Afrikaans University. Anita Stuart. D Litt et Phil ... of neuro-science, including the assumptive framework upon which the dominant discourse in this field is based, which ultimately serves to maintain .... 1978:52; 1979:67). Each narrative or text, once embraced, “invites certain.

  20. Classification of EEG Signals by Radial Neuro-Fuzzy Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coufal, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2006), s. 415-423 ISSN 1109-2777 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : neuro-fuzzy systems * radial fuzzy systems * data mining * hybrid systems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  1. Neuro-fuzzy model for evaluating the performance of processes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHIDOZIE CHUKWUEMEKA NWOBI-OKOYE

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... In this work an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) was used to model the periodic performance of ... Since the .... The investigation hubs are a local brewing company ..... Industrial Engineers, Systems Engineers, Operations ... responsibility the overall management of the new system lies.

  2. Significance of head CT in neuro-ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Yuichiro; Masuyama, Yoshimasa; Nakamura, Yasuko; Fujimoto, Toshiro.

    1979-01-01

    It is important to perform CT purposefully in patients with some neuro-ophthalmological disorders. Using Hitachi CT-H250 with the finer matrix of 256 x 256 and a section thickness of 5 mm and 10 mm, we performed head CT in 98 patients with various kinds of neuro-ophthalmological disorders in these 30 months. Neuro-ophthalmological findings in these patients were visual disturbance, visual field defects (hemianopsia, quandrantanopsia, enlargement of the blind spot, central scotoma), papilledema, optic nerve atrophy, difficulties in ocular movements, and others. In 44 (44.9%) of these 98 patients, abnormal findings were displayed in the head CT, characterizing intracranial tumors, intracranial infarction, aneurysms in intracranial vessels, arterio-venous malformation, enlargement of the ventricle or the cistern. In some cases the head CT was the decisive procedure in ensuring a correct diagnosis. We presented findings in the head CT in several interesting cases. We recognized the necessity of the head CT in patients with neuro-ophthalmological disorders. (author)

  3. A NEURO FUZZY MODEL FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several factors may contribute directly or indirectly to the structural failure of metallic pipes. The most important of which is corrosion. Corrosivity of pipes is not a directly measurable parameter as pipe corrosion is a very random phenomenon. The main aim of the present study is to develop a neuro-fuzzy model capable of ...

  4. Developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm to control air conditioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper developed artificial intelligence technique adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller for air conditioning systems at different pressures. The first order Sugeno fuzzy inference system was implemented and utilized for modeling and controller design. In addition, the estimation of the heat transfer rate and water mass flow rate ...

  5. Developed adaptive neuro-fuzzy algorithm to control air conditioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The paper developed artificial intelligence technique adaptive neuro-fuzzy ... system is highly appreciated and essential in most of our daily life. ... It can construct an input-output mapping based on human knowledge and specific input-output data ... fuzzy controllers to produce desirable internal temperature and air quality, ...

  6. Aquatic intervention in children with neuro-motor impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Getz, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    The present thesis addresses the influence of aquatic interventions on motor performance of children with neuro-motor deficiencies in a functional context. The theoretical framework is based on a functional approach in compliance to the International Classification of Function and Disability (ICF).

  7. Breast, prostate, and cervical cancer, melanoma, and neuro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cancer, melanoma, and neuro-endocrine tumours. Nuclear medicine ... for the evaluation of the presence and localisation of skeletal metastases .... is primarily a surgical/histological diagnosis ... and 50 - 70% for pancreatic NETs, and a high speci ... Steyn and Dr A Brink for their assistance in writing this article. References.

  8. Synthesis of novel ligands for neuro-inflammation imaging using Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacheux, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Neuro-inflammation plays an important role in many neuro-degenerative diseases (Alzheimer, Parkinson, Multiple sclerosis..) and recent developments in molecular imaging provide today new insights into the diagnostic and the treatment management of these diseases. Among the existing imaging techniques, the highly sensitive and quantitative nuclear modalities SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) but especially PET (positron emission tomography) play key roles. My PhD program is devoted to the design and synthesis of novel radioligands, all dedicated to the imaging of specific targets and processes linked to neuro-inflammation. For this, PET and the short-lived positron-emitter fluorine-18 (T 1/2 : 109.8 min) remain the main focuses. The project has been divided into two sections, the first one concentrates on the development of novel ligands targeting the Translocator Protein 18 kDa (TSPO). Indeed, this target is today recognized as an early bio-marker of neuro-inflammatory processes and PK11195, an isoquinoline carboxamide labelled with carbon-11, was, in the late 80's, the first reported PET-radioligand. More recently, new compounds, all belonging to different chemical classes, have emerged and notably the pyrazolopyrimidine acetamide [ 11 C]DPA-713 and the pyridazinoindole acetamide [ 11 C]SSR180575. Within the first section of my PhD, novel derivatives of both DPA-713 and SSR180575 have been synthesized and in vitro characterized. Dedicated precursors for labelling were also developed for the most promising candidates, and radiolabelling has been performed. Some results have been presented at the 21. International Symposium on Radiopharmaceutical Sciences (Columbia, MO, USA - May 26-31, 2015).The second part of my PhD, deals with the development of ligands for alternative targets to the TSPO, like the type-2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) and the purinergic P2Y14/P2Y12 receptors, the latter emerging today as a hot topic for imaging opportunities

  9. Neuro-otological and peripheral nerve involvement in Fabry disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carmona

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fabry disease (FD is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease, with multisystemic glycosphingolipids deposits. Neuro-otological involvement leading to hearing loss and vestibular dysfunctions has been described, but there is limited information about the frequency, site of lesion, or the relationship with peripheral neuropathy. The aim was to evaluate the presence of auditory and vestibular symptoms, and assess neurophysiological involvement of the VIII cranial nerve, correlating these findings with clinical and neurophysiological features of peripheral neuropathy. We studied 36 patients with FD with a complete neurological and neuro-otological evaluation including nerve conduction studies, quantitative sensory testing (to evaluate small fiber by warm and cold threshold detection and cold and heat pain, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, videonistagmography, audiometry and brainstem auditory evoked potentials. Neuro-otologic symptoms included hearing loss (22.2%, vertigo (27.8% or both (25%. An involvement of either cochlear or vestibular function was identified in most patients (75%. In 70% of our patients the involvement of both cochlear and vestibular function could not be explained by a neural or vascular mechanism. Small fiber neuropathy was identified in 77.7%. There were no significant associations between neurootological and QST abnormalities. Neuro-otologic involvement is frequent and most likely under-recognized in patients with FD. It lacks a specific neural or vascular pattern, suggesting multi-systemic, end organ damage. Small fiber neuropathy is an earlier manifestation of FD, but there is no correlation between the development of neuropathy and neuro-otological abnormalities.

  10. A Survey on the Exchange of Linguistic Resources: Publishing Linguistic Linked Open Data on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Sanchez-Alonso, Salvador; Roa-Valverde, Antonio J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of the principal formats and frameworks that have been used in the last 20 years to exchange linguistic resources. It aims to give special attention to the most recent approaches to publishing linguistic linked open data on the Web. Design/methodology/approach: Research papers…

  11. Sample Undergraduate Linguistics Courses. Linguistics in the Undergraduate Curriculum, Appendix 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguistic Society of America, Washington, DC.

    Thirty-six nontraditional undergraduate courses in linguistics are described. Course topics include: animal communication, bilingualism, sociolinguistics, introductory linguistics, language and formal reasoning, language and human conflict, language and power, language and sex, language and the brain, language planning, language typology and…

  12. Linguistic fuzzy selection of liquid levelmeters in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghyym, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, a selection methodology of liquid levelmeters, especially, level sensors in non-nuclear category, to be installed in nuclear facilities is developed using a linguistic fuzzy approach. Depending on defuzzification techniques, the linguistic fuzzy methodology leads to either linguistic (exactly, fully-linguistic) or cardinal (i.e., semi-linguistic) evaluation. In the case of the linguistic method, for each alternative, fuzzy preference index is converted to linguistic utility value by means of a similarity measure determining the degree of similarity between fuzzy index and linguistic ratings. For the cardinal method, the index is translated to cardinal overall utility value. According to these values, alternatives of interest are linguistically or numerically evaluated and a suitable alternative can be selected. Under given selection criteria, the suitable selections out of some liquid levelmeters for nuclear facilities are dealt with using the linguistic fuzzy methodology proposed. Then, linguistic fuzzy evaluation results are compared with numerical results available in the literature. It is found that as to a suitable option the linguistic fuzzy selection is in agreement with the crisp numerical selection. In addition, this comparison shows that the fully-linguistic method facilitates linguistic interpretation regarding evaluation results

  13. Linguistic fuzzy selection of liquid levelmeters in nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghyym, S. H. [KEPRI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    In this work, a selection methodology of liquid levelmeters, especially, level sensors in non-nuclear category, to be installed in nuclear facilities is developed using a linguistic fuzzy approach. Depending on defuzzification techniques, the linguistic fuzzy methodology leads to either linguistic (exactly, fully-linguistic) or cardinal (i.e., semi-linguistic) evaluation. In the case of the linguistic method, for each alternative, fuzzy preference index is converted to linguistic utility value by means of a similarity measure determining the degree of similarity between fuzzy index and linguistic ratings. For the cardinal method, the index is translated to cardinal overall utility value. According to these values, alternatives of interest are linguistically or numerically evaluated and a suitable alternative can be selected. Under given selection criteria, the suitable selections out of some liquid levelmeters for nuclear facilities are dealt with using the linguistic fuzzy methodology proposed. Then, linguistic fuzzy evaluation results are compared with numerical results available in the literature. It is found that as to a suitable option the linguistic fuzzy selection is in agreement with the crisp numerical selection. In addition, this comparison shows that the fully-linguistic method facilitates linguistic interpretation regarding evaluation results.

  14. Cognitive requirements of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems: some implications of temporal horizon for managerial behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Peterson, 2007; Wargo et al., 2010a). This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS) hypothesis (Bickel et al., 2012b) captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994) and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST; Gray and McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton and Corr, 2004), which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992) as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behavior. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second, by consideration of adaptive-innovative cognitive styles (Kirton, 2003) in the construction of managerial teams, a theme that can now be investigated by a dedicated research program that incorporates psychometric analysis of personality types and cognitive styles involved in managerial decision-making and the underlying neurophysiological bases of such decision-making.

  15. Cognitive requirements of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems: Some implications of temporal horizon for managerial behavior in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Wargo, Baglini & Nelson, 2010a; Peterson, 2007. This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS hypothesis (Bickel, Mueller & Jarmolowicz, 2012 captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994 and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (Gray & McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton & Corr, 2004, which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992 as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behaviour. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second, by consideration of adaptive-innovative cognitive styles (Kirton, 2003 in the construction of managerial teams, a theme that can now be investigated by a dedicated research program that incorporates psychometric analysis of personality types and cognitive styles involved in managerial decision-making and the underlying neurophysiological bases of such decision-making.

  16. On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Borissov Pericliev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems The notion of system of linguistic elements figures prominently in most post-Saussurian linguistics up to the present. A “system” is the network of the contrastive (or, distinctive features each element in the system bears to the remaining elements. The meaning (valeur of each element in the system is the set of features that are necessary and jointly sufficient to distinguish this element from all others. The paper addresses the problems of “redundancy”, i.e. the occurrence of features that are not strictly necessary in describing an element in a system. Redundancy is shown to smuggle into the description of linguistic systems, this infelicitous practice illustrated with some examples from the literature (e.g. the classical phonemic analysis of Russian by Cherry, Halle, and Jakobson, 1953. The logic and psychology of the occurrence of redundancy are briefly sketched and it is shown that, in addition to some other problems, redundancy leads to a huge and unresolvable ambiguity of descriptions of linguistic systems (the Buridan’s ass problem.

  17. From Remediation to Acceleration: Recruiting, Retaining, and Graduating Future Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Socorro G.; Morales, Amanda R.; Holmes, Melissa A.; Terry, Dawn Herrera

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic case study explores one mid-western state university's response to the challenge of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD), especially Latino/a, student recruitment and retention. BESITOS (Bilingual/Bicultural Education Students Interacting To Obtain Success) is an integrated teacher preparation program implemented at a…

  18. Drawing upon Lessons Learned: Effective Curriculum and Instruction for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Gifted Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Julie Dingle

    2016-01-01

    Javits Gifted and Talented Education Program has provided a wealth of knowledge on culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) gifted learners and how to support teachers in their work with CLD students. This study examined five impactful Javits projects through qualitative inquiry centered on how innovative practice takes root or not. Using…

  19. Educating Linguistically Diverse Students: A Mixed Methods Study of Elementary Teachers' Coursework, Attitudes, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Renée A.

    2016-01-01

    This study followed a mixed-methods sequential explanatory design. Phase I involved the collection of quantitative data to examine inservice teachers' (N = 69) attitudes about language and linguistic diversity as well as their teacher education coursework. All participants were graduates from the same teacher education program. Phase II included…

  20. French Immersion Research in Canada: Recent Contributions to SLA and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Merrill

    2000-01-01

    Discusses two questions: (1) What has the recent research conducted in French immersion programs in Canada contributed to understanding of second language acquisition?; and (2) What has it contributed to the broader field of applied linguistics? Considers research in the coming decade, and discusses obstacles that may be faced in Canada in…

  1. Scaffolding Linguistic and Intercultural Goals in EFL with Simplified Novels and Their Film Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee; Vivaldo-Lima, Javier

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that exposure to culture will help students develop complex linguistic and cultural skills. The authors discuss the use of graded literary readers, audio resources, and films. They present a detailed description of the implementation and results of two simplified novel modules in an EFL program. One module was taught to…

  2. Work Papers of the Summer Institute of Linguistics, University of North Dakota Session. Volume 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martlett, Stephen A., Ed.; Meyer, Jim, Ed.

    This collection of eight papers and six "data squibs" (short research findings) are based on topics and languages under study by students and staff of the linguistics program of the University of North Dakota. The papers are: (1) "Dakota Sioux Objects" (Thomas M. Pinson); (2) "The Tapir: A Yanomami Text" (Irma…

  3. [An essay about science and linguistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugini, P

    2011-01-01

    Both the methodology and epistemology of science provided the criteria by which the scientific research can describe and interpret data and results of its observational or experimental studies. When the scientist approaches the conclusive inference, it is mandatory to think that both the knowledge and truth imply the use of words semantically and etymologically (semiologically) appropriate, especially if neologisms are required. Lacking a vocabulary, there will be the need of popularizing the inference to the linguistics of the context to which the message is addressed. This could imply a discrepancy among science, knowledge, truth and linguistics, that can be defined "semiologic bias". To avoid this linguistic error, the scientist must feel the responsibility to provide the scientific community with the new words that are semantically and etymologically coherent with what it has been scientifically discovered.

  4. Linguistic Ethnography, Literacy Teaching and Teacher Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Grete; Nielsen, Henrik Balle

    in current attempts to research-base teacher education. Lefstein, A. & J. Snell. 2014. Better than best practice. Developing teaching and learning through dialogue. London: Routledge. Keywords: literacy teaching classroom dialogue teacher feedback linguistic ethnography research-based teacher education...... material consists of field notes and video observations from the literacy classroom combined with reflective interviews with the literacy teacher and analyses of pupils’ oral and written texts. Taking a linguistic ethnographic approach, the case study investigates the interplay between teacher, pupil...... eclecticism, openness and systematicity characteristic of a linguistic ethnographic analysis (Lefstein & Snell 2014, 185-86). In the poster, we will focus on emergent data analysis. Our main points of interest are 1) the classroom dialogue between teacher and pupils and 2) the literacy teacher’s assessment...

  5. Preprocessing Greek Papyri for Linguistic Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vierros, Marja

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Greek documentary papyri form an important direct source for Ancient Greek. It has been exploited surprisingly little in Greek linguistics due to a lack of good tools for searching linguistic structures. This article presents a new tool and digital platform, “Sematia”, which enables transforming the digital texts available in TEI EpiDoc XML format to a format which can be morphologically and syntactically annotated (treebanked, and where the user can add new metadata concerning the text type, writer and handwriting of each act of writing. An important aspect in this process is to take into account the original surviving writing vs. the standardization of language and supplements made by the editors. This is performed by creating two different layers of the same text. The platform is in its early development phase. Ongoing and future developments, such as tagging linguistic variation phenomena as well as queries performed within Sematia, are discussed at the end of the article.

  6. Linguistic Culture and Essentialism in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Rudwick

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how language and culture are intertwined and often regarded as “invariable fixed properties” in contemporary South Africa by focusing on one particular indigenous African language group, i.e. isiZulu-speakers. Drawing from general theoretical sociolinguistic approaches to language and culture and considering South Africa’s socio-political history, the paper demonstrates the significance and saliency of Zulu linguistic culture to Zulu people in the post-apartheid state. It is examined, how Zulu linguistic culture is regarded a resource in the isiZulu-speaking community and as one of the most salient tools of in-group identification in the larger contemporary South African society. Zulu people’s culture is profoundly language-embedded and Zulu linguistic culture often based on essentialism.

  7. The Study of Critical Eco-Linguistic in Green Discourse: Prospective Eco-Linguistic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommi Yuniawan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Eco-linguistic studies are influenced by one of the other interdisciplinary sciences, namely critical discourse analysis. The combination of these two sciences is called critical eco-linguistic studies. Critical eco-linguistic examines the discourse about the environment and various forms of discourse and their ideology which concerns people and the environment. The environmental discourse with all its manifestations (oral text, written text is called green discourse. To that end, critical eco-linguistic dictates the linguistic aspects contained in the green discourse. Utilization of lingual units in green discourse will affect the sense and logic of people involved in the discourse, ie the writers and readers or the speakers and the speakers. What is recorded in their cognition, will affect their attitudes and actions to the environment. If green discourse is constructive, then their attitude and actions to the environment are constructive. Conversely, if green discourse is more destructive and exploitative, then their attitudes and actions towards the environment will also be affected towards destruction and exploitation. For this reason, critical eco-linguistic studies in green discourse deserve to be given space as a form of prospective eco-linguistic analysis.

  8. Neuro-fuzzy system modeling based on automatic fuzzy clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuangang TANG; Fuchun SUN; Zengqi SUN

    2005-01-01

    A neuro-fuzzy system model based on automatic fuzzy clustering is proposed.A hybrid model identification algorithm is also developed to decide the model structure and model parameters.The algorithm mainly includes three parts:1) Automatic fuzzy C-means (AFCM),which is applied to generate fuzzy rules automatically,and then fix on the size of the neuro-fuzzy network,by which the complexity of system design is reducesd greatly at the price of the fitting capability;2) Recursive least square estimation (RLSE).It is used to update the parameters of Takagi-Sugeno model,which is employed to describe the behavior of the system;3) Gradient descent algorithm is also proposed for the fuzzy values according to the back propagation algorithm of neural network.Finally,modeling the dynamical equation of the two-link manipulator with the proposed approach is illustrated to validate the feasibility of the method.

  9. A Neuro-psychological Explanation of Religious Experience?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine

    2004-01-01

    and for the problem arising when drawing inadequately reasoned conclusions. Key Words Religious experiences, religious Erlebnis, religious Erfahrung, (religious) ideology, neuroscience, neuropsychology, pain, PET, reductionism, partial reductionism, Transcendental Meditation, epilepsy, schizophrenia.......The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyse to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of religious...... experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of the present paper mean by the concept of religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: the Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological or RIT type of religious experience. In his studies...

  10. Neuro-inspired computing using resistive synaptic devices

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the recent breakthroughs in hardware implementation of neuro-inspired computing using resistive synaptic devices. The authors describe how two-terminal solid-state resistive memories can emulate synaptic weights in a neural network. Readers will benefit from state-of-the-art summaries of resistive synaptic devices, from the individual cell characteristics to the large-scale array integration. This book also discusses peripheral neuron circuits design challenges and design strategies. Finally, the authors describe the impact of device non-ideal properties (e.g. noise, variation, yield) and their impact on the learning performance at the system-level, using a device-algorithm co-design methodology. • Provides single-source reference to recent breakthroughs in resistive synaptic devices, not only at individual cell-level, but also at integrated array-level; • Includes detailed discussion of the peripheral circuits and array architecture design of the neuro-crossbar system; • Focuses on...

  11. Functional Neuro-Imaging and Post-Traumatic Olfactory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Richard J.; Sheehan, William; Thurber, Steven; Roberts, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate via a research literature survey the anterior neurological significance of decreased olfactory functioning following traumatic brain injuries. Materials and Methods: A computer literature review was performed to locate all functional neuro-imaging studies on patients with post-traumatic anosmia and other olfactory deficits. Results: A convergence of findings from nine functional neuro-imaging studies indicating evidence for reduced metabolic activity at rest or relative hypo-perfusion during olfactory activations. Hypo-activation of the prefrontal regions was apparent in all nine post-traumatic samples, with three samples yielding evidence of reduced activity in the temporal regions as well. Conclusions: The practical ramifications include the reasonable hypothesis that a total anosmic head trauma patient likely has frontal lobe involvement. PMID:21716782

  12. A Neuro-Control Design Based on Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katebi, S.D.; Blanke, M.

    This paper describes a neuro-control fuzzy critic design procedure based on reinforcement learning. An important component of the proposed intelligent control configuration is the fuzzy credit assignment unit which acts as a critic, and through fuzzy implications provides adjustment mechanisms....... The fuzzy credit assignment unit comprises a fuzzy system with the appropriate fuzzification, knowledge base and defuzzification components. When an external reinforcement signal (a failure signal) is received, sequences of control actions are evaluated and modified by the action applier unit. The desirable...... ones instruct the neuro-control unit to adjust its weights and are simultaneously stored in the memory unit during the training phase. In response to the internal reinforcement signal (set point threshold deviation), the stored information is retrieved by the action applier unit and utilized for re...

  13. Space Flight-Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew G; Mader, Thomas H; Gibson, C Robert; Tarver, William

    2017-09-01

    New and unique physiologic and pathologic systemic and neuro-ocular responses have been documented in astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. Although the precise cause remains unknown, space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) has been adopted as an appropriate descriptive term. The Space Medicine Operations Division of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has documented the variable occurrence of SANS in astronauts returning from long-duration space flight on the International Space Station. These clinical findings have included unilateral and bilateral optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal and retinal folds, hyperopic refractive error shifts, and nerve fiber layer infarcts. The clinical findings of SANS have been correlated with structural changes on intraorbital and intracranial magnetic resonance imaging and in-flight and terrestrial ultrasonographic studies and ocular optical coherence tomography. Further study of SANS is ongoing for consideration of future manned missions to space, including a return trip to the moon or Mars.

  14. Clinical Relevance of Steroid Use in Neuro-Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, K Ina; Wen, Patrick Y

    2017-01-01

    Corticosteroids are commonly used in the management of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors and CNS metastases to treat cancer- and treatment-related cerebral edema and improve neurologic function. However, they are also associated with significant morbidity and mortality, given their wide range of adverse effects. To review the mechanism of action, pharmacology, and toxicity profile of corticosteroids and to critically appraise the evidence that supports their use in neuro-oncologic practice based on the latest scientific and clinical data. Recent data suggest that corticosteroids may negatively impact survival in glioma patients. In addition, corticosteroids should be incorporated as a standard criterion to assess a patient's clinical and radiographic response to treatment. Corticosteroids should be used judiciously in neuro-oncologic patients, given the potential deleterious effects on clinical outcome and patient survival. Anti-angiogenic agents, which lack these adverse effects, may be a reasonable alternative to corticosteroids.

  15. OpenCL Implementation of NeuroIsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapart, C. A.

    Recent advances in graphics card hardware combined with anintroduction of the OpenCL standard promise to accelerate numerical simulations across diverse scientific disciplines. One such field benefiting from new hardware/software paradigms is econophysics. The paper describes an OpenCL implementation of a selected econophysics model: NeuroIsing, which has been designed to execute in parallel on a vendor-independent graphics card. Originally introduced in the paper [C.~A.~Zapart, ``Econophysics in Financial Time Series Prediction'', PhD thesis, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Japan (2009)], at first it was implemented on a CELL processor running inside a SONY PS3 games console. The NeuroIsing framework can be applied to predicting and trading foreign exchange as well as stock market index futures.

  16. A Genetic Based Neuro-Fuzzy Controller System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the mobile robots have great importance in the manufacturing processes. They are widely used for assembling processes, handling the dangerous components, moving the weighted things, etc. Designing the controller of the mobile robot is a very complex task. Many simple control systems used the neuro-fuzzy controller in the mobile robots. But, they faced with great complexity when moving in unstructured and dynamic environments. The proposed system introduces the uses of the genetic algorithm for optimizing the parameters of the neuro-fuzzy controller. So, the proposed system can improve the performance of the mobile robots. It has applied for a mobile robot used for moving the dangerous and critical materials in unstructured environment. Its results are compared with other traditional controller systems. The suggested system has proved its success for the real-time applications

  17. Neuro tropic Melanoma: The Management of Localised Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croker, J.; Burmeister, B.; Foote, M.

    2012-01-01

    Neuro tropic melanoma is a rare subtype of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Compared with conventional melanoma, it is more locally aggressive with an increased tendency for local recurrence but less likely for nodal or distant metastases. These tumours can be a diagnostic dilemma with a variety of morphological, histopathological, and immunophenotypical expressions. The often amelanotic, benign appearance may lead to treatment issues such as late presentation, diagnostic delay, misdiagnosis, insufficient surgical margins, and recurrence with resulting poor outcome. The neuro tropic nature of the disease and prevalence in the head and neck region can result in peri neural and neural invasion along named large nerves into the brain with resulting neuropathies. Wide local excision with adjuvant radiotherapy where indicated remains the current practice for treatment with chemotherapy predominately being reserved as a salvage treatment for patients with disseminated disease.

  18. Emerging trends in neuro engineering and neural computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kendall; Garmestani, Hamid; Lim, Chee

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on neuro-engineering and neural computing, a multi-disciplinary field of research attracting considerable attention from engineers, neuroscientists, microbiologists and material scientists. It explores a range of topics concerning the design and development of innovative neural and brain interfacing technologies, as well as novel information acquisition and processing algorithms to make sense of the acquired data. The book also highlights emerging trends and advances regarding the applications of neuro-engineering in real-world scenarios, such as neural prostheses, diagnosis of neural degenerative diseases, deep brain stimulation, biosensors, real neural network-inspired artificial neural networks (ANNs) and the predictive modeling of information flows in neuronal networks. The book is broadly divided into three main sections including: current trends in technological developments, neural computation techniques to make sense of the neural behavioral data, and application of these technologie...

  19. ADAPTIVE NEURO-FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM FOR END MILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELOS P. MARKOPOULOS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft computing is commonly used as a modelling method in various technological areas. Methods such as Artificial Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic have found application in manufacturing technology as well. NeuroFuzzy systems, aimed to combine the benefits of both the aforementioned Artificial Intelligence methods, are a subject of research lately as have proven to be superior compared to other methods. In this paper an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for the prediction of surface roughness in end milling is presented. Spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut and vibrations were used as independent input variables, while roughness parameter Ra as dependent output variable. Several variations are tested and the results of the optimum system are presented. Final results indicate that the proposed model can accurately predict surface roughness, even for input that was not used in training.

  20. Is hair loss a reality in neuro-interventional radiology?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gavagan, L

    2012-02-01

    Reports in the literature of radiation-induced hair loss are becoming increasingly common. This work describes a retrospective dose study of patients (n = 958) undergoing diagnostic (primarily cerebral angiograms) and therapeutic (primarily cerebral embolisation) procedures in a neuro-interventional suite. A comparison of patient doses as dose area product (DAP) readings from a single-plane image intensifier system (mean DAP value of 8772 cGy cm(2)) were compared with patient doses from a flat panel biplane system (mean DAP value of 7855 cGy cm(2)). Over 80 % of patients requiring neuro-interventional procedures were found to undergo two procedures or more. An estimated 7 % of therapeutic procedures were found to reach the International Commission on Radiological Protection threshold for temporary epilation.

  1. Ensemble Genetic Fuzzy Neuro Model Applied for the Emergency Medical Service via Unbalanced Data Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammar Sadrawi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Equally partitioned data are essential for prediction. However, in some important cases, the data distribution is severely unbalanced. In this study, several algorithms are utilized to maximize the learning accuracy when dealing with a highly unbalanced dataset. A linguistic algorithm is applied to evaluate the input and output relationship, namely Fuzzy c-Means (FCM, which is applied as a clustering algorithm for the majority class to balance the minority class data from about 3 million cases. Each cluster is used to train several artificial neural network (ANN models. Different techniques are applied to generate an ensemble genetic fuzzy neuro model (EGFNM in order to select the models. The first ensemble technique, the intra-cluster EGFNM, works by evaluating the best combination from all the models generated by each cluster. Another ensemble technique is the inter-cluster model EGFNM, which is based on selecting the best model from each cluster. The accuracy of these techniques is evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC via its area under the curve (AUC. Results show that the AUC of the unbalanced data is 0.67974. The random cluster and best ANN single model have AUCs of 0.7177 and 0.72806, respectively. For the ensemble evaluations, the intra-cluster and the inter-cluster EGFNMs produce 0.7293 and 0.73038, respectively. In conclusion, this study achieved improved results by performing the EGFNM method compared with the unbalanced training. This study concludes that selecting several best models will produce a better result compared with all models combined.

  2. Cognitive rehabilitation in neuro-oncological patients: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Zucchella

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is one of the most common neurological disorders in neuro-oncological patients, linked with morbidity, disability, and poor quality of life. As pharmacologic interventions have not yet proven effective in the treatment of cognitive deficits, cognitive rehabilitation could represent an alternative approach. This paper presents three case studies, describing the cognitive intervention and discussing its effectiveness in the light of current evidence.

  3. From Psycho-Economics to Neuro-Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard WALLISER

    2012-01-01

    In economics, three nested organizational levels, namely behavioural, mental and neural, can be distinguished. They introduce specific theoretical or observable concepts and suggest their own models for choice making. If psycho-economics relates implemented actions to declared mental states, neuro-economics relates mental states to brain areas. Bridge principles can be defined which link concepts with similar interpretations at two successive levels. Thanks to these principles, relations or e...

  4. Religious Experience from a Neuro-Psychological View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Vakili

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyze to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of  religious experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of  the present paper mean by the concept of  religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: The Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological type of religious experience or RIT type. Furthermore, the present paper is focused on the work of neuro-psychologist M. A. Persinger [1997, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1987, 1985, and 1984]. In his studies, Persinger indicates that mystical experience (RErl has its seat in the right hemisphere of the human brain, whereas (religious ideology (RIT is related to the left hemisphere. Consequently, the hemisphere in which the (religious experience is taking place seems to label the type of experience. Persinger, interested in the powerful effects of religious experience (of the RErf type on human beings, asserts that if we could understand the neuro-cognitive processes involved in experiencing religiously, such processes might be copied for clinical use in order to improve psychiatric therapy for curing depression. Thus, Persinger studied and compared people practicing religious meditation with people who did not, and also studied the results of PET scanning on the experiences of schizophrenic and epileptic patients. PET scanning measures the metabolic activity in the hemispheres, ranging it on a scale from under normal to over normal activity. This paper will account for the relevance of comparing these two apparently different studies and for the problem arising the experience of pain because, neurologically, pain, like religious experience,is said to be caused by processes in the human brain.

  5. Ultrastructural muscle and neuro-muscular junction alterations in polymyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Babakova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural analysis of 7 biopsies from m.palmaris longus and m.deltoideus in patients with confirmed polymyositis revealed alterationand degeneration of muscle fibers and anomalies of neuro-muscular junction (NMJ. The NMJ abnormalities and following denervation ofmuscle fibers in polymyositis start with subsynaptic damages. The occurance of regeneration features in muscle fibers at any stage is characteristic for PM.

  6. La frequence des affections neuro-ophtalmologiques au CHU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But: faire une description clinique des affections neuro-ophtalmologiques et déterminer la fréquence de ces pathologies. Méthodologie: Il s'agit d'une étude prospective menée sur une année dans le service d'ophtalmologie du CHU Sylvanus Olympio de Lomé. Etaient inclus tous cas suspect de baisse d'acuité visuelle ...

  7. Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy Classifier Based On Nefclass Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Gliwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents hybrid neuro-fuzzy classifier, based on NEFCLASS model, which wasmodified. The presented classifier was compared to popular classifiers – neural networks andk-nearest neighbours. Efficiency of modifications in classifier was compared with methodsused in original model NEFCLASS (learning methods. Accuracy of classifier was testedusing 3 datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository: iris, wine and breast cancer wisconsin.Moreover, influence of ensemble classification methods on classification accuracy waspresented.

  8. Neuro-anatomy enters the age of information technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    By usual neuro-anatomy, it has been observed for a long time that considerable anatomical disparities exist from one brain to another one. How to explain this variability? How is it interpreted at a functional level? It is indispensable to deal with these questions before intending to pick, with a view to doing clinical diagnosis, the informations given by a patient brain imagery (NMR imaging, positron computed tomography). The image processing tends to bring some answers elements. (O.M.)

  9. A novel Neuro-fuzzy classification technique for data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumadip Ghosh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we proposed a novel Neuro-fuzzy classification technique for data mining. The inputs to the Neuro-fuzzy classification system were fuzzified by applying generalized bell-shaped membership function. The proposed method utilized a fuzzification matrix in which the input patterns were associated with a degree of membership to different classes. Based on the value of degree of membership a pattern would be attributed to a specific category or class. We applied our method to ten benchmark data sets from the UCI machine learning repository for classification. Our objective was to analyze the proposed method and, therefore compare its performance with two powerful supervised classification algorithms Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN and Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS. We assessed the performance of these classification methods in terms of different performance measures such as accuracy, root-mean-square error, kappa statistic, true positive rate, false positive rate, precision, recall, and f-measure. In every aspect the proposed method proved to be superior to RBFNN and ANFIS algorithms.

  10. Neuro-fuzzy controller to navigate an unmanned vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selma, Boumediene; Chouraqui, Samira

    2013-12-01

    A Neuro-fuzzy control method for an Unmanned Vehicle (UV) simulation is described. The objective is guiding an autonomous vehicle to a desired destination along a desired path in an environment characterized by a terrain and a set of distinct objects, such as obstacles like donkey traffic lights and cars circulating in the trajectory. The autonomous navigate ability and road following precision are mainly influenced by its control strategy and real-time control performance. Fuzzy Logic Controller can very well describe the desired system behavior with simple "if-then" relations owing the designer to derive "if-then" rules manually by trial and error. On the other hand, Neural Networks perform function approximation of a system but cannot interpret the solution obtained neither check if its solution is plausible. The two approaches are complementary. Combining them, Neural Networks will allow learning capability while Fuzzy-Logic will bring knowledge representation (Neuro-Fuzzy). In this paper, an artificial neural network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) controller is described and implemented to navigate the autonomous vehicle. Results show several improvements in the control system adjusted by neuro-fuzzy techniques in comparison to the previous methods like Artificial Neural Network (ANN).

  11. Sturge-Weber syndrome. The current neuro-imaging data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukobza, M.; Cambra, M.R.; Merland, J.J.; Enjolras, O.

    2000-01-01

    Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a rare congenital sporadic disease with neuro-ocular and cutaneous vascular findings. Clinically, the full-blown condition consists of a facial port-wine stain (PWS) the V1 facial trigeminal skin area, alone or in combination with V2 and V3 PWS, seizures and ocular abnormalities (glaucoma and choroidal angioma). Radiologically, a leptomeningeal (pial) capillary and venous malformation, mostly located in the parieto-occipital area, cerebral atrophy and calcifications are demonstrated. An ipsilateral enlarged choroid plexus may be an early anatomic symptom. Development neuro-diagnostic technique for the screening of infants with an at-risk V1 PWS, as well as for the follow-up of patients with evidence SWS. Accelerated myelination in the involved hemisphere may be early diagnostic feature before 6 months of age. Later, hyperintensity of white matter on T2 is considered a symptom of gliosis. Clinically, progression of the diseases is associated with anatomic changes and correlates with the extent of the pial vascular anomaly, extent and severity of cerebral atrophy, and white matter abnormalities. A neonatal neuro-imaging work-up, using CT or MRI, may not demonstrate the pial anomaly and should be repeated after 6 to 12 months in an at-risk infant with V1 PWS. (authors)

  12. Nanoparticle-Based Strategies to Treat Neuro-Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémy Poupot

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuro-inflammation is a pivotal physio-pathological feature of brain disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. As such, it is a relevant therapeutic target against which drugs have to be proposed. Targeting neuro-inflammation implies crossing the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB to reach the Central Nervous System (CNS. Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs are promising candidates to carry and deliver drugs to the CNS by crossing the BBB. There are several strategies to design ENPs intended for crossing through the BBB. Herein, we first put nanotechnologies back in their historical context and introduce neuro-inflammation and its consequences in terms of public health. In a second part, we explain how ENPs can get access to the brain and review this area by highlighting recent papers in the field. Finally, after pointing out potential guidelines for preclinical studies involving ENPs, we conclude by opening the debate on the questions of nanosafety and toxicity of these ENPs and in particular on ecotoxicity related to regulatory issues and public concerns.

  13. Research progress in neuro-immune interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-ling CAI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune response may be activated quickly once the organism is invaded by exotic pathogens. An excessive immune response may result in inflammation and tissue damage, whereas an insufficient immune response may result in infection. Nervous system may regulate the intensity of innate immune responses by releasing neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones. Compared with the complicated neuro-immune system in mammals, it is much simpler in Caenorhabditis elegans. Besides, C. elegans is accessible to genetic, molecular biology and behavioral analyses, so it has been used in studies on neuro-immune interactions. It has been revealed recently in the studies with C. elegans that the neuronal pathways regulating innate immune responses primarily include a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β pathway, an insulin/insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF pathway and dopaminergic neurotransmission. Since these pathways are evolutionally conservative, so it might be able to provide some new ideas for the research on neuro-immune interactions at molecular levels. The recent progress in this field has been reviewed in present paper.

  14. Detecting depression stigma on social media: A linguistic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ang; Jiao, Dongdong; Zhu, Tingshao

    2018-05-01

    Efficient detection of depression stigma in mass media is important for designing effective stigma reduction strategies. Using linguistic analysis methods, this paper aims to build computational models for detecting stigma expressions in Chinese social media posts (Sina Weibo). A total of 15,879 Weibo posts with keywords were collected and analyzed. First, a content analysis was conducted on all 15,879 posts to determine whether each of them reflected depression stigma or not. Second, using four algorithms (Simple Logistic Regression, Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks, Support Vector Machine, and Random Forest), two groups of classification models were built based on selected linguistic features; one for differentiating between posts with and without depression stigma, and one for differentiating among posts with three specific types of depression stigma. First, 967 of 15,879 posts (6.09%) indicated depression stigma. 39.30%, 15.82%, and 14.99% of them endorsed the stigmatizing view that "People with depression are unpredictable", "Depression is a sign of personal weakness", and "Depression is not a real medical illness", respectively. Second, the highest F-Measure value for differentiating between stigma and non-stigma reached 75.2%. The highest F-Measure value for differentiating among three specific types of stigma reached 86.2%. Due to the limited and imbalanced dataset of Chinese Weibo posts, the findings of this study might have limited generalizability. This paper confirms that incorporating linguistic analysis methods into online detection of stigma can be beneficial to improve the performance of stigma reduction programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Using Routine Data for Quality Assessment in NeuroNet Telestroke Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theiss, Stephan; Günzel, Franziska; Storm, Anna

    2013-01-01

    : Routine clinical data from the HELIOS hospital information system were compared before and after implementation of the NeuroNet concept, including neurologic acute stroke teleconsultations, standard operating procedures, and peer review quality management in 3 hospital cohorts: 5 comprehensive stroke...... centers, 5 NeuroNet hospitals, and 5 matched control hospitals. RESULTS: During the study period, the rate of thrombolytic therapy increased by 4.8% in NeuroNet hospitals, while ischemic stroke in-hospital mortality decreased (relative risk reduction ∼29% in NeuroNet and control hospitals). The odds ratio...... for thrombolytic therapy in comprehensive stroke centers compared to NeuroNet hospitals was reduced from 3.7 to 1.3 between 2006 and 2009. Comprehensive stroke care coding according to German Diagnosis Related Groups definitions increased by 45% in NeuroNet (P

  16. Shielding effectiveness of a unit of neuro physiology against electromagnetic interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Febles Santana, V.; Miguel Bilbao, S. de; Lubary Rodriguez, C. S.; Melian del Castillo, M. R.; Herraz Gomez, J. G.; Ramos Gonzalez, V.; Fernandez de Aldecoa, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    During construction of the new building Ambulatory Activity in the Hospital Universitario de Canarias (HUC), was designed and implemented the shield in the form of Faraday cage, five rooms adjacent to the Unit of Neuro physiology, located at the northeast corner 3C plant of the building, in order to sufficiently attenuate radio signals present in the medium and thus enable correct functionality of electro medical equipment free of artifacts caused by external electromagnetic fields. The experience held, once finished the work and commissioning the unit, is that interference is undesirable in some cases even hinder the proper development of medical diagnostic studies. Therefore, technical staff of the Engineering Branch of HUC, initiated a program of measures to determine the effectiveness of the Faraday cage constructed, checking the attenuation levels achieved for frequencies of interest and, if necessary, the deficiencies identified in the design and execution of it, and proposed improvements to minimize interference problems exist.

  17. NeuroCharter: A Neural Networks Software to Visually Discover the Effects and Contributions between Interrelated Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad N. Elnesr

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available NeuroCharter is an open-source software that helps in prediction problems in scientific research through artificial neural networks. The program is designed mainly for researchers who focus on details of the neural-network’s parameters, in addition to easy reuse of the trained network. The program outputs almost all the necessary graphs regarding the network and features contributions and relative outputs for both numeric and categorical features. The program was implemented in Python 2.7.11 and is open sourced for reuse and future development. The program consists of four main classes, one for the neural networks calculation, one for data manipulation, one for plotting the neural network, and the main class that manages and links the other classes. The source code and some experimental data are freely available at the GitHub code repository http://j.mp/NeuroCharter.   Funding Statement: The project was financially supported by King Saud University, Vice Deanship of Research Chairs.

  18. Neuro-Behçet’s disease in childhood: A focus on the neuro-ophthalmological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuro-Behçet’s disease (NBD involves the central nervous system; peripheral nervous system involvement is not often reported. NBD is quite common in adult patients and occurs rarely during childhood and adolescence. Young patients may share symptoms and signs of NBD with other neuro-ophthalmological disorders (e.g. idiopathic intracranial hypertension; thus, making the differential diagnosis difficult. Neuroimaging is mandatory and necessary for a correct NBD diagnosis but in children radiological examinations are often difficult to perform without sedation. From 1971 to 2011, 130 patients aged ≤16 years have been reported with NBD, according to retrospective surveys, case series, and case reports. The origin of the reported cases met the well-known geographical distribution of Behçet’s disease (BD; the mean age at presentation of neurological findings was 11.8 years, with male gender prevalence (ratio, 2.9:1. We considered in detail the neuro-ophthalmological features of the 53 cases whose neuroimaging alterations were described with an assigned radiological pattern of the disease (parenchymal: 14 cases, non-parechymal: 35 cases, and mixed: 4 cases. In 19/53 patients (36%, neuro-ophthalmological symptoms anticipated any pathognomonic sign for a BD diagnosis, or only occasional aphtae were recalled by the patients. Family history was positive in 17% of subjects. Headache was reported in 75% of the patients; in those presenting with cerebral vascular involvement, headache was combined to other symptoms of intracranial hypertension. Papilledema was the most frequently reported ophthalmological finding, followed by posterior uveitis. Treatment consisted of systemic steroids in 93% of patients, often combined with other immunosuppressive drugs (especially colchicine and azathioprine. Clinical recovery or improvement was documented in the large majority of patients. Nine subjects had definitive alterations, and one died. Based on our

  19. [Establishment of diagnosis and treatment patterns of holistic integrated medicine for neuro-ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling

    2014-12-01

    Neuro-ophthalmology, as an interdisciplinary, covers at least three disciplines- ophthalmology, neurology and neurosurgery. With limited knowledge in each discipline, doctors often make misdiagnoses for neuro-ophthalmology diseases. Therefore, it is imperative to abandon the distinction between disciplines and combine all the knowledge to diagnose and treat patients in patterns of holistic integrated medicine in order to effectively improve the diagnosis and treatment of neuro-ophthalmology.

  20. Protein linguistics - a grammar for modular protein assembly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimona, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The correspondence between biology and linguistics at the level of sequence and lexical inventories, and of structure and syntax, has fuelled attempts to describe genome structure by the rules of formal linguistics. But how can we define protein linguistic rules? And how could compositional semantics improve our understanding of protein organization and functional plasticity?

  1. What Does Corpus Linguistics Have to Offer to Language Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, continuing advances in technology have increased the capacity to automate the extraction of a range of linguistic features of texts and thus have provided the impetus for the substantial growth of corpus linguistics. While corpus linguistic tools and methods have been used extensively in second language learning research, they…

  2. Citation Analysis and Authorship Patterns of Two Linguistics Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezema, Ifeanyi J.; Asogwa, Brendan E.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the sources cited in articles published in two linguistics journals, "Applied Linguistics and Journal of Linguistics," from 2001 to 2010. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted using bibliometric indicators, such as types of cited sources, timeliness of cited sources, authorship patterns, rank lists of the…

  3. Ninth international conference on computational linguistics Coling 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the summary reports presented at the concluding session and evaluating the state of the art, trends and perspectives as reflected in the papers presented at Coling 82 in six domains: machine translation, grammatico-semantic analysis, linguistics in its relations to computational linguistics, question answering, artificial intelligence and knowledge representation, and information retrieval and linguistic data bases.

  4. A phylogenetic and cognitive perspective on linguistic complexity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years a growing interest in the nature of linguistic complexity has emerged in linguistic circles. A striking feature of this interest is that linguistic complexity is taken to be a phenomenon in its own right. In fact, an extreme construal of the inherent complexity of language is represented in the notion of universal ...

  5. Ideologeme "Order" in Modern American Linguistic World Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibatova, Aygul Z.; Vdovichenko, Larisa V.; Ilyashenko, Lubov K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper studies the topic of modern American linguistic world image. It is known that any language is the most important instrument of cognition of the world by a person but there is also no doubt that any language is the way of perception and conceptualization of this knowledge about the world. In modern linguistics linguistic world image is…

  6. Multiple Uses of Applied Linguistics Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanave, Christine Pearson

    2003-01-01

    Discusses ways that applied linguistics literature can be used in a multidisciplinary graduate-level English for academic purposes class. Focuses on three main uses: (1) providing students with information about issues in academic and professional writing; (2) helping them make comparisons of form and style with academic articles in their own…

  7. Educational language planning and linguistic identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Peter

    1991-03-01

    There are cases in which a "high" form of a language is taught and used in formal situations, but linguistic variation is also caused by geography, ethnicity and socioeconomic class. Certain variants are regarded as inferior and restricted in expressive capacity, and are disadvantageous. The paper suggests that it is possible to map each person's linguistic identity in two dimensions: the number of languages spoken, and the situation-specific variants of each language. Further, it is argued that the distance between a "low" variant and a "high" standard form of a language may present to the "low" learner of a standardized mother tongue a barrier just as great as that posed by the learning of a related foreign language to a speaker of the high variant. It is proposed that greater tolerance be exercised in acceptance of variation and in recognition of linguistic identity, so that this can be built on in the necessary and desirable expansion of linguistic competence, rather than being devalued. The relevance of the communicative approach to language teaching is touched on.

  8. Linguistic and Cultural Strategies in ELT Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrius, Montse; Pujol, Didac

    2010-01-01

    There are three main types of ELT dictionaries: monolingual, bilingual, and bilingualized. Each type of dictionary, while having its own advantages, also hinders the learning of English as a foreign language and culture in so far as it is written from a homogenizing (linguistic- and culture-centric) perspective. This paper presents a new type of…

  9. A Short History of Structural Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Peter

    This book is a concise history of structural linguistics, charting its development from the 1870s to the present day. It explains what structuralism was and why its ideas are still central today. For structuralists, a language is a self-contained and tightly organized system whose history is of changes from one state of the system to another. This…

  10. Imitation, Awareness, and Folk Linguistic Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Elizabeth Gentry

    2010-01-01

    Imitations are sophisticated performances displaying regular patterns. The study of imitation allows linguists to understand speakers' perceptions of sociolinguistic variation. In this dissertation, I analyze imitations of non-native accents in order to answer two questions: what can imitation reveal about perception, and how are "folk linguistic…

  11. Indeterminacy, linguistic semantics and fuzzy logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, V. [Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we discuss the indeterminacy phenomenon which has two distinguished faces, namely uncertainty modeled especially by the probability theory and vagueness, modeled by fuzzy logic. Other important mathematical model of vagueness is provided by the Alternative Set Theory. We focus on some of the basic concepts of these theories in connection with mathematical modeling of the linguistic semantics.

  12. The Foundations of Linguistics: Two Theses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Edison

    2009-01-01

    Linguists tell us that the sentence "I enjoyed yourself" is ungrammatical because it violates structural constraints on English sentences. Is this a fact about the "psychology" of English speakers, or a fact about some "mind-independent" state of affairs? If it is indeed a fact about the speaker's psychological makeup then is it so in virtue of…

  13. Esperanto: A Unique Model for General Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.

    1988-01-01

    Esperanto presents a unique model for linguistic research by allowing the study of language development from project to fully functioning language. Esperanto provides insight into the growth of polysemy and redundancy, as well as into language universals and the phenomenon of social control. (Author/CB)

  14. The Deaf Child as a Linguistic Minority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrow, Veda R.; Wilbur, Ronnie B.

    The author offers support for viewing the deaf child as a member of a linguistic minority and considers how this situation affects education of the deaf. Deaf persons are discussed in terms of their intellectual abilities, educational achievement, English competence, and the sociolinguistic factors which point to the existence of a deaf community.…

  15. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The SPiL Plus series has two main aims. Firstly, it serves as a vehicle for the distribution of new and relatively inaccessible information in the field of modern linguistics. Secondly, it aims to stimulate critical discussion in Southern African ...

  16. Leadership and Languages: Inspiring Young Linguists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Rachel; Schechter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Language Leader Award, created by Rachel Hawkes and run by Routes into Languages East "helps pupils learn to lead, using language teaching as the medium. Throughout the year-long programme they develop their leadership and [linguistic] skills, growing in confidence and enhancing their future careers" (Hawkes, n.d. c, p. 1). Some…

  17. The Influence of Bloomfield's Linguistics on Skinner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Maria de Lourdes R. da F.; Matos, Maria Amelia

    2007-01-01

    Bloomfield's "Linguistics as a Science" (1930/1970), "Language" (1933/1961), and "Language or Ideas?" (1936a/1970), and Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957) and "Science and Human Behavior" (1953) were analyzed in regard to their respective perspectives on science and scientific method, the verbal episode, meaning, and subject matter. Similarities…

  18. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity | Moon | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Conventionally, dictionaries present information about institutionalized words, phrases, and senses of words; more creative formations and usages are generally ignored. Yet text and corpus data provide ample evidence of creativity in language, showing that it is part of ordinary linguistic behaviour and indeed ...

  19. LINGUISTIC REALITIES IN KENYA: A PRELIMINARY SURVEY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amitabh@1234

    Kenya is a boon for a field linguist but misinformed politicians and education policy ... to date. Language realities have been observed in this study from a temporal lens of .... The knowledge of a language of international currency is not a curse, and it is ... But the colonial mind-sets of the people worked against the growth.

  20. York Papers in Linguistics, Volume 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local, J. K., Ed.; Warner, A. R., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    These 14 articles on aspects of linguistics include the following: "Economy and Optionality: Interpretations of Subjects in Italian" (David Adger); "Collaborative Repair in EFL Classroom Talk" (Zara Iles); "A Timing Model for Fast French" (Eric Keller, Brigitte Zellner); "Another Travesty of Representation:…

  1. The Prague Linguistic Circle and Dialectics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sládek, Ondřej

    -, č. 19 (2017), s. 352-357 E-ISSN 2037-2426 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : The Prague Linguistic Circle * Jan Mukařovský * Structuralism * Structural Poetics * Dialectics Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision OBOR OECD: Specific literatures

  2. The Linguistic Functions of Some Nonverbal Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper highlights the linguistic concerns of the rhetorical “polylogic” approach to the exploration of the stylistic aspects of language, which include paralinguistic communication devices, such as waving of hands, blinking of eyes, etc. These paralinguistic elements (proxemics for example) usually occur together with ...

  3. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Skalicky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195 with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and linguistic features were examined. To investigate the potential for linguistic features to predict the Humor component scores, regression analysis identified four linguistic indices that accounted for approximately 17.5% of the variance in humor scores. These indices were related to text descriptiveness (i.e., more adjective and adverb use, lower cohesion (i.e., less paragraph-to-paragraph similarity, and lexical sophistication (lower word frequency. The findings suggest that humor can be partially predicted by linguistic features in the text. Furthermore, there was a small but significant correlation between the humor and essay quality scores, suggesting a positive relation between humor and writing quality. Keywords: humor, academic writing, text analysis, essay score, human rating

  4. Problems Portraying Migrants in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a very personal attempt to explore the problematics of portraying migrants in Applied Linguistics research. I begin with a discussion of identity, in particular what we might mean when we use the term, and from there I go on to explore its fundamental imprecision through an analysis of a census question about ethnicity. I then…

  5. Political Economy in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David

    2017-01-01

    This state-of-the-art review is based on the fundamental idea that political economy should be adopted as a frame for research and discussion in applied linguistics as part of a general social turn which has taken hold in the field over the past three decades. It starts with Susan Gal's (1989) early call for such a move in sociolinguistics and…

  6. L2 Literacy and Biliteracy: Linguistic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Stefan M.

    1991-01-01

    In a study of literacy and linguistics that focuses on bilingual and multilingual societies, the following topics are covered: bilingualism and biliteracy; biliteracy in the Soviet Union; case studies in Karelia and Ukraine; and predicting the future of biliteracy. (43 references. (LB)

  7. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics: 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of 18 essays focuses on the linguistic problems involved in accommodating and educating displaced and migrant populations throughout the world. The essays are divided into three sections covering (1) language policy at the national level, (2) language in education policy, and (3) educational practice. Among the specific topics…

  8. Second Language Acquisition and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the second language acquisition (SLA) process and the differential success of second language learners. Examines the fundamental challenges that this characterization faces, and highlights the contributions SLA is capable of in the coming decade. Offers topics for a training and development of curriculum for future applied linguists from…

  9. Psycholinguistics in Applied Linguistics: Trends and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bot, Kees

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between the terms psycholinguistics and applied linguistics, and in the process explores key issues in multilingual processing, such as the structure of the bilingual lexicon, language choice in production and perception, and the language mode. (Author/VWL)

  10. Linguistic Prescription: Familiar Practices and New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegan, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a question by a law student of whether a correction of "sneaked" to "snuck" suggests misinformation and misguided rigidity in the context of better information about current legal usage and a perennial tendency to linguistic prescription. Explores attitudes to current borrowings from English into Japanese and French…

  11. Bridges Over Troubled Waters: Theoretical Linguistics And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper tries to construct a bridge between the concerns of theoretical linguistics and those of multilingualism and code-switching (CS) research. It argues that the primary special point of interaction between these fields lies in the question of potential equivalence between elements or categories, bridging across ...

  12. Linguistic resources and strategies used in multilingual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infrastructure, larger patients base and more staff than its counterpart, (HC-2), which is smaller and has a smaller patient and ... staff members, particularly doctors, have a variety of linguistic repertoires and cultural .... consultation. Some can use odd words that they have picked up, others felt that they could follow the gist of.

  13. Introduction: Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Olcay; Seedhouse, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This short, introductory paper presents an up-to-date account of works within the field of Applied Linguistics which have been influenced by a Conversation Analytic paradigm. The article reviews recent studies in classroom interaction, materials development, proficiency assessment and language teacher education. We believe that the publication of…

  14. Ideology in Applied Linguistics for Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Alan

    2009-01-01

    It is contended that much of present-day applied linguistics for language teaching (ALLT) fails to mediate effectively, primarily because an ideological construction, emanating from a critical theory perspective, is too often imposed on everyday pedagogical practices. This has resulted in an exaggerated level of concern about the power imbalances…

  15. Applied Linguistics and Primary School Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Sue, Ed.; McCartney, Elspeth, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Modern primary teachers must adapt literacy programmes and ensure efficient learning for all. They must also support children with language and literacy difficulties, children learning English as an additional language and possibly teach a modern foreign language. To do this effectively, they need to understand the applied linguistics research…

  16. Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington DC, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Julie; Fee, Molly; Donovan, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) is a private, nonprofit organization with over 50 years' experience in the application of research on language and culture to educational and societal concerns. CAL carries out its mission to improve communication through better understanding of language and culture by engaging in a variety of projects in…

  17. Linguistics, pedagogy and teaching of the language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro William Santiago Galvis

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This article tackles the relationship that exists between linguistics and pedagogy with regards to pedagocical language practices. From this relationship, the approach that has been given to practical native language teaching can be determined as well as characterized. Finally, the paper provides reasons for the communicational approach to teaching spanish.   

  18. Linguistic Imperialism, Cultural Integrity, and EIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiano, Marko

    2001-01-01

    Argues that while linguistic imperialism is real and needs to be addressed, one way for the language instructor to come to terms with the cultural imposition of English language teaching is to define English as an international language. Suggests promoting "prestige varieties" positions the practitioner as purveyor of Anglo-American hegemony and…

  19. Experiences from Nordic research collaboration in linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Sandøy

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The project “Modern loanwords in the languages of the Nordic countries (MIN – Moderne importord i språka i Norden” was the first large-scale collaborative project between linguists in the Nordic countries. This article presents both the aim of the project and some experiences from the work with respect to project design, financing and networking.

  20. SOCIO CUM LINGUISTIC INTERPLAY IN LANGUAGE CHOICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sir George

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... learn to speak a language by force, or refuse to speak it. This is a ... circumstances such as the effects of linguistic deprivation, how bilingual children can learn ..... the other; the effects of books, movies and so on. Out.

  1. The Semiology of Motor Disorders in Autism Spectrum Disorders as Highlighted from a Standardized Neuro-Psychomotor Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Aude; Olliac, Bertrand; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Golse, Bernard; Vaivre-Douret, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Background: Altered motor performance has been described in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with disturbances in walking; posture, coordination, or arm movements, but some individuals with ASD show no impairment of motor skills. The neuro-developmental processes that underpin the performance of neuro-psychomotor functions have not been widely explored, nor is it clear whether there are neuro-psychomotor functions specifically affected in ASD. Our objective was to focus on the semiology of motor disorders among children with ASD using a neuro-developmental assessment tool. Method: Thirty-four children with ASD, with or without intellectual deficit (ID) were recruited in a child psychiatry department and Autism Resource Centers. Initial standard evaluations for diagnosis (psychiatric; psychological; psychomotor) were supplemented by a standardized assessment battery for neuro-developmental psychomotor functions (NP-MOT). Results: The results of some NP-MOT tests differed between children with ASD with ID and those without. However, on the NP-MOT battery, neither of the two groups did well in the bi-manual and finger praxia tests (36 and 52% respectively failed). Manual and digital gnosopraxia showed some deficit (63 and 62% respectively failed). Postural deficits were found in tests for both static equilibrium (64%) and dynamic (52%). There were also difficulties in coordination between the upper and lower limbs in 58% of children. We found 75% failure in motor skills on the M-ABC test. Concerning muscular tone, significant laxity was observed in distal parts of the body (feet and hands), but hypertonia was observed in the proximal muscles of the lower limbs (reduced heel-ear angle). Discussion: The results of manual and digital gnosopraxia tests point to a planning deficit in children with autism. A gesture programming deficit is also highlighted by the poor results in manual praxis, and by failures in the M-ABC tests despite prior training of the child. However

  2. Historical Trajectory of the Quechuan Linguistic Family and its Relations to the Aimaran Linguistic Family

    OpenAIRE

    Adelaar, Willem

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to present the principal stages of the prehistory and history of the Quechuan language family in its interaction with the Aimaran family. It reconstructs a plausible scenario for a unique, intensive process of linguistic convergence that underlies the protolanguages of both families. From there on, it traces the principal developments that characterize the history of the Quechuan linguistic family, such as the initial split in two main branches, Quechua I and Quechua II (fo...

  3. The dosage of the neuroD2 transcription factor regulates amygdala development and emotional learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chin-Hsing; Hansen, Stacey; Wang, Zhenshan; Storm, Daniel R.; Tapscott, Stephen J.; Olson, James M.

    2005-01-01

    The amygdala is centrally involved in formation of emotional memory and response to fear or risk. We have demonstrated that the lateral and basolateral amygdala nuclei fail to form in neuroD2 null mice and neuroD2 heterozygotes have fewer neurons in this region. NeuroD2 heterozygous mice show profound deficits in emotional learning as assessed by fear conditioning. Unconditioned fear was also diminished in neuroD2 heterozygotes compared to wild-type controls. Several key molecular regulators ...

  4. Neuro-pharmacological potentials of Buchholzia coriacea (Engl.) seeds in laboratory rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasanwo, S A; Obembe, O O; Faborode, S O; Elufioye, T O; Adisa, R A

    2013-06-01

    Buchholzia coriacea, taken by elderly, has phytochemicals that have neuro-active metabolites, and the folklore documented its use in neuro-behavioural despairs. This study was conducted to investigate the neuro-pharmacological potentials of Buchholzia coriacea (MEBC) seed extract in the laboratory rodents. Methanol extract of the seeds on B. coriacea (MEBC) was evaluated for its antidepressant (Forced Swimming Test and Tail Suspension Test), anxiolytic (Light-Dark Test, Hole Board Test and Elevated Plus Maze), antinociceptive (Hot-Plate and Tail Flick test) and motor coordination (Rota Rod) functions in mice. Our findings showed antidepressant activity (P neuro-physiological disorders like depression, anxiety and pain.

  5. Linguistic aspects of eponymic professional endocrinologic terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Bytsko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Special linguistic researches of terminological units of different branches of medicine allow analyzing in details the ways of creating the systems of clinical terminology from different aspects: historical, scientific, cultural, linguistic and semantic. There is a wide area of terminology related to the clinical and experimental endocrino­logy within general medical terminological system. The purpose of the study: to demonstrate the structure of endocrine medical terms — eponyms through the prism of systematization of methodological researches on eponymic vocabulary. Materials and methods. The actual material received as a result of a total choice of eponyms (there were 296 terms from the “Reference dictionary for endocrinologist”, which was composed by the scientists of V. Danilevsky Institute of Endocrine Pathology Problems and Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate education — A.V. Kozakov, N.A. Kravchun, I.M. Ilyina, M.I. Zubko, O.A. Goncharova, I.V. Cherniavska has 10,000 endocrine terms, the authors successfully streamlined medical terms of the clinical and experimental endocrinology into the vocabulary. The method of total choice of terms from professional literature, the descriptive method and distributive method were used in the study that allowed distinguishing lexical and semantic features of eponymic terms in the branch of endocrinology. Results. The obtained results point out to the modernity of studies in the field of clinical and experimental endocrinology, which is due to the fact that this is the oldest terminology, by the example of which it is possible to trace the ways of formation, development and improvement of terms, the realization of semantic processes, certain trends, ways and means of word formation. Conclusions. The results of the research on the above mentioned sublanguage of clinical medicine at the level of linguistic observations of the functio­ning in dictionaries and scientific works will

  6. Working Memory for Linguistic and Non-linguistic Manual Gestures: Evidence, Theory, and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Linguistic manual gestures are the basis of sign languages used by deaf individuals. Working memory and language processing are intimately connected and thus when language is gesture-based, it is important to understand related working memory mechanisms. This article reviews work on working memory for linguistic and non-linguistic manual gestures and discusses theoretical and applied implications. Empirical evidence shows that there are effects of load and stimulus degradation on working memory for manual gestures. These effects are similar to those found for working memory for speech-based language. Further, there are effects of pre-existing linguistic representation that are partially similar across language modalities. But above all, deaf signers score higher than hearing non-signers on an n-back task with sign-based stimuli, irrespective of their semantic and phonological content, but not with non-linguistic manual actions. This pattern may be partially explained by recent findings relating to cross-modal plasticity in deaf individuals. It suggests that in linguistic gesture-based working memory, semantic aspects may outweigh phonological aspects when processing takes place under challenging conditions. The close association between working memory and language development should be taken into account in understanding and alleviating the challenges faced by deaf children growing up with cochlear implants as well as other clinical populations.

  7. Working Memory for Linguistic and Non-linguistic Manual Gestures: Evidence, Theory, and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Rudner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic manual gestures are the basis of sign languages used by deaf individuals. Working memory and language processing are intimately connected and thus when language is gesture-based, it is important to understand related working memory mechanisms. This article reviews work on working memory for linguistic and non-linguistic manual gestures and discusses theoretical and applied implications. Empirical evidence shows that there are effects of load and stimulus degradation on working memory for manual gestures. These effects are similar to those found for working memory for speech-based language. Further, there are effects of pre-existing linguistic representation that are partially similar across language modalities. But above all, deaf signers score higher than hearing non-signers on an n-back task with sign-based stimuli, irrespective of their semantic and phonological content, but not with non-linguistic manual actions. This pattern may be partially explained by recent findings relating to cross-modal plasticity in deaf individuals. It suggests that in linguistic gesture-based working memory, semantic aspects may outweigh phonological aspects when processing takes place under challenging conditions. The close association between working memory and language development should be taken into account in understanding and alleviating the challenges faced by deaf children growing up with cochlear implants as well as other clinical populations.

  8. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 2001. Linguistics, Language, and the Real World: Discourse and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah, Ed.; Alatis, James E., Ed.

    This book contains papers from the 2001 Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics, "Linguistics, Language, and the Real World: Discourse and Beyond." Papers include: "Introduction" (Deborah Tannen); "A Brief History of the Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics" (James E.…

  9. Evaluation of a Bilingual Education Program in Canada: The Elgin Study Through Grade Six. Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin, No. 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Henri C.; Swain, Merrill

    This paper presents the findings of the last completed evaluation of a partial immersion program in St. Thomas, Ontario, which involves the use of French as the medium of instruction for half the school day and English for the other half, beginning in Grade One. Unlike the previous evaluation, in the current one a Canadian-normed instrument was…

  10. NeuroD modulates opioid agonist-selective regulation of adult neurogenesis and contextual memory extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Yue; Li, Wen; Loh, Horace H; Law, Ping-Yee

    2013-04-01

    Addictive drugs, including opioids, modulate adult neurogenesis. In order to delineate the probable implications of neurogenesis on contextual memory associated with addiction, we investigated opioid agonist-selective regulation of neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD) activities under the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Training mice with equivalent doses of morphine and fentanyl produced different CPP extinction rates without measurable differences in the CPP acquisition rate or magnitude. Fentanyl-induced CPP required much longer time for extinction than morphine-induced CPP. We observed a parallel decrease in NeuroD activities and neurogenesis after morphine-induced CPP, but not after fentanyl-induced CPP. Increasing NeuroD activities with NeuroD-lentivirus (nd-vir) injection at the dentate gyrus before CPP training reversed morphine-induced decreases in NeuroD activities and neurogenesis, and prolonged the time required for extinction of morphine-induced CPP. On the other hand, decreasing NeuroD activities via injection of miRNA-190-virus (190-vir) reversed the fentanyl effect on NeuroD and neurogenesis and shortened the time required for extinction of fentanyl-induced CPP. Another contextual memory task, the Morris Water Maze (MWM), was affected similarly by alteration of NeuroD activities. The reduction in NeuroD activities either by morphine treatment or 190-vir injection decreased MWM task retention, while the increase in NeuroD activities by nd-vir prolonged MWM task retention. Thus, by controlling NeuroD activities, opioid agonists differentially regulate adult neurogenesis and subsequent contextual memory retention. Such drug-related memory regulation could have implications in eventual context-associated relapse.

  11. Towards a theoretical framework for analyzing complex linguistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lücking, Andy; Banisch, Sven; Blanchard, Philippe; Job, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this book is to advocate and promote network models of linguistic systems that are both based on thorough mathematical models and substantiated in terms of linguistics. In this way, the book contributes first steps towards establishing a statistical network theory as a theoretical basis of linguistic network analysis the boarder of the natural sciences and the humanities.This book addresses researchers who want to get familiar with theoretical developments, computational models and their empirical evaluation in the field of complex linguistic networks. It is intended to all those who are interested in statisticalmodels of linguistic systems from the point of view of network research. This includes all relevant areas of linguistics ranging from phonological, morphological and lexical networks on the one hand and syntactic, semantic and pragmatic networks on the other. In this sense, the volume concerns readers from many disciplines such as physics, linguistics, computer science and information scien...

  12. Chomsky and Wittgenstein on Linguistic Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas McNally

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In his Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language, Saul Kripke presents his influential reading of Wittgenstein’s later writings on language. One of the largely unexplored features of that reading is that Kripke makes a small number of suggestive remarks concerning the possible threat that Wittgenstein’s arguments pose for Chomsky’s linguistic project. In this paper, we attempt to characterise the relevance of Wittgenstein’s later work on meaning and rule-following for transformational linguistics, and in particular to identify the potentially negative impact it has on that project. Although we use Kripke’s remarks to articulate some of the pertinent issues, we return to Wittgenstein’s later writings to address them. We argue that Wittgenstein’s main target in the relevant sections of the Philosophical Investigations is the notion of ‘logical compulsion’, which involves assuming that there is more to applying a word or rule than how we are naturally or “psychologically” compelled to apply. We characterise two of the main lines of argument in the Investigations in terms of the rejection of logical compulsion. We thus propose to address the relevance of Wittgenstein’s writings for Chomsky by considering whether Chomsky’s linguistics presupposes the targeted notion of logical compulsion. We argue that Chomsky’s conception of linguistic competence in terms of successive states of the “language faculty” (containing the principles of universal grammar does presuppose this problematic notion. Chomsky responded to Kripke by devoting a chapter of his Knowledge of Language to defending this conception of linguistic competence against the Wittgensteinian arguments. We evaluate his response and argue that he has misidentified the threat to his linguistic project as consisting in the attack on its ‘individual psychology’ standpoint, rather than its commitment to logical compulsion. We conclude by arguing that Chomsky

  13. Functional MR imaging of cerebral auditory cortex with linguistic and non-linguistic stimulation: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Su Jin; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Shin, Tae Min

    1999-01-01

    To obtain preliminary data for understanding the central auditory neural pathway by means of functional MR imaging (fMRI) of the cerebral auditory cortex during linguistic and non-linguistic auditory stimulation. In three right-handed volunteers we conducted fMRI of auditory cortex stimulation at 1.5 T using a conventional gradient-echo technique (TR/TE/flip angle: 80/60/40 deg). Using a pulsed tone of 1000 Hz and speech as non-linguistic and linguistic auditory stimuli, respectively, images-including those of the superior temporal gyrus of both hemispheres-were obtained in sagittal plases. Both stimuli were separately delivered binaurally or monoaurally through a plastic earphone. Images were activated by processing with homemade software. In order to analyze patterns of auditory cortex activation according to type of stimulus and which side of the ear was stimulated, the number and extent of activated pixels were compared between both temporal lobes. Biaural stimulation led to bilateral activation of the superior temporal gyrus, while monoaural stimulation led to more activation in the contralateral temporal lobe than in the ipsilateral. A trend toward slight activation of the left (dominant) temporal lobe in ipsilateral stimulation, particularly with a linguistic stimulus, was observed. During both biaural and monoaural stimulation, a linguistic stimulus produced more widespread activation than did a non-linguistic one. The superior temporal gyri of both temporal lobes are associated with acoustic-phonetic analysis, and the left (dominant) superior temporal gyrus is likely to play a dominant role in this processing. For better understanding of physiological and pathological central auditory pathways, further investigation is needed

  14. Neuro-Behcet's disease: diagnostic usefulness of MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Song Soo; Song, Chang June; Lee, Ae Young; Pak, Chung Ho

    2000-01-01

    To suggest the characteristic MR features and to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging for the diagnosis of neuro-Behcet's disease. We retrospectively reviewed the MR findings of clinically confirmed neuro-Behcet's disease in eight patients (M:F =3D 7:1) ranging in age from 28 to 47 (average, 36) years. The findings were analyzed in terms of the most frequently occurring sites, signal intensities, contrast enhancement, and the changing patterns seen on follow-up MR examination. Seven of the eight patients had parenchymal brain lesions and the other had dural sinus thrombosis without brain parenchymal brain abnormality. In descending order of frequency, lesions involved the pons, midbrain, medulla oblongata, internal capsule, basal ganglia, thalamus, temporal lobe, and corpus callosum. The brain stem was involved in six patients, five of whom showed extensive involvement of the entire stem. In five patients, brain stem lesions showed supratentorial involvement, and in one, involvement of this region only was noted. Signal intensities of the lesions were poorly defined and extensive, especially in the brain stem, usually showed prolongation of both T1 and T2 relaxation time. Three patients underwent follow-up examination, and this showed that while most lesions had disappeared in time, some had become small and cavitary. Initial MR examination showed that three patients had newly developed lesions as well as cavitary foci, suggesting the recurrence of disease. Contrast enhancement was noted in five of seven patients (71%), and various types, including nodular, linear, marginal, and ring. The MR features of neuro-Behcet's disease were fairly characteristic, and in clinically unsuspicious patients might be diagnostically useful. (author)

  15. NeuroLex.org: an online framework for neuroscience knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Stephen D.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to transmit, organize, and query information digitally has brought with it the challenge of how to best use this power to facilitate scientific inquiry. Today, few information systems are able to provide detailed answers to complex questions about neuroscience that account for multiple spatial scales, and which cross the boundaries of diverse parts of the nervous system such as molecules, cellular parts, cells, circuits, systems and tissues. As a result, investigators still primarily seek answers to their questions in an increasingly densely populated collection of articles in the literature, each of which must be digested individually. If it were easier to search a knowledge base that was structured to answer neuroscience questions, such a system would enable questions to be answered in seconds that would otherwise require hours of literature review. In this article, we describe NeuroLex.org, a wiki-based website and knowledge management system. Its goal is to bring neurobiological knowledge into a framework that allows neuroscientists to review the concepts of neuroscience, with an emphasis on multiscale descriptions of the parts of nervous systems, aggregate their understanding with that of other scientists, link them to data sources and descriptions of important concepts in neuroscience, and expose parts that are still controversial or missing. To date, the site is tracking ~25,000 unique neuroanatomical parts and concepts in neurobiology spanning experimental techniques, behavioral paradigms, anatomical nomenclature, genes, proteins and molecules. Here we show how the structuring of information about these anatomical parts in the nervous system can be reused to answer multiple neuroscience questions, such as displaying all known GABAergic neurons aggregated in NeuroLex or displaying all brain regions that are known within NeuroLex to send axons into the cerebellar cortex. PMID:24009581

  16. NeuroLex.org: An online framework for neuroscience knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Larson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to transmit, organize, and query information digitally has brought with it the challenge of how to best use this power to facilitate scientific inquiry. Today, few information systems are able to provide detailed answers to complex questions about neuroscience that account for multiple spatial scales, and which cross the boundaries of diverse parts of the nervous system such as molecules, cellular parts, cells, circuits, systems and tissues. As a result, investigators still primarily seek answers to their questions in an increasingly densely populated collection of articles in the literature, each of which must be digested individually. If it were easier to search a knowledge base that was structured to answer neuroscience questions, such a system would enable questions to be answered in seconds that would otherwise require hours of literature review.In this article, we describe NeuroLex.org, a wiki-based website and knowledge management system. Its goal is to bring neurobiological knowledge into a framework that allows neuroscientists to review the concepts of neuroscience, with an emphasis on multiscale descriptions of the parts of nervous systems, aggregate their understanding with that of other scientists, link them to data sources and descriptions of important concepts in neuroscience, and expose parts that are still controversial or missing. To date, the site is tracking ~25,000 unique neuroanatomical parts and concepts in neurobiology spanning experimental techniques, behavioral paradigms, anatomical nomenclature, genes, proteins and molecules. Here we show how the structuring of information about these anatomical parts in the nervous system can be reused to answer multiple neuroscience questions, such as displaying all known GABAergic neurons aggregated in NeuroLex or displaying all brain regions that are known within NeuroLex to send axons into the cerebellar cortex.

  17. Neuro-oncology: a selected review of ASCO 2016 abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Marc C

    2016-10-01

    ASCO 2016, 29 May-2 June 2016, Chicago, IL, USA The largest annual clinical oncology conference the American Society of Clinical Oncology is held in the USA and gives researchers and other key opinion leaders the opportunity to present new cancer clinical trials and research data. The CNS tumors section of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2016 covered various aspects of neuro-oncology including metastatic CNS diseases and primary brain tumors, presented via posters, oral talks and over 100 abstracts. This brief review selectively highlights presentations from this meeting in an organizational manner that reflects clinically relevant aspects of a large and multifaceted meeting.

  18. Connected word recognition using a cascaded neuro-computational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoya, Tetsuya; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2016-10-01

    We propose a novel framework for processing a continuous speech stream that contains a varying number of words, as well as non-speech periods. Speech samples are segmented into word-tokens and non-speech periods. An augmented version of an earlier-proposed, cascaded neuro-computational model is used for recognising individual words within the stream. Simulation studies using both a multi-speaker-dependent and speaker-independent digit string database show that the proposed method yields a recognition performance comparable to that obtained by a benchmark approach using hidden Markov models with embedded training.

  19. Songs to syntax: the linguistics of birdsong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Robert C; Okanoya, Kazuo; Beckers, Gabriel J L; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2011-03-01

    Unlike our primate cousins, many species of bird share with humans a capacity for vocal learning, a crucial factor in speech acquisition. There are striking behavioural, neural and genetic similarities between auditory-vocal learning in birds and human infants. Recently, the linguistic parallels between birdsong and spoken language have begun to be investigated. Although both birdsong and human language are hierarchically organized according to particular syntactic constraints, birdsong structure is best characterized as 'phonological syntax', resembling aspects of human sound structure. Crucially, birdsong lacks semantics and words. Formal language and linguistic analysis remains essential for the proper characterization of birdsong as a model system for human speech and language, and for the study of the brain and cognition evolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. On possible linguistic correlates to brain lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Kouteva/Kuteva

    2014-04-01

    The present paper compares the two modes of processing proposed by Van Lancker Sidtis (2009 in her dual process model and the two domains of discourse organization distinguished in the framework of Discourse Grammar (Heine et al. 2013; Kaltenböck et al. 2011. These two frameworks were developed on different kinds of data. In the dual process model it is observations on patients with left or right hemisphere damage that marked the starting point of analysis. Central to the dual process model is the distinction between novel speech (or novel language, or newly created language, or propositional speech and formulaic speech (or formulaic expressions or automatic speech. Easily identified instances of formulaic speech are swear words, interjections, pause fillers, discourse elements, non-literal lexical meanings for idioms, proverbs. Unlike the dual process model, in the Discourse Grammar model it is linguistic discontinuities that provided the basis of analysis. Discourse grammar in this model is understood as all the linguistic resources that are available for constructing spoken and written (and signed texts. We argue that Discourse Grammar can be divided into two distinct domains, namely Sentence Grammar and Thetical Grammar. Whereas Sentence Grammar has been at the centre of interest in mainstream linguistics, Thetical Grammar encompasses linguistic phenomena – such as formulae of social exchange, imperatives, vocatives, interjections, including hesitation markers and pause fillers and what is traditionally known as “parenthetical” constructions – that pose a problem to orthodox grammatical analysis. We show that the findings made within the two frameworks are largely compatible with one another: both models converge on claiming that there is a significant correlation between linguistic categorization and hemisphere-based brain activity. In the dual process model it is hypothesized that there is a significant correlation between certain kinds of speech

  1. Genre analysis of linguistics research introductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Porras

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of exploring genre analysis has been a trend in Applied Linguistics, not only for its interesting factor, but also because of its pedagogical implications. This study aimed to determine the overall structure, specifically the presence and conformity of moves and steps of the research introductions in the field of Linguistics. Twelve (12 available research introductions were analyzed using Create-A-Research-Space (CARS model. The findings revealed that moves and steps across the research introductions are present. Majority of the research introductions conformed to the CARS model, but did not necessarily follow the suggested sequence. Results imply that teachers of research writing should acknowledge and introduce the CARS model as a basis for teaching the method of writing research introductions effectively.

  2. Sentence processing and grammaticality in functional linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    finding from research on sentence processing that sentences are processed incrementally. Empirical methods for establishing grammaticality status are discussed and applied in relation to non-WH extraction phenomena in Danish. In Chapter 2, I discuss the use of the notions of grammaticality......The dissertation presents a functional linguistic model of grammaticality and investigates methods for applying this notion in empirical work. The use of the notion of grammaticality in generative grammar has been criticized by functionalists (Harder, 1996; Lakoff & Johnson, 1999), but attempts...... grammaticality. It is concluded that the intuitions of linguists should in principle be considered hypotheses of grammaticality, and that such hypotheses need to be tested with independent data. Such data can for example take the form of corpus data or acceptability judgment experiments. It is furthermore argued...

  3. M.Yu. Lermontov’s linguistic/literary personality through perspective of linguistic personality perception by philologist V.V. Vinogrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa N. Kuznetsova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers M.Yu. Lermontov’s linguistic / literary personality through perspective of linguistic personality perception by Great Russian scientist-philologist and linguist, Academician V.V. Vinogradov.

  4. The Neuro-Image: Alain Resnais's Digital Cinema without the Digits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes to read cinema in the digital age as a new type of image, the neuroimage. Going back to Gilles Deleuze's cinema books and it is argued that the neuro-image is based in the future. The cinema of Alain Resnais is analyzed as a neuro-image and digital cinema .

  5. Neuro-ophthalmic and clinical characteristics of brain tumours in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anecdotally, increasing number of patients are seen at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) with brain tumour. Neuro-ophthalmic symptoms and signs may help in timely diagnosis and intervention. Objective: To evaluate the neuro-ophthalmic and clinical characteristics of brain tumour in patients presenting at a ...

  6. Antibody-based investigational approaches in neuro-proteomics and neurodegenerative diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 10-10 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neuro degenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : neuro degeneration * disease models * multiplexing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  7. "Too Withdrawn" or "Too Friendly": Considering Social Vulnerability in Two Neuro-Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, A.; Riby, D. M.; Owens, J.; White, S. W.; Tarar, T.; Schulz, P. E.

    2012-01-01

    In some neuro-developmental disorders, the combined effect of intellectual disability and atypicalities of social cognition may put individuals at increased vulnerability in their social environment. The neuro-developmental disorders Williams syndrome, characterised by "hypersociability", and autism spectrum disorders, characterised by "social…

  8. [NEURO-ONCOLOGY A NEW FIELD IN DAVIDOFF CANCER CENTER AT RABIN MEDICAL CENTER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yust-Katz, Shlomit; Limon, Dror; Abu-Shkara, Ramez; Siegal, Tali

    2017-08-01

    Neuro-oncology is a subspecialty attracting physicians from medical disciplines such as neurology, neurosurgery, pediatrics, oncology, and radiotherapy. It deals with diagnosis and management of primary brain tumors, as well as metastatic and non-metastatic neurological manifestations that frequently affect cancer patients including brain metastases, paraneoplastic syndromes and neurological complications of cancer treatment. A neuro-oncology unit was established in Davidoff Cancer Center at Rabin Medical Center. It provides a multidisciplinary team approach for management of brain tumors and services, such as expert outpatient clinics and inpatient consultations for the departments of oncology, hematology, bone marrow transplantation and other departments in the Rabin Medical Center. In addition, expert consultation is frequently provided to other hospitals that treat cancer patients with neurological manifestations. The medical disciplines that closely collaborate for the daily management of neuro-oncology patients include radiotherapy, hematology, oncology, neuro-surgery, neuro-radiology and neuro-pathology. The neuro-oncology center is also involved in clinical and laboratory research conducted in collaboration with researchers in Israel and abroad. The new service contributes substantially to the improved care of cancer patients and to the advance of research topics in the field of neuro-oncology.

  9. Virtual reality exposure and neuro-bio feedback to help coping with traumatic events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, M.A.; Kallen, V.L.; Brouwer, A.-M.; Leer, L. van der; Brinke, M. ten

    2010-01-01

    Recent research shows that Virtual Reality (VR) exposure or bio-neuro feedback can help professionals to cope with possibly traumatic events. This paper presents a neuro-bio VR system that combines both methods in order to further improve the prevention and therapy of trauma-related disorders. This

  10. Neuro fuzzy control of the FES assisted freely swinging leg of paraplegic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, J.H.; Velthuis, W.J.R.; Veltink, Petrus H.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors designed a neuro fuzzy control strategy for control of cyclical leg movements of paraplegic subjects. The cyclical leg movements were specified by three `swing phase objectives', characteristic of natural human gait. The neuro fuzzy controller is a combination of a fuzzy logic controller

  11. Neuro-Behçet hos en kaukasid dansk patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karshena, Ali; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2010-01-01

    . The diagnosis of neuro-Behçet can be difficult to establish if the mucocutaneous involvement is incomplete, absent, or unattended. We present an exceptional case of neuro-Behçet in a 38-year-old Caucasian Danish woman. On account of the risk of serious complication, it is important to make the diagnosis as soon...

  12. Development of PET tracers for neuro inflammation imaging in neuro degenerative diseases; Developpement de radiotraceurs de la neuroinflammation pour l'imagerie des pathologies neurodegeneratives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauveau, F

    2007-10-15

    Inflammatory processes such as micro-glial or endothelial activation are involved in many neuro-degenerative conditions. Neuro-inflammation imaging is considered an attractive tool for fundamental research, diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation in neuro-pathologies. First, an aptamer was selected against a recombinant fragment of the endothelial target VCAM-1, but proved unable to bind the target protein in native conformation, as expressed by a cell line. Second, five radioligands of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), a marker of micro-glial activation, were evaluated in vivo using PET (Positron Emission Tomography) imaging in a rat model of neuro-inflammation, and were compared to [11C]PK11195. Four radiotracers displayed a better contrast than [11C]PK11195. In a competitive field of research, this work demonstrates the efficiency of in vivo screening of radiotracers for fast selection of clinically relevant molecules. (author)

  13. Development of PET tracers for neuro inflammation imaging in neuro degenerative diseases; Developpement de radiotraceurs de la neuroinflammation pour l'imagerie des pathologies neurodegeneratives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauveau, F

    2007-10-15

    Inflammatory processes such as micro-glial or endothelial activation are involved in many neuro-degenerative conditions. Neuro-inflammation imaging is considered an attractive tool for fundamental research, diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation in neuro-pathologies. First, an aptamer was selected against a recombinant fragment of the endothelial target VCAM-1, but proved unable to bind the target protein in native conformation, as expressed by a cell line. Second, five radioligands of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), a marker of micro-glial activation, were evaluated in vivo using PET (Positron Emission Tomography) imaging in a rat model of neuro-inflammation, and were compared to [11C]PK11195. Four radiotracers displayed a better contrast than [11C]PK11195. In a competitive field of research, this work demonstrates the efficiency of in vivo screening of radiotracers for fast selection of clinically relevant molecules. (author)

  14. Linguistic control of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeley, J.J.; Johnson, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A multivariable linguistic controller based on fuzzy set theory is discussed and its application to a pressurized water nuclear power plant control is illustrated by computer simulation. The nonlinear power plant simulation model has nine states, two control inputs, one disturbance input, and two outputs. Although relatively simple, the model captures the essential coupled nonlinear plant dynamics and is convenient to use for control system studies. The use of an adaptive version of the controller is also demonstrated by computer simulation

  15. A review on gender linguistics studies

    OpenAIRE

    Roozbeh Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Gender linguistics is a cynosure branch within the framework of language sociology and it deals with the effect that the gender, as a variable, has on the creation of lingual diversities. Because a great many of the social-cultural concepts, including gender, are multifaceted, one-dimensional and absolute perceptions of such concepts lead to some sort of superficiality, particularly in research areas. The present article, firstly, deals with the presentation of the notions opined by two promi...

  16. Precedent Phenomena in Quebecois Linguistic World View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ксения Эдуардовна Болотина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the linguocultural analysis of precedent phenomena as parts of Quebecois’ cognitive base. Precedent phenomena being cultural facts are one of the key issues in modern linguistic and cognitive studies. By precedent phenomena we mean, according to Y.E. Prohorov, such entities when verbalized in discourse that refer to a certain cultural fact behind them. In the article the precedent phenomena such as precedent text, precedent situation, precedent utterance, and precedent name are analyzed. The main theses of the precedence theory given in the article (Y.N. Karaulov, Y.E. Prohorov, V.V. Krasnyh, D.B. Gudkov are at the heart of precedence studies on the basis of different languages. However, a complex analysis of precedent phenomena in the Quebec national variant of French is new to Russian linguistics. The study of precedent phenomena enables us to elicit features of their functioning in ethnospecific discourse and determine cultural dominants existing in Quebecois’ linguistic world view. Given the fact that the size of the article is limited, we undertooke the analysis of eight phenomena precedent of the bearers of Quebec linguoculture. The choice of phenomena is determined by the frequency of their use in discourse. The facts analyzed are of national character, i.e. known to all members of the linguocultural community. A certain cultural fact is at the very core of each precedent phenomenon given in the article. To get the whole picture we analysed historic, political, and cultural context connected to the precedent phenomena in question. The study enables us to elicit distinctive features that are at the core of each phenomenon. The results are backed with the supportive material drawn from analysis of different types of discourse. The analysis of precedent phenomena undertaken in this article allows us to reconstruct, to a certain extent, Quebec cultural space and is a stepping stone to the reconstruction of the

  17. Deep learning evaluation using deep linguistic processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhnle, Alexander; Copestake, Ann

    2017-01-01

    We discuss problems with the standard approaches to evaluation for tasks like visual question answering, and argue that artificial data can be used to address these as a complement to current practice. We demonstrate that with the help of existing 'deep' linguistic processing technology we are able to create challenging abstract datasets, which enable us to investigate the language understanding abilities of multimodal deep learning models in detail, as compared to a single performance value ...

  18. Linguistic Culture and Essentialism in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Rudwick

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores how language and culture are intertwined and often regarded as “invariable fixed properties” in contemporary South Africa by focusing on one particular indigenous African language group, i.e. isiZulu-speakers. Drawing from general theoretical sociolinguistic approaches to language and culture and considering South Africa’s socio-political history, the paper demonstrates the significance and saliency of Zulu linguistic culture to Zulu people in the post-apartheid state. It ...

  19. The Notion of Culture in Linguistic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Busch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many works on intercultural communication from the field of linguistics share the assumption that influences of culture on social interaction will manifest in communicative exchanges—and conversely, that an academic's look at these exchanges will be a sufficient basis for an adequate description of what intercultural communication is supposed to be about. Linguistic theory itself lacking of places to integrate culture as a factor into its concepts, urges scholars to borrow operationalizations of culture from neighboring disciplines like e.g. different strands of psychology, sociology or anthropology. Approaches resulting from this transdisciplinary orientation as a consequence share very divergent assumptions on how, at what moment in a communicative process and with what effects culture influences social interaction. While many surveys on similar behalf distinguish between primordial and constructionist approaches, a closer look at different strands of empirical linguistic research may reveal even more precise and detailed distinctions on how culture may be captured and framed. This article will present and analyze a selection of approaches from the mentioned field, e.g. from intercultural and contrastive pragmatics, interactional sociolinguistics, ethnography of communication, ethnomethodology as well as discourse analysis. In each case, the underlying notions of culture will be revealed and put into contrast. Additionally, this exemplary analysis may show that most of the empirical schools mentioned follow and adopt changing notions of culture from social theory over time. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901508

  20. GEOLINGUISTICS: THE LINGUISTIC ATLAS OF PARANÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Evangelina de Santana BELLI RODRIGUES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the methodology adopted by the Linguistic Atlas of Paraná – APLR (AGUILERA, 1990 and to describe its results in relation to other Brazilian atlas. To meet this objective, we first present the modifications, mainly methodological, under gone by Geolinguistics towards a more complete and in depth description of linguistic variation. The Pluridimensional Geolinguistics and Contractual model of Harald Thun (1998 and the Linguistics Atlas of Brazil – ALiB (CARDOSO et all, 2014, published in October, 2014, are presented. It was also necessary to describe, although briefly, the most traditional Geolinguistics research method, characteristic of the ALPR, before referring the text back to Aguilera’s Atlas. After discussing the criteria on which the ALPR was constructed, from choice of informers to the Geolinguistics charts that compose it, as well as its complementation by the ALPR II (ALTINO, 2007, it was possible to analyze the results and relate them to the hypotheses posed by the thesis which gave origin to it.

  1. Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Semantics, contrastive linguistics and parallel corpora In view of the ambiguity of the term “semantics”, the author shows the differences between the traditional lexical semantics and the contemporary semantics in the light of various semantic schools. She examines semantics differently in connection with contrastive studies where the description must necessary go from the meaning towards the linguistic form, whereas in traditional contrastive studies the description proceeded from the form towards the meaning. This requirement regarding theoretical contrastive studies necessitates construction of a semantic interlanguage, rather than only singling out universal semantic categories expressed with various language means. Such studies can be strongly supported by parallel corpora. However, in order to make them useful for linguists in manual and computer translations, as well as in the development of dictionaries, including online ones, we need not only formal, often automatic, annotation of texts, but also semantic annotation - which is unfortunately manual. In the article we focus on semantic annotation concerning time, aspect and quantification of names and predicates in the whole semantic structure of the sentence on the example of the “Polish-Bulgarian-Russian parallel corpus”.

  2. Music playschool enhances children's linguistic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnavalli, Tanja; Putkinen, Vesa; Lipsanen, Jari; Huotilainen, Minna; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2018-06-08

    Several studies have suggested that intensive musical training enhances children's linguistic skills. Such training, however, is not available to all children. We studied in a community setting whether a low-cost, weekly music playschool provided to 5-6-year-old children in kindergartens could already affect their linguistic abilities. Children (N = 66) were tested four times over two school-years with Phoneme processing and Vocabulary subtests, along with tests for Perceptual reasoning skills and Inhibitory control. We compared the development of music playschool children to their peers either attending to similarly organized dance lessons or not attending to either activity. Music playschool significantly improved the development of children's phoneme processing and vocabulary skills. No such improvements on children's scores for non-verbal reasoning and inhibition were obtained. Our data suggest that even playful group music activities - if attended to for several years - have a positive effect on pre-schoolers' linguistic skills. Therefore we promote the concept of implementing regular music playschool lessons given by professional teachers in early childhood education.

  3. Sensitivity Verification of PWR Monitoring System Using Neuro-Expert For LOCA Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Subekti

    2009-01-01

    Sensitivity Verification of PWR Monitoring System Using Neuro-Expert For LOCA Detection. The present research was done for verification of previous developed method on Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) detection and perform simulations for knowing the sensitivity of the PWR monitoring system that applied neuro-expert method. The previous research continuing on present research, has developed and has tested the neuro-expert method for several anomaly detections in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) typed Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Neuro-expert can detect the LOCA anomaly with sensitivity of primary coolant leakage of 7 gallon/min and the conventional method could not detect the primary coolant leakage of 30 gallon/min. Neuro expert method detects significantly LOCA anomaly faster than conventional system in Surry-1 NPP as well so that the impact risk is reducible. (author)

  4. NeuroD1: developmental expression and regulated genes in the rodent pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Estela M; Bailey, Michael J; Rath, Martin F

    2007-01-01

    NeuroD1/BETA2, a member of the bHLH transcription factor family, is known to influence the fate of specific neuronal, endocrine and retinal cells. We report here that NeuroD1 mRNA is highly abundant in the developing and adult rat pineal gland. Pineal expression begins in the 17-day embryo at which...... time it is also detectable in other brain regions. Expression in the pineal gland increases during the embryonic period and is maintained thereafter at levels equivalent to those found in the cerebellum and retina. In contrast, NeuroD1 mRNA decreases markedly in non-cerebellar brain regions during...... development. Pineal NeuroD1 levels are similar during the day and night, and do not appear to be influenced by sympathetic neural input. Gene expression analysis of the pineal glands from neonatal NeuroD1 knockout mice identifies 127 transcripts that are down-regulated (>twofold, p

  5. Randomized Controlled Study of a Remote Flipped Classroom Neuro-otology Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Robert Carrick

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ContextMedical Education can be delivered in the traditional classroom or via novel technology including an online classroom.ObjectiveTo test the hypothesis that learning in an online classroom would result in similar outcomes as learning in the traditional classroom when using a flipped classroom pedagogy.DesignRandomized controlled trial. A total of 274 subjects enrolled in a Neuro-otology training program for non-Neuro-otologists of 25 h held over a 3-day period. Subjects were randomized into a “control” group attending a traditional classroom and a “trial” group of equal numbers participating in an online synchronous Internet streaming classroom using the Adobe Connect e-learning platform.InterventionsSubjects were randomized into a “control” group attending a traditional classroom and a “treatment” group of equal numbers participating in an online synchronous Internet streaming classroom.Main outcome measuresPre- and post-multiple choice examinations of VOR, Movement, Head Turns, Head Tremor, Neurodegeneration, Inferior Olivary Complex, Collateral Projections, Eye Movement Training, Visual Saccades, Head Saccades, Visual Impairment, Walking Speed, Neuroprotection, Autophagy, Hyperkinetic Movement, Eye and Head Stability, Oscilllatory Head Movements, Gaze Stability, Leaky Neural Integrator, Cervical Dystonia, INC and Head Tilts, Visual Pursuits, Optokinetic Stimulation, and Vestibular Rehabilitation.MethodsAll candidates took a pretest examination of the subject material. The 2–9 h and 1–8 h sessions over three consecutive days were given live in the classroom and synchronously in the online classroom using the Adobe Connect e-learning platform. Subjects randomized to the online classroom attended the lectures in a location of their choice and viewed the sessions live on the Internet. A posttest examination was given to all candidates after completion of the course. Two sample unpaired t tests with equal variances

  6. Randomized Controlled Study of a Remote Flipped Classroom Neuro-otology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Frederick Robert; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Hankir, Ahmed; Zayaruzny, Maksim; Najem, Kinda; Lungchukiet, Palita; Edwards, Roger A

    2017-01-01

    Medical Education can be delivered in the traditional classroom or via novel technology including an online classroom. To test the hypothesis that learning in an online classroom would result in similar outcomes as learning in the traditional classroom when using a flipped classroom pedagogy. Randomized controlled trial. A total of 274 subjects enrolled in a Neuro-otology training program for non-Neuro-otologists of 25 h held over a 3-day period. Subjects were randomized into a "control" group attending a traditional classroom and a "trial" group of equal numbers participating in an online synchronous Internet streaming classroom using the Adobe Connect e-learning platform. Subjects were randomized into a "control" group attending a traditional classroom and a "treatment" group of equal numbers participating in an online synchronous Internet streaming classroom. Pre- and post-multiple choice examinations of VOR, Movement, Head Turns, Head Tremor, Neurodegeneration, Inferior Olivary Complex, Collateral Projections, Eye Movement Training, Visual Saccades, Head Saccades, Visual Impairment, Walking Speed, Neuroprotection, Autophagy, Hyperkinetic Movement, Eye and Head Stability, Oscilllatory Head Movements, Gaze Stability, Leaky Neural Integrator, Cervical Dystonia, INC and Head Tilts, Visual Pursuits, Optokinetic Stimulation, and Vestibular Rehabilitation. All candidates took a pretest examination of the subject material. The 2-9 h and 1-8 h sessions over three consecutive days were given live in the classroom and synchronously in the online classroom using the Adobe Connect e-learning platform. Subjects randomized to the online classroom attended the lectures in a location of their choice and viewed the sessions live on the Internet. A posttest examination was given to all candidates after completion of the course. Two sample unpaired t tests with equal variances were calculated for all pretests and posttests for all groups including gender differences. All 274

  7. NeuroRecovery Network provides standardization of locomotor training for persons with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Sarah A; Forrest, Gail F; VanHiel, Leslie R; Davé, Michele; D'Urso, Denise

    2012-09-01

    To illustrate the continuity of care afforded by a standardized locomotor training program across a multisite network setting within the Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation NeuroRecovery Network (NRN). Single patient case study. Two geographically different hospital-based outpatient facilities. This case highlights a 25-year-old man diagnosed with C4 motor incomplete spinal cord injury with American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grade D. Standardized locomotor training program 5 sessions per week for 1.5 hours per session, for a total of 100 treatment sessions, with 40 sessions at 1 center and 60 at another. Ten-meter walk test and 6-minute walk test were assessed at admission and discharge across both facilities. For each of the 100 treatment sessions percent body weight support, average, and maximum treadmill speed were evaluated. Locomotor endurance, as measured by the 6-minute walk test, and overground gait speed showed consistent improvement from admission to discharge. Throughout training, the patient decreased the need for body weight support and was able to tolerate faster treadmill speeds. Data indicate that the patient continued to improve on both treatment parameters and walking function. Standardization across the NRN centers provided a mechanism for delivering consistent and reproducible locomotor training programs across 2 facilities without disrupting training or recovery progression. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Authenticity Anyone? The Enhancement of Emotions via Neuro-Psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Felicitas

    2011-04-01

    This article will examine how the notion of emotional authenticity is intertwined with the notions of naturalness and artificiality in the context of the recent debates about 'neuro-enhancement' and 'neuro-psychopharmacology.' In the philosophy of mind, the concept of authenticity plays a key role in the discussion of the emotions. There is a widely held intuition that an artificial means will always lead to an inauthentic result. This article, however, proposes that artificial substances do not necessarily result in inauthentic emotions. The literature provided by the philosophy of mind on this subject usually resorts to thought experiments. On the other hand, the recent literature in applied ethics on 'enhancement' provides good reasons to include real world examples. Such case studies reveal that some psychotropic drugs such as antidepressants actually cause people to undergo experiences of authenticity, making them feel 'like themselves' for the first time in their lives. Beginning with these accounts, this article suggests three non-naturalist standards for emotions: the authenticity standard, the rationality standard, and the coherence standard. It argues that the authenticity standard is not always the only valid one, but that the other two ways of assessing emotions are also valid, and that they can even have repercussions on the felt authenticity of emotions. In conclusion, it sketches some of the normative implications if not ethical intricacies that accompany the enhancement of emotions.

  9. Assessment of personality disorder by means of NeuroSPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena G, Ismael; Nader N, Armando; Valdes M, Cecilia; Riquelme V, Raul

    2012-01-01

    We report on functional imaging results in 24 patients of Personality Disorder (P.D.) performed with NeuroSPECT by means of Tc99m HMPAO, in Basal state and during frontal cortical activation by means of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Results demonstrate that we can make the diagnosis of P.D. when we detect significant hypoperfusion (- 2 Stand/ Deviations below the normal mean for the same age group) in the subgenual area (Area 25 of Brodmann) and in Area 24 of Brodmann, the anterior cingulated gyrus. Both areas are paradoxically more hypoperfused during the Wisconsin Test. Among patients diagnosed with P.D. NeuroSPECT can distinguish between patients of Cluster B from the ones from Cluster C in both Basal and Activation State, while Cluster A from B could be differentiated only in Basal State. On the other hand Motor Impulsivity patients could be differentiated from the Cognitive group due to paradoxical hypoperfusion in motor areas 1,2,3, and 4 of Brodmann. While the number of patients studied appears reduced these results demonstrate the capability of diagnosing Personality Disorder and also the capability to improved understanding of the subgroups of this Disorder

  10. Neuro-Music Therapy for Recent-Onset Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Grapp

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was the evaluation of the neuro-music therapy approach as a new treatment option for patients with recent-onset tinnitus whose tinnitus symptoms were enduring after initial pharmacological treatment. In all, 15 patients with recent-onset tinnitus took part in our manualized short-term music-therapeutic treatment. Tinnitus severity and individual tinnitus distress were assessed by the German version of the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ and the Attention and Performance Self-Assessment Scale (APSA at three different measurement times: baseline (T0, start of treatment (T1, and end of treatment (T2. Score changes in TQ and APSA from start to end of treatment indicated significant improvements in tinnitus-related distress. According to the Jacobson and Truax reliable change index (RC, 73.3% of the patients showed a reliable reduction in individual TQ-score. The neuro-music therapy for recent-onset tinnitus according to the “Heidelberg Model” introduced in this pilot study seems to provide an effective treatment option for patients with recent-onset tinnitus.

  11. Kleptomania in patients with neuro-Behçet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugaiv, Erkingül; Kıyat-Atamer, Aslı; Tüzün, Erdem; Kürtüncü, Murat; Baral-Kulaksızoğlu, Işın; Akman Demir, Gülşen

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the prevalence and clinical features of kleptomania, an impulse control disorder, in patients with Behçet's disease involving the central nervous system. Medical records of 350 patients with neuro-Behçet's disease were evaluated, and clinical and neuropsychological features of patients with kleptomania were noted. Of the 350 neuro-Behçet's disease patients 6 (1.7%) had presented with symptoms that fulfilled the criteria of kleptomania according to the revised 4th version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The 6 patients (5 men, 1 woman) had parenchymal lesions and had developed kleptomania during remission. Magnetic resonance imaging done on the 6 patients before the onset of kleptomania mostly revealed brainstem lesions. Psychiatric assessment did not show any comorbid psychiatric disorders and neuropsychological evaluation showed executive dysfunction in all patients. The 6 patients with kleptomania had developed a frontal lobe syndrome. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Neuro-fuzzy control of structures using acceleration feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurter, Kyle C.; Roschke, Paul N.

    2001-08-01

    This paper described a new approach for the reduction of environmentally induced vibration in constructed facilities by way of a neuro-fuzzy technique. The new control technique is presented and tested in a numerical study that involves two types of building models. The energy of each building is dissipated through magnetorheological (MR) dampers whose damping properties are continuously updated by a fuzzy controller. This semi-active control scheme relies on the development of a correlation between the accelerations of the building (controller input) and the voltage applied to the MR damper (controller output). This correlation forms the basis for the development of an intelligent neuro-fuzzy control strategy. To establish a context for assessing the effectiveness of the semi-active control scheme, responses to earthquake excitation are compared with passive strategies that have similar authority for control. According to numerical simulation, MR dampers are less effective control mechanisms than passive dampers with respect to a single degree of freedom (DOF) building model. On the other hand, MR dampers are predicted to be superior when used with multiple DOF structures for reduction of lateral acceleration.

  13. Monitoring the Performance of a Neuro-Adaptive Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Gupta, Pramod

    2004-01-01

    Traditional control has proven to be ineffective to deal with catastrophic changes or slow degradation of complex, highly nonlinear systems like aircraft or spacecraft, robotics, or flexible manufacturing systems. Control systems which can adapt toward changes in the plant have been proposed as they offer many advantages (e.g., better performance, controllability of aircraft despite of a damaged wing). In the last few years, use of neural networks in adaptive controllers (neuro-adaptive control) has been studied actively. Neural networks of various architectures have been used successfully for online learning adaptive controllers. In such a typical control architecture, the neural network receives as an input the current deviation between desired and actual plant behavior and, by on-line training, tries to minimize this discrepancy (e.g.; by producing a control augmentation signal). Even though neuro-adaptive controllers offer many advantages, they have not been used in mission- or safety-critical applications, because performance and safety guarantees cannot b e provided at development time-a major prerequisite for safety certification (e.g., by the FAA or NASA). Verification and Validation (V&V) of an adaptive controller requires the development of new analysis techniques which can demonstrate that the control system behaves safely under all operating conditions. Because of the requirement to adapt toward unforeseen changes during operation, i.e., in real time, design-time V&V is not sufficient.

  14. NEURO-FUZZY MODELLING OF BLENDING PROCESS IN CEMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda Olarotimi Araromi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The profitability of a cement plant depends largely on the efficient operation of the blending stage, therefore, there is a need to control the process at the blending stage in order to maintain the chemical composition of the raw mix near or at the desired value with minimum variance despite variation in the raw material composition. In this work, neuro-fuzzy model is developed for a dynamic behaviour of the system to predict the total carbonate content in the raw mix at different clay feed rates. The data used for parameter estimation and model validation was obtained from one of the cement plants in Nigeria. The data was pre-processed to remove outliers and filtered using smoothening technique in order to reveal its dynamic nature. Autoregressive exogenous (ARX model was developed for comparison purpose. ARX model gave high root mean square error (RMSE of 5.408 and 4.0199 for training and validation respectively. Poor fit resulting from ARX model is an indication of nonlinear nature of the process. However, both visual and statistical analyses on neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS model gave a far better result. RMSE of training and validation are 0.28167 and 0.7436 respectively, and the sum of square error (SSE and R-square are 39.6692 and 0.9969 respectively. All these are an indication of good performance of ANFIS model. This model can be used for control design of the process.

  15. PET-based molecular nuclear neuro-imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ho

    2004-01-01

    Molecular nuclear neuro-imaging in CNS drug discovery and development can be divided into four categories that are clearly inter-related. (1) Neuroreceptor mapping to examine the involvement of specific neurotransmitter system in CNS diseases, drug occupancy characteristics and perhaps examine mechanisms of action;(2) Structural and spectroscopic imaging to examine morphological changes and their consequences;(3) Metabolic mapping to provide evidence of central activity and CNS fingerprinting the neuroanatomy of drug effects;(4) Functional mapping to examine disease-drug interactions. In addition, targeted delivery of therapeutic agents could be achieved by modifying stem cells to release specific drugs at the site of transplantation('stem cell pharmacology'). Future exploitation of stem cell biology, including enhanced release of therapeutic factors through genetic stem cell engineering might thus constitute promising pharmaceutical approaches to treating diseases of the nervous system. With continued improvements in instrumentation, identification of better imaging probes by innovative chemistry, molecular nuclear neuro-imaging promise to play increasingly important roles in disease diagnosis and therapy

  16. PET-based molecular nuclear neuro-imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Ho [Gil Medical Center, Gachon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Molecular nuclear neuro-imaging in CNS drug discovery and development can be divided into four categories that are clearly inter-related. (1) Neuroreceptor mapping to examine the involvement of specific neurotransmitter system in CNS diseases, drug occupancy characteristics and perhaps examine mechanisms of action;(2) Structural and spectroscopic imaging to examine morphological changes and their consequences;(3) Metabolic mapping to provide evidence of central activity and CNS fingerprinting the neuroanatomy of drug effects;(4) Functional mapping to examine disease-drug interactions. In addition, targeted delivery of therapeutic agents could be achieved by modifying stem cells to release specific drugs at the site of transplantation('stem cell pharmacology'). Future exploitation of stem cell biology, including enhanced release of therapeutic factors through genetic stem cell engineering might thus constitute promising pharmaceutical approaches to treating diseases of the nervous system. With continued improvements in instrumentation, identification of better imaging probes by innovative chemistry, molecular nuclear neuro-imaging promise to play increasingly important roles in disease diagnosis and therapy.

  17. Role of NeuroD1 on the negative regulation of Pomc expression by glucocorticoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Parvin

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the negative regulation of proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc by glucocorticoids (Gcs is still unclear in many points. Here, we demonstrated the involvement of neurogenic differentiation factor 1 (NeuroD1 in the Gc-mediated negative regulation of Pomc. Murine pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH producing corticotroph tumor-derived AtT20 cells were treated with dexamethasone (DEX (1-100 nM and cultured for 24 hrs. Thereafter, Pomc mRNA expression was studied by quantitative real-time PCR and rat Pomc promoter (-703/+58 activity was examined by luciferase assay. Both Pomc mRNA expression and Pomc promoter activity were inhibited by DEX in a dose-dependent manner. Deletion and point mutant analyses of Pomc promoter suggested that the DEX-mediated transcriptional repression was mediated via E-box that exists at -376/-371 in the promoter. Since NeuroD1 is known to bind to and activate E-box of the Pomc promoter, we next examined the effect of DEX on NeuroD1 expression. Interestingly, DEX dose-dependently inhibited NeuroD1 mRNA expression, mouse NeuroD1 promoter (-2.2-kb activity, and NeuroD1 protein expression in AtT20 cells. In addition, we confirmed the inhibitory effect of DEX on the interaction of NeuroD1 and E-box on Pomc promoter by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay. Finally, overexpression of mouse NeuroD1 could rescue the DEX-mediated inhibition of Pomc mRNA expression and Pomc promoter activity. Taken together, it is suggested that the suppression of NeuroD1 expression and the inhibition of NeuroD1/E-box interaction may play an important role in the Gc-mediated negative regulation of Pomc.

  18. "New linguistic issues", by Pier Pasolini, is causing scandal among linguists, philologists, writers, critics and intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Negri

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Pasolini departs from the diagnosis of a problem: the critical quest stage in contemporary literature, centered on the 1950s; he points out the author´s inability to create the design for a national language. He goes on to analyze the deep mutation in Italian Society, which determineted a new socio-linguistic outlook; to wit, a language clearly marked by strong technicality and instrumentation. Drawing examples from newspapers, TV features, official political speeches and commercials, Pasolini demonstrates that factual communication takes precedence over formal expression. This is ascribed to one principle which sets both rules and approvals for all forms of national language. This fact, according to Pasolini, is the result of an industrial and technological transformation process, which would  permite advent of a new linguistic bourgeoisie. The linguistic unification caused by such approving  principle would, therefore, imply the social manifestation of the bourgeoisie.

  19. REALIZATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMME ON THE BASIS OF LINGUISTIC DATABASE FOR AUTOMATIC TEXTS PROCESSING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Makarych

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the constant increasing of electronic textual information, modern society needs for the automatic processing of natural language (NL. The main purpose of NL automatic text processing systems is to analyze and create texts and represent their content. The purpose of the paper is the development of linguistic and software bases of an automatic system for processing English publicistic texts. This article discusses the examples of different approaches to the creation of linguistic databases for processing systems. The author gives a detailed description of basic building blocks for a new linguistic processor: lexical-semantic, syntactical and semantic-syntactical. The main advantage of the processor is using special semantic codes in the alphabetical dictionary. The semantic codes have been developed in accordance with a lexical-semantic classification. It helps to precisely define semantic functions of the keywords that are situated in parsing groups and allows the automatic system to avoid typical mistakes. The author also represents the realization of a developed linguistic database in the form of a training computer program.

  20. The Perilous Life of a Linguistic Genre Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchmann, Simon

    2014-01-01

    , the descriptions are more informative than the structures hitherto described by text linguistics. Secondly, as historical norms, they are a testimony to the development and change of language use. Thirdly, the descriptions contribute to language users’ awareness of the origin of standards, their understanding......The primary, theoretical aim of the article is to present a linguistic text analysis that differs from standard text linguistic approaches by being informative with regard to the linguistic choices and textual organisation that characterise a text as a social act. The analysis is exemplified...... by using texts of a relatively new Danish journalistic genre nyhedsanalyse (news analysis). The secondary, empirical aim of the article is to present a corpus-based, linguistic analysis of central elements of the genre nyhedsanalyse within the Danish system of newspaper genres. Text linguistics is based...