WorldWideScience

Sample records for neuro linguistic programming

  1. Neuro Linguistic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Padežanin

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is in fact an introduction to the field known as neuro-linguistic programming or NLP. It describes the origins of thi s method and funda­ mental assumptions about NLP -current perception of reality, establishment of rapport, and  development of our unique potential in order to understand the world. The paper furthermore provides insight into how we use our inner senses for reflection , how language and thought interact, and how we can determine the way other people think. The NLP method simultaneousl y takes into consideration all of the personality signals - bod y a nd speech signals, and visua l pattems. NLP assumes tha t the usual framework of interpretation and criticism needs to be transcended in order for us to be able to see matters ina different light, and thus develop better al ternatives for achieving our original goals. The paper emphasizes the inner processing of information, which is captured by certain NLP diagnostic models, thus providing the starting point for change.

  2. Improving English Instruction through Neuro-Linguistic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, David Jay

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the background information and numerous applications of neuro-linguistic programming as it applies to improving English instruction. In addition, the N.L.P. modalities of eye movement, the use of predicates, and posturing are discussed. Neuro-linguistic programming presents all students of English an opportunity to reach their…

  3. Visual displays and Neuro-Linguistic Programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); VanHoozer, W.R. [Tranceformations Unlimited, Rigby, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Advancement of computer technology is forthcoming at such a rapid pace that the research concerning the interplay of humans and computer technology is lagging far behind. One area of particular concern is the design of visual displays that are pragmatic, ``user friendly,`` and ``user assisting.`` When engineers design visual displays, they generally do so methodically and logically, but only from within their own individual perspective or ``model of the world.`` They select the human aspects which make sense to them and not necessarily to non-engineers, operators, and others. The model design is what the engineer chooses to relate, based on his or her perspective of reality. These choices limit the model design thereby excluding the users` perspective. A set of techniques which can be used to assist the designers in expanding their choices and include the users` model is Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP).

  4. PENERAPAN HIPNOTEACHING MELALUI NEURO-LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING DALAM PEMBELAJARAN KIMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ismuzaroh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penerapan hypnoteaching melalui neuro linguistic programming (NLP dalam proses pembelajaran kimia adalah untuk menghilangkan pikiran negatif siswa terhadap pembelajaran kimia, yang selanjutnya meningkatkan minat, motivasi dan keaktifan belajar kimia siswa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan siswa lebih terbuka, berani mengemukakan pendapat terhadap permasalahan kimia yang pelajari, siswa merasa fresh, dan nyaman. Hypnoteaching goals through the application of neuro linguistic programming (NLP is a chemical in the learning process to eliminate the negative thoughts of students towards learning chemistry, which further increase the interest, motivation and active learning chemistry students. Results showed students were more open, daring to express opinions on issues studied chemistry, students feel fresh, and comfortable.

  5. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Developing Effective Communication in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.

    Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is a method that teachers can use to increase their communication effectiveness by matching their communication patterns with those of their students. The basic premise of NLP is that people operate and make sense of their experience through information received from the world around them. This information is…

  6. Neuro-Linguistic Programming Treatment for Anxiety: Magic or Myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Martin; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compared neuro-linguistic programing treatment for anxiety with self-control desensitization of equal duration and a waiting-list control group in treating public speaking anxiety. Results indicated that neither treatment was more effective in reducing anxiety than merely waiting for one hour. (Author/MCF)

  7. Neuro-linguistic programming and application in treatment of phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, Mahishika

    2010-11-01

    Phobias are a prevalent and often debilitating mental health problem all over the world. This article aims to explore what is known about the use of Neuro-linguistic Programming (NLP) as a treatment for this condition. Whilst there is abundant experiential evidence from NLP practitioners attesting to the efficacy of this method as a treatment for phobias, experimental research in this area is somewhat limited. This paper reviews evidence available in literature produced in the UK and US and reveals that NLP is a successful treatment for phobias as well as being particularly efficient due to the relatively brief time period it takes to effect an improvement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An exploratory study of neuro linguistic programming and communication anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Lois M.

    1993-12-01

    This thesis is an exploratory study of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), and its capabilities to provide a technique or a composite technique that will reduce the anxiety associated with making an oral brief or presentation before a group, sometimes referred to as Communication Apprehension. The composite technique comes from NLP and Time Line Therapy, which is an extension to NLP. Student volunteers (17) from a Communications course given by the Administrative Sciences Department were taught this technique. For each volunteer, an informational oral presentation was made and videotaped before the training and another informational oral presentation made and videotaped following the training. The before and after training presentations for each individual volunteer were evaluated against criteria for communications anxiety and analyzed to determine if there was a noticeable reduction of anxiety after the training. Anxiety was reduced in all of the volunteers in this study.

  9. THE PROGRAMMING NEURO-LINGUISTICS AND THEIR APPLICABILITY IN THE PROCESS OF RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilma Álamo Sánchez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available He/she is carried out a study referred to tools of Programming Neuro-linguistics (PNL for the Selection, Employment and Training that allow choosing the appropriate personnel taking the language and the behavior as a result. For their development theories were revised referred to the PNL and the recruitment process and selection sustained in the process of the interview. The summations are oriented to the importance and convenience for the Management of Human resources of applying the Programming Neuro-linguistics as selection tool of personal. Finally it is recommended to apply the proposal inside the mark of adaptability according to the necessities and demands of each organization.

  10. Investigating the Relationship between Iranian EFL Teachers' Autonomy and Their Neuro-Linguistic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Baradaran, Abdollah

    2015-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the relationship between English Language Teachers' autonomy and their Neuro-linguistic Programming (NLP). To this end, a group of 200 experienced English language teachers at various language schools in Tehran, inter alia, Asre Zaban Language Academy, were given two questionnaires namely Teaching…

  11. Neuro-Linguistic Programming as an Innovation in Education and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosey, Paul; Mathison, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP)--an emergent, contested approach to communication and personal development created in the 1970s--has become increasingly familiar in education and teaching. There is little academic work on NLP to date. This article offers an informed introduction to, and appraisal of, the field for educators. We review the…

  12. THE PROGRAMMING NEURO-LINGUISTICS AND THEIR APPLICABILITY IN THE PROCESS OF RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Gilma Álamo Sánchez; Yuhane Sangronis

    2008-01-01

    He/she is carried out a study referred to tools of Programming Neuro-linguistics (PNL) for the Selection, Employment and Training that allow choosing the appropriate personnel taking the language and the behavior as a result. For their development theories were revised referred to the PNL and the recruitment process and selection sustained in the process of the interview. The summations are oriented to the importance and convenience for the Management of Human resources of applying the Progra...

  13. Bibliography of Literature on Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Donald W.

    Two bibliographies on neurolinguistic programming are updates of an earlier literature review by the same compiler. The two lists contain citations of over 160 books, research reports, dissertations, journal articles, audio and video recordings, and research projects in progress on aspects of neurolinguistic programming. Appended notes suggest…

  14. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Enhancing Teacher-Student Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, John H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Defines Neurolinguistic Programming (NCP) and discusses specific dimensions of the model that have applications for classroom teaching. Describes five representational systems individuals use to process information and gives examples of effective and ineffective teacher-student communication for each system. (MCF)

  15. Neuro-Linguistics Programming: Developing Effective Communication in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Cresencio; Katz, Judy H.

    1983-01-01

    Students and teachers experience the world primarily through visual, kinesthetic, or auditory representational systems. If teachers are aware of their own favored system and those of their students, classroom communication will improve. Neurolinguistic programing can help teachers become more effective communicators. (PP)

  16. Observations concerning Research Literature on Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einspruch, Eric L.; Forman, Bruce D.

    1985-01-01

    Identifies six categories of design and methodological errors contained in the 39 empirical studies of neurolinguistic programming (NLP) documented through April 1984. Representative reports reflecting each category are discussed. Suggestions are offered for improving the quality of research on NLP. (Author/MCF)

  17. A Qualitative Investigation into the Experience of Neuro-Linguistic Programming Certification Training among Japanese Career Consultants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotera, Yasuhiro

    2018-01-01

    Although the application of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) has been reported worldwide, its scientific investigation is limited. Career consulting is one of the fields where NLP has been increasingly applied in Japan. This study explored why career consultants undertake NLP training, and what they find most useful to their practice. Thematic…

  18. The Eyes Don’t Have It: Lie Detection and Neuro-Linguistic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard; Watt, Caroline; ten Brinke, Leanne; Porter, Stephen; Couper, Sara-Louise; Rankin, Calum

    2012-01-01

    Proponents of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) claim that certain eye-movements are reliable indicators of lying. According to this notion, a person looking up to their right suggests a lie whereas looking up to their left is indicative of truth telling. Despite widespread belief in this claim, no previous research has examined its validity. In Study 1 the eye movements of participants who were lying or telling the truth were coded, but did not match the NLP patterning. In Study 2 one group of participants were told about the NLP eye-movement hypothesis whilst a second control group were not. Both groups then undertook a lie detection test. No significant differences emerged between the two groups. Study 3 involved coding the eye movements of both liars and truth tellers taking part in high profile press conferences. Once again, no significant differences were discovered. Taken together the results of the three studies fail to support the claims of NLP. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22808128

  19. The eyes don't have it: lie detection and Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Wiseman

    Full Text Available Proponents of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP claim that certain eye-movements are reliable indicators of lying. According to this notion, a person looking up to their right suggests a lie whereas looking up to their left is indicative of truth telling. Despite widespread belief in this claim, no previous research has examined its validity. In Study 1 the eye movements of participants who were lying or telling the truth were coded, but did not match the NLP patterning. In Study 2 one group of participants were told about the NLP eye-movement hypothesis whilst a second control group were not. Both groups then undertook a lie detection test. No significant differences emerged between the two groups. Study 3 involved coding the eye movements of both liars and truth tellers taking part in high profile press conferences. Once again, no significant differences were discovered. Taken together the results of the three studies fail to support the claims of NLP. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. The effect of neuro-linguistic programming on occupational stress in critical care nurses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HemmatiMaslakpak, Masumeh; Farhadi, Masumeh; Fereidoni, Javid

    2016-01-01

    .... Nero-linguistic programming (NLP) is one of the modern methods of psychotherapy. This study aimed to determine the effect of NLP on occupational stress in nurses working in critical care units of Urmia...

  1. How Did an Antismoking Campaign with a Neuro Linguistic Program Work out? A Case Study of Secondary School Students' Experiences in One Finnish School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahi, Salme; Maatta, Kaarina

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a Neuro Linguistic Program (NLP) in an antismoking campaign and studies how successful this campaign was according to secondary school students. This campaign was carried out in a small town in northern Finland as an intensive three-day-long campaign. The data consisted of the essays and interviews of those…

  2. Training in Influencing Skills from Neuro-Linguistic Programming (Modelled from Hypnosis and Family Therapy), in Combination with Innovative Maths Pedagogy, Raises Maths Attainment in Adult Numeracy Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, F.; Bourne, J.; Bouch, D.; Churches, R.; Dennison, J.; Evans, J.; Fowler, J.; Jeffers, A.; Prior, E.; Rhodes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Case study research suggests that NLP [neuro-linguistic programming] influencing strategies benefit teacher effectiveness. Maths pedagogy involving higher-order questioning, challenge, problem solving and collaborative working may be a way of improving attainment in adult numeracy learning, however, such strategies may be less effective if the…

  3. The Old Brain, the New Mirror: Matching Teaching and Learning Styles in Foreign Language Class (Based on Neuro-Linguistic Programming).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, John K.

    The process of matching teaching materials and methods to the student's learning style and ability level in foreign language classes is explored. The Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) model offers a diagnostic process for the identification of style. This process can be applied to the language learning setting as a way of presenting material to…

  4. Analisis Korelasi Antara Respon Mahasiswa Terhadap Pembelajaran Berbasis Neuro Linguistics Programming (Nlp) Tipe Reframing Dengan Motivasi Belajar Matematika Mahasiswa Semester VII Iain Syekh Nurjati Cirebon

    OpenAIRE

    sudjana, ade; Akbar, Reza Oktiana

    2014-01-01

    A fun learning is one of ways to increase students' learning motivation. Generally,students tend not to have learning motivation, because they do not understand delivered material. With a new learning, it will ease lecturers to deliver materials to students. One of ways which can be used in order to understand the materials is with re-framing perception activity based on neuro linguistics programming (NLP) reframing type. The goal of this research is to know the students' response towards lin...

  5. The Effect of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP on Reading Comprehension in English for Specific Purposes Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Farahani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP has potential to help language learners; however, it has received scant attention. The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of NLP techniques on reading comprehension of English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners at an English for Specific Purposes (ESP course. To achieve this goal, two intact classes of students were selected to form an experimental group (n=30 and a control group (n=30. A reading pretest (based on the course content was given to all participants. The sensory learning styles of the participants were diagnosed using Reid's (1987 leaning style questionnaire, and the participants in the experimental group were familiarized with NLP techniques to be able to implement these techniques in their reading. In the control group, the conventional approach to teach ESP reading was used. Considering the analysis of posttest results through ANCOVA, it was found that implementation of NLP techniques can have significant effect on reading comprehension of Iranian undergraduate EFL learners. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  6. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Human Technology for Today’s Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    Part III, pp. 4-5. ’ 26. Ibid, p. 6. 27. Donald W. McCormick, " Neurolinguistic Programming: A Resource Guide and Review of the Research, The 1984...Carol Johnson, " Neurolinguistic Programming--Mystique or Mistake?" Army Organizational Effectiveness Journal, No. 1, 1985, pp. 74-80. 29. Dilts

  7. Neuro-Linguistic Programming and Learning: Teacher Case Studies on the Impact of NLP in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John; Churches, Richard; Hutchinson, Geraldine; Jones, Jeff; Tosey, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This research paper reports on evidence from 24 teacher-led action research case studies and builds on the 2008 CfBT Education Trust published paper by Richard Churches and John West-Burnham "Leading learning through relationships: the implications of Neurolinguistic programming for personalisation and the children's agenda in England".…

  8. Evidence-based Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Cătălin; Reiner, Melita; Schütz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) Framework has enjoyed enormous popularity in the field of applied psychology. NLP has been used in business, education, law, medicine and psychotherapy to identify people's patterns and alter their responses to stimuli, so they are better able to regulate their environment and themselves. NLP looks at achieving goals, creating stable relationships, eliminating barriers such as fears and phobias, building self-confidence, and self-esteem, and achieving peak performance. Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy (NLPt) encompasses NLP as framework and set of interventions in the treatment of individuals with different psychological and/or social problems. We aimed systematically to analyse the available data regarding the effectiveness of Neuro Linguistic Psychotherapy (NLPt). The present work is a meta-analysis of studies, observational or randomized controlled trials, for evaluating the efficacy of Neuro Linguistic Programming in individuals with different psychological and/or social problems. The databases searched to identify studies in English and German language: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library; PubMed; ISI Web of Knowledge (include results also from Medline and the Web of Science); PsycINFO (including PsycARTICLES); Psyndex; Deutschsprachige Diplomarbeiten der Psychologie (database of theses in Psychology in German language), Social SciSearch; National library of health and two NLP-specific research databases: one from the NLP Community (http://www.nlp.de/cgi-bin/research/nlprdb.cgi?action=res_entries) and one from the NLP Group (http://www.nlpgrup.com/bilimselarastirmalar/bilimsel-arastirmalar-4.html#Zweig154). From a total number of 425 studies, 350 were removed and considered not relevant based on the title and abstract. Included, in the final analysis, are 12 studies with numbers of participants ranging between 12 and 115 subjects. The vast majority of studies were prospective observational. The actual paper represents the first

  9. Logic Programming for Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...... a computer is, can follow the text. I cannot, of course, cover all aspects of logic programming in this text, and so we give references to other sources with more details. Students of linguistics must have a very good motivation to spend time on programming, and I show here how logic programming can be used...... for modelling different linguistic phenomena. When modelling language in this way, as opposed to using only paper and pencil, your models go live: you can run and test your models and you can use them as automatic language analyzers. This way you will get a better understanding of the dynamics of languages...

  10. A Neuro-Linguistic Model for Speech Recognition in Tone Language

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Firstly, we identified and specify entities in the speech recognition process using a neuro-linguistic approach. This approach not only offers a non-conflict degree for different speech recognition situation, it also provide stable integration mechanism for various level of speech unit. Secondly, this work is the first to illustrate ...

  11. Object-Oriented NeuroSys: Parallel Programs for Simulating Large Networks of Biologically Accurate Neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, P; Miller, P; Kim, J; Leese, T; Zabiyaka, Y

    2003-05-07

    Object-oriented NeuroSys (ooNeuroSys) is a collection of programs for simulating very large networks of biologically accurate neurons on distributed memory parallel computers. It includes two principle programs: ooNeuroSys, a parallel program for solving the large systems of ordinary differential equations arising from the interconnected neurons, and Neurondiz, a parallel program for visualizing the results of ooNeuroSys. Both programs are designed to be run on clusters and use the MPI library to obtain parallelism. ooNeuroSys also includes an easy-to-use Python interface. This interface allows neuroscientists to quickly develop and test complex neuron models. Both ooNeuroSys and Neurondiz have a design that allows for both high performance and relative ease of maintenance.

  12. Neuro-Linguistic Programming for Leaders and Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Tosey, Paul

    2010-01-01

    On few occasions in the history of modern management have leadership skills been in such sharp focus as they are now. The ability to direct often very large and diverse organizations; to make sense of the complex and turbulent markets and environments in which you operate; and to adapt and learn seems at an all time premium. The premise behind the fifth edition of this influential Handbook is that leadership, management and organizational development are all parts of the same process; enhanci...

  13. An Exploratory Study of Neuro Linguistic Programming and Communication Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Harcourt, Brace and Janovich, 1989. McCroskey, J.C., Oral Communication Apprehension: A Summary of Recent Theory and Research, Human Communication Research , Vol...T.E. Zorn Jr., Communication-related Abilities and Upward Mobility: A Longitudinal Investigation, Human Communication Research , Vol 12, 1986. Watson

  14. Neuro-immune Interactions Drive Tissue Programming in Intestinal Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabanyi, Ilana; Muller, Paul A; Feighery, Linda; Oliveira, Thiago Y; Costa-Pinto, Frederico A; Mucida, Daniel

    2016-01-28

    Proper adaptation to environmental perturbations is essential for tissue homeostasis. In the intestine, diverse environmental cues can be sensed by immune cells, which must balance resistance to microorganisms with tolerance, avoiding excess tissue damage. By applying imaging and transcriptional profiling tools, we interrogated how distinct microenvironments in the gut regulate resident macrophages. We discovered that macrophages exhibit a high degree of gene-expression specialization dependent on their proximity to the gut lumen. Lamina propria macrophages (LpMs) preferentially expressed a pro-inflammatory phenotype when compared to muscularis macrophages (MMs), which displayed a tissue-protective phenotype. Upon luminal bacterial infection, MMs further enhanced tissue-protective programs, and this was attributed to swift activation of extrinsic sympathetic neurons innervating the gut muscularis and norepinephrine signaling to β2 adrenergic receptors on MMs. Our results reveal unique intra-tissue macrophage specialization and identify neuro-immune communication between enteric neurons and macrophages that induces rapid tissue-protective responses to distal perturbations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of programming in linguistic education of adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Dobnik

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoint of didactics and programming, not enough attention is paid to linguistic education of adults. Abilities for learning foreign languages do not decrease with age neither can they be measured with the same mechanisms as the knowledge of children. The author emphasises that topics are of the utmost importance; more and more adults need individually structured programs. Therefore, topics can only be chosen according to an agreement between or a mutual plan of the educator and the student. The very phase of programming is the disadvantage of numerous linguistic courses for adults; therefore, linguistic education of adults is still quite closely linked with the ideas valid for educating children and youths.

  16. Neuro-Oncology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BTTC are experts in their respective fields. Neuro-Oncology Clinical Fellowship This is a joint program with ... can increase survival rates. Learn more... The Neuro-Oncology Branch welcomes Dr. Mark Gilbert as new Branch ...

  17. A Linguistic Model in Component Oriented Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crăciunean, Daniel Cristian; Crăciunean, Vasile

    2016-12-01

    It is a fact that the component-oriented programming, well organized, can bring a large increase in efficiency in the development of large software systems. This paper proposes a model for building software systems by assembling components that can operate independently of each other. The model is based on a computing environment that runs parallel and distributed applications. This paper introduces concepts as: abstract aggregation scheme and aggregation application. Basically, an aggregation application is an application that is obtained by combining corresponding components. In our model an aggregation application is a word in a language.

  18. PLENATITUDE Teacher Education for Effectiveness and Well-Being with Neuro-Linguistic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Cristina Rocha; Gaspar, Maria Filomena

    2013-01-01

    The role and functioning of schools are changing as well as what is expected of teachers (who face growing and diversified challenges); consequentially, well-being at the schools is endangered. As teachers and teachers' educators concern is: How to improve schools' and teachers' effectiveness and promote well-being. Believing that the path to…

  19. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Improving Rapport between Track/Cross Country Coaches and Significant Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, David Jay

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the background information and the components of N.L.P., being eye movements, use of predicates, and posturing, as they apply to improving rapport and empathy between track/cross country coaches and their significant others in the arena of competition to help alleviate the inherent stressors.

  20. Soil temperature modeling at different depths using neuro-fuzzy, neural network, and genetic programming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisi, Ozgur; Sanikhani, Hadi; Cobaner, Murat

    2017-08-01

    The applicability of artificial neural networks (ANN), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and genetic programming (GP) techniques in estimating soil temperatures (ST) at different depths is investigated in this study. Weather data from two stations, Mersin and Adana, Turkey, were used as inputs to the applied models in order to model monthly STs. The first part of the study focused on comparison of ANN, ANFIS, and GP models in modeling ST of two stations at the depths of 10, 50, and 100 cm. GP was found to perform better than the ANN and ANFIS-SC in estimating monthly ST. The effect of periodicity (month of the year) on models' accuracy was also investigated. Including periodicity component in models' inputs considerably increased their accuracies. The root mean square error (RMSE) of ANN models was respectively decreased by 34 and 27 % for the depths of 10 and 100 cm adding the periodicity input. In the second part of the study, the accuracies of the ANN, ANFIS, and GP models were compared in estimating ST of Mersin Station using the climatic data of Adana Station. The ANN models generally performed better than the ANFIS-SC and GP in modeling ST of Mersin Station without local climatic inputs.

  1. Integrating Corpus Linguistics into Online Language Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Alice; Faghih, Esmail

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on a qualitative study which explored 32 pre-service teachers' evaluations of two online seven-week introductory courses in corpus linguistics (CL). Data were gathered through questionnaires, participants' written journals, post-course semi-structured email interviews, and discussion forum entries. The qualitative analysis of…

  2. Restructuring Schools for Linguistic Diversity: Linking Decision Making to Effective Programs. Second Edition. Language & Literacy Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miramontes, Ofelia B.; Nadeau, Adel; Commins, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    This bestselling book addresses a major instructional and policy concern in public education--how personnel and resources can best be utilized to develop strong instructional programs for a culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) student population. This meticulously updated second edition incorporates the experience that the authors have…

  3. Barriers to Full Participation in the Individualized Education Program for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamzarian, Arpi; Menzies, Holly M.; Ricci, Leila

    2012-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004) mandates that schools facilitate parent participation in planning the Individual Education Program (IEP). However, culturally and linguistically diverse parents are less likely to feel fully included in the IEP process. In this article we examine three sources of cross-cultural…

  4. Knowledge, Communication, and Advocacy of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parents at Individualized Education Program Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Semi-structured interviews using Cognitive Interview method techniques were conducted with nine Culturally and Linguistically Diverse parents of students with disabilities in this exploratory study. Parents recalled experiences asking questions and making advocacy statements at Individualized Education Program meetings. Four major findings were…

  5. Cost-effectiveness of Access to Critical Cerebral Emergency Support Services (ACCESS): a neuro-emergent telemedicine consultation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetten, Justin; van der Goes, David N; Tran, Huy; Moffett, Maurice; Semper, Colin; Yonas, Howard

    2018-01-19

    Access to Critical Cerebral Emergency Support Services (ACCESS) was developed as a low-cost solution to providing neuro-emergent consultations to rural hospitals in New Mexico that do not offer comprehensive stroke care. ACCESS is a two-way audio-visual program linking remote emergency department physicians and their patients to stroke specialists. ACCESS also has an education component in which hospitals receive training from stroke specialists on the triage and treatment of patients. This study assessed the clinical and economic outcomes of the ACCESS program in providing services to rural New Mexico from a healthcare payer perspective. A decision tree model was constructed using findings from the ACCESS program and existing literature, the likelihood that a patient will receive a tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), cost of care, and resulting quality adjusted life years (QALYs). Data from the ACCESS program includes emergency room patients in rural New Mexico from May 2015 to August 2016. Outcomes and costs have been estimated for patients who were taken to a hospital providing neurological telecare and patients who were not. The use of ACCESS decreased neuro-emergent stroke patient transfers from rural hospitals to urban settings from 85% to 5% (no tPA) and 90% to 23% (tPA), while stroke specialist reading of patient CT/MRI imaging within 3 h of onset of stroke symptoms increased from 2% to 22%. Results indicate that use of ACCESS has the potential to save $4,241 ($3,952-$4,438) per patient and increase QALYs by 0.20 (0.14-0.22). This increase in QALYs equates to ∼73 more days of life at full health. The cost savings and QALYs are expected to increase when moving from a 90-day model to a lifetime model. The analysis demonstrates potential savings and improved quality-of-life associated with the use of ACCESS for patients presenting to rural hospitals with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).

  6. Neuro Emotional Literacy Program: Does Teaching the Function of Affect and Affect Regulation Strategies Improve Affect Management and Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Kathryn E.; Campbell, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Although research on Emotion Regulation (ER) is developing at a rapid rate, much of it lacks a clear theoretical framework and most focuses on a narrow set of ER strategies. This work presents the details of a pilot project, the Neuro Emotional Literacy Program (NELP), designed for parents and based on the Somatic Appraisal Model of Affect (SAMA).…

  7. Forecasting Water Level Fluctuations of Urmieh Lake Using Gene Expression Programming and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Karimi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting lake level at various prediction intervals is an essential issue in such industrial applications as navigation, water resource planning and catchment management. In the present study, two data driven techniques, namely Gene Expression Programming and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System, were applied for predicting daily lake levels for three prediction intervals. Daily water-level data from Urmieh Lake in Northwestern Iran were used to train, test and validate the used techniques. Three statistical indexes, coefficient of determination, root mean square error and variance accounted for were used to assess the performance of the used techniques. Technique inter-comparisons demonstrated that the GEP surpassed the ANFIS model at each of the prediction intervals. A traditional auto regressive moving average model was also applied to the same data sets; the obtained results were compared with those of the data driven approaches demonstrating superiority of the data driven models to ARMA.

  8. PROPOSAL FOR NEURAL-LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING (N.L.P. INTHE ADMINISTRATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF LEADERSHIP SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Samira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neural-linguistic programming is an organised method to know the human self construction and dealing with it in fixed means and styles so as to decesisively affect the processes of perception, thinking, imaging, ideas,feeling and also in behavior, skills and the human body and mental performance (1 Neural-linguistic programming has a private nature because it is a group of mechanisms and practicaltechniques far from likeliness, so it enters in the circle of application and employment of the human abilities and possibilities. (9 Al Fiky (2001 points out that neural linguistic programming created the favourable environment to help individuals to get rid of their diseased fears and controlling in their negative reactions and thus improving communication with themselves and with others. He shows it took its way into the human life fields because itsways and strategies are used in the sectors of health, education, marketing and administration(2. The modern administration embarks on the human element that represents the most valuable elementsof administration and is the most effective on the productivity and with the increasing the effect of the human element in the efficacy of the administrative organizations, the need increased to consider the management of the human resources as an independent function of administrative functions that cancers the human element and onwhose efficiency, abilities, experience and zeal for work, the administration efficacy depends.

  9. Program of professional linguistic personality study in linguo-rhetorical paradigm: scientist-philologist and classic writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlexandra A. Vorozhbitova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents program of two types of linguistic personality study: scientist-philologist and classic writer in philological discourse through the perspective of linguo-rhetorical paradigm.

  10. Quantum field theory and the linguistic Minimalist Program: a remarkable isomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piattelli-Palmarini, M.; Vitiello, G.

    2017-08-01

    By resorting to recent results, we show that an isomorphism exist between linguistic features of the Minimalist Program and the quantum field theory formalism of condensed matter physics. Specific linguistic features which admit a representation in terms of the many-body algebraic formalism are the unconstrained nature of recursive Merge, the operation of the Labeling Algorithm, the difference between pronounced and un-pronounced copies of elements in a sentence and the build-up of the Fibonacci sequence in the syntactic derivation of sentence structures. The collective dynamical nature of the formation process of Logical Forms leading to the individuation of the manifold of concepts and the computational self-consistency of languages are also discussed.

  11. The Economic and Clinical Impact of Sustained Use of a Progressive Mobility Program in a Neuro-ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Jeannette M; Guin, Peggy R; Danek, Gale D; Thomas, Jaime R; Titsworth, William L; Reed, Richard K; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Fahy, Brenda G

    2017-06-01

    To investigate a progressive mobility program in a neurocritical care population with the hypothesis that the benefits and outcomes of the program (e.g., decreased length of stay) would have a significant positive economic impact. Retrospective analysis of economic and clinical outcome data before, immediately following, and 2 years after implementation of the Progressive Upright Mobility Protocol Plus program (UF Health Shands Hospital, Gainesville, FL) involving a series of planned movements in a sequential manner with an additional six levels of rehabilitation in the neuro-ICU at UF Health Shands Hospital. Thirty-bed neuro-ICU in an academic medical center. Adult neurologic and neurosurgical patients: 1,118 patients in the pre period, 731 patients in the post period, and 796 patients in the sustained period. Implementation of Progressive Upright Mobility Protocol Plus. ICU length of stay decreased from 6.5 to 5.8 days in the immediate post period and 5.9 days in the sustained period (F(2,2641) = 3.1; p = 0.045). Hospital length of stay was reduced from 11.3 ± 14.1 days to 8.6 ± 8.8 post days and 8.8 ± 9.3 days sustained (F(2,2641) = 13.0; p ICU length of stay (p = 0.031) and hospital length of stay (p < 0.001) remained after adjustment for age, sex, diagnoses, sedation, and ventilation. Hospital-acquired infections were reduced by 50%. Average total cost per patient after adjusting for inflation was significantly reduced by 16% (post period) and 11% (sustained period) when compared with preintervention (F(2,2641) = 3.1; p = 0.045). Overall, these differences translated to an approximately $12.0 million reduction in direct costs from February 2011 through the end of 2013. An ongoing progressive mobility program in the neurocritical care population has clinical and financial benefits associated with its implementation and should be considered.

  12. Neuro-Linguistic Programming and Altered States: Encouraging Preparation for Learning in the Classroom for Students with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudliskis, Voldis

    2013-01-01

    In seeking to identify the processes associated with the immediate engagement of learning for students with mild special educational needs, this study examined the responses of an extraction group (n = 7) of 11- to 13-year-old students who participated in a number of lessons in which the opening episode involved the use of visualisation techniques…

  13. Teaching Assistants, Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) and Special Educational Needs: "Reframing" the Learning Experience for Students with Mild SEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudliskis, Voldis

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how an understanding of two NLP concepts, the meta-model of language and the implementation of reframing, could be used to help teaching assistants enhance class-based interactions with students with mild SEN. Participants (students) completed a pre-intervention and a post-intervention "Beliefs About my Learning…

  14. When technology became language: the origins of the linguistic conception of computer programming, 1950-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofre, David; Priestley, Mark; Alberts, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Language is one of the central metaphors around which the discipline of computer science has been built. The language metaphor entered modern computing as part of a cybernetic discourse, but during the second half of the 1950s acquired a more abstract meaning, closely related to the formal languages of logic and linguistics. The article argues that this transformation was related to the appearance of the commercial computer in the mid-1950s. Managers of computing installations and specialists on computer programming in academic computer centers, confronted with an increasing variety of machines, called for the creation of "common" or "universal languages" to enable the migration of computer code from machine to machine. Finally, the article shows how the idea of a universal language was a decisive step in the emergence of programming languages, in the recognition of computer programming as a proper field of knowledge, and eventually in the way we think of the computer.

  15. Assessing services with communicatively impaired bilingual adults in culturally and linguistically diverse neurorehabilitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, José G

    2015-01-01

    The combined effect of the steady increase in cultural and linguistic diversity and epidemiological factors in minority populations is estimated to continue having an impact on adult neurorehabilitation programs in the country, particularly in the number of bilingual individuals receiving clinical services. No comprehensive assessment of the present professional and clinical realities in service delivery to communicatively impaired adults in culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) neurorehabilitation contexts has been conducted. The current survey research was undertaken to examine current professional training, clinical practices, and challenges in the services rendered to the steadily increasing numbers of communicatively disordered adults in CLD neurorehabilitation programs with a special focus on bilingual persons. A 36-question, 6-section survey was administered to health care-based SLPs working with adults to examine multiple factors regarding work setting and caseload, professional training, clinical tools and procedures, service delivery issues, and suggestions to improve clinical work with bilingual adults in CLD neurorehabilitation environments. Results support that SLPs presently make sensible decisions to serve communicatively disordered bilingual adults with neuropathologies despite training gaps and scant clinical resources. Responses additionally highlight critical areas to improve professional preparation and available resources. Results are discussed in terms of strengths and weaknesses as well as their implications to professional education and target research areas in order to minimize present gaps in service delivery with bilingual speakers in CLD adult neurorehabilitation programs. As a result of this activity, the reader will be able to: (1) Discuss the demographic and epidemiological factors that suggest a continued increase in the number of communicatively impaired bilingual adults in CLD neurorehabilitation programs. (2) Describe

  16. Linearized Programming of Memristors for Artificial Neuro-Sensor Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changju; Kim, Hyongsuk

    2016-08-19

    A linearized programming method of memristor-based neural weights is proposed. Memristor is known as an ideal element to implement a neural synapse due to its embedded functions of analog memory and analog multiplication. Its resistance variation with a voltage input is generally a nonlinear function of time. Linearization of memristance variation about time is very important for the easiness of memristor programming. In this paper, a method utilizing an anti-serial architecture for linear programming is proposed. The anti-serial architecture is composed of two memristors with opposite polarities. It linearizes the variation of memristance due to complimentary actions of two memristors. For programming a memristor, additional memristor with opposite polarity is employed. The linearization effect of weight programming of an anti-serial architecture is investigated and memristor bridge synapse which is built with two sets of anti-serial memristor architecture is taken as an application example of the proposed method. Simulations are performed with memristors of both linear drift model and nonlinear model.

  17. Do all roads lead to Rome? The role of neuro-immune interactions before birth in the programming of offspring obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eJasoni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The functions of the nervous system can be powerfully modulated by the immune system. Although traditionally considered to be quite separate, neuro-immune interactions are increasingly recognized as critical for both normal and pathological nervous system function in the adult. However, a growing body of information supports a critical role for neuro-immune interactions before birth, particularly in the prenatal programming of later-life neurobehavioral disease risk. This review will focus on maternal obesity, as it represents an environment of pathological immune system function during pregnancy that elevates offspring neurobehavioral disease risk. We will first delineate the normal role of the immune system during pregnancy, including the role of the placenta as both a barrier and relayer of inflammatory information between the maternal and fetal environments. This will be followed by the current exciting findings of how immuno-modulatory molecules may elevate offspring risk of neurobehavioral disease by altering brain development and, consequently, later life function. Finally, by drawing parallels with pregnancy complications other than obesity, we will suggest that aberrant immune activation, irrespective of its origin, may lead to neuro-immune interactions that otherwise would not exist in the developing brain. These interactions could conceivably derail normal brain development and/or later life function, and thereby elevate risk for obesity and other neurobehavioral disorders later in the offspring’s life.

  18. NEuro COgnitive REhabilitation for Disease of Addiction (NECOREDA) Program: From Development to Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour, Tara; Hatami, Javad; Farhoudian, Ali; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Noroozi, Alireza; Daneshmand, Reza; Samiei, Ahmadreza; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2015-10-01

    Despite extensive evidence for cognitive deficits associated with drug use and multiple publications supporting the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation treatment (CRT) services for drug addictions, there are a few well-structured tools and organized programs to improve cognitive abilities in substance users. Most published studies on cognitive rehabilitation for drug dependent patients used rehabilitation tools, which have been previously designed for other types of brain injuries such as schizophrenia or traumatic brain injuries and not specifically designed for drug dependent patients. These studies also suffer from small sample size, lack of follow-up period assessments and or comprehensive treatment outcome measures. To address these limitations, we decided to develop and investigate the efficacy of a paper and pencil cognitive rehabilitation package called NECOREDA (Neurocognitive Rehabilitation for Disease of Addiction) to improve neurocognitive deficits associated with drug dependence particularly caused by stimulants (e.g. amphetamine type stimulants and cocaine) and opiates. To evaluate the feasibility of NECOREDA program, we conducted a pilot study with 10 opiate and methamphetamine dependent patients for 3 months in outpatient setting. NECOREDA was revised based on qualitative comments received from clients and treatment providers. Final version of NECOREDA is composed of brain training exercises called "Brain Gym" and psychoeducational modules called "Brain Treasures" which is implemented in 16 training sessions interleaved with 16 review and practice sessions. NECOREDA will be evaluated as an add-on intervention to methadone maintenance treatment in a randomized clinical trial among opiate dependent patients starting from August 2015. We discuss methodological features of NECOREDA development and evaluation in this article.

  19. Mexican Secondary School Teachers’ Linguistic Expression of Attitude towards the National English Program in Basic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Mendoza Valladares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers’ attitudes play an important role in the implementation of educational reforms and innovations (Avramidis & Norwich, 2002; Fullan, 2001; Rogers, 2003; Waters, 2009; Wedell, 2009. Desired changes can successfully go through only if teachers respond positively to putting into effect those changes. Mexico is at present facing the challenge of an educational reform in basic education that involves adopting a new English as a second language program. Information about teachers’ attitudes towards the change is crucial to anticipate possible ways in which the process could unfold. This study explores the use of Appraisal Theory (Martin & White, 2005 to examine the linguistic expressions of attitude toward the Mexican National English Program for Basic Education. Data came from 12 focus group discussions conducted as part of a state-wide project with 86 secondary school teachers and supervisors in the northeastern corner of the country. Findings indicate that teachers’ negative attitudes towards the program were associated to their negative evaluation of the procedures to disseminate information about the program, and the quantity and quality of teacher training. Findings also shed light on the conventions related to the roles that teachers and administrators play in the reform implementation process. Implications of the findings are briefly discussed.

  20. Temperature based daily incoming solar radiation modeling based on gene expression programming, neuro-fuzzy and neural network computing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeras, G.; López, J. J.; Kisi, O.; Shiri, J.

    2012-04-01

    The correct observation/estimation of surface incoming solar radiation (RS) is very important for many agricultural, meteorological and hydrological related applications. While most weather stations are provided with sensors for air temperature detection, the presence of sensors necessary for the detection of solar radiation is not so habitual and the data quality provided by them is sometimes poor. In these cases it is necessary to estimate this variable. Temperature based modeling procedures are reported in this study for estimating daily incoming solar radiation by using Gene Expression Programming (GEP) for the first time, and other artificial intelligence models such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). Traditional temperature based solar radiation equations were also included in this study and compared with artificial intelligence based approaches. Root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) RMSE-based skill score (SSRMSE), MAE-based skill score (SSMAE) and r2 criterion of Nash and Sutcliffe criteria were used to assess the models' performances. An ANN (a four-input multilayer perceptron with ten neurons in the hidden layer) presented the best performance among the studied models (2.93 MJ m-2 d-1 of RMSE). A four-input ANFIS model revealed as an interesting alternative to ANNs (3.14 MJ m-2 d-1 of RMSE). Very limited number of studies has been done on estimation of solar radiation based on ANFIS, and the present one demonstrated the ability of ANFIS to model solar radiation based on temperatures and extraterrestrial radiation. By the way this study demonstrated, for the first time, the ability of GEP models to model solar radiation based on daily atmospheric variables. Despite the accuracy of GEP models was slightly lower than the ANFIS and ANN models the genetic programming models (i.e., GEP) are superior to other artificial intelligence models in giving a simple explicit equation for the

  1. What's in a Name? Degree Programs and What They Tell Us about "Applied Linguistics" in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Neil; Crichton, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we explore the provision of applied linguistics within Australian universities. We focus on how the "what" of applied linguistics, as captured in scholarly definitions of the discipline, accords with the "where", as captured in potential contexts of application as these are manifested in provision. In doing so, we…

  2. Linguistic characteristics of patients with bulimic symptomatology in an online post-treatment program: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezei, Ágnes; Gulec, Hayriye; Czeglédi, Edit; Fritz, Adorján; Túry, Ferenc

    2015-03-01

    No former investigation has been performed related to the linguistic characteristics of patients with eating disorders using online synchronous communication mediums like chats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the linguistic predictors of improvement in eating disorder-related attitudes, behaviours and emotional distress of patients with eating disorders. Thirty-nine women, who had received treatment for bulimia nervosa or related eating disorders not otherwise specified, utilized the moderated therapeutic group chats of an Internet-based program for 4 months. The main themes of 134 session transcripts were created using a general inductive approach. The frequency of dictionary words in the text corpus was processed by the NooJ linguistic software. Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale were administered at the beginning and at the end of 4 months. No valid questionnaire data could be obtained from 11 participants, so the statistical analyses were performed in a sample of 28 subjects. According to the results of multiple linear regression analyses, higher ratio of words related to "family of origin" was associated with improvements in eating disorder-related attitudes, emotional distress, and reduction in the frequency of binge eating episodes (β = 0.73, p linguistic predictor of improvement during group chat communication of patients with bulimic symptomatology. The results show the importance of family issues in enhancing the treatment outcome and provide preliminary evidence to address this topic during online chat moderation.

  3. Culturally and linguistically diverse students in health professional programs: an exploration of concerns and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, C; Outram, S

    2012-07-01

    Cultural diversity among students in tertiary institutions in Australia and globally has increased rapidly in the last decade, and is continuing to do so. Focus groups were held at the University of Newcastle, NSW to: (1) examine the specific needs of international students in the Master of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Nursing programs in relation to language and cultural considerations and (2) to understand the attitudes of domestic students to the cultural issues faced among their peers. The project explored these issues with the intention to inform curricula changes to accommodate the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students. The key themes emerging from international students were: difficulties in spoken language, differences in professional roles and expectations, differences in methods of learning, inadequate social interaction outside the classroom and acceptance of differences in cultural and religious practices. The domestic student views reinforced the comments from international students both in regard to social interaction and in regard to participation in class discussions. Although local students were interested in learning from international students about their culture and religious beliefs, there were limited initiatives from both sides. There is a need for tertiary institutions that benefit economically from increasing the numbers of international students to help them to study and live in a new environment. Assistance needs to go beyond learning the English language to helping students understand its use in a professional context (health terminology and slang used by patients), the nuances of the health professional disciplines in a western society, the approach to study and problem-based learning styles and skills to assist with social interaction. The results of the present exploration have led to a series of proposed actions for the University of Newcastle. These recommendations are applicable to any "Western

  4. Contrastive Linguistics at the Center for Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemser, William

    1970-01-01

    Describes the activities of the Center for Applied Linguistics in the field of contrastive linguistics since its founding in 1959. The author is Director of the Foreign Language Program at the Center. (FB)

  5. Linguistics courses in pre-service foreign language teacher training programs and knowledge about language

    OpenAIRE

    Hatipoğlu, Çiler

    2017-01-01

    The introductory linguistics courses have been a constant component of the pre-service English Language Teaching (ELT) curricula in Turkey since 1944 when the ELT Department at Gazi Institute of Education was establishment (Hatipoğlu 2017; Hatipoğlu & Erçetin, 2016). In Turkey, no ELT student can graduate and become a language teacher without taking and passing these courses. The aim of the linguistics courses, as defined by the Council of Higher Education (YOK 2005), is to equip futu...

  6. EFFECTS OF A MODIFIED LINGUISTIC WORD RECOGNITION PROGRAM ON FOURTH-GRADE READING ACHIEVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOLAN, SISTER MARY EDWARD

    THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF FOURTH-GRADE STUDENTS WHO WERE TAUGHT WORD RECOGNITION BY EITHER A BASAL APPROACH OR A BASAL APPROACH WITH LINGUISTIC EMPHASIS WAS INVESTIGATED. A SAMPLE OF 10 CLASSROOMS MATCHED ON INTELLIGENCE, CHRONOLOGICAL AGE, AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS WAS SELECTED FROM SCHOOL SYSTEMS IN IOWA AND MICHIGAN. THE LORGE-THORNDIKE…

  7. Standard Educational Program of Aspirantura in a Format of Federal State Demands (by the Example of Group of Specialties 10.02.00 Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O I Aleksandrova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the Russian educational system led to necessity to unify educational programs on all higher education degrees including aspirantura (doctoral studies. In this regard a sample of basic educational doctoral degree program has been developed in accordance with federal state demands by the example of group of specialties 10.02.00 Linguistics.

  8. NeuroMorpho

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NeuroMorpho.Org is a centrally curated inventory of digitally reconstructed neurons associated with peer-reviewed publications. It contains contributions from over...

  9. Understanding and enhancing the learning experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students in an Australian bachelor of nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sarah Yeun-Sim; Hickey, Noelene; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Pitt, Victoria; Hoffman, Kerry; Norton, Carol Anne; Ohr, Se Ok

    2011-04-01

    The growth in numbers of culturally and linguistically diverse students entering nursing programs in Australia presents challenges for academic and clinical staff, and most importantly the students themselves. In this paper we present the findings from a pilot study designed to explore these issues and to develop strategies to address them. This study used a qualitative explorative approach to gain rich in-depth data. Eleven culturally and linguistically diverse students, three clinical facilitators, and four academic staff participated in focus group interviews. Four major themes emerged: level of English language competence, feelings of isolation, limited opportunities for learning, and inadequate university support. The issues we identified led to a meaningful discussion of the political, financial, social and intercultural context that they are entrapped in. This paper provides educators, clinicians, policy makers and researchers with an insight where and how they commence to break the trap and highlights, the need for further research into the perspectives of Australian students' who study and socialise with their international peers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mathematics and linguistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landauer, C.; Bellman, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we study foundational issues that we believe will help us develop a theoretically sound approach to constructing complex systems. The two theoretical approaches that have helped us understand and develop computational systems in the past are mathematics and linguistics. We describe some differences and strengths of the approaches, and propose a research program to combine the richness of linguistic reasoning with the precision of mathematics.

  11. The Linguistic Gains and Acculturation of American High School Students on Exchange Programs in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovitt, Ashli

    2013-01-01

    There has been a sharp rise in study abroad participation over the last few decades (Institute for International Education, 2011), which can largely be explained by the rise of short-term study abroad programs. While there is much to be gained from participation in such programs, mid-length and year programs may offer the greatest benefits for…

  12. NeuroQuiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brent, Mikkel Bo; Emmanuel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    NeuroQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til neuroanatomi. Den består af mere end 1500 spørgsmål og over 350 anatomiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Neuroanatomi af Carsten Reidies Bjarkam.......NeuroQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til neuroanatomi. Den består af mere end 1500 spørgsmål og over 350 anatomiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Neuroanatomi af Carsten Reidies Bjarkam....

  13. Probabilistic linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bod, R.; Heine, B.; Narrog, H.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic linguistics takes all linguistic evidence as positive evidence and lets statistics decide. It allows for accurate modelling of gradient phenomena in production and perception, and suggests that rule-like behaviour is no more than a side effect of maximizing probability. This chapter

  14. Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way.......The study of linguistic imperialism focuses on how and why certain languages dominate internationally, and attempts to account for such dominance in a theoretically informed way....

  15. Linguistic Polyphony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nølke, Henning

    Linguistic polyphony is an utterance theory (la linguistique de l'énonciation) and is a French speciality. It deals with the numenrous points of view that are likely to be communicated through an utterance. The book introduces utterance act theory and polyphony as such, but most especially focuses...... on the Scandinavian variant of polyphony, ScaPoLine. ScaPoLine is a formal linguistic theory whose main purpose is to specify the instructions conveyed through linguistic form for the creation of polyphonic meaning. The theoretical introduction is followed by polyphonic analyses of linguistic phenomena...... such as negation, mood, modality and connectors, and of textual phenomena such as represented discourse and irony. The book suggests how ScaPoLine could offer new insights within cross-linguistic and interdisciplinary studies....

  16. Linguistic Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Nigel

    1992-01-01

    Advocates the application of Popper's ideas (1963, 1972) about the nature of science and objectivist epistemology to generativist linguistics, discussing the subsequent effects on five key metatheoretical positions: fallibilism; realism; objectivism; autonomism; and interactionism. (12 references) (CB)

  17. Chaotic Neuro-Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    This chapter describes mixed analog/digital circuit implementations of a chaotic neuro-computer system. The chaotic neuron model is implemented with a switched-capacitor (SC) integrated circuit technique. The analog SC circuit can handle real numbers electrically in the sense that the state variables of the analog circuits are continuous. Therefore, chaotic dynamics can be faithfully replicated with the SC chaotic neuron circuit. The synaptic connections, on the other hand, are realized with digital circuits to accommodate a vast number of synapses. We propose a memory-based digital synapse circuit architecture that draws upon the table look-up method to achieve rapid calculation of a large number of weighted summations. The first generation chaotic neuro-computer with 16 SC neurons and 256 synapses is reviewed. Finally, a large-scale system with 10000 neurons and 100002 synapses is described.

  18. Increasing Cultural And Linguistic Diversity In Deaf Education Teacher Preparation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Joanna E; Luckner, John L

    2016-01-01

    As the field of education of the d/Deaf and hard of hearing (d/Dhh) continues to diversify, postsecondary institutions must pay close attention not only to the changing needs of d/Dhh students but to the practitioners they are preparing to serve this population. Students who are d/Dhh and come from homes where a language other than English or American Sign Language is used--d/Dhh Multilingual Learners (DMLs)--constitute 19.4%-35.0% of the d/Dhh student population (Gallaudet Research Institute, 2013). In the present article, part of a special American Annals of the Deaf issue on DMLs, the authors review demographic trends, examine the theory behind teacher effectiveness and culturally responsive teaching, provide examples from research on effective components of teacher preparation programs and discuss how they align with the field's certification standards, and recommend practices for programs and teachers to meet these standards within the field's ever-changing landscape.

  19. Cross-linguistic neuroimaging and dyslexia: A critical view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadzibeganovic, T.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Perc, M.; Kralingen, R.B.A.S. van; Mondt, K.; Coltheart, M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent neuro cognitive theories of dyslexia presume that all dyslexics have the same type of brain abnormality irrespective of the particular writing system their language uses In this article we indicate how this presumption is inconsistent with cross linguistic investigations of reading and

  20. Urgences en neuro-ophtalmologie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caignard, A.; Leruez, S.; Milea, D.

    2017-01-01

    Neuro-ophthalmic emergencies can cause life-threatening or sight-threatening complications. Various conditions may have acute neuro-ophthalmic manifestations, including inflammatory or ischemic processes, as well as tumoral, aneurysmal compression or metabolic and systemic diseases. Diplopia rela...

  1. Cognitive linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Vyvyan

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive linguistics is one of the fastest growing and influential perspectives on the nature of language, the mind, and their relationship with sociophysical (embodied) experience. It is a broad theoretical and methodological enterprise, rather than a single, closely articulated theory. Its primary commitments are outlined. These are the Cognitive Commitment-a commitment to providing a characterization of language that accords with what is known about the mind and brain from other disciplines-and the Generalization Commitment-which represents a dedication to characterizing general principles that apply to all aspects of human language. The article also outlines the assumptions and worldview which arises from these commitments, as represented in the work of leading cognitive linguists. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:129-141. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1163 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Neuro-ophthalmology update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Konrad P; Straumann, Dominik

    2014-07-01

    This review summarizes the most relevant articles from the field of neuro-ophthalmology published in the Journal of Neurology from January 2012 to July 2013. With the advent of video-oculography, several articles describe new applications for eye movement recordings as a diagnostic tool for a wide range of disorders. In myasthenia gravis, anti-Kv1.4 and anti-Lrp4 have been characterized as promising novel autoantibodies for the diagnosis of hitherto 'seronegative' myasthenia gravis. Several articles address new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to neuromyelitis optica, which further sharpen its profile as a distinct entity. Additionally, 4-aminopyridine has become a standard therapeutic for patients with cerebellar downbeat nystagmus. Finally, revised diagnostic criteria have been proposed for chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy based on a careful literature review over the last decade.

  3. Neuro-ophthalmology as a career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitze, Arielle; Al-Zubidi, Nagham; Lam, Peter; Yalamanchili, Sushma; Lee, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    This essay was written to discuss the reasoning behind the personal decisions made by 2 current neuro-ophthalmology fellows to pursue neuro-ophthalmology as a career. It is meant to enlighten the reader about what role neuro-ophthalmologists play in clinical practice, what makes neuro-ophthalmology unique to all other sub-specialties, and how this contributes to making neuro-ophthalmology not only one of the most medically interesting, yet rewarding sub-specialties in ophthalmology. PMID:25449937

  4. Neuro-ophthalmology as a career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitze, Arielle; Al-Zubidi, Nagham; Lam, Peter; Yalamanchili, Sushma; Lee, Andrew G

    2014-10-01

    This essay was written to discuss the reasoning behind the personal decisions made by 2 current neuro-ophthalmology fellows to pursue neuro-ophthalmology as a career. It is meant to enlighten the reader about what role neuro-ophthalmologists play in clinical practice, what makes neuro-ophthalmology unique to all other sub-specialties, and how this contributes to making neuro-ophthalmology not only one of the most medically interesting, yet rewarding sub-specialties in ophthalmology.

  5. NIH NeuroBioBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIH NeuroBioBank (NBB), supported by the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the Eunice Kennedy...

  6. The neuro-ophthalmological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Janet C; Kennard, Christopher; Leigh, R John

    2011-01-01

    The neuro-ophthalmological examination constitutes one of the most refined and exact components of the clinical examination, often allowing precise diagnosis and formulation of a treatment plan even within the compass of the first visit. This chapter briefly highlights important features in the neuro-ophthalmological history and then presents detailed information on the important components of a comprehensive neuro-ophthalmological examination. Covered examination topics include visual acuity, visual field testing, color vision, external eye exam, pupils, ophthalmoscopy, and eye movements. The final section discusses ancillary tests that supplement the bedside neuro-ophthalmological examination, including formal visual field analysis, electroretinography, fluorescein angiography, ocular coherence tomography, visual-evoked potentials, neuroimaging, and quantitative eye movement recordings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Neuro-Ophthalmological History Taking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Helmut

    2017-11-01

    Neuro-ophthalmological history may be very complex and difficult. This article provides 14 hints about how to construct history taking efficiently and how to avoid collecting unnecessary information. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Linguistic relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Holmes, Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    The central question in research on linguistic relativity, or the Whorfian hypothesis, is whether people who speak different languages think differently. The recent resurgence of research on this question can be attributed, in part, to new insights about the ways in which language might impact thought. We identify seven categories of hypotheses about the possible effects of language on thought across a wide range of domains, including motion, color, spatial relations, number, and false belief understanding. While we do not find support for the idea that language determines the basic categories of thought or that it overwrites preexisting conceptual distinctions, we do find support for the proposal that language can make some distinctions difficult to avoid, as well as for the proposal that language can augment certain types of thinking. Further, we highlight recent evidence suggesting that language may induce a relatively schematic mode of thinking. Although the literature on linguistic relativity remains contentious, there is growing support for the view that language has a profound effect on thought. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 253-265 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.104 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Australia and New Zealand Applied Linguistics (ANZAL): Taking Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews some emerging trends in applied linguistics in both Australia and New Zealand. It sketches the current scene of (selected) postgraduate applied linguistics programs in higher education and considers how various university programs define applied linguistics through the classes (titles) they have postgraduate students complete to…

  10. Memristive Neuro-Fuzzy System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrikh-Bayat, Farnood; Shouraki, Saeed Bagheri

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, a novel neuro-fuzzy computing system is proposed where its learning is based on the creation of fuzzy relations by using a new implication method without utilizing any exact mathematical techniques. Then, a simple memristor crossbar-based analog circuit is designed to implement this neuro-fuzzy system which offers very interesting properties. In addition to high connectivity between neurons and being fault tolerant, all synaptic weights in our proposed method are always non-negative, and there is no need to adjust them precisely. Finally, this structure is hierarchically expandable, and it can do fuzzy operations in real time since it is implemented through analog circuits. Simulation results confirm the efficiency and applicability of our neuro-fuzzy computing system. They also indicate that this system can be a good candidate to be used for creating artificial brain.

  11. Neuro-fuzzy modeling in bankruptcy prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlachos D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 30 years the problem of bankruptcy prediction had been thoroughly studied. From the paper of Altman in 1968 to the recent papers in the '90s, the progress of prediction accuracy was not satisfactory. This paper investigates an alternative modeling of the system (firm, combining neural networks and fuzzy controllers, i.e. using neuro-fuzzy models. Classical modeling is based on mathematical models that describe the behavior of the firm under consideration. The main idea of fuzzy control, on the other hand, is to build a model of a human control expert who is capable of controlling the process without thinking in a mathematical model. This control expert specifies his control action in the form of linguistic rules. These control rules are translated into the framework of fuzzy set theory providing a calculus, which can stimulate the behavior of the control expert and enhance its performance. The accuracy of the model is studied using datasets from previous research papers.

  12. Exploring Linguistic Identity in Young Multilingual Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Roswita

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the linguistic identity of young multilingual learners through the use of a Language Portrait Silhouette. Examples from a research study of children aged 6-8 years in a German bilingual program in Canada provide teachers with an understanding that linguistic identity comprises expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. This…

  13. Clinical neuro-oncology formal education opportunities for medical students in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Karan S; Nicholas, Martin Kelly; Lukas, Rimas V

    2014-12-01

    To develop an understanding of the availability of the formal clinical neuro-oncology educational opportunities for medical students. The curriculum websites of all medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education were reviewed for the presence of clinical neuro-oncology electives as well as other relevant data. Ten (6.8%) of medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education offer formal neuro-oncology electives. Half are clustered in the Midwest. Forty percent are at institutions with neuro-oncology fellowships. All are at institutions with neurosurgery and neurology residency programs. Formal clinical neuro-oncology elective opportunities for medical students in the United States and Canada are limited. Additional such opportunities may be of value in the education of medical students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediction of autistic disorder using neuro fuzzy system by applying ANN technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthi, K; Tamilarasi, A

    2008-11-01

    The major challenge in medical field is to diagnose disorder rather than a disease. In this paper, a neuro fuzzy based model is designed for identification or diagnosis of autism. The problematic areas are gathered from every individual and the related linguistic inputs are converted into fuzzy input values which are in turn given as input to feed forward multilayer neural network. The network is trained using back propagation training algorithm and tested for its performance with the expertise.

  15. Neuro-ophthalmology as a career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Spitze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay was written to discuss the reasoning behind the personal decisions made by 2 current neuro-ophthalmology fellows to pursue neuro-ophthalmology as a career. It is meant to enlighten the reader about what role neuro-ophthalmologists play in clinical practice, what makes neuro-ophthalmology unique to all other sub-specialties, and how this contributes to making neuro-ophthalmology not only one of the most medically interesting, yet rewarding sub-specialties in ophthalmology.

  16. Understanding software through linguistic abstraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.

    2013-01-01

    Preprint submitted to "Science of Computer Programming", Elsevier, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scico.2013.12.001 In this essay, I argue that linguistic abstraction should be used systematically as a tool to capture our emerging understanding of domains of computation. Moreover, to enable that

  17. Neuro-ophthalmology and neuro-otology update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Daniel R; Zee, David S

    2015-12-01

    This review summarizes topical papers from the fields of neuro-ophthalmology and neuro-otology published from August 2013 to February 2015. The main findings are: (1) diagnostic criteria for pseudotumor cerebri have been updated, and the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial evaluated the efficacy of acetazolamide in patients with mild vision loss, (2) categorization of vestibular disorders through history and ocular motor examination is particularly important in the acute vestibular syndrome, where timely distinction between a central or peripheral localization is essential, (3) the newly described "sagging eye syndrome" provides a mechanical explanation for an isolated esodeviation that increases at distance in the aging population and (4) eye movement recordings better define how cerebellar dysfunction and/or sixth nerve palsy may play a role in other patients with esodeviations that increase at distance.

  18. Etymology and Modern Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkiel, Yakov

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the estrangement between etymology and modern linguistics, and concludes that a reconciliation between spatio-temporal linguistics and etymology must occur, because without it, both disciplines are doomed to inanition. (Author/AM)

  19. Approaches to Contrastive Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmanova, Olga; And Others

    Linguistics as a science has been concerned with comparison ever since its inception, the number and variety of approaches increasing steadily in the course of its development. Interest in linguistic comparison extends into the field of foreign language teaching. Linguists have attempted to solve the problem of methodology in contrastive…

  20. Linguistic and Paralinguistic Interchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    Current linguistic theory rigidly compartmentalizes the "cognitive," linguistic aspects of human communication and the presumed "emotive," paralinguistic elements that occur in both human and nonhuman communication. The segmental phonetic units of human speech, according to this view, are supposed to convey linguistically relevant information,…

  1. Neuro-Sweet Disease Causing Orbital Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taravati, Parisa

    2015-02-01

    Neuro-Sweet disease is a rare condition causing encephalitis or meningitis in addition to the erythematous skin plaques of Sweet syndrome. Neuro-Sweet disease has been associated with several ocular manifestations, including ocular movement disorders, episcleritis, conjunctivitis, uveitis, and optic disc oedema. The author reports a patient with orbital inflammation, cranial neuropathies, and a skin rash in the setting of myelodysplastic syndrome. Biopsy of her skin lesion confirmed the diagnosis of neuro-Sweet disease. To the author's knowledge, this is the first reported case of neuro-Sweet disease causing orbital inflammation. Her ocular inflammation resolved with the use of systemic corticosteroid treatment.

  2. Neuro-epistemology: A Post-modernist Analysis of the Neuro-sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    support

    Keywords: neuro-epistemology; neuro-sciences; mental health; discourse; epistemology. ABSTRACT. This paper ... of neuro-science, including the assumptive framework upon which the dominant discourse in this field is based, which ultimately ...... human language, “attack” on Piaget's sensory-motor theory, and the focus ...

  3. Novice Teachers and Linguistics: Foregrounding the Functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Phil; Moore, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This forum article describes a postgraduate certificate teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) program with a strong linguistics orientation and argues that such a program provides novice language teachers with knowledge and skills superior to those of programs which focus more on methodology and practicum experience and less on…

  4. Neuro-ophthalmology in the Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrna, Kathern E

    2017-12-01

    This article provides a brief, clinically relevant review of neurologic disorders of the eye. A description of the neuro-ophthalmic examination is provided. Stepwise descriptions of the most common neuro-ophthalmic abnormalities are provided along with common rule outs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Linguistic Structure Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Noah A

    2011-01-01

    A major part of natural language processing now depends on the use of text data to build linguistic analyzers. We consider statistical, computational approaches to modeling linguistic structure. We seek to unify across many approaches and many kinds of linguistic structures. Assuming a basic understanding of natural language processing and/or machine learning, we seek to bridge the gap between the two fields. Approaches to decoding (i.e., carrying out linguistic structure prediction) and supervised and unsupervised learning of models that predict discrete structures as outputs are the focus. W

  6. NeuroAIDS in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kevin; Liner, Jeff; Hakim, James; Sankalé, Jean-Louis; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Clifford, David; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Jaye, Assan; Kanmogne, Georgette; Njamnshi, Alfred; Langford, T Dianne; Weyessa, Tufa Gemechu; Wood, Charles; Banda, Mwanza; Hosseinipour, Mina; Sacktor, Ned; Nakasuja, Noeline; Bangirana, Paul; Paul, Robert; Joska, John; Wong, Joseph; Boivin, Michael; Holding, Penny; Kammerer, Betsy; Van Rie, Annelies; Ive, Prudence; Nath, Avindra; Lawler, Kathy; Adebamowo, Clement; Royal, Walter; Joseph, Jeymohan

    2010-05-01

    In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting "NeuroAIDS in Africa." This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. These introductory talks were followed by presentations on HAND research and clinical care in Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia. Topics discussed included best practices for assessing neurocognitive disorders, patterns of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the region, subtype-associated risk for HAND, pediatric HIV assessments and neurodevelopment, HIV-associated CNS opportunistic infections and immune reconstitution syndrome, the evolving changes in treatment implementation, and various opportunities and strategies for NeuroAIDS research and capacity building in the region.

  7. Conceptual structure: Towards an integrated neuro-cognitive account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K.I.; Devereux, B. J.; Tyler, L.K.

    2013-01-01

    How are the meanings of concepts represented and processed? We present a cognitive model of conceptual representations and processing – the Conceptual Structure Account (CSA; Tyler & Moss, 2001) – as an example of a distributed, feature-based approach. In a first section, we describe the CSA and evaluate relevant neuropsychological and experimental behavioral data. We discuss studies using linguistic and non-linguistic stimuli, which are both presumed to access the same conceptual system. We then take the CSA as a framework for hypothesising how conceptual knowledge is represented and processed in the brain. This neuro-cognitive approach attempts to integrate the distributed feature-based characteristics of the CSA with a distributed and feature-based model of sensory object processing. Based on a review of relevant functional imaging and neuropsychological data, we argue that distributed accounts of feature-based representations have considerable explanatory power, and that a cognitive model of conceptual representations is needed to understand their neural bases. PMID:23750064

  8. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  9. From 'Hard' Neuro-Tools to 'Soft' Neuro-Toys? Refocussing the Neuro-Enhancement Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenninkmeijer, Jonna; Zwart, Hub

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1990's, the debate concerning the ethical, legal and societal aspects of 'neuro-enhancement' has evolved into a massive discourse, both in the public realm and in the academic arena. This ethical debate, however, tends to repeat the same sets of arguments over and over again. Normative disagreements between transhumanists and bioconservatives on invasive or radical brain stimulators, and uncertainties regarding the use and effectivity of nootropic pharmaceuticals dominate the field. Building on the results of an extensive European project on responsible research and innovation in neuro-enhancement (NERRI), we observe and encourage that the debate is now entering a new and, as we will argue, more realistic and societally relevant stage. This new stage concerns those technologies that enter the market as ostensibly harmless contrivances that consumers may use for self-care or entertainment. We use the examples and arguments of participants in NERRI debates to describe three case studies of such purportedly innocent 'toys'. Based upon this empirical material, we argue that these 'soft' enhancement gadgets are situated somewhere in the boundary zone between the internal and the external, between the intimate and the intrusive, between the familiar and the unfamiliar, between the friendly and the scary and, in Foucauldian terms, between technologies of the self and technologies of control. Therefore, we describe their physiognomy with the help of a term borrowed from Jacques Lacan, namely as "extimate" technologies.

  10. Conversion Rate Optimization : Visual Neuro Programming Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Berezhnaya, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the world wide web has already spread in every business. Consequently, it has become crucial to develop strong online presence and offer qualified user experience for website visitors. Website optimization undeniably has proved its importance in the recent decade. This research was conducted in order to study the practical application and structure of the stages of the CRO (Conversion Rate Optimization) framework that focuses on the most representative website metric – c...

  11. Linguistic Capital Pays Dividends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Some 37 million U.S. residents speak Spanish at home and more than 55% of them say they also speak English. That creates what is called linguistic capital. Although linguistic capital is difficult to quantify, it is enormously valuable and is determined by an individual's language competency, and is too frequently wasted instead of being…

  12. What Are Applied Linguistics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Several different conceptualizations of applied linguistics are evaluated, ranging from "applications of linguistic theory" to alternative models for studying language that extend and complement generative grammar as a theory of language. It is shown that they imply substantive differences in goals, methods, and priorities of language study. (30…

  13. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012...... of linguistic coordination and their effects at a fine-degree....

  14. The evolution of neuroArm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Garnette R; Wolfsberger, Stefan; Lama, Sanju; Zarei-nia, Kourosh

    2013-01-01

    Intraoperative imaging disrupts the rhythm of surgery despite providing an excellent opportunity for surgical monitoring and assessment. To allow surgery within real-time images, neuroArm, a teleoperated surgical robotic system, was conceptualized. The objective was to design and manufacture a magnetic resonance-compatible robot with a human-machine interface that could reproduce some of the sight, sound, and touch of surgery at a remote workstation. University of Calgary researchers worked with MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates engineers to produce a requirements document, preliminary design review, and critical design review, followed by the manufacture, preclinical testing, and clinical integration of neuroArm. During the preliminary design review, the scope of the neuroArm project changed to performing microsurgery outside the magnet and stereotaxy inside the bore. neuroArm was successfully manufactured and installed in an intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging operating room. neuroArm was clinically integrated into 35 cases in a graded fashion. As a result of this experience, neuroArm II is in development, and advances in technology will allow microsurgery within the bore of the magnet. neuroArm represents a successful interdisciplinary collaboration. It has positive implications for the future of robotic technology in neurosurgery in that the precision and accuracy of robots will continue to augment human capability.

  15. [Actively promote the development of neuro-ophthalmology in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shi-hui; Zhao, Jia-liang

    2010-12-01

    Neuro-ophthalmology is a medical subspecialty concerned on the nervous system diseases with ocular manifestations, this could be both sensory and motor, including ocular movements, papillary responses, and the structure changes of the brain and nervous system with ocular manifestations. Although neuro-ophthalmology in China has achieved some progress, certain problems still exist, such as the professional neuro-ophthalmology team and related academic organization are still absent in China; neuro-ophthalmology knowledge has not been popularized; the new technologies for diagnosis and treatment in neuro-ophthalmology have not been absorbed and applied; the coordination and cooperation with other related disciplines are not enough. We should actively promote the development of neuro-ophthalmology in China, including organization of a professional team of neuro-ophthalmology, popularization of neuro-ophthalmology knowledge to the ophthalmologists, development of research work in neuro-ophthalmology and the collaboration with international neuro-ophthalmologists.

  16. Closed-Loop, Multichannel Experimentation Using the Open-Source NeuroRighter Electrophysiology Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Jonathan P; Zeller-Townson, Riley; Fong, Ming-Fai; Arcot Desai, Sharanya; Gross, Robert E; Potter, Steve M

    2012-01-01

    Single neuron feedback control techniques, such as voltage clamp and dynamic clamp, have enabled numerous advances in our understanding of ion channels, electrochemical signaling, and neural dynamics. Although commercially available multichannel recording and stimulation systems are commonly used for studying neural processing at the network level, they provide little native support for real-time feedback. We developed the open-source NeuroRighter multichannel electrophysiology hardware and software platform for closed-loop multichannel control with a focus on accessibility and low cost. NeuroRighter allows 64 channels of stimulation and recording for around US $10,000, along with the ability to integrate with other software and hardware. Here, we present substantial enhancements to the NeuroRighter platform, including a redesigned desktop application, a new stimulation subsystem allowing arbitrary stimulation patterns, low-latency data servers for accessing data streams, and a new application programming interface (API) for creating closed-loop protocols that can be inserted into NeuroRighter as plugin programs. This greatly simplifies the design of sophisticated real-time experiments without sacrificing the power and speed of a compiled programming language. Here we present a detailed description of NeuroRighter as a stand-alone application, its plugin API, and an extensive set of case studies that highlight the system's abilities for conducting closed-loop, multichannel interfacing experiments.

  17. Closed-loop, multichannel experimentation using the open-source NeuroRighter electrophysiology platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Paul Newman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Single neuron feedback control techniques, such as voltage clamp and dynamic clamp, have enabled numerous advances in our understanding of ion channels, electrochemical signaling, and neural dynamics. Although commercially available multichannel recording and stimulation systems are commonly used for studying neural processing at the network level, they provide little native support for real-time feedback. We developed the open-source NeuroRighter multichannel electrophysiology hardware and software platform for closed-loop multichannel control with a focus on accessibility and low cost. NeuroRighter allows 64 channels of stimulation and recording for around US $10,000, along with the ability to integrate with other software and hardware. Here, we present substantial enhancements to the NeuroRighter platform, including a redesigned desktop application, a new stimulation subsystem allowing arbitrary stimulation patterns, low-latency data servers for accessing data streams, and a new application programming interface (API for creating closed-loop protocols that can be inserted into NeuroRighter as plugin programs. This greatly simplifies the design of sophisticated real-time experiments without sacrificing the power and speed of a compiled programming language. Here we present a detailed description of NeuroRighter as a stand alone application, its plugin API, and an extensive set of case studies that highlight the system's abilities for conducting closed-loop, multichannel interfacing experiments.

  18. libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine procedural and declarative modeling approaches in computational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Michael; Cannon, Robert C; Crook, Sharon; Davison, Andrew P; Ganapathy, Gautham; Robinson, Hugh P C; Silver, R Angus; Gleeson, Padraig

    2014-01-01

    NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell, and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) written in Python (http://www.python.org), which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment.

  19. libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine imperative and declarative modelling approaches in computational neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eVella

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell,and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two APIs (Application Programming Interfaces written in Python (http://www.python.org, which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment.

  20. Optimization of Neuro-Fuzzy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarosa

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuro-fuzzy system has been shown to provide a good performance on chromosome classification but does not offer a simple method to obtain the accurate parameter values required to yield the best recognition rate. This paper presents a neuro-fuzzy system where its parameters can be automatically adjusted using genetic algorithms. The approach combines the advantages of fuzzy logic theory, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. The structure consists of a four layer feed-forward neural network that uses a GBell membership function as the output function. The proposed methodology has been applied and tested on banded chromosome classification from the Copenhagen Chromosome Database. Simulation result showed that the proposed neuro-fuzzy system optimized by genetic algorithms offers advantages in setting the parameter values, improves the recognition rate significantly and decreases the training/testing time which makes genetic neuro-fuzzy system suitable for chromosome classification.

  1. Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NeuroInterventional Surgery is dedicated to excellence in comprehensive, minimally-invasive care of patients with stroke, brain aneurysms, and other diseases in the head, neck and spine. In the Spotlight Physicians Call on States to ...

  2. NEURO-VASCULAR INJURIES ASSOCIATED WITH LIMB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-12-01

    Dec 1, 2000 ... Results: Road traffic accidents were the main cause of fractures associated with neuro- vascular ... the patients with vascular or nerve injury associated with fractures .... of traumatic aorto-iliac dissection injury in a child with.

  3. [Neuro-rehabilitation for neurological disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yukihiro

    2011-11-01

    Our understanding of motor learning, neuro-plasticity and functional recovery after the occurrence of brain lesion has grown significantly. New findings in basic neuroscience provided stimuli for research in motor rehabilitation. Electrical stimulation can be applied in a variety of ways to the neurological impairment. Especially, electromyography (EMG) initiated electrical muscle stimulation improves motor dysfunction of the hemiparetic arm and hand. Triggered electrical stimulation is reported to be more effective than non-triggered electrical stimulation in facilitating upper extremity motor recovery. Power-assisted FES induces greater muscle contraction by electrical stimulation in proportion to the voluntary integrated EMG signal picked up. Daily power-assisted FES home program therapy with the novel equipment has been able to improve wrist, finger extension and shoulder flexion effectively. Combined modulation of voluntary movement, proprioceptional sensory feedback and electrical stimulation might play an important role to facilitate impaired sensory-motor integration in power-assisted FES therapy. It is recognized that increased cerebral blood flow in the sensory-motor cortex area on the injured side during power-assisted FES session compared to simple active movement or simple electrical stimulation in a multi-channels Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) study to non-invasively and dynamically measure hemoglobin levels in the brain during functional activity.

  4. The focuses of linguistic personality investigations in modern linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Єрьоменко, С. В.

    2015-01-01

    The given articles defines the notion ‘linguistic personality’, discusses the focuses of linguistic personality investigations in linguistics, differentiates the notions ‘discourse’ and ‘linguistic personality’. In the numerous interpretations of linguistic personality that emerged at the end of the previous century, we can clearly distinguish two directions they are linguo-didactic and linguo-cultural. In linguo-didactics a personality is understood as a set of speech abilities. Linguocultu...

  5. Linguistics and the Third Reich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plockinger, Othmar

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistics during the Third Reich in Nazi Germany. Discusses Nazi linguistics or linguistics in Nazism, Yiddish studies and the horror of assimilation, and remarks on the relevance of historical approaches in linguistics in the field of academic education. (Author/VWL)

  6. Literacy from a linguistic and a sociolinguistic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kahtany, Abdallah Hady

    1996-11-01

    This paper examines the impact of two major approaches to literacy programs — the linguistic and the sociolinguistic. The principal difference between the two perspectives is that the linguistic negates the importance of sociological and ethnographic factors in a person's attaining literacy, while the sociolinguistic magnifies these influences. From one viewpoint, literacy is seen as cracking a linguistic code, while from the other, in Freire's (1987) phrasing, "reading the world" is necessary before "reading the word". Academic/cultural literacy and functional literacy are examined as types affiliated with the linguistic perspective. Types of ethnographic literacy programs are analyzed to show their sociolinguistic orientation. The last section of the paper examines the language planning consequences of which perspective a country adopts and focuses on some recent literacy programs in Peru which incorporate elements of both the linguistic and sociolinguistic perspectives.

  7. Language Works. Linguistic Journal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Anna Sofie; Nørreby, Thomas Rørbeck; Skovse, Astrid Ravn

    2016-01-01

    Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested.......Language works! – and with this initiative and this journal we want to give the opportunity to many more students to present their linguistic research to each other, to the scientific community and to all interested....

  8. WHY LANGUAGE TEACHERS NEED LINGUISTICS Vivian de Klerk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WHY LANGUAGE TEACHERS NEED LINGUISTICS. Vivian de Klerk. Rhodes University. In 1967 Paul Roberts wrote "It is probably fair to say that. Linguistics is the hottest topic on the English Teacher's agenda at the present time. It is the one topic almost certain to be on the program wherever English teachers come ...

  9. Linguistic Error Analysis on Students' Thesis Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescante-Malimas, Mary Ann; Samson, Sonrisa C.

    2017-01-01

    This study identified and analyzed the common linguistic errors encountered by Linguistics, Literature, and Advertising Arts majors in their Thesis Proposal classes in the First Semester 2016-2017. The data were the drafts of the thesis proposals of the students from the three different programs. A total of 32 manuscripts were analyzed which was…

  10. Students' Perceptions of Blog Use in an Undergraduate Linguistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Didem Koban; Koç, Serdar Engin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the perceptions of learners' blog use in a Linguistics course offered in an English Language Teaching program at one of the largest government universities in Turkey. A total of 71 students participated in the study. The students were asked to respond to several blog questions about the linguistics lectures…

  11. Some thoughts on economy within linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URIAGEREKA Juan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the cornerstones of Chomsky's Minimalist Program is the role played by economy. This paper discusses different ways in which Chomsky's notion of economy in linguistics can be understood, given current views on dynamic systems and, in particular, on evolution in biological systems.

  12. The NeuroDevNet vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowitz, Dan; McArthur, Dawn

    2011-03-01

    The NeuroDevNet Network of Centres of Excellence has created the first trans-Canada effort devoted to the study of brain development from basic to clinical to societal perspectives. NeuroDevNet's vision is to accelerate efforts to (i) understand normal brain development; (ii) enhance our ability to make diagnoses of when normal development goes awry; and (iii) develop interventions to improve or prevent neurodevelopmental disorders. An early diagnosis coupled with the right therapies, The NeuroDevNet Network of Centres of Excellence has created the first trans-Canada effort devoted to the study of brain development from basic to clinical to societal perspectives. NeuroDevNet's vision is to accelerate efforts to (i) understand normal brain development; (ii) enhance our ability to make diagnoses of when normal development goes awry; and (iii) develop interventions to improve or prevent neurodevelopmental disorders. An early diagnosis coupled with the right therapies, Demonstration Projects. Funds were also allocated for an Opportunities Initiative. There is a wide of expertise amongst NeuroDevNet members. Researchers are supported by the management centre, three Platforms (Imaging; Genetics/ Epigenetics; Animal Models) and three Cores (Neuroethics; Neuroinformatics; Knowledge Translation). We emphasize multidisciplinary training of young researchers to advance the understanding of brain disorders that affect children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrational Linguistics and the Structuralist Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Roy

    1999-01-01

    Examines attempts to extend Ferdinand de Saussure's structuralist linguistic theory, particularly those by integrational linguists. Discusses the place of integrational linguistics with regard to Saussurean work. (MSE)

  14. Neuro-fuzzy models for systems identification applied to the operation of nuclear power plants; Sistemas neuro-fuzzy para identificacao de sistemas aplicados a operacao de centrais nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Antonio Carlos Pinto Dias

    2000-09-01

    A nuclear power plant has a myriad of complex system and sub-systems that, working cooperatively, make the control of the whole plant. Nevertheless their operation be automatic most of the time, the integral understanding of their internal- logic can be away of the comprehension of even experienced operators because of the poor interpretability those controls offer. This difficulty does not happens only in nuclear power plants but in almost every a little more complex control system. Neuro-fuzzy models have been used for the last years in a attempt of suppress these difficulties because of their ability of modelling in linguist form even a system which behavior is extremely complex. This is a very intuitive human form of interpretation and neuro-fuzzy model are gathering increasing acceptance. Unfortunately, neuro-fuzzy models can grow up to become of hard interpretation because of the complexity of the systems under modelling. In general, that growing occurs in function of redundant rules or rules that cover a very little domain of the problem. This work presents an identification method for neuro-fuzzy models that not only allows models grow in function of the existent complexity but that beforehand they try to self-adapt to avoid the inclusion of new rules. This form of construction allowed to arrive to highly interpretative neuro-fuzzy models even of very complex systems. The use of this kind of technique in modelling the control of the pressurizer of a PWR nuclear power plant allowed verify its validity and how neuro-fuzzy models so built can be useful in understanding the automatic operation of a nuclear power plant. (author)

  15. Le paradoxe du linguiste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Vitez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Le linguiste, dans sa volonté explicite de s'imposer comme sujet scientifique et de décrire objectivement la langue comme un objet qui lui est extérieur, est paradoxal, parce que, du fait même qu'il est habité de sa langue, il se trouve nécessairement dans l'impossibilité de remplir la tâche qu'il se propose. Le paradoxe du linguiste consiste donc en cela que, si on se permet de paraphraser l'observation de Labov, « les faits de la langue s'étudient selon la vision de tel ou tel linguiste individuel, alors que le linguiste n'existe que par son expérience personnelle des faits linguistiques ». Cela signifie très simplement que le linguiste, en tant que descripteur d'une langue, n'est opératif qu'à l'intérieur de son objet d'analyse. La crédibilité de l'analyste dépend entièrement de la position éthique qu'il prendra vis-à-vis de sa recherche.

  16. Takagi-Sugeno Neuro-Fuzzy Modeling of a Multivariable Nonlinear Antenna System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Al-Gallaf

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the use of a clustered based neuro-fuzzy system to nonlinear dynamic system modeling. It is focused on the modeling via Takagi-Sugeno (T-S modeling procedure and the employment of fuzzy clustering to generate suitable initial membership functions. The T-S fuzzy modeling has been applied to model a nonlinear antenna dynamic system with two coupled inputs and outputs. Compared to other well-known approximation techniques such as artificial neural networks, the employed neuro-fuzzy system has provided a more transparent representation of the nonlinear antenna system under study, mainly due to the possible linguistic interpretation in the form of rules. Created initial memberships are then employed to construct suitable T-S models. Furthermore, the T-S fuzzy models have been validated and checked through the use of some standard model validation techniques (like the correlation functions. This intelligent modeling scheme is very useful once making complicated systems linguistically transparent in terms of the fuzzy if-then rules.

  17. Teacher Perceptions of NeuroEducation: A Mixed Methods Survey of Teachers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpati, Lauren; Loughan, Ashlee R.

    2012-01-01

    Pickering and Howard-Jones (2007) reported educators' enthusiasm for NeuroEducation from a sample of teachers attending neuroscience professional development courses. Their results revealed teachers: (1) are enthusiastic about the role of neuroscience in education; (2) believe an understanding of the brain for educational program development is…

  18. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steinbjørn

    2016-01-01

    advantage of reporting indicators is the related multidisciplinary discussions giving a better understanding of what actually is going on, thereby facilitating the work on adjusting the national guidelines in the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group. CONCLUSION: The establishment of DNOR has optimized the quality...... in handling primary brain tumor patients in Denmark by reporting indicators and facilitating a better multidisciplinary collaboration at a national level. DNOR provides a valuable resource for research.......AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) was established by the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group as a national clinical database. It was established for the purpose of supporting research and development in adult patients with primary brain tumors in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: DNOR has...

  19. VLSI design of universal approximator neuro-fuzzy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Baturone, I.; Sánchez-Solano, Santiago; Barriga, Angel; Jiménez Fernández, Carlos Jesús; Senhadji, Raouf; López, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    Neuro-fuzzy systems can theoretically solve any problem since they are universal approximators. Besides, they combine the advantages of the neuro and fuzzy paradigms. This paper describes and compares the different strategies that can be adopted to implement the learning and inference mechanisms involved in a neuro-fuzzy system. CAD tools, most of them integrated into the fuzzy system development environment Xfuzzy 2.0, have been developed to assist the designer in the implementation of neuro...

  20. Development of quantum-based adaptive neuro-fuzzy networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Suk; Kwak, Keun-Chang

    2010-02-01

    In this study, we are concerned with a method for constructing quantum-based adaptive neuro-fuzzy networks (QANFNs) with a Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy type based on the fuzzy granulation from a given input-output data set. For this purpose, we developed a systematic approach in producing automatic fuzzy rules based on fuzzy subtractive quantum clustering. This clustering technique is not only an extension of ideas inherent to scale-space and support-vector clustering but also represents an effective prototype that exhibits certain characteristics of the target system to be modeled from the fuzzy subtractive method. Furthermore, we developed linear-regression QANFN (LR-QANFN) as an incremental model to deal with localized nonlinearities of the system, so that all modeling discrepancies can be compensated. After adopting the construction of the linear regression as the first global model, we refined it through a series of local fuzzy if-then rules in order to capture the remaining localized characteristics. The experimental results revealed that the proposed QANFN and LR-QANFN yielded a better performance in comparison with radial basis function networks and the linguistic model obtained in previous literature for an automobile mile-per-gallon prediction, Boston Housing data, and a coagulant dosing process in a water purification plant.

  1. Treatment of neuro-ophthalmic sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohman, Larry P

    2015-03-01

    Because of the rarity of neuro-ophthalmic sarcoidosis, there are no therapeutic guidelines based on evidence-based medicine for this disorder. Review of literature combined with personal experience. Corticosteroids are the preferred initial therapy for neuro-ophthalmic sarcoidosis. If patients cannot tolerate the requisite dose of corticosteroid needed to control their disease, or if corticosteroids fail to adequately control the disease process, the choices of a second agent are based on the consideration of rapidity of clinical response and the safety profile. Although methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil are the medications that are often selected after corticosteroid failure, more rapidly acting agents that have been used are infliximab and intravenous cyclophosphamide.

  2. READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC PRAGMATICS: MAPPING OUT SOME UNRECOGNIZED INTERDISCIPLINARY. COMMON GROUND. 1. Introduction. Melinda Sinclair. Department of General Linguistics. University of SteUenbosch. 83. On the whole, research into the various aspects of natural ...

  3. Linguistic Atlas of French Polynesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charpentier, Jean-Michel; François, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    ... François, the Linguistic Atlas of French Polynesia pays tribute to the rich linguistic landscape of the country by documenting thoroughly twenty different communalects, in the form of 2250 maps...

  4. From ‘Hard’ Neuro-Tools to ‘Soft’ Neuro-Toys? : Refocussing the Neuro-Enhancement Debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, Jonna; Zwart, Hub

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990’s, the debate concerning the ethical, legal and societal aspects of ‘neuro-enhancement’ has evolved into a massive discourse, both in the public realm and in the academic arena. This ethical debate, however, tends to repeat the same sets of arguments over and over again. Normative

  5. Translational research in NeuroAIDS: a neuroimmune pharmacology-related course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda; Shiramizu, Bruce; Nath, Avindra; Wojna, Valerie

    2011-03-01

    Neuroimmune pharmacology (NIP) can be considered a multidisciplinary science where areas of neuroscience, immunology, and pharmacology intersect in neurological disorders. The R25 training program titled "Translational Research in NeuroAIDS and Mental Health (TR-NAMH): An innovative mentoring program to promote diversity in NeuroAIDS Research (R25 MH080661)" at the Johns Hopkins University is a web-based interactive course with the goal to improve the capacity of high quality research by developing mentoring programs for (1) doctoral and postdoctoral candidates and junior faculty from racial and ethnic minorities and (2) non-minority individuals at the same levels, whose research focuses on NeuroAIDS disparity issues such as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). This web-based interactive course overcomes the limitations of traditional education such as access to expert faculty and financial burden of scientists from racial and ethnic minority groups in the field of NeuroAIDS research and NIP and identifies rich nurturing environments for investigators to support their careers. The TR-NAMH program identifies a cadre of talented students and investigators eager to commit to innovative educational and training sessions in NeuroAIDS and NIP. The interplay between NIP changes precipitated by HIV infection in the brain makes the study of HAND an outstanding way to integrate important concepts from these two fields. The course includes activities besides those related to didactic learning such as research training and long-term mentoring; hence, the newly learned topics in NIP are continually reinforced and implemented in real-time experiences. We describe how NIP is integrated in the TR-NAMH program in the context of HAND.

  6. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Abstract: Conventionally, dictionaries present information about institutionalized words, phrases, and senses of words; more creative formations and usages are generally ignored. Yet text and corpus data provide ample evidence of creativity in language, showing that it is part of ordi- nary linguistic behaviour and indeed ...

  7. Numerical Methods in Linguistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Numerical Methods in Linguistics - An Introduction to Glottochronology. Raamesh Gowri Raghavan. General Article Volume 10 Issue 1 January 2005 pp 17-24. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Linguistic Corpora and Lexicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijs, Willem

    1996-01-01

    Overviews the development of corpus linguistics, reviews the use of corpora in modern lexicography, and presents central issues in ongoing work aimed at broadening the scope of lexicographical use of corpus data. Focuses on how the field has developed in relation to the production of new monolingual English dictionaries by major British…

  9. Noah Webster's Linguistic Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidler, Charles W.

    1998-01-01

    Examines ways in which Noah Webster's linguistic theories and work on dictionaries influenced North American English lexicography, arguing that his impact on American education was great because his spellers and dictionaries monopolized a rapidly growing market, and influence on lexicography was substantial because he insisted on the validity of…

  10. ARMAH'S LINGUISTIC MYTHOPOEISIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    thing white and accepting everything black but in carefully selecting what is good in both cul- tures. Keywords: Linguistic mythopoeisis, black, white, road, way. ..... walker…' (p.186). The most recurrent of the pejorative associa- tions of whiteness in Two Thousand Seasons is death. Armah links death and whiteness be-.

  11. Formal monkey linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We argue that rich data gathered in experimental primatology in the last 40 years can benefit from analytical methods used in contemporary linguistics. Focusing on the syntactic and especially semantic side, we suggest that these methods could help clarify five questions: (i) what morphology and

  12. A Linguistic Theoretical Exercise

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    communication with other people in the environment which they find themselves. This paper aims at carrying out linguistic theoretical exercise as regards the use of the English primary auxiliary verbs. The paper also aims at exposing the rate at which speakers of English Language misuse the. English primary auxiliary ...

  13. Papers in Contrastive Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Gerhard, Ed.

    The contrastive linguistics papers contained in this collection concern a wide variety of issues within the field -- ranging from phonology and syntax to interference and error analysis in foreign language instruction. The papers, while discussing specific topics, for example, "Equivalence, Congruence, and Deep Structure" or "Comparative Analysis…

  14. Promoting Linguistic Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra Gilliyard

    2005-01-01

    To face up to the omnipresence of ‘Anglo-American’, conferences on language policy today address the issue of promoting linguistic diversity. This especially applies to contemporary Europe. Nevertheless, these conferences, which can be regarded as a kind of laboratories or academic microcosm, do...

  15. The linguistics of gender.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkum, J.J.A.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter explores grammatical gender as a linguistic phenomenon. First, I define gender in terms of agreement, and look at the parts of speech that can take gender agreement. Because it relates to assumptions underlying much psycholinguistic gender research, I also examine the reasons why gender

  16. Lexicography and Linguistic Creativity*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    and corpus data provide ample evidence of creativity in language, showing that it is part of ordi- nary linguistic behaviour and indeed often systematic. This article looks at four specific types of lexical creativity in English: figurative meaning, ... in art and literature can also be found in the communication practices of every-.

  17. Linguistics in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  18. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... communication related to collaboration and ‘small talk’ may provide linguistic bridges to social capital formation....

  19. Applied Linguistics: What's That?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markee, Numa

    1990-01-01

    The historical development of strong and weak definitions of applied linguistics is traced. It is argued that weak definitions do not limit themselves to resolution of second-language teaching problems, potentially address all practical language-related problems, and provide the necessary flexibility for realistic theory and practice of applied…

  20. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  1. Four Conceptions of Linguistic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorten, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers need a conception of linguistic disadvantage to supply guidance about the relative priority of inequalities with a linguistic dimension and to inform decisions about whether such inequalities require correction or compensation. A satisfactory conception of linguistic disadvantage will make it possible to compare the situations of…

  2. Peace linguistics for language teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco GOMES DE MATOS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This text aims at presenting the concept of Peace Linguistics - origins and recent developments -- as being implemented in the author's ongoing work in that emerging branch of Applied Linguistics. Examples of applicational possibilities are given, with a focus on language teaching-learning and a Checklist is provided, of topics for suggested linguistic-educational research, centered on communicative peace.

  3. Comparison between genetic fuzzy system and neuro fuzzy system to select oil wells for hydraulic fracturing; Comparacao entre genetic fuzzy system e neuro fuzzy system para selecao de pocos de petroleo para fraturamento hidraulico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Antonio Orestes de Salvo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The hydraulic fracture operation is wide used to increase the oil wells production and to reduce formation damage. Reservoir studies and engineer analysis are made to select the wells for this kind of operation. As the reservoir parameters have some diffuses characteristics, Fuzzy Inference Systems (SIF) have been tested for this selection processes in the last few years. This paper compares the performance of a neuro fuzzy system and a genetic fuzzy system used for hydraulic Fracture well selection, with knowledge acquisition from an operational data base to set the SIF membership functions. The training data and the validation data used were the same for both systems. We concluded that, in despite of the genetic fuzzy system would be a younger process, it got better results than the neuro fuzzy system. Another conclusion was that, as the genetic fuzzy system can work with constraints, the membership functions setting kept the consistency of variables linguistic values. (author)

  4. Neuro-oxidative-nitrosative stress in sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Møller, Kirsten; Bailey, Damian M

    2011-01-01

    Neuro-oxidative-nitrosative stress may prove the molecular basis underlying brain dysfunction in sepsis. In the current review, we describe how sepsis-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) trigger lipid peroxidation chain reactions throughout the cerebrovasculature and surrounding...

  5. Neuro magnetic stimulation: Engineering aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutawaly, Nafia

    . The motor responses of the thenar muscle were then recorded. The study results show that the biphasic stimulating pulse is more effective than the monophasic pulse, as has been concluded by other researchers. However, the effective stimulating point, or virtual cathode of the coil, was found to be not simply 3 to 4 cm from the coil center as had been reported. In fact, the study shows that the site of the virtual cathode is affected by the current amplitude and the degree of inhomogeneity of the tissues surrounding the nerve. Furthermore, reversing the coil current direction results in a different level of stimulation but does not affect the virtual cathode position. In summary, the research presented in this thesis covers theoretical concepts, experimental aspects, and human studies related to neuro magnetic stimulation. The results of the experiment and the study are consistent with the theoretical analysis. The proposed coil design is novel and offers promise for a better coil system for magnetic nerve stimulation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Across language families: Genome diversity mirrors linguistic variation within Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Giuseppe; Ghirotto, Silvia; Guardiano, Cristina; Tassi, Francesca; Benazzo, Andrea; Ceolin, Andrea; Barbujani, Guido

    2015-08-01

    The notion that patterns of linguistic and biological variation may cast light on each other and on population histories dates back to Darwin's times; yet, turning this intuition into a proper research program has met with serious methodological difficulties, especially affecting language comparisons. This article takes advantage of two new tools of comparative linguistics: a refined list of Indo-European cognate words, and a novel method of language comparison estimating linguistic diversity from a universal inventory of grammatical polymorphisms, and hence enabling comparison even across different families. We corroborated the method and used it to compare patterns of linguistic and genomic variation in Europe. Two sets of linguistic distances, lexical and syntactic, were inferred from these data and compared with measures of geographic and genomic distance through a series of matrix correlation tests. Linguistic and genomic trees were also estimated and compared. A method (Treemix) was used to infer migration episodes after the main population splits. We observed significant correlations between genomic and linguistic diversity, the latter inferred from data on both Indo-European and non-Indo-European languages. Contrary to previous observations, on the European scale, language proved a better predictor of genomic differences than geography. Inferred episodes of genetic admixture following the main population splits found convincing correlates also in the linguistic realm. These results pave the ground for previously unfeasible cross-disciplinary analyses at the worldwide scale, encompassing populations of distant language families. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Professional Training of Computational Linguists at the University of Stuttgart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmoroz Halyna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the aspects of professional training of specialists in computational linguistics by the example of the University of Stuttgart. First of all, we have attempted to define the essence of the terms “applied linguistics” and “computational linguistics” based on the views of Ukrainian and foreign scholars. We have found out that there is an obvious inconsistency in using these terms as Ukrainian scholars view it as a science related to practical application of linguistic achievements with the use of the latest technologies, whereas abroad they believe that computational linguistics is aimed at developing strategies for researches on natural languages. However, applied linguistics is related to language teaching methodology. We have concluded that German scholars view computational linguistics as a cognitive science that attempts to most successfully apply the achievements of linguistics in practice. Based on the view, German universities develop curricula that encompass theoretical and practical aspects of computational linguistics to prepare modern specialists able to comprehend the complexity of the field and be willing to adapt to challenges of a globalized world. Consequently, we have described the peculiarities of the programmes of a Bachelor of Science in Machine Language Programming and a Master of Science in Computational Linguistics. We have defined that duration of the programmes is traditional - three and two years respectively. Their structure comprises obligatory and elective courses, including Computer Science, Mathematics and Linguistics. In addition, future specialists may develop key professional competences attending seminars and colloquiums, participating in research projects, etc. It has been indicated that the list of electives involves those subjects aimed at enhancing future specialists’ skills in linguistics as well as computer science, yet they are entitled to suggest what they are interested in

  8. Spanish sign language interpreter for mexican linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Barragán, Francisco Javier; Pérez Grana, José Arturo; Cervantes, Francisco; Schwarzblat y Katz, Morris; Olide Márquez, María Guadalupe; Pérez Sánchez, Ana Paola

    2013-01-01

    We present here the first visual interface for a Mexican Spanish Sign Language translator on its first development stage: sign-writing recognition. The software was developed for the unique characteristics of Mexican linguistics and was designed in order to use sentences or a sequence of signs in sign-writing system which are decoded by the program and converted into a series of images with movement that correspond to the Mexican sign language system. Using a lexical, syntactic and semantic...

  9. Neuro-oncology of CNS tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, J.C. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Westphal, M. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik; Rutka, J.T. [Toronto Univ. Hospital for Sick Children, ON (Canada). Div. of Neurosurgery; Grossmann, S.A. (eds.) [Johns Hopkins Oncology Center Neuro-Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Diagnosis and treatment modalities for neuro-oncologic diseases have made considerable advances in recent years. There is hardly a segment of the field of solid tumours that is experiencing such dynamic development with regard to basic scientific findings and clinical results. In the present book the world's leading experts have compiled the current practice-relevant knowledge of neuro-oncologic diseases. The book's clear structure and the uniform presentation of all chapters make this volume a valuable reference, especially for practice-oriented activities, allowing swift access to information about current treatment standards. Hence it will be of great value to both clinicians and researchers. (orig.)

  10. A Multivariate Approach to Functional Neuro Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Niels J.S.

    1998-01-01

    exists. - Model visualization and interpretation techniques. The simplicity of this task for linear models contrasts the difficulties involved when dealing with nonlinear models. Finally, a visualization technique for nonlinear models is proposed. A single observation emerges from the thesis......This Ph.D. thesis, A Multivariate Approach to Functional Neuro Modeling, deals with the analysis and modeling of data from functional neuro imaging experiments. A multivariate dataset description is provided which facilitates efficient representation of typical datasets and, more importantly......, provides the basis for a generalization theoretical framework relating model performance to model complexity and dataset size. Briefly summarized the major topics discussed in the thesis include: - An introduction of the representation of functional datasets by pairs of neuronal activity patterns...

  11. Neuro-imaging in Patients Referred to a Neuro-ophthalmology Service: The Rates of Appropriateness and Concordance in Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Collin; Van Stavern, Gregory P.; Shepherd, J. Banks; Gordon, Mae; Huecker, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Objective Neuro-imaging studies are frequently ordered to investigate neuro-ophthalmic symptoms. When misused these studies are expensive and time-consuming. This study aimed to describe the type and frequency of neuro-imaging errors in patients referred to an academic neuro-ophthalmology service and to measure how frequently these neuro-imaging studies were re-interpreted. Design Prospective cohort study Participants 84 consecutive patients referred to an academic neuro-ophthalmology practice Methods From November 2009 through July 2010 we prospectively enrolled 84 consecutive new patients who had received a neuro-imaging study in the last 12 months specifically in evaluation of their presenting neuro-ophthalmic symptoms. Participants then underwent a complete neuro-ophthalmic evaluation followed by a review of prior neuro-imaging. Questions regarding appropriateness of the most recent imaging, concordance of radiological interpretation, and re-evaluation of referring diagnoses were answered by the attending physician. Main Outcome Measures 1. The frequency and types of errors committed in the utilization of neuro-imaging. 2. The frequency of re-interpretation of pre-referral neuro-imaging studies following neuro-ophthalmic history and examination. Results Most study participants (84.5%; 71/84) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to referral; 15.5% (13/84) underwent only computed tomography (CT). The rate of sub-optimal neuro-imaging studies was 38.1% (32/84). The three most common reasons for sub-optimal studies were incomplete area of imaging (34.4%; 11/32), wrong study type (28.1%; 9/32), and poor image quality (21.9%; 7/32). 24 of 84 subjects (28.6%) required additional neuro-imaging. We agreed with the radiology interpretation of the prior neuro-imaging studies in the majority (77.4%; 65/84) of patients. The most common anatomic locations for discordance in interpretation were the intraorbital optic nerve (35%; 7/20) and the brainstem (20%; 4

  12. Neuro-fuzzy Control of Integrating Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vasičkaninová

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy technology is adaptive and easily applicable in different areas.Fuzzy logic provides powerful tools to capture the perceptionof natural phenomena. The paper deals with tuning of neuro-fuzzy controllers for integrating plant and for integrating plantswith time delay. The designed approach is verified on three examples by simulations and compared plants with classical PID control.Designed fuzzy controllers lead to better closed-loop control responses then classical PID controllers.

  13. A Groundwork for Allostatic Neuro-Education

    OpenAIRE

    Lee eGerdes; Tegeler, Charles H; Sung eLee

    2015-01-01

    We propose to enliven educational practice by marrying a conception of education as guided human development, to an advanced scientific understanding of the brain known as allostasis (stability through change). The result is a groundwork for allostatic neuro-education (GANE). Education as development encompasses practices including the organic (homeschooling and related traditions), cognitive acquisition (emphasis on standards and testing), and the constructivist (aimed to support adaptive cr...

  14. A groundwork for allostatic neuro-education

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdes, Lee; Tegeler, Charles H; Lee, Sung W

    2015-01-01

    We propose to enliven educational practice by marrying a conception of education as guided human development, to an advanced scientific understanding of the brain known as allostasis (stability through change). The result is a groundwork for allostatic neuro-education (GANE). Education as development encompasses practices including the organic (homeschooling and related traditions), cognitive acquisition (emphasis on standards and testing), and the constructivist (aimed to support adaptive cr...

  15. MANIFESTATIONS NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGIQUES DE LA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L\\'oedème papillaire (17%) et les paralysies des nerfs oculo-moteurs (6%) touchant principalement le nerf oculo-moteur externe étaient les manifestations neuro-ophtalmologiques les plus fréquentes. L\\'amputation du champs visuel, la cécité corticale et le nystagmus étaient observés respectivement chez 5, 2 et 1 patient.

  16. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria: 75 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A Ghizoni; Caramelli, Paulo

    2018-01-01

    This year marks the 75th year of publication of Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria (ANP), the official journal of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology and one of the most important neuroscience journals in Latin America. ANP was initially edited by Oswaldo Lange, its founder, and subsequently by Antonio Spina-França Netto and, in recent years, by José Antonio Livramento and Luís dos Ramos Machado.

  17. Linguistics and the digital humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software......, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and figures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. This article provides an overview of the main principles of corpus linguistics and the role of computer technology in relation to data...... and method and also offers a bird's-eye view of the history of corpus linguistics with a focus on its intimate relationship with digital technology and how digital technology has impacted the very core of corpus linguistics and shaped the identity of the corpus linguist. Ultimately, the article is oriented...

  18. Formalism and functionalism in linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmeyer, Frederick J

    2010-05-01

    Formalism and functionalism in linguistics are often taken to be diametrically opposed approaches. However, close examination of the relevant phenomena reveals that the two are complementary, rather than being irrevocably in opposition to each other. One can be a formal linguist and a functional linguist at the same time, without there being any contradiction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Linguistic Turn and Postmodernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio García-Lorente

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to show how postmodernity comes from doctrines originating in the «linguistic revolution». The thinkers of the 19th century German tradition —who are included in the socalled «Triple-H theory»— wanted to shift the line of argument from reason to language. The presupposition of the primacy of language will be presumed by the prophet of postmodernism, Nietzsche, thus making possible the dawning of postmodernity. Postmodernity will accept unquestionably the shift from the universal and absolute to the particular and relative.

  20. Neuro-fuzzy system for prostate cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benecchi, Luigi

    2006-08-01

    To develop a neuro-fuzzy system to predict the presence of prostate cancer. Neuro-fuzzy systems harness the power of two paradigms: fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks. We compared the predictive accuracy of our neuro-fuzzy system with that obtained by total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) and percent free PSA (%fPSA). The data from 1030 men (both outpatients and hospitalized patients) were used. All men had a tPSA level of less than 20 ng/mL. Of the 1030 men, 195 (18.9%) had prostate cancer. A neuro-fuzzy system was developed using the coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system model. The mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the neuro-fuzzy system output was 0.799 +/- 0.029 (95% confidence interval 0.760 to 0.835), for tPSA, it was 0.724 +/- 0.032 (95% confidence interval 0.681 to 0.765), and for %fPSA, 0.766 +/- 0.024 (95% confidence interval 0.725 to 0.804). Furthermore, pairwise comparison of the area under the curves evidenced differences among %fPSA, tPSA, and neuro-fuzzy system's output (tPSA versus neuro-fuzzy system's output, P = 0.008; %fPSA versus neuro-fuzzy system's output, P = 0.032). The comparison at 95% sensitivity showed that the neuro-fuzzy system had the best specificity (31.9%). This study presented a neuro-fuzzy system based on both serum data (tPSA and %fPSA) and clinical data (age) to enhance the performance of tPSA to discriminate prostate cancer. The predictive accuracy of the neuro-fuzzy system was superior to that of tPSA and %fPSA.

  1. A neuro-fuzzy price forecasting approach in deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Ying-Yi; Lee, Chuan-Fang [Department of Electrical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 320 (Taiwan)

    2005-02-01

    Bidding competition is a main transaction approach in a deregulated market. Locational marginal prices (LMPs) resulting from bidding competition signal electricity values at a node or in an area. The LMP reveals important information for market participants to develop their bidding strategies. Moreover, LMP is also a vital indicator for the Security Coordinator to perform market redispatch for congestion management. This paper presents a method using fuzzy reasoning and recurrent neural networks (RNNs) for forecasting LMPs. The fuzzy rules are used to perform the linguistic reasoning about the contingencies. The reasoning results serve as a part of inputs to the RNNs for forecasting the LMPs. The historical LMPs in the PJM market are used to test the proposed method. It is found that the proposed neuro-fuzzy method is capable of forecasting LMP values efficiently.

  2. Federating distributed and heterogeneous information sources in neuroimaging: the NeuroBase Project.

    OpenAIRE

    Barillot, Christian; Benali, Habib; Dojat, Michel; Gaignard, Alban; Gibaud, Bernard; Kinkingnéhun, Serge; Matsumoto, Jean-Pierre; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Simon, Eric; Temal, Lynda

    2006-01-01

    The NeuroBase project aims at studying the requirements for federating, through the Internet, information sources in neuroimaging. These sources are distributed in different experimental sites, hospitals or research centers in cognitive neurosciences, and contain heterogeneous data and image processing programs. More precisely, this project consists in creating of a shared ontology, suitable for supporting various neuroimaging applications, and a computer architecture for accessing and sharin...

  3. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mailing Address. Editors SPiL. Department of General Linguistics University of Stellenbosch Private Bag X1 Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch South Africa. Principal Contact. Dr Kate Huddlestone Journal Manager Department of General Linguistics. University of Stellenbosch. Private Bag X1. Matieland, 7602. Stellenbosch.

  4. Theoretical Linguistics And Multilingualism Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    and Garfunkel who released the legendary song with the singular bridge over forty years ago):. • It tries to construct a bridge between the concerns of theoretical linguistics and ...... Four types of morpheme: Evidence from aphasia, code switching, and second-language acquisition. Linguistics 38: 1053-1100. Newmeyer, F.J. ...

  5. A Survey of Structural Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepschy, Giulio C.

    This book, a revised and expanded English version of the author's Italian work "La Linguistica strutturale" (1961), is a survey of the main trends in structural linguistics intended not only for the linguist but for specialists in other fields and the general reader as well. The initial chapter, "Introductory Notions," discusses general linguistic…

  6. Linguistic Markedness and Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Todd R.; Mansfield, Cade D.; Brewer, Katherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Several psycholinguistic theories have appealed to the linguistic notion of markedness to help explain asymmetrical patterns of behavioural data. We suggest that this sort of markedness is best thought of as a derived rather than a primitive notion, emerging when the distributional properties of linguistic categories interact with general-purpose…

  7. Ontological problems of contemporary linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А В Бондаренко

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies linguistic ontology problems such as evolution of essential-existential views of language, interrelation within Being-Language-Man triad, linguistics gnosiological principles, language essence localization, and «expression» as language metalinguistic unit as well as architectonics of language personality et alia.

  8. Concise Lexicon for Sign Linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Jan Nijen Twilhaar; Dr. Beppie van den Bogaerde

    2016-01-01

    This extensive, well-researched and clearly formatted lexicon of a wide variety of linguistic terms is a long overdue. It is an extremely welcome addition to the bookshelves of sign language teachers, interpreters, linguists, learners and other sign language users, and of course of the Deaf

  9. Linguistics and the Literary Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Madeleine

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the opposing viewpoints of the two most influential linguists of this century--Saussure and Chomsky--suggesting that while both are interested in form as opposed to substance, Saussure sees linguistics as a branch of semiotics and Chomsky sees it as part of cognitive psychology. Evaluates the relevance of these two viewpoints to the…

  10. Linguistic Profiling of Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Prathibha

    2010-01-01

    The history of the evolution of language assessments for children and adults with language disorders is described briefly. This is followed by a discussion on language assessment of the clinical population with an emphasis on linguistic profiling, illustrated through the Linguistic Profile Test. Discourse analysis, in particular, is highlighted…

  11. Applied Linguistics for Language Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeng, Paul A.

    This article reviews the historical development of applied linguistics in foreign language instruction. Five major principles influencing early applied linguistic theory are summarized, emphasizing the oral nature of language. Central to the article are discussions of: (1) prescriptive or normative grammar, (2) transformational grammar, (3)…

  12. Contrastive Linguistics and Social Lectology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Walt

    In the past, social lectologists have not considered their work as contrastive linguistics. One reason is that sociolects of a language differ quantitatively; differences lie in the frequency patterns with which certain forms occur in each lect. Contrastive linguistics deals with standard or idealized languages, while sociolects are often…

  13. Linguistic Human Rights and Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    The Linguistic Human Rights (LHRs) paradigm is motivated by the desire to combat linguistic discrimination, where speakers of discriminated languages find themselves unable to use their preferred language in society at large. However, in an increasingly globalised world where speakers may feel the need or the desire to travel across state…

  14. Constructing an XML database of linguistics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J H Kroeze

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A language-oriented, multi-dimensional database of the linguistic characteristics of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament can enable researchers to do ad hoc queries. XML is a suitable technology to transform free text into a database. A clause’s word order can be kept intact while other features such as syntactic and semantic functions can be marked as elements or attributes. The elements or attributes from the XML “database” can be accessed and proces sed by a 4th generation programming language, such as Visual Basic. XML is explored as an option to build an exploitable database of linguistic data by representing inherently multi-dimensional data, including syntactic and semantic analyses of free text.

  15. Georgian Dialect Corpus: Linguistic and Encyclopedic Information in Online Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beridze Marina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Georgian Dialect Corpus (GDC has been created within the framework of the project “Linguistic Portrait of Georgia”. It was the first attempt to create a structured corpus of Georgian dialects. The work of this project includes building the technical framework for a corpus, collecting the corpus (text data of Georgian dialects including the lexicographic data (dictionaries, their linguistic processing, digitizing, developing annotation framework, making decision on the morphosyntactic annotation. Currently, the Georgian Dialect Corpus is a platform consisting of the dialect corpus, the text library, the lexicographical database/online dialect dictionaries. For the purposes of developing the lexicographical database and dialect dictionaries, we have created a new program – the Lexicographic Editor. It allows us to structure and improve the dictionaries with multiple linguistic and lexicographic information. The lexicographic concept of the GDC has been developed taking into consideration linguistic and social features of the Georgian dialects.

  16. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... been no introduction and comprehensive study of the field. Volume 1 introduces the field of linguistic dating of biblical texts, particularly to intermediate and advanced students of biblical Hebrew who have a reasonable background in the language, having completed at least an introductory course...... in this volume are: What is it that makes Archaic Biblical Hebrew archaic , Early Biblical Hebrew early , and Late Biblical Hebrew late ? Does linguistic typology, i.e. different linguistic characteristics, convert easily and neatly into linguistic chronology, i.e. different historical origins? A large amount...

  17. Neuro-epistemology: a post-modernist analysis of the neuro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the theoretical framework in which we construct our terms of reference when examining patients from an integrated Meyerian biopsychosocial perspective. We coin the term iยDneuro-epistemologylo, defining the frame for scientific inquiry into the nature and status of knowledge in neuro-sciences, ...

  18. [To strengthen the education on basic knowledge and skills of neuro-ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Ning-li

    2011-12-01

    Basic knowledge and skills are cornerstone of the diagnosis and treatment of neuro-ophthalmology diseases in ophthalmology practice. Due to the interdisciplinary features of neuro-ophthalmology, neuro-anatomy, neuro-physiology related to eyes, neuro-image and neuro-electrodiagnosis, these should be included in the education for the ophthalmologist. Special attention should be paid to training on capability of logically thinking in neuro-ophthalmology. Multiple ways can be used for the education of ophthalmologists and neurologists for the enhancement of basic knowledge and skills of neuro-ophthalmology in China.

  19. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Steinbjørn Hansen Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital and Institute of Clinical Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Aim of database: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR was established by the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group as a national clinical database. It was established for the purpose of supporting research and development in adult patients with primary brain tumors in Denmark. Study population: DNOR has registered clinical data on diagnostics and treatment of all adult patients diagnosed with glioma since January 1, 2009, which numbers approximately 400 patients each year. Main variables: The database contains information about symptoms, presurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI characteristics, performance status, surgical procedures, residual tumor on postsurgical MRI, postsurgical complications, diagnostic and histology codes, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Descriptive data: DNOR publishes annual reports on descriptive data. During the period of registration, postoperative MRI is performed in a higher proportion of the patients (Indicator II, and a higher proportion of patients have no residual tumor after surgical resection of the primary tumor (Indicator IV. Further data are available in the annual reports. The indicators reflect only minor elements of handling brain tumor patients. Another advantage of reporting indicators is the related multidisciplinary discussions giving a better understanding of what actually is going on, thereby facilitating the work on adjusting the national guidelines in the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group. Conclusion: The establishment of DNOR has optimized the quality in handling primary brain tumor patients in Denmark by reporting indicators and facilitating a better multidisciplinary collaboration at a national level. DNOR provides a valuable resource for research. Keywords: brain neoplasms, brain cancer, glioma, clinical quality indicators

  20. The linguistically aware teacher and the teacher-aware linguist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Elspeth; Ellis, Sue

    2013-07-01

    This review evaluates issues of teacher linguistic knowledge relating to their work with children with speech, language and communication difficulties (SLCD). Information is from Ellis and McCartney [(2011a). Applied linguistics and primary school teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press], a state-of-the-art text deriving from a British Association of Applied Linguistics/Cambridge University Press expert seminar series that details: linguistic research underpinning primary school curricula and pedagogy; the form of linguistic knowledge useful for teachers supporting children with SLCD in partnership with speech and language therapists; and how and when teachers acquire and learn to apply such knowledge. Critical analysis of the options presented for teacher learning indicate that policy enjoinders now include linguistic application as an expected part of teachers' professional knowledge, for all children including those with SLCD, but there is a large unmet learning need. It is concluded that there is a role for clinical linguists to disseminate useable knowledge to teachers in an accessible format. Ways of achieving this are considered.

  1. Neuro-Inspired Computing with Stochastic Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Naous, Rawan

    2016-01-06

    The extensive scaling and integration within electronic systems have set the standards for what is addressed to as stochastic electronics. The individual components are increasingly diverting away from their reliable behavior and producing un-deterministic outputs. This stochastic operation highly mimics the biological medium within the brain. Hence, building on the inherent variability, particularly within novel non-volatile memory technologies, paves the way for unconventional neuromorphic designs. Neuro-inspired networks with brain-like structures of neurons and synapses allow for computations and levels of learning for diverse recognition tasks and applications.

  2. Advanced MR Imaging in Neuro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbruch, A; Bendszus, M

    2015-10-01

    The value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the clinical management of brain tumour patients has greatly increased in recent years through the introduction of functional MR sequences. Previously, MR imaging for brain tumours relied for the most part on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR sequences but today with the help of advanced functional MR sequences, the pathophysiological aspects of tumour growth can be directly visualised and investigated. This article will present the pathophysiological background of the MR sequences relevant to neuro-oncological imaging as well as potential clinical applications. Ultimately, we take a look at possible future developments for ultra-high-field MR imaging.

  3. Esperanza y Vida: a culturally and linguistically customized breast and cervical education program for diverse Latinas at three different United States sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandorf, Lina; Ellison, Jennie; Shelton, Rachel; Thélémaque, Linda; Castillo, Anabella; Mendez, Elsa Iris; Horowitz, Carol; Treviño, Michelle; Doty, Bonnie; Hannigan, Maria; Aguirre, Elvira; Harfouche-Saad, Frances; Colon, Jomary; Matos, Jody; Pully, Leavonne; Bursac, Zoran; Erwin, Deborah O

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among Latinas in the United States. In addition, Latinas experience a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality compared with non-Hispanic White women. Lower use of breast and cervical cancer screening services may contribute to these disparities. To address the underutilization of breast and cervical cancer screening among diverse subgroups of Latinas, a peer-led education program called Esperanza y Vida ("Hope and Life") was developed and administered at 3 sites (2 in New York and 1 in Arkansas). Immigrant Latina women and their partners were educated about the importance of breast and cervical cancer screening, with the goals of increasing their knowledge about these cancers and their screening behavior. An analysis of the intervention's findings at baseline among female participants demonstrated significant sociodemographic, interpersonal, cultural, health care system, and program variability in 3 distinct geographic regions in the United States. These data indicate the need for and feasibility of customizing cancer outreach and educational programs for diverse Latina subgroups living in various U.S. regions, with implications for informing the expansion and replication of the program in other regions of the country. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  4. Translanguaging Practices as Mobilization of Linguistic Resources in a Spanish/English Bilingual After-School Program: An Analysis of Contradictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Roldán, Carmen María

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the results of an empirical study that examined the translanguaging practices of primary-grade, bilingual Latino students, as mediated by bilingual teacher candidates (TCs), in an after-school program in the southwestern United States. Expansive Learning theory, within the cultural-historical activity tradition, guided the…

  5. Computer-Assisted and Programed Instruction in Foreign Languages: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsong, David

    The documents listed in this annotated bibliography on computer-aided and programmed instruction in foreign languages appeared in RIE during the period from April 1971 through February 1977. The selection comprises reports on conference and research projects, papers concerned with theory and application, and descriptions of teaching materials. The…

  6. USING COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES IN PROFESSIONAL LINGUISTIC EDUCATION OF ECONOMISTS AND MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Sorokina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a didactic potential of computer technologies for professional linguistic education of economists and managers. A special attention is given to computer programs, Internet, e- mail, local area network, and text editor. The integration of linguistic education into professional education enhances personal and professional potential of economists and managers. That is why interaction between linguistic and professional education is a significant necessity and assumes a special importance in professional education of economists and managers.

  7. Roles of neuro-exocytotic proteins at the neuromuscular junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sons-Michel, Michèle S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in the thesis was to elucidate the roles of several neuro-exocytotic proteins at the motor nerve terminal in neuromuscular synaptic transmission, making use of genetic knockout (KO) mice, each missing one (or more) neuro-exocytotic proteins. In addition, it was

  8. Neuro-flow Dynamics and the Learning Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuno, M.; Aizawa, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A new description of the neural activity is introduced by the neuro-flow dynamics and the extended Hebb rule. The remarkable characteristics of the neuro-flow dynamics, such as the primacy and the recency effect during awakeness or sleep, are pointed out.

  9. A Review of Neuro-ophthalmologic Emergencies | Fiebai | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The available literature on neuro-ophthalmologic emergencies was reviewed, using available journals and internet based search engines and resources. Keywords employed were Neuro-ophthalmology Emergency and Ocular Morbidity. Result: The incidence of this group of emergencies is lower than that of other ...

  10. Merging machines with microsurgery: clinical experience with neuroArm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Garnette R; Lama, Sanju; Gan, Liu Shi; Wolfsberger, Stefan; Zareinia, Kourosh

    2013-03-01

    It has been over a decade since the introduction of the da Vinci Surgical System into surgery. Since then, technology has been advancing at an exponential rate, and newer surgical robots are becoming increasingly sophisticated, which could greatly impact the performance of surgery. NeuroArm is one such robotic system. Clinical integration of neuroArm, an MR-compatible image-guided robot, into surgical procedure has been developed over a prospective series of 35 cases with varying pathology. Only 1 adverse event was encountered in the first 35 neuroArm cases, with no patient injury. The adverse event was uncontrolled motion of the left neuroArm manipulator, which was corrected through a rigorous safety review procedure. Surgeons used a graded approach to introducing neuroArm into surgery, with routine dissection of the tumor-brain interface occurring over the last 15 cases. The use of neuroArm for routine dissection shows that robotic technology can be successfully integrated into microsurgery. Karnofsky performance status scores were significantly improved postoperatively and at 12-week follow-up. Surgical robots have the potential to improve surgical precision and accuracy through motion scaling and tremor filters, although human surgeons currently possess superior speed and dexterity. Additionally, neuroArm's workstation has positive implications for technology management and surgical education. NeuroArm is a step toward a future in which a variety of machines are merged with medicine.

  11. Accelerating Translational Research through Open Science: The Neuro Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, E Richard

    2016-12-01

    Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro) announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science-open data, open materials, and no patenting-across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro's Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro's institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro's approach to exploring them.

  12. Multidimensional Analysis of Linguistic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Tanya; Banisch, Sven

    Network-based approaches play an increasingly important role in the analysis of data even in systems in which a network representation is not immediately apparent. This is particularly true for linguistic networks, which use to be induced from a linguistic data set for which a network perspective is only one out of several options for representation. Here we introduce a multidimensional framework for network construction and analysis with special focus on linguistic networks. Such a framework is used to show that the higher is the abstraction level of network induction, the harder is the interpretation of the topological indicators used in network analysis. Several examples are provided allowing for the comparison of different linguistic networks as well as to networks in other fields of application of network theory. The computation and the intelligibility of some statistical indicators frequently used in linguistic networks are discussed. It suggests that the field of linguistic networks, by applying statistical tools inspired by network studies in other domains, may, in its current state, have only a limited contribution to the development of linguistic theory.

  13. Neuro-pharmacological functional MRI of epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiriyama, Hideki; Makabe, Tetsuo; Tomita, Susumu; Omoto, Takashi; Asari, Shoji [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Aihara, Hiroshi; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Nishimoto, Akira; Ito, Takahiko

    2000-03-01

    We studied patients with epilepsy by neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam. Five normal volunteers and 7 patients with epilepsy were investigated. MRI was performed by a 1.5 T unit (SIGNA Horizon, GE) using the following parameters: TR/TE 5000 msec/80 msec, FA 90 deg, FOV 200 mm, matrix 128 x 128, slice thickness 7 mm. We performed MRI scanning over 5 minutes (2 minutes before and 3 minutes after injection of diazepam) for each 1 session; we scanned 3 sessions for each patient at intervals of 5 minutes. The diazepam was injected rapidly from the antecubital vein. The dose of diazepam was 0.05 mg/kg/injection (total dose was 0.15 mg/kg). The data were analyzed statistically using t-test. Signal change after administration of diazepam was less than 1 to 2% in healthy volunteers. By contrast, in patient with epilepsy, the signal change was almost 3%, which was significantly greater than that of the normal area (p=0.01). The neuro-pharmacological functional MRI technique using diazepam might be a useful method to identify epileptic foci. (author)

  14. Updates from the 2013 Society for Neuro-Oncology annual and World Federation for Neuro-Oncology quadrennial meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Rimas V; Amidei, Christina

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of a number of key clinical studies in infiltrating gliomas presented at the 2013 Society for Neuro-Oncology and World Federation of Neuro-Oncology joint meeting. This review focuses on efficacy results, including quality of life studies, from larger clinical trials in both high- and low-grade infiltrating gliomas.

  15. Linguistics in the digital humanities: (computational) corpus linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Ebensgaard Jensen

    2014-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has been closely intertwined with digital technology since the introduction of university computer mainframes in the 1960s. Making use of both digitized data in the form of the language corpus and computational methods of analysis involving concordancers and statistics software, corpus linguistics arguably has a place in the digital humanities. Still, it remains obscure and fi gures only sporadically in the literature on the digital humanities. Th is article provides an ove...

  16. A neuro-fuzzy model for prediction of the indoor temperature in typical Australian residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alasha' ary, Haitham; Moghtaderi, Behdad; Page, Adrian; Sugo, Heber [Priority Research Centre for Energy, Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    The Masonry Research Group at The University of Newcastle, Australia has embarked on an extensive research program to study the thermal performance of common walling systems in Australian residential buildings by studying the thermal behaviour of four representative purpose-built thermal test buildings (referred to as 'test modules' or simply 'modules' hereafter). The modules are situated on the university campus and are constructed from brick veneer (BV), cavity brick (CB) and lightweight (LW) constructions. The program of study has both experimental and analytical strands, including the use of a neuro-fuzzy approach to predict the thermal behaviour. The latter approach employs an experimental adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) which is used in this study to predict the room (indoor) temperatures of the modules under a range of climatic conditions pertinent to Newcastle (NSW, Australia). The study shows that this neuro-fuzzy model is capable of accurately predicting the room temperature of such buildings; thus providing a potential computationally efficient and inexpensive predictive tool for the more effective thermal design of housing. (author)

  17. APLIKASI METODE NEURO-DYNAMIC PADA PROSES PENGENDALIAN PERSEDIAAN DI SEBUAH PERUSAHAAN RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngarap Im Manik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Improper inventory system in terms of cost and customer satisfaction is always the most common problem in every part of industries, and of course, also for retailers. The inappropriateness in setting of orders makes the warehouse overloaded for some kind of goods and lack for the others. To overcome this problem, we proposed to apply the Neuro-Dynamic method for optimizing the composition of goods. This method can be easily implemented using computer program and the result indicates that the overdemand and oversupply problems in that company are solved. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Masalah yang sering dihadapi perusahaan retail saat ini antara lain adalah sistem pengendalian persediaan yang kurang tepat, terutama ditinjau dari segi biaya dan kepuasan pelanggan. Hal ini disebabkan karena kuantitas pemesanan yang ditetapkan perusahaan terlalu besar maupun terlalu kecil, sehingga mengakibatkan barang yang disimpan tidak optimal. Untuk menyelesaikan masalah di atas diusulkan dengan menggunakan metode Neuro-Dynamic, yang dapat mengoptimalkan stok barang yang tersedia pada toko, agar biaya yang dikeluarkan minimal dengan menghasilkan keuntungan yang sebesar-besarnya. Untuk memudahkan proses perhitungannya dilakukan dengan program komputer. Hasil pembahasan menunjukkan bahwa perusahaan retail tersebut telah terbantu dalam menjalankan aktivitas perdagangannya, karena tersedianya informasi yang dibutuhkan secara cepat dan cukup akurat dan dapat mengoptimalkan jumlah stok barang yang ada, sehingga mengoptimalkan overdemand dan oversupply. Kata kunci: pengendalian persediaan, Neuro-Dynamic, optimasi.

  18. The brain dynamics of linguistic computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    Neural oscillations at distinct frequencies are increasingly being related to a number of basic and higher cognitive faculties. Oscillations enable the construction of coherently organized neuronal assemblies through establishing transitory temporal correlations. By exploring the elementary operations of the language faculty-labeling, concatenation, cyclic transfer-alongside neural dynamics, a new model of linguistic computation is proposed. It is argued that the universality of language, and the true biological source of Universal Grammar, is not to be found purely in the genome as has long been suggested, but more specifically within the extraordinarily preserved nature of mammalian brain rhythms employed in the computation of linguistic structures. Computational-representational theories are used as a guide in investigating the neurobiological foundations of the human "cognome"-the set of computations performed by the nervous system-and new directions are suggested for how the dynamics of the brain (the "dynome") operate and execute linguistic operations. The extent to which brain rhythms are the suitable neuronal processes which can capture the computational properties of the human language faculty is considered against a backdrop of existing cartographic research into the localization of linguistic interpretation. Particular focus is placed on labeling, the operation elsewhere argued to be species-specific. A Basic Label model of the human cognome-dynome is proposed, leading to clear, causally-addressable empirical predictions, to be investigated by a suggested research program, Dynamic Cognomics. In addition, a distinction between minimal and maximal degrees of explanation is introduced to differentiate between the depth of analysis provided by cartographic, rhythmic, neurochemical, and other approaches to computation.

  19. The Brain Dynamics of Linguistic Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot eMurphy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neural oscillations at distinct frequencies are increasingly being related to a number of basic and higher cognitive faculties. Oscillations enable the construction of coherently organised neuronal assemblies through establishing transitory temporal correlations. By exploring the elementary operations of the language faculty – labeling, concatenation, cyclic transfer – alongside neural dynamics, a new model of linguistic computation is proposed. It is argued that the universality of language, and the true biological source of Universal Grammar, is not to be found purely in the genome as has long been suggested, but more specifically within the extraordinarily preserved nature of mammalian brain rhythms employed in the computation of linguistic structures. Computational-representational theories are used as a guide in investigating the neurobiological foundations of the human ‘cognome’ – the set of computations performed by the nervous system – and new directions are suggested for how the dynamics of brain (the ‘dynome’ operates and execute linguistic operations. The extent to which brain rhythms are the suitable neuronal processes which can capture the computational properties of the human language faculty is considered against a backdrop of existing cartographic research into the localisation of linguistic interpretation. Particular focus is placed on labeling, the operation elsewhere argued to be species-specific. A Basic Label model of the human cognome-dynome is proposed, leading to clear, causally-addressable empirical predictions, to be investigated by a suggested research program, Dynamic Cognomics. In addition, a distinction between minimal and maximal degrees of explanation is introduced to differentiate between the depth of analysis provided by cartographic, rhythmic, neurochemical and other approaches to computation.

  20. Teaching Hispanic Linguistics: Strategies to Engage Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, Stephanie M.; Gupton, Timothy; Abreau, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Even though many post-secondary institutions offer a variety of Hispanic linguistics classes (Hualde 2006; Lipski 2006), research on the pedagogy of Hispanic linguistics is an underdeveloped or non-existent area of the discipline. Courses in Hispanic linguistics can present not only linguistic challenges for non-native speakers of Spanish, but…

  1. LINGUISTICS AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEACHING: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between linguistics and second language teaching has always been a controversial one. Many linguists have argued that linguistics has nothing to say to the teacher. Sampson (1980, p.10), for example, says: "I do not believe that linguistics has any contribution to make to the teaching of English or the.

  2. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. Sources of Support. The Department of General Linguistics acknowledges the financial support provided by the Fonds ...

  3. Gesture Modelling for Linguistic Purposes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivrin, GJ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of sign languages attempts to create a coherent model that binds the expressive nature of signs conveyed in gestures to a linguistic framework. Gesture modelling offers an alternative that provides device independence, scalability...

  4. Linguistics: evolution and language change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire

    2015-01-05

    Linguists have long identified sound changes that occur in parallel. Now novel research shows how Bayesian modeling can capture complex concerted changes, revealing how evolution of sounds proceeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heritage language and linguistic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence. PMID:26500595

  6. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    Functional categories in comparative linguistics Even after many decades of typological research, the biggest methodological problem still concerns the fundamental question: how can we be sure that we identify and compare the same linguistic form, structure, meaning etc. across languages? Very few...... linguistic categories, if any, appear to be ‘universal’ in the sense that they are attested in each and every language (Evans and Levinson 2009). The language-specific nature of form-based (structural, morphosyntactic) categories is well known, which is why typologists usually resort to ‘Greenbergian......’, meaning-based categories. The use of meaning-based or semantic categories, however, does not necessarily result in the identification of cross-linguistically comparable data either, as was already shown by Greenberg (1966: 88) himself. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all...

  7. Heritage language and linguistic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scontras, Gregory; Fuchs, Zuzanna; Polinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language) to their dominant language (the language of their speech community). To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence.

  8. Heritage Language and Linguistic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory eScontras

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a common reality in many cases of multilingualism: heritage speakers, or unbalanced bilinguals, simultaneous or sequential, who shifted early in childhood from one language (their heritage language to their dominant language (the language of their speech community. To demonstrate the relevance of heritage linguistics to the study of linguistic competence more broadly defined, we present a series of case studies on heritage linguistics, documenting some of the deficits and abilities typical of heritage speakers, together with the broader theoretical questions they inform. We consider the reorganization of morphosyntactic feature systems, the reanalysis of atypical argument structure, the attrition of the syntax of relativization, and the simplification of scope interpretations; these phenomena implicate diverging trajectories and outcomes in the development of heritage speakers. The case studies also have practical and methodological implications for the study of multilingualism. We conclude by discussing more general concepts central to linguistic inquiry, in particular, complexity and native speaker competence.

  9. Translating Linguistic Jokes for Dubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ALEKSANDROVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to establish the possible ways of translating linguistic jokes whendubbing. The study is also intended to identify the most problematic cases of screen translation andthe factors which cause these problems. In order to support such an approach a corpus of 7American and British films has been compiled, including as many as 16 as their various dubbingtranslations into Russian. In the films, almost 12 instances of original linguistic jokes have beenidentified.

  10. Computational Linguistics Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Piasecki, Maciej; Jassem, Krzysztof; Fuglewicz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing popularity of Google over the recent decade has required a specific method of man-machine communication: human query should be short, whereas the machine answer may take a form of a wide range of documents. This type of communication has triggered a rapid development in the domain of Information Extraction, aimed at providing the asker with a  more precise information. The recent success of intelligent personal assistants supporting users in searching or even extracting information and answers from large collections of electronic documents signals the onset of a new era in man-machine communication – we shall soon explain to our small devices what we need to know and expect valuable answers quickly and automatically delivered. The progress of man-machine communication is accompanied by growth in the significance of applied Computational Linguistics – we need machines to understand much more from the language we speak naturally than it is the case of up-to-date search systems. Moreover, w...

  11. The new linguistic order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Fishman

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation phenomenon that we are currently seeing has lead to major linguistic changes on a worldwide scale. English has become the leading international language, in economic and political spheres, and is becoming the language of high society and of the young. At the same time, however, regional languages are also making considerable headway, thanks to new social interaction and economic backing from their governments. In turn, and as a result of these two trends, there is impetus for feelings of belonging to local communities which see their language as a sign of their own authenticity, one that has to be defended against the phenomena of globalisation and regionalisation. We are thus heading towards a multilingual society, in which each language has its own, distinct social functions, even though it is inevitable that there will be conflict between the languages that come into contact. In this scenario, the author predicts a loss of hegemony for English, in favour of regional languages, and the future extinction of the least spoken minority languages.

  12. Research in the School of Languages and Linguistics at Griffith University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton-Smith, Ben; Walkinshaw, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Griffith University is set across five campuses in south-east Queensland, Australia, and has a student population of 43,000. The School of Languages and Linguistics (LAL) offers programs in linguistics, international English, Chinese, Italian, Japanese and Spanish, as well as English language enhancement courses. Research strands reflect the…

  13. Between Duty Statement and Reality--The "Linguist/Coordinator" at an Australian Indigenous Language Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawsky, Knut J.

    2014-01-01

    The size of Australian Indigenous language centres varies from small programs with a single employment position up to large organisations which may involve several linguists, a manager and a range of support staff. This article is based on the linguist's work at an organisation at the smaller end of the scale--"Mirima Dawang…

  14. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed the chronol......For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  15. The human resource crisis in neuro-ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohman, Larry P

    2008-09-01

    Neuro-ophthalmology is facing a serious human resource issue. Few are entering the subspecialty, which is perceived as being poorly compensated compared with other subspecialties of ophthalmology. The low compensation comes from the fact that 1) non-procedural encounters remain undervalued, 2) efforts that benefit other medical specialists are not counted, and 3) the relatively low expenses of neuro-ophthalmologists are not factored into compensation formulas. Mission-based budgeting, which forces academic departments to be financially accountable without the expectation of fiscal relief from medical schools or practice plans, has exacerbated the compensation issue. Solutions must come from within neuro-ophthalmology, academic departments, medical schools, and medical practice plans. They include 1) providing educational resources so that neuro-ophthalmologists need not spend so much time teaching the basics, 2) factoring into compensation the impact of neuro-ophthalmologists in teaching and on revenue generation by procedure-based specialists, 3) improving the efficiency of neuro-ophthalmologists in their consultative practices by providing ample clerical support and other measures, 4) providing contractual salary compensation by departments such as neurosurgery to recognize the contributions made by neuro-ophthalmologists, and 5) reorganizing the academic clinical effort as multidisciplinary rather than departmental.

  16. Structure of neuro-endocrine and neuro-epithelial interactions in human foetal pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivova, Yuliya; Proshchina, Alexandra; Barabanov, Valeriy; Leonova, Olga; Saveliev, Sergey

    2016-12-01

    In the pancreas of many mammals including humans, endocrine islet cells can be integrated with the nervous system components into neuro-insular complexes. The mechanism of the formation of such complexes is not clearly understood. The present study evaluated the interactions between the nervous system components, epithelial cells and endocrine cells in the human pancreas. Foetal pancreas, gestational age 19-23 weeks (13 cases) and 30-34 weeks (7 cases), were studied using double immunohistochemical labeling with neural markers (S100 protein and beta III tubulin), epithelial marker (cytokeratin 19 (CK19)) and antibodies to insulin and glucagon. We first analyse the structure of neuro-insular complexes using confocal microscopy and provide immunohistochemical evidences of the presence of endocrine cells within the ganglia or inside the nerve bundles. We showed that the nervous system components contact with the epithelial cells located in ducts or in clusters outside the ductal epithelium and form complexes with separate epithelial cells. We observed CK19-positive cells inside the ganglia and nerve bundles which were located separately or were integrated with the islets. Therefore, we conclude that neuro-insular complexes may forms as a result of integration between epithelial cells and nervous system components at the initial stages of islets formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Paraneoplastic Syndromes in Neuro-Ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lynn K

    2015-09-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes that affect the visual pathways and present with neuro-ophthalmologic signs or symptoms may involve the afferent or efferent systems. Afferent syndromes may involve the optic nerve or retina and, in some cases, these may be associated with systemic neurologic disease. Efferent symptoms typically affect eye movements and may involve the neuromuscular junction or involuntary eye movements. Literature review and personal clinical and research experience. Diagnosis of paraneoplastic syndromes relies on clinical and laboratory evaluations. In the appropriate clinical setting, the presence of specific antibodies may help confirm the diagnosis. In some cases, the visual pathway disturbance precedes a diagnosis of malignancy. Astute observation and selective evaluation and management are critical to establish the correct diagnosis and institute therapeutic approaches that can be sight or life saving.

  18. Neuro-oncology biotech industry progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shamik; Bodhinayake, Imithri; Chiluwal, Amrit; Langer, David J; Ruggieri, Rosamaria; Symons, Marc; Boockvar, John A

    2016-05-01

    The Brain Tumor Biotech Center at the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, in collaboration with Voices Against Brain Cancer hosted The Brain Tumor Biotech Summit at in New York City in June 2015. The focus was once again on fostering collaboration between neuro-oncologist, neurosurgeons, scientists, leaders from biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, and members of the financial community. The summit highlighted the recent advances in the treatment of brain tumor, and specifically focused on targeting of stem cells and EGFR, use of prophage and immunostimulatory vaccines, retroviral vectors for drug delivery, biologic prodrug, Cesium brachytherapy, and use of electric field to disrupt tumor cell proliferation. This article summarizes the current progress in brain tumor research as presented at 2015 The Brain Tumor Biotech Summit.

  19. Diagnostic imaging in neuro-ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela Marín, A C; Seral Moral, P; Bernal Lafuente, C; Izquierdo Hernández, B

    2018-01-20

    Neuro-ophthalmology is a field combining neurology and ophthalmology that studies diseases that affect the visual system and the mechanisms that control eye movement and pupil function. Imaging tests make it possible to thoroughly assess the relevant anatomy and disease of the structures that make up the visual pathway, the nerves that control eye and pupil movement, and the orbital structures themselves. This article is divided into three sections (review of the anatomy, appropriate imaging techniques, and evaluation of disease according to clinical symptoms), with the aim of providing useful tools that will enable radiologists to choose the best imaging technique for the differential diagnosis of patients' problems to reach the correct diagnosis of their disease. Copyright © 2018 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steinbjørn; Nielsen, Jan; Laursen, René J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively registered data on patients with gliomas since January 2009. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of the DNOR and further to evaluate the database...... Pathology Registry. The data validity of important clinical variables was evaluated by a random sample of 100 patients from the DNOR using the medical records as reference. RESULTS: A total of 2241 patients were registered in the DNOR by December 2014 with an overall patient completeness of 92 %, which...... of patient registration was very high (92 %) and the validity of the most important patient data was good. The DNOR is a newly established national database, which is a reliable source for future scientific studies and clinical quality assessments among patients with gliomas....

  1. Designing Flexible Neuro-Fuzzy System Based on Sliding Mode Controller for Magnetic Levitation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Mohammadi; Mohammad Teshnehlab; Mahdi Aliyari Shoorehdeli

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a novel controller of magnetic levitation system by using new neuro-fuzzy structures which called flexible neuro-fuzzy systems. In this type of controller we use sliding mode control with neuro-fuzzy to eliminate the Jacobian of plant. At first, we control magnetic levitation system with Mamdanitype neuro-fuzzy systems and logical-type neuro-fuzzy systems separately and then we use two types of flexible neuro-fuzzy systems as controllers. Basic flexible OR-type neuro-fuzzy...

  2. A Groundwork for Allostatic Neuro-Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee eGerdes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose to enliven educational practice by marrying a conception of education as guided human development, to an advanced scientific understanding of the brain known as allostasis (stability through change. The result is a groundwork for allostatic neuro-education (GANE. Education as development encompasses practices including the organic (homeschooling and related traditions, cognitive acquisition (emphasis on standards and testing, and the constructivist (aimed to support adaptive creativity for both learner and society. Allostasis views change to be the norm in biology, defines success in contexts of complex natural environments rather than controlled settings, and identifies the brain as the organ of central command. Allostatic neuro-education contrasts with education focused exclusively on testing, or neuroscience based on homeostasis (stability through constancy. The GANE perspective is to view the learner in terms of their neurodevelopmental trajectories; its objective is to support authentic freedom, mediated by competent, integrated, and expansive executive functionality (concordant with the philosophy of freedom of Rudolf Steiner; and its strategy is to be attuned to rhythms in various forms (including those of autonomic arousal described in polyvagal theory so as to enable experiential excitement for learning. The GANE presents a variety of testable hypotheses, and studies that explore prevention or mitigation of the effects of early life adversity or toxic stress on learning and development may be of particular importance. Case studies are presented illustrating use of allostatic neurotechnology by an adolescent male carrying diagnoses of Asperger’s Syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and a grade school girl with reading difficulties. The GANE is intended as a re-visioning of education that may serve both learners and society to be better prepared for the accelerating changes of the twenty-first century.

  3. A groundwork for allostatic neuro-education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Lee; Tegeler, Charles H.; Lee, Sung W.

    2015-01-01

    We propose to enliven educational practice by marrying a conception of education as guided human development, to an advanced scientific understanding of the brain known as allostasis (stability through change). The result is a groundwork for allostatic neuro-education (GANE). Education as development encompasses practices including the organic (homeschooling and related traditions), cognitive acquisition (emphasis on standards and testing), and the constructivist (aimed to support adaptive creativity for both learner and society). Allostasis views change to be the norm in biology, defines success in contexts of complex natural environments rather than controlled settings, and identifies the brain as the organ of central command. Allostatic neuro-education contrasts with education focused dominantly on testing, or neuroscience based on homeostasis (stability through constancy). The GANE perspective is to view learners in terms of their neurodevelopmental trajectories; its objective is to support authentic freedom, mediated by competent, integrated, and expansive executive functionality (concordant with the philosophy of freedom of Rudolf Steiner); and its strategy is to be attuned to rhythms in various forms (including those of autonomic arousal described in polyvagal theory) so as to enable experiential excitement for learning. The GANE presents a variety of testable hypotheses, and studies that explore prevention or mitigation of the effects of early life adversity or toxic stress on learning and development may be of particular importance. Case studies are presented illustrating use of allostatic neurotechnology by an adolescent male carrying diagnoses of Asperger’s syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and a grade school girl with reading difficulties. The GANE is intended as a re-visioning of education that may serve both learners and society to be better prepared for the accelerating changes of the 21st century. PMID:26347688

  4. A groundwork for allostatic neuro-education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Lee; Tegeler, Charles H; Lee, Sung W

    2015-01-01

    We propose to enliven educational practice by marrying a conception of education as guided human development, to an advanced scientific understanding of the brain known as allostasis (stability through change). The result is a groundwork for allostatic neuro-education (GANE). Education as development encompasses practices including the organic (homeschooling and related traditions), cognitive acquisition (emphasis on standards and testing), and the constructivist (aimed to support adaptive creativity for both learner and society). Allostasis views change to be the norm in biology, defines success in contexts of complex natural environments rather than controlled settings, and identifies the brain as the organ of central command. Allostatic neuro-education contrasts with education focused dominantly on testing, or neuroscience based on homeostasis (stability through constancy). The GANE perspective is to view learners in terms of their neurodevelopmental trajectories; its objective is to support authentic freedom, mediated by competent, integrated, and expansive executive functionality (concordant with the philosophy of freedom of Rudolf Steiner); and its strategy is to be attuned to rhythms in various forms (including those of autonomic arousal described in polyvagal theory) so as to enable experiential excitement for learning. The GANE presents a variety of testable hypotheses, and studies that explore prevention or mitigation of the effects of early life adversity or toxic stress on learning and development may be of particular importance. Case studies are presented illustrating use of allostatic neurotechnology by an adolescent male carrying diagnoses of Asperger's syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and a grade school girl with reading difficulties. The GANE is intended as a re-visioning of education that may serve both learners and society to be better prepared for the accelerating changes of the 21st century.

  5. Neuro-inflammation, blood-brain barrier, seizures and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theoharides Theoharis C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many children with Autism Spectrum Diseases (ASD present with seizure activity, but the pathogenesis is not understood. Recent evidence indicates that neuro-inflammation could contribute to seizures. We hypothesize that brain mast cell activation due to allergic, environmental and/or stress triggers could lead to focal disruption of the blood-brain barrier and neuro-inflammation, thus contributing to the development of seizures. Treating neuro-inflammation may be useful when anti-seizure medications are ineffective.

  6. Linguistic and Psycho-Physiological Fundamentals of Linguistic Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Juškienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses one of the most important aspects of linguistic activity, i.e. psycho-physiological fundamentals. The topic is of a great importance as there is no uniform theoretical concept of this issue, although there is a range of articles that analyze some of the aspects of the problem. The author has described physiological components of linguistic activity. From the psychological point of view, the author has accentuated two types of linguistic activity – the perceptive and the expressive – that are substantially analyzed in the present article. The author assumes that the implementation of linguistic activity as well as of any activity is possible by virtue of certain competences and skills. Linguistic competences and skills are thoroughly scrutinized and their distinctive features are pointed out in the current study. The paper also presents and analyzes the key stages of the nurturing of skills. The article could be useful both for theorists of linguodidactics and for language teaching specialists.

  7. Theories and control models and motor learning: clinical applications in neuro-rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R; Molero-Sánchez, A; Carratalá-Tejada, M; Alguacil-Diego, I M; Molina-Rueda, F; Miangolarra-Page, J C; Torricelli, D

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there has been a special interest in theories that could explain the regulation of motor control, and their applications. These theories are often based on models of brain function, philosophically reflecting different criteria on how movement is controlled by the brain, each being emphasised in different neural components of the movement. The concept of motor learning, regarded as the set of internal processes associated with practice and experience that produce relatively permanent changes in the ability to produce motor activities through a specific skill, is also relevant in the context of neuroscience. Thus, both motor control and learning are seen as key fields of study for health professionals in the field of neuro-rehabilitation. The major theories of motor control are described, which include, motor programming theory, systems theory, the theory of dynamic action, and the theory of parallel distributed processing, as well as the factors that influence motor learning and its applications in neuro-rehabilitation. At present there is no consensus on which theory or model defines the regulations to explain motor control. Theories of motor learning should be the basis for motor rehabilitation. The new research should apply the knowledge generated in the fields of control and motor learning in neuro-rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. The Open Linguistics Working Group: Developing the Linguistic Linked Open Data Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    McCrae, John Philip; Chiarcos, Christian; Bond, Francis; Cimiano, Philipp; Declerck, Thierry; de Melo, Gerard; Gracia, Jorge; Hellmann, Sebastian; Klimek, Bettina; Moran, Steven; Osenova, Petya; Pareja-Lora, Antonio; Pool, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The Open Linguistics Working Group (OWLG) brings together researchers from various fields of linguistics, natural language processing, and information technology to present and discuss principles, case studies, and best practices for representing, publishing and linking linguistic data collections. A major outcome of our work is the Linguistic Linked Open Data (LLOD) cloud, an LOD (sub-)cloud of linguistic resources, which covers various linguistic databases, lexicons, corpora, terminologies,...

  9. Multicomponent Linguistic Awareness Intervention for At-Risk Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoski, Jennifer L.; Erickson, Karen A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of multicomponent linguistic awareness intervention on early literacy skills in at-risk kindergarteners. Seventeen students, including native Spanish-speaking English language learners (n = 10) and native English speakers (n = 7), participated in a 6-week small-group therapy program, for a total of 12…

  10. Linguistic and Psycho-Linguistic Principles of Linguadidactics (theoretical interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Mauzienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers linguadidactics being closely related to linguistics, psychology, psycholinguistics and didactics and applies their theoretical statements and regularities in its scientific studies. Methodology refers to linguistics which investigates the language as a teaching subject. Methodology is linked to psychology in two ways. First of all, it is based on psychology as the teaching process is an intellectual psychical act and its regularities are necessary to know. On the other hand, methodology applies rules of pedagogy that predicts ways of learning and development of language skills. The article emphasizes that sustainable work experience and analysis of scientific research show that teaching process is more effective if consistent patterns of linguistics and psychology are appropriately applied.

  11. The UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab facility is to generate and distribute high quality, validated mouse monoclonal antibodies against molecular targets found...

  12. 2nd International Conference on NeuroRehabilitation

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Ole; Akay, Metin

    2014-01-01

    The book is the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on NeuroRehabilitation (ICNR 2014), held 24th-26th June 2014 in Aalborg, Denmark. The conference featured the latest highlights in the emerging and interdisciplinary field of neural rehabilitation engineering and identified important healthcare challenges the scientific community will be faced with in the coming years. Edited and written by leading experts in the field, the book includes keynote papers, regular conference papers, and contributions to special and innovation sessions, covering the following main topics: neuro-rehabilitation applications and solutions for restoring impaired neurological functions; cutting-edge technologies and methods in neuro-rehabilitation; and translational challenges in neuro-rehabilitation. Thanks to its highly interdisciplinary approach, the book will not only be a  highly relevant reference guide for academic researchers, engineers, neurophysiologists, neuroscientists, physicians and physiotherapists workin...

  13. Neuro-fuzzy controller for active ankle foot orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishabh Kochhar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The ankle foot orthosis (AFO is as an assistive device used in foot disability for gait improvement. The objective of this paper was to design a neuro fuzzy controller for an AFO. Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS was selected after a detailed study of existing neuro-fuzzy architectures. Data of gait pattern was collected with the help of analog gyro sensors. This data was fed to the ANFIS and a fuzzy rule base was created to complete the neuro-fuzzy system which was used to control the gait pattern. Angular velocity and angle of feet served as inputs to the controller and the output was actuation. The results obtained showed sigmoidal membership functions for the various inputs and outputs due to their close resemblance with the normal human gait. Output of the ANFIS showcased the initial data which was fed to the system; the modified data; changed membership functions and error after training.

  14. Linguistics and cognitive linguistics as tools of pedagogical discourse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurovskaya Yulia G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of linguistics and cognitive linguistics as tools of pedagogical discourse analysis, thus establishing a new branch of pedagogy called pedagogical semiology that is concerned with students’ acquisition of culture encoded in symbols and the way students’ sign consciousness formed in the context of learning affects their world cognition and interpersonal communication. The article introduces a set of tools that would enable the teacher to organize the educational process in compliance with the rules of language as a sign system applied to the context of pedagogy and with the formation of younger generation’s language picture of the world.

  15. Linguistics and Some Aspects of Its Underlying Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Piattelli-Palmarini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, central components of a new approach to linguistics, the Minimalist Program, have come closer to physics. In this paper, an interesting and productive isomorphism is established between minimalist structure, algebraic structures, and many-body field theory opening new avenues of inquiry on the dynamics underlying some central aspects of linguistics. Features such as the unconstrained nature of recursive Merge, the difference between pronounced and un-pronounced copies of elements in a sentence, and the Fibonacci sequence in the syntactic derivation of sentence structures, are shown to be accessible to representation in terms of algebraic formalism.

  16. Perspectives on psycho-neuro-immunology in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallath Nandini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Psycho-oncology and psycho-neuro-immunology are both powerful new disciplines. Although a lot of literature exists in both of these fields the evidence is often controversial. This paper gives a brief perspective on the origins of psycho-neuro-immunology and discusses how our current understanding of this subject can be translated into clinical practice in an Indian setting.

  17. Neuroæstetik eller kunst på hjernen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Neuroæstetikken kombinerer hjerneforskning, æstetikforskning og eksperimentel psykologi -- alt sammen for at forstå en af Homo sapiens' mest bizarre hobbyer: kunst. Forskning i kunstens neurobiologi griber om sig.......Neuroæstetikken kombinerer hjerneforskning, æstetikforskning og eksperimentel psykologi -- alt sammen for at forstå en af Homo sapiens' mest bizarre hobbyer: kunst. Forskning i kunstens neurobiologi griber om sig....

  18. Aplikasi Neuro Fuzzy Controller Pada Sistem Titrasi Pengolah Limbah Cair

    OpenAIRE

    Fatkhurrozi, Bagus

    2007-01-01

    This research is aimed at planning and measuriang the system of liquid waste processing devide with ply neutral reaction that is controlled by computer based on neuro fuzzy controller, in which the system control is fuzzy logical system than can improve control out put response based on nervous net imitation. In this system, it can be seen that computer has a very important role that is to control the proless of all activities in waste processing. Key ward. PH, Neuro fuzzy controller

  19. Language Studies in Teacher Education. Linguistic Communications: Working Papers of the Linguistic Society of Australia, No. 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebble, Helen A.

    This article argues that courses in linguistics should be included in all teacher training programs, whether the students are training to be general teachers or language teachers specializing in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) or Foreign Languages in the Elementary School (FLES). Details of lectures and assignments for two topics,…

  20. The potential role of exercise in neuro-oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prue eCormie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with brain and other central nervous system cancers experience debilitating physical, cognitive and emotional effects that significantly compromise quality of life. Few efficacious pharmacological strategies or supportive care interventions exist to ameliorate these sequelae and patients report high levels of unmet needs in these areas. There is strong theoretical rationale to suggest exercise may be an effective intervention to aid in the management of neuro-oncological disorders. Clinical research has established the efficacy of appropriate exercise in counteracting physical impairments such as fatigue and functional decline, cognitive impairment as well as psychological effects including depression and anxiety. While there is promise for exercise to enhance physical and psychosocial wellbeing of patients diagnosed with neurologic malignancies, these patients have unique needs and research is urgently required to explore optimal exercise prescription specific to these patients to maximise safety and efficacy. This perspective article is a discussion of potential rehabilitative effects of targeted exercise programs for patients with brain and other central nervous system cancers and highlights future research directions.

  1. Neuro-Otological and Peripheral Nerve Involvement in Fabry Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Sergio; Weinschelbaum, Romina; Pardal, Ana; Marchesoni, Cintia; Zuberbuhler, Paz; Acosta, Patricia; Cáceres, Guillermo; Kisinovsky, Isaac; Bayón, Luciana; Reisin, Ricardo

    2017-07-18

    Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease, with multisystemic glycosphingolipids deposits. Neuro-otological involvement leading to hearing loss and vestibular dysfunctions has been described, but there is limited information about the frequency, site of lesion, or the relationship with peripheral neuropathy. The aim was to evaluate the presence of auditory and vestibular symptoms, and assess neurophysiological involvement of the VIII cranial nerve, correlating these findings with clinical and neurophysiological features of peripheral neuropathy. We studied 36 patients with FD with a complete neurological and neuro-otological evaluation including nerve conduction studies, quantitative sensory testing (to evaluate small fiber by warm and cold threshold detection and cold and heat pain), vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, videonistagmography, audiometry and brainstem auditory evoked potentials. Neuro-otologic symptoms included hearing loss (22.2%), vertigo (27.8%) or both (25%). An involvement of either cochlear or vestibular function was identified in most patients (75%). In 70% of our patients the involvement of both cochlear and vestibular function could not be explained by a neural or vascular mechanism. Small fiber neuropathy was identified in 77.7%. There were no significant associations between neuro-otological and QST abnormalities. Neuro-otologic involvement is frequent and most likely under-recognized in patients with FD. It lacks a specific neural or vascular pattern, suggesting multi-systemic, end organ damage. Small fiber neuropathy is an earlier manifestation of FD, but there is no correlation between the development of neuropathy and neuro-otological abnormalities.

  2. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...... been driven by applied work. After laying out CA's standard practices of data treatment and analysis, this article takes up the role of comparison as a fundamental analytical strategy and reviews recent developments into cross-linguistic and cross-cultural directions. The remaining article focuses...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA...

  3. Executive control influences linguistic representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri; Keysar, Boaz

    2014-02-01

    Although it is known that words acquire their meanings partly from the contexts in which they are used, we proposed that the way in which words are processed can also influence their representation. We further propose that individual differences in the way that words are processed can consequently lead to individual differences in the way that they are represented. Specifically, we showed that executive control influences linguistic representations by influencing the coactivation of competing and reinforcing terms. Consequently, people with poorer executive control perceive the meanings of homonymous terms as being more similar to one another, and those of polysemous terms as being less similar to one another, than do people with better executive control. We also showed that bilinguals with poorer executive control experience greater cross-linguistic interference than do bilinguals with better executive control. These results have implications for theories of linguistic representation and language organization.

  4. COGNITIVE METAPHOR IN MODERN LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina KARTASHOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the basic notions connected with cognitive metaphor which has lately undergone a thorough examination. The contribution made by linguists resulted in the rise of cognitive linguistics. This science regards metaphor not as a linguistic phenomenon but as a mental one that establishes connection between language and mind in the form of understanding new notions in terms of notions and categories known due to the previously gained experience. The interaction of new and previous experience can generate three main types of metaphors: structural metaphors which imply the structuring of target domain in terms of source domain, ontological metaphors which view abstract notions as concrete objects with clear outlines and orientational metaphors which represent the ways to fix the experience of spatial orientation. The classification of metaphors complemented with examples is presented below along with some controversial cases of determining the type of metaphor.

  5. Linguistic and metalinguistic outcomes of intense immersion education: How bilingual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanto, Nicola; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Anglophone children in Grades 2 and 5 who attended an intensive French immersion program were examined for linguistic and metalinguistic ability in English and French. Measures of linguistic proficiency (vocabulary and grammatical knowledge) were consistently higher in English and remained so even after five years of immersion education in French. Measures of metalinguistic ability (letter fluency and ignoring semantic anomalies in sentence judgments) in French improved significantly over the two grades studied and closed the gap (letter fluency) or caught up with (sentence judgments) similar performance in English. This dissociation between developmental trajectories for linguistic and metalinguistic development is exactly the pattern expected for fully bilingual children, endorsing immersion education as a route to bilingualism.

  6. Coach talk: linguistic demands inherent in youth sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Julie J; Davies, Lisa K; Masterson, Gerald L

    2006-01-01

    This investigation expands the notion of academic language to extracurricular activities and provides preliminary data regarding linguistic expectations that are place on students who are participating in youth sports. Five coaches of young girls' basketball teams (2 competitive; 3 recreational) were observed during practice sessions divided into individual versus group and stationary versus active contexts. Communication was characterized with various measures of content, form, and use. Coaches rarely used pauses or communicative repetitions. Recreational coaches' utterances contained more mazes than competitive coaches' utterances. Utterances used during stationary activities tended to be longer and contain more than one verb compared to utterances used during active activities; sentence fragments were more frequent during active contexts. All coaches used jargon quite frequently. The system reported here can be used to document linguistic demands in other extracurricular activities, such as music programs and scouting. Speech-language pathologists might include clinical activities to help students deal successfully with the linguistic requirements that are inherent in sporting activities.

  7. BEASTling: A software tool for linguistic phylogenetics using BEAST 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurits, Luke; Forkel, Robert; Kaiping, Gereon A; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2017-01-01

    We present a new open source software tool called BEASTling, designed to simplify the preparation of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of linguistic data using the BEAST 2 platform. BEASTling transforms comparatively short and human-readable configuration files into the XML files used by BEAST to specify analyses. By taking advantage of Creative Commons-licensed data from the Glottolog language catalog, BEASTling allows the user to conveniently filter datasets using names for recognised language families, to impose monophyly constraints so that inferred language trees are backward compatible with Glottolog classifications, or to assign geographic location data to languages for phylogeographic analyses. Support for the emerging cross-linguistic linked data format (CLDF) permits easy incorporation of data published in cross-linguistic linked databases into analyses. BEASTling is intended to make the power of Bayesian analysis more accessible to historical linguists without strong programming backgrounds, in the hopes of encouraging communication and collaboration between those developing computational models of language evolution (who are typically not linguists) and relevant domain experts.

  8. Monitoring the depth of anesthesia using a new adaptive neuro-fuzzy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalbaf, Ahmad; Saffar, Mohsen; Sleigh, Jamie W; Shalbaf, Reza

    2017-05-29

    Accurate and noninvasive monitoring of the depth of anesthesia (DoA) is highly desirable. Since the anesthetic drugs act mainly on the central nervous system, the analysis of brain activity using electroencephalogram (EEG) is very useful. This paper proposes a novel automated method for assessing the DoA using EEG. Firstly, 11 features including spectral, fractal and entropy are extracted from EEG signal and then, by applying an algorithm according to exhaustive search of all subsets of features, a combination of the best features (Beta-index, sample entropy, shannon permutation entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis) is selected. Accordingly, we feed these extracted features to a new neuro-fuzzy classification algorithm, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System with Linguistic Hedges (ANFIS-LH). This structure can successfully model systems with nonlinear relationships between input and output, and also classify overlapped classes accurately. ANFIS-LH, which is based on modified classical fuzzy rules, reduces the effects of the insignificant features in input space; which causes overlapping and modifies the output layer structure. The presented method classifies EEG data into awake, light, general and deep states during anesthesia with sevoflurane in 17 patients. Its accuracy is 92%, and compared to a commercial monitoring system (RE index) successfully. Moreover, this method reaches the classification accuracy of 93% to categorize EEG signal to awake and general anesthesia states by another database of propofol and volatile anesthesia in 50 patients. To sum up, this method is potentially applicable to a new real time monitoring system to help the anesthesiologist for continuous assessment of DoA quickly and accurately.

  9. Neuro degenerative diseases: clinical concerns; Les maladies neuro-degeneratives: problemes cliniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, V. [Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve (HUG), Unite de Neuroimagerie, Dept. de Psychiatrie (Switzerland)

    2005-04-15

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the main neuro-degenerative diseases (NDDs) seen clinically. They share some common clinical symptoms and neuro-pathological findings. The increase of life expectancy in the developed countries will inevitably contribute to enhance the prevalence of these diseases. Behavioral disorders, common in NDDs, will produce major care management challenges. Idiopathic Parkinson's disease corresponds to a histopathological diagnosis, based on the observation of a de-pigmentation and a neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, as well as on the presence of intra-neuronal inclusion bodies. AD is insidious with slowly progressive dementia in which the decline in memory constitutes the main complaint. The diagnosis of definite AD requires the presence of clinical criteria as well as the histopathological confirmation of brain lesions. The two main lesions are the presence of senile plaques and neuro-fibrillary tangles. Positron emission tomography (PET) explores cerebral metabolism and neurotransmitter kinetics in NDDs using principally [{sup 18}F]-deoxyglucose and [{sup 18}F]-dopa. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic function is altered in PD, as evidenced by the low uptake of [{sup 18}F]-dopa in the posterior putamen as compared to anterior putamen and caudate nucleus. In contrast, [{sup 18}F]-dopa uptake is equally depressed in all striatal structures in progressive supra-nuclear palsy. Regional glucose metabolism at rest is preserved in elderly once cerebral atrophy is taken into account. On the contrary, glucose metabolism is globally reduced in AD, with marked decrease in the parietal and temporal regions. PET has proved to be useful to study in vivo neurochemical processes in patients suffering from NDDs. The potential of this approach is still largely unexploited, and depends on new ligand production to establish early diagnosis and treatment follow-up. (author)

  10. Linguistic Justice and Endangered Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salverda Reinier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution will engage with Van Parijs’s approach to linguistic justice and his working principles for the reduction of unfairness in the language domain (in particular, the need for intervention and his territorial principle, reflecting on a range of cases of multilingual practice and linguistic coexistence – respectively, in the multilingual capital of the world which is London today; in Fryslân, the minority language area in northern Netherlands; and in Europe, through its European Charter of Regional Minority Languages.

  11. Linguistics, human communication and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P; Fraser, W

    1994-11-01

    Psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics have extended our understanding of the abnormal communication seen in psychosis, as well as that of people with autism and Asperger's syndrome. Psycholinguistics has the potential to increase the explanatory power of cognitive and neuropsychological approaches to psychosis and new methods of assessment and therapy are now being developed, based on linguistic theory. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Of 205 relevant articles identified, 65 were selected for review. Greater familiarity with linguistic theory could improve psychiatrists' assessment skills and their understanding of the relevance of human communication to the new cognitive models of psychosis.

  12. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  13. Management of neuro-oncologic emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, J T; Schiff, D

    2017-01-01

    Patients with brain tumors and systemic malignancies are subject to diverse neurologic complications that require urgent evaluation and treatment. These neurologic conditions are commonly due to the tumor's direct effects on the nervous system, such as cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, seizures, spinal cord compression, and leptomeningeal metastases. In addition, neurologic complications can develop as a result of thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, hyperviscosity syndromes, infection, immune-related disorders, and adverse effects of treatment. Patients may present with typical disease syndromes. However, it is not uncommon for patients to have more subtle, nonlocalizing manifestations, such as alteration of mental status, that could be attributed to other systemic, nonneurologic complications. Furthermore, neurologic complications are at times the initial manifestations of an undiagnosed malignancy. Therefore a high index of suspicion is essential for rapid assessment and management. Timely intervention may prolong survival and improve quality of life. In this chapter, we will discuss the common neuro-oncologic emergencies, including epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Neuro-Ophthalmology of Mitochondrial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, J. Alexander; Biousse, Valérie; Newman, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases frequently manifest neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and signs. Because of the predilection of mitochondrial disorders to involve the optic nerves, extraocular muscles, retina, and even the retrochiasmal visual pathways, the ophthalmologist is often the first physician to be consulted. Disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction can result from abnormalities in either the mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes which encode mitochondrial proteins. Inheritance of these mutations will follow patterns specific to their somatic or mitochondrial genetics. Genotype-phenotype correlations are inconstant, and considerable overlap may occur among these syndromes. The diagnostic approach to the patient with suspected mitochondrial disease entails a detailed personal and family history, careful ophthalmic, neurologic, and systemic examination, directed investigations, and attention to potentially life-threatening sequelae. Although curative treatments for mitochondrial disorders are currently lacking, exciting research advances are being made, particularly in the area of gene therapy. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, with its window of opportunity for timely intervention and its accessibility to directed therapy, offers a unique model to study future therapeutic interventions. Most patients and their relatives benefit from informed genetic counseling. PMID:20471050

  15. Bariatric Surgery and the Neuro-Ophthalmologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Heather E.

    2016-01-01

    Background As the prevalence of obesity increases, so are the prevalences of weight related diseases and the incidence of surgical procedures to promote weight loss. It is important for neuro-ophthalmologists to be familiar with these procedures and possible downstream effects on afferent and efferent visual function. Evidence acquisition Review of ophthalmology, neurology, general surgery, obesity, endocrinology, nutrition, psychiatry and neurosurgery literature. Results Bariatric surgery is a safe and effective treatment for weight loss in obese individuals. There is level IV evidence that it is associated with improvement in idiopathic intracranial hypertension(IIH). Laboratory nutrient deficiencies are common following some types of bariatric procedures. Symptomatic deficiencies are less common but can be devastating. Thiamine deficiency can cause nystagmus and other symptoms in weeks to months following surgery, B12 or copper deficiency can cause optic neuropathy in the years to decades following bariatric surgery. Conclusions Bariatric surgery may be a treatment for IIH. Postoperative vitamin deficiencies may present with nystagmus, optic neuropathy, nyctalopia and/or ophthalmoparesis weeks to years after surgery. PMID:26764529

  16. Wave Forecasting Using Neuro Wavelet Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradnya Dixit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a hybrid Neuro-Wavelet Technique is used for forecasting waves up to 6 hr, 12 hr, 18 hr and 24 hr in advance using hourly measured significant wave heights at an NDBC station 41004 near the east coast of USA. The NW Technique is employed by combining two methods, Discrete Wavelet Transform and Artificial Neural Networks. The hourly data of previously measured significant wave heights spanning over 2 years from 2010 and 2011 is used to calibrate and test the models. The discrete wavelet transform of NWT analyzes frequency of signal with respect to time at different scales. It decomposes time series into low (approximate and high (detail frequency components. The decomposition of approximate can be carried out up to desired multiple levels in order to provide more detail and approximate components which provides relatively smooth varying amplitude series. The neural network is trained with decorrelated approximate and detail wavelet coefficients. The outputs of networks during testing are reconstructed back using inverse DWT. The results were judged by drawing the wave plots, scatter plots and other error measures. The developed models show reasonable accuracy in prediction of significant wave heights from 6 to 24 hours. To compare the results traditional ANN models were also developed at the same location using the same data and for same time interval.

  17. [How xenon works: neuro and cardioprotection mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Ricardo; Andrade, Luísa; Lourenço, André; Tavares, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The Xenon, a noble gas, has anesthetics properties, associated with remarkable hemodynamic stability as well as cardioprotective, neuroprotective proprieties. Its physicochemical characteristics give him a quick induction and emergence of anesthesia, being free of deleterious effects in all organs and showing no teratogenicity. Such properties have led to a growing interest in improving the knowledge about this noble gas, in order to assess the mechanisms of neuro and cardioprotection induced and to assess the clinical indications for its use. Qualitative review of clinical trials on anesthesia with xenon. Studies were identified from MEDLINE and by hand-searching, using the following keywords: xenon, xenon anestesia, xenon neuroprotection, xenon cradioprotection. After several studies, including two randomized multicenter controlled trials, the use of xenon as an anesthetic in patients ASA I-II was approved in March 2007. However his use in clinical practice has been strongly limited by it's high price. It seems unlikely that the advantages it offers in relation to other anesthetics justify it's use in patients ASA I-II. Although, xenon may be a valuable asset in the reduction of co-morbilities and mortality in anesthesia of patients ASA III-IV, unfortunately, there are no large randomized control studies to prove it. Unfortunately, there are still no randomized or multicentric studies showing a favourable cost-benefit profile of xenon in ASA III-IV patients vs. other anaesthetics. The usefulness of xenon in Anesthesiology requires more studies to be defined.

  18. Bariatric Surgery and the Neuro-Ophthalmologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Heather E

    2016-03-01

    As the prevalence of obesity increases, so, too, do the prevalences of weight-related diseases and surgical procedures to promote weight loss. It is important for neuro-ophthalmologists to be familiar with these procedures and possible downstream effects on afferent and efferent visual function. Review of ophthalmology, neurology, general surgery, obesity, endocrinology, nutrition, psychiatry, and neurosurgery literature. Bariatric surgery is a safe and effective treatment for weight loss in obese individuals. There is Level IV evidence that it is associated with improvement in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Laboratory nutrient deficiencies are common following some types of bariatric procedures. Symptomatic deficiencies are less common but can be devastating. Thiamine deficiency can cause nystagmus and other symptoms in weeks to months after surgery, whereas B12 or copper deficiency can cause optic neuropathy in years to decades following bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery is a potential treatment for IIH. Postoperative vitamin deficiencies may cause nystagmus, optic neuropathy, nyctalopia, and/or ophthalmoparesis weeks to years after surgery.

  19. Phonotactics in inductive logic programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nerbonne, J.; Konstantopoulos, S.; Klopotek, M.A.; Wierzchon, S.T.; Trojanowski, K.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the results of applying inductive logic programming (ILP) to a relatively simple linguistic task, that of recognizing monosyllables in one language. ILP is suited to linguistic problems given linguists' preference for formulating their theories in discrete rules, and because of ILP's

  20. Referential Metonymy across Languages: What Can Cognitive Linguistics and "Contrastive Linguistics" Learn from Each Other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar-Szabó, Rita; Brdar, Mario

    2003-01-01

    The paper demonstrates how contrastive linguistics may receive a fresh breath of life from approaching certain problems from the cognitive linguistic point of view. Cognitive linguistics is not only capable of providing contrastive linguistics with a comprehensive but coherent theoretical backbone the latter has always badly needed for its…

  1. Archives: Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 12 of 12 ... The papers of this issue are a testament to the wide variety of theoretical approaches and diverse research areas pertaining to linguistics found in Africa. In this vein, GJL continues to serve as a hub of scholarship, providing an avenue for the publication of double-blind peer-reviewed studies on language, ...

  2. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The SPiL Plus series has two main aims. Firstly, it serves as a vehicle for the distribution of new and relatively inaccessible information in the field of modern linguistics. Secondly, it aims to stimulate critical discussion in Southern African ...

  3. STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS AND BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MALONE, KEMP

    A STRUCTURAL, LINGUISTIC APPROACH TO BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES WAS DESCRIBED. DETAILED DISCUSSIONS WERE INCLUDED FOR USES OF MORPHEMES, MORPHEMIC SEQUENCES, PHONEMES, PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS, AND ALLOPHONES. THIS REPORT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF 13 PAPERS PRESENTED AT A CONFERENCE ON LEXICOGRAPHY, INDIANA UNIVERSITY, NOVEMBER 11-12, 1960. (GC)

  4. Ghana Journal of Linguistics: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. PLEASE follow these guidelines closely when preparing your paper for submission. The editors reserve the right to reject inadequately prepared papers. All areas of linguistics are invited – the journal is not limited to articles on languages of or in Ghana or Africa. ALL CONTRIBUTIONS must be submitted ...

  5. Applied Linguistics Research on Asianness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    As China is increasingly occupying the world's attention, its explosively expanding economical and political clout has also been felt in the applied linguistics domain, with the discussion on China's/Chinese language issues growing by leaps and bounds (e.g. China's English education policies, Chinese language classes in the West). Amid the world's…

  6. Formal monkey linguistics : The debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We explain why general techniques from formal linguistics can and should be applied to the analysis of monkey communication - in the areas of syntax and especially semantics. An informed look at our recent proposals shows that such techniques needn't rely excessively on categories of human language:

  7. Text linguistics: memory and representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Lopes Fávero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Text Linguistics originates in Brazil in the 80s of the twentieth century. The first work that we know of is from 1981, authored by Prof. Ignacio Antonio Neiss, entitled Por uma gramática textua, which was followed by two other in 1983: Linguística textual: o que é e como se faz, by Prof. Luiz Antônio Marcuschi and Linguística textual: introdução by Leonor Lopes Favero and Ingedore Villaça Koch. Professor Neiss shows how initial attempts to textual linguistics, were generally related to structural and generative grammars. The work of Prof. Marcuschi focuses on the analysis of some text definitions and on the study of theoretical aspects in relation to their applicability. Leonor Lopes Favero and Ingedore V. Koch aim to provide the Brazilian reader with an overview of text linguistics in Europe, a recent branch of language science then. This work is part of the History of Linguistic Ideas, part of the Cultural History, which seeks to identify how at different times , a social reality is constructed, designed, and enlightened (Chartier, 1990.

  8. READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    can be recovered solely on the basis of linguistic knowledge - or to put it differently, how ... The answer which Gricean pragmatic theories provide to this question goes ..... written language have important implications for conceptions of literacy - see e.g. (Olson, ..... Are academic texts really decontextualized and fully explicit?

  9. a systemic functional linguistic approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysing social identity in casual Zambian/English conversation: a systemic functional linguistic approach. ... Through an analysis of sentence-level grammatical patterns, and of speakers' mood choices in particular, the study shows how interactants construct identities ('self' and 'other') and social roles, as well as role ...

  10. A Bibliography of Contrastive Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, John H.; Rice, Frank A.

    This 484-item bibliography is a revised and expanded version of William W. Gage's "Contrastive Studies in Linguistics: A Bibliographical Checklist" (CAL, 1961). Following a general section, the entries are arranged alphabetically by foreign language. The language headings are: Afrikaans, Arabic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Bantu, Batak, Bengali,…

  11. Desiderata for Linguistic Software Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garretson, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a series of guidelines both for researchers in search of software to be used in linguistic analysis and for programmers designing such software. A description of the intended audience and the types of software under consideration and a review of some relevant literature are followed by a discussion of several important…

  12. Multidisciplinary Approaches in Evolutionary Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Wu, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    Studying language evolution has become resurgent in modern scientific research. In this revival field, approaches from a number of disciplines other than linguistics, including (paleo)anthropology and archaeology, animal behaviors, genetics, neuroscience, computer simulation, and psychological experimentation, have been adopted, and a wide scope…

  13. Linguistics, Logic, and Finite Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blackburn, P.; Meyer-Viol, W.

    1993-01-01

    A modal logic is developed to deal with finite ordered binary trees as they are used in (computational) linguistics. A modal language is introduced with operators for the 'mother of', 'first daughter of' and 'second daughter of' relations together with their transitive reflexive closures.

  14. Pairing Linguistic and Music Intelligences

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiEdwardo, MaryAnn Pasda

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how music in the language classroom setting can be a catalyst for developing reading, writing, and understanding skills. Studies suggest that pairing music and linguistic intelligences in the college classroom improves students' grades and abilities to compose theses statements for research papers in courses that emphasize…

  15. Prediction of flood abnormalities for improved public safety using a modified adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqil, M; Kita, I; Yano, A; Nishiyama, S

    2006-01-01

    It is widely accepted that an efficient flood alarm system may significantly improve public safety and mitigate economical damages caused by inundations. In this paper, a modified adaptive neuro-fuzzy system is proposed to modify the traditional neuro-fuzzy model. This new method employs a rule-correction based algorithm to replace the error back propagation algorithm that is employed by the traditional neuro-fuzzy method in backward pass calculation. The final value obtained during the backward pass calculation using the rule-correction algorithm is then considered as a mapping function of the learning mechanism of the modified neuro-fuzzy system. Effectiveness of the proposed identification technique is demonstrated through a simulation study on the flood series of the Citarum River in Indonesia. The first four-year data (1987 to 1990) was used for model training/calibration, while the other remaining data (1991 to 2002) was used for testing the model. The number of antecedent flows that should be included in the input variables was determined by two statistical methods, i.e. autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation between the variables. Performance accuracy of the model was evaluated in terms of two statistical indices, i.e. mean average percentage error and root mean square error. The algorithm was developed in a decision support system environment in order to enable users to process the data. The decision support system is found to be useful due to its interactive nature, flexibility in approach, and evolving graphical features, and can be adopted for any similar situation to predict the streamflow. The main data processing includes gauging station selection, input generation, lead-time selection/generation, and length of prediction. This program enables users to process the flood data, to train/test the model using various input options, and to visualize results. The program code consists of a set of files, which can be modified as well to match other

  16. Netlang: A software for the linguistic analysis of corpora by means of complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló-Coblijn, Lluís; Serna Salazar, Diego; Isaza, Gustavo; Castillo Ossa, Luis F; Bedia, Manuel G

    2017-01-01

    To date there is no software that directly connects the linguistic analysis of a conversation to a network program. Networks programs are able to extract statistical information from data basis with information about systems of interacting elements. Language has also been conceived and studied as a complex system. However, most proposals do not analyze language according to linguistic theory, but use instead computational systems that should save time at the price of leaving aside many crucial aspects for linguistic theory. Some approaches to network studies on language do apply precise linguistic analyses, made by a linguist. The problem until now has been the lack of interface between the analysis of a sentence and its integration into the network that could be managed by a linguist and that could save the analysis of any language. Previous works have used old software that was not created for these purposes and that often produced problems with some idiosyncrasies of the target language. The desired interface should be able to deal with the syntactic peculiarities of a particular language, the options of linguistic theory preferred by the user and the preservation of morpho-syntactic information (lexical categories and syntactic relations between items). Netlang is the first program able to do that. Recently, a new kind of linguistic analysis has been developed, which is able to extract a complexity pattern from the speaker's linguistic production which is depicted as a network where words are inside nodes, and these nodes connect each other by means of edges or links (the information inside the edge can be syntactic, semantic, etc.). The Netlang software has become the bridge between rough linguistic data and the network program. Netlang has integrated and improved the functions of programs used in the past, namely the DGA annotator and two scripts (ToXML.pl and Xml2Pairs.py) used for transforming and pruning data. Netlang allows the researcher to make accurate

  17. Quantitative Research in Systemic Functional Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingshun

    2018-01-01

    The research of Systemic Functional Linguistics has been quite in-depth in both theory and practice. However, many linguists hold that Systemic Functional Linguistics has no hypothesis testing or experiments and its research is only qualitative. Analyses of the corpus, intelligent computing and language evolution on the ideological background of…

  18. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies publishes articles on a wide range of linguistic topics and acts as a forum for research into ALL the languages of southern Africa, including English and Afrikaans. Original contributions are welcomed on any of the core areas of Linguistics, both theoretical (e.g. ...

  19. Corpus Linguistics: Discovering How We Use language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, John

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the use of corpus linguistics--or the the study of language through the use of a large collection of naturally-occurring written and spoken texts. Discusses corpora with computers, applications of corpus linguistics, and the University of Pennsylvania's Linguistic data Consortium, which is conducting a speech study to support linguistic…

  20. A Brief Reappraisal of Contrastive Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinker, Larry

    1972-01-01

    Two questions, what is a contrastive grammar, and what is comparable across linguistic systems, are touched on. The problem of the exact relationship of contrastive linguistics to linguistic theory is addressed. Two perhaps mutually exclusive views are discussed. See FL 508 197 for availability. (Author/RM)

  1. 1. Introduction Is theoretical linguistics, and specifically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MY discussion of the question of the empirical status of trans- formation8i generative grammar will focus on general-linguistic hypo- theses. That is. the thesis (1) will be argued with reference to linguistic hypotheses which postulate linguistic universals. A conventional sort of approach to the ~eneral question of the empirical.

  2. Critical and Alternative Directions in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Critical directions in applied linguistics can be understood in various ways. The term "critical" as it has been used in "critical applied linguistics," "critical discourse analysis," "critical literacy" and so forth, is now embedded as part of applied linguistic work, adding an overt focus on questions of power and inequality to discourse…

  3. What Is Un-Cartesian Linguistics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Hinzen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Un-Cartesian linguistics is a research program with the aim of rethinking the nature of grammar as a domain of scientific inquiry, raising new questions about the constitutive role of grammar in the organization of our (rational minds and selves. It reformulates the ‘Cartesian’ foundations of the modern Universal Grammar project, shifting emphasis away from the study of a domain-specific ‘innate’ module separate from thought, to the study of a sapiens-specific mode of cognition conditioned by both grammatical and lexical organization, and thus a particular cognitive phenotype, which is uniquely also a linguistic one. The purpose of this position paper is to introduce and motivate this new concept in its various dimensions and in accessible terms, and to define the ‘Un-Cartesian Hypothesis’: that the grammaticalization of the hominin brain in the evolutionary transition to our species uniquely explains why our cognitive mode involves a capacity for thought in a propositional format.

  4. Ophthalmic and neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefella, Haben; Luther, Daniel; Hainline, Clotilde

    2017-11-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic inflammatory disease that commonly affects the eye and less often the neuro-ophthalmic pathways. The manifestations can be quite variable but can have characteristic signs and clinical features. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the various ocular and neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of sarcoidosis, emerging diagnostic measures and approach to treatment. Particular focus is given to recent advances in diagnostic approach and available treatment options. Laboratory investigations, chest and nuclear medicine imaging remain important techniques for helping to diagnose sarcoidosis. Recent evidence suggests a role for aqueous humor analysis in the diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis. Characteristic neuroimaging may help differentiate neurosarcoidosis from other causes. The role of blind conjunctival biopsy for suspected neurosarcoidosis is discussed. The emerging role and use of biologics is delineated for the treatment of both ocular and neuro-ophthalmic sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis can affect any part of the visual system: the most common ocular manifestation is uveitis and the most common neuro-ophthalmic manifestation is optic neuropathy. Although diagnosis remains challenging, recent advancements in diagnosis are promising. Emerging biologics with particular efficacy for ocular and neuro-ophthalmic disease provide expanding treatment options for sight-threatening disease.

  5. NeuroSim--the prototype of a neurosurgical training simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Florian; Diederich, Stephan; Schmieder, Kirsten; Männer, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    We present NeuroSim, the prototype of a training simulator for open surgical interventions on the human brain. The simulator is based on virtual reality and uses real-time simulation algorithms to interact with models generated from MRT- or CT-datasets. NeuroSim provides a native interface by using a real surgical microscope and original instruments tracked by a combination of inertial measurement units and optical tracking. Conclusively an immersive environment is generated. In a first step the navigation in an open surgery setup as well as the hand-eye coordination through a microscope can be trained. Due to its modular design further training modules and extensions can be integrated. NeuroSim has been developed in cooperation with the neurosurgical clinic of the University of Heidelberg and the VRmagic GmbH in Mannheim.

  6. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller of switched reluctance motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahour Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS control for switched reluctance motor (SRM speed. The ANFIS has the advantages of expert knowledge of the fuzzy inference system and the learning capability of neural networks. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller of the motor speed is then designed and simulated. Digital simulation results show that the designed ANFIS speed controller realizes a good dynamic behaviour of the motor, a perfect speed tracking with no overshoot and a good rejection of impact loads disturbance. The results of applying the adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller to a SRM give better performance and high robustness than those obtained by the application of a conventional controller (PI.

  7. 5th International Conference on Fuzzy and Neuro Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahi, Bijaya; Das, Swagatam; Suganthan, Ponnuthurai

    2015-01-01

    This proceedings bring together contributions from researchers from academia and industry to report the latest cutting edge research made in the areas of Fuzzy Computing, Neuro Computing and hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy Computing in the paradigm of Soft Computing. The FANCCO 2015 conference explored new application areas, design novel hybrid algorithms for solving different real world application problems. After a rigorous review of the 68 submissions from all over the world, the referees panel selected 27 papers to be presented at the Conference. The accepted papers have a good, balanced mix of theory and applications. The techniques ranged from fuzzy neural networks, decision trees, spiking neural networks, self organizing feature map, support vector regression, adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system, extreme learning machine, fuzzy multi criteria decision making, machine learning, web usage mining, Takagi-Sugeno Inference system, extended Kalman filter, Goedel type logic, fuzzy formal concept analysis, biclustering e...

  8. The Neuro-Complex: Some Comments and Convergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Martin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this short think-piece we trace the newly emerging and rapidly expanding dimensions and dynamics of the “neuro-complex.” What this amounts to, we suggest, are a series of bio or neuro “convergences” of sorts regarding the brain and mental worlds, which in turn are traceable through what we term the bio-psych, pharma-psych, subjectivity-selves, wellness-enhancement, and the neuroculture-neurofutures relational nexuses. These issues are then illustrated through two brief case studies regarding brain scanning technologies and the problems and prospects of cognitive enhancement. The paper concludes with some final reflections on these matters and a call for further research in this rich and challenging domain as the neuro-complex continues to expand in expected and unexpected, yet equally rich and fascinating, ways.

  9. Primary headache disorders and neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel P; Robbins, Matthew S

    2012-01-01

    Headache is an extraordinarily common complaint presenting to medical practitioners in all arenas and specialties, particularly primary care physicians, neurologists, and ophthalmologists. A wide variety of headache disorders may manifest with a myriad of neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms, including orbital pain, disturbances of vision, aura, photophobia, lacrimation, conjunctival injection, ptosis, and other manifestations. The differential diagnosis in these patients is broad and includes both secondary, or symptomatic, and primary headache disorders. Awareness of the headache patterns and associated symptoms of these various disorders is essential to achieve the correct diagnosis. This paper reviews the primary headache disorders that prominently feature neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations, including migraine, the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, and hemicrania continua. Migraine variants with prominent neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms including aura without headache, basilar-type migraine, retinal migraine, and ophthalmoplegic migraine are also reviewed. This paper focuses particularly on the symptomatology of these primary headache disorders, but also discusses their epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment. PMID:28539781

  10. Neuro-Otological and Peripheral Nerve Involvement in Fabry Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Sergio; Weinschelbaum, Romina; Pardal, Ana; Marchesoni, Cintia; Zuberbuhler, Paz; Acosta, Patricia; Cáceres, Guillermo; Kisinovsky, Isaac; Bayón, Luciana; Reisin, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease, with multisystemic glycosphingolipids deposits. Neuro-otological involvement leading to hearing loss and vestibular dysfunctions has been described, but there is limited information about the frequency, site of lesion, or the relationship with peripheral neuropathy. The aim was to evaluate the presence of auditory and vestibular symptoms, and assess neurophysiological involvement of the VIII cranial nerve, correlating these findings with clinical and neurophysiological features of peripheral neuropathy. We studied 36 patients with FD with a complete neurological and neuro-otological evaluation including nerve conduction studies, quantitative sensory testing (to evaluate small fiber by warm and cold threshold detection and cold and heat pain), vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, videonistagmography, audiometry and brainstem auditory evoked potentials. Neuro-otologic symptoms included hearing loss (22.2%), vertigo (27.8%) or both (25%). An involvement of either cochlear or vestibular function was identified in most patients (75%). In 70% of our patients the involvement of both cochlear and vestibular function could not be explained by a neural or vascular mechanism. Small fiber neuropathy was identified in 77.7%. There were no significant associations between neuro-otological and QST abnormalities. Neuro-otologic involvement is frequent and most likely under-recognized in patients with FD. It lacks a specific neural or vascular pattern, suggesting multi-systemic, end organ damage. Small fiber neuropathy is an earlier manifestation of FD, but there is no correlation between the development of neuropathy and neuro-otological abnormalities. PMID:28794847

  11. A primer in macromolecular linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searls, David B

    2013-03-01

    Polymeric macromolecules, when viewed abstractly as strings of symbols, can be treated in terms of formal language theory, providing a mathematical foundation for characterizing such strings both as collections and in terms of their individual structures. In addition this approach offers a framework for analysis of macromolecules by tools and conventions widely used in computational linguistics. This article introduces the ways that linguistics can be and has been applied to molecular biology, covering the relevant formal language theory at a relatively nontechnical level. Analogies between macromolecules and human natural language are used to provide intuitive insights into the relevance of grammars, parsing, and analysis of language complexity to biology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. LANGUAGE ECOLOGY AS LINGUISTIC THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Garner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available language ecology was proposed by Einar Haugen in 1972 as the study of the interaction of any given language and its environment. Despite some use of the term in the literature, sociolinguistics have failed to develop the potenstial that Haugen saw in an ecological approach. Recent developments in ecological thought, however; when applied to language, raise questions about many basic assumptions of conventional linguistics. For example, from an ecological perspective, language is not a rule-governed system, but a form of patterned behaviour arising from the needs of human socialtity: communication, culture, and community. As Haugen foresaw, language ecology offers an exciting alternative approach to linguistic theory. Key words: language ecology, patterned behaviour, holistic, dynamic, and interactive

  13. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA...... with understanding fundamental issues of talk in action and of intersubjectivity in human conduct. The field has expanded its scope from the analysis of talk—often phone calls—towards an integration of language with other semiotic resources for embodied action, including space and objects. Much of this expansion has...... been driven by applied work. After laying out CA's standard practices of data treatment and analysis, this article takes up the role of comparison as a fundamental analytical strategy and reviews recent developments into cross-linguistic and cross-cultural directions. The remaining article focuses...

  14. Forests: the cross-linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Burenhult

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Do all humans perceive, think, and talk about tree cover (forests in more or less the same way? International forestry programs frequently seem to operate on the assumption that they do. However, recent advances in the language sciences show that languages vary greatly as to how the landscape domain is lexicalized and grammaticalized. Different languages segment and label the large-scale environment and its features according to astonishingly different semantic principles, often in tandem with highly culture-specific practices and ideologies. Presumed basic concepts like mountain, valley, and river cannot in fact be straightforwardly translated across languages. In this paper we describe, compare, and evaluate some of the semantic diversity observed in relation to forests. We do so on the basis of first-hand linguistic field data from a global sample of indigenous categorization systems as they are manifested in the following languages: Avatime (Ghana, Duna (Papua New Guinea, Jahai (Malay Peninsula, Lokono (the Guianas, Makalero (East Timor, and Umpila/Kuuku Ya'u (Cape York Peninsula. We show that basic linguistic categories relating to tree cover vary considerably in their principles of semantic encoding across languages, and that forest is a challenging category from the point of view of intercultural translatability. This has consequences for current global policies and programs aimed at standardizing forest definitions and measurements. It calls for greater attention to categorial diversity in designing and implementing such agendas, and for receptiveness to and understanding of local indigenous classification systems in communicating those agendas on the ground.

  15. Frequency and Pathological Phenotype of Bovine Astrovirus CH13/NeuroS1 Infection in Neurologically-Diseased Cattle: Towards Assessment of Causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimovic-Hamza, Senija; Boujon, Céline L; Hilbe, Monika; Oevermann, Anna; Seuberlich, Torsten

    2017-01-18

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has opened up the possibility of detecting new viruses in unresolved diseases. Recently, astrovirus brain infections have been identified in neurologically diseased humans and animals by NGS, among them bovine astrovirus (BoAstV) CH13/NeuroS1, which has been found in brain tissues of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis. Only a few studies are available on neurotropic astroviruses and a causal relationship between BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 infections and neurological disease has been postulated, but remains unproven. Aiming at making a step forward towards assessing the causality, we collected brain samples of 97 cases of cattle diagnosed with unresolved non-suppurative encephalitis, and analyzed them by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, to determine the frequency and neuropathological distribution of the BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 and its topographical correlation to the pathology. We detected BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 RNA or proteins in neurons throughout all parts of the central nervous system (CNS) in 34% of all cases, but none were detected in cattle of the control group. In general, brain lesions had a high correlation with the presence of the virus. These findings show that a substantial proportion of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis are infected with BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 and further substantiate the causal relationship between neurological disease and astrovirus infections.

  16. Frequency and Pathological Phenotype of Bovine Astrovirus CH13/NeuroS1 Infection in Neurologically-Diseased Cattle: Towards Assessment of Causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija Selimovic-Hamza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS has opened up the possibility of detecting new viruses in unresolved diseases. Recently, astrovirus brain infections have been identified in neurologically diseased humans and animals by NGS, among them bovine astrovirus (BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1, which has been found in brain tissues of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis. Only a few studies are available on neurotropic astroviruses and a causal relationship between BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 infections and neurological disease has been postulated, but remains unproven. Aiming at making a step forward towards assessing the causality, we collected brain samples of 97 cases of cattle diagnosed with unresolved non-suppurative encephalitis, and analyzed them by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, to determine the frequency and neuropathological distribution of the BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 and its topographical correlation to the pathology. We detected BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 RNA or proteins in neurons throughout all parts of the central nervous system (CNS in 34% of all cases, but none were detected in cattle of the control group. In general, brain lesions had a high correlation with the presence of the virus. These findings show that a substantial proportion of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis are infected with BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 and further substantiate the causal relationship between neurological disease and astrovirus infections.

  17. Frequency and Pathological Phenotype of Bovine Astrovirus CH13/NeuroS1 Infection in Neurologically-Diseased Cattle: Towards Assessment of Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimovic-Hamza, Senija; Boujon, Céline L.; Hilbe, Monika; Oevermann, Anna; Seuberlich, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has opened up the possibility of detecting new viruses in unresolved diseases. Recently, astrovirus brain infections have been identified in neurologically diseased humans and animals by NGS, among them bovine astrovirus (BoAstV) CH13/NeuroS1, which has been found in brain tissues of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis. Only a few studies are available on neurotropic astroviruses and a causal relationship between BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 infections and neurological disease has been postulated, but remains unproven. Aiming at making a step forward towards assessing the causality, we collected brain samples of 97 cases of cattle diagnosed with unresolved non-suppurative encephalitis, and analyzed them by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, to determine the frequency and neuropathological distribution of the BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 and its topographical correlation to the pathology. We detected BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 RNA or proteins in neurons throughout all parts of the central nervous system (CNS) in 34% of all cases, but none were detected in cattle of the control group. In general, brain lesions had a high correlation with the presence of the virus. These findings show that a substantial proportion of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis are infected with BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 and further substantiate the causal relationship between neurological disease and astrovirus infections. PMID:28106800

  18. From emotions to consciousness – A neuro-phenomenal and neuro-relational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg eNorthoff

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The James-Lange theory considers emotional feelings as perceptions of physiological body changes. This approach has recently resurfaced and modified in both neuroscientific and philosophical concepts of embodiment of emotional feelings. In addition to the body, the role of the environment in emotional feeling needs to be considered. I here claim that the environment has not merely an indirect and instrumental i.e. modulatory role on emotional feelings via the body and its sensorimotor and vegetative functions. Instead, the environment may have a direct and non-instrumental, i.e., constitutional role in emotional feelings. This implies that the environment itself is constitutive of emotional feeling rather than the bodily representation of the environment. I call this the relational concept of emotional feeling. The present paper discusses recent data from neuroimaging that investigate emotions in relation to interoceptive processing and the brain’s intrinsic activity. These data show the intrinsic linkage of interoceptive stimulus processing to both exteroceptive stimuli and the brain’s intrinsic activity. This is possible only if the relation and thus the differences between intrinsic activity and intero- and exteroceptive stimuli is encoded into neural activity. Such relational coding makes possible the assignment of subjective and affective features to the otherwise objective and non-affective stimulus. I therefore consider emotions and thus emotional feeling to be intrinsically affective and subjective implying consciousness. The relational approach thus goes together with what may be described as neuro-phenomenal approach. Such neuro-phenomenal approach does not only inform emotions and emotional feeling but is also highly relevant to better understand the neuronal mechanisms underlying consciousness in general.

  19. Macroscopic Rock Texture Image Classification Using a Hierarchical Neuro-Fuzzy Class Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laercio B. Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a Hierarchical Neuro-Fuzzy Class Method based on binary space partitioning (NFHB-Class Method for macroscopic rock texture classification. The relevance of this study is in helping Geologists in the diagnosis and planning of oil reservoir exploration. The proposed method is capable of generating its own decision structure, with automatic extraction of fuzzy rules. These rules are linguistically interpretable, thus explaining the obtained data structure. The presented image classification for macroscopic rocks is based on texture descriptors, such as spatial variation coefficient, Hurst coefficient, entropy, and cooccurrence matrix. Four rock classes have been evaluated by the NFHB-Class Method: gneiss (two subclasses, basalt (four subclasses, diabase (five subclasses, and rhyolite (five subclasses. These four rock classes are of great interest in the evaluation of oil boreholes, which is considered a complex task by geologists. We present a computer method to solve this problem. In order to evaluate system performance, we used 50 RGB images for each rock classes and subclasses, thus producing a total of 800 images. For all rock classes, the NFHB-Class Method achieved a percentage of correct hits over 73%. The proposed method converged for all tests presented in the case study.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Neuro-Vascular Coupling in Rat Cerebellum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tina

    measured field potential is used as an indicator of neuronal activity, and the cortical blood flow is measured by means of laser-Doppler flowmetry. Using system identification methods, these measurements have been used to construct and validate parametric mathematical models of the neuro-vascular system....... Mathematical arguments as well as hypotheses about the physiological system have been used to construct the models.......Activity in the neurons called climbing fibers causes blood flow changes. But the physiological mechanisms which mediate the coupling are not well understood. This PhD thesis investigates the mechanisms of neuro-vascular coupling by means of mathematical methods. In experiments, the extracellularly...

  1. A Neuro-Control Design Based on Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katebi, S.D.; Blanke, M.

    This paper describes a neuro-control fuzzy critic design procedure based on reinforcement learning. An important component of the proposed intelligent control configuration is the fuzzy credit assignment unit which acts as a critic, and through fuzzy implications provides adjustment mechanisms...... ones instruct the neuro-control unit to adjust its weights and are simultaneously stored in the memory unit during the training phase. In response to the internal reinforcement signal (set point threshold deviation), the stored information is retrieved by the action applier unit and utilized for re...

  2. Neuro-robotics from brain machine interfaces to rehabilitation robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiadis

    2014-01-01

    Neuro-robotics is one of the most multidisciplinary fields of the last decades, fusing information and knowledge from neuroscience, engineering and computer science. This book focuses on the results from the strategic alliance between Neuroscience and Robotics that help the scientific community to better understand the brain as well as design robotic devices and algorithms for interfacing humans and robots. The first part of the book introduces the idea of neuro-robotics, by presenting state-of-the-art bio-inspired devices. The second part of the book focuses on human-machine interfaces for pe

  3. The HIV-1 transgenic rat model of neuroHIV

    OpenAIRE

    Vigorito, Michael; Connaghan, Kaitlyn P.; Chang, Sulie L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ability of current combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) to limit the progression of HIV-1 to AIDS, HIV-positive individuals continue to experience neuroHIV in the form of HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND), which can range from subtle to substantial neurocognitive impairment. NeuroHIV may also influence substance use, abuse, and dependence in HIV-positive individuals. Because of the nature of the virus, variables such as mental health co-morbidities make it difficu...

  4. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The “un-Cartesian” cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where “thinking” takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith’s theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the “second factor” in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs. PMID:27322493

  5. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The "un-Cartesian" cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where "thinking" takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith's theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the "second factor" in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs.

  6. NeuroPigPen: A Scalable Toolkit for Processing Electrophysiological Signal Data in Neuroscience Applications Using Apache Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Satya S; Wei, Annan; Valdez, Joshua; Wang, Li; Zonjy, Bilal; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Loparo, Kenneth A; Lhatoo, Samden D

    2016-01-01

    The recent advances in neurological imaging and sensing technologies have led to rapid increase in the volume, rate of data generation, and variety of neuroscience data. This "neuroscience Big data" represents a significant opportunity for the biomedical research community to design experiments using data with greater timescale, large number of attributes, and statistically significant data size. The results from these new data-driven research techniques can advance our understanding of complex neurological disorders, help model long-term effects of brain injuries, and provide new insights into dynamics of brain networks. However, many existing neuroinformatics data processing and analysis tools were not built to manage large volume of data, which makes it difficult for researchers to effectively leverage this available data to advance their research. We introduce a new toolkit called NeuroPigPen that was developed using Apache Hadoop and Pig data flow language to address the challenges posed by large-scale electrophysiological signal data. NeuroPigPen is a modular toolkit that can process large volumes of electrophysiological signal data, such as Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), and blood oxygen levels (SpO2), using a new distributed storage model called Cloudwave Signal Format (CSF) that supports easy partitioning and storage of signal data on commodity hardware. NeuroPigPen was developed with three design principles: (a) Scalability-the ability to efficiently process increasing volumes of data; (b) Adaptability-the toolkit can be deployed across different computing configurations; and (c) Ease of programming-the toolkit can be easily used to compose multi-step data processing pipelines using high-level programming constructs. The NeuroPigPen toolkit was evaluated using 750 GB of electrophysiological signal data over a variety of Hadoop cluster configurations ranging from 3 to 30 Data nodes. The evaluation results demonstrate that the toolkit

  7. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neuro-2a [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Neuro-2a [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. Linguistic and Cultural Adaptation of a Computer-Based Counseling Program (CARE+ Spanish) to Support HIV Treatment Adherence and Risk Reduction for People Living With HIV/AIDS: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Ann E; Chhun, Nok; Cleland, Charles M; Crespo-Fierro, Michele; Parés-Avila, José A; Lizcano, John A; Norman, Robert G; Shedlin, Michele G; Johnston, Barbara E; Sharp, Victoria L

    2016-07-13

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease in the United States disproportionately affects minorities, including Latinos. Barriers including language are associated with lower antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence seen among Latinos, yet ART and interventions for clinic visit adherence are rarely developed or delivered in Spanish. The aim was to adapt a computer-based counseling tool, demonstrated to reduce HIV-1 viral load and sexual risk transmission in a population of English-speaking adults, for use during routine clinical visits for an HIV-positive Spanish-speaking population (CARE+ Spanish); the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was the theoretical framework guiding program development. A longitudinal randomized controlled trial was conducted from June 4, 2010 to March 29, 2012. Participants were recruited from a comprehensive HIV treatment center comprising three clinics in New York City. Eligibility criteria were (1) adults (age ≥18 years), (2) Latino birth or ancestry, (3) speaks Spanish (mono- or multilingual), and (4) on antiretrovirals. Linear and generalized mixed linear effects models were used to analyze primary outcomes, which included ART adherence, sexual transmission risk behaviors, and HIV-1 viral loads. Exit interviews were offered to purposively selected intervention participants to explore cultural acceptability of the tool among participants, and focus groups explored the acceptability and system efficiency issues among clinic providers, using the TAM framework. A total of 494 Spanish-speaking HIV clinic attendees were enrolled and randomly assigned to the intervention (arm A: n=253) or risk assessment-only control (arm B, n=241) group and followed up at 3-month intervals for one year. Gender distribution was 296 (68.4%) male, 110 (25.4%) female, and 10 (2.3%) transgender. By study end, 433 of 494 (87.7%) participants were retained. Although intervention participants had reduced viral loads, increased ART adherence and decreased sexual

  12. Preparing linguistically responsive teachers through experiential foreign language tasks: A phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güliz Turgut Dost

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Importance of culturally and linguistically responsive teaching escalates as globalization and immigration increase the student diversity in classrooms. Although culturally responsive teaching has been studied in detail, the literature on linguistically responsive teaching is largely theoretical, with limited research-based practices. This article reports a phenomenological study of four prospective teachers’ experiences with four foreign language tasks. The purpose of the study was to propose and examine a research-based practice to raise awareness about preparing linguistically responsive teachers in teacher education programs. Data were collected through written participant reflections and analyzed using phenomenological analysis. Findings reveal that the tasks assisted participants to become aware of the linguistic, cognitive, and emotional hard work encountered while learning a new language. Participants also reported being empathetic toward English language learners. Implications for teacher education programs and teacher educators are presented.

  13. THE ROLE OF ADDITIONAL FOREIGN LANGUAGE EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING LINGUISTICALLY GIFTED STUDENTS’ LANGUAGE SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    L. N. Shcherbatykh

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: to describe work of the chair of foreign languages of special disciplines of Elets State Bunin University with linguistically gifted school students.Methodology: supervision, poll, questioning, diagnosing of language abilities.Results: the author of research together with the colleagues of Elets State Bunin University developed and realized the program for three foreign languages (English, French, German) for 2 groups of 25 school students having linguistic abilities, being trained i...

  14. PsychoNeuroImmunology Research Society's Norman Cousins Award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Rainer H. Straub, University Hospital, Regensburg, Germany, is the recipient of the 2015 Norman Cousins Award and will present the memorial lecture at the PsychoNeuroImmunology Research Society (PNIRS) meeting, June 3–6, Seattle, WA. The Norman Cousins award is the highest honor bestowed by the PNIRS and recognizes sustained and outstanding research contributions in psychoneuroimmunology.

  15. 1 RESEARCH ARTICLE Neuro-Fuzzy Model of Homocysteine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-10

    Mar 10, 2017 ... homeostasis by SHMT1 C1420T or increased flux of folate towards remethylation due to. TYMS 5'-UTR 28bp tandem repeat or non-vegetarian diet can lower homocysteine levels. Keywords: Homocysteine; Multiple Linear Regression; Neuro-Fuzzy design; diet. Introduction. Homocysteine is a non-dietary ...

  16. [Neuro-muscular apparatus state in lumbosacral radiculopathy in miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battakova, Sh B; Amanbekov, U A; Otarbaeva, M B; Fazylova, M D; Sraĭmanov, K S; Miianova, G A; Kozhakhmetova, K M

    2008-01-01

    Based on clinical and electrophysiologic studies, the authors analysed neuro-muscular apparatus of "spinal center--periphery" axis for miners with radicular pain caused by occupational lumbosacral radiculopathy. Findings are that constantly irritated receptors in lumbar motor segment during occupational activities alter habitual motor stereotype and cause specific compensatory muscular reactions, rearrangement of motor activity in segmental apparatus.

  17. Neuro-fuzzy model for evaluating the performance of processes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) was used to model the periodic performance of some multi-input single-output (MISO) processes, namely: brewery operations (case study 1) and soap production (case study 2) processes. Two ANFIS models were developed to model the performance of the ...

  18. Industry progress report on neuro-oncology: a biotech update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Jessica S; Banu, Matei A; Ray, Ashley; Kesavabhotla, Kartik; Boockvar, John A

    2013-04-01

    With steadily rising revenue and large numbers of clinical trials utilizing novel treatment strategies, the field of neuro-oncology is at the core of the growing cancer therapy industry. In June 2012, the Weill Cornell Brain and Tumor Center hosted the first Brain Tumor Biotech Summit as a forum for fostering and encouraging collaboration between researches and investors to accelerate novel treatments for brain cancer. This event brought together neuro-oncologists, neurosurgeons, academicians, entrepreneurs, non-profits, CEOs and investors in an attempt to bring innovative treatments and concepts to the fore. Specific subjects presented at the meeting included new surgical devices and delivery techniques, targeted therapeutics, immunotherapy, and stem cell biology. The mission of the summit was to provide opportunities for researchers in neuro-oncology to directly interact with leaders from the investment community with insight into the commercial aspects of our work. Our shared goal is to shorten the time for basic science ideas to be translated into the clinical setting. The following serves as a progress report on the biotech industry in neuro-oncology, as presented at the Brain Tumor Biotech Summit.

  19. Neuro-fuzzy system for chaotic time series forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masulli, Francesco; Studer, Leonard

    1997-10-01

    We report on an on-going study to assess potential benefits using soft computing methods in forecasting problems. Our goal is to forecast natural phenomena represented by time series that show chaotic features. We use a neuro-fuzzy system for its ability to adapt to numerical data and for the possibility to input and extract expert knowledge expressed in words. We present results of experiments designed to study how to shape a neuro-fuzzy systems to forecast chaotic time series. Our main conclusions are: (1) The neuro-fuzzy system is able to forecast a synthetic chaotic time series with high accuracy if the number of inputs and the time delay between them are chosen adequately. (2) The Takens-Mane theorem from chaos theory gives a useful lower bound on the minimal number of inputs. (3) The time delay between the inputs can not be set a priori. It has to be tuned for every different times series. (4) The number of fuzzy rules seems related to the size of the learning set and not to the structure of the chaotic dynamical system. We tentatively try to interpret the rules that the neuro-fuzzy system has learned. Finally we discuss the adequacy of the whole set of fuzzy rules to forecast locally the dynamical system.

  20. Chips of Hope: Neuro-Electronic Hybrids for Brain Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2010-03-01

    The field of Neuro-Electronic Hybrids kicked off 30 years ago when researchers in the US first tweaked the technology of recording and stimulation of networks of live neurons grown in a Petri dish and interfaced with a computer via an array of electrodes. Since then, many researchers have searched for ways to imprint in neural networks new ``memories" without erasing old ones. I will describe our new generation of Neuro-Electronic Hybrids and how we succeeded to turn them into the first learning Neurochips - memory and information processing chips made of live neurons. To imprint multiple memories in our new chip we used chemical stimulation at specific locations that were selected by analyzing the networks activity in real time according to our new information encoding principle. Currently we develop new-generation of neuro chips using special carbon nano tubes (CNT). These electrodes enable to engineer the networks topology and efficient electrical interfacing with the neurons. This advance bears the promise to pave the way for building a new experimental platform for testing new drugs and developing new methods for neural networks repair and regeneration. Looking into the future, the development brings us a step closer towards the dream of Brain Repair by implementable Neuro-Electronic hybrid chips.

  1. Aquatic intervention in children with neuro-motor impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Getz, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    The present thesis addresses the influence of aquatic interventions on motor performance of children with neuro-motor deficiencies in a functional context. The theoretical framework is based on a functional approach in compliance to the International Classification of Function and Disability (ICF).

  2. The role of neuro-electrophysiological diagnostic tests in clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To summarise and discuss the role of neuro-electrophysiological diagnostic tests in clinical medicine. Data Sources: Published original research and reviews to date. Study Selection: The review was with emphasis on diagnosis of peripheral neuropathic and neuromuscular disorders. Data extraction and ...

  3. Neuro-vascular injuries associated with limb fractures | Mirdad | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neuro-vascular injuries associated with limb fractures. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ... Subjects: Forty three patients with bone fractures associated with vascular and peripheral nerve injury seen at the Emergency Room of Assir Central Hospital from 1990 to 1999. There were ...

  4. Cognitive Neuro-Assessment In Nigerian Africans – Predictive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neuro-cognitive assessment has evolved from traditional psychometric testing to computerized testing which is able to detect subtle cognitive changes. The objective of this study is to determine the predictive validity of a computerized cognitive test battery, the Iron Psychology (acronym FePsy) among Nigerian Africans ...

  5. Grammar disruption in a patient with Neuro-Sweet syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marien, Peter; Tops, Wim; Crols, Roel; Jonkers, Roel; De Deyn, Peter P.; Verhoeven, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This paper for the first time reports detailed neurolinguistic findings in a patient with Neuro-Sweet syndrome. In this patient the presenting symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) involvement primarily consisted of a selective grammar deficit restricted to spontaneous speech. On MRI a left

  6. Primary headache disorders and neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz DP

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Daniel P Schwartz, Matthew S RobbinsDepartment of Neurology, Montefiore Headache Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAAbstract: Headache is an extraordinarily common complaint presenting to medical practitioners in all arenas and specialties, particularly primary care physicians, neurologists, and ophthalmologists. A wide variety of headache disorders may manifest with a myriad of neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms, including orbital pain, disturbances of vision, aura, photophobia, lacrimation, conjunctival injection, ptosis, and other manifestations. The differential diagnosis in these patients is broad and includes both secondary, or symptomatic, and primary headache disorders. Awareness of the headache patterns and associated symptoms of these various disorders is essential to achieve the correct diagnosis. This paper reviews the primary headache disorders that prominently feature neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations, including migraine, the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, and hemicrania continua. Migraine variants with prominent neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms including aura without headache, basilar-type migraine, retinal migraine, and ophthalmoplegic migraine are also reviewed. This paper focuses particularly on the symptomatology of these primary headache disorders, but also discusses their epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment.Keywords: headache, migraine, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, neuro-ophthalmologic, aura, photophobia

  7. Modeling neuro-vascular coupling in rat cerebellum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tina; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Lauritzen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the quantitative relation between neuronal activity and blood flow by means of a general parametric mathematical model which described the neuro-vascular system as being dynamic, linear, time-invariant, and subjected to additive noise. The model was constructed from measurements b...

  8. Linguistic documents synchronizing sound and text

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Michel; Michailovsky, Boyd; Lowe, John

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the LACITO linguistic archive project is to conserve and to make available for research recorded and transcribed oral traditions and other linguistic materials in (mainly) unwritten languages, giving simultaneous access to sound recordings and text annotation. The project uses simple, TEI-inspired XML markup for the kinds of annotation traditionally used in field linguistics. Transcriptions are segmented at the levels of, roughly, the sentence and the word, and annotation associat...

  9. Corpus linguistics and statistics with R introduction to quantitative methods in linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Desagulier, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    This textbook examines empirical linguistics from a theoretical linguist’s perspective. It provides both a theoretical discussion of what quantitative corpus linguistics entails and detailed, hands-on, step-by-step instructions to implement the techniques in the field. The statistical methodology and R-based coding from this book teach readers the basic and then more advanced skills to work with large data sets in their linguistics research and studies. Massive data sets are now more than ever the basis for work that ranges from usage-based linguistics to the far reaches of applied linguistics. This book presents much of the methodology in a corpus-based approach. However, the corpus-based methods in this book are also essential components of recent developments in sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, computational linguistics, and psycholinguistics. Material from the book will also be appealing to researchers in digital humanities and the many non-linguistic fields that use textual data analysis and t...

  10. NeuroPigPen: A Scalable Toolkit for Processing Electrophysiological Signal Data in Neuroscience Applications Using Apache Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Satya S.; Wei, Annan; Valdez, Joshua; Wang, Li; Zonjy, Bilal; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Loparo, Kenneth A.; Lhatoo, Samden D.

    2016-01-01

    The recent advances in neurological imaging and sensing technologies have led to rapid increase in the volume, rate of data generation, and variety of neuroscience data. This “neuroscience Big data” represents a significant opportunity for the biomedical research community to design experiments using data with greater timescale, large number of attributes, and statistically significant data size. The results from these new data-driven research techniques can advance our understanding of complex neurological disorders, help model long-term effects of brain injuries, and provide new insights into dynamics of brain networks. However, many existing neuroinformatics data processing and analysis tools were not built to manage large volume of data, which makes it difficult for researchers to effectively leverage this available data to advance their research. We introduce a new toolkit called NeuroPigPen that was developed using Apache Hadoop and Pig data flow language to address the challenges posed by large-scale electrophysiological signal data. NeuroPigPen is a modular toolkit that can process large volumes of electrophysiological signal data, such as Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), and blood oxygen levels (SpO2), using a new distributed storage model called Cloudwave Signal Format (CSF) that supports easy partitioning and storage of signal data on commodity hardware. NeuroPigPen was developed with three design principles: (a) Scalability—the ability to efficiently process increasing volumes of data; (b) Adaptability—the toolkit can be deployed across different computing configurations; and (c) Ease of programming—the toolkit can be easily used to compose multi-step data processing pipelines using high-level programming constructs. The NeuroPigPen toolkit was evaluated using 750 GB of electrophysiological signal data over a variety of Hadoop cluster configurations ranging from 3 to 30 Data nodes. The evaluation results demonstrate that

  11. Challenges with defining response to antitumor agents in pediatric neuro-oncology: a report from the response assessment in pediatric neuro-oncology (RAPNO) working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Katherine E; Poussaint, Tina Y; Vezina, Gilbert; Hargrave, Darren; Packer, Roger J; Goldman, Stewart; Wen, Patrick Y; Pollack, Ian F; Zurakowski, David; Kun, Larry E; Prados, Michael D; Rutkowski, Stefan; Kieran, Mark W

    2013-09-01

    Criteria for new drug approval include demonstration of efficacy. In neuro-oncology, this is determined radiographically utilizing tumor measurements on MRI scans. Limitations of this method have been identified where drug activity is not reflected in decreased tumor size. The RANO (Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology) working group was established to address limitations in defining endpoints for clinical trials in adult neuro-oncology and to develop standardized response criteria. RAPNO was subsequently established to address unique issues in pediatric neuro-oncology. The aim of this paper is to delineate response criteria issues in pediatric clinical trials as a basis for subsequent recommendations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Methodological Thoughts from the Linguistic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Davies

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Data are the heart and soul of any linguistic research. Regardless of how incisive an analysis might be, or how clever, it can never be any better than the data it is based upon. For the field linguist gathering data, important considerations include the selection of informants, the number of informants selection, and data collection techniques. Different research objectives, be they descriptive, prescriptive or theory-driven, require techniques appropriate to those particular goals and should be evaluated within the context of inquiry. What follows is a consideration of the techniques generally used by field linguists with a general descriptive goal within the framework of generative linguistics.

  13. English linguistic purism: history, development, criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishechko Ovsanna Savvichna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic purism as an area of linguistic analysis describes the practices of identification and acknowledgement of a certain language variety as more structurally advanced as compared to its other varieties. Linguistic protection is associated with preservation of some abstract, classical, conservative linguistic ideal and performs the regulatory function, above all. The puristic approach to the development of the English language has been subjected to heated debate for several centuries and is reflected in both scientific research and literary texts. Supporters of purification of the English language champion the idea of protection of “pure language”. The idea, however, is actively criticized by opponents.

  14. Predicting panel scores by linguistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Besselaar, P.; Stout, L.; Gou, X

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we explore the use of text analysis for deriving quality indicators of project proposals. We do full text analysis of 3030 review reports. After term extraction, we aggregate the term occurrences to linguistic categories. Using thse linguistic categories as independent variables, we study how well these predict the grading by the review panels. Together, the different linguistic categories explain about 50% of the variance in the grading of the applications. The relative importance of the different linguistic categories inform us about the way the panels work. This can be used to develop altmetrics for the quality of the peer and panel review processes. (Author)

  15. Palliative Care Needs in the Neuro-ICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzfeldt, Claire J.; Engelberg, Ruth A.; Healey, Larry; Cheever, Chong (Sherry); Becker, Kyra J.; Holloway, Robert G.; Curtis, J. Randall

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients admitted to the neurological or neurosurgical intensive care unit (neuro-ICU) are likely to have palliative care needs. The goals of this project are to encourage the ICU team to identify palliative care needs for patients and their families and potential ways to meet those needs. Design Quality improvement project using a parallel-group prospective cohort design. Setting Single neuro-ICU at a large, academic medical center. Patients All patients admitted to the neuro-ICU from September 1, 2013 to November 30, 2013. Intervention We developed a Palliative Care Needs Screening Tool consisting of 4 questions: (1) Does the patient have distressing physical or psychological symptoms? (2) Are there specific support needs for patient or family? (3) Are treatment options matched with patient-centered goals? (4) Are there disagreements among teams and family? We implemented this daily screening tool on morning rounds for 1 of 2 neurocritical care services that alternate admitting days to a single neuro-ICU. We examined prevalence and nature of palliative care needs and actions to address those needs, comparing the services with and without screening. Measurements and main results Over the 3-month period, 130 patients were admitted to the service with screening, and 132 patients to the service without screening. The two groups did not differ in regards to age, gender, Glasgow coma scale or diagnosis. Palliative care needs were identified in 62% of screened patients (80/130). Needs were mainly social support (53%) and establishing goals of care (28%). Screening was associated with more documented family conferences (p=0.019) and a trend towards more palliative care consultations (p=0.056). Conclusions We developed a brief palliative care needs screening tool that identified palliative care needs for 62% neuro-ICU patients. This tool was associated with actions to meet these needs, potentially improving care for patients and their families. PMID:25867905

  16. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    is recognised as desirable by some British experts, the native speakers in question seldom have this key qualification. This is even the case when the host country (Brunei) aims at bilingual education. It is unlikely that the host countries are getting value for money. Whether the UK and other ‘English...... learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...

  17. Measuring Linguistic Empathy: An Experimental Approach to Connecting Linguistic and Social Psychological Notions of Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the relationship between Linguistic Empathy and Psychological Empathy by implementing a psycholinguistic experiment that measured a person's acceptability ratings of sentences with violations of Linguistic Empathy and correlating them with a measure of the person's Psychological Empathy. Linguistic Empathy…

  18. Forensic Linguistics: The Linguistic Analyst and Expert Witness of Language Evidence in Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sherilynn Nidever

    Forensic linguistics (FL) provides consultation to lawyers through the analysis of language evidence during the pre-trial investigation. Evidence commonly analyzed by linguists in criminal cases includes transcripts of police interviews and language crimes (such as bribery) and anonymous or questioned texts. Forensic linguistic testimony is rarely…

  19. The Concept of Linguistic Difficulty. Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 3, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Theodore

    Experimental work on the concept of linguistic difficulty is summarized. Inherent linguistic difficulty is distinguished from contrastive linguistic difficulty. Studies of phonological acquisition are cited which tend to support the notion of an ordered acquisition of language features, and it is recommended that we look to cross-linguistic…

  20. Neoliberalism, Applied Linguistics and the PNLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei J. Zacchi

    2016-01-01

    Based on the bookNeoliberalism and Applied Linguistics (Block, Gray & Holborow, 2012a, this paper aims at discussing the relationship between these two concepts. After a general discussion on the subject, the paper will deal with the use of celebrities in English language textbooks as an element of identification and as a means to advance neoliberal values. A second aspect refers to the promotion of social and cultural diversity and pluralism in a way that may be also attending to the market’s interests. These aspects will finally be analysed in the series Links(Santos & Marques, 2009a, 2009b, 2009c, of the National Textbook Program (PNLD for primary education. Whereas the textbooks use celebrities and present other neoliberal tendencies, they also propose activities that seek to promote citizenship and inclusion, probably in order to fulfil the Ministry of Education's demands through PNLD. This ambiguity may be related to the fact that the PNLD is a state-run program for public education that relies on the commercial editorial market to produce and sell the textbooks.

  1. Cognitive requirements of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems: some implications of temporal horizon for managerial behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Peterson, 2007; Wargo et al., 2010a). This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS) hypothesis (Bickel et al., 2012b) captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994) and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST; Gray and McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton and Corr, 2004), which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992) as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behavior. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second, by consideration of adaptive-innovative cognitive styles (Kirton, 2003) in the construction of managerial teams, a theme that can now be investigated by a dedicated research program that incorporates psychometric analysis of personality types and cognitive styles involved in managerial decision-making and the underlying neurophysiological bases of such decision-making.

  2. Cognitive requirements of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems: Some implications of temporal horizon for managerial behavior in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Wargo, Baglini & Nelson, 2010a; Peterson, 2007. This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS hypothesis (Bickel, Mueller & Jarmolowicz, 2012 captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994 and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (Gray & McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton & Corr, 2004, which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992 as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behaviour. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second, by consideration of adaptive-innovative cognitive styles (Kirton, 2003 in the construction of managerial teams, a theme that can now be investigated by a dedicated research program that incorporates psychometric analysis of personality types and cognitive styles involved in managerial decision-making and the underlying neurophysiological bases of such decision-making.

  3. Predicting the Proficiency of Arabic and Persian Linguists Trained at the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeRamus, Nicole

    1999-01-01

    The mission of the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (DLIFLC) is to train, sustain, and evaluate foreign language skills of linguists under the guidelines of the Defense Foreign Language Program (DFLP...

  4. Transparency and accountability in applied linguistics | Weideman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The designed solutions to language problems that are the stock-in-trade of applied linguistics affect the lives of growing numbers of people. By calling for these designs to be accountable, applied linguistics has, in its most recent, postmodern form, added an ethical dimension that is lacking in earlier work. Postmodern ...

  5. Statistical Measures for Usage-Based Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Stefan Th.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of usage-/exemplar-based approaches has resulted in a major change in the theoretical landscape of linguistics, but also in the range of methodologies that are brought to bear on the study of language acquisition/learning, structure, and use. In particular, methods from corpus linguistics are now frequently used to study distributional…

  6. Applied Linguistics: The Challenge of Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Language has featured prominently in contemporary social theory, but the relevance of this fact to the concerns of Applied Linguistics, with its necessary orientation to practical issues of language in context, represents an ongoing challenge. This article supports the need for a greater engagement with theory in Applied Linguistics. It considers…

  7. Ghana Journal of Linguistics: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Ghana Journal of Linguistics is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal appearing twice a year, published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana. Beginning with Volume 2 (2013) it is published in electronic format only, open access, at www.ajol.info. However print-on-demand copies can be made ...

  8. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publisher. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics (SPiL) is published by the Department of General Linguistics of Stellenbosch University. Publisher contact person: Mrs Christine Smit. Email: linguis@sun.ac.za. Phone: 021 808 2052. Fax: 021 808 2009. Mailing address: Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602. Department of General ...

  9. Plenary Speeches: Applied Linguists without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Until 1989, the American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL) could have been viewed as an interest group of the Linguistics Society of America (LSA); AAAL met in two designated meeting rooms as a subsection of the LSA conference. In 1991, I was asked to organize the first independent meeting of AAAL in New York City, with the help of…

  10. Applied Linguistics in Its Disciplinary Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Australia's current attempt to develop a process to evaluate the quality of research (Excellence in Research for Australia--ERA) places a central emphasis on the disciplinary organisation of academic work. This disciplinary focus poses particular problems for Applied Linguistics in Australia. This paper will examine Applied Linguistics in relation…

  11. Child Participant Roles in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Children's status as research participants in applied linguistics has been largely overlooked even though unique methodological and ethical concerns arise in projects where children, rather than adults, are involved. This article examines the role of children as research participants in applied linguistics and discusses the limitations of…

  12. Linguistic Recycling and the Open Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Probal

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistic recycling in the context of domestic Esperanto use. Argues that word-meaning recycling reflects the same fundamental principles as sentential recursion, and that a linguistics theoretically sensitive to these principles strengthens practical efforts towards the social goal of an open speech community. (Author/VWL)

  13. The Transition from Animal to Linguistic Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Darwin's theory predicts that linguistic behavior gradually evolved out of animal forms of communication (signaling). However, this prediction is confronted by the conceptual problem that there is an essential difference between signaling and linguistic behavior: using words is a normative practice.

  14. The Role of Linguistics in Italian Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, John J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the presence and significance of linguistics in Italian departments at universities in Australia and worldwide against the background of multiculturalism, the politicization of the Italian population in Australia, and the emergence of Italy as a major economic and political power. Argues that the boundary lines between linguistics and…

  15. Developing Linguistic Flexibility across the School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Dafna; Berman, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The study examined linguistic flexibility of Hebrew-speaking students from middle childhood to adolescence compared with adults on tasks requiring them to alternate between different versions of varied linguistic stimuli. Lexical flexibility was tested by constructing different words with a shared root and a shared prosodic template;…

  16. Term Bases and Linguistic Linked Open Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for pursuing their work. The theme of this year’s TKE is ‘Term Bases and Linguistic Linked Open Data’. Mono- and multi-lingual term bases, which contain information about concepts (terms, definitions, examples of use, references, comments on equivalence etc.), have always made up valuable linguistic resources...

  17. An Ever Closer Union . . . of Linguistic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomozeiu, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The analysis carried out between October 2014 and February 2015 by a team of researchers from the University of Westminster with support from colleagues from across the EU identified the linguistic communities across the 28 EU member states as recognized (or not) by the country's legislation and the linguistic rights of these communities in…

  18. Research Priority of Clinical Linguistics in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Study in clinical linguistics can reflect and requirements of this area, and can contribute to effective and useful changes in this area. Objectives Since there have been a few studies in the field of clinical linguistics in Iran, this research can pave the way to find research priorities of clinical linguistics in our country. Materials and Methods Studies related to linguistics and speech therapy were collected and studied since their appearance in the literature up to 2012 to determine the number of studies performed on clinical linguistics and its evolutionary trend. Results The most and least numbers of studies conducted by speech therapists on linguistics are related to phonetics/phonology (37% and pragmatics (14%, respectively. In linguistics, there are a few studies on disorders (0.02%, which are mostly in the domain of aphasia (40%; therefore, other disorders should be investigated too. Conclusions The number of linguistic studies on language and speech therapy is more than that of the studies in which clinical data are used to study the theories and hypotheses. Therefore, it is necessary to consider this area seriously and guide the studies toward the theories proposed in the related disorders. Thus, attention must be paid to pragmatic and semantic domains of the disorder which are considered less.

  19. Circumfixes as emergent linguistic structures | Hendrikse | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the manifestations of linguistic complexity is what Dahl (2004:2) describes as 'grammaticalconstructions whose expression is longer than apparently necessary from a cross-linguistic perspective'.In the morphological system of Nguni languages there is a range of co-occurring affixes in both the nominaland the verbal ...

  20. Developing linguistic literacy: a comprehensive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Dorit; Tolchinsky, Liliana

    2002-05-01

    This is a position paper modelling the domain of linguistic literacy and its development through the life span. It aims to provide a framework for the analysis of language development in the school years, integrating sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic notions of variation, language awareness, and literacy in a comprehensive model. The paper focuses on those aspects of literacy competence that are expressed in language as well as aspects of linguistic knowledge that are affected by literacy competence, tracing the route that children take in appropriating linguistic literacy as part of their cognitive abilities and examining the effect of literacy on language across development. Our view of linguistic literacy consists of one defining feature: control over linguistic variation from both a user-dependent ('lectal') and a context-dependent (modality, genre, and register) perspective; of one concomitant process: metalanguage and its role in language development; and of one condition: familiarity with writing and written language from two aspects: written language as discourse style--the recognition that the kind of language used for writing is essentially different from the one used for speech; and written language as a notational system--the perception and growing command of the representational system that is used in the written modality. Linguistic literacy is viewed as a constituent of language knowledge characterized by the availability of multiple linguistic resources and by the ability to consciously access one's own linguistic knowledge and to view language from various perspectives.

  1. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SPiL Plus is an annual/biannual open access, peer-reviewed international journal, published by the Department of General Linguistics, Stellenbosch University. The papers published in SPiL Plus are primarily intended for scholars with an interest in linguistics and related disciplines in Southern Africa. SPiL Plus provides a ...

  2. Current Approaches to Punctuation in Computational Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Say, Bilge; Akman, Varol

    1997-01-01

    Some recent studies in computational linguistics have aimed to take advantage of various cues presented by punctuation marks. This short survey is intended to summarise these research efforts and additionally, to outline a current perspective for the usage and functions of punctuation marks. We conclude by presenting an information-based framework for punctuation, influenced by treatments of several related phenomena in computational linguistics.

  3. Political Liberalism, Linguistic Diversity and Equal Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotti, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the implications of John Rawls' political liberalism for linguistic diversity and language policy, by focusing on the following question: what kind(s) of equality between speakers of different languages and with different linguistic identities should the state guarantee under political liberalism? The article makes three…

  4. Linguistic Opportunism and English in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciscel, Matthew H.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the role of English in Moldova. Building on Phillipson's concept of linguistic imperialism and Kachru's three concentric circles of world Englishes, proposes a weak form of linguistic dominance based on the notion of opportunism. The model is supported by data from a recent study of language attitudes and language use in Moldova. Data…

  5. Popular Derivation and Linguistic Inquiry: Les Javanais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Barbara E.

    1996-01-01

    "Javanais" refers to a French linguistic variation, often viewed as slang, in which a word's original form is masked through affixation or displacement of sounds and syllables. Its history and linguistic theory are reviewed. Three types of javanais (verlan, infixing javanais, largonji des louchebems) are compared, and implications for…

  6. The Linguistic Spaces within the Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    Based on translation theory, this paper shows how the linguistic spaces in an organization are created and which results it can have, when a big part of the organization doesn’t fit into the space that the strategy creates. The notion of linguistic spaces is established when an organization...

  7. Are Prospective English Teachers Linguistically Intelligent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, Kadir Vefa

    2017-01-01

    Language is normally associated with linguistic capabilities of individuals. In the theory of multiple intelligences, language is considered to be related primarily to linguistic intelligence. Using the theory of Multiple Intelligences as its starting point, this descriptive survey study investigated to what extent prospective English teachers'…

  8. Linguistic styles: language use as an individual difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennebaker, J W; King, L A

    1999-12-01

    Can language use reflect personality style? Studies examined the reliability, factor structure, and validity of written language using a word-based, computerized text analysis program. Daily diaries from 15 substance abuse inpatients, daily writing assignments from 35 students, and journal abstracts from 40 social psychologists demonstrated good internal consistency for over 36 language dimensions. Analyses of the best 15 language dimensions from essays by 838 students yielded 4 factors that replicated across written samples from another 381 students. Finally, linguistic profiles from writing samples were compared with Thematic Apperception Test coding, self-reports, and behavioral measures from 79 students and with self-reports of a 5-factor measure and health markers from more than 1,200 students. Despite modest effect sizes, the data suggest that linguistic style is an independent and meaningful way of exploring personality.

  9. Clinical linguistics: its past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    Historiography is a growing area of research within the discipline of linguistics, but so far the subfield of clinical linguistics has received virtually no systematic attention. This article attempts to rectify this by tracing the development of the discipline from its pre-scientific days up to the present time. As part of this, I include the results of a survey of articles published in Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics between 1987 and 2008 which shows, for example, a consistent primary focus on phonetics and phonology at the expense of grammar, semantics and pragmatics. I also trace the gradual broadening of the discipline from its roots in structural linguistics to its current reciprocal relationship with speech and language pathology and a range of other academic disciplines. Finally, I consider the scope of clinical linguistic research in 2011 and assess how the discipline seems likely develop in the future.

  10. Academic and Linguistic Gains during a Semester-Long Study Abroad: A Cohort Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Li, Xiangrong; Liu, Meihua

    2013-01-01

    The present case study investigated university students' academic and linguistic gains during a semester-long exchange program abroad. Thirty three third-year English majors from a Chinese university answered a battery of questionnaires and 13 of them participated in semi-structured interviews both prior to and after the program. Analyses of the…

  11. Neuro-inspired computing using resistive synaptic devices

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the recent breakthroughs in hardware implementation of neuro-inspired computing using resistive synaptic devices. The authors describe how two-terminal solid-state resistive memories can emulate synaptic weights in a neural network. Readers will benefit from state-of-the-art summaries of resistive synaptic devices, from the individual cell characteristics to the large-scale array integration. This book also discusses peripheral neuron circuits design challenges and design strategies. Finally, the authors describe the impact of device non-ideal properties (e.g. noise, variation, yield) and their impact on the learning performance at the system-level, using a device-algorithm co-design methodology. • Provides single-source reference to recent breakthroughs in resistive synaptic devices, not only at individual cell-level, but also at integrated array-level; • Includes detailed discussion of the peripheral circuits and array architecture design of the neuro-crossbar system; • Focuses on...

  12. Emerging trends in neuro engineering and neural computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kendall; Garmestani, Hamid; Lim, Chee

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on neuro-engineering and neural computing, a multi-disciplinary field of research attracting considerable attention from engineers, neuroscientists, microbiologists and material scientists. It explores a range of topics concerning the design and development of innovative neural and brain interfacing technologies, as well as novel information acquisition and processing algorithms to make sense of the acquired data. The book also highlights emerging trends and advances regarding the applications of neuro-engineering in real-world scenarios, such as neural prostheses, diagnosis of neural degenerative diseases, deep brain stimulation, biosensors, real neural network-inspired artificial neural networks (ANNs) and the predictive modeling of information flows in neuronal networks. The book is broadly divided into three main sections including: current trends in technological developments, neural computation techniques to make sense of the neural behavioral data, and application of these technologie...

  13. ADAPTIVE NEURO-FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM FOR END MILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELOS P. MARKOPOULOS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft computing is commonly used as a modelling method in various technological areas. Methods such as Artificial Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic have found application in manufacturing technology as well. NeuroFuzzy systems, aimed to combine the benefits of both the aforementioned Artificial Intelligence methods, are a subject of research lately as have proven to be superior compared to other methods. In this paper an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for the prediction of surface roughness in end milling is presented. Spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut and vibrations were used as independent input variables, while roughness parameter Ra as dependent output variable. Several variations are tested and the results of the optimum system are presented. Final results indicate that the proposed model can accurately predict surface roughness, even for input that was not used in training.

  14. Prediction of conductivity by adaptive neuro-fuzzy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, S; Arof, A K; Ramesh, S; Khanmirzaei, M H; Nor, R M

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a key method for the characterizing the ionic and electronic conductivity of materials. One of the requirements of this technique is a model to forecast conductivity in preliminary experiments. The aim of this paper is to examine the prediction of conductivity by neuro-fuzzy inference with basic experimental factors such as temperature, frequency, thickness of the film and weight percentage of salt. In order to provide the optimal sets of fuzzy logic rule bases, the grid partition fuzzy inference method was applied. The validation of the model was tested by four random data sets. To evaluate the validity of the model, eleven statistical features were examined. Statistical analysis of the results clearly shows that modeling with an adaptive neuro-fuzzy is powerful enough for the prediction of conductivity.

  15. A Neuro-psychological Explanation of Religious Experience?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine

    2004-01-01

    The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyse to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of religious...... experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of the present paper mean by the concept of religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: the Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological or RIT type of religious experience. In his studies...... and for the problem arising when drawing inadequately reasoned conclusions. Key Words Religious experiences, religious Erlebnis, religious Erfahrung, (religious) ideology, neuroscience, neuropsychology, pain, PET, reductionism, partial reductionism, Transcendental Meditation, epilepsy, schizophrenia....

  16. Seizure prediction using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Ahmed F; Azinfar, Leila; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a neuro-fuzzy approach of seizure prediction from invasive Electroencephalogram (EEG) by applying adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). Three nonlinear seizure predictive features were extracted from a patient's data obtained from the European Epilepsy Database, one of the most comprehensive EEG database for epilepsy research. A total of 36 hours of recordings including 7 seizures was used for analysis. The nonlinear features used in this study were similarity index, phase synchronization, and nonlinear interdependence. We designed an ANFIS classifier constructed based on these features as input. Fuzzy if-then rules were generated by the ANFIS classifier using the complex relationship of feature space provided during training. The membership function optimization was conducted based on a hybrid learning algorithm. The proposed method achieved highest sensitivity of 80% with false prediction rate as low as 0.46 per hour.

  17. Is hair loss a reality in neuro-interventional radiology?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gavagan, L

    2012-02-01

    Reports in the literature of radiation-induced hair loss are becoming increasingly common. This work describes a retrospective dose study of patients (n = 958) undergoing diagnostic (primarily cerebral angiograms) and therapeutic (primarily cerebral embolisation) procedures in a neuro-interventional suite. A comparison of patient doses as dose area product (DAP) readings from a single-plane image intensifier system (mean DAP value of 8772 cGy cm(2)) were compared with patient doses from a flat panel biplane system (mean DAP value of 7855 cGy cm(2)). Over 80 % of patients requiring neuro-interventional procedures were found to undergo two procedures or more. An estimated 7 % of therapeutic procedures were found to reach the International Commission on Radiological Protection threshold for temporary epilation.

  18. Prediction of conductivity by adaptive neuro-fuzzy model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Akbarzadeh

    Full Text Available Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS is a key method for the characterizing the ionic and electronic conductivity of materials. One of the requirements of this technique is a model to forecast conductivity in preliminary experiments. The aim of this paper is to examine the prediction of conductivity by neuro-fuzzy inference with basic experimental factors such as temperature, frequency, thickness of the film and weight percentage of salt. In order to provide the optimal sets of fuzzy logic rule bases, the grid partition fuzzy inference method was applied. The validation of the model was tested by four random data sets. To evaluate the validity of the model, eleven statistical features were examined. Statistical analysis of the results clearly shows that modeling with an adaptive neuro-fuzzy is powerful enough for the prediction of conductivity.

  19. Space Flight-Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew G; Mader, Thomas H; Gibson, C Robert; Tarver, William

    2017-09-01

    New and unique physiologic and pathologic systemic and neuro-ocular responses have been documented in astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. Although the precise cause remains unknown, space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) has been adopted as an appropriate descriptive term. The Space Medicine Operations Division of the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has documented the variable occurrence of SANS in astronauts returning from long-duration space flight on the International Space Station. These clinical findings have included unilateral and bilateral optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal and retinal folds, hyperopic refractive error shifts, and nerve fiber layer infarcts. The clinical findings of SANS have been correlated with structural changes on intraorbital and intracranial magnetic resonance imaging and in-flight and terrestrial ultrasonographic studies and ocular optical coherence tomography. Further study of SANS is ongoing for consideration of future manned missions to space, including a return trip to the moon or Mars.

  20. Swearing, euphemisms, and linguistic relativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Bowers

    Full Text Available Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context.

  1. Swearing, euphemisms, and linguistic relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S; Pleydell-Pearce, Christopher W

    2011-01-01

    Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form) by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context.

  2. Swearing, Euphemisms, and Linguistic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Pleydell-Pearce, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Participants read aloud swear words, euphemisms of the swear words, and neutral stimuli while their autonomic activity was measured by electrodermal activity. The key finding was that autonomic responses to swear words were larger than to euphemisms and neutral stimuli. It is argued that the heightened response to swear words reflects a form of verbal conditioning in which the phonological form of the word is directly associated with an affective response. Euphemisms are effective because they replace the trigger (the offending word form) by another word form that expresses a similar idea. That is, word forms exert some control on affect and cognition in turn. We relate these findings to the linguistic relativity hypothesis, and suggest a simple mechanistic account of how language may influence thinking in this context. PMID:21799832

  3. Aquatic intervention in children with neuro-motor impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Getz, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    The present thesis addresses the influence of aquatic interventions on motor performance of children with neuro-motor deficiencies in a functional context. The theoretical framework is based on a functional approach in compliance to the International Classification of Function and Disability (ICF). Chapter 2 addresses the relationship between motor performance in the aquatic environment setting as measured by the Aquatic Independence Measure (AIM) to motor performance on land as measured by t...

  4. Neuro-expert system applications in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosla, R.; Dillon, T.

    1997-12-31

    In this chapter we outline a generic neuro-expert system (GENUES) architecture for hybrid reasoning. The architecture consists of five phases, namely, decomposition phase, control phase, decision phase, preprocessing phase, and postprocessing phase. The architecture is particularly applicable in time critical diagnostic/classification domains and data intensive domains in general. We describe the application of GENUES in a real time alarm processing system in a power system control centre. (Author)

  5. Cognitive rehabilitation in neuro-oncological patients: three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Zucchella

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is one of the most common neurological disorders in neuro-oncological patients, linked with morbidity, disability, and poor quality of life. As pharmacologic interventions have not yet proven effective in the treatment of cognitive deficits, cognitive rehabilitation could represent an alternative approach. This paper presents three case studies, describing the cognitive intervention and discussing its effectiveness in the light of current evidence.

  6. Ultrastructural muscle and neuro-muscular junction alterations in polymyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Babakova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural analysis of 7 biopsies from m.palmaris longus and m.deltoideus in patients with confirmed polymyositis revealed alterationand degeneration of muscle fibers and anomalies of neuro-muscular junction (NMJ. The NMJ abnormalities and following denervation ofmuscle fibers in polymyositis start with subsynaptic damages. The occurance of regeneration features in muscle fibers at any stage is characteristic for PM.

  7. Facial expressions, their communicatory functions and neuro-cognitive substrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, R J R

    2003-01-01

    Human emotional expressions serve a crucial communicatory role allowing the rapid transmission of valence information from one individual to another. This paper will review the literature on the neural mechanisms necessary for this communication: both the mechanisms involved in the production of emotional expressions and those involved in the interpretation of the emotional expressions of others. Finally, reference to the neuro-psychiatric disorders of autism, psychopathy and acquired sociopa...

  8. Cognitive rehabilitation of schizophrenia through NeuroVr training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Paglia, Filippo; La Cascia, Caterina; Rizzo, Rosalinda; Sideli, Lucia; Francomano, Antonio; La Barbera, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive difficulties are prevalent in people with diagnosis of schizophrenia and are associated with poor long-term functioning. In particular, memory, selective, divided and sustained attention and executive functions are altered by this disease. We used a Virtual Reality environment (developed via the NeuroVr2.0 software) for the rehabilitation of shifting, sustained attention and action planning functions using tasks reminiscent of daily life tasks. Test and retest showed significant differences in the assessed cognitive dimensions.

  9. Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy Classifier Based On Nefclass Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Gliwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents hybrid neuro-fuzzy classifier, based on NEFCLASS model, which wasmodified. The presented classifier was compared to popular classifiers – neural networks andk-nearest neighbours. Efficiency of modifications in classifier was compared with methodsused in original model NEFCLASS (learning methods. Accuracy of classifier was testedusing 3 datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository: iris, wine and breast cancer wisconsin.Moreover, influence of ensemble classification methods on classification accuracy waspresented.

  10. Connexin-dependent signaling in neuro-hormonal systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Potolicchio Ilaria; Cigliola Valentina; Velazquez-Garcia Silvia; Klee Philippe; Valjevac Amina; Kapic Dina; Cosovic Esad; Lepara Orhan; Hadzovic-Dzuvo Almira; Mornjacovic Zakira; Meda Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The advent of multicellular organisms was accompanied by the development of short and long range chemical signalling systems including those provided by the nervous and endocrine systems. In turn the cells of these two systems have developed mechanisms for interacting with both adjacent and distant cells. With evolution such mechanisms have diversified to become integrated in a complex regulatory network whereby individual endocrine and neuro endocrine cells sense the state of activity of th...

  11. Religious Experience from a Neuro-Psychological View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Vakili

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for the basis of religious experience among neurological processes in the brain has resulted in a widespread debate within, as well as outside the academic world. The aim of this paper is to analyze to what extent a neuro-psychological theory could explain the phenomenon of  religious experience. To clarify what the neuro-psychological studies of  the present paper mean by the concept of  religious experience, the concept has been divided into three different types: The Erlebnis or RErl type, the Erfahrung or RErf type and the ideological type of religious experience or RIT type. Furthermore, the present paper is focused on the work of neuro-psychologist M. A. Persinger [1997, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1987, 1985, and 1984]. In his studies, Persinger indicates that mystical experience (RErl has its seat in the right hemisphere of the human brain, whereas (religious ideology (RIT is related to the left hemisphere. Consequently, the hemisphere in which the (religious experience is taking place seems to label the type of experience. Persinger, interested in the powerful effects of religious experience (of the RErf type on human beings, asserts that if we could understand the neuro-cognitive processes involved in experiencing religiously, such processes might be copied for clinical use in order to improve psychiatric therapy for curing depression. Thus, Persinger studied and compared people practicing religious meditation with people who did not, and also studied the results of PET scanning on the experiences of schizophrenic and epileptic patients. PET scanning measures the metabolic activity in the hemispheres, ranging it on a scale from under normal to over normal activity. This paper will account for the relevance of comparing these two apparently different studies and for the problem arising the experience of pain because, neurologically, pain, like religious experience,is said to be caused by processes in the human brain.

  12. Neuro-fuzzy controller to navigate an unmanned vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selma, Boumediene; Chouraqui, Samira

    2013-12-01

    A Neuro-fuzzy control method for an Unmanned Vehicle (UV) simulation is described. The objective is guiding an autonomous vehicle to a desired destination along a desired path in an environment characterized by a terrain and a set of distinct objects, such as obstacles like donkey traffic lights and cars circulating in the trajectory. The autonomous navigate ability and road following precision are mainly influenced by its control strategy and real-time control performance. Fuzzy Logic Controller can very well describe the desired system behavior with simple "if-then" relations owing the designer to derive "if-then" rules manually by trial and error. On the other hand, Neural Networks perform function approximation of a system but cannot interpret the solution obtained neither check if its solution is plausible. The two approaches are complementary. Combining them, Neural Networks will allow learning capability while Fuzzy-Logic will bring knowledge representation (Neuro-Fuzzy). In this paper, an artificial neural network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) controller is described and implemented to navigate the autonomous vehicle. Results show several improvements in the control system adjusted by neuro-fuzzy techniques in comparison to the previous methods like Artificial Neural Network (ANN).

  13. Research progress in neuro-immune interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-ling CAI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune response may be activated quickly once the organism is invaded by exotic pathogens. An excessive immune response may result in inflammation and tissue damage, whereas an insufficient immune response may result in infection. Nervous system may regulate the intensity of innate immune responses by releasing neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones. Compared with the complicated neuro-immune system in mammals, it is much simpler in Caenorhabditis elegans. Besides, C. elegans is accessible to genetic, molecular biology and behavioral analyses, so it has been used in studies on neuro-immune interactions. It has been revealed recently in the studies with C. elegans that the neuronal pathways regulating innate immune responses primarily include a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β pathway, an insulin/insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF pathway and dopaminergic neurotransmission. Since these pathways are evolutionally conservative, so it might be able to provide some new ideas for the research on neuro-immune interactions at molecular levels. The recent progress in this field has been reviewed in present paper.

  14. A novel Neuro-fuzzy classification technique for data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumadip Ghosh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we proposed a novel Neuro-fuzzy classification technique for data mining. The inputs to the Neuro-fuzzy classification system were fuzzified by applying generalized bell-shaped membership function. The proposed method utilized a fuzzification matrix in which the input patterns were associated with a degree of membership to different classes. Based on the value of degree of membership a pattern would be attributed to a specific category or class. We applied our method to ten benchmark data sets from the UCI machine learning repository for classification. Our objective was to analyze the proposed method and, therefore compare its performance with two powerful supervised classification algorithms Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN and Adaptive Neuro-fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS. We assessed the performance of these classification methods in terms of different performance measures such as accuracy, root-mean-square error, kappa statistic, true positive rate, false positive rate, precision, recall, and f-measure. In every aspect the proposed method proved to be superior to RBFNN and ANFIS algorithms.

  15. NeuroCharter: A Neural Networks Software to Visually Discover the Effects and Contributions between Interrelated Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad N. Elnesr

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available NeuroCharter is an open-source software that helps in prediction problems in scientific research through artificial neural networks. The program is designed mainly for researchers who focus on details of the neural-network’s parameters, in addition to easy reuse of the trained network. The program outputs almost all the necessary graphs regarding the network and features contributions and relative outputs for both numeric and categorical features. The program was implemented in Python 2.7.11 and is open sourced for reuse and future development. The program consists of four main classes, one for the neural networks calculation, one for data manipulation, one for plotting the neural network, and the main class that manages and links the other classes. The source code and some experimental data are freely available at the GitHub code repository http://j.mp/NeuroCharter.   Funding Statement: The project was financially supported by King Saud University, Vice Deanship of Research Chairs.

  16. Neuro-Behçet’s disease in childhood: A focus on the neuro-ophthalmological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuro-Behçet’s disease (NBD involves the central nervous system; peripheral nervous system involvement is not often reported. NBD is quite common in adult patients and occurs rarely during childhood and adolescence. Young patients may share symptoms and signs of NBD with other neuro-ophthalmological disorders (e.g. idiopathic intracranial hypertension; thus, making the differential diagnosis difficult. Neuroimaging is mandatory and necessary for a correct NBD diagnosis but in children radiological examinations are often difficult to perform without sedation. From 1971 to 2011, 130 patients aged ≤16 years have been reported with NBD, according to retrospective surveys, case series, and case reports. The origin of the reported cases met the well-known geographical distribution of Behçet’s disease (BD; the mean age at presentation of neurological findings was 11.8 years, with male gender prevalence (ratio, 2.9:1. We considered in detail the neuro-ophthalmological features of the 53 cases whose neuroimaging alterations were described with an assigned radiological pattern of the disease (parenchymal: 14 cases, non-parechymal: 35 cases, and mixed: 4 cases. In 19/53 patients (36%, neuro-ophthalmological symptoms anticipated any pathognomonic sign for a BD diagnosis, or only occasional aphtae were recalled by the patients. Family history was positive in 17% of subjects. Headache was reported in 75% of the patients; in those presenting with cerebral vascular involvement, headache was combined to other symptoms of intracranial hypertension. Papilledema was the most frequently reported ophthalmological finding, followed by posterior uveitis. Treatment consisted of systemic steroids in 93% of patients, often combined with other immunosuppressive drugs (especially colchicine and azathioprine. Clinical recovery or improvement was documented in the large majority of patients. Nine subjects had definitive alterations, and one died. Based on our

  17. An Arbitrary Waveform Wearable Neuro-stimulator System for Neurophysiology Research on Freely Behaving Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Mohsen Mosayebi; Mahnam, Amin; Hosseini, Nasrin

    2014-04-01

    Portable wireless neuro-stimulators have been developed to facilitate long-term cognitive and behavioral studies on the central nervous system in freely moving animals. These stimulators can provide precisely controllable input(s) to the nervous system, without distracting the animal attention with cables connected to its body. In this study, a low power backpack neuro-stimulator was developed for animal brain researches that can provides arbitrary stimulus waveforms for the stimulation, while it is small and light weight to be used for small animals including rats. The system consists of a controller that uses an RF link to program and activate a small and light microprocessor-based stimulator. A Howland current source was implemented to produce precise current controlled arbitrary waveform stimulations. The system was optimized for ultra-low power consumption and small size. The stimulator was first tested for its electrical specifications. Then its performance was evaluated in a rat experiment when electrical stimulation of medial longitudinal fasciculus induced circling behavior. The stimulator is capable of delivering programmed stimulations up to ± 2 mA with adjusting steps of 1 μA, accuracy of 0.7% and compliance of 6 V. The stimulator is 15 mm × 20 mm × 40 mm in size, weights 13.5 g without battery and consumes a total power of only 5.l mW. In the experiment, the rat could easily carry the stimulator and demonstrated the circling behavior for 0.1 ms current pulses of above 400 μA. The developed system has a competitive size and weight, whereas providing a wide range of operation and the flexibility of generating arbitrary stimulation patterns ideal for long-term experiments in the field of cognitive and neuroscience research.

  18. Formal linguistics as a cue to demographic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Giuseppe; Ceolin, Andrea; Ecay, Aaron; Ghirotto, Silvia; Guardiano, Cristina; Irimia, Monica-Alexandrina; Michelioudakis, Dimitris; Radkevich, Nina; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Barbujani, Guido

    2016-06-20

    Beyond its theoretical success, the development of molecular genetics has brought about the possibility of extraordinary progress in the study of classification and in the inference of the evolutionary history of many species and populations. A major step forward was represented by the availability of extremely large sets of molecular data suited to quantitative and computational treatments. In this paper, we argue that even in cognitive sciences, purely theoretical progress in a discipline such as linguistics may have analogous impact. Thus, exactly on the model of molecular biology, we propose to unify two traditionally unrelated lines of linguistic investigation: 1) the formal study of syntactic variation (parameter theory) in the biolinguistic program; 2) the reconstruction of relatedness among languages (phylogenetic taxonomy). The results of our linguistic analysis have thus been plotted against data from population genetics and the correlations have turned out to be largely significant: given a non-trivial set of languages/populations, the description of their variation provided by the comparison of systematic parametric analysis and molecular anthropology informatively recapitulates their history and relationships. As a result, we can claim that the reality of some parametric model of the language faculty and language acquisition/transmission (more broadly of generative grammar) receives strong and original support from its historical heuristic power. Then, on these grounds, we can begin testing Darwin's prediction that, when properly generated, the trees of human populations and of their languages should eventually turn out to be significantly parallel.

  19. [Establishment of diagnosis and treatment patterns of holistic integrated medicine for neuro-ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling

    2014-12-01

    Neuro-ophthalmology, as an interdisciplinary, covers at least three disciplines- ophthalmology, neurology and neurosurgery. With limited knowledge in each discipline, doctors often make misdiagnoses for neuro-ophthalmology diseases. Therefore, it is imperative to abandon the distinction between disciplines and combine all the knowledge to diagnose and treat patients in patterns of holistic integrated medicine in order to effectively improve the diagnosis and treatment of neuro-ophthalmology.

  20. Hemiballismus Secondary to Neuro-Behçet Disease: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Turgay Demir; Şebnem Bıçakçı; Miray Erdem

    2014-01-01

    Behçet’s Disease is a multisystemic, inflammatory, recurrent disorder with oral and genital ulcerations along with cutaneous and opthalmic symptoms. Central nervous involvement called Neuro-Behçet is one of the clinical forms of Behçet’s Disease. Extrapyramidal findings are rare in Neuro-Behçet. We report here a case with Neuro-Behçet disease presented with acute hemiballismus.

  1. MI-ANFIS: A Multiple Instance Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-02

    Instance AdaptiveNeuro- Fuzzy Inference System We introduce a novel adaptive neuro- fuzzy architecture based on the framework of Multiple Instance Fuzzy ...Inference. The new architecture called Multiple Instance-ANFIS (MI-ANFIS), is an extension of the standard Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS... Fuzzy Inference REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ARO 8. PERFORMING

  2. Applied linguistics - a science of culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benke, Gertraud

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the status of applied linguistics as discipline is questioned and problems of establishing it - and other newly formed scientific enterprises like cultural science - as disciplines are discussed. This discussion is contextualized using the author's own experience as applied linguist working in (the institutional structure of Austria. Secondly, applied linguistics is presented as complementing cultural science, with both exploring at times the same phenomena albeit under different perspectives and focussing on different levels of experience. Two examples of research involving such a joint interest with different foci are discussed.

  3. The Semiology of Motor Disorders in Autism Spectrum Disorders as Highlighted from a Standardized Neuro-Psychomotor Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Aude; Olliac, Bertrand; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Golse, Bernard; Vaivre-Douret, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Altered motor performance has been described in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with disturbances in walking; posture, coordination, or arm movements, but some individuals with ASD show no impairment of motor skills. The neuro-developmental processes that underpin the performance of neuro-psychomotor functions have not been widely explored, nor is it clear whether there are neuro-psychomotor functions specifically affected in ASD. Our objective was to focus on the semiology of motor disorders among children with ASD using a neuro-developmental assessment tool. Thirty-four children with ASD, with or without intellectual deficit (ID) were recruited in a child psychiatry department and Autism Resource Centers. Initial standard evaluations for diagnosis (psychiatric; psychological; psychomotor) were supplemented by a standardized assessment battery for neuro-developmental psychomotor functions (NP-MOT). The results of some NP-MOT tests differed between children with ASD with ID and those without. However, on the NP-MOT battery, neither of the two groups did well in the bi-manual and finger praxia tests (36 and 52% respectively failed). Manual and digital gnosopraxia showed some deficit (63 and 62% respectively failed). Postural deficits were found in tests for both static equilibrium (64%) and dynamic (52%). There were also difficulties in coordination between the upper and lower limbs in 58% of children. We found 75% failure in motor skills on the M-ABC test. Concerning muscular tone, significant laxity was observed in distal parts of the body (feet and hands), but hypertonia was observed in the proximal muscles of the lower limbs (reduced heel-ear angle). The results of manual and digital gnosopraxia tests point to a planning deficit in children with autism. A gesture programming deficit is also highlighted by the poor results in manual praxis, and by failures in the M-ABC tests despite prior training of the child. However, concerning global motor function, a

  4. NeuroBase: a brain atlas-based, multi-platform, multi-dataset-processing neuroimaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo L.; Guo, Hong Hui; Huang, Su; Padmanabhan, Ramanath; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.

    2000-04-01

    This paper introduces NeuroBase, an atlas-assisted neuroimaging system. NeuroBase is a flexible, affordable and cross-platform system capable to process multiple datasets. The design, functionality and numerous tools of NeuroBase are presented. Two novel paradigms are introduced here: warping symmetry with respect to any reference dataset or atlas, and triplanar mosaic presentation. We also report our preliminary experience in the use of NeuroBase for various applications including neuro education, neuro radiology, brain mapping, stererotactic functional neurosurgery and multi-modal visualization.

  5. The Problem of Translating English Linguistic Terminology into Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, Antar Solhy

    2003-01-01

    Arabic Linguistics has been a full-fledged descriptive science for a long time. However modern Linguistics, as a distinct empirical science, entailed that Arab linguists review their methods of dealing with the linguistic phenomenon. One of the major challenges for this new approach was to create equivalent genuine Arabic terms in modern…

  6. Farabi's Logico-Linguistic Ideas in Comparison with Theories and Principles in Contemporary Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    MORADIAN, Mahmood Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This research is an attempt to make a comparison and contrast between Farabi's logico-linguistic ideas, as an Iranian scientist, philosopher, and logician, with the contemporary linguistic theories and principles. To make this comparison and contrast possible, we would review the most relevant and outstanding contemporary linguistic theories and then compare them with those of Farabi. To our astonishment, we made it clear that Farabi introduced the science of language to the learned...

  7. Knowledge Cycle among Theoretical Linguistics, Psycho-linguistics, and Foreign-language Learning: Its Theoretical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Toshiyuki; ヤマダ, トシユキ

    2017-01-01

    In linguistic research, theoretical linguistics, psycho-linguistics, and foreign-language learning have beenstudied in their own ways. To establish their organic relationship, I will propose a model of knowledgecycle. A driving force for the cycle is sentences containing grammatical errors made by foreign-languagelearners (e.g., *John like apples). The ungrammaticalness of each sentence can be tested by psycho-linguisticexperiments such as acceptability judgments, reaction-time tasks. Atteste...

  8. A New Model of Linguistic-Cultural Immersion: The Pedagogical Reform in the CASA-Seville Program = Un nuevo modelo de inmersión lingüístico-cultural: la reforma pedagógica del programa CASA-Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Álvarez-Ossorio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La importancia adquirida por la lengua española como herramienta de comunicación internacional ha propiciado que muchas instituciones académicas estadounidenses incluyan a España como destino preferente en sus programas de estudios en el extranjero. El propósito de nuestro trabajo es dar a conocer el funcionamiento de uno de estos programas, el Consortium for Advanced Studies Abroad (CASA-Sevilla, y describir su pedagogía actual. Ésta se basa en la aplicación de las técnicas etnográficas, la utilización del Marco Europeo de Referencia para las Lenguas y el aprendizaje experiencial como estrategias para la inmersión lingüístico-cultural.Abstract: The importance the Spanish language has acquired as a tool for international communication has led many American academic institutions to include Spain as one of the preferred destinations for their study abroad programs. The aim of this work is to explain the functioning of one of these programs, the Consortium for Advanced Studies Abroad (CASA-Seville, and describe its innovative pedagogy. The program is based on the application of ethnographic techniques to study abroad, the use of the European Reference Framework for Languages, and on experiential learning as a strategy to deepen linguistic-cultural immersion.

  9. Igor Burkhanov. Linguistic Foundations of Ideography: Semantic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    development of semantics is unravelled from the field theory of the early 20th ... Generally speaking, applied disciplines (for example in mathematics, the- .... small scale. .... guistic systematization but to improve their linguistic competence.

  10. Linguistic Foundations of Ideography: Semantic Analysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Igor Burkhanov. Linguistic Foundations of Ideography: Semantic Analysis and Ideographic Dictionaries. 1999, 388pp. ISBN 83 87288 98 5. Rzeszów: Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły Pedagogicznej. Price: 16 PLN ...

  11. Secure information management using linguistic threshold approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ogiela, Marek R

    2013-01-01

    This book details linguistic threshold schemes for information sharing. It examines the opportunities of using these techniques to create new models of managing strategic information shared within a commercial organisation or a state institution.

  12. Disentangling Linguistic Modality Effects in Semantic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, Mara; Nunes, Maria Vânia

    2017-04-01

    Sensory systems are essential for perceiving and conceptualizing our semantic knowledge about the world and the way we interact with it. Despite studies reporting neural changes to compensate for the absence of a given sensory modality, studies focusing on the assessment of semantic processing reveal poor performances by deaf individuals when compared with hearing individuals. However, the majority of those studies were not performed in the linguistic modality considered the most adequate to their sensory capabilities (i.e., sign language). Therefore, this exploratory study was developed focusing on linguistic modality effects during semantic retrieval in deaf individuals in comparison with their hearing peers through a category fluency task. Results show a difference in performance between the two linguistic modalities by deaf individuals as well as in the type of linguistic clusters most chosen by participants, suggesting a complex clustering tendency by deaf individuals.

  13. Linguistic characteristics of SLI in Afrikaans | Southwood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 37 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Linguistic Diversity in Blue‐Collar Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte; Kraft, Kamilla

    In this paper we examine the management of linguistic diversity in blue‐collar workplaces and its implications. The blue‐collar context is somewhat neglected in studies of globalisation and its consequences for the workplace. Hence, our focus here is on blue‐collar workplaces in the context...... for establishing stable linguistic practices.This study is based on data from two ethnographic studies of blue‐collar workplaces in Denmark and Norway, and it includes observational data, ethnographic interviews as well as interactional data. The latter has been analysed using conversation analysis.Our data...... these situations include drawing pictures, gesturing, referring to signs, and even speaking Danish/Norwegian regardless of the fact that interlocutors do not understand the language. Through the use of these linguistic and other semiotic resources, the barriers posed by linguistic diversity are usually overcome...

  15. Ling An: Linguistic analysis of NPP instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, F.; Salo, L. (Helsingfors Univ., Institutionen foer allmaen spraakvetenskap (Finland)); Wahlstroem, B. (VTT (Finland))

    2008-07-15

    The project consists of two sub-projects, 1) to find out whether the available linguistic method SWECG (Swedish Constraint Grammar) might be used for analyzing the safety manuals for Forsmark nuclear power plant, and 2) to find out whether it is possible to create a working system based on the SWECG method. The conclusion of the project is that an applicable linguistic analysis system may be realized by the company Lingsoft Inc., Aabo, Finland. (ln)

  16. Automated Linguistic Personality Description and Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylyuk Illya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relevance of our research, above all, is theoretically motivated by the development of extraordinary scientific and practical interest in the possibilities of language processing of huge amount of data generated by people in everyday professional and personal life in the electronic forms of communication (e-mail, sms, voice, audio and video blogs, social networks, etc.. Purpose: The purpose of the article is to describe the theoretical and practical framework of the project "Communicative-pragmatic and discourse-grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling". The description of key techniques is given, such as machine learning for language modeling, speech synthesis, handwriting simulation. Results: Lingvopersonology developed some great theoretical foundations, its methods, tools, and significant achievements let us predict that the newest promising trend is a linguistic identity modeling by means of information technology, including language. We see three aspects of the modeling: 1 modeling the semantic level of linguistic identity – by means of the use of corpus linguistics; 2 sound level formal modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of speech synthesis; 3 formal graphic level modeling of linguistic identity – with the help of image synthesis (handwriting. For the first case, we suppose to use machine learning technics and vector-space (word2vec algorithm for textual speech modeling. Hybrid CUTE method for personality speech modeling will be applied to the second case. Finally, trained with the person handwriting images neural network can be an instrument for the last case. Discussion: The project "Communicative-pragmatic, discourse, and grammatical lingvopersonology: structuring linguistic identity and computer modeling", which is implementing by the Department of General and Applied Linguistics and Slavonic philology, selected a task to model Yuriy Shevelyov (Sherekh

  17. Scientific literacy: A systemic functional linguistics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhihui

    2005-03-01

    Scientific writing contains unique linguistic features that construe special realms of scientific knowledge, values, and beliefs. An understanding of the functionality of these features is critical to the development of literacy in science. This article describes some of the key linguistic features of scientific writing, discusses the challenges these features present to comprehension and composition of science texts in school, and argues for greater attention to the specialized language of science in teaching and learning.

  18. Linguistic geometry for technologies procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Vladimir; Umanskiy, Oleg; Boyd, Ron

    2005-05-01

    In the modern world of rapidly rising prices of new military hardware, the importance of Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA) is hard to overestimate. With SAB, DOD would be able to test, develop CONOPS for, debug, and evaluate new conceptual military equipment before actually building the expensive hardware. However, only recently powerful tools for real SBA have been developed. Linguistic Geometry (LG) permits full-scale modeling and evaluation of new military technologies, combinations of hardware systems and concepts of their application. Using LG tools, the analysts can create a gaming environment populated with the Blue forces armed with the new conceptual hardware as well as with appropriate existing weapons and equipment. This environment will also contain the intelligent enemy with appropriate weaponry and, if desired, with a conceptual counters to the new Blue weapons. Within such LG gaming environment, the analyst can run various what-ifs with the LG tools providing the simulated combatants with strategies and tactics solving their goals with minimal resources spent.

  19. Modulations of NeuroD activity contribute to the differential effects of morphine and fentanyl on dendritic spine stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Zheng; Zeng, Yan; Chu, Ji; Kam, Angel YuetFang; Loh, Horace H.; Law, Ping-Yee

    2010-01-01

    The cellular level of neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD) is modulated differentially by μ-opioid receptor agonists: fentanyl increases NeuroD level by reducing the amount of miR-190, an inhibitor of NeuroD expression, whereas morphine does not alter NeuroD level. In the current study, NeuroD activity was demonstrated to be also under agonist-dependent regulation. After three-day treatment, morphine and fentanyl decreased the activity of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα), which phosphorylates and activates NeuroD. Because NeuroD activity is determined by both the CaMKIIα activity and the cellular NeuroD level, the overall NeuroD activity was reduced by morphine, but maintained during fentanyl treatment. The differential effects of agonists on NeuroD activity were further confirmed by measuring the mRNA levels of four NeuroD downstream targets: doublecortin, Notch1, NeuroD4 and Roundabout 1. Decreased dendritic spine stability and μ-opioid receptor signaling capability were also observed when NeuroD activity was attenuated by miR-190 overexpression or treatment with KN93, a CaMKIIα inhibitor. The decrease could be rescued by NeuroD overexpression which restored NeuroD activity to the basal level. Furthermore, elevating NeuroD activity attenuated the morphine-induced decrease in dendritic spine stability. Therefore, by regulating NeuroD activity, μ-opioid receptor agonists modulate the stability of dendritic spines. PMID:20554861

  20. Legal Linguistics as a Mutual Arena for Cooperation: Recent Developments in the Field of Applied Linguistics and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on some of the recent projects and individual works in the field of Legal Linguistics as examples of cooperation between Applied Linguistics and law. The article starts by discussing relevant prototypical concepts of Legal Linguistics. Legal Linguistics scrutinizes interactions between human beings in the framework of legal…

  1. Linguistic evaluation of terrorist scenarios: example application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2007-03-01

    In 2005, a group of international decision makers developed a manual process for evaluating terrorist scenarios. That process has been implemented in the approximate reasoning Java software tool, LinguisticBelief, released in FY2007. One purpose of this report is to show the flexibility of the LinguisticBelief tool to automate a custom model developed by others. LinguisticBelief evaluates combinations of linguistic variables using an approximate reasoning rule base. Each variable is comprised of fuzzy sets, and a rule base describes the reasoning on combinations of variables fuzzy sets. Uncertainty is considered and propagated through the rule base using the belief/plausibility measure. This report documents the evaluation and rank-ordering of several example terrorist scenarios for the existing process implemented in our software. LinguisticBelief captures and propagates uncertainty and allows easy development of an expanded, more detailed evaluation, neither of which is feasible using a manual evaluation process. In conclusion, the Linguistic-Belief tool is able to (1) automate an expert-generated reasoning process for the evaluation of the risk of terrorist scenarios, including uncertainty, and (2) quickly evaluate and rank-order scenarios of concern using that process.

  2. A transductive neuro-fuzzy controller: application to a drilling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajate, Agustín; Haber, Rodolfo E; Vega, Pastora I; Alique, José R

    2010-07-01

    Recently, new neuro-fuzzy inference algorithms have been developed to deal with the time-varying behavior and uncertainty of many complex systems. This paper presents the design and application of a novel transductive neuro-fuzzy inference method to control force in a high-performance drilling process. The main goal is to study, analyze, and verify the behavior of a transductive neuro-fuzzy inference system for controlling this complex process, specifically addressing the dynamic modeling, computational efficiency, and viability of the real-time application of this algorithm as well as assessing the topology of the neuro-fuzzy system (e.g., number of clusters, number of rules). A transductive reasoning method is used to create local neuro-fuzzy models for each input/output data set in a case study. The direct and inverse dynamics of a complex process are modeled using this strategy. The synergies among fuzzy, neural, and transductive strategies are then exploited to deal with process complexity and uncertainty through the application of the neuro-fuzzy models within an internal model control (IMC) scheme. A comparative study is made of the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and the suggested method inspired in a transductive neuro-fuzzy inference strategy. The two neuro-fuzzy strategies are evaluated in a real drilling force control problem. The experimental results demonstrated that the transductive neuro-fuzzy control system provides a good transient response (without overshoot) and better error-based performance indices than the ANFIS-based control system. In particular, the IMC system based on a transductive neuro-fuzzy inference approach reduces the influence of the increase in cutting force that occurs as the drill depth increases, reducing the risk of rapid tool wear and catastrophic tool breakage.

  3. NeuroLex.org: An online framework for neuroscience knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Larson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to transmit, organize, and query information digitally has brought with it the challenge of how to best use this power to facilitate scientific inquiry. Today, few information systems are able to provide detailed answers to complex questions about neuroscience that account for multiple spatial scales, and which cross the boundaries of diverse parts of the nervous system such as molecules, cellular parts, cells, circuits, systems and tissues. As a result, investigators still primarily seek answers to their questions in an increasingly densely populated collection of articles in the literature, each of which must be digested individually. If it were easier to search a knowledge base that was structured to answer neuroscience questions, such a system would enable questions to be answered in seconds that would otherwise require hours of literature review.In this article, we describe NeuroLex.org, a wiki-based website and knowledge management system. Its goal is to bring neurobiological knowledge into a framework that allows neuroscientists to review the concepts of neuroscience, with an emphasis on multiscale descriptions of the parts of nervous systems, aggregate their understanding with that of other scientists, link them to data sources and descriptions of important concepts in neuroscience, and expose parts that are still controversial or missing. To date, the site is tracking ~25,000 unique neuroanatomical parts and concepts in neurobiology spanning experimental techniques, behavioral paradigms, anatomical nomenclature, genes, proteins and molecules. Here we show how the structuring of information about these anatomical parts in the nervous system can be reused to answer multiple neuroscience questions, such as displaying all known GABAergic neurons aggregated in NeuroLex or displaying all brain regions that are known within NeuroLex to send axons into the cerebellar cortex.

  4. NeuroLex.org: an online framework for neuroscience knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Stephen D.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to transmit, organize, and query information digitally has brought with it the challenge of how to best use this power to facilitate scientific inquiry. Today, few information systems are able to provide detailed answers to complex questions about neuroscience that account for multiple spatial scales, and which cross the boundaries of diverse parts of the nervous system such as molecules, cellular parts, cells, circuits, systems and tissues. As a result, investigators still primarily seek answers to their questions in an increasingly densely populated collection of articles in the literature, each of which must be digested individually. If it were easier to search a knowledge base that was structured to answer neuroscience questions, such a system would enable questions to be answered in seconds that would otherwise require hours of literature review. In this article, we describe NeuroLex.org, a wiki-based website and knowledge management system. Its goal is to bring neurobiological knowledge into a framework that allows neuroscientists to review the concepts of neuroscience, with an emphasis on multiscale descriptions of the parts of nervous systems, aggregate their understanding with that of other scientists, link them to data sources and descriptions of important concepts in neuroscience, and expose parts that are still controversial or missing. To date, the site is tracking ~25,000 unique neuroanatomical parts and concepts in neurobiology spanning experimental techniques, behavioral paradigms, anatomical nomenclature, genes, proteins and molecules. Here we show how the structuring of information about these anatomical parts in the nervous system can be reused to answer multiple neuroscience questions, such as displaying all known GABAergic neurons aggregated in NeuroLex or displaying all brain regions that are known within NeuroLex to send axons into the cerebellar cortex. PMID:24009581

  5. Neuro-oncology: a selected review of ASCO 2016 abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Marc C

    2016-10-01

    ASCO 2016, 29 May-2 June 2016, Chicago, IL, USA The largest annual clinical oncology conference the American Society of Clinical Oncology is held in the USA and gives researchers and other key opinion leaders the opportunity to present new cancer clinical trials and research data. The CNS tumors section of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2016 covered various aspects of neuro-oncology including metastatic CNS diseases and primary brain tumors, presented via posters, oral talks and over 100 abstracts. This brief review selectively highlights presentations from this meeting in an organizational manner that reflects clinically relevant aspects of a large and multifaceted meeting.

  6. Partial aortic occlusion for cerebral perfusion augmentation: safety and efficacy of NeuroFlo in Acute Ischemic Stroke trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shuaib, Ashfaq; Bornstein, Natan M; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Dillon, William; Fisher, Marc; Hammer, Maxim D; Molina, Carlos A; Rutledge, J Neal; Saver, Jeffrey L; Schellinger, Peter D; Shownkeen, Harish

    2011-01-01

    .... The Safety and Efficacy of NeuroFlo in Acute Ischemic Stroke trial is a randomized trial of the safety and efficacy of NeuroFlo treatment in improving neurological outcome versus standard medical management...

  7. Development of PET tracers for neuro inflammation imaging in neuro degenerative diseases; Developpement de radiotraceurs de la neuroinflammation pour l'imagerie des pathologies neurodegeneratives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauveau, F

    2007-10-15

    Inflammatory processes such as micro-glial or endothelial activation are involved in many neuro-degenerative conditions. Neuro-inflammation imaging is considered an attractive tool for fundamental research, diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation in neuro-pathologies. First, an aptamer was selected against a recombinant fragment of the endothelial target VCAM-1, but proved unable to bind the target protein in native conformation, as expressed by a cell line. Second, five radioligands of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), a marker of micro-glial activation, were evaluated in vivo using PET (Positron Emission Tomography) imaging in a rat model of neuro-inflammation, and were compared to [11C]PK11195. Four radiotracers displayed a better contrast than [11C]PK11195. In a competitive field of research, this work demonstrates the efficiency of in vivo screening of radiotracers for fast selection of clinically relevant molecules. (author)

  8. Virtual reality exposure and neuro-bio feedback to help coping with traumatic events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, M.A.; Kallen, V.L.; Brouwer, A.-M.; Leer, L. van der; Brinke, M. ten

    2010-01-01

    Recent research shows that Virtual Reality (VR) exposure or bio-neuro feedback can help professionals to cope with possibly traumatic events. This paper presents a neuro-bio VR system that combines both methods in order to further improve the prevention and therapy of trauma-related disorders. This

  9. Neuro fuzzy control of the FES assisted freely swinging leg of paraplegic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, J.H.; Velthuis, W.J.R.; Veltink, Petrus H.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors designed a neuro fuzzy control strategy for control of cyclical leg movements of paraplegic subjects. The cyclical leg movements were specified by three `swing phase objectives', characteristic of natural human gait. The neuro fuzzy controller is a combination of a fuzzy logic controller

  10. [NEURO-ONCOLOGY A NEW FIELD IN DAVIDOFF CANCER CENTER AT RABIN MEDICAL CENTER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yust-Katz, Shlomit; Limon, Dror; Abu-Shkara, Ramez; Siegal, Tali

    2017-08-01

    Neuro-oncology is a subspecialty attracting physicians from medical disciplines such as neurology, neurosurgery, pediatrics, oncology, and radiotherapy. It deals with diagnosis and management of primary brain tumors, as well as metastatic and non-metastatic neurological manifestations that frequently affect cancer patients including brain metastases, paraneoplastic syndromes and neurological complications of cancer treatment. A neuro-oncology unit was established in Davidoff Cancer Center at Rabin Medical Center. It provides a multidisciplinary team approach for management of brain tumors and services, such as expert outpatient clinics and inpatient consultations for the departments of oncology, hematology, bone marrow transplantation and other departments in the Rabin Medical Center. In addition, expert consultation is frequently provided to other hospitals that treat cancer patients with neurological manifestations. The medical disciplines that closely collaborate for the daily management of neuro-oncology patients include radiotherapy, hematology, oncology, neuro-surgery, neuro-radiology and neuro-pathology. The neuro-oncology center is also involved in clinical and laboratory research conducted in collaboration with researchers in Israel and abroad. The new service contributes substantially to the improved care of cancer patients and to the advance of research topics in the field of neuro-oncology.

  11. Diagnosis of rotor fault using neuro-fuzzy inference system | Merabet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also the calculation of the value of relative energy for each level of signal decomposition using package wavelet, which will be useful as data input of adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). In this method, fuzzy logic is used to make decisions about the machine state. The adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy inference system is ...

  12. Neuro-ophthalmic and clinical characteristics of brain tumours in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anecdotally, increasing number of patients are seen at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) with brain tumour. Neuro-ophthalmic symptoms and signs may help in timely diagnosis and intervention. Objective: To evaluate the neuro-ophthalmic and clinical characteristics of brain tumour in patients presenting at a ...

  13. "Too Withdrawn" or "Too Friendly": Considering Social Vulnerability in Two Neuro-Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, A.; Riby, D. M.; Owens, J.; White, S. W.; Tarar, T.; Schulz, P. E.

    2012-01-01

    In some neuro-developmental disorders, the combined effect of intellectual disability and atypicalities of social cognition may put individuals at increased vulnerability in their social environment. The neuro-developmental disorders Williams syndrome, characterised by "hypersociability", and autism spectrum disorders, characterised by "social…

  14. The Neuro-Image: Alain Resnais's Digital Cinema without the Digits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes to read cinema in the digital age as a new type of image, the neuroimage. Going back to Gilles Deleuze's cinema books and it is argued that the neuro-image is based in the future. The cinema of Alain Resnais is analyzed as a neuro-image and digital cinema .

  15. Papers in African Linguistics. Current Inquiry into Language and Linguistics I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chin-Wu, Ed.; Stahlke, Herbert, Ed.

    This volume, a collection of selected papers from the Conference on African Languages and Linguistics organized by the Department of Linguistics of the University of Illinois and held at Urbana-Champaign on April 24-25, 1970, contains: W. E. Welmers, "The Typology of the Proto-Niger-Kordofanian Noun Class System"; D. Dalby, "A…

  16. A Survey on the Exchange of Linguistic Resources: Publishing Linguistic Linked Open Data on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Sanchez-Alonso, Salvador; Roa-Valverde, Antonio J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of the principal formats and frameworks that have been used in the last 20 years to exchange linguistic resources. It aims to give special attention to the most recent approaches to publishing linguistic linked open data on the Web. Design/methodology/approach: Research papers…

  17. The Problem of Data in the Cognitive Linguistic Research on Metonymy: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar-Szabo, Rita; Brdar, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The general goal of the present paper is to demonstrate how cross-linguistic (contrastive) data can broaden the perspective in cognitive linguistic research on metonymy, which may raise a host of questions calling for a revision of some widely accepted views. A more specific, methodological goal is to show how the introspection-driven research and…

  18. The Judge as Linguist: Linguistic Principles as a Rule of Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solan, Lawrence

    The role of court judges as linguists is discussed. Linguistic issues arise in courts when lawyers attempt to convince a court that a statute, insurance policy, or contract should be interpreted as favoring their own client's interests, with respect to resolving a dispute that depends on the proper construal of a particular document. An…

  19. Dissociating Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Gesture Processing: Electrophysiological Evidence from American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvald, Michael; Gutierrez, Eva; Hafer, Sarah; Corina, David

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental advance in our understanding of human language would come from a detailed account of how non-linguistic and linguistic manual actions are differentiated in real time by language users. To explore this issue, we targeted the N400, an ERP component known to be sensitive to semantic context. Deaf signers saw 120 American Sign Language…

  20. Neuro-Behçet: report of three clinically distinct cases Neuro-Behçet: relato de três casos clinicamente distintos

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiani Giorgio; Almeida Sérgio Monteiro de; Germiniani Francisco M.B.; Teive Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Nóvak Edison Matos; Scola Rosana Hermínia; Zanatta Alessandra; Coral Patrícia; Werneck Lineu Cesar

    2001-01-01

    We report three patients who collectively have very representative clinical forms of neuro-Behçet and different neurological findings. The first case, male, 49 years old, presents symptoms similar to multiple sclerosis. The second case, male 15 years old, presents with parenchymatous compromise and an association with antiphospholipid antibody. And the third case, female 25 years old, presents an acute meningitis. Neuro-Behçet must always be included as a differential diagnosis of neurologica...

  1. KOMBINASI NEURO DEVELOPMENTAL TREATMENT DAN SENSORY INTEGRATION LEBIH BAIK DARIPADA HANYA NEURO DEVELOPMENTAL TREATMENT UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KESEIMBANGAN BERDIRI ANAK DOWN SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Dhofirul Fadhil Dzil Ikrom Al Hazmi; Ketut Tirtayasa; Muhammad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    One of health problem in child with special need is existed at birth (congenital), such as Down Syndrome. Child with down syndrome often get balance disturbance in stand which causes he cannot keep the body posture from the disturbance. This condition may causes the problem with his further motor development. There is neuro developmental treatment and sensory integration method in physiotherapy. The study aims to compare the combination of  neuro developmental treatment and sensory integratio...

  2. Parent perceptions of the quality of life of pet dogs living with neuro-typically developing and neuro-atypically developing children: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Sophie S.; Wright, Hannah F.; Mills, Daniel S.

    2017-01-01

    There is growing scientific and societal recognition of the role that pet dogs can play in healthy development of children; both those who are neuro-typically developing and those who live with a neuro-developmental disorder, such as autism or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, little attention has been paid to how living with children positively and negatively affects quality of life of a pet dog. In this exploratory study we conducted semi-structured interviews with parents ...

  3. Parent perceptions of the quality of life of pet dogs living with neuro-typically developing and neuro-atypically developing children: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Sophie S.; Wright, Hannah F.; Mills, Daniel S.

    2017-01-01

    There is growing scientific and societal recognition of the role that pet dogs can play in healthy development of children; both those who are neuro-typically developing and those who live with a neuro-developmental disorder, such as autism or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, little attention has been paid to how living with children positively and negatively affects quality of life of a pet dog. In this exploratory study we conducted semi-structured interviews with parents ...

  4. LinguisticBelief: a java application for linguistic evaluation using belief, fuzzy sets, and approximate reasoning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2007-03-01

    LinguisticBelief is a Java computer code that evaluates combinations of linguistic variables using an approximate reasoning rule base. Each variable is comprised of fuzzy sets, and a rule base describes the reasoning on combinations of variables fuzzy sets. Uncertainty is considered and propagated through the rule base using the belief/plausibility measure. The mathematics of fuzzy sets, approximate reasoning, and belief/ plausibility are complex. Without an automated tool, this complexity precludes their application to all but the simplest of problems. LinguisticBelief automates the use of these techniques, allowing complex problems to be evaluated easily. LinguisticBelief can be used free of charge on any Windows XP machine. This report documents the use and structure of the LinguisticBelief code, and the deployment package for installation client machines.

  5. Linguistic proximity and global flows of television: A study with gatekeepers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mast, Jelle; De Ruiter, Kelly; Kuppens, An H

    2017-01-01

    ... in the Dutch-speaking region in Europe reveal that gatekeepers' perceptions of audiences' linguistic preferences largely explain why they prefer programs in English and Dutch. In addition, the interviews reveal that a number of vicious circles reinforce the global dominance of English-language content. Keywords: television, globalization, ling...

  6. Educating Linguistically Diverse Students: A Mixed Methods Study of Elementary Teachers' Coursework, Attitudes, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Renée A.

    2016-01-01

    This study followed a mixed-methods sequential explanatory design. Phase I involved the collection of quantitative data to examine inservice teachers' (N = 69) attitudes about language and linguistic diversity as well as their teacher education coursework. All participants were graduates from the same teacher education program. Phase II included…

  7. A REACTION TO SISTER MARY EDWARD DOLAN'S LINGUISTICS IN TEACHING READING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARNHART, CLARENCE L.

    A REACTION TO SISTER MARY EDWARD DOLAN'S ARTICLE, "EFFECTS OF A MODIFIED LINGUISTICS AND WORD RECOGNITION PROGRAM ON FOURTH-GRADE READING ACHIEVEMENT," WHICH APPEARED IN THE "READING RESEARCH QUARTERLY" AND WHICH DESCRIBES THE RESULTS OF A 3-YEAR EXPERIMENT IN TEACHING READING WITH A BASAL SYSTEM TO A CONTROL GROUP OF 10 CLASSROOMS AND TEACHING…

  8. Linguistic Differences with Bilingual Parents Who Are Immigrants: Words for Dialoguing about Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Nyegenye, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    While partnerships including meaningful, two-way, parent-teacher dialogue about young children during early childhood program and school meetings are critical, linguistic differences between bilingual parents who are immigrants and early educators can impede communication and lead to inequitable services. In this article, we focus on one aspect of…

  9. The Dutch translation of the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) 2007 dictionary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, P.; Zijlstra, Hanna; Geenen, Rinie

    2017-01-01

    The words we use in everyday language reveal our thoughts, feelings, personality, and motivations. Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) is a software program to analyse text by counting words in 66 psychologically meaningful categories that are catalogued in a dictionary of words. This article

  10. Developing Collaborative Partnerships with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Families during the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Zachary; Sauer, Janet Story; Bui, Oanh; Ou, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Although there has been a consistent vision for multicultural education and family collaboration in teacher preparation programs for decades, collaborative partnerships between culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) families and their children's educators remain elusive (Harry, 2008; Trent, Kea, & Oh, 2008). Family engagement in special…

  11. Scaffolding Linguistic and Intercultural Goals in EFL with Simplified Novels and Their Film Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoreda, Margaret Lee; Vivaldo-Lima, Javier

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that exposure to culture will help students develop complex linguistic and cultural skills. The authors discuss the use of graded literary readers, audio resources, and films. They present a detailed description of the implementation and results of two simplified novel modules in an EFL program. One module was taught to…

  12. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Neuro-2a [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Neuro-2a mm9 Input control Neural Neuro-2a SRX691801,SRX706576,SRX...706574 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Neuro-2a.bed ...

  13. Randomized Controlled Study of a Remote Flipped Classroom Neuro-otology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Frederick Robert; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Hankir, Ahmed; Zayaruzny, Maksim; Najem, Kinda; Lungchukiet, Palita; Edwards, Roger A

    2017-01-01

    Medical Education can be delivered in the traditional classroom or via novel technology including an online classroom. To test the hypothesis that learning in an online classroom would result in similar outcomes as learning in the traditional classroom when using a flipped classroom pedagogy. Randomized controlled trial. A total of 274 subjects enrolled in a Neuro-otology training program for non-Neuro-otologists of 25 h held over a 3-day period. Subjects were randomized into a "control" group attending a traditional classroom and a "trial" group of equal numbers participating in an online synchronous Internet streaming classroom using the Adobe Connect e-learning platform. Subjects were randomized into a "control" group attending a traditional classroom and a "treatment" group of equal numbers participating in an online synchronous Internet streaming classroom. Pre- and post-multiple choice examinations of VOR, Movement, Head Turns, Head Tremor, Neurodegeneration, Inferior Olivary Complex, Collateral Projections, Eye Movement Training, Visual Saccades, Head Saccades, Visual Impairment, Walking Speed, Neuroprotection, Autophagy, Hyperkinetic Movement, Eye and Head Stability, Oscilllatory Head Movements, Gaze Stability, Leaky Neural Integrator, Cervical Dystonia, INC and Head Tilts, Visual Pursuits, Optokinetic Stimulation, and Vestibular Rehabilitation. All candidates took a pretest examination of the subject material. The 2-9 h and 1-8 h sessions over three consecutive days were given live in the classroom and synchronously in the online classroom using the Adobe Connect e-learning platform. Subjects randomized to the online classroom attended the lectures in a location of their choice and viewed the sessions live on the Internet. A posttest examination was given to all candidates after completion of the course. Two sample unpaired t tests with equal variances were calculated for all pretests and posttests for all groups including gender differences. All 274

  14. Randomized Controlled Study of a Remote Flipped Classroom Neuro-otology Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Robert Carrick

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ContextMedical Education can be delivered in the traditional classroom or via novel technology including an online classroom.ObjectiveTo test the hypothesis that learning in an online classroom would result in similar outcomes as learning in the traditional classroom when using a flipped classroom pedagogy.DesignRandomized controlled trial. A total of 274 subjects enrolled in a Neuro-otology training program for non-Neuro-otologists of 25 h held over a 3-day period. Subjects were randomized into a “control” group attending a traditional classroom and a “trial” group of equal numbers participating in an online synchronous Internet streaming classroom using the Adobe Connect e-learning platform.InterventionsSubjects were randomized into a “control” group attending a traditional classroom and a “treatment” group of equal numbers participating in an online synchronous Internet streaming classroom.Main outcome measuresPre- and post-multiple choice examinations of VOR, Movement, Head Turns, Head Tremor, Neurodegeneration, Inferior Olivary Complex, Collateral Projections, Eye Movement Training, Visual Saccades, Head Saccades, Visual Impairment, Walking Speed, Neuroprotection, Autophagy, Hyperkinetic Movement, Eye and Head Stability, Oscilllatory Head Movements, Gaze Stability, Leaky Neural Integrator, Cervical Dystonia, INC and Head Tilts, Visual Pursuits, Optokinetic Stimulation, and Vestibular Rehabilitation.MethodsAll candidates took a pretest examination of the subject material. The 2–9 h and 1–8 h sessions over three consecutive days were given live in the classroom and synchronously in the online classroom using the Adobe Connect e-learning platform. Subjects randomized to the online classroom attended the lectures in a location of their choice and viewed the sessions live on the Internet. A posttest examination was given to all candidates after completion of the course. Two sample unpaired t tests with equal variances

  15. Antenatal magnesium sulfate: Neuro-protection for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddie, S; Tuffnell, D J; McGuire, W

    2015-11-01

    The neuro-protective effect of antenatal magnesium sulfate on very preterm infants has been demonstrated in good-quality randomised controlled trials and meta-analyses. Magnesium administered prior to preterm delivery crosses over to the foetal circulation and acts via several pathways to reduce perinatal neuronal damage. Meta-analysis of the trial data indicates that antenatal magnesium sulfate reduces the risk of cerebral palsy by one-third, and results in one fewer case in every 50 women treated. Treatment is associated with discomfort and flushing in some women, but maternal side-effects are mostly transient and manageable. Magnesium sulfate has also been found to be without any serious adverse consequences in newborn infants. Consensus recommendations and guidelines have been developed and implemented internationally, and endorsed by the UK Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. However, magnesium sulfate for neuro-protection of very preterm infants has not yet become established widely in UK practice. Paediatricians, neonatologists and advocacy groups for preterm infants and their families could contribute to raising awareness and engage in dissemination activities and implementation initiatives to develop local protocols for adoption of this safe, effective and cost-effective intervention to reduce the burden of cerebral palsy in children born very preterm. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. The use of optical coherence tomography in neuro-ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Noel C Y; Chan, Carmen K M

    2017-11-01

    In the last decade, with the advances of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, different imaging protocols and analysis algorithms have been introduced to maximize the potential of this diagnostic tool in the evaluation of different eye diseases. This review aims to provide an update on these additional features, with respect to the management of a diverse range of neuro-ophthalmologic conditions. Macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) analysis has been shown to be superior to peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) analysis in certain settings, such as differentiating Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy from functional visual loss; monitoring neurodegenerative diseases or multiple sclerosis; and predicting visual loss in nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. mGCC analysis also demonstrates high correlation with perimetry and might serve as an early structural indicator of irreversible neuronal loss. Compared to pRNFL, retinal thickness analysis of the optic nerve head demonstrates better correlation with the severity of papilledema, thus enabling its possible application in detecting raised intracranial pressure, especially in the pediatric group. Upcoming research on emerging OCT technologies including OCT-angiography, enhanced depth imaging, retinal single-layer analysis and portable systems will hopefully further enhance the utility of OCT in the field. It is crucial for neuro-ophthalmologists to be updated and familiar with these newer OCT imaging protocols and to make appropriate choices for different clinical scenarios, in order to optimize the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.

  17. NEURO-FUZZY MODELLING OF BLENDING PROCESS IN CEMENT PLANT

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    Dauda Olarotimi Araromi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The profitability of a cement plant depends largely on the efficient operation of the blending stage, therefore, there is a need to control the process at the blending stage in order to maintain the chemical composition of the raw mix near or at the desired value with minimum variance despite variation in the raw material composition. In this work, neuro-fuzzy model is developed for a dynamic behaviour of the system to predict the total carbonate content in the raw mix at different clay feed rates. The data used for parameter estimation and model validation was obtained from one of the cement plants in Nigeria. The data was pre-processed to remove outliers and filtered using smoothening technique in order to reveal its dynamic nature. Autoregressive exogenous (ARX model was developed for comparison purpose. ARX model gave high root mean square error (RMSE of 5.408 and 4.0199 for training and validation respectively. Poor fit resulting from ARX model is an indication of nonlinear nature of the process. However, both visual and statistical analyses on neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS model gave a far better result. RMSE of training and validation are 0.28167 and 0.7436 respectively, and the sum of square error (SSE and R-square are 39.6692 and 0.9969 respectively. All these are an indication of good performance of ANFIS model. This model can be used for control design of the process.

  18. Skin cancer recognition by using a neuro-fuzzy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Bareqa; Alshraideh, Mohammad; Beidas, Rasha; Hayajneh, Ferial

    2011-02-02

    Skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer in the light-skinned population and it is generally caused by exposure to ultraviolet light. Early detection of skin cancer has the potential to reduce mortality and morbidity. There are many diagnostic technologies and tests to diagnose skin cancer. However many of these tests are extremely complex and subjective and depend heavily on the experience of the clinician. To obviate these problems, image processing techniques, a neural network system (NN) and a fuzzy inference system were used in this study as promising modalities for detection of different types of skin cancer. The accuracy rate of the diagnosis of skin cancer by using the hierarchal neural network was 90.67% while using neuro-fuzzy system yielded a slightly higher rate of accuracy of 91.26% in diagnosis skin cancer type. The sensitivity of NN in diagnosing skin cancer was 95%, while the specificity was 88%. Skin cancer diagnosis by neuro-fuzzy system achieved sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 89%.

  19. ADAPTIVE NEURO-FUZZY COMPUTING TECHNIQUE FOR PRECIPITATION ESTIMATION

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    Dalibor Petković

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the accuracy of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy computing technique in precipitation estimation. The monthly precipitation data from 29 synoptic stations in Serbia during 1946-2012 are used as case studies. Even though a number of mathematical functions have been proposed for modeling the precipitation estimation, these models still suffer from the disadvantages such as their being very demanding in terms of calculation time. Artificial neural network (ANN can be used as an alternative to the analytical approach since it offers advantages such as no required knowledge of internal system parameters, compact solution for multi-variable problems and fast calculation. Due to its being a crucial problem, this paper presents a process constructed so as to simulate precipitation with an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference (ANFIS method. ANFIS is a specific type of the ANN family and shows very good learning and prediction capabilities, which makes it an efficient tool for dealing with encountered uncertainties in any system such as precipitation. Neural network in ANFIS adjusts parameters of membership function in the fuzzy logic of the fuzzy inference system (FIS. This intelligent algorithm is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated.  The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.

  20. Neuro-Music Therapy for Recent-Onset Tinnitus

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    Miriam Grapp

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was the evaluation of the neuro-music therapy approach as a new treatment option for patients with recent-onset tinnitus whose tinnitus symptoms were enduring after initial pharmacological treatment. In all, 15 patients with recent-onset tinnitus took part in our manualized short-term music-therapeutic treatment. Tinnitus severity and individual tinnitus distress were assessed by the German version of the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ and the Attention and Performance Self-Assessment Scale (APSA at three different measurement times: baseline (T0, start of treatment (T1, and end of treatment (T2. Score changes in TQ and APSA from start to end of treatment indicated significant improvements in tinnitus-related distress. According to the Jacobson and Truax reliable change index (RC, 73.3% of the patients showed a reliable reduction in individual TQ-score. The neuro-music therapy for recent-onset tinnitus according to the “Heidelberg Model” introduced in this pilot study seems to provide an effective treatment option for patients with recent-onset tinnitus.

  1. Role of NeuroD1 on the negative regulation of Pomc expression by glucocorticoid.

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    Rehana Parvin

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the negative regulation of proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc by glucocorticoids (Gcs is still unclear in many points. Here, we demonstrated the involvement of neurogenic differentiation factor 1 (NeuroD1 in the Gc-mediated negative regulation of Pomc. Murine pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH producing corticotroph tumor-derived AtT20 cells were treated with dexamethasone (DEX (1-100 nM and cultured for 24 hrs. Thereafter, Pomc mRNA expression was studied by quantitative real-time PCR and rat Pomc promoter (-703/+58 activity was examined by luciferase assay. Both Pomc mRNA expression and Pomc promoter activity were inhibited by DEX in a dose-dependent manner. Deletion and point mutant analyses of Pomc promoter suggested that the DEX-mediated transcriptional repression was mediated via E-box that exists at -376/-371 in the promoter. Since NeuroD1 is known to bind to and activate E-box of the Pomc promoter, we next examined the effect of DEX on NeuroD1 expression. Interestingly, DEX dose-dependently inhibited NeuroD1 mRNA expression, mouse NeuroD1 promoter (-2.2-kb activity, and NeuroD1 protein expression in AtT20 cells. In addition, we confirmed the inhibitory effect of DEX on the interaction of NeuroD1 and E-box on Pomc promoter by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay. Finally, overexpression of mouse NeuroD1 could rescue the DEX-mediated inhibition of Pomc mRNA expression and Pomc promoter activity. Taken together, it is suggested that the suppression of NeuroD1 expression and the inhibition of NeuroD1/E-box interaction may play an important role in the Gc-mediated negative regulation of Pomc.

  2. LINGUISTIC AND POLITICAL ANALYSIS: COMPARATIVE ASPECTS

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    V. M. Alpatov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article analyses the book on political systems and processes in the East prepared by MGIMO-University authors and edited by Alexei D. Voskressenski in order to show the differences in approach and methods used in linguistics and political science. The author shows two significant differences in present-day stressing that linguistics of the XIX century was closer to the present-day political science? As he believes. The first difference includes monism of political science approach, since the book reveals monistic scale from totalitarianism to democracy, while linguistic has abandoned the monistic view on typology. The second difference is the value-addedness of the political science approach. The value-free norm in linguistics presupposes setting up of a single standard for all speakers in order to reach full mutual understanding. In political science subjective criteria are decisive for evaluation. The article gives examples from the book to prove that political science, compared to linguistics, is not aimed at overcoming contradictions, distinguishing between the terms, avoiding unproved statements and subjective evaluations.

  3. On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems

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    Vladimir Borissov Pericliev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems The notion of system of linguistic elements figures prominently in most post-Saussurian linguistics up to the present. A “system” is the network of the contrastive (or, distinctive features each element in the system bears to the remaining elements. The meaning (valeur of each element in the system is the set of features that are necessary and jointly sufficient to distinguish this element from all others. The paper addresses the problems of “redundancy”, i.e. the occurrence of features that are not strictly necessary in describing an element in a system. Redundancy is shown to smuggle into the description of linguistic systems, this infelicitous practice illustrated with some examples from the literature (e.g. the classical phonemic analysis of Russian by Cherry, Halle, and Jakobson, 1953. The logic and psychology of the occurrence of redundancy are briefly sketched and it is shown that, in addition to some other problems, redundancy leads to a huge and unresolvable ambiguity of descriptions of linguistic systems (the Buridan’s ass problem.

  4. Anticipatory systems as linguistic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2000-05-01

    The idea of system is well established although not well defined. What makes up a system depends on the observer. Thinking in terms of systems is only a convenient way to conceptualize organizations, natural or artificial, that show coherent properties. Among all properties, which can be ascribed to systems, one property seems to be more outstanding than others, namely that of being anticipatory. In nature, anticipatory properties are found only in living organizations. In this way it can be said to separate non-living systems from living because there is no indication that any natural phenomenon occurring in systems where there is no indication of life is anticipatory. The characteristic of living systems is that they are exposed to the evolution contrary to causal systems that do not undergo changes due to the influence of the environment. Causal systems are related to the past in such a way that subsequent situations can be calculated from knowledge of past situations. In causal systems the past is the cause of the present and there is no reference to the future as a determining agent, contrary to anticipatory systems where expectations are the cause of the present action. Since anticipatory properties are characteristic of living systems, this property, as all other properties in living systems, is a result of the evolution and can be found in plants as well as in animals. Thus, it is not only tied to consciousness but is found at a more basic level, i.e., in the interplay between genotype and phenotype. Anticipation is part of the genetic language in such a way that appropriate actions, for events in the anticipatory systems environment, are inscribed in the genes. Anticipatory behavior, as a result of the interpretation of the genetic language, has been selected by the evolution. In this paper anticipatory systems are regarded as linguistic systems and I argue that as such anticipation cannot be fragmented but must be holistically studied. This has the

  5. THE ROLE OF ADDITIONAL FOREIGN LANGUAGE EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING LINGUISTICALLY GIFTED STUDENTS’ LANGUAGE SKILLS

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    L. N. Shcherbatykh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to describe work of the chair of foreign languages of special disciplines of Elets State Bunin University with linguistically gifted school students.Methodology: supervision, poll, questioning, diagnosing of language abilities.Results: the author of research together with the colleagues of Elets State Bunin University developed and realized the program for three foreign languages (English, French, German for 2 groups of 25 school students having linguistic abilities, being trained in system of additional foreign-language education.Practical implications: experience of the done work can be used in training future teachers of foreign languages and when writing manuals.

  6. [An essay about science and linguistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugini, P

    2011-01-01

    Both the methodology and epistemology of science provided the criteria by which the scientific research can describe and interpret data and results of its observational or experimental studies. When the scientist approaches the conclusive inference, it is mandatory to think that both the knowledge and truth imply the use of words semantically and etymologically (semiologically) appropriate, especially if neologisms are required. Lacking a vocabulary, there will be the need of popularizing the inference to the linguistics of the context to which the message is addressed. This could imply a discrepancy among science, knowledge, truth and linguistics, that can be defined "semiologic bias". To avoid this linguistic error, the scientist must feel the responsibility to provide the scientific community with the new words that are semantically and etymologically coherent with what it has been scientifically discovered.

  7. Sentence processing and grammaticality in functional linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    The dissertation presents a functional linguistic model of grammaticality and investigates methods for applying this notion in empirical work. The use of the notion of grammaticality in generative grammar has been criticized by functionalists (Harder, 1996; Lakoff & Johnson, 1999), but attempts...... to constructively define what it then means that a sentence is grammatical from a functional linguistics perspective have been limited. The notion of grammaticality that will be put forward here is based on Langacker’s (2000) dynamical usage-based model. Langacker’s model is extended to accommodate the general...... grammaticality. It is concluded that the intuitions of linguists should in principle be considered hypotheses of grammaticality, and that such hypotheses need to be tested with independent data. Such data can for example take the form of corpus data or acceptability judgment experiments. It is furthermore argued...

  8. Linguistically debatable or just plain wrong?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plank, Barbara; Hovy, Dirk; Søgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In linguistic annotation projects, we typically develop annotation guidelines to maximize inter-annotator agreement and learnability. However, in this position paper we question whether we should actually limit the disagreements between annotators, rather than embrace them. We present an empirica...... to linguistically debatable cases, rather than to actual annotation errors. Specifically, we show that even in the absence of annotation guidelines, only 2% of annotator choices are linguistically unmotivated....... analysis of part-of-speech annotated data sets that suggests that certain disagreements are systematic across domains and languages. This points to an underlying ambiguity rather than random errors. Moreover, a quantitative analysis of disagreements reveals that the majority of them are due...

  9. Linguistic variation and change: Middle English infinitive

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    Frančiška Trobevšek Drobnak

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In Middle English the old inflected infinitive lost its supine function and gradually replaced the uninflected infinitive in all positions, except in the complementation of moal and a limited number of other verbs. According to most linguists, the choice between the to infinitive and the bare infinitive was either lexically or structurally conditioned. The theory of linguistic change as the assertion of weaker or stronger linguistic variants postulates the affinity of stronger variants for more complex, i. e. functionally marked grammaticall environment. The author tests the validity of the theory against the assertion of the English to infinitive at the expanse of the bare infinitive after the Norman Conquest. The results confirm the initial hypothesist that the degree of formal marked­ ness of the infinitive concurred with the degree of the functional markedness of grammatical pa­ rameters.

  10. Linguistic fire and human cognitive powers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    To view language as a cultural tool challenges much of what claims to be linguistic science while opening up a new people-centred linguistics. On this view, how we speak, think and act depends on, not just brains (or minds), but also cultural traditions. Yet, Everett is conservative: like others...... trained in distributional analysis, he reifies ‘words’. Though rejecting inner languages and grammatical universals, he ascribes mental reality to a lexicon. Reliant as he is on transcriptions, he takes the cognitivist view that brains represent word-forms. By contrast, in radical embodied cognitive...... theory, bodily dynamics themselves act as cues to meaning. Linguistic exostructures resemble tools that constrain how people concert acting-perceiving bodies. The result is unending renewal of verbal structures: like artefacts and institutions, they function to sustain a species-specific cultural ecology...

  11. The Relationship between Toponymy and Linguistics

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    Oana- Maria Poenaru (Girigan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Through this article I tried to point out that the toponymy of a region can be differently studied, given the concerns of the one conducting the research, thus the concern for toponymy must preocupy the geographer and historian but olso the linguist which aims to discover the origin of some names on purely linguistic criteria (of phonetic, semantic, onomasiologic nature and so on. The linguistic material (exemplified toponyms obtained from field surveys (Upper Bistriţa basin and the study of specialised historical and geographical documents aims to capture relatively new concepts such as polarization and differentiation, presenting the meaning, etymology and changes occurring over time in the process of denomination of a reality. I also tried to capture the fact that common names and place names do not exclude each other, but are in a reciprocity relationship, despite some semantic, derivational and grammatical particularities.

  12. Relationships of linguistic and motivation variables with drinking outcomes following two mailed brief interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Susan E; Carey, Kate B; Smyth, Joshua

    2005-07-01

    This study was a post hoc analysis of linguistic and motivation variables found in writing samples following the administration of two mailed brief interventions. At-risk college drinkers (N = 100) received personalized normative feedback (PNF) or an alcohol education (AE) brochure via mail. Participants responded to open-ended questions describing their reactions to the information they received. The writing samples were then coded for linguistic characteristics using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count program and for proportions of self-motivational statements using a modified version of the Motivational Interviewing Skills Code. Group comparisons indicated that the PNF group used a significantly higher percentage of first-person-singular and school-related words, whereas the AE group used a higher percentage of discrepancy, second-person and body-related words. Furthermore, the PNF group produced more language consistent with motivation to change than did the AE group. Hierarchical regressions testing mediation and moderation indicated that linguistic references to school and motivation moderated the group effect on changes in consumption during the heaviest drinking week. Further, although the group predicted reduction in heavy, episodic drinking, its effect was completely mediated by linguistic variables. Findings confirmed that PNF elicits distinct verbal responses that are associated with increased motivation and behavior change.

  13. ENCYCLOPEDIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LINGUISTIC PERSONALITY TYPE "THE BRITISH QUEEN”

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    Ирина Александровна Мурзинова

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article clarifies the concept of the encyclopedic zone as a semantic component of a linguistic and cultural concept and methodology of its study. The author examines a set of semantic characteristics that make up the encyclopedic area of the linguistic personality type "the British Queen", a concept of a typified personality, actualized in everyday, mass-media, encyclopedic types of discourse. The relevance of the problem is evidenced by the need to study the most important concepts in the British culture, including both their universal characteristics and cultural peculiarities, which will undoubtedly contribute to a better understanding of the concepts that are most important for external cultures and optimize cross-cultural communication in general. The study is based on the theory of linguistic personality types, which is being developed at present at the junction of linguistics, linguistic conceptology, linguistic personology, semiotics and axiological linguistics. We used methods of linguistic research (conceptual, definitional, contextual, interpretive types of analysis, the method of quantitative analysis, the method of questionnaire, and the scientific methods (hypothetical-deductive analysis, data integration and classification, introspection. The most general paradigmatic components of “the British Queen” concept have been revealed, demarcating the semantic component of the linguistic personality type “the British Queen” from other concepts. The results can be used for scientific research in the field of linguistics and related sciences, in particular, for the further development of the theory of linguistic personality types as one of the areas of linguistics, as well as in teaching (in university courses of linguistics, intercultural communication, country specific studies (focusing on Britain, the theory of linguistic personality types, linguistic personality and studies,  linguistic conceptology, semiotics, axiological

  14. A modest proposal: Linguistics and literary studies

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    Anne Furlong

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Linguistics should make significant contributions to literary and critical theory, but has failed to do so. This paper investigates the reasons for the failure and suggests an approach based in Relevance Theory for a working relationship between literary studies and pragmatics. Literary critics have misappropriated linguistic terminology and theories, because their model of language is outdated, and because they blur the distinction between scientific theories and interpretive frameworks—contexts in which assumptions are highly salient. Following an outline of Relevance Theory, an application of relevance stylistics demonstrates the distinctions between theories and interpretive frameworks, and how they can reinforce one another.

  15. Web Service Matchmaking Based on Linguistic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dexin; Li, Wenjie; Zhang, Degan

    Matchmaking is considered as one of the crucial factors to ensure pervasive discovery of web services. Current matchmaking methods are inadequate to semantic information with machine understandable, therefore intelligent service discovery can not be carried on. In this paper, we use fuzzy linguistic variables to represent the vague or imprecise data at abstract level. The match method performs two levels, first level is capability match by inputs and outputs interfaces based on description logic reasoning, and the second level is the fuzzy match with linguistic variables, thus the more reasonable results will be presented to the users for selection.

  16. The semiology of motor disorders in Autism Spectrum Disorders as highlighted from a standardized neuro-psychomotor assessment

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    Aude Paquet

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Altered motor performance has been described in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD with disturbances in walking; posture, coordination or arm movements, but some individuals with ASD show no impairment of motor skills. The neuro-developmental processes that underpin the performance of neuro-psychomotor functions have not been widely explored,nor is it clear whether there areneuro-psychomotor functions specifically affected in ASD. Our objective was to focus on the semiology of motor disorders among children with ASD using a neuro-developmental assessment tool.Method: Thirty-four children with ASD, with or without intellectual deficit (ID were recruited in a child psychiatry department and Autism Resource Centers. Initial standard evaluations for diagnosis (psychiatric; psychological; psychomotor were supplemented by a standardized assessment battery for neuro-developmental psychomotor functions (NP-MOT.Results: The results of some NP-MOT tests differed between children with ASD with intellectual deficit (ID and those without. However, on the NP-MOT battery, neither of the two groups did well in the bi-manual and finger praxia tests (36% and 52% respectively failed. Manual and digital gnosopraxia showed some deficit (63% and 62% respectively failed. Postural deficits were found in tests for both static equilibrium (64% and dynamic (52%. There were also difficulties in coordination between the upper and lower limbs in 58% of children. We found 75% failure in motor skills on the M-ABC test. Concerning muscular tone, significant laxity was observed in distal parts of the body (feet and hands, but hypertonia was observed in the proximal muscles of the lower limbs (reduced heel-ear angle.Discussion: The results of manual and digital gnosopraxia tests point to a planning deficit in children with autism. A gesture programming deficit is also highlighted by the poor results in manual praxis, and by failures in the M-ABC tests despite prior

  17. Children's Language and Experiences: Some Considerations for Linguists. Linguistic Communications: Working Papers of the Linguistic Society of Australia, No. 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Julia

    This paper examines a didactic model of teaching-learning which underlies the approach of many teachers and linguists, and proposes an organic interaction model, which recognizes children's individual needs and characteristics, instead. Problems in interpreting test results in areas of primary or oral language and in the secondary language skills…

  18. [Neuro-ophthalmology: the eye as a window to the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Anat

    2013-02-01

    Neuro-ophthalmology focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of visual disorders related to the neurological system rather than the globe itself. Being a subspecialty of both neurology and ophthalmology, it requires specialized training and expertise in diseases of the eye, brain, nerves and muscles. Commonly encountered pathologies in neuro-ophthalmology include: optic neuropathies (such as optic neuritis and ischemic optic neuropathy), visual field loss (transient, constant, unexplained), transient visual loss, unspecified visual disturbances, diplopia, abnormal eye movements, thyroid eye disease, myasthenia gravis, anisocoria, and eyelid abnormalities. The current issue of "Harefuah" is dedicated to contemporary knowledge in neuro-opthalmology, and spans from studies of neuromyelitis optica (NMO), ischemic optic neuropathies, and optic neuropathies induced by phosphodiesterase inhibitors, to the management of sight-threatening carotid-cavernous fistulas, and more. These studies emphasize the importance of an interdisciplinary treatment team consisting of a neuro-ophthalmologist, a neuro-radiologist, and sometimes, even a neuro-surgeon. Such an approach may prove to be beneficial to the patient, by optimizing follow-up and treatment decisions. This issue emphasizes how a correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount significance in patients with neuro-ophthalmological disorders.

  19. Talking to neuro-baby; Onsei de Ningen to komyunikeshon dekiru robotikusu ato:nyuro beibi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosa, N. [Musashino Art Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Formative

    1995-04-10

    Neuro-baby is an electronic living being having a face of a human baby and can communicate with the human being with a voice. Irrespective to human, one can talk with neuro-baby by switching on the button whenever you like to talk. If one does not like to talk with the baby you can make the switch off. It is a digital living being that can die anytime and can back to life always. The artistic concept of neuro-baby, interactive function, design method of the nature of neuro-baby and study of the relation of the voice and feelings are described. Again, network neuro-baby, neuro-baby that responses to anybody beyond the language barrier developed by joint collaboration with Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd., is introduced. Birth of such kind of neuro-baby is a media art with a system itself as a artistic work, and in future it may expand to the development of common language which can be understood by the people of the world. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  20. NeuroD2 regulates the development of hippocampal mossy fiber synapses

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    Wilke Scott A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assembly of neural circuits requires the concerted action of both genetically determined and activity-dependent mechanisms. Calcium-regulated transcription may link these processes, but the influence of specific transcription factors on the differentiation of synapse-specific properties is poorly understood. Here we characterize the influence of NeuroD2, a calcium-dependent transcription factor, in regulating the structural and functional maturation of the hippocampal mossy fiber (MF synapse. Results Using NeuroD2 null mice and in vivo lentivirus-mediated gene knockdown, we demonstrate a critical role for NeuroD2 in the formation of CA3 dendritic spines receiving MF inputs. We also use electrophysiological recordings from CA3 neurons while stimulating MF axons to show that NeuroD2 regulates the differentiation of functional properties at the MF synapse. Finally, we find that NeuroD2 regulates PSD95 expression in hippocampal neurons and that PSD95 loss of function in vivo reproduces CA3 neuron spine defects observed in NeuroD2 null mice. Conclusion These experiments identify NeuroD2 as a key transcription factor that regulates the structural and functional differentiation of MF synapses in vivo.