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  1. Tissue engineering intrafusal fibers: dose- and time-dependent differentiation of nuclear bag fibers in a defined in vitro system using neuregulin 1-beta-1.

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    Rumsey, John W; Das, Mainak; Kang, Jung-Fong; Wagner, Robert; Molnar, Peter; Hickman, James J

    2008-03-01

    While much is known about muscle spindle structure, innervation and function, relatively few factors have been identified that regulate intrafusal fiber differentiation and spindle development. Identification of these factors will be a crucial step in tissue engineering functional muscle systems. In this study, we investigated the role of the growth factor, neuregulin 1-beta-1 (Nrg 1-beta-1) EGF, for its ability to influence myotube fate specification in a defined culture system utilizing the non-biological substrate N-1[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]-diethylenetriamine (DETA). Based on morphological and immunocytochemical criteria, Nrg 1-beta-1 treatment of developing myotubes increases the ratio of nuclear bag fibers to total myotubes from 0.019 to 0.100, approximately a five-fold increase. The myotube cultures were evaluated for expression of the intrafusal fiber-specific alpha cardiac-like myosin heavy chain and for the expression of the non-specific slow myosin heavy chain. Additionally, the expression of ErbB2 receptors on all myotubes was observed, while phosphorylated ErbB2 receptors were only observed in Nrg 1-beta-1-treated intrafusal fibers. After Nrg 1-beta-1 treatment, we were able to observe the expression of the intrafusal fiber-specific transcription factor Egr3 only in fibers exhibiting the nuclear bag phenotype. Finally, nuclear bag fibers were characterized electrophysiologically for the first time in vitro. This data shows conclusively, in a serum-free system, that Nrg 1-beta-1 is necessary to drive specification of forming myotubes to the nuclear bag phenotype.

  2. Cardiac rehabilitation improves the blood plasma properties of cardiac patients.

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    Gwoździński, Krzysztof; Pieniążek, Anna; Czepas, Jan; Brzeszczyńska, Joanna; Jegier, Anna; Pawlicki, Lucjan

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves exercise tolerance and general function. However, its effects on blood plasma in cardiac patients remain uncertain. Our aim was to examine the effect of comprehensive CR on the oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant plasma status in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after cardiac interventions. Exercise-based rehabilitation was established as ergometer training, adjusted for individual patients' physical efficiency. Training was repeated three times a week for two months. The standard biochemical (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and metabolic parameters (peak oxygen uptake [VO2] and peak workload) were determined. We assessed plasma viscosity, lipid peroxidation, carbonyl compounds levels, glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (ASC) levels and the non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity of plasma in 12 patients with CAD before and after CR. Parameters were examined before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 1 h later. We also compared morphological and biochemical parameters of blood, as well as other parameters such as heart rate and blood pressure (resting and exercise), VO2max and peak workload (W) before and after CR. Before CR, a significant decrease in GSH concentration was observed 1 h after exercise. Conversely, after CR, GSH, and ASC levels remained unchanged immediately after exercise. However, ASC increased after CR after exercise and 1 h later in comparison to before CR. There was a significant increase in ferric reduction ability of plasma immediately after exercise after CR, when compared with before CR. CR improved several blood biochemical parameters, peak VO2, induced an increase in systolic blood pressure peak, and patients' peak workload. After CR, improvements were detected in oxidative stress parameters, except in the level of carbonyls. These changes may contribute to the increased functional heart capacity and better tolerance to exercise and

  3. Improving cardiac myocytes performance by CNTs platforms

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    Valentina eMartinelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of nanotechnology to the cardiovascular system has increasingly caught scientists’ attention as a potentially powerful tool for the development of new generation devices able to interface, repair or boost the performance of cardiac tissue. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are considered as promising materials for nanomedicine applications in general and have been recently tested towards excitable cell growth. CNTs are cylindrically shaped structures made up of rolled-up graphene sheets, with unique electrical, thermal and mechanical properties, able to effectively conducting electrical current in electrochemical interfaces. CNTs-based scaffolds have been recently found to support the in vitro growth of cardiac cells: in particular, their ability to improve cardiomyocytes proliferation, maturation and electrical behavior are making CNTs extremely attractive for the development and exploitation of interfaces able to impact on cardiac cells physiology and function.

  4. Improvement of cardiac screening in amateur athletes.

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    Schmied, Christian M

    2015-01-01

    Although not performing on a professional level, amateur athletes, nevertheless, are participating in competitive sports and thus underlie a relevant risk for exercise-related SCD which implicates the need for an adequate pre-competition cardiac screening. As many amateur athletes belong to the category of "older" individuals, particularly CAD among male athletes with risk factors has to be targeted by the screening. However, the detection of clinically silent underlying coronary heart disease is challenging and cannot be accurately achieved by a standard screening provided to young athletes (history, clinical status, ECG). An extended work-up, at least, mandates the detection of cholesterol levels to estimate the individual cardiovascular risk. The fact that only less than 10% of Swiss amateur athletes have undergone cardiac screening led to various promising approaches to improve the awareness of the issue. Exemplarily, we successfully invented an "on-site" prevention campaign that positively influenced the attitude of the athletes towards cardiac screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hospital Variation in Mortality From Cardiac Arrest After Cardiac Surgery: An Opportunity for Improvement?

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    LaPar, Damien J.; Ghanta, Ravi K.; Kern, John A.; Crosby, Ivan K.; Rich, Jeffrey B.; Speir, Alan M.; Kron, Irving L.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2016-01-01

    Background Among all postoperative complications, cardiac arrest after cardiac surgical operations has the greatest association with mortality. However, hospital variation in the ability to rescue after cardiac arrest is unknown. The purpose of this study was to characterize the impact of cardiac arrest on mortality and determine the relative impact of patient, operative, and hospital factors on failure to rescue (FTR) rates and surgical mortality after cardiac arrest. Methods A total of 79,582 patients underwent operations at 17 different hospitals (2001 through 2011), including 5.2% (n = 4,138) with postoperative cardiac arrest. Failure to rescue was defined as mortality after cardiac arrest. Patient risk, operative features, and outcomes were compared among hospitals. Results Overall FTR rate was 60% with significant variation among hospitals (range, 50% to 83%; p cardiac arrest, and FTR rates varied across hospitals and did not correlate. High-performing hospitals with lowest FTR rates accrued longer postoperative and intensive care unit stays after the index operation (2 to 3 days; p cardiac surgical mortality and FTR rates after cardiac arrest. Institutional factors appear to confer the strongest influence on the likelihood for mortality after cardiac arrest compared with patient and operative factors. Identifying best practice patterns at the highest performing centers may serve to improve surgical outcomes after cardiac arrest and improve patient quality. PMID:24820394

  6. Cardiac surgery productivity and throughput improvements.

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    Lehtonen, Juha-Matti; Kujala, Jaakko; Kouri, Juhani; Hippeläinen, Mikko

    2007-01-01

    The high variability in cardiac surgery length--is one of the main challenges for staff managing productivity. This study aims to evaluate the impact of six interventions on open-heart surgery operating theatre productivity. A discrete operating theatre event simulation model with empirical operation time input data from 2603 patients is used to evaluate the effect that these process interventions have on the surgery output and overtime work. A linear regression model was used to get operation time forecasts for surgery scheduling while it also could be used to explain operation time. A forecasting model based on the linear regression of variables available before the surgery explains 46 per cent operating time variance. The main factors influencing operation length were type of operation, redoing the operation and the head surgeon. Reduction of changeover time between surgeries by inducing anaesthesia outside an operating theatre and by reducing slack time at the end of day after a second surgery have the strongest effects on surgery output and productivity. A more accurate operation time forecast did not have any effect on output, although improved operation time forecast did decrease overtime work. A reduction in the operation time itself is not studied in this article. However, the forecasting model can also be applied to discover which factors are most significant in explaining variation in the length of open-heart surgery. The challenge in scheduling two open-heart surgeries in one day can be partly resolved by increasing the length of the day, decreasing the time between two surgeries or by improving patient scheduling procedures so that two short surgeries can be paired. A linear regression model is created in the paper to increase the accuracy of operation time forecasting and to identify factors that have the most influence on operation time. A simulation model is used to analyse the impact of improved surgical length forecasting and five selected process

  7. Cardiac sympathetic afferent denervation attenuates cardiac remodeling and improves cardiovascular dysfunction in rats with heart failure.

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    Wang, Han-Jun; Wang, Wei; Cornish, Kurtis G; Rozanski, George J; Zucker, Irving H

    2014-10-01

    The enhanced cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) contributes to the exaggerated sympathoexcitation in chronic heart failure (CHF). Increased sympathoexcitation is positively related to mortality in patients with CHF. However, the potential beneficial effects of chronic CSAR deletion on cardiac and autonomic function in CHF have not been previously explored. Here, we determined the effects of chronic CSAR deletion on cardiac remodeling and autonomic dysfunction in CHF. To delete the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor-expressing CSAR afferents selectively, epicardial application of resiniferatoxin (50 μg/mL), an ultrapotent analog of capsaicin, was performed during myocardium infarction surgery in rats. This procedure largely abolished the enhanced CSAR, prevented the exaggerated renal and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and improved baroreflex sensitivity in CHF rats. Most importantly, we found that epicardial application of resiniferatoxin largely prevented the elevated left ventricle end-diastolic pressure, lung edema, and cardiac hypertrophy, partially reduced left ventricular dimensions in the failing heart, and increased cardiac contractile reserve in response to β-adrenergic receptor stimulation with isoproterenol in CHF rats. Molecular evidence showed that resiniferatoxin attenuated cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis and reduced expression of fibrotic markers and transforming growth factor-β receptor I in CHF rats. Pressure-volume loop analysis showed that resiniferatoxin reduced the end-diastolic pressure volume relationships in CHF rats, indicating improved cardiac compliance. In summary, cardiac sympathetic afferent deletion exhibits protective effects against deleterious cardiac remodeling and autonomic dysfunction in CHF. These data suggest a potential new paradigm and therapeutic potential in the management of CHF. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Inhibition of neutrophil activity improves cardiac function after cardiopulmonary bypass

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    Grünwald Frank

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arterial in line application of the leukocyte inhibition module (LIM in the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB limits overshooting leukocyte activity during cardiac surgery. We studied in a porcine model whether LIM may have beneficial effects on cardiac function after CPB. Methods German landrace pigs underwent CPB (60 min myocardial ischemia; 30 min reperfusion without (group I; n = 6 or with LIM (group II; n = 6. The cardiac indices (CI and cardiac function were analyzed pre and post CPB with a Swan-Ganz catheter and the cardiac function analyzer. Neutrophil labeling with technetium, scintigraphy, and histological analyses were done to track activated neutrophils within the organs. Results LIM prevented CPB-associated increase of neutrophil counts in peripheral blood. In group I, the CI significantly declined post CPB (post: 3.26 ± 0.31; pre: 4.05 ± 0.45 l/min/m2; p 2; p = 0.23. Post CPB, the intergroup difference showed significantly higher CI values in the LIM group (p Conclusion Our data provides strong evidence that LIM improves perioperative hemodynamics and cardiac function after CPB by limiting neutrophil activity and inducing accelerated sequestration of neutrophils in the spleen.

  9. OSM Enhances Angiogenesis and Improves Cardiac Function after Myocardial Infarction

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    Xiaotian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncostatin M (OSM has been reported to stimulate angiogenesis by upregulating VEGF and bFGF, implying that it could be a therapeutic strategy in treating ischemic diseases. The present study was aimed at investigating whether OSM could improve cardiac function via prompting angiogenesis following myocardial infarction (MI. Wild type (WT and Oβ knock-out (Oβ−/− mice were, respectively, randomized into sham group, MI + vehicle group, and MI + OSM group. WT mice displayed significantly impaired cardiac function after MI. OSM treatment attenuated cardiac dysfunction in WT MI mice, while Oβ deletion abrogated the protective effects. Besides, OSM attenuated heart hypertrophy and pulmonary congestion evidenced by decreased heart weight/body weight and lung weight/body weight ratio. Further, reduction of apoptosis and fibrosis in infarct border zone was observed in OSM treated WT MI mice compared with vehicle. Moreover, in WT mice subjected to MI, OSM treatment significantly increased capillary density along with upregulation of p-Akt and angiogenic factors VEGF and bFGF in comparison with vehicle, and this phenomenon was not found in Oβ−/− mice. In conclusion, OSM treatment preserved cardiac function, inhibited apoptosis and fibrosis, and stimulated angiogenesis via upregulating VEGF and bFGF in infarct border zone of ischemic myocardium, indicating that OSM could be a novel therapeutic target for MI.

  10. Does post-cardiac surgery magnesium supplementation improve outcome?

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    Carrió, Maria L; Ventura, Josep L; Javierre, Casimiro; Rodríguez-Castro, David; Farrero, Elisabet; Torrado, Herminia; Badia, Maria B; Granados, Jorge

    2012-12-01

    Hypomagnesemia has been linked with increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Since the condition is common after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, the objective of this study was to determine whether magnesium supplementation in the immediate postoperative period may improve outcomes of patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in a third-level, cardiac surgery intensive care unit (ICU) at a university hospital. Two hundred and sixteen patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were randomized to receive either an intravenous bolus of 1.5 g of magnesium sulphate followed by an infusion of 12 g of the same salt in 24 h (105 patients), or placebo (111 patients) administered according to the same schedule as the treatment group. No significant differences were found either in the primary end point (hours of intubation) or in the secondary end points (length of inotropic support, new atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation, length of intensive care unit stay, or ICU or hospital mortality). Hypomagnesemia was present in 12% of patients on admission to the intensive care unit. The magnesium group had a greater need for pacemaker stimulation. In conclusion, under the conditions of the present study, magnesium supplementation after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass does not favourably affect clinical outcomes.

  11. Biologically improved nanofibrous scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering

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    Bhaarathy, V. [Centre for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Department of Nanoscience and Technology, School of Physical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, 138673 (Singapore); Venugopal, J., E-mail: nnijrv@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Gandhimathi, C. [Centre for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore); Ponpandian, N.; Mangalaraj, D. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, School of Physical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Ramakrishna, S. [Centre for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, NUSNNI, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-11-01

    Nanofibrous structure developed by electrospinning technology provides attractive extracellular matrix conditions for the anchorage, migration and differentiation of stem cells, including those responsible for regenerative medicine. Recently, biocomposite nanofibers consisting of two or more polymeric blends are electrospun more tidily in order to obtain scaffolds with desired functional and mechanical properties depending on their applications. The study focuses on one such an attempt of using copolymer Poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly (ε-caprolactone) (PLACL), silk fibroin (SF) and Aloe Vera (AV) for fabricating biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. SEM micrographs of fabricated electrospun PLACL, PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV nanofibrous scaffolds are porous, beadless, uniform nanofibers with interconnected pores and obtained fibre diameter in the range of 459 ± 22 nm, 202 ± 12 nm and 188 ± 16 nm respectively. PLACL, PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV electrospun mats obtained at room temperature with an elastic modulus of 14.1 ± 0.7, 9.96 ± 2.5 and 7.0 ± 0.9 MPa respectively. PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers have more desirable properties to act as flexible cell supporting scaffolds compared to PLACL for the repair of myocardial infarction (MI). The PLACL/SF and PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers had a contact angle of 51 ± 12° compared to that of 133 ± 15° of PLACL alone. Cardiac cell proliferation was increased by 21% in PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers compared to PLACL by day 6 and further increased to 42% by day 9. Confocal analysis for cardiac expression proteins myosin and connexin 43 was observed better by day 9 compared to all other nanofibrous scaffolds. The results proved that the fabricated PLACL/SF/AV nanofibrous scaffolds have good potentiality for the regeneration of infarcted myocardium in cardiac tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Fabricated nanofibrous scaffolds are porous, beadless and uniform structures. • PLACL/SF/AV nanofibers improve the

  12. [Do critical pathways improve outcomes of patients with cardiac failure?].

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    Barbieri, Antonietta; Milan, Erika; Cattaneo, Maria Grazia; Faggian, Fabrizio; Panella, Massimiliano

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac failure represents an important public health problem and despite recent clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic advances, the incidence and prevalence of this syndrome show a steady increase. In view of this, the authors conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of critical pathways in the management of patients with cardiac failure when compared with standard care. The impact of critical pathways on the following outcomes were evaluated: hospital mortality, mortality at six months, mean length of hospital stay, direct costs, readmission rates at one, three and six months. The following databases were consulted: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The research was limited to articles published between January 1975 and June 2010. Methodological quality of studies was evaluated by the Jadad method (for RCTs, cRCT, CCT) and the New Castle Ottawa Scale for case-control and cohort studies. Data analysis was performed by using the statistical methods described in the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Meta-analyses were performed using RevMan software version 5. Eleven studies were included in the meta-analysis (5,460 patients). A lower mortality (hospital mortality and mortality at 6 months) was observed in the critical pathways group compared to the group treated with standard care. A positive impact of critical pathways was also observed in length of stay, direct costs, readmission after one, three and six months. Critical pathways can improve the quality of care provided to patients with cardiac failure. Further studies are needed to evaluate which mechanisms within the care pathways can truly improve the quality of care.

  13. Improving guideline adherence for cardiac rehabilitation in the Netherlands.

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    Kemps, H M C; van Engen-Verheul, M M; Kraaijenhagen, R A; Goud, R; Hellemans, I M; van Exel, H J; Sunamura, M; Peters, R J; Peek, N

    2011-06-01

    In 2004, the Netherlands Society of Cardiology released the current guideline on cardiac rehabilitation. Given its complexity and the involvement of various healthcare disciplines, it was supplemented with a clinical algorithm, serving to facilitate its implementation in daily practice. Although the algorithm was shown to be effective for improving guideline adherence, several shortcomings and deficiencies were revealed. Based on these findings, the clinical algorithm has now been updated. This article describes the process and the changes that were made. The revision consisted of three phases. First, the reliability of the measurement instruments included in the 2004 Clinical Algorithm was investigated by evaluating between-centre variations of the baseline assessment data. Second, based on the available evidence, a multidisciplinary expert advisory panel selected items needing revision and provided specific recommendations. Third, a guideline development group decided which revisions were finally included, also taking practical considerations into account. A total of nine items were revised: three because of new scientific insights and six because of the need for more objective measurement instruments. In all revised items, subjective assessment methods were replaced by more objective assessment tools (e.g. symptom-limited exercise instead of clinical judgement). In addition, four new key items were added: screening for anxiety/depression, stress, cardiovascular risk profile and alcohol consumption. Based on previously determined shortcomings, the Clinical Algorithm for Cardiac Rehabilitation was thoroughly revised mainly by incorporating more objective assessment methods and by adding several new key areas.

  14. IL-33 Independently Induces Eosinophilic Pericarditis and Cardiac Dilation: ST2 Improves Cardiac Function

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    Abston, Eric D.; Barin, Jobert G.; Cihakova, Daniela; Bucek, Adriana; Coronado, Michael J.; Brandt, Jessica E.; Bedja, Djahida; Kim, Joseph B.; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios; Gabrielson, Kathleen L.; Mitzner, Wayne; Fairweather, DeLisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Interleukin (IL)-33 via its receptor ST2 protects the heart from myocardial infarct and hypertrophy in animal models, but paradoxically increases autoimmune disease. In this study we examined the effect of IL-33 or ST2 administration on autoimmune heart disease. Methods and Results We used pressure volume relationships and isoproterenol challenge to assess the effect of recombinant (r)IL-33 or rST2 (e.g. soluble ST2) administration on the development of autoimmune coxsackievirus (CVB3) myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in male BALB/c mice. rIL-33 treatment significantly increased acute perimyocarditis (p=0.006) and eosinophilia (p=1.3×10−5), impaired cardiac function (maximum ventricular power p=0.0002), and increased ventricular dilation (end diastolic volume p=0.01). rST2 treatment prevented eosinophilia and improved heart function compared to rIL-33 treatment (ejection fraction, p=0.009). Neither treatment altered viral replication. rIL-33 increased IL-4, IL-33, IL-1β and IL-6 levels in the heart during acute myocarditis. To determine whether IL-33 altered cardiac function on its own, we administered rIL-33 to undiseased mice and found that rIL-33 induced eosinophilic pericarditis and adversely affected heart function. We used cytokine knockout mice to determine that this effect was due to IL-33-mediated signaling but not IL-1β or IL-6. Conclusions We show for the first time that IL-33 induces eosinophilic pericarditis while sST2 prevents eosinophilia and improves systolic function, and that IL-33 independently adversely affects heart function via the IL-33 receptor. PMID:22454393

  15. Evolution of strategies to improve preclinical cardiac safety testing.

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    Gintant, Gary; Sager, Philip T; Stockbridge, Norman

    2016-07-01

    The early and efficient assessment of cardiac safety liabilities is essential to confidently advance novel drug candidates. This article discusses evolving mechanistically based preclinical strategies for detecting drug-induced electrophysiological and structural cardiotoxicity using in vitro human ion channel assays, human-based in silico reconstructions and human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. These strategies represent a paradigm shift from current approaches, which rely on simplistic in vitro assays that measure blockade of the Kv11.1 current (also known as the hERG current or IKr) and on the use of non-human cells or tissues. These new strategies have the potential to improve sensitivity and specificity in the early detection of genuine cardiotoxicity risks, thereby reducing the likelihood of mistakenly discarding viable drug candidates and speeding the progression of worthy drugs into clinical trials.

  16. Effects of cardiac rehabilitation in diabetic patients: both cardiac and noncardiac factors determine improvement in exercise capacity.

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    St Clair, Mitchell; Mehta, Hardik; Sacrinty, Matthew; Johnson, Dominic; Robinson, Killian

    2014-04-01

    Diabetic patients have a worse prognosis than nondiabetic patients after myocardial infarction. Although exercise improves risk factors, exercise capacity, and mortality, it is still unclear if these benefits are the same as in nondiabetics. Furthermore, although exercise tolerance is predicted by systolic and diastolic dysfunction in nondiabetics, its role as a predictor of exercise capacity in diabetics remains unclear. Diabetics and nondiabetics see a similar improvement in their cardiac risk factors and exercise parameters from exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR). A series of 370 diabetics and 942 nondiabetics entered a 36-session outpatient CR program after interventions for coronary heart disease or after bypass or cardiac valve surgery. The program consisted of physical exercise, lifestyle modification, and pharmacotherapy. Quality of life, weight, blood pressure, and lipid profiles improved significantly in both groups during the 12-week program. Baseline metabolic equivalents (METs) were lower in diabetics vs nondiabetics at the start of CR (2.4 vs 2.7, P diabetics had less improvement (change in METs 1.7 vs 2.6, P diabetes remained a significant predictor of reduced improvement in exercise capacity. Diabetics saw a significant benefit in quality of life, weight, exercise tolerance, and cardiac risk factors, but to a lesser extent when compared with nondiabetics. The mechanisms for poorer improvement in diabetics following CR also include noncardiac factors and require further study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Enhanced pyruvate dehydrogenase activity improves cardiac outcomes in a murine model of cardiac arrest.

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    Lin Piao

    Full Text Available Post-ischemic changes in cellular metabolism alter myocardial and neurological function. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH, the limiting step in mitochondrial glucose oxidation, is inhibited by increased expression of PDH kinase (PDK during ischemia/reperfusion injury. This results in decreased utilization of glucose to generate cellular ATP. Post-cardiac arrest (CA hypothermia improves outcomes and alters metabolism, but its influence on PDH and PDK activity following CA are unknown. We hypothesized that therapeutic hypothermia (TH following CA is associated with the inhibition of PDK activity and increased PDH activity. We further hypothesized that an inhibitor of PDK activity, dichloroacetate (DCA, would improve PDH activity and post-CA outcomes.Anesthetized and ventilated adult female C57BL/6 wild-type mice underwent a 12-minute KCl-induced CA followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Compared to normothermic (37°C CA controls, administering TH (30°C improved overall survival (72-hour survival rate: 62.5% vs. 28.6%, P<0.001, post-resuscitation myocardial function (ejection fraction: 50.9±3.1% vs. 27.2±2.0%, P<0.001; aorta systolic pressure: 132.7±7.3 vs. 72.3±3.0 mmHg, P<0.001, and neurological scores at 72-hour post CA (9.5±1.3 vs. 5.4±1.3, P<0.05. In both heart and brain, CA increased lactate concentrations (1.9-fold and 3.1-fold increase, respectively, P<0.01, decreased PDH enzyme activity (24% and 50% reduction, respectively, P<0.01, and increased PDK protein expressions (1.2-fold and 1.9-fold, respectively, P<0.01. In contrast, post-CA treatment with TH normalized lactate concentrations (P<0.01 and P<0.05 and PDK expressions (P<0.001 and P<0.05, while increasing PDH activity (P<0.01 and P<0.01 in both the heart and brain. Additionally, treatment with DCA (0.2 mg/g body weight 30 min prior to CA improved both myocardial hemodynamics 2 hours post-CA (aortic systolic pressure: 123±3 vs. 96±4 mmHg, P<0.001 and 72-hour survival rates

  18. Cardiac resynchronization therapy improves the uptake of MIBI-{sup 99m}Tc and cardiac function. Case report

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    Brandao, Simone Cristina Soares; Giorgi, Maria Clementina; Nishioka, Silvana DOrio; Martinelli Filho, Martino; Soares Junior, Jose; Meneghetti, Jose Claudio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Instituto do Coracao (InCor)]. E-mail: simonecordis@cardiol.br

    2008-09-15

    This case shows the improvement promoted by cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on myocardial perfusion and left ventricular (LV) performance assessed by gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. The patient had idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, left bundle branch block and severe heart failure despite optimized medical treatment. After CRT, clinical improvement, QRS reduction and improvement of previously hypoperfused anterior and septal walls were observed. There was also decrease in LV end-diastolic and systolic volumes and increase in LV ejection fraction. (author)

  19. Spironolactone in chronic hemodialysis patients improves cardiac function

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    Taheri Shahram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed this study to assess whether low dose spironolactone could be admi-nistered in hemodialysis (HD patients with moderate to severe heart failure to improve cardio-vascular function and reduce hospitalization without inducing hyperkalemia. We enrolled 16 chro-nic HD patients with moderate to severe heart failure and left ventricle ejection fraction :5 45%. In a double blinded randomized placebo controlled study, one group of 8 patients received 25 mg of spi-ronolactone after each dialysis session within six months, and the rest received a placebo. Echo-cardiography was performed on all the patients to assess ejection fraction and left ventricular mass during 12 hours after completion of hemodialysis at the beginning and the end of study. Serum potassium was measured predialysis every 4 weeks. The mean ejection fraction increased signi-ficantly more in spironolactone group during the study period than in the placebo group (6.2 ± 1.64 vs. 0.83 ± 4.9, P= 0.046. The mean left ventricular mass decreased in the spironolactone group, but increased significantly in the placebo group during the period (-8.4 ± 4.72 vs. 3 ± 7.97. 95%, P= 0.021. The incidence of hyperkalemia was not significantly increased in the study or controlled groups. In conclusion, we found in this study that administration of spironolactone in chronic HD patients with moderate to severe heart failure substantially improved their cardiac function and decreases left ventricular mass without development of significant hyperkalemia.

  20. Improving guideline adherence for cardiac rehabilitation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemps, H. M. C.; van Engen-Verheul, M. M.; Kraaijenhagen, R. A.; Goud, R.; Hellemans, I. M.; van Exel, H. J.; Sunamura, M.; Peters, R. J.; Peek, N.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2004, the Netherlands Society of Cardiology released the current guideline on cardiac rehabilitation. Given its complexity and the involvement of various healthcare disciplines, it was supplemented with a clinical algorithm, serving to facilitate its implementation in daily practice.

  1. Interdisciplinary ICU Cardiac Arrest Debriefing Improves Survival Outcomes

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    Wolfe, Heather; Zebuhr, Carleen; Topjian, Alexis A.; Nishisaki, Akira; Niles, Dana E.; Meaney, Peter A.; Boyle, Lori; Giordano, Rita T.; Davis, Daniela; Priestley, Margaret; Apkon, Michael; Berg, Robert A.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.; Sutton, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In-hospital cardiac arrest is an important public health problem. High-quality resuscitation improves survival but is difficult to achieve. Our objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel, interdisciplinary, postevent quantitative debriefing program to improve survival outcomes after in-hospital pediatric chest compression events. Design, Setting, and Patients Single-center prospective interventional study of children who received chest compressions between December 2008 and June 2012 in the ICU. Interventions Structured, quantitative, audiovisual, interdisciplinary debriefing of chest compression events with front-line providers. Measurements and Main Results Primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included survival of event (return of spontaneous circulation for ≥ 20 min) and favorable neurologic outcome. Primary resuscitation quality outcome was a composite variable, termed “excellent cardiopulmonary resuscitation,” prospectively defined as a chest compression depth ≥ 38 mm, rate ≥ 100/min, ≤ 10% of chest compressions with leaning, and a chest compression fraction > 90% during a given 30-second epoch. Quantitative data were available only for patients who are 8 years old or older. There were 119 chest compression events (60 control and 59 interventional). The intervention was associated with a trend toward improved survival to hospital discharge on both univariate analysis (52% vs 33%, p = 0.054) and after controlling for confounders (adjusted odds ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 0.91–6.8; p = 0.075), and it significantly increased survival with favorable neurologic outcome on both univariate (50% vs 29%, p = 0.036) and multivariable analyses (adjusted odds ratio, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.01–7.5; p = 0.047). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation epochs for patients who are 8 years old or older during the debriefing period were 5.6 times more likely to meet targets of excellent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (95% CI, 2.9–10

  2. Candesartan cilexetil attenuated cardiac remodeling by improving expression and function of mitofusin 2 in SHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoguang; Niu, Qiuli; Peng, Xiaoyun; Li, Mei; Liu, Kuo; Liu, Ya; Liu, Jielin; Jin, Fei; Li, Xiao; Wei, Yongxiang

    2016-07-01

    Left ventricular hypotrophy (LVH) is very common in hypertensives even after antihypertensive treatment. Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) is a critical negative regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy by regulating mitochondrial fusion, ras/raf/MEK signal pathway, et al. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether candesartan attenuated cardiac remodeling by improving expression and function of mitofusin 2 in SHR. Nine weeks old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were selected and treated with candesartan for eight weeks. Then, heart tissues were investigated for signs of cardiac remodeling, mitochondrial structure and membrane potential, mitochondrial enzyme activities, hydrogen peroxide, mRNA and protein expression of Mfn2/ras/raf/MEK signaling pathway in heart tissues. The results showed that cardiac remodeling was obviously in SHR group: cardiac cell alignment was irregular; cardiac fibers became thick, irregular and enlarged; cell density was reduced in SHR compared to WKY. After candesartan treatment, histopathological structure improved significantly which were consistent with mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial enzyme activities, hydrogen peroxide, Mfn2/ras/raf/MEK gene and protein expression in cardiac tissues. What's more, although blood pressure was well controlled in a normal range, cardiac remodeling wasn't avoided. In general, candesartan obviously repressed cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac remodeling significantly compared to SHR untreated group, but didn't reverse it. Mfn2 is negatively associated with cardiac remodeling. Candesartan treatment can improve mitochondrial structure and function and regulate Mfn2/ras/raf/MEK signaling pathway. Mfn2 may be used a potential marker for cardiac remodeling and a novel therapeutic target for target organ damage protection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improvements in kidney transplantation from donors after cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogland, E R Pieter; Snoeijs, Maarten G J; Habets, Margot A W; Brandsma, D Steven; Peutz-Kootstra, Carine J; Christiaans, Maarten H L; van Heurn, L W Ernest

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the growing waiting list for kidney transplantation, we explored the limits of kidney transplantation from donors after cardiac death by liberally accepting marginal donor kidneys for transplantation. As the percentage of primary non-function (PNF) increased, we evaluated our transplantation program and implemented changes to reduce the high percentage of PNF in 2005, followed by a second evaluation over the period 2006-2009. Recipients of a kidney from a donor after cardiac death between 1998 and 2005 were analyzed, with PNF as outcome measure. During the period 2002-2005, the percentage of PNF increased and crossed the upper control limits of 12% which was considered as unacceptably high. After implementation of changes, this percentage was reduced to 5%, without changing the number of kidney transplantations from donors after cardiac death. Continuous monitoring of the quality of care is essential as the boundaries of organ donation and transplantation are sought. Meticulous donor, preservation, and recipient management make extension of the donor potential possible, with good results for the individual recipient. Liberal use of kidneys from donors after cardiac death may contribute to a reduction in the waiting list for kidney transplantation and dialysis associated mortality. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Deciphering cardiac involvement in systemic inflammatory diseases: noninvasive tissue characterisation using cardiac magnetic resonance is key to improved patients' care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerster, Martin; Peker, Elif; Nagel, Eike; Puntmann, Valentina O

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac involvement in systemic inflammatory diseases (SID) has a major impact on patients' morbidity and mortality, yet the pathways to its recognition and management remain poorly established. Areas covered: Overall clinical management in SID patients is primarily guided by systemic symptoms. Cardiovascular disease goes largely undetected, as it evolves through years of a protracted and subclinical course. Despite the increased awareness and insights into the mechanistic role of the inflammatory pathways, clinical management of cardiac involvement continues to rely on diagnostic means, which are frequently insensitive, invasive and rely on radiation exposure. Advanced tissue characterisation with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) offers an accurate, non-invasive and radiation-free diagnostic method with obvious advantages: it is able to inform on a range of cardiovascular pathophysiology, as well as support safe serial examinations, informing on the disease presence, progress and response to treatment. Expert commentary: We summarise the recent advances in non-invasive imaging, and bridge the novel insights into pathophysiology with future posibilities in diagnosis and manangement of SID patients. We propose an interdisciplinary framework to screening of cardiac involvement in SID using an indepth phenotyping of evolution of cardiovascular disease, to decipher the opportunities to improve patients' cardiac care.

  5. Inhibition of the Mitochondrial Fission Protein Drp1 Improves Survival in a Murine Cardiac Arrest Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Willard W.; Beiser, David G.; Fang, Yong Hu; Han, Mei; Piao, Lin; Varughese, Justin; Archer, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Survival following sudden cardiac arrest is poor despite advances in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the use of therapeutic hypothermia. Dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1), a regulator of mitochondrial fission, is an important determinant of reactive oxygen species generation, myocardial necrosis, and left ventricular function following ischemia/reperfusion injury, but its role in cardiac arrest is unknown. We hypothesized that Drp1 inhibition would improve survival, cardiac hemodynamics, and mitochondrial function in an in vivo model of cardiac arrest. Design Laboratory investigation. Setting University laboratory Interventions Anesthetized and ventilated adult female C57BL/6 wild-type mice underwent an 8-min KCl induced cardiac arrest followed by 90 seconds of CPR. Mice were then blindly randomized to a single intravenous injection of Mdivi-1 (0.24 mg/kg), a small molecule Drp1 inhibitor or vehicle (DMSO). Measurements and Main Results Following resuscitation from cardiac arrest, mitochondrial fission was evidenced by Drp1 translocation to the mitochondrial membrane and a decrease in mitochondrial size. Mitochondrial fission was associated with increased lactate and evidence of oxidative damage. Mdivi-1 administration during CPR inhibited Drp1 activation, preserved mitochondrial morphology, and decreased oxidative damage. Mdivi-1 also reduced the time to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) 116±4 vs. 143±7 sec (pcardiac arrest. Conclusions Post cardiac arrest inhibition of Drp1 improves time to ROSC and myocardial hemodynamics resulting in improved survival and neurological outcomes in a murine model of cardiac arrest. Pharmacological targeting of mitochondrial fission may be a promising therapy for cardiac arrest. PMID:25599491

  6. Improving Cardiac Action Potential Measurements: 2D and 3D Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Neil J; Yin, Yue; Kemanli, Pinar; Ip, Brian; Wakatsuki, Tetsuro

    2015-11-01

    Progress in the development of assays for measuring cardiac action potential is crucial for the discovery of drugs for treating cardiac disease and assessing cardiotoxicity. Recently, high-throughput methods for assessing action potential using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived cardiomyocytes in both two-dimensional monolayer cultures and three-dimensional tissues have been developed. We describe an improved method for assessing cardiac action potential using an ultra-fast cost-effective plate reader with commercially available dyes. Our methods improve dramatically the detection of the fluorescence signal from these dyes and make way for the development of more high-throughput methods for cardiac drug discovery and cardiotoxicity.

  7. Ectodomain cleavage of the EGF ligands HB-EGF, neuregulin1-beta, and TGF-alpha is specifically triggered by different stimuli and involves different PKC isoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrlich, Andreas; Klinman, Eva; Fu, Jonathan; Sadegh, Cameron; Lodish, Harvey

    2008-12-01

    Metalloproteinase cleavage of transmembrane proteins (ectodomain cleavage), including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligands heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), neuregulin (NRG), and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), is important in many cellular signaling pathways and is disregulated in many diseases. It is largely unknown how physiological stimuli of ectodomain cleavage--hypertonic stress, phorbol ester, or activation of G-protein-coupled receptors [e.g., by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)]--are molecularly connected to metalloproteinase activation. To study this question, we developed a fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)- based assay that measures cleavage of EGF ligands in single living cells. EGF ligands expressed in mouse lung epithelial cells are differentially and specifically cleaved depending on the stimulus. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes or metalloproteinase inhibition by batimastat (BB94) showed that different regulatory signals are used by different stimuli and EGF substrates, suggesting differential effects that act on the substrate, the metalloproteinase, or both. For example, hypertonic stress led to strong cleavage of HB-EGF and NRG but only moderate cleavage of TGF-alpha. HB-EGF, NRG, and TGF-alpha cleavage was not dependent on PKC, and only HB-EGF and NRG cleavage were inhibited by BB94. In contrast, phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA) -induced cleavage of HB-EGF, NRG, and TGF-alpha was dependent on PKC and sensitive to BB94 inhibition. LPA led to significant cleavage of only NRG and TGF-alpha and was inhibited by BB94; only LPA-induced NRG cleavage required PKC. Surprisingly, specific inhibition of atypical PKCs zeta and iota [not activated by diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium] significantly enhanced TPA-induced NRG cleavage. Employed in a high-throughput cloning strategy, our cleavage assay should allow the identification of candidate proteins involved in signal transduction of different extracellular stimuli into ectodomain cleavage.

  8. Amalaki rasayana, a traditional Indian drug enhances cardiac mitochondrial and contractile functions and improves cardiac function in rats with hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Aneesh, Kumar A; Kshemada, K; Ajith, Kumar G S; Binil, Raj S S; Deora, Neha; Sanjay, G; Jaleel, A; Muraleedharan, T S; Anandan, E M; Mony, R S; Valiathan, M S; Santhosh, Kumar T R; Kartha, C C

    2017-08-17

    We evaluated the cardioprotective effect of Amalaki Rasayana (AR), a rejuvenating Ayurvedic drug prepared from Phyllanthus emblica fruits in the reversal of remodeling changes in pressure overload left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy (LVH) and age-associated cardiac dysfunction in male Wistar rats. Six groups (aging groups) of 3 months old animals were given either AR or ghee and honey (GH) orally; seventh group was untreated. Ascending aorta was constricted using titanium clips in 3 months old rats (N = 24; AC groups) and after 6 months, AR or GH was given for further 12 months to two groups; one group was untreated. Histology, gene and protein expression analysis were done in heart tissues. Chemical composition of AR was analyzed by HPLC, HPTLC and LC-MS. AR intake improved (P < 0.05) cardiac function in aging rats and decreased LVH (P < 0.05) in AC rats as well as increased (P < 0.05) fatigue time in treadmill exercise in both groups. In heart tissues of AR administered rats of both the groups, SERCA2, CaM, Myh11, antioxidant, autophagy, oxidative phosphorylation and TCA cycle proteins were up regulated. ADRB1/2 and pCREB expression were increased; pAMPK, NF-kB were decreased. AR has thus a beneficial effect on myocardial energetics, muscle contractile function and exercise tolerance capacity.

  9. Regular Football Practice Improves Autonomic Cardiac Function in Male Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luis; Oliveira, Jose; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Rebelo, Antonio; Brito, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the cardiovascular regulation is of primal importance. Since it has been associated with adverse conditions such as cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, sleep disorders, hypertension and obesity. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of recreational football practice on the autonomic cardiac function of male children, as measured by heart rate variability. Patients and Methods: Forty-seven male children aged 9 - 12 years were selected according to their engagement with football oriented practice outside school context. The children were divided into a football group (FG; n = 22) and a control group (CG; n = 25). The FG had regular football practices, with 2 weekly training sessions and occasional weekend matches. The CG was not engaged with any physical activity other than complementary school-based physical education classes. Data from physical activity, physical fitness, and heart rate variability measured in time and frequency domains were obtained. Results: The anthropometric and body composition characteristics were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). The groups were also similar in time spent daily on moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (FG vs. CG: 114 ± 64 vs. 87 ± 55 minutes; P > 0.05). However, the FG performed better (P football practice presented enhanced physical fitness and autonomic function, by increasing vagal tone at rest. PMID:26448848

  10. Exercise training improves aerobic endurance and musculoskeletal fitness in female cardiac transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warburton Darren

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Female cardiac transplant recipients' aerobic capacity is 60% lower than sex and age-predicted values. The effect of exercise training on restoring the impaired aerobic endurance and muscle strength in female cardiac transplant recipients is not known. This study examined the effect that aerobic and strength training have on improving aerobic endurance and muscle strength in female cardiac transplant recipients. Methods 20 female cardiac transplant recipients (51 ± 11 years participated in this investigation. The subjects performed a baseline six-minute walk test and a leg-press strength test when they were discharged following cardiac transplantation. The subjects then participated in a 12-week exercise program consisting of aerobic and lower extremity strength training. Baseline assessments were repeated following completion of the exercise intervention. Results At baseline, the cardiac transplant recipients' aerobic endurance was 50% lower than age-matched predicted values. The training program resulted in a significant increase in aerobic endurance (pre-training: 322 ± 104 m vs. post-training: 501 ± 99 m, p Conclusion Aerobic and strength training are effective interventions that can partially restore the impaired aerobic endurance and strength found in female cardiac transplant recipients.

  11. Ginsenoside Rb1 improves cardiac function and remodeling in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xian; Wang, Shuai; Zou, Xiaoming; Jing, Yating; Yang, Ronglai; Li, Siqi; Wang, Fengrong

    2017-08-05

    We investigated the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on cardiac function and remodeling in heart failure (HF). Four weeks after HF induction, the rats were administrated with ginsenoside Rb1 (35 and 70 mg/kg) and losartan (4.5 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. Losartan was used as a positive control. Cardiac function was assessed by measuring hemodynamic parameters. Histological changes were analyzed by HE and Masson's trichrome staining. Cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) levels were evaluated. In the present study, high dose of (H-) ginsenoside Rb1 decreased heart rate, improved cardiac function and alleviated histological changes induced by HF. H-ginsenoside Rb1 attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis by decreasing left ventricular (LV) weight/heart weight ratio and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and reducing the levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), periostin, collagen I, Angiotensin II (Ang II), Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor. Moreover, H-ginsenoside Rb1 decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and enhanced the translocation of GLUT4 to plasma membrane. The TGF-β1/Smad and ERK signaling pathways were inhibited and the Akt pathway was activated. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rb1 might restore cardiac/mitochondrial function, increase glucose uptake and protect against cardiac remodeling via the TGF-β1/Smad, ERK and Akt signaling pathways.

  12. Therapeutic Inhibition of miR-208a Improves Cardiac Function and Survival During Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Rusty L.; Hullinger, Thomas G.; Semus, Hillary M.; Dickinson, Brent A.; Seto, Anita G.; Lynch, Joshua M.; Stack, Christianna; Latimer, Paul A.; Olson, Eric N.; van Rooij, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Background Diastolic dysfunction in response to hypertrophy is a major clinical syndrome with few therapeutic options. MicroRNAs act as negative regulators of gene expression by inhibiting translation or promoting degradation of target mRNAs. Previously, we reported that genetic deletion of the cardiac-specific miR-208a prevents pathological cardiac remodeling and upregulation of Myh7 in response to pressure overload. Whether this miRNA might contribute to diastolic dysfunction or other forms of heart disease is currently unknown. Methods and Results Here, we show that systemic delivery of an antisense oligonucleotide induces potent and sustained silencing of miR-208a in the heart. Therapeutic inhibition of miR-208a by subcutaneous delivery of antimiR-208a during hypertension-induced heart failure in Dahl hypertensive rats dose-dependently prevents pathological myosin switching and cardiac remodeling while improving cardiac function, overall health, and survival. Transcriptional profiling indicates that antimiR-208a evokes prominent effects on cardiac gene expression; plasma analysis indicates significant changes in circulating levels of miRNAs on antimiR-208a treatment. Conclusions These studies indicate the potential of oligonucleotide-based therapies for modulating cardiac miRNAs and validate miR-208 as a potent therapeutic target for the modulation of cardiac function and remodeling during heart disease progression. PMID:21900086

  13. Qiliqiangxin Enhances Cardiac Glucose Metabolism and Improves Diastolic Function in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac diastolic dysfunction has emerged as a growing type of heart failure. The present study aims to explore whether Qiliqiangxin (QL can benefit cardiac diastolic function in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR through enhancement of cardiac glucose metabolism. Fifteen 12-month-old male SHRs were randomly divided into QL-treated, olmesartan-treated, and saline-treated groups. Age-matched WKY rats served as normal controls. Echocardiography and histological analysis were performed. Myocardial glucose uptake was determined by 18F-FDG using small-animal PET imaging. Expressions of several crucial proteins and key enzymes related to glucose metabolism were also evaluated. As a result, QL improved cardiac diastolic function in SHRs, as evidenced by increased E′/A′and decreased E/E′ (P<0.01. Meanwhile, QL alleviated myocardial hypertrophy, collagen deposits, and apoptosis (P<0.01. An even higher myocardial glucose uptake was illustrated in QL-treated SHR group (P<0.01. Moreover, an increased CS activity and ATP production was observed in QL-treated SHRs (P<0.05. QL enhanced cardiac glucose utilization and oxidative phosphorylation in SHRs by upregulating AMPK/PGC-1α axis, promoting GLUT-4 expression, and regulating key enzymes related to glucose aerobic oxidation such as HK2, PDK4, and CS (P<0.01. Our data suggests that QL improves cardiac diastolic function in SHRs, which may be associated with enhancement of myocardial glucose metabolism.

  14. Association of national initiatives to improve cardiac arrest management with rates of bystander intervention and patient survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissenberg, Mads; Lippert, Freddy K.; Folke, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a major health problem associated with poor outcomes. Early recognition and intervention are critical for patient survival. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is one factor among many associated with improved survival. OBJECTIVE To examine...... temporal changes in bystander resuscitation attempts and survival during a 10-year period in which several national initiatives were taken to increase rates of bystander resuscitation and improve advanced care. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest for which...... resuscitation was attempted were identified between 2001 and 2010 in the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry. Of 29 111 patients with cardiac arrest, we excluded those with presumed noncardiac cause of arrest (n = 7390) and those with cardiac arrests witnessed by emergency medical services personnel (n...

  15. Simulation-guided cardiac auscultation improves medical students' clinical skills: the Pavia pilot experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlini, Stefano; Salinaro, Francesco; Santalucia, Paola; Musca, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    Clinical evaluation is the cornerstone of any cardiac diagnosis, although excessive over-specialisation often leads students to disregard the value of clinical skills, and to overemphasize the approach to instrumental cardiac diagnosis. Time restraints, low availability of "typical" cardiac patients on whom to perform effective bedside teaching, patients' respect and the underscoring of the value of clinical skills all lead to a progressive decay in teaching. Simulation-guided cardiac auscultation may improve clinical training in medical students and residents. Harvey(©) is a mannequin encompassing more than 50 cardiac diagnoses that was designed and developed at the University of Miami (Florida, USA). One of the advantages of Harvey(©) simulation resides in the possibility of listening, comparing and discussing "real" murmurs. To objectively assess its teaching performance, the capability to identify five different cardiac diagnoses (atrial septal defect, normal young subject, mitral stenosis with tricuspid regurgitation, chronic mitral regurgitation, and pericarditis) out of more than 50 diagnostic possibilities was assessed in 523 III-year medical students (i.e. at the very beginning of their clinical experience), in 92 VI-year students, and in 42 residents before and after a formal 10-h teaching session with Harvey(©). None of them had previously experienced simulation-based cardiac auscultation in addition to formal lecturing (all three groups) and bedside teaching (VI-year students and residents). In order to assess the "persistence" of the acquired knowledge over time, the test was repeated after 3 years in 85 students, who did not repeat the formal 10-h teaching session with Harvey(©) after the III year. As expected, the overall response was poor in the "beginners" who correctly identified 11.0 % of the administered cardiac murmurs. After simulation-guided training, the ability to recognise the correct cardiac diagnoses was much better (72.0 %; p

  16. Improving Providers' Role Definitions to Decrease Overcrowding and Improve In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Marion; Schweickert, William; Neefe, Stacie; Tsypenyuk, Boris; Falk, Scott Austin; Holena, Daniel N

    2016-07-01

    How nontechnical factors such as inadequate role definition and overcrowding affect outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) is unknown. Using a bundled intervention, we sought to improve providers' role definitions and decrease overcrowding during IHCA events. To determine if a bundled intervention consisting of a nurse/physician leadership dyad, visual cues for provider roles, and a "role check" would lead to reductions in crowding and improve perceptions of communication and team leadership. Baseline data on the number and type of IHCA providers were collected. Providers were asked to complete a postevent survey rating communication and leadership. A bundled intervention was then introduced. Data were then obtained for the subsequent IHCA events. Twenty ICHA events were captured before and 34 after the intervention. The number of physicians present at pulse checks 2 (median [interquartile range]: 6 [5-8] before vs 5 [3-6] after, P = .02) and 3 (7 [5-9] vs 4 [4-5], P = .004) decreased significantly after the intervention. The overall number of providers at the third pulse check (18 [14-22] before vs 14 [12-16] after, P = .04) also decreased after the intervention. On a 10-point Likert scale, ratings of communication (8 [7-8]) and physician leadership (8 [7-9]) did not differ significantly from before to after the intervention. Both the physician leads (90%) and patients' primary nurses (97%) were able to identify clear nurse leaders. A bundled intervention targeted at improving IHCA response led to a decrease in overcrowding at ICHA events without substantial changes in the perceptions of communication or physician leadership. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  17. A novel urotensin II receptor antagonist, KR-36996, improved cardiac function and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in experimental heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kwang-Seok; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yi, Kyu Yang; Lim, Chae Jo; Park, Byung Kil; Seo, Ho Won; Lee, Byung Ho

    2017-03-15

    Urotensin II and its receptor are thought to be involved in various cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension and atherosclerosis. Since the regulation of the urotensin II/urotensin II receptor offers a great potential for therapeutic strategies related to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the study of selective and potent antagonists for urotensin II receptor is more fascinating. This study was designed to determine the potential therapeutic effects of a newly developed novel urotensin II receptor antagonist, N-(1-(3-bromo-4-(piperidin-4-yloxy)benzyl)piperidin-4-yl)benzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxamide (KR-36996), in experimental models of heart failure. KR-36996 displayed a high binding affinity (Ki=4.44±0.67nM) and selectivity for urotensin II receptor. In cell-based study, KR-36996 significantly inhibited urotensin II-induced stress fiber formation and cellular hypertrophy in H9c2 UT cells. In transverse aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy model in mice, the daily oral administration of KR-36996 (30mg/kg) for 14 days significantly decreased left ventricular weight by 40% (Pheart failure model in rats, repeated echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements demonstrated remarkable improvement of the cardiac performance by KR-36996 treatment (25 and 50mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 12 weeks. Moreover, KR-36996 decreased interstitial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in the infarct border zone. These results suggest that potent and selective urotensin II receptor antagonist could efficiently attenuate both cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction in experimental heart failure. KR-36996 may be useful as an effective urotensin II receptor antagonist for pharmaceutical or clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Improved cardiac function and exercise capacity following correction of pectus excavatum: a review of current literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiberg, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Patients with pectus excavatum (PE) often describe improvements in exercise stamina following corrective surgery. Studies have investigated the surgical effect on physiological parameters; still, no consensus has yet been reached. Therefore, the aim of this literature review was to describe the cardiac outcome after surgical correction, both at rest and during exercise. In February 2016, a detailed search of the databases PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE was performed. We assessed clinical studies that described cardiac outcomes both before and after surgical correction of PE. We only included studies reporting either pre-defined echocardiographic or exercise test parameters. No exclusion criteria or statistical analyses were applied. Twenty-one full-text articles, published between 1972 and 2016, were selected, with cohort-ranges of 3–168 patients, mean age-ranges of 5–33 years, and mean follow-up-ranges from immediately to 4 years after surgery. Twelve studies described resting cardiac parameters. Four studies measured cardiac output, where one described 36% immediate increase after surgery, one reported 15% increase after Nuss-bar removal and two found no difference. Three studies demonstrated improvement in mean stroke volume ranges of 22–34% and two studies found no difference. Fifteen studies investigated exercise capacity, with 11 considering peak O2 pr. kg, where five studies demonstrated improvements with the mean ranging from 8% to 15% after surgery, five studies demonstrated no difference, and one saw a decrease of 19% 3 months after Nuss-bar implantation. A measurable increase in exercise capacity exists following surgery, which may be caused by multiple factors. This may be owed to the relief of compressed cardiac chambers with the increased anterior-posterior thoracic dimensions, which could facilitate an improved filling of the heart. With these results, the positive physiological impact of the surgery is emphasized and the potential gain in cardiac

  19. Reducing costs and length of stay and improving efficiency and quality of care in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, L H; Rosborough, D; Fernandez, J

    1997-12-01

    The present era of health care places major emphasis on significantly reducing cost and resource utilization while maintaining quality of care and patient satisfaction. Clinicians are being challenged to achieve this within the framework of a patient subset that is increasing in severity of disease and risk-adjusted mortality. The Brigham and Women's Cardiac Surgical Services Management Group was formed in 1987 to help accomplish these goals. The principles we have followed involve protocols and people. The multidisciplinary group includes the chiefs of cardiac surgery and anesthesia, chief residents, physician assistants, perfusionists, intensive care unit nursing personnel, and case managers. Weekly meetings address every aspect of problems arising in the cardiac surgical service; separate weekly morbidity and mortality conferences are held. The Care Coordination Team establishes and monitors clinical pathways and recommends ways of improving all aspects of the service through a process of daily review on an individual patient basis. The volume of cardiac surgery at Brigham and Women's Hospital has increased steadily. The length of stay overall has decreased about 15%, and similarly, cost and total charges have also decreased. In addition, patient satisfaction has increased to a level of about 95%. The goals of cost-containment with improved patient care and outcome are possible through the collaborative efforts of representatives of all the personnel involved in cardiac care, as well as leadership by the surgical faculty.

  20. Preconditioning with Maillard reaction products improves antioxidant defence leading to increased stress tolerance in cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhs, Stefanie; Nass, Norbert; Bartling, Babett; Brömme, Hans-Jürgen; Leuner, Beatrice; Somoza, Veronika; Friess, Ulrich; Silber, Rolf-Edgar; Simm, Andreas

    2010-10-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are considered as biomarkers of ageing and are associated with several degenerative diseases. Besides endogenous formation, significant amounts of AGEs are taken up with food. Although nutritional AGEs are considered as undesirable, proinflammatory agents, they may also enclose potentially beneficial antioxidants. We used rodent cardiac cells to evaluate if food AGEs, present in bread crust, can modify the cellular antioxidant defence. Mice were fed with bread crust containing diet to prove the in-vivo relevance for the heart. In mouse cardiac fibroblasts, bread crust extract induced a moderate elevation of ROS production causing an activation of p42/p44(MAPK), p38(MAPK) and NF-κB, followed by increased expression of antioxidative enzymes. Preconditioning studies demonstrated that this was sufficient to protect cardiac fibroblasts and rat adult cardiac myocytes against severe oxidative stress. Furthermore, mice, fed a bread crust containing diet, exhibited a similarly improved cardiac expression of antioxidative defence genes. The consumption of AGEs can therefore contribute to an improved antioxidant status of the heart, thus exhibiting cardioprotective effects in case of severe oxidative stress as in ischemia reperfusion injury. Also, these data show that the exclusive interpretation of circulating AGEs as pathophysiological biomarkers of ageing might be misleading. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identifying non-technical skills and barriers for improvement of teamwork in cardiac arrest teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.O.; Jensen, Michael Kammer; Lippert, A.

    2010-01-01

    2006 to November 2006. Interviews were focussed on barriers and recommendations for teamwork in the cardiac arrest team, optimal policy for improvement of resuscitation training and clinical practice, use of cognitive aids and adoption of European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Guidelines 2005. Interviews...

  2. Improved survival after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using new guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, Jacob; Barnung, S.; Nielsen, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with a poor prognosis. We hypothesized that the implementations of 2005 European Resuscitation Council resuscitation guidelines were associated with improved 30-day survival after OHCA. METHODS: We prospectively recorded data on all...

  3. Unstandardized treatment of electroencephalographic status epilepticus does not improve outcome of comatose patients after cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Cloostermans, M.C.; Beishuizen, A.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Electroencephalographic status epilepticus occurs in 9–35% of comatose patients after cardiac arrest. Mortality is 90–100%. It is unclear whether (some) seizure patterns represent a condition in which anti-epileptic treatment may improve outcome, or severe ischemic damage, in which

  4. Thermodynamic analysis questions claims of improved cardiac efficiency by dietary fish oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Eden; Chapman, Brian; Hickey, Anthony J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies in the literature describe the ability of dietary supplementation by omega-3 fish oil to increase the pumping efficiency of the left ventricle. Here we attempt to reconcile such studies with our own null results. We undertake a quantitative analysis of the improvement that could be expected theoretically, subject to physiological constraints, by posing the following question: By how much could efficiency be expected to increase if inefficiencies could be eliminated? Our approach utilizes thermodynamic analyses to investigate the contributions, both singly and collectively, of the major components of cardiac energetics to total cardiac efficiency. We conclude that it is unlikely that fish oils could achieve the required diminution of inefficiencies without greatly compromising cardiac performance. PMID:27574288

  5. Improve the prevention of sudden cardiac arrest in emerging countries: the Improve SCA clinical study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Singh, Balbir; Rodriguez, Diego A; Chasnoits, Alexandr Robertovich; Hussin, Azlan; Ching, Chi-Keong; Huang, Dejia; Liu, Yen-Bin; Cerkvenik, Jeffrey; Willey, Sarah; Kim, Young-Hoon

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to demonstrate that primary prevention (PP) patients with one or more additional risk factors are at a similar risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias when compared with secondary prevention (SP) patients, and would receive similar benefit from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), or cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) implant. The study evaluates the benefits of therapy for high-risk patients in countries where defibrillation therapy for PP of SCA is underutilized. Enrolment will consist of 4800 ICD-eligible patients from Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Upon enrolment, patients will be categorized as SP or PP. Primary prevention patients will be assessed for additional risk factors: syncope/pre-syncope, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, frequent premature ventricular contractions, and low left ventricular ejection fraction. Those PP patients with one or more risk factors will be categorized as '1.5' patients. Implant of an ICD/CRT-D will be left to the patient and/or physician's discretion. The primary endpoint will compare the appropriate ICD therapy rate between SP and 1.5 patients. The secondary endpoint compares mortality between 1.5 implanted and non-implanted patients. The Improve SCA study will investigate a subset of PP patients, believed to be at similar risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias as SP patients. Results may help clinicians identify and refer the highest risk PP patients for ICDs, help local societies expand guidelines to include PP of SCA utilizing ICDs, and provide additional geographical-relevant evidence to allow patients to make an informed decision whether to receive an ICD. NCT02099721. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  6. Music Improves Subjective Feelings Leading to Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Modulation: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Satoshi; Nishimura, Yukako; Mizuno, Kei; Sakimoto, Nae; Hori, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yasuhisa; Yamato, Masanori; Mitsuhashi, Rika; Akiba, Keigo; Koizumi, Jun-ichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kataoka, Yosky

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that listening to music improves subjective feelings and reduces fatigue sensations, and different kinds of music lead to different activations of these feelings. Recently, cardiac autonomic nervous modulation has been proposed as a useful objective indicator of fatigue. However, scientific considerations of the relation between feelings of fatigue and cardiac autonomic nervous modulation while listening to music are still lacking. In this study, we examined which subjective feelings of fatigue are related to participants' cardiac autonomic nervous function while they listen to music. We used an album of comfortable and relaxing environmental music, with blended sounds from a piano and violin as well as natural sound sources. We performed a crossover trial of environmental music and silent sessions for 20 healthy subjects, 12 females, and 8 males, after their daily work shift. We measured changes in eight types of subjective feelings, including healing, fatigue, sleepiness, relaxation, and refreshment, using the KOKORO scale, a subjective mood measurement system for self-reported feelings. Further, we obtained measures of cardiac autonomic nervous function on the basis of heart rate variability before and after the sessions. During the music session, subjective feelings significantly shifted toward healing and a secure/relaxed feeling and these changes were greater than those in the silent session. Heart rates (ΔHR) in the music session significantly decreased compared with those in the silent session. Other cardiac autonomic parameters such as high-frequency (HF) component and the ratio of low-frequency (LF) and HF components (LF/HF) were similar in the two sessions. In the linear regression analysis of the feelings with ΔHR and changes in LF/HF (ΔLF/HF), increases and decreases in ΔHR were correlated to the feeling axes of Fatigue-Healing and Anxiety/Tension–Security/Relaxation, whereas those in ΔLF/HF were related to the feeling axes

  7. Music Improves Subjective Feelings Leading to Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Modulation: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Satoshi; Nishimura, Yukako; Mizuno, Kei; Sakimoto, Nae; Hori, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yasuhisa; Yamato, Masanori; Mitsuhashi, Rika; Akiba, Keigo; Koizumi, Jun-Ichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kataoka, Yosky

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that listening to music improves subjective feelings and reduces fatigue sensations, and different kinds of music lead to different activations of these feelings. Recently, cardiac autonomic nervous modulation has been proposed as a useful objective indicator of fatigue. However, scientific considerations of the relation between feelings of fatigue and cardiac autonomic nervous modulation while listening to music are still lacking. In this study, we examined which subjective feelings of fatigue are related to participants' cardiac autonomic nervous function while they listen to music. We used an album of comfortable and relaxing environmental music, with blended sounds from a piano and violin as well as natural sound sources. We performed a crossover trial of environmental music and silent sessions for 20 healthy subjects, 12 females, and 8 males, after their daily work shift. We measured changes in eight types of subjective feelings, including healing, fatigue, sleepiness, relaxation, and refreshment, using the KOKORO scale, a subjective mood measurement system for self-reported feelings. Further, we obtained measures of cardiac autonomic nervous function on the basis of heart rate variability before and after the sessions. During the music session, subjective feelings significantly shifted toward healing and a secure/relaxed feeling and these changes were greater than those in the silent session. Heart rates (ΔHR) in the music session significantly decreased compared with those in the silent session. Other cardiac autonomic parameters such as high-frequency (HF) component and the ratio of low-frequency (LF) and HF components (LF/HF) were similar in the two sessions. In the linear regression analysis of the feelings with ΔHR and changes in LF/HF (ΔLF/HF), increases and decreases in ΔHR were correlated to the feeling axes of Fatigue-Healing and Anxiety/Tension-Security/Relaxation, whereas those in ΔLF/HF were related to the feeling axes

  8. Perioperative enoximone infusion improves cardiac enzyme release after CABG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, Francesco; Renzulli, Attilio; De Feo, Marisa; Galdieri, Nicola; Santè, Pasquale; Mastroroberto, Pasquale; Bilotta, Massimo; Cotrufo, Maurizio

    2004-08-01

    To assess whether routine postoperative enoximone infusion compared with dobutamine improved clinical and biochemical results after coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass. Prospective nonrandomized study. Data collection was blinded to the choice of inotrope. Double-institutional clinical investigation. Two hundred sixteen consecutive patients undergoing myocardial revascularization between May 2000 and December 2002. Seventy-two patients underwent myocardial revascularization and were treated with enoximone, 5 microg/kg/min (group A). They were compared in a ratio of 1:2 to 144 patients treated with dobutamine at the same dose (group B) after aortic cross-clamp removal. The groups proved to be homogenous in preoperative and intraoperative characteristics. Hospital outcome, electrocardiogram, echocardiography, further inotropic support, and biochemical markers of ischemia were compared. Subsets of patients with comorbidities and total arterial revascularization were analyzed. Perioperative myocardial infarction, postoperative low-output syndrome, intra-aortic balloon pump, atrial fibrillation, ST-segment changes, postoperative echocardiographic findings, and intensive care and hospital durations were similar between groups. In the postoperative course, more patients belonging to group A maintained low-dose inotropic support, whereas more patients belonging to group B required higher doses. Troponin I and creatine kinase-MB values were higher in patients of group B, especially when subgroups with diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy, or total arterial revascularization were included. Postoperative enoximone reduced troponin I release and need for inotropic support in patients undergoing on-pump myocardial revascularization. Subgroup data were confirmed in diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy, and total arterial revascularization.

  9. Motion corrected LV quantification based on 3D modelling for improved functional assessment in cardiac MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Y M; McLaughlin, R A; Chan, B T; Abdul Aziz, Y F; Chee, K H; Ung, N M; Tan, L K; Lai, K W; Ng, S; Lim, E

    2015-04-07

    Cine MRI is a clinical reference standard for the quantitative assessment of cardiac function, but reproducibility is confounded by motion artefacts. We explore the feasibility of a motion corrected 3D left ventricle (LV) quantification method, incorporating multislice image registration into the 3D model reconstruction, to improve reproducibility of 3D LV functional quantification. Multi-breath-hold short-axis and radial long-axis images were acquired from 10 patients and 10 healthy subjects. The proposed framework reduced misalignment between slices to subpixel accuracy (2.88 to 1.21 mm), and improved interstudy reproducibility for 5 important clinical functional measures, i.e. end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, ejection fraction, myocardial mass and 3D-sphericity index, as reflected in a reduction in the sample size required to detect statistically significant cardiac changes: a reduction of 21-66%. Our investigation on the optimum registration parameters, including both cardiac time frames and number of long-axis (LA) slices, suggested that a single time frame is adequate for motion correction whereas integrating more LA slices can improve registration and model reconstruction accuracy for improved functional quantification especially on datasets with severe motion artefacts.

  10. Preconditioning of mesenchymal stem cells with 2,4-dinitrophenol improves cardiac function in infarcted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irfan; Ali, Anwar; Akhter, Muhammad Aleem; Naeem, Nadia; Chotani, Maqsood Ahmed; Mustafa, Tuba; Salim, Asmat

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if preconditioning of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) improves survival of transplanted stem cells in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI), and to asses if this strategy has measurable impact on cardiac function. MSCs were preconditioned with DNP. In vitro cell adhesion assay and qRT-PCR were performed to analyze the expression of genes involved in cardiomyogenesis, cell adhesion and angiogenesis. MI was produced by occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery. One million cells were transplanted by intramyocardial injection into the infarcted myocardium. Echocardiography was performed after two and four weeks of cellular transplantation. Hearts were harvested after four weeks and processed for histological analysis. DNP treated MSCs adhered to the surface more (p<0.001) as compared to the normal MSCs. Gene expression levels were significantly upregulated in case of DNP treatment. The number of viable MSCs was more (p<0.001) in animals that received DNP treated MSCs, leading to significant improvement in cardiac function. Histological analysis revealed significant reduction in scar formation (p<0.001), maintenance of left ventricular wall thickness (p<0.001), and increased angiogenesis (p<0.01). The study evidenced for the first time that MSCs preconditioned with DNP improved cardiac function after transplantation. This can be attributed to improved survival, homing, adhesion, and cardiomyogenic and angiogenic differentiation of DNP treated MSCs in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiac lipid content is unresponsive to a physical activity training intervention in type 2 diabetic patients, despite improved ejection fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiner Tim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased cardiac lipid content has been associated with diabetic cardiomyopathy. We recently showed that cardiac lipid content is reduced after 12 weeks of physical activity training in healthy overweight subjects. The beneficial effect of exercise training on cardiovascular risk is well established and the decrease in cardiac lipid content with exercise training in healthy overweight subjects was accompanied by improved ejection fraction. It is yet unclear whether diabetic patients respond similarly to physical activity training and whether a lowered lipid content in the heart is necessary for improvements in cardiac function. Here, we investigated whether exercise training is able to lower cardiac lipid content and improve cardiac function in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods Eleven overweight-to-obese male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (age: 58.4 ± 0.9 years, BMI: 29.9 ± 0.01 kg/m2 followed a 12-week training program (combination endurance/strength training, three sessions/week. Before and after training, maximal whole body oxygen uptake (VO2max and insulin sensitivity (by hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp was determined. Systolic function was determined under resting conditions by CINE-MRI and cardiac lipid content in the septum of the heart by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Results VO2max increased (from 27.1 ± 1.5 to 30.1 ± 1.6 ml/min/kg, p = 0.001 and insulin sensitivity improved upon training (insulin stimulated glucose disposal (delta Rd of glucose improved from 5.8 ± 1.9 to 10.3 ± 2.0 μmol/kg/min, p = 0.02. Left-ventricular ejection fraction improved after training (from 50.5 ± 2.0 to 55.6 ± 1.5%, p = 0.01 as well as cardiac index and cardiac output. Unexpectedly, cardiac lipid content in the septum remained unchanged (from 0.80 ± 0.22% to 0.95 ± 0.21%, p = 0.15. Conclusions Twelve weeks of progressive endurance/strength training was effective in improving VO2max, insulin sensitivity

  12. Cardiac Sarcoidosis or Giant Cell Myocarditis? On Treatment Improvement of Fulminant Myocarditis as Demonstrated by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Bogabathina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell myocarditis, but not cardiac sarcoidosis, is known to cause fulminant myocarditis resulting in severe heart failure. However, giant cell myocarditis and cardiac sarcoidosis are pathologically similar, and attempts at pathological differentiation between the two remain difficult. We are presenting a case of fulminant myocarditis that has pathological features suggestive of cardiac sarcoidosis, but clinically mimicking giant cell myocarditis. This patient was treated with cyclosporine and prednisone and recovered well. This case we believe challenges our current understanding of these intertwined conditions. By obtaining a sense of severity of cardiac involvement via delayed hyperenhancement of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, we were more inclined to treat this patient as giant cell myocarditis with cyclosporine. This resulted in excellent improvement of patient’s cardiac function as shown by delayed hyperenhancement images, early perfusion images, and SSFP videos.

  13. Use of graphical statistical process control tools to monitor and improve outcomes in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ian R; Garlick, Bruce; Gardner, Michael A; Brighouse, Russell D; Foster, Kelley A; Rivers, John T

    2013-02-01

    Graphical Statistical Process Control (SPC) tools have been shown to promptly identify significant variations in clinical outcomes in a range of health care settings. We explored the application of these techniques to qualitatively inform the routine cardiac surgical morbidity and mortality (M&M) review process at a single site. Baseline clinical and procedural data relating to 4774 consecutive cardiac surgical procedures, performed between the 1st January 2003 and the 30th April 2011, were retrospectively evaluated. A range of appropriate performance measures and benchmarks were developed and evaluated using a combination of CUmulative SUM (CUSUM) charts, Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) charts and Funnel Plots. Charts have been discussed at the unit's routine M&M meetings. Risk adjustment (RA) based on EuroSCORE has been incorporated into the charts to improve performance. Discrete and aggregated measures, including Blood Product/Reoperation, major acute post-procedural complications and Length of Stay/Readmissioncharts for group and individual operators has proven helpful in detecting and differentiating systemic vs. individual variation. Copyright © 2012 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rosuvastatin improves myocardial and neurological outcomes after asphyxial cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yun; Wu, Yichen; Meng, Min; Luo, Man; Zhao, Hongmei; Sun, Hong; Gao, Sumin

    2017-03-01

    Rosuvastatin, a potent HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, is cholesterol-lowering drugs and reduce the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. This study is to explore whether rosuvastatin improves outcomes after cardiac arrest in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 8min of cardiac arrest (CA) by asphyxia and randomly assigned to three experimental groups immediately following successful resuscitation: Sham; Control; and Rosuvastatin. The survival, hemodynamics, myocardial function, neurological outcomes and apoptosis were assessed. The 7-d survival rate was greater in the rosuvastatin treated group compared to the Control group (P=0.019 by log-rank test). Myocardial function, as measured by cardiac output and ejection fraction, was significantly impaired after CA and notably improved in the animals treated with rosuvastatin beginning at 60min after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) (Pcardiac troponin T and neuron-specific enolase and the caspase-3 activity were significantly decreased in the Rosuvastatin group when compared with the Control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, rosuvastatin treatment substantially improves the 7-d survival rate as well as myocardial function and neurological outcomes after ROSC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydroxocobalamin and epinephrine both improve survival in a swine model of cyanide-induced cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Pitotti, Rebecca L; Dixon, Patricia S; Valtier, Sandra; Esquivel, Luis; Bush, Anneke; Little, Charles M

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether hydroxocobalamin will improve survival compared with epinephrine and saline solution controls in a model of cyanide-induced cardiac arrest. Forty-five swine (38 to 42 kg) were tracheally intubated, anesthetized, and central venous and arterial continuous cardiovascular monitoring catheters were inserted. Potassium cyanide was infused until cardiac arrest developed, defined as mean arterial pressure less than 30 mm Hg. Animals were treated with standardized mechanical chest compressions and were randomly assigned to receive one of 3 intravenous bolus therapies: hydroxocobalamin, epinephrine, or saline solution (control). All animals were monitored for 60 minutes after cardiac arrest. Additional epinephrine infusions were used in all arms of the study after return of spontaneous circulation for systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg. A sample size of 15 animals per group was determined according to a power of 80%, a survival difference of 0.5, and an α of 0.05. Repeated-measure ANOVA was used to determine statistically significant changes between groups over time. Baseline weight, time to arrest, and cyanide dose at cardiac arrest were similar in the 3 groups. Coronary perfusion pressures with chest compressions were greater than 15 mm Hg in both treatment groups indicating sufficient compression depth. Zero of 15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0% to 25%) animals in the control group, 11 of 15 (73%; 95% CI 48% to 90%) in the hydroxocobalamin group, and 11 of 15 (73%; 95% CI 48% to 90%) in the epinephrine group survived to the conclusion of the study (Pcyanide levels in the hydroxocobalamin group were also lower than that of the epinephrine group from cardiac arrest through the conclusion of the study. Intravenous hydroxocobalamin and epinephrine both independently improved survival compared with saline solution control in our swine model of cyanide-induced cardiac arrest. Hydroxocobalamin improved mean arterial pressure and pH, decreased

  16. Improving Communication During Cardiac ICU Multidisciplinary Rounds Through Visual Display of Patient Daily Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Lindsey B; Cooper, David S; Henderson, Carla; Brown, James; Simon, Katherine; Clark, Lindsey; Fleckenstein, Elizabeth; Benscoter, Alexis; Nelson, David P

    2016-07-01

    To improve communication during daily cardiac ICU multidisciplinary rounds. Quality improvement methodology. Twenty-five-bed cardiac ICUs in an academic free-standing pediatric hospital. All patients admitted to the cardiac ICU. Implementation of visual display of patient daily goals through a write-down and read-back process. The Rounds Effectiveness Assessment and Communication Tool was developed based on the previously validated Patient Knowledge Assessment Tool to evaluate comprehension of patient daily goals. Rounds were assessed for each patient by the bedside nurse, nurse practitioner or fellow, and attending physician, and answers were compared to determine percent agreement per day. At baseline, percent agreement for patient goals was only 62%. After initial implementation of the daily goal write-down/read-back process, which was written on paper by the bedside nurse, the Rounds Effectiveness Assessment and Communication Tool survey revealed no improvement. With adaptation of the intervention so goals were written on whiteboards for visual display during rounds, the percent agreement improved to 85%. Families were also asked to complete a survey (1-6 Likert scale) of their satisfaction with rounds and understanding of daily goals before and after the intervention. Family survey results improved from a mean of 4.6-5.7. Parent selection of the best possible score for each question was 19% at baseline and 75% after the intervention. Visual display of patient daily goals via a write-down/read-back process improves comprehension of goals by all team members and improves parent satisfaction. The daily goal whiteboard facilitates consistent development of a comprehensive plan of care for each patient, fosters goal-directed care, and provides a checklist for providers and parents to review throughout the day.

  17. Targeting the Innate Immune Response to Improve Cardiac Graft Recovery after Heart Transplantation: Implications for the Donation after Cardiac Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Toldo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Heart transplantation (HTx is the ultimate treatment for end-stage heart failure. The number of patients on waiting lists for heart transplants, however, is much higher than the number of available organs. The shortage of donor hearts is a serious concern since the population affected by heart failure is constantly increasing. Furthermore, the long-term success of HTx poses some challenges despite the improvement in the management of the short-term complications and in the methods to limit graft rejection. Myocardial injury occurs during transplantation. Injury initiated in the donor as result of brain or cardiac death is exacerbated by organ procurement and storage, and is ultimately amplified by reperfusion injury at the time of transplantation. The innate immune system is a mechanism of first-line defense against pathogens and cell injury. Innate immunity is activated during myocardial injury and produces deleterious effects on the heart structure and function. Here, we briefly discuss the role of the innate immunity in the initiation of myocardial injury, with particular focus on the Toll-like receptors and inflammasome, and how to potentially expand the donor population by targeting the innate immune response.

  18. American Heart Association Response to the 2015 Institute of Medicine Report on Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumar, Robert W; Eigel, Brian; Callaway, Clifton W; Estes, N A Mark; Jollis, James G; Kleinman, Monica E; Morrison, Laurie J; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Rabinstein, Alejandro; Rea, Thomas D; Sendelbach, Sue

    2015-09-15

    The American Heart Association (AHA) commends the recently released Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, Strategies to Improve Cardiac Arrest Survival: A Time to Act (2015). The AHA recognizes the unique opportunity created by the report to meaningfully advance the objectives of improving outcomes for sudden cardiac arrest. For decades, the AHA has focused on the goal of reducing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease though robust support of basic, translational, clinical, and population research. The AHA also has developed a rigorous process using the best available evidence to develop scientific, advisory, and guideline documents. These core activities of development and dissemination of scientific evidence have served as the foundation for a broad range of advocacy initiatives and programs that serve as a foundation for advancing the AHA and IOM goal of improving cardiac arrest outcomes. In response to the call to action in the IOM report, the AHA is announcing 4 new commitments to increase cardiac arrest survival: (1) The AHA will provide up to $5 million in funding over 5 years to incentivize resuscitation data interoperability; (2) the AHA will actively pursue philanthropic support for local and regional implementation opportunities to increase cardiac arrest survival by improving out-of-hospital and in-hospital systems of care; (3) the AHA will actively pursue philanthropic support to launch an AHA resuscitation research network; and (4) the AHA will cosponsor a National Cardiac Arrest Summit to facilitate the creation of a national cardiac arrest collaborative that will unify the field and identify common goals to improve survival. In addition to the AHA's historic and ongoing commitment to improving cardiac arrest care and outcomes, these new initiatives are responsive to each of the IOM recommendations and demonstrate the AHA's leadership in the field. However, successful implementation of the IOM recommendations will require a timely

  19. Treatment with hESC-Derived Myocardial Precursors Improves Cardiac Function after a Myocardial Infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqin Ye

    Full Text Available We previously reported the generation of a reporter line of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP expression driven by the α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC promoter. The GFP+/αMHC+ cells derived from this cell line behave as multipotent, human myocardial precursors (hMPs in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of GFP+/αMHC+ cells isolated from the reporter line in a mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI.MI was generated in immunodeficient mice. hMPs were injected into murine infarcted hearts under ultrasound guidance at 3 days post-MI. Human fetal skin fibroblasts (hFFs were injected as control. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography. Infarct size, angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell fate, and teratoma formation were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining.Compared with control, hMPs resulted in improvement of cardiac function post-MI with smaller infarct size, induced endogenous angiogenesis, and reduced apoptosis of host cardiomyocytes at the peri-infarct zone at 28 days post-MI.Intramyocardial injection of hMPs improved cardiac function post-MI. The engraftment rate of these cells in the myocardium post-MI was low, suggesting that the majority of effect occurs via paracrine mechanisms.

  20. Improving best-phase image quality in cardiac CT by motion correction with MAM optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohkohl, Christopher; Bruder, Herbert; Stierstorfer, Karl; Flohr, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Research in image reconstruction for cardiac CT aims at using motion correction algorithms to improve the image quality of the coronary arteries. The key to those algorithms is motion estimation, which is currently based on 3-D/3-D registration to align the structures of interest in images acquired in multiple heart phases. The need for an extended scan data range covering several heart phases is critical in terms of radiation dose to the patient and limits the clinical potential of the method. Furthermore, literature reports only slight quality improvements of the motion corrected images when compared to the most quiet phase (best-phase) that was actually used for motion estimation. In this paper a motion estimation algorithm is proposed which does not require an extended scan range but works with a short scan data interval, and which markedly improves the best-phase image quality. Motion estimation is based on the definition of motion artifact metrics (MAM) to quantify motion artifacts in a 3-D reconstructed image volume. The authors use two different MAMs, entropy, and positivity. By adjusting the motion field parameters, the MAM of the resulting motion-compensated reconstruction is optimized using a gradient descent procedure. In this way motion artifacts are minimized. For a fast and practical implementation, only analytical methods are used for motion estimation and compensation. Both the MAM-optimization and a 3-D/3-D registration-based motion estimation algorithm were investigated by means of a computer-simulated vessel with a cardiac motion profile. Image quality was evaluated using normalized cross-correlation (NCC) with the ground truth template and root-mean-square deviation (RMSD). Four coronary CT angiography patient cases were reconstructed to evaluate the clinical performance of the proposed method. For the MAM-approach, the best-phase image quality could be improved for all investigated heart phases, with a maximum improvement of the NCC value by

  1. Pioglitazone improves cardiac function and alters myocardial substrate metabolism without affecting cardiac triglyceride accumulation and high-energy phosphate metabolism in patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Rutger W.; Rijzewijk, Luuk J.; de Jong, Hugo W. A. M.; Lamb, Hildo J.; Lubberink, Mark; Romijn, Johannes A.; Bax, Jeroen J.; de Roos, Albert; Kamp, Otto; Paulus, Walter J.; Heine, Robert J.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Diamant, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac disease is the leading cause of mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Pioglitazone has been associated with improved cardiac outcome but also with an elevated risk of heart failure. We determined the effects of pioglitazone on myocardial function in relation to cardiac high-energy

  2. Implementation of a structured information transfer checklist improves postoperative data transfer after congenital cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Arif; Moerman, Annelies T; Peperstraete, Harlinde; François, Katrien; Wouters, Patrick F; de Hert, Stefan G

    2013-12-01

    During one hospital stay, a patient can be cared for by five different units. With patient transfer from one unit to another, it is of prime importance to convey a complete picture of the patient's situation to minimise the risk of medical errors and to provide optimal patient care. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the implementation of a standardised checklist used during verbal patient handover could improve postoperative data transfer after congenital cardiac surgery. Prospective, pre/postinterventional clinical study. Cardiac centre of a university hospital. Forty-eight patients younger than 16 years undergoing heart surgery. A standardised checklist was developed containing all data that, according to the investigators, should be communicated during the handover of a paediatric cardiac surgery patient from the operating room to the ICU. Data transfer during the postoperative handover before and after implementation of the checklist was evaluated. Duration of handover, number of interruptions, number of irrelevant data and number of confusing pieces of information were noted. Assessment of the handover process by ICU medical and nursing staff was quantified. After implementation of the information transfer checklist, the overall data transfer increased from 48 to 73% (P data transfer decreased from a median (range) of 6 (2 to 16) to 4 min (2 to 19) (P = 0.04). The overall handover assessment by the intensive care nursing staff improved significantly after implementation of the checklist. Implementation of an information transfer checklist in postoperative paediatric cardiac surgery patients resulted in a more complete transfer of information, with a decrease in the handover duration.

  3. Identifying non-technical skills and barriers for improvement of teamwork in cardiac arrest teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Peter Oluf; Jensen, Michael Kammer; Lippert, Anne; Østergaard, Doris

    2010-06-01

    The application of non-technical skills (NTSs) in health care has previously been described in other health-care educational programmes. NTSs are behavioural principles such as leadership, task distribution and communication. The aim of this study was to identify NTSs suitable for improving team performance in multi-professional cardiac arrest teams, and to describe barriers to the use and implementation of such NTSs by using a qualitative method. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 Danish Advanced Life Support instructors during the period April 2006 to November 2006. Interviews were focussed on barriers and recommendations for teamwork in the cardiac arrest team, optimal policy for improvement of resuscitation training and clinical practice, use of cognitive aids and adoption of European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Guidelines 2005. Interviews and data analysis were supported by a template describing 25 NTSs derived from other educational programmes in health care. A framework with five categories relating to NTSs was identified: leadership, communication, mutual performance monitoring, maintenance of standards and guidelines and task management. Important barriers that were identified were inexperienced team leaders, task overload and hierarchic structure in the teams' inability to maintain focus on chest compressions. Interview participants pointed out that NTSs of teams could improve the treatment of cardiac arrest, but several barriers to this exist. Improving resuscitation training should include considerations regarding team leader experience, structured communication, mandatory use of cognitive aids, avoidance of task overload and mutual performance monitoring to avoid unnecessary interruptions in chest compressions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive behavioral therapy for depression improves pain and perceived control in cardiac surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Lynn V; McGuire, Anthony; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Chen, Belinda; Bodán, Rebecca C; Czer, Lawrence S; Irwin, Michael R

    2016-10-01

    Depression after cardiac surgery (CS) is associated with increased pain and decreased sleep quality. While cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) aimed at depression is effective in relieving depressive symptoms after cardiac surgery, little is known about its ability to ameliorate other common postoperative problems that affect recovery and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of CBT for depression on pain severity, pain interference, sleep, and perceived control in patients recovering from CS. Depressed patients recovering from CS were randomized to receive either eight weeks of CBT or usual care. At baseline and post-intervention, patients completed questionnaires for depressive symptoms, pain, sleep, and perceived control. Group comparisons were conducted using t-tests or chi square analysis. Repeated measures analysis was used to assess the effect of the intervention in changes over time. The sample (n=53) included 16.9% women and had a mean age of 67.8±9.2 years. CBT for depression increased perceived control (pdepression-focused CBT intervention yields benefits in other common postoperative problems, specifically improved perceived control and decreased pain in depressed cardiac surgery patients. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  5. Automated auditory mismatch negativity paradigm improves coma prognostic accuracy after cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Andrea O; Tzovara, Athina; Murray, Micah M; De Lucia, Marzia; Oddo, Mauro

    2014-08-01

    EEG and somatosensory evoked potential are highly predictive of poor outcome after cardiac arrest; their accuracy for good recovery is however low. We evaluated whether addition of an automated mismatch negativity-based auditory discrimination paradigm (ADP) to EEG and somatosensory evoked potential improves prediction of awakening. EEG and ADP were prospectively recorded in 30 adults during therapeutic hypothermia and in normothermia. We studied the progression of auditory discrimination on single-trial multivariate analyses from therapeutic hypothermia to normothermia, and its correlation to outcome at 3 months, assessed with cerebral performance categories. At 3 months, 18 of 30 patients (60%) survived; 5 had severe neurologic impairment (cerebral performance categories = 3) and 13 had good recovery (cerebral performance categories = 1-2). All 10 subjects showing improvements of auditory discrimination from therapeutic hypothermia to normothermia regained consciousness: ADP was 100% predictive for awakening. The addition of ADP significantly improved mortality prediction (area under the curve, 0.77 for standard model including clinical examination, EEG, somatosensory evoked potential, versus 0.86 after adding ADP, P = 0.02). This automated ADP significantly improves early coma prognostic accuracy after cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia. The progression of auditory discrimination is strongly predictive of favorable recovery and appears complementary to existing prognosticators of poor outcome. Before routine implementation, validation on larger cohorts is warranted.

  6. Dichloroacetate selectively improves cardiac function and metabolism in female and male rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiprolu, Pavan K.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac tissue from female rainbow trout demonstrates a sex-specific preference for exogenous glucose and glycolysis, impaired Ca2+ handling, and a greater tolerance for hypoxia and reoxygenation than cardiac tissue from male rainbow trout. We tested the hypothesis that dichloroacetate (DCA), an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase, enhances cardiac energy metabolism and Ca2+ handling in female preparations and provide cardioprotection for hypoxic male tissue. Ventricle strips from sexually immature fish with very low (male) and nondetectable (female) plasma sex steroids were electrically paced in oxygenated or hypoxic Ringer solution with or without 1 mM DCA. In the presence of 5 mM glucose, aerobic tissue from male trout could be paced at a higher frequency (1.79 vs. 1.36 Hz) with lower resting tension and less contractile dysfunction than female tissue. At 0.5 Hz, DCA selectively reduced resting tension below baseline values and lactate efflux by 75% in aerobic female ventricle strips. DCA improved the functional recovery of developed twitch force, reduced lactate efflux by 50%, and doubled citrate in male preparations after hypoxia-reoxygenation. Independent of female sex steroids, reduced myocardial pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and impaired carbohydrate oxidation might explain the higher lactate efflux, compromised function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and reduced mechanical performance of aerobic female tissue. Elevated oxidative metabolism and reduced glycolysis might also underlie the beneficial effects of DCA on the mechanical recovery of male cardiac tissue after hypoxia-reoxygenation. These results support the use of rainbow trout as an experimental model of sex differences of cardiovascular energetics and function, with the potential for modifying metabolic phenotypes and cardioprotection independent of sex steroids. PMID:25217653

  7. Ginsenoside Rg3 improves cardiac mitochondrial population quality: Mimetic exercise training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mengwei [Key Laboratory of State General Administration of Sport, Shanghai Research Institute of Sports Science, Shanghai 200031 (China); Huang, Chenglin [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Hypertension and Pharmacology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Cheng; Zheng, Jianheng; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Yangshu [Key Laboratory of State General Administration of Sport, Shanghai Research Institute of Sports Science, Shanghai 200031 (China); Chen, Hong, E-mail: hchen100@hotmail.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Hypertension and Pharmacology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Shen, Weili, E-mail: weili_shen@hotmail.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Hypertension and Pharmacology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Rg3 is an ergogenic aid. •Rg3 improves mitochondrial antioxidant capacity. •Rg3 regulates mitochondria dynamic remodeling. •Rg3 alone matches some the benefits of aerobic exercise. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates exercise training could mediate mitochondrial quality control through the improvement of mitochondrial dynamics. Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), one of the active ingredients in Panax ginseng, is well known in herbal medicine as a tonic and restorative agent. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of Rg3 has been elusive. In the present study, we compared the effects of Rg3 administration with aerobic exercise on mitochondrial adaptation in cardiac muscle tissue of Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Three groups of SD rats were studied: (1) sedentary control, (2) Rg3-treated and (3) aerobic exercise trained. Both aerobic exercise training and Rg3 supplementation enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels in cardiac muscle. The activation of PGC-1α led to increased mRNA levels of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear related factor 1(Nrf1), these changes were accompanied by increases in mitochondrial DNA copy number and complex protein levels, while activation of Nrf2 increased levels of phase II detoxifying enzymes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1), superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase. Aerobic exercise also enhanced mitochondrial autophagy pathway activity, including increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and greater expression of beclin1 and autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7), these effects of aerobic exercise are comparable to that of Rg3. These results demonstrate that Rg3 mimics improved cardiac adaptations to exercise by regulating mitochondria dynamic remodeling and enhancing the quantity and quality of mitochondria.

  8. Generative Retrieval Improves Learning and Retention of Cardiac Anatomy Using Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Amanda M; Forkin, Katherine T; Bechtel, Allison J; Collins, Stephen R; Ma, Jennie Z; Nemergut, Edward C; Huffmyer, Julie L

    2017-05-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a valuable monitor for patients undergoing cardiac and noncardiac surgery as it allows for evaluation of cardiovascular compromise in the perioperative period. It is challenging for anesthesiology residents and medical students to learn to use and interpret TEE in the clinical environment. A critical component of learning to use and interpret TEE is a strong grasp of normal cardiovascular ultrasound anatomy. Fifteen fourth-year medical students and 15 post-graduate year (PGY) 1 and 2 anesthesiology residents without prior training in cardiac anesthesia or TEE viewed normal cardiovascular anatomy TEE video clips; participants were randomized to learning cardiac anatomy in generative retrieval (GR) and standard practice (SP) groups. GR participants were required to verbally identify each unlabeled cardiac anatomical structure within 10 seconds of the TEE video appearing on the screen. Then a correctly labeled TEE video clip was shown to the GR participant for 5 more seconds. SP participants viewed the same TEE video clips as GR but there was no requirement for SP participants to generate an answer; for the SP group, each TEE video image was labeled with the correctly identified anatomical structure for the 15 second period. All participants were tested for intermediate (1 week) and late (1 month) retention of normal TEE cardiovascular anatomy. Improvement of intermediate and late retention of TEE cardiovascular anatomy was evaluated using a linear mixed effects model with random intercepts and random slopes. There was no statistically significant difference in baseline score between GR (49% ± 11) and SP (50% ± 12), with mean difference (95% CI) -1.1% (-9.5, 7.3%). At 1 week following the educational intervention, GR (90% ± 5) performed significantly better than SP (82% ± 11), with mean difference (95% CI) 8.1% (1.9, 14.2%); P = .012. This significant increase in scores persisted in the late posttest session at one month

  9. Traditional Chinese Medicine Tongxinluo Improves Cardiac Function of Rats with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Fang Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at testing the hypothesis that tongxinluo capsule might exert its cardioprotective effect by preventing ventricular remodeling and improving coronary microvascular function in a rat model of doxorubicin-induced dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. Rats that survived DCM induction were randomly divided into three groups to be given 1.5 g·kg−1·day−1 (TXL-H, n=9 or 0.15 g·kg−1·day−1 (TXL-L, n=10 of tongxinluo, or normal saline at the same volume (DCM-C, n=10 intragastrically. Age matched normal rats treated with normal saline were used as normal controls (NOR-C, n=9. After four weeks of treatment, the DCM-C, TXL-H, and TXL-L groups exhibited significant cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular remodeling, and coronary microvascular dysfunction, compared with the NOR-C rats. However, myocardial functional parameters were significantly improved and microvascular density (MVD increased in the TXL-H group compared with the DCM-C group (all P<0.01. Left ventricular remodeling was prevented. There were close linear relationships between CVF and LVEF (r=-0.683, P<0.05, MVD and LVEF (r=0.895, P<0.05, and MVD and CVF (r=-0.798, P<0.05. It was indicated that high-dose tongxinluo effectively improved cardiac function in rat model of DCM.

  10. Cardiac catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - cardiac; Heart catheterization; Angina - cardiac catheterization; CAD - cardiac catheterization; Coronary artery disease - cardiac catheterization; Heart valve - cardiac catheterization; ...

  11. Calcium channel blockade limits cardiac remodeling and improves cardiac function in myocardial infarction-induced heart failure in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandmann, S.; Claas, R.; Cleutjens, J. P.; Daemen, M. J.; Unger, T.

    2001-01-01

    Calcium channel antagonists (CCAs) have been proposed to prevent cardiac events after myocardial infarction (MI). However, unwanted effects, such as negative inotropy, limit their use in many cases. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of long-term treatment with the CCAs, mibefradil,

  12. The second phase in creating the cardiac center for the next generation: beyond structure to process improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J

    2001-01-01

    The third generation cardiac institute will build on the successes of the past in structuring the service line, re-organizing to assimilate specialist interests, and re-positioning to expand cardiac services into cardiovascular services. To meet the challenges of an increasingly competitive marketplace and complex delivery system, the focus for this new model will shift away from improved structures, and toward improved processes. This shift will require a sound methodology for statistically measuring and sustaining process changes related to the optimization of cardiovascular care. In recent years, GE Medical Systems has successfully applied Six Sigma methodologies to enable cardiac centers to control key clinical and market development processes through its DMADV, DMAIC and Change Acceleration processes. Data indicates Six Sigma is having a positive impact within organizations across the United States, and when appropriately implemented, this approach can serve as a solid foundation for building the next generation cardiac institute.

  13. Activation of myocardial phosphoinositide-3-kinase p110α ameliorates cardiac dysfunction and improves survival in polymicrobial sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanfu Li

    Full Text Available Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt dependent signaling has been shown to improve outcome in sepsis/septic shock. There is also ample evidence that PI3K/Akt dependent signaling plays a crucial role in maintaining normal cardiac function. We hypothesized that PI3K/Akt signaling may ameliorate septic shock by attenuating sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. Cardiac function and survival were evaluated in transgenic mice with cardiac myocyte specific expression of constitutively active PI3K isoform, p110α (caPI3K Tg. caPI3K Tg and wild type (WT mice were subjected to cecal ligation/puncture (CLP induced sepsis. Wild type CLP mice showed dramatic cardiac dysfunction at 6 hrs. Septic cardiomyopathy was significantly attenuated in caPI3K CLP mice. The time to 100% mortality was 46 hrs in WT CLP mice. In contrast, 80% of the caPI3K mice survived at 46 hrs after CLP (p30 days (p<0.01. Cardiac caPI3K expression prevented expression of an inflammatory phenotype in CLP sepsis. Organ neutrophil infiltration and lung apoptosis were also effectively inhibited by cardiac PI3k p110α expression. Cardiac high mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1 translocation was also inhibited by caPI3K p110α expression. We conclude that cardiac specific activation of PI3k/Akt dependent signaling can significantly modify the morbidity and mortality associated with sepsis. Our data also indicate that myocardial function/dysfunction plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis of sepsis and that maintenance of cardiac function during sepsis is essential. Finally, these data suggest that modulation of the PI3K/p110α signaling pathway may be beneficial in the prevention and/or management of septic cardiomyopathy and septic shock.

  14. Platelet-Specific p38α Deficiency Improved Cardiac Function After Myocardial Infarction in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Panlai; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Mingliang; Yang, Wenlong; Wang, Kemin; Zhang, Junfeng; Otsu, Kinya; Huang, Gonghua; Fan, Xuemei; Liu, Junling

    2017-12-01

    MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), especially p38, play detrimental roles in cardiac diseases and cardiac remodeling post-myocardial infarction. However, the activation and function of MAPKs in coronary thrombosis in vivo and its relationship with clinical outcomes remain poorly understood. Here, we showed that p38α was the major isoform expressed in human and mouse platelets. Platelet-specific p38α-deficient mice presented impaired thrombosis and hemostasis but had improved cardiac function, reduced infarct size, decreased inflammatory response, and microthrombus in a left anterior descending artery ligation model. Signaling analysis revealed that p38 activation was one of the earliest events in platelets after treatment with receptor agonists or reactive oxygen species. p38α/MAPK-activated protein kinase 2/heat shock protein 27 and p38α/cytosolic phospholipases A2 were the major pathways regulating receptor-mediated or hydrogen peroxide-induced platelet activation in an ischemic environment. Moreover, the distinct roles of ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) in receptor- or reactive oxygen species-induced p38-mediated platelet activation reflected the complicated synergistic relationships among MAPKs. Analysis of clinical samples revealed that MAPKs were highly phosphorylated in platelets from preoperative patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, and increased phosphorylation of p38 was associated with no-reflow outcomes. We conclude that p38α serves as a critical regulator of platelet activation and potential indicator of highly thrombotic lesions and no-reflow, and inhibition of platelet p38α may improve clinical outcomes in subjects with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Human placenta-derived adherent cells improve cardiac performance in mice with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Jung; Chen, Chien-Hsi; Chang, Ming-Yao; Tsai, Da-Ching; Baum, Ellen Z; Hariri, Robert; Herzberg, Uri; Hsieh, Patrick C H

    2015-03-01

    Human placenta-derived adherent cells (PDACs) are a culture-expanded, undifferentiated mesenchymal-like population derived from full-term placental tissue, with immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and neuroprotective properties. PDA-001 (cenplacel-L), an intravenous formulation of PDAC cells, is in clinical development for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We tested the therapeutic effects of PDA-001 in mice with chronic heart failure (CHF). Three weeks after transaortic constriction surgery to induce CHF, the mice underwent direct intramyocardial (IM) or i.v. injection of PDA-001 at a high (0.5 × 10(6) cells per mouse), medium (0.5 × 10(5) cells per mouse), or low (0.5 × 10(4) cells per mouse) dose. The mice were sacrificed 4 weeks after treatment. Echocardiography and ventricular catheterization showed that IM injection of PDA-001 significantly improved left ventricular systolic and diastolic function compared with injection of vehicle or i.v. injection of PDA-001. IM injection of PDA-001 also decreased cardiac fibrosis, shown by trichrome staining in the vicinity of the injection sites. Low-dose treatment showed the best improvement in cardiac performance compared with the medium- and high-dose groups. In another independent study to determine the mechanism of action with bromodeoxyuridine labeling, the proliferation rates of endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes were significantly increased by low or medium IM dose PDA-001. However, no surviving PDA-001 cells were detected in the heart 1 month after injection. In vivo real-time imaging consistently revealed that the PDA-001 cells were detectable only within 2 days after IM injection of luciferase-expressing PDA-001. Together, these results have demonstrated the cardiac therapeutic potential of PDA-001, likely through a paracrine effect. ©AlphaMed Press.

  16. An analysis of implantable cardiac device reliability. The case for improved postmarketing risk assessment and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskey, Warren; Awad, Khaled; Lum, Jeremy; Skodacek, Ken; Zimmerman, Barbara; Selzman, Kimberly; Zuckerman, Bram

    2012-07-01

    Implantable cardiac devices have become the mainstay of the treatment of patients with heart disease. However, data regarding their reliability and, inferentially, safety have been called into question. We reviewed annual reports submitted to the Food and Drug Administration Office of Device Evaluation by device manufacturers from 2003 to 2007. The annual number of implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) implants, explants, and returned devices were tabulated along with the cumulative (Cum) number of implants for each device. We derived an annual explantation rate (AER) defined as the ratio of the annual number of explants less the number of normal battery depletions/Cum (×1000). From 2003 to 2007, 256,392 CRT-D and 459,300 ICD devices were implanted in the United States. The overall mean (±SD) AERs for ICD and CRT-D devices were, respectively, 49.5 (15.6) per 1000 ICD devices and 82.6 (35.5) per 1000 CRT-D devices. The AER for each device type significantly decreased over the study period (P for trend AER for CRT-D devices was 38% higher than that for ICD devices (P AER for CRT-D devices was higher than that for ICD devices. Improved methods for tracking individual device histories are needed for more precise estimates of the risk of device explantation for suspected malfunction. The proportion of devices returned to the manufacturer is suboptimal and needs to be improved to better understand the mechanisms of device malfunction.

  17. [Testosterone therapy improves cardiac function of male rats with right heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zong-Bin; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ju-Xiang; Chen, Xun-Min; Jiang, Shi-Sen

    2009-11-01

    Clinical studies have shown decreased levels of sexual hormones, particularly testosterone deficiency, in men with chronic heart failure (CHF). The authors aimed to investigate the effect of testosterone on cardiac function and the possible mechanism of androgen protecting the heart in male rats. Forty-three male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: right heart failure (RHF, n = 15), physiologic testosterone treatment (TT, n = 15) and control (n = 13). The RHF group was given intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline at 60 mg/kg to make RHF models; the TT group was injected with testosterone at 5 mg/kg 3 days after monocrotaline administration; and the control group received equal volume of saline. The CD34+ cells in the peripheral blood of each rat were counted by flow cytometry. The levels of serum testosterone and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The hearts, lungs and livers of all the surviving rats were excised at 6 weeks for pathological and immunohistochemical examinations. The level of serum testosterone was gradually decreased, while that of TNF-alpha obviously increased in the RHF group. After testosterone treatment, the TT group showed a remarkable improvement of cardiac performance and a significant decrease in the level of serum TNF-alpha as compared with the RHF group. Statistically significant differences were observed neither in the CD34+ cell count in the peripheral blood nor in the CD34+ expression of the myocardial cells between the TT and RHF groups. Physiological supplementation of testosterone can improve the cardiac function of RHF male rats, probably through its inhibition of TNF-alpha rather than by autologous mobilization of bone marrow stem cells.

  18. Ginsenoside Rg3 improves cardiac mitochondrial population quality: mimetic exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengwei; Huang, Chenglin; Wang, Cheng; Zheng, Jianheng; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Yangshu; Chen, Hong; Shen, Weili

    2013-11-08

    Emerging evidence indicates exercise training could mediate mitochondrial quality control through the improvement of mitochondrial dynamics. Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), one of the active ingredients in Panax ginseng, is well known in herbal medicine as a tonic and restorative agent. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of Rg3 has been elusive. In the present study, we compared the effects of Rg3 administration with aerobic exercise on mitochondrial adaptation in cardiac muscle tissue of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Three groups of SD rats were studied: (1) sedentary control, (2) Rg3-treated and (3) aerobic exercise trained. Both aerobic exercise training and Rg3 supplementation enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels in cardiac muscle. The activation of PGC-1α led to increased mRNA levels of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear related factor 1(Nrf1), these changes were accompanied by increases in mitochondrial DNA copy number and complex protein levels, while activation of Nrf2 increased levels of phase II detoxifying enzymes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1), superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase. Aerobic exercise also enhanced mitochondrial autophagy pathway activity, including increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and greater expression of beclin1 and autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7), these effects of aerobic exercise are comparable to that of Rg3. These results demonstrate that Rg3 mimics improved cardiac adaptations to exercise by regulating mitochondria dynamic remodeling and enhancing the quantity and quality of mitochondria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth hormone-releasing hormone attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and improves heart function in pressure overload-induced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesmundo, Iacopo; Miragoli, Michele; Carullo, Pierluigi; Trovato, Letizia; Larcher, Veronica; Di Pasquale, Elisa; Brancaccio, Mara; Mazzola, Marta; Villanova, Tania; Sorge, Matteo; Taliano, Marina; Gallo, Maria Pia; Alloatti, Giuseppe; Penna, Claudia; Hare, Joshua M; Ghigo, Ezio; Schally, Andrew V; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Granata, Riccarda

    2017-11-07

    It has been shown that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) reduces cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis, prevents ischemia/reperfusion injury, and improves cardiac function in ischemic rat hearts. However, it is still not known whether GHRH would be beneficial for life-threatening pathological conditions, like cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). Thus, we tested the myocardial therapeutic potential of GHRH stimulation in vitro and in vivo, using GHRH or its agonistic analog MR-409. We show that in vitro, GHRH(1-44)NH 2 attenuates phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy in H9c2 cardiac cells, adult rat ventricular myocytes, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs, decreasing expression of hypertrophic genes and regulating hypertrophic pathways. Underlying mechanisms included blockade of Gq signaling and its downstream components phospholipase Cβ, protein kinase Cε, calcineurin, and phospholamban. The receptor-dependent effects of GHRH also involved activation of Gα s and cAMP/PKA, and inhibition of increase in exchange protein directly activated by cAMP1 (Epac1). In vivo, MR-409 mitigated cardiac hypertrophy in mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction and improved cardiac function. Moreover, CMs isolated from transverse aortic constriction mice treated with MR-409 showed improved contractility and reversal of sarcolemmal structure. Overall, these results identify GHRH as an antihypertrophic regulator, underlying its therapeutic potential for HF, and suggest possible beneficial use of its analogs for treatment of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  20. Amlodipine and Atorvastatin Improved Hypertensive Cardiac Remodeling through Regulation of MMPs/TIMPs in SHR Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingchao Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: MMPs/TIMPs system is well known to play important roles in pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling, and Amlodipine and Atorvastatin have been showed to exert favourable protective effects on cardiovascular disease, however, it is not clear whether Amlodipine and Atorvastatin can improve hypertensive cardiac remodeling and whether the MMPs/TIMPs system is involved. The present study aims to answer these questions. Methods: 36 weeks old male spontaneous hypertension (SHR rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1. SHR control group, 2. Amlodipine alone (10 mg/kg/d group, 3. Atorvastatin alone (10 mg/kg/d group, 4.Combination of Amlodipine and Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg/d for each group. Same gender, weight and age of Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats with normal blood pressure were used as normal control. Drugs were administered by oral gavage over 12 weeks. The blood pressure and left ventricle mass index were measured. Enzyme activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was assessed with Gelatin zymography. MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mRNA and protein expression was studied by RT-PCR and Western blot. Single factor ANOVA and LSD-t test were used in statistical analysis. Results: Treatment with Amlodipine alone or combination with atorvastatin significantly decreased blood pressure, left ventricle mass index in SHR rats (P Conclusion: Amlodipine and Atorvastatin could improve ventricular remodeling in SHR rats through intervention with the imbalance of MMP-2/TIMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 system.

  1. Regular physical exercise improves cardiac autonomic and muscle vasodilatory responses to isometric exercise in healthy elderly

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    Sarmento AO

    2017-06-01

    sympathetic activity compared to physically active older adult subjects at baseline (63.13±3.31 vs 50.45±3.55 nu, P=0.02. The variance (heart rate variability index was increased in active older adults (1,438.64±448.90 vs 1,402.92±385.14 ms, P=0.02, and cardiac sympathetic activity (symbolic analysis was increased in sedentary older adults (5,660.91±1,626.72 vs 4,381.35±1,852.87, P=0.03 during isometric handgrip exercise. Sedentary older adults showed higher cardiac sympathetic activity (spectral analysis (71.29±4.40 vs 58.30±3.50 nu, P=0.03 and lower parasympathetic modulation (28.79±4.37 vs 41.77±3.47 nu, P=0.03 compared to physically active older adult subjects during isometric handgrip exercise. Regarding muscle vasodilation response, there was an increase in the skeletal muscle blood flow in the second (4.1±0.5 vs 3.7±0.4 mL/min per 100 mL, P=0.01 and third minute (4.4±0.4 vs 3.9±0.3 mL/min per 100 mL, P=0.03 of handgrip exercise in active older adults. The results indicate that regular physical activity improves neurovascular control of muscle blood flow and cardiac autonomic response during isometric handgrip exercise in healthy older adult subjects. Keywords: forearm blood flow, handgrip exercise, heart rate variability, sympathetic, parasympathetic, aging

  2. Operational Efficiency and Productivity Improvement Initiatives in a Large Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Grant W; Hantz, Scott; Cunningham, Rebecca; Krishnaswamy, Amar; Ellis, Stephen G; Khot, Umesh; Rak, Joe; Kapadia, Samir R

    2018-02-26

    This study sought to report outcomes from an efficiency improvement project in a large cardiac cath lab. Operational inefficiencies are common in the cath lab, yet solutions are challenging. A detailed report describing and providing solutions for these inefficiencies may be valuable in guiding improvements in productivity. In this observational study, the authors report metrics of efficiency before and after a cath lab quality improvement program in June 2014. Main outcomes included lab room start times, room turnaround times, laboratory use, and employee satisfaction. Time series analysis was used to assess trend over time. Chi-square testing and analysis of variance were used to assess change before and after the initiative. The principal changes included implementation of a pyramidal nursing schedule, increased use of an electronic scheduling system, and increased utilization of a preparation and recovery area. Comparing before with after the program, start times improved an average of 17 min, and on-time starts improved from 61.8% to 81.7% (p = 0.0024). Turnaround times improved from 20.5 min to 16.4 min (trend p productivity. This knowledge may be helpful in assisting other cath labs in similar efficiency improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Heme oxygenase-1 induction improves cardiac function following myocardial ischemia by reducing oxidative stress.

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    Yossi Issan

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a key role in exacerbating diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, a stress response protein, is cytoprotective, but its role in post myocardial infarction (MI and diabetes is not fully characterized. We aimed to investigate the protection and the mechanisms of HO-1 induction in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia and in diabetic mice subjected to LAD ligation.In vitro: cultured cardiomyocytes were treated with cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP prior to hypoxic stress. In vivo: CoPP treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were subjected to LAD ligation for 2/24 h. Cardiac function, histology, biochemical damage markers and signaling pathways were measured.HO-1 induction lowered release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine phospho kinase (CK, decreased propidium iodide staining, improved cell morphology and preserved mitochondrial membrane potential in cardiomyocytes. In diabetic mice, Fractional Shortening (FS was lower than non-diabetic mice (35±1%vs.41±2, respectively p<0.05. CoPP-treated diabetic animals improved cardiac function (43±2% p<0.01, reduced CK, Troponin T levels and infarct size compared to non-treated diabetic mice (P<0.01, P<0.001, P<0.01 respectively. CoPP-enhanced HO-1 protein levels and reduced oxidative stress in diabetic animals, as indicated by the decrease in superoxide levels in cardiac tissues and plasma TNFα levels (p<0.05. The increased levels of HO-1 by CoPP treatment after LAD ligation led to a shift of the Bcl-2/bax ratio towards the antiapoptotic process (p<0.05. CoPP significantly increased the expression levels of pAKT and pGSK3β (p<0.05 in cardiomyocytes and in diabetic mice with MI. SnPP abolished CoPP's cardioprotective effects.HO-1 induction plays a role in cardioprotection against hypoxic damage in cardiomyocytes and in reducing post ischemic cardiac damage in the diabetic heart as proved by the increased levels of pAKT with

  4. Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Improves Cardiac Function following Myocardial Ischemia by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issan, Yossi; Kornowski, Ran; Aravot, Dan; Shainberg, Asher; Laniado-Schwartzman, Michal; Sodhi, Komal; Abraham, Nader G.; Hochhauser, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress plays a key role in exacerbating diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress response protein, is cytoprotective, but its role in post myocardial infarction (MI) and diabetes is not fully characterized. We aimed to investigate the protection and the mechanisms of HO-1 induction in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia and in diabetic mice subjected to LAD ligation. Methods In vitro: cultured cardiomyocytes were treated with cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP) and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) prior to hypoxic stress. In vivo: CoPP treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were subjected to LAD ligation for 2/24 h. Cardiac function, histology, biochemical damage markers and signaling pathways were measured. Results HO-1 induction lowered release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phospho kinase (CK), decreased propidium iodide staining, improved cell morphology and preserved mitochondrial membrane potential in cardiomyocytes. In diabetic mice, Fractional Shortening (FS) was lower than non-diabetic mice (35±1%vs.41±2, respectively p<0.05). CoPP-treated diabetic animals improved cardiac function (43±2% p<0.01), reduced CK, Troponin T levels and infarct size compared to non-treated diabetic mice (P<0.01, P<0.001, P<0.01 respectively). CoPP-enhanced HO-1 protein levels and reduced oxidative stress in diabetic animals, as indicated by the decrease in superoxide levels in cardiac tissues and plasma TNFα levels (p<0.05). The increased levels of HO-1 by CoPP treatment after LAD ligation led to a shift of the Bcl-2/bax ratio towards the antiapoptotic process (p<0.05). CoPP significantly increased the expression levels of pAKT and pGSK3β (p<0.05) in cardiomyocytes and in diabetic mice with MI. SnPP abolished CoPP's cardioprotective effects. Conclusions HO-1 induction plays a role in cardioprotection against hypoxic damage in cardiomyocytes and in reducing post ischemic cardiac damage in the diabetic heart as proved by

  5. Apocynin improving cardiac remodeling in chronic renal failure disease is associated with up-regulation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Liu, Yu; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Jie; Cai, Qingqing; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2015-09-22

    Cardiac remodeling is one of the most common cardiac abnormalities and associated with a high mortality in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients. Apocynin, a nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor, has been showed cardio-protective effects. However, whether apocynin can improve cardiac remodeling in CRF and what is the underlying mechanism are unclear. In the present study, we enrolled 94 participants. In addition, we used 5/6 nephrectomized rats to mimic cardiac remodeling in CRF. Serum levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and its mainly metabolic enzyme-soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) were measured. The results showed that the serum levels of EETs were significantly decreased in renocardiac syndrome participants (P < 0.05). In 5/6 nephrectomized CRF model, the ratio of left ventricular weight / body weight, left ventricular posterior wall thickness, and cardiac interstitial fibrosis were significantly increased while ejection fraction significantly decreased (P < 0.05). All these effects could partly be reversed by apocynin. Meanwhile, we found during the process of cardiac remodeling in CRF, apocynin significantly increased the reduced serum levels of EETs and decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of sEH in the heart (P < 0.05). Our findings indicated that the protective effect of apocynin on cardiac remodeling in CRF was associated with the up-regulation of EETs. EETs may be a new mediator for the injury of kidney-heart interactions.

  6. Carbon Monoxide Improves Neurologic Outcomes by Mitochondrial Biogenesis after Global Cerebral Ischemia Induced by Cardiac Arrest in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Yao, Lan; Zhou, Li-Li; Liu, Yuan-Shan; Chen, Ming-di; Wu, Hai-Dong; Chang, Rui-Ming; Li, Yi; Zhou, Ming-Gen; Fang, Xiang-Shao; Yu, Tao; Jiang, Long-Yuan; Huang, Zi-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to brain injury following global cerebral ischemia after cardiac arrest. Carbon monoxide treatment has shown potent cytoprotective effects in ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules on brain mitochondrial dysfunction and brain injury following resuscitation after cardiac arrest in rats. A rat model of cardiac arrest was established by asphyxia. The animals were randomly divided into the following 3 groups: cardiac arrest and resuscitation group, cardiac arrest and resuscitation plus carbon monoxide intervention group, and sham control group (no cardiac arrest). After the return of spontaneous circulation, neurologic deficit scores (NDS) and S-100B levels were significantly decreased at 24, 48, and 72 h, but carbon monoxide treatment improved the NDS and S-100B levels at 24 h and the 3-day survival rates of the rats. This treatment also decreased the number of damaged neurons in the hippocampus CA1 area and increased the brain mitochondrial activity. In addition, it increased mitochondrial biogenesis by increasing the expression of biogenesis factors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, nuclear respiratory factor-1, nuclear respiratory factor-2 and mitochondrial transcription factor A. Thus, this study showed that carbon monoxide treatment alleviated brain injury after cardiac arrest in rats by increased brain mitochondrial biogenesis.

  7. Urocortin Treatment Improves Acute Hemodynamic Instability and Reduces Myocardial Damage in Post-Cardiac Arrest Myocardial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hua; Wang, Chih-Hung; Tsai, Min-Shan; Hsu, Nai-Tan; Chiang, Chih-Yen; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Chang, Wei-Tien; Chen, Huei-Wen; Chen, Wen-Jone

    2016-01-01

    Hemodynamic instability occurs following cardiac arrest and is associated with high mortality during the post-cardiac period. Urocortin is a novel peptide and a member of the corticotrophin-releasing factor family. Urocortin has the potential to improve acute cardiac dysfunction, as well as to reduce the myocardial damage sustained after ischemia reperfusion injury. The effects of urocortin in post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction remain unclear. We developed a preclinical cardiac arrest model and investigated the effects of urocortin. After cardiac arrest induced by 6.5 min asphyxia, male Wistar rats were resuscitated and randomized to either the urocortin treatment group or the control group. Urocortin (10 μg/kg) was administrated intravenously upon onset of resuscitation in the experimental group. The rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was similar between the urocortin group (76%) and the control group (72%) after resuscitation. The left ventricular systolic (dP/dt40) and diastolic (maximal negative dP/dt) functions, and cardiac output, were ameliorated within 4 h after ROSC in the urocortin-treated group compared to the control group (Pcardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction.

  8. Allicin improves cardiac function by protecting against apoptosis in rat model of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Na; Li, Lian-da; Li, Shao-Chun; Hao, Xin-Mei; Zhang, Jin-Yan; He, Ping; Li, Yi-Kui

    2017-08-01

    To study the effects of allicin on cardiac function and underlying mechanism in rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Ninety-four Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 6 groups (n=14-16 per group): sham control group [underwent thoracotomy without left anterior descending (LAD) occlusion and only received an injection of the same amount of citrate buffer], MI control group (subjected to LAD occlusion and only received an injection of same amount of citrate buffer), positive control group (subjected to LAD occlusion and received an injection of diltiazem hydrochloride at the dose of 1.5 mg/kg), and MI + allicin groups (subjected to LAD occlusion and received an injection of allicin at the doses of 1.2, 1.8, and 3.6 mg/kg). All of the drugs were administered intraperitoneally daily for 21 days. The infarct area was measured by myocardial staining. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe the pathological changes. Cardiac function parameters were assessed by echocardiography. The myocardial apoptotic index was estimated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining. The expression of Bax and Bcl-2 were detected by quantificational real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Treatment with allicin could attenuate the myocardial infarct area (Pallicin-treated groups (P0.05). The left ventricular internal diameter in systole, ejection fraction, fractional shortening, and stroke volume were dramatically elevated in allicin-treated rats (PAllicin dose-dependently reduced creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase levels (Pallicin-treated rats (PAllicin appears to exert a cardioprotective effect that may be linked to blocking Bcl-2/Bax signaling pathway-denpendent apoptosis, further improving cardiac function.

  9. Leonurine (SCM-198) improves cardiac recovery in rat during chronic infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, XinHua; Pan, LiLong; Gong, QiHai; Zhu, YiZhun

    2010-12-15

    Leonurine, an alkaloid typically found in Herba leonuri, is known to have both antioxidant and cardioprotective properties. In the present study, we investigated the cardioprotective mechanism of leonurine the in vivo rat model of chronic myocardial ischemia and in vitro H9c2 cardiac myocyte model of oxidative stress. Myocardial ischemia was induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. Rats were divided into sham, myocardial ischemia+saline, and myocardial ischemia+leonurine (15 mg/kg/day). Cardiac function was recorded by catheterization. Apoptosis-related factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), survivin, Bcl-2 and Bax and pro-survival signaling pathways Akt, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α were measured by Western blotting or RT-PCR. Our results showed leonurine significantly improved myocardial function as evidenced by the decreased left ventricle end-diastolic pressure and the increased +dP/dt. Interestingly, leonurine increased the phosphorylation of Akt, the protein and gene expression of Bcl-2, but it reduced the protein and gene expression of Bax in vivo. Meanwhile leonurine significantly increased Akt phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner in H9c2 cardiac myocyte induced by oxidative stress in vitro, which was abolished by a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002. Furthermore, leonurine not only increased the expression of HIF-1α but also the expression of survivin and VEGF. The results of present study demonstrated, for the first time that leonurine has potent anti-apoptotic effects after chronic myocardial ischemia mediated by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Angiogenic mechanisms may be partially responsible for such an effect, which needs to be studied further. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions improve cardiac function in children after open-heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Michael; Plank, Christian; Meissner, Udo; Eberle, Klaus-Peter; Weyand, Michael; Cesnjevar, Robert; Dötsch, Jörg; Rascher, Wolfgang

    2006-07-01

    Hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions are used for the improvement of micro- and macrocirculation in various types of shock. In pediatric intensive care medicine, controlled, randomized studies with hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions are lacking. Hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions may improve cardiac function in children. The primary objective of this controlled, randomized, blinded study was to evaluate the hemodynamic effects and safety of hypertonic-hyperoncotic solution infusions in children shortly after open-heart surgery for congenital cardiac disease. The secondary objective was to determine whether the administration of hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions could be a potential and effective therapeutic option for preventing a probable capillary leakage syndrome that frequently occurs in children after open-heart surgery. The children were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 25. The hypertonic-hyperoncotic solution group received Poly-(O-2)-hydroxyethyl-starch 60.0 g, with molecular weight of 200 kDa, Na+ 1232 mmol/L and osmolality of 2464 mOsmol/L (7.2% sodium chloride with 6% hydroxyethyl-starch 200 kDa). The isotonic saline solution group received isotonic saline solution (0.9% sodium chloride). Atrial and ventricular septal defects were corrected using a homograft patch. Monitoring consisted of an arterial, a central venous, and a thermodilution catheter (PULSIOCATH). Cardiac index, extravascular lung water index, stroke volume index, mean arterial blood pressure, and systemic vascular resistance index were measured (Pulse Contour Cardiac Output technique). Immediately after surgery, patients were loaded either with hypertonic-hyperoncotic solution or with isotonic saline solution (4 mL/kg). Blood samples (sodium concentration, osmolality, thrombocyte count, fibrinogen, and arterial blood gases) were drawn directly before; immediately after; 15 minutes after; and, 1, 4, 12, and 24 hours after the end of volume loading. Hemodynamic parameters were registered at the

  11. Prospective randomized controlled intervention trial: Comprehensive Yogic Breathing Improves Cardiac autonomic functions and Quality of life in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Jyotsna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To assess the effect of Comprehensive Yogic Breathing Program on glycemic control, quality of life, and cardiac autonomic functions in diabetes. Material and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled intervention trial. Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 120 diabetics. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group receiving standard therapy for diabetes (n = 56 and the other group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and comprehensive yogic breathing program (n = 64. Standard therapy included advice on diet, walk, and oral antidiabetic drugs. Comprehensive yogic breathing program was an interactive session in which Sudarshan kriya yoga, a rhythmic cyclical breathing, preceded by Pranayam was taught under guidance of a certified teacher. Change in fasting, post prandial blood sugars, glycated hemoglobin, and quality of life were assessed. Cardiac autonomic function tests were done before and six months after intervention. Results: There was significant improvement in psychological (P = 0.006 and social domains (P = 0.04 and total quality of life (P = 0.02 in the group practicing comprehensive yogic breathing program as compared to the group following standard therapy alone. In the group following breathing program, the improvement in sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions was statistically significant (P = 0.01, while the change in the standard group was not significant (P = 0.17. When both parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions were considered, there was a trend toward improvement in patients following comprehensive yogic breathing program (P = 0.07. In the standard therapy group, no change in cardiac autonomic functions was noted (P = 0.76. The parameters of glycemic control were comparable in both groups. Conclusion: There was significant improvement in quality of life and cardiac autonomic functions in the diabetes patients practicing comprehensive yogic breathing

  12. Improvements in logistics could increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömsöe, A; Afzelius, S; Axelsson, C; Södersved Källestedt, M L; Enlund, M; Svensson, L; Herlitz, J

    2013-06-01

    In a review based on estimations and assumptions, to report the estimated number of survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was started and to speculate about possible future improvements in Sweden. An observational study. All ambulance organisations in Sweden. Patients included in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Registry who suffered an OHCA between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. Approximately 80% of OHCA cases in Sweden in which CPR was started are included. None In 11 005 patients, the 1-month survival rate was 9.4%. There are approximately 5000 OHCA cases annually in which CPR is started and 30-day survival is achieved in up to 500 patients yearly (6 per 100 000 inhabitants). Based on findings on survival in relation to the time to calling for the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and the start of CPR and defibrillation, it was estimated that, if the delay from collapse to (i) calling EMS, (ii) the start of CPR, and (iii) the time to defibrillation were reduced to <2 min, <2 min, and <8 min, respectively, 300-400 additional lives could be saved. Based on findings relating to the delay to calling for the EMS and the start of CPR and defibrillation, we speculate that 300-400 additional OHCA patients yearly (4 per 100 000 inhabitants) could be saved in Sweden. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  13. Improved Cardiac Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 3 T Using High Permittivity Pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Paul; Bizino, Maurice B; Versluis, Maarten J; Webb, Andrew G; Lamb, Hildo J

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether high permittivity (HP) pads can be used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of cardiac proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T, allowing faster data acquisition. The institutional review board approved the study protocol, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. In 22 healthy volunteers, water-suppressed localized spectra were acquired in the interventricular septum without and with HP pads. The SNR and myocardial triglyceride content (MTGC) were measured without and with the HP pads, and the results were compared with a paired sample Student t test. Application of HP pads increased mean (SD) SNR from 27.9 (15.6) to 42.3 (24.4) (P permittivity pads improve cardiac proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T by increasing the SNR on average by 60%, which can be used to reduce data acquisition time significantly, allowing fast assessment of MTGC without compromising spectral quality. The SNR increase arises primarily from the increase in receive sensitivity of the phased array, which is more closely coupled to the body via the HP pads. In addition, the transmit efficiency is also increased, allowing shorter or lower power radiofrequency pulses.

  14. Baseline subendocardial viability ratio influences left ventricular systolic improvement with cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanger, Emre; Assous, Benjamin; Bihry, Nicolas; Beauvais, Florence; Logeart, Damien; Cohen-Solal, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), defined as diastolic to systolic pressure-time integral ratio, is a useful tool reflecting the balance between coronary perfusion and arterial load. Suboptimal SEVR creating a supply-demand imbalance may limit favorable cardiac response to cardiac rehabilitation (CR). To explore this hypothesis, we designed a study to analyze the relationship between baseline SEVR and response to CR in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In this prospectively study, after baseline arterial tonometry, echocardiography, and cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPETs), patients undergone 20 sessions of CR. Post-CR echocardiographic and CPET measurements were obtained for comparison. Final study population was comprised of fifty subjects. Study population was divided into two subgroups by median SEVR value (1.45, interquartile range 0.38). Although both groups showed significant improvements in peak VO2, significant improvements in oxygen pulse (πO2) (from 16.1±3.4 to 19.1±4.8 mL O2.kg-1.beat-1; p<0.001) and stroke volume index (from 31±5 to 35±6 mL; p=0.008) were observed in only the patients in the above-median subgroup. The change in πO2 was also significantly higher in the above-median SEVR subgroup (2.9±3.3 vs. 0.5±2.4; p=0.007). Our study shows that baseline supply-demand imbalance may limit systolic improvement response to CR in patients with CAD.

  15. Sustained delivery of VEGF from designer self-assembling peptides improves cardiac function after myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hai-dong [Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Cui, Guo-hong; Yang, Jia-jun [Department of Neurology, Shanghai No. 6 People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200233 (China); Wang, Cun [Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Li-sheng; Jiang, Jun [Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Shao, Shui-jin, E-mail: shaoshuijin@163.com [Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The designer peptide LRKKLGKA could self-assemble into nanofibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Injection of LRKKLGKA peptides could promote the sustained delivery of VEGF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Injection of VEGF with LRKKLGKA peptides lead to sufficient angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Injection of VEGF with LRKKLGKA peptides improves heart function. -- Abstract: Poor vascularization and insufficient oxygen supply are detrimental to the survival of residual cardiomyocytes or transplanted stem cells after myocardial infarction. To prolong and slow the release of angiogenic factors, which stimulate both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, we constructed a novel self-assembling peptide by attaching the heparin-binding domain sequence LRKKLGKA to the self-assembling peptide RADA16. This designer self-assembling peptide self-assembled into nanofiber scaffolds under physiological conditions, as observed by atomic force microscopy. The injection of designer self-assembling peptides can efficiently provide the sustained delivery of VEGF for at least 1 month. At 4 weeks after transplantation, cardiac function was improved, and scar size and collagen deposition were markedly reduced in the group receiving VEGF with the LRKKLGKA scaffolds compared with groups receiving VEGF alone, LRKKLGKA scaffolds alone or VEGF with RADA16 scaffolds. The microvessel density in the VEGF with LRKKLGKA group was higher than that in the VEGF with RADA16 group. TUNEL and cleaved caspase-3 expression assays showed that the transplantation of VEGF with LRKKLGKA enhanced cell survival in the infarcted heart. These results present the tailor-made peptide scaffolds as a new generation of sustained-release biomimetic biomaterials and suggest that the use of angiogenic factors along with designer self-assembling peptides can lead to myocardial protection, sufficient angiogenesis, and improvement in cardiac function.

  16. Cardiac rehabilitation improves coronary endothelial function in patients with heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy: A positron emission tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legallois, Damien; Belin, Annette; Nesterov, Sergey V; Milliez, Paul; Parienti, J-J; Knuuti, Juhani; Abbas, Ahmed; Tirel, Olivier; Agostini, Denis; Manrique, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is common in patients with heart failure and is associated with poor clinical outcome. Cardiac rehabilitation is able to enhance peripheral endothelial function but its impact on coronary vasomotion remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effect of cardiac rehabilitation on coronary vasomotion in patients with heart failure. We prospectively enrolled 29 clinically stable heart failure patients from non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy and without coronary risk factors. Myocardial blood flow was quantified using (15)-O water positron emission tomography at rest and during a cold pressor test, before and after 12 weeks of cardiac rehabilitation and optimization of medical therapy. Rest myocardial blood flow was significantly improved after the completion of rehabilitation compared to baseline (1.31 ± 0.38 mL/min/g vs. 1.16 ± 0.41 mL/min/g, p = 0.04). The endothelium-related change in myocardial blood flow from rest to cold pressor test and the percentage of myocardial blood flow increase during the cold pressor test were both significantly improved after cardiac rehabilitation (respectively from -0.03 ± 0.22 mL/min/g to 0.19 ± 0.22 mL/min/g, p cardiac rehabilitation significantly improves coronary vasomotion. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  17. A Cell-Enriched Engineered Myocardial Graft Limits Infarct Size and Improves Cardiac Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Perea-Gil, MS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI remains a dreadful disease around the world, causing irreversible sequelae that shorten life expectancy and reduce quality of life despite current treatment. Here, the authors engineered a cell-enriched myocardial graft, composed of a decellularized myocardial matrix refilled with adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells (EMG-ATDPC. Once applied over the infarcted area in the swine MI model, the EMG-ATDPC improved cardiac function, reduced infarct size, attenuated fibrosis progression, and promoted neovascularization of the ischemic myocardium. The beneficial effects exerted by the EMG-ATDPC and the absence of identified adverse side effects should facilitate its clinical translation as a novel MI therapy in humans.

  18. Missing Value Imputation Improves Mortality Risk Prediction Following Cardiac Surgery: An Investigation of an Australian Patient Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md Nazmul; Reid, Christopher M; Tran, Lavinia; Cochrane, Andrew; Billah, Baki

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of missing values on the prediction performance of the model predicting 30-day mortality following cardiac surgery as an example. Information from 83,309 eligible patients, who underwent cardiac surgery, recorded in the Australia and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) database registry between 2001 and 2014, was used. An existing 30-day mortality risk prediction model developed from ANZSCTS database was re-estimated using the complete cases (CC) analysis and using multiple imputation (MI) analysis. Agreement between the risks generated by the CC and MI analysis approaches was assessed by the Bland-Altman method. Performances of the two models were compared. One or more missing predictor variables were present in 15.8% of the patients in the dataset. The Bland-Altman plot demonstrated significant disagreement between the risk scores (prisk of mortality. Compared to CC analysis, MI analysis resulted in an average of 8.5% decrease in standard error, a measure of uncertainty. The MI model provided better prediction of mortality risk (observed: 2.69%; MI: 2.63% versus CC: 2.37%, Pvalues improved the 30-day mortality risk prediction following cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving patient care in cardiac surgery using Toyota production system based methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culig, Michael H; Kunkle, Richard F; Frndak, Diane C; Grunden, Naida; Maher, Thomas D; Magovern, George J

    2011-02-01

    A new cardiac surgery program was developed in a community hospital setting using the operational excellence (OE) method, which is based on the principles of the Toyota production system. The initial results of the first 409 heart operations, performed over the 28 months between March 1, 2008, and June 30, 2010, are presented. Operational excellence methodology was taught to the cardiac surgery team. Coaching started 2 months before the opening of the program and continued for 24 months. Of the 409 cases presented, 253 were isolated coronary artery bypass graft operations. One operative death occurred. According to the database maintained by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, the risk-adjusted operative mortality rate was 61% lower than the regional rate. Likewise, the risk-adjusted rate of major complications was 57% lower than The Society of Thoracic Surgeons regional rate. Daily solution to determine cause was attempted on 923 distinct perioperative problems by all team members. Using the cost of complications as described by Speir and coworkers, avoiding predicted complications resulted in a savings of at least $884,900 as compared with the regional average. By the systematic use of a real time, highly formatted problem-solving methodology, processes of care improved daily. Using carefully disciplined teamwork, reliable implementation of evidence-based protocols was realized by empowering the front line to make improvements. Low rates of complications were observed, and a cost savings of $3,497 per each case of isolated coronary artery bypass graft was realized. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of lean six sigma process improvement methodology on cardiac catheterization laboratory efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shikhar; Gallo, Justin J; Parashar, Akhil; Agarwal, Kanika K; Ellis, Stephen G; Khot, Umesh N; Spooner, Robin; Murat Tuzcu, Emin; Kapadia, Samir R

    2016-03-01

    Operational inefficiencies are ubiquitous in several healthcare processes. To improve the operational efficiency of our catheterization laboratory (Cath Lab), we implemented a lean six sigma process improvement initiative, starting in June 2010. We aimed to study the impact of lean six sigma implementation on improving the efficiency and the patient throughput in our Cath Lab. All elective and urgent cardiac catheterization procedures including diagnostic coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary interventions, structural interventions and peripheral interventions performed between June 2009 and December 2012 were included in the study. Performance metrics utilized for analysis included turn-time, physician downtime, on-time patient arrival, on-time physician arrival, on-time start and manual sheath-pulls inside the Cath Lab. After implementation of lean six sigma in the Cath Lab, we observed a significant improvement in turn-time, physician downtime, on-time patient arrival, on-time physician arrival, on-time start as well as sheath-pulls inside the Cath Lab. The percentage of cases with optimal turn-time increased from 43.6% in 2009 to 56.6% in 2012 (p-trendsix sigma, on improving and sustaining efficiency of our Cath Lab operation. After the successful implementation of this continuous quality improvement initiative, there was a significant improvement in the selected performance metrics namely turn-time, physician downtime, on-time patient arrival, on-time physician arrival, on-time start as well as sheath-pulls inside the Cath Lab. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Improved Outcome of Cardiac Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Infants and Children Using Magnetic Levitation Centrifugal Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Giovanni Battista; Hoxha, Stiljan; Torre, Salvatore; Rungatscher, Alessio; Menon, Tiziano; Barozzi, Luca; Faggian, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    repair (P = 0.03). During a median follow-up of 34 months (range 4-62 months), there were three (23%) late deaths and two late survivors with neurological sequelae. Weaning rate (5/7 vs. 21/26, P = NS) and prevalence of renal failure requiring dialysis (4/7 vs. 13/26, P = NS) were comparable between SP and ML ECMO groups. Patients supported with ML had a trend toward higher hospital survival (1/7 vs. 12/26, P = 0.07) and significantly higher late survival (0/7 vs. 10/26, P = 0.05). The present experience shows that V-A ECMO for cardiac indications using centrifugal pumps in infants and children yields outcomes absolutely comparable to international registry (ELSO) data using mostly roller pumps. Although changes in practice may have contributed to these results, use of ML centrifugal pumps appears to further improve end-organ recovery and hospital and late survival. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  2. Advanced glycation end product cross-link breaker attenuates diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction by improving sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson eKranstuber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic heart disease is a distinct clinical entity that can progress to heart failure and sudden death. However, the mechanisms responsible for the alterations in excitation-contraction coupling leading to cardiac dysfunction during diabetes are not well known. Hyperglycemia, the landmark of diabetes, leads to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE on long-lived proteins, including SR Ca2+ regulatory proteins. However, their pathogenic role on SR Ca2+ handling in cardiac myocytes is unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether an AGE cross-link breaker could prevent the alterations in SR Ca2+ cycling that lead to in vivo cardiac dysfunction during diabetes. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with Alagebrium Chloride (ALT-711 for 8 weeks and compared to age-matched placebo-treated diabetic rats and healthy rats. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiographic examination. Ventricular myocytes were isolated to assess SR Ca2+ cycling by confocal imaging and quantitative Western blots. Diabetes resulted in in vivo cardiac dysfunction and ALT-711 therapy partially alleviated diastolic dysfunction by decreasing isovolumetric relaxation time and myocardial performance index (by 27 and 41% vs. untreated diabetic rats, respectively, P<0.05. In cardiac myocytes, diabetes induced prolongation of cytosolic Ca2+ transient clearance by 43% and decreased SR Ca2+ load by 25% (P<0.05; these parameters were partially improved after ALT-711 therapy. SERCA2a and RyR2 protein expression was significantly decreased in the myocardium of untreated diabetic rats (by 64 and 36% vs. controls, respectively, P<0.05, but preserved in the treated diabetic group compared to controls. Collectively, our result suggest that, in a model of type 1 diabetes, AGE accumulation primarily impairs SR Ca2+ reuptake in cardiac myocytes and that long term treatment with an AGE cross-link breaker partially normalized SR Ca2+ handling and improved diabetic

  3. Improved septal contraction and coronary flow velocity after cardiac resynchronization therapy elucidated by strain imaging and pulsed wave Doppler echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayano, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Hiroaki; Kawamata, Tomoaki; Miyoshi, Fumito; Toshida, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Norikazu; Hirano, Yuichi; Kawamura, Mitsuharu; Asano, Taku; Kou, Shyhaku; Tanno, Kaoru; Ozawa, Masaki; Kobayashi, Youichi; Katagiri, Takashi

    2006-02-01

    The effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with various atrioventricular conduction delay settings were investigated on cardiac hemodynamic changes involved in coronary flow velocity using color and pulsed wave Doppler modalities and myocardial regional contractility using a novel echocardiographic technique (strain imaging). Seven patients with advanced heart failure (left ventricular ejection fraction or = 140 msec) were treated with CRT. Color and pulsed wave Doppler imaging were performed from the apical four-chamber view to examine the cardiac functions such as stroke volume, cardiac output, mitral regurgitant volume and coronary flow velocity. Strain imaging was performed to quantify the asynchrony of both intraventricular and interventricular time delay between the septum and left ventricular free wall (posterior wall) and to assess the regional contractile function. Wall motion was also evaluated. Intraventricular and interventricular asynchrony were improved from 173 +/- 18 to 60 +/- 6 msec, and 69 +/- 25 to 12 +/- 3 msec, respectively. Stroke volume (55.2 +/- 6.2 to 76.8 +/- 10.8 ml; 39% up), cardiac output (3.9 +/- 0.3 to 5.4 +/- 0.5 I/min; 38% up) and coronary flow velocity (24 +/- 3 to 36 +/- 5 cm/sec; 50% up) were greatly increased and mitral regurgitant volume (59.7 +/- 18.0 to 38.9 +/- 11.3 ml; 35% down)was clearly decreased. Septal wall shortening was greatly increased from 10.2 +/- 2.3% to 17.0 +/- 1.8% and septal wall motion (radial thickening)was also improved simultaneously. Atrioventricular interval settings influenced all above parameters. CRT improved the cardiac hemodynamics involved in coronary flow significantly due to both resynchronization of inter and intra asynchrony, and improvement of the regional myocardial contraction in patients with severe congestive heart failure and complete left bundle branch block.

  4. Cardiac rehabilitation: a good measure to improve quality of life in peri- and postmenopausal women with microvascular angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Szot

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX was considered a stable coronary syndrome, yet due to its nature, CSX symptoms often have a great impact on patients’ Quality of Life (QoL. According to ESC 2013 stable coronary artery disease criteria, CSX was replaced by Microvascular Angina (MA.Unfortunately, most CSX or MA patients, after classical angina (involving main coronary vessels has been ruled out, often do not receive proper treatment. Indications for pharmacological treatment of MA patients were introduced only recently. Another problematic issue is that scientists describing the pathophysiology of both CSX and MA stress a lack of a deeper insight into the multifactorial etiology of the source of pain associated with this disease. In the presented article we have attempted to study the influence of cardiac rehabilitation (3 months programme on the QoL of patients recognized as suffering from MA, as well as to check if changes in myocardial perfusion in these patients at baseline and after completion of cardiac rehabilitation match changes in their QoL. Therefore, after screening 436 women for MA, we studied 55 of them who were confirmed as having MA and who agreed to participate in the study. Exercise tests, Myocardial Perfusion Imaging, and QoL questionnaires were studied at baseline and after completing 3 months period of cardiac rehabilitation. Results were subsequently compared, which showed a link between improved perfusion score in SPECT study and improved overall physical capacity, on one hand, and improved QoL score on the other. These results confirm that cardiac rehabilitation is a very useful treatment option for MA patients. It seems that training during cardiac rehabilitation is a very important factor (improved physical efficiency –> increase in self-belief, and that taking into consideration the multifactor pathophysiology of pain, it is connected with a better quality of life for MA patients.

  5. Cardiac rehabilitation: a good measure to improve quality of life in peri- and postmenopausal women with microvascular angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Szot

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX was considered a stable coronary syndrome, yet due to its nature, CSX symptoms often have a great impact on patients’ Quality of Life (QoL. According to ESC 2013 stable coronary artery disease criteria, CSX was replaced by Microvascular Angina (MA.Unfortunately, most CSX or MA patients, after classical angina (involving main coronary vessels has been ruled out, often do not receive proper treatment. Indications for pharmacological treatment of MA patients were introduced only recently. Another problematic issue is that scientists describing the pathophysiology of both CSX and MA stress a lack of a deeper insight into the multifactorial etiology of the source of pain associated with this disease. In the presented article we have attempted to study the influence of cardiac rehabilitation (3 months programme on the QoL of patients recognized as suffering from MA, as well as to check if changes in myocardial perfusion in these patients at baseline and after completion of cardiac rehabilitation match changes in their QoL. Therefore, after screening 436 women for MA, we studied 55 of them who were confirmed as having MA and who agreed to participate in the study. Exercise tests, Myocardial Perfusion Imaging, and QoL questionnaires were studied at baseline and after completing 3 months period of cardiac rehabilitation. Results were subsequently compared, which showed a link between improved perfusion score in SPECT study and improved overall physical capacity, on one hand, and improved QoL score on the other. These results confirm that cardiac rehabilitation is a very useful treatment option for MA patients. It seems that training during cardiac rehabilitation is a very important factor (improved physical efficiency –> increase in self-belief, and that taking into consideration the multifactor pathophysiology of pain, it is connected with a better quality of life for MA patients.

  6. Cardiac contractility modulation electrical signals improve myocardial gene expression in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butter, Christian; Rastogi, Sharad; Minden, Hans-Heinrich; Meyhöfer, Jürgen; Burkhoff, Daniel; Sabbah, Hani N

    2008-05-06

    The objective of this study was to test whether cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) electric signals induce reverse molecular remodeling in myocardium of patients with heart failure. Heart failure is associated with up-regulation of myocardial fetal and stretch response genes and down-regulation of Ca(2+) cycling genes. Treatment with CCM signals has been associated with improved symptoms and exercise tolerance in heart failure patients. We tested the impact of CCM signals on myocardial gene expression in 11 patients. Endomyocardial biopsies were obtained at baseline and 3 and 6 months thereafter. The CCM signals were delivered in random order of ON for 3 months and OFF for 3 months. Messenger ribonucleic acid expression was analyzed in the core lab by investigators blinded to treatment sequence. Expression of A- and B-type natriuretic peptides and alpha-myosin heavy chain (MHC), the sarcoplasmic reticulum genes SERCA-2a, phospholamban and ryanodine receptors, and the stretch response genes p38 mitogen activated protein kinase and p21 Ras were measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and bands quantified in densitometric units. The 3-month therapy OFF phase was associated with increased expression of A- and B-type natriuretic peptides, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase, and p21 Ras and decreased expression of alpha-MHC, SERCA-2a, phospholamban, and ryanodine receptors. In contrast, the 3-month ON therapy phase resulted in decreased expression of A- and B-type natriuretic peptides, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase and p21 Ras and increased expression of alpha-MHC, SERCA-2a, phospholamban, and ryanodine receptors. The CCM signal treatment reverses the cardiac maladaptive fetal gene program and normalizes expression of key sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) cycling and stretch response genes. These changes may contribute to the clinical effects of CCM.

  7. High-carbohydrate/low-protein-induced hyperinsulinemia does not improve protein balance in children after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geukers, Vincent G.; Li, Zhihao; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Bos, Albert P.; Jinfeng, Liu; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In pediatric cardiac surgery, fluid-restricted low-protein (LoProt) diets account for cumulative protein deficits with increased morbidity. In this setting, we aimed to inhibit proteolysis by a high-carbohydrate (HiCarb)-intake-induced hyperinsulinemia and improve protein balance.

  8. Atorvastatin improves cardiac function and remodeling in chronic non-ischemic heart failure: A clinical and pre-clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Elmadbouh

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Atorvastatin with standard CHF therapy improved cardiac function and remodeling. Cardio-protective “pleiotropic” actions of atorvastatin are anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic and anti-oxidative. Thus, atorvastatin has a potential therapeutic value in the management of CHF patients.

  9. Cardiac resynchronization therapy improves psycho-cognitive performance in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, David; Friedel, Katrin; König, Thorben; Schreyer, Hendrik; Lüsebrink, Ulrich; Duncker, Mareke; Oswald, Hanno; Klein, Gunnar; Gardiwal, Ajmal

    2015-09-01

    Reduced cognitive performance and high prevalence of depression have been reported in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and severe left ventricular dysfunction. However, effects of contemporary device therapy on cognitive performance and depression symptoms have not been studied thoroughly. Seventy-four consecutive CHF patients-45 receiving a biventricular defibrillator (CRT-D) and 29 receiving an implantable single or dual-chamber defibrillator (ICD) as a control group-were enrolled in this investigator-initiated, prospective, controlled, and investigator-blinded study. A set of neuropsychological tests (mini-mental state examination, DemTect, age-concentration test, and Beck depression inventory) was performed before, at 3 and at 6 months after device implantation. DemTect-score improved significantly (F = 7.8; P = 0.007) after CRT-D-implantation compared with ICD. Age-concentration test revealed better concentration ability after CRT-D-implantation (F = 8.3; P = 0.005) compared with ICD. Under CRT-D mini-mental state examination showed a significant improvement (F = 4.2; P = 0.043). CRT with defibrillator therapy also improved depression revealed by beck depression inventory (F = 14.7; P< 0.001) compared with ICD. This prospective study is the first to demonstrate psycho-cognitive improvement by resynchronization therapy in CHF patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. In contrast to ICD therapy, the beneficial effect of CRT-D on psycho-cognitive performance might be attributed to improved cardiac function and haemodynamics. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Usefulness of case reports to improve medical knowledge regarding trigemino-cardiac reflex in skull base surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadr-Eshkevari Pooan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe the discovery of the trigemino-cardiac reflex by Schaller in 1999 and the continued improvement of the knowledge about the trigemino-cardiac reflex involved in neurosurgery, especially in skull base surgery, during the past several years. The achieved medical progress could be gained only by the practical experience described by different case reports and later case series that have been published in several principal scientific journals. Additionally, we explain the scientific as well as clinical importance of the communication of the case reports on TCR. Special reference has been given to the validity of the case reports for new phenomena in clinical medicine.

  11. Process improvement in cardiac surgery: development and implementation of a reoperation for bleeding checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor, Gabriel; Vivacqua, Alessandro; Sabik, Joseph F; Li, Liang; Hixson, Eric D; Blackstone, Eugene H; Koch, Colleen G

    2013-11-01

    High-performing health care organizations differentiate themselves by focusing on continuous process improvement initiatives aimed at enhancing patient outcomes. Reoperation for bleeding is an event associated with considerable morbidity risk. Hence, our primary objective was to develop and implement a formal operative checklist to reduce technical reasons for postoperative bleeding. From January 1, 2011, through June 30, 2012, 5812 cardiac surgical procedures were performed at Cleveland Clinic (Cleveland, OH). A multidisciplinary team developed a simple, easy-to-perform hemostasis checklist based on the most common sites of bleeding. An extensive educational in-service was performed before limited, then universal, checklist implementation. Geometric charts were used to track the number of cases between consecutive reoperations for bleeding. We compared these before (phase 0) and after the first limited implementation phase (phase 1) and the universal implementation phase (phase 2) of the checklist. The average number of cases between consecutive reoperations for bleeding increased from 32 in phase 0 to 53 in both phase 1 (P = .002) and phase 2 (P = .01). A substantial reduction in reoperation for bleeding cases followed implementation of a formalized hemostasis checklist. Our findings underscore the important influence of memory aids that focus attention on surgical techniques to improve patient outcomes in a complex, operative work environment. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Social media in paediatric heart disease: professional use and opportunities to improve cardiac care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Kurt R; Lee, Joyce M; Pasquali, Sara K

    2015-12-01

    Social media is any type of communication utilising electronic technology that follows two guiding principles: free publishing or sharing of content and ideas and group collaboration and inter-connectedness. Over the last 10 years, social media technology has made tremendous inroads into all facets of communication. Modalities such as Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter are no longer viewed as new communication technologies. Owing to their tremendous usage, they are now common ways to conduct a dialogue with individuals and groups. Greater than 91% of teenagers and 89% of young adults routinely use social media. Further, 24% of teenagers reported being online "almost constantly". These forms of communication are readily used by individuals cared for in the field of paediatric cardiology; thus, they should carry significant interest for cardiology care providers; however, social media's influence on medicine extends beyond use by patients. It directly affects all medical providers, both users and non-users. Further, social media has the ability to improve care for patients with paediatric heart disease. This article details social media's current influence on paediatric cardiology, including considerations for professional use of social media and potential opportunities to improve cardiac care.

  13. Short Duration Combined Mild Hypothermia Improves Resuscitation Outcomes in a Porcine Model of Prolonged Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In this study, our aim was to investigate the effects of combined hypothermia with short duration maintenance on the resuscitation outcomes in a porcine model of ventricular fibrillation (VF. Methods. Fourteen porcine models were electrically induced with VF and untreated for 11 mins. All animals were successfully resuscitated manually and then randomized into two groups: combined mild hypothermia (CH group and normothermia group (NT group. A combined hypothermia of ice cold saline infusion and surface cooling was implemented in the animals of the CH group and maintained for 4 hours. The survival outcomes and neurological function were evaluated every 24 hours until a maximum of 96 hours. Neuron apoptosis in hippocampus was analyzed. Results. There were no significant differences in baseline physiologies and primary resuscitation outcomes between both groups. Obvious improvements of cardiac output were observed in the CH group at 120, 180, and 240 mins following resuscitation. The animals demonstrated better survival at 96 hours in the CH group when compared to the NT group. In comparison with the NT group, favorable neurological functions were observed in the CH group. Conclusion. Short duration combined cooling initiated after resuscitation improves survival and neurological outcomes in a porcine model of prolonged VF.

  14. Conversion from cyclosporine to tacrolimus improves renal function and lipid profile after cardiac transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlicki, Mirosław; Czub, Paweł; Labuś, Krzysztof; Ehrlich, Marek P; Rdzanek, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) have become the cornerstone of immunosuppressive regimens following heart transplantation, but their use is associated with nephrotoxicity. The impact on renal function after conversion from cyclosporine (CsA) to tacrolimus (TAC) is reported. Fifteen patients (men age 42 +/- 11 years) after cardiac transplantation (HTX) were switched from CsA to TAC (mean time after HTX 21 +/- 6 months). There were 13 male and 2 female patients. Mean cholesterol and LDL level at the time of conversion were 217 +/- 65 ml/dl and and 136 +/- 51 mg/100 ml respectively. Indication for HTX was ischemic cardiomyopathy (CMP) in 8, congenital in 3 and dilatative CMP in the remaining 4 patients. Mean tacrolimus level (microg/dl) at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months were 8.6 +/- 3.3, 8.6 +/- 1.4, 9.2 +/- 2.8 and 9.8 +/- 2.5 respectively. There was a statistically significant improvement in creatinine levels at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after conversion from baseline 1.9 +/- 0.7 mg/dl to 1.4 +/- 0.5 mg/dl, 1.4 +/- 0.4 mg/dl, 1.3 +/- 0.4 mg/dl and 1.2 +/- 0.4 mg/dl, respectively (p transplantation improves renal function.

  15. Injectable biodegradable hydrogels for embryonic stem cell transplantation: improved cardiac remodelling and function of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Dexue; Guo, Xuan; Kasper, F Kurtis; Duan, Cuimi; Zhou, Jin; Mikos, Antonios G; Wang, Changyong

    2012-06-01

    In this study, an injectable, biodegradable hydrogel composite of oligo[poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate] (OPF) was investigated as a carrier of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). The OPF hydrogels were used to encapsulate mESCs. The cell differentiation in vitro over 14 days was determined via immunohistochemical examination. Then, mESCs encapsulated in OPF hydrogels were injected into the LV wall of a rat MI model. Detailed histological analysis and echocardiography were used to determine the structural and functional consequences after 4 weeks of transplantation. With ascorbic acid induction, mESCs could differentiate into cardiomyocytes and other cell types in all three lineages in the OPF hydrogel. After transplantation, both the 24-hr cell retention and 4-week graft size were significantly greater in the OPF + ESC group than that of the PBS + ESC group (P OPF hydrogel alone significantly reduced the infarct size and collagen deposition and improved the cardiac function. The heart function and revascularization improved significantly, while the infarct size and fibrotic area decreased significantly in the OPF + ESC group compared with that of the PBS + ESC, OPF and PBS groups (P OPF + ESC group decreased most by Western blotting. Transplanted mESCs expressed cardiovascular markers. This study suggests the potential of a method for heart regeneration involving OPF hydrogels for stem cell encapsulation and transplantation. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Improved noninvasive method for measurement of cardiac output and evaluation of left-sided cardiac valve incompetence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelbaek, H.

    1989-05-01

    A time-saving method was developed to label red blood cells in vitro with /sup 99m/Tc while avoiding centrifugation. After tin incubation, extracellular tin was oxidized by sodium hypochlorite, and EDTA was added for stabilizing the complex prior to /sup 99m/Tc incubation. Labeling yields were 95%, and in vivo decay showed a high stability with a mean biologic half-life of eleven hours. The first-passage radionuclide technique for determination of cardiac output using the above-mentioned tracer was evaluated by using the left ventricle as area-of-interest with individual background correction after complete mixing of the tracer. This technique showed a high level of agreement with invasive methods. By combining this method for measurement of the forward stroke volume with the multigated equilibrium principle for determination of the total left ventricular stroke volume using similar background corrections, an exact evaluation of regurgitation fractions was obtained. In patients with aortic and mitral valve disease the noninvasive radionuclide technique gave similar but probably more accurate results as compared with contrast aortography and ventriculography. The radionuclide technique may be suitable for monitoring and selecting patients for surgical treatment.

  17. Targeted simulation and education to improve cardiac arrest recognition and telephone assisted CPR in an emergency medical communication centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeland, Camilla; Skåre, Christiane; Kramer-Johansen, Jo; Birkenes, Tonje S; Myklebust, Helge; Hansen, Andreas E; Sunde, Kjetil; Olasveengen, Theresa M

    2017-05-01

    Recognition of cardiac arrest and prompt activation time by emergency medical dispatch are key process measures that have been associated with improved survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The aim of this study is to improve recognition of OHCA and time to initiation of telephone assisted chest compressions in an emergency medical communication centre (EMCC). A prospective, interventional study implementing targeted interventions in an EMCC. Interventions included: (1) lectures focusing on agonal breathing and interrogation strategy (2) simulation training (3) structured dispatcher feedback (4) web-based telephone assisted CPR training program. All ambulance-confirmed OHCA calls in the study period were assessed and relevant process and result measures were recorded pre- and post-intervention. Cardiac arrest was reported as (1) recognised, (2) not recognised or (3) delayed recognition. We included 331 and 230 calls pre- and post-intervention, respectively. Recognition of cardiac arrest improved significantly after intervention (89 vs. 95%, p=0.024). Delayed recognition was significantly reduced (21 vs. 6%, p>0.001), as was misinterpretation of agonal breathing (25 vs. 10%, pquality metrics can facilitate development of targeted education and training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ASSUMED OXYGEN-CONSUMPTION BASED ON CALCULATION FROM DYE DILUTION CARDIAC-OUTPUT - AN IMPROVED FORMULA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BERGSTRA, A; VANDIJK, RB; HILLEGE, HL; LIE, KI; MOOK, GA

    This study was performed because of observed differences between dye dilution cardiac output and the Fick cardiac output, calculated from estimated oxygen consumption according to LaFarge and Miettinen, and to find a better formula for assumed oxygen consumption. In 250 patients who underwent left

  19. Measurement of the Red Blood Cell Distribution Width Improves the Risk Prediction in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Mihály Boros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Increases in red blood cell distribution width (RDW and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide predict the mortality of chronic heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT. It was hypothesized that RDW is independent of and possibly even superior to NT-proBNP from the aspect of long-term mortality prediction. Design. The blood counts and serum NT-proBNP levels of 134 patients undergoing CRT were measured. Multivariable Cox regression models were applied and reclassification analyses were performed. Results. After separate adjustment to the basic model of left bundle branch block, beta blocker therapy, and serum creatinine, both the RDW > 13.35% and NT-proBNP > 1975 pg/mL predicted the 5-year mortality (n=57. In the final model including all variables, the RDW [HR = 2.49 (1.27–4.86; p=0.008] remained a significant predictor, whereas the NT-proBNP [HR = 1.18 (0.93–3.51; p=0.07] lost its predictive value. On addition of the RDW measurement, a 64% net reclassification improvement and a 3% integrated discrimination improvement were achieved over the NT-proBNP-adjusted basic model. Conclusions. Increased RDW levels accurately predict the long-term mortality of CRT patients independently of NT-proBNP. Reclassification analysis revealed that the RDW improves the risk stratification and could enhance the optimal patient selection for CRT.

  20. Glucose oxidation positively regulates glucose uptake and improves cardiac function recovery after myocardial reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Xu, Jie; Qin, Xinghua; Hou, Zuoxu; Guo, Yongzheng; Liu, Zhenhua; Wu, Jianjiang; Zheng, Hong; Zhang, Xing; Gao, Feng

    2017-11-01

    Myocardial reperfusion decreases glucose oxidation and uncouples glucose oxidation from glycolysis. Therapies that increase glucose oxidation lessen myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the regulation of glucose uptake during reperfusion remains poorly understood. We found that glucose uptake was remarkably diminished in the myocardium following reperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats as detected by 18 F-labeled and fluorescent-labeled glucose analogs, even though GLUT1 was upregulated by threefold and GLUT4 translocation remained unchanged compared with those of sham-treated rats. The decreased glucose uptake was accompanied by suppressed glucose oxidation. Interestingly, stimulating glucose oxidation by inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), a rate-limiting enzyme for glucose oxidation, increased glucose uptake and alleviated I/R injury. In vitro data in neonatal myocytes showed that PDK4 overexpression decreased glucose uptake, whereas its knockdown increased glucose uptake, suggesting that PDK4 has a role in regulating glucose uptake. Moreover, inhibition of PDK4 increased myocardial glucose uptake with concomitant enhancement of cardiac insulin sensitivity following myocardial I/R. These results showed that the suppressed glucose oxidation mediated by PDK4 contributes to the reduced glucose uptake in the myocardium following reperfusion, and enhancement of glucose uptake exerts cardioprotection. The findings suggest that stimulating glucose oxidation via PDK4 could be an efficient approach to improve recovery from myocardial I/R injury. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Prearrest hypothermia improved defibrillation and cardiac function in a rabbit ventricular fibrillation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Hu, Chun-lin; Wang, Zhen-Ping; Li, Yin-Ping; Qin, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Hypothermia when cardiopulmonary resuscitation begins may help achieve defibrillation and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), but few data are available. The objective of this study was to determine whether prearrest hypothermia improved defibrillation and cardiac function in a rabbit ventricular fibrillation (VF) model. Thirty-six New Zealand rabbits were randomized equally to receive normothermia (Norm) (~39°C), post-ROSC hypothermia (~33°C), or prearrest hypothermia (~33°C). Ventricular fibrillation was induced by alternating current. After 4 minutes of VF, rabbits were defibrillated and given cardiopulmonary resuscitation until ROSC or no response (≥30 minutes). Hemodynamics and electrocardiogram were monitored; N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptideand troponin I were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Myocardial histology and echocardiographic data were evaluated. First-shock achievement of perfusion rhythm was more frequent in prearrest than normothermic animals (7/12 vs 1/12; P=.027). After ROSC, dp/dtmax was higher in prearrest than normothermic animals (Pdefibrillation and facilitating resuscitation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Activated peroxisomal fatty acid metabolism improves cardiac recovery in ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepinsh, Edgars; Skapare, Elina; Kuka, Janis; Makrecka, Marina; Cirule, Helena; Vavers, Edijs; Sevostjanovs, Eduards; Grinberga, Solveiga; Pugovics, Osvalds; Dambrova, Maija

    2013-06-01

    Depressed oxidation of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) in heart ischemia leads to acute accumulation of LCFA metabolites that impair the functioning of the mitochondria. We hypothesized that reduced activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I) might activate peroxisomal LCFA oxidation and protect mitochondrial function in ischemia and reperfusion. In the present study, despite the long-term threefold reduction in L-carnitine content by 3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium)-propionate, the uptake and oxidation rates of LCFA in the heart in normoxia were not significantly influenced. The significant increase in PPARα and PGC1α nuclear content, observed in this study, were followed by increased expression of genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation (FAO) which compensated for the limited CPT-I-dependent FA transport into the mitochondria. In ischemia followed by reperfusion, the redirection of LCFA oxidation from mitochondria to peroxisomes protected the mitochondria from the accumulation of LCFA. In turn, the recovery of FAO resulted in significant reduction of myocardial infarct size. In conclusion, the decreased L-carnitine content in the heart preserves its peroxisomal and mitochondrial function after ischemia and improves cardiac recovery during reperfusion. The functional interplay between the decrease in L-carnitine and the PPARα/PGC1α pathway-induced redirection of FA metabolism protects the mitochondria against LCFA overload and provides a foundation for novel cardioprotective mechanisms.

  3. Obese and diabetic KKAy mice show increased mortality but improved cardiac function following myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaberlin, James R.; Ma, Yonggang; Zhang, Jianhua; Ahuja, Seema S.; Lindsey, Merry L.; Halade, Ganesh V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Introduction of the yellow obese gene (Ay) into mice (KKAy) results in obesity and diabetes by 5 weeks of age. Methods Using this model of type 2 diabetes, we evaluated male and female 6–8 month old wild type (WT, n=10) and KKAy (n=22) mice subjected to myocardial infraction (MI) and sacrificed at day (d) 7. Results Despite similar infarct sizes (50±4% for WT and 49±2% for KKAy, p=N.S.), the 7 d post-MI survival was 70% (n=7/10) in WT mice and 45% (n=10/22) in KKAy mice (pGriffonia (Bandeiraea) simplicifolia lectin-I staining for vessel density demonstrated fewer vessels in KKAy infarcts (5.9±0.5%) compared to WT infarcts (7.3±0.1%, p<0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, our study in KKAy mice revealed a paradoxical reduced post-MI survival but improved cardiac function through reduced inflammation, extracellular matrix accumulation, and neovascularization in the infarct region. These results indicate a dual role effect of obesity in the post-MI response. PMID:23896047

  4. Improved cardiac function and dietary fatty acid metabolism after modest weight loss in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Sébastien M; Noll, Christophe; Grenier-Larouche, Thomas; Kunach, Margaret; Bouffard, Lucie; Phoenix, Serge; Guérin, Brigitte; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice; Langlois, Marie-France; Turcotte, Eric E; Carpentier, André C

    2014-06-15

    Using a novel positron emission tomography (PET) method with oral administration of 14(R,S)-[¹⁸F]-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (¹⁸FTHA), we recently demonstrated that subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) display an impairment in cardiac function associated with increased myocardial uptake of dietary fatty acids. Here, we determined whether modest weight loss induced by lifestyle changes might improve these cardiac metabolic and functional abnormalities. Nine participants with IGT, enrolled in a one-year lifestyle intervention trial, were invited to undergo determination of organ-specific postprandial dietary fatty acids partition using the oral ¹⁸FTHA method, and cardiac function and oxidative metabolic index using PET [¹¹C]acetate kinetics with ECG-gated PET ventriculography before and after the intervention. The intervention resulted in significant weight loss and reduction of waist circumference, with reduced postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, and triglycerides excursion. We observed a significant increase in stroke volume, cardiac output, and left ventricular ejection fraction associated with reduced myocardial oxidative metabolic index and fractional dietary fatty acid uptake. Modest weight loss corrects the exaggerated myocardial channeling of dietary fatty acids and improves myocardial energy substrate metabolism and function in IGT subjects. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Dedicated pediatric cardiac intensive care unit in a developing country: Does it improve the outcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhi Balachandran

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions : Establishment of a dedicated pediatric cardiac intensive care unit has shown better outcomes in terms of earlier extubation, de-intensification, and discharge from the ICU. Blood stream infections were also reduced.

  6. A novel pharmacological strategy by PTEN inhibition for improving metabolic resuscitation and survival after mouse cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Huashan; Zhong, Qiang; Zhu, Xiangdong; Chen, Sy-Jou; Qian, Yuanyu; Costakis, Jim; Bunney, Gabrielle; Beiser, David G.; Leff, Alan R.; Lewandowski, E. Douglas; ÓDonnell, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a leading cause of death in the United States. Despite return of spontaneous circulation, patients die due to post-SCA syndrome that includes myocardial dysfunction, brain injury, impaired metabolism, and inflammation. No medications improve SCA survival. Our prior work suggests that optimal Akt activation is critical for cooling protection and SCA recovery. Here, we investigate a small inhibitor of PTEN, an Akt-related phosphatase present in heart and brain, as a potential therapy in improving cardiac and neurological recovery after SCA. Anesthetized adult female wild-type C57BL/6 mice were randomized to pretreatment of VO-OHpic (VO) 30 min before SCA or vehicle control. Mice underwent 8 min of KCl-induced asystolic arrest followed by CPR. Resuscitated animals were hemodynamically monitored for 2 h and observed for 72 h. Outcomes included heart pressure-volume loops, energetics (phosphocreatine and ATP from 31P NMR), protein phosphorylation of Akt, GSK3β, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and phospholamban, circulating inflammatory cytokines, plasma lactate, and glucose as measures of systemic metabolic recovery. VO reduced deterioration of left ventricular maximum pressure, maximum rate of change in the left ventricular pressure, and Petco2 and improved 72 h neurological intact survival (50% vs. 10%; P cardiac phospholamban phosphorylation while reducing p-PDH. Moreover, VO improved cardiac bioenergetic recovery. We concluded that pharmacologic PTEN inhibition enhances Akt activation, improving metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurologic recovery with increased survival after SCA. PTEN inhibitors may be a novel pharmacologic strategy for treating SCA. PMID:25795713

  7. Vascularisation to improve translational potential of tissue engineering systems for cardiac repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Rodney J; Morrison, Wayne A

    2014-11-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering is developing as an alternative approach to heart transplantation for treating heart failure. Shortage of organ donors and complications arising after orthotopic transplant remain major challenges to the modern field of heart transplantation. Engineering functional myocardium de novo requires an abundant source of cardiomyocytes, a biocompatible scaffold material and a functional vasculature to sustain the high metabolism of the construct. Progress has been made on several fronts, with cardiac cell biology, stem cells and biomaterials research particularly promising for cardiac tissue engineering, however currently employed strategies for vascularisation have lagged behind and limit the volume of tissue formed. Over ten years we have developed an in vivo tissue engineering model to construct vascularised tissue from various cell and tissue sources, including cardiac tissue. In this article we review the progress made with this approach and others, together with their potential to support a volume of engineered tissue for cardiac tissue engineering where contractile mass impacts directly on functional outcomes in translation to the clinic. It is clear that a scaled-up cardiac tissue engineering solution required for clinical treatment of heart failure will include a robust vascular supply for successful translation. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Methotrexate carried in lipid core nanoparticles reduces myocardial infarction size and improves cardiac function in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Raul C; Guido, Maria C; de Lima, Aline D; Tavares, Elaine R; Marques, Alyne F; Tavares de Melo, Marcelo D; Nicolau, Jose C; Salemi, Vera MC; Kalil-Filho, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is accompanied by myocardial inflammation, fibrosis, and ventricular remodeling that, when excessive or not properly regulated, may lead to heart failure. Previously, lipid core nanoparticles (LDE) used as carriers of the anti-inflammatory drug methotrexate (MTX) produced an 80-fold increase in the cell uptake of MTX. LDE-MTX treatment reduced vessel inflammation and atheromatous lesions induced in rabbits by cholesterol feeding. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of LDE-MTX on rats with MI, compared with commercial MTX treatment. Materials and methods Thirty-eight Wistar rats underwent left coronary artery ligation and were treated with LDE-MTX, or with MTX (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally, once/week, starting 24 hours after surgery) or with LDE without drug (MI-controls). A sham-surgery group (n=12) was also included. Echocardiography was performed 24 hours and 6 weeks after surgery. The animals were euthanized and their hearts were analyzed for morphometry, protein expression, and confocal microscopy. Results LDE-MTX treatment achieved a 40% improvement in left ventricular (LV) systolic function and reduced cardiac dilation and LV mass, as shown by echocardiography. LDE-MTX reduced the infarction size, myocyte hypertrophy and necrosis, number of inflammatory cells, and myocardial fibrosis, as shown by morphometric analysis. LDE-MTX increased antioxidant enzymes; decreased apoptosis, macrophages, reactive oxygen species production; and tissue hypoxia in non-infarcted myocardium. LDE-MTX increased adenosine bioavailability in the LV by increasing adenosine receptors and modulating adenosine catabolic enzymes. LDE-MTX increased the expression of myocardial vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) associated with adenosine release; this correlated not only with an increase in angiogenesis, but also with other parameters improved by LDE-MTX, suggesting that VEGF increase played an important role in the beneficial

  9. Ginsenoside Rh2 Improves Cardiac Fibrosis via PPARδ–STAT3 Signaling in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hsiang Lo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2 is an active principal ingredient contained in ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer, a medicinal herb used to enhance health worldwide. The present study is designed to investigate the effect of Rh2 on myocardial fibrosis in diabetic rats. In a streptozotocin-induced model of type-1 diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats, the increased fasting blood glucose levels and heart weight/body weight (HW/BW ratio were substantially alleviated by Rh2. Moreover, Rh2 improved cardiac performance in STZ-diabetic rats. Histological results from Masson staining showed that Rh2 attenuated cardiac fibrosis in STZ-diabetic rats. The effects of Rh2 were reversed by GSK0660 at a dose sufficient to inhibit peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ in STZ-diabetic rats. The role of PPARδ was subsequently investigated in vitro. Rh2 restored the decreased PPARδ expression level in high glucose-cultured cardiomyocytes. Moreover, increased protein levels of fibrotic signals, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, connective tissue growth factor (CCN2 and fibronectin, were reduced by Rh2 in high glucose-cultured cardiomyocytes. These effects of Rh2 were reversed by GSK0660 or siRNA specific for PPARδ Taken together, PPARδ activation may inhibit STAT3 activation to reduce CCN2 and fibronectin expression in diabetic rats with cardiac fibrosis. Moreover, Rh2 improves cardiac function and fibrosis by increasing PPARδ signaling. Therefore, Rh2 is suitable to develop as an alternative remedy for cardiac fibrosis.

  10. Using a new evidence-based trauma protocol to improve detection and reduce costs in patients with blunt cardiac injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genrich, Ilean; OʼMara, Susan K; Sulo, Suela

    2015-01-01

    Management of blunt cardiac injury is often discussed in trauma literature due to the lack of a "gold standard" for early identification and cost-effective care. The effectiveness of an evidence-based trauma protocol was assessed by comparing patients treated with the new protocol to those managed with prior practice. The data of 80 patients prospectively managed using the new trauma protocol were compared with the medical records of 80 former patients treated according to existing practice. Implementing the new protocol improved detection of abnormal troponin I levels and resulted in cost savings. The length of time inpatients required continuous electrocardiographic monitoring decreased by 4.23 days and echocardiography use dropped by 70%. Implementation of the evidence-based trauma protocol at our facility improved the early identification of patients with blunt cardiac injury and reduced the number of laboratory and diagnostic tests.

  11. Improved survival of cardiac transplantation candidates with implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy: role of beta-blocker or amiodarone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermis, Cengiz; Zadeii, Gino; Zhu, Alan X; Fabian, William; Collins, Joanne; Lurie, Keith G; Sakaguchi, Scott; Benditt, David G

    2003-06-01

    Survival in patients awaiting cardiac transplantation is poor due to the severity of left ventricular dysfunction and the susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmia. The potential role of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in this group of patients has been the subject of increasing interest. The aims of this study were to ascertain whether ICDs improve the survival rate of patients on the waiting list for cardiac transplantation and whether any improvement is independent of concomitant beta-blocker or amiodarone therapy. Data comprised findings from 310 consecutive patients at a single center who were evaluated and deemed suitable for cardiac transplantation and placed on the waiting list. Kaplan-Meier actuarial approach was used for survival analysis. Survival analysis censored patients at time of transplantation or death. Of the 310 patients, 111 (35.8%) underwent successful cardiac transplantation and 164 (52.9%) died while waiting; 35 patients remain on the waiting list. Fifty-nine (19%) patients had ICD placement for ventricular arrhythmias prior to or after being listed. Twenty-nine (49.1%) ICD patients survived until cardiac transplantation, 13 (22%) patients died, and 17 (28.8%) remain on the waiting list. Among non-ICD patients, 82 (32.7%) received transplants, 151 (60.2%) died, and 18 (7.2%) remain on the waiting list. Survival rates at 6 months and 1, 2, 3, and 4 years were better for all ICD patients compared to non-ICD patients (log-rank x2, P = 0.0001). By multivariate analysis, ICD therapy and beta-blocker treatment were the strongest predictors of survival. Further, ICD treatment was associated with improved survival independent of concomitant treatment with beta-blocker or amiodarone. Among ICD and non-ICD patients treated with a beta-blocker or amiodarone, survivals at the 1 and 4 years were 93% vs 69% and 57% vs 32%, respectively (log-rank x2, P = 0.003). ICD therapy is associated with improved survival in high-risk cardiac transplant

  12. Exploring total cardiac variability in healthy and pathophysiological subjects using improved refined multiscale entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Puneeta; Sunkaria, Ramesh Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) and refined multiscale entropy (RMSE) techniques are being widely used to evaluate the complexity of a time series across multiple time scales 't'. Both these techniques, at certain time scales (sometimes for the entire time scales, in the case of RMSE), assign higher entropy to the HRV time series of certain pathologies than that of healthy subjects, and to their corresponding randomized surrogate time series. This incorrect assessment of signal complexity may be due to the fact that these techniques suffer from the following limitations: (1) threshold value 'r' is updated as a function of long-term standard deviation and hence unable to explore the short-term variability as well as substantial variability inherited in beat-to-beat fluctuations of long-term HRV time series. (2) In RMSE, entropy values assigned to different filtered scaled time series are the result of changes in variance, but do not completely reflect the real structural organization inherited in original time series. In the present work, we propose an improved RMSE (I-RMSE) technique by introducing a new procedure to set the threshold value by taking into account the period-to-period variability inherited in a signal and evaluated it on simulated and real HRV database. The proposed I-RMSE assigns higher entropy to the age-matched healthy subjects than that of patients suffering from atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, sudden cardiac death and diabetes mellitus, for the entire time scales. The results strongly support the reduction in complexity of HRV time series in female group, old-aged, patients suffering from severe cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases, and in their corresponding surrogate time series.

  13. Prehospital cooling to improve successful targeted temperature management after cardiac arrest: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, D C; Cheskes, S; Verbeek, P R; Pinto, R; Austin, D; Brooks, S C; Dainty, K N; Goncharenko, K; Mamdani, M; Thorpe, K E; Morrison, L J

    2017-10-05

    Targeted temperature management (TTM) improves survival with good neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), but is delivered inconsistently and often with delay. To determine if prehospital cooling by paramedics leads to higher rates of 'successful TTM', defined as achieving a target temperature of 32-34°C within 6h of hospital arrival. Pragmatic RCT comparing prehospital cooling (surface ice packs, cold saline infusion, wristband reminders) initiated 5min after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) versus usual resuscitation and transport. The primary outcome was rate of 'successful TTM'; secondary outcomes were rates of applying TTM in hospital, survival with good neurological outcome, pulmonary edema in emergency department, and re-arrest during transport. 585 patients were randomized to receive prehospital cooling (n=279) or control (n=306). Prehospital cooling did not increase rates of 'successful TTM' (30% vs 25%; RR, 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-1.52; p=0.22), but increased rates of applying TTM in hospital (68% vs 56%; RR, 1.21; 95%CI 1.07-1.37; p=0.003). Survival with good neurological outcome (29% vs 26%; RR, 1.13, 95%CI 0.87-1.47; p=0.37) was similar. Prehospital cooling was not associated with re-arrest during transport (7.5% vs 8.2%; RR, 0.94; 95%CI 0.54-1.63; p=0.83) but was associated with decreased incidence of pulmonary edema in emergency department (12% vs 18%; RR, 0.66; 95%CI 0.44-0.99; p=0.04). Prehospital cooling initiated 5min after ROSC did not increase rates of achieving a target temperature of 32-34°C within 6h of hospital arrival but was safe and increased application of TTM in hospital. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Improving access to cardiac rehabilitation using the internet: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Scott A; Singer, Joel; Banner-Lukaris, Davina; Horvat, Dan; Park, Julie E; Bates, Joanna; Ignaszewski, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is essential for secondary prevention, yet only 10%-30% of eligible patients attend as geographical proximity is a major barrier. We evaluated a 'virtual' CR program (vCRP) delivered by the Internet to patients in small urban and rural areas. In our study, in-patients (n=78) with acute coronary syndrome or post-revascularization were randomized to usual care (UC) or vCRP. The vCRP was a four-month program that included heart rate monitoring; physiologic data capture; education sessions; ask-an-expert sessions; and chat sessions with a nurse, exercise specialist and dietitian. Participants were assessed at baseline and four months, and followed for another 12 months. The primary outcome was change in maximal time on the treadmill stress test (MTT) between groups adjusted for age, sex, diabetes status and Internet use for health information. The vCRP resulted in a greater increase in MTT by 45.7 seconds (95% CI: 1.0, 90.5) compared to usual care (p=0.045). Cholesterol levels and dietary quality improved in the vCRP compared to the UC group. Participants perceived the vCRP to be an accessible, convenient and effective way to received healthcare. Eleven (30%) and 6 (18%) participants in the UC and vCRP groups, respectively, had cardiovascular-related events (p=0.275). In conclusion, the vCRP was safe and effective and resulted in sustainable risk reduction without the requirement of face-to-face visits and directly monitored exercise.

  15. Aerobic exercise training delays cardiac dysfunction and improves autonomic control of circulation in diabetic rats undergoing myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Bruno; Jorge, Luciana; Mostarda, Cristiano T; Rosa, Kaleizu T; Medeiros, Alessandra; Malfitano, Christiane; de Souza, Alcione L; Viegas, Katia Aparecida da Silva; Lacchini, Silvia; Curi, Rui; Brum, Patricia C; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2012-09-01

    Exercise training (ET) has been used as a nonpharmacological strategy for treatment of diabetes and myocardial infarction (MI) separately. We evaluated the effects ET on functional and molecular left ventricular (LV) parameters as well as on autonomic function and mortality in diabetics after MI. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (C), sedentary-diabetic infarcted (SDI), and trained-diabetic infarcted (TDI) groups. MI was induced after 15 days of streptozotocin-diabetes induction. Seven days after MI, the trained group underwent ET protocol (90 days, 50-70% maximal oxygen consumption-VO(2)max). LV function was evaluated noninvasively and invasively; baroreflex sensitivity, pulse interval variability, cardiac output, tissue blood flows, VEGF mRNA and protein, HIF1-α mRNA, and Ca(2+) handling proteins were measured. MI area was reduced in TDI (21 ± 4%) compared with SDI (38 ± 4%). ET induced improvement in cardiac function, hemodynamics, and tissue blood flows. These changes were probable consequences of a better expression of Ca(2+) handling proteins, increased VEGF mRNA and protein expression as well as improvement in autonomic function, that resulted in reduction of mortality in TDI (33%) compared with SDI (68%) animals. ET reduced cardiac and peripheral dysfunction and preserved autonomic control in diabetic infarcted rats. Consequently, these changes resulted in improved VO(2)max and survival after MI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An evaluation of two behavioral rehabilitation programs, qigong versus progressive relaxation, in improving the quality of life in cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Peggy Ngor; Wan, Maurice; Chan, Wai Kwong; Yung, Paul Man Bun

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate and compare two different behavioral rehabilitation programs in improving the quality of life in cardiac patients in Hong Kong. The current study was carried out in the outpatient unit of Occupational Therapy Department in the United Christian Hospital, Hong Kong. Convenience sampling with referral from the cardiac specialty was used in the present study. A total of 65 subjects, with a mean age 65 (range, 42 to 76), were recruited in the study. The cardiac diseases included myocardial infarct, postcoronary intervention, valve replacement, and also ischemic heart disease. Patients were alternately allocated to the two groups. The first group of patients received instructions and practiced on progressive relaxation. The second group of patients underwent training in qigong. A total of eight sessions were conducted and each session lasted 20 minutes. Demographic and clinical data such as gender, age, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded. The psychological and Quality of Life assessment was performed using the Chinese versions of Short Form 36 (C-SF36), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (C-STAI), and General Health Questionnaire (C-GHQ-12). Fifty-nine (59) subjects (44 men and 15 women) completed all eight rehabilitation sessions in the study. Patients allocated to the two treatment groups had comparable baseline characteristics. Progressive relaxation was more effective in reducing blood pressures compared to qigong. Relaxation appeared to be particularly beneficial in somatic domains. qigong group demonstrated greater improvement in psychologic measures in addition to reduction in systolic blood pressure. Progressive relaxation and qigong exercise improved the quality of life for cardiac patients with reference to certain physiologic and psychologic measures. The result was supported by previous studies and literature reviews on qigong in terms of its effect on the psychologic dimension.

  17. Carotid body denervation improves autonomic and cardiac function and attenuates disordered breathing in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Noah J; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Schultz, Evan P; Xia, Xiao-Hong; Schultz, Harold D

    2014-01-15

    CHF-CBD group before and after CBD. In conclusion, CBD is effective in reducing RSNA, SRC and arrhythmia incidence, while improving breathing stability and cardiac function in pacing-induced CHF rabbits.

  18. Bioelectrical signals improve cardiac function and modify gene expression of extracellular matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfelda, Karin; Kapeller, Barbara; Holly, Alexander; Podesser, Bruno K; Losert, Udo; Brandes, Kersten; Goettel, Peter; Mueller, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    Beyond the influence of stimulating devices on cardiac excitation, their use in treating patients with heart failure has positive effects on the myocardium at the molecular level. Electrical signals can induce a wide spectrum of effects in living tissue. Therefore, we sought to determine whether applying electrical microcurrent directly to failing hearts leads to functional improvement. Sixteen male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with heart failure underwent application of a patch electrode to the left ventricular epicardium and placement of a subcutaneous counter electrode. The electrode delivered a 0.35 μA microcurrent to nine of the SHRs for 45 ± 3 days; the other seven SHRs were used as controls. At baseline and before the SHRs were humanely put to death, we measured the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and the thickness of the LV posterior wall during systole and diastole (LVPWs/d). We used quantitative PCR to determine extracellular matrix parameters [collagen I-III, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3), TIMP4, connexins (Cxs) 40/43/45, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and interleukin (IL)-6]. Among SHRs undergoing microcurrent application, LVEF normalized (mean decrease, 22.8%; P = 0.009), and LVPWs decreased (mean, 35.3%; P = 0.001). Compared with the control group, the SHRs receiving microcurrent exhibited a mean decrease in the gene expression of collagen I (10.6%, P = 0.003), TIMP3 (18.5%, P = 0.005), Cx43 (14.3%, P = 0.003), Cx45 (12.7%, P = 0.020), TGF-β (13.0%, P = 0.005), and IL-6 (53.7%, P = 0.000). Microcurrent application induced no changes in the expression of collagen III, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP4, or Cx40. Applying microcurrent to the LV epicardium of SHRs leads to statistically significant functional improvement and alterations in the levels of inflammatory and extracellular matrix components. © 2017 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John

  19. Improved virtual cardiac phantom with variable diastolic filling rates and coronary artery velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Richards, Taylor W.; Samei, E.; Segars, W. P.

    2017-03-01

    To facilitate studies of measurement uncertainty in computed tomography angiography (CTA), we investigated the cardiac motion profile and resulting coronary artery motion utilizing innovative dynamic virtual and physical phantoms. The four-chamber cardiac finite element (FE) model developed in the Living Heart Project (LHP) served as the computational basis for our virtual cardiac phantom. This model provides deformation or strain information at high temporal and spatial resolution, exceeding that of speckle tracking echocardiography or tagged MRI. This model was extended by fitting its motion profile to left ventricular (LV) volume-time curves obtained from patient echocardiography data. By combining the dynamic patient variability from echo with the local strain information from the FE model, a series of virtual 4D cardiac phantoms were developed. Using the computational phantoms, we characterized the coronary motion and its effect on plaque imaging under a range of heart rates subject to variable diastolic function. The coronary artery motion was sampled at 248 spatial locations over 500 consecutive time frames. The coronary artery velocities were calculated as their average velocity during an acquisition window centered at each time frame, which minimized the discretization error. For the initial set of twelve patients, the diastatic coronary artery velocity ranged from 36.5 mm/s to 2.0 mm/s with a mean of 21.4 mm/s assuming an acquisition time of 75 ms. The developed phantoms have great potential in modeling cardiac imaging, providing a known truth and multiple realistic cardiac motion profiles to evaluate different image acquisition or reconstruction methods.

  20. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation improves outcome for patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    year of psycho-educational follow-up focusing on modifiable factors associated with poor outcomes. Two primary outcomes, general health score (Short Form-36 (SF-36)) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2), were used. Post-hoc analyses included SF-36 and ICD therapy history.Results:Comprehensive cardiac......Aims:The aim of this randomised clinical trial was to assess a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation intervention including exercise training and psycho-education vs 'treatment as usual' in patients treated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD).Methods:In this study 196 patients...

  1. Intra coronary freshly isolated bone marrow cells transplantation improve cardiac function in patients with ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozdag-Turan Ilkay

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autologous bone marrow cell transplantation (BMCs-Tx is a promising novel option for treatment of cardiovascular disease. In this study we analyzed whether intracoronary autologous freshly isolated BMCs-Tx have beneficial effects on cardiac function in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD. Results In this prospective nonrandomized study we treated 12 patients with IHD by freshly isolated BMCs-Tx by use of point of care system and compared them with a representative 12 control group without cell therapy. Global ejection fraction (EF and infarct size area were determined by left ventriculography. Intracoronary transplantation of autologous freshly isolated BMCs led to a significant reduction of infarct size (p  Conclusions These results demonstrate that intracoronary transplantation of autologous freshly isolated BMCs by use of point of care system is safe and may lead to improvement of cardiac function in patients with IHD. Trial registration Registration number: ISRCTN54510226

  2. Albiglutide, a long lasting glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, protects the rat heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury: evidence for improving cardiac metabolic efficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bao, Weike; Aravindhan, Karpagam; Alsaid, Hasan; Chendrimada, Thimmaiah; Szapacs, Matthew; Citerone, David R; Harpel, Mark R; Willette, Robert N; Lepore, John J; Jucker, Beat M

    2011-01-01

    .... We tested the hypothesis that albiglutide, a novel long half-life analog of GLP-1, may protect the heart against I/R injury by increasing carbohydrate utilization and improving cardiac energetic efficiency...

  3. Xenotransplantation of Human Cardiomyocyte Progenitor Cells Does Not Improve Cardiac Function in a Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure. Results from a Randomized, Blinded, Placebo Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen of Lorkeers, SJ; Gho, Johannes M I H; Koudstaal, Stefan; van Hout, Geert; Zwetsloot, Peter Paul M; van Oorschot, Joep W M; van Eeuwijk, Esther C M; Leiner, Tim; Höfer, Imo E.; Goumans, Marie-José; Doevendans, Pieter A; Sluijter, Joost P G; Chamuleau, Steven A J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPCs) were successfully isolated from fetal and adult human hearts. Direct intramyocardial injection of human CMPCs (hCMPCs) in experimental mouse models of acute myocardial infarction significantly improved cardiac function compared to controls.

  4. Myocardial injection of apelin-overexpressing bone marrow cells improves cardiac repair via upregulation of Sirt3 after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfang Li

    Full Text Available Our previous study shows that treatment with apelin increases bone marrow cells (BMCs recruitment and promotes cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI. The objective of this study was to investigate whether overexpression of apelin in BMCs improved cell therapy and accelerated cardiac repair and functional recovery in post-MI mice. Mouse myocardial infarction was achieved by coronary artery ligation and BMCs overexpressing apelin (apelin-BMCs or GFP (GFP-BMCs were injected into ischemic area immediately after surgery. In vitro, exposure of cultured BMCs to apelin led to a gradual increase in SDF-1á and CXCR4 expression. Intramyocardial delivery of apelin-BMCs in post-MI mice resulted in a significant increase number of APJ⁺/c-kit⁺/Sca1⁺ cells in the injected area compared to GFP-BMCs treated post-MI mice. Treatment with apelin-BMCs increased expression of VEGF, Ang-1 and Tie-2 in post-MI mice. Apelin-BMCs treatment also significantly increased angiogenesis and attenuated cardiac fibrosis formation in post-MI mice. Most importantly, treatment with apelin-BMCs significantly improved left ventricular (LV systolic function in post-MI mice. Mechanistically, Apelin-BMCs treatment led to a significant increase in Sirtuin3 (Sirt3 expression and reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS formation. Treatment of cultured BMCs with apelin also increased Notch3 expression and Akt phosphorylation. Apelin treatment further attenuated stress-induced apoptosis whereas knockout of Sirt3 abolished anti-apoptotic effect of apelin in cultured BMCs. Moreover, knockout of Sirt3 significantly attenuated apelin-BMCs-induced VEGF expression and angiogenesis in post-MI mice. Knockout of Sirt3 further blunted apelin-BMCs-mediated improvement of cardiac repair and systolic functional recovery in post-MI mice. These data suggest that apelin improves BMCs therapy on cardiac repair and systolic function in post-MI mice. Upregulation of Sirt3 may contribute to the

  5. Early upregulation of myocardial CXCR4 expression is critical for dimethyloxalylglycine-induced cardiac improvement in acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Mari; Kiedrowski, Matthew; Shamhart, Patricia; Forudi, Farhad; Weber, Kristal; Chilian, William M; Penn, Marc S; Dong, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1):CXCR4 is important in myocardial repair. In this study we tested the hypothesis that early upregulation of cardiomyocyte CXCR4 (CM-CXCR4) at a time of high myocardial SDF-1 expression could be a strategy to engage the SDF-1:CXCR4 axis and improve cardiac repair. The effects of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylase inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) on CXCR4 expression was tested on H9c2 cells. In mice a myocardial infarction (MI) was produced in CM-CXCR4 null and wild-type controls. Mice were randomized to receive injection of DMOG (DMOG group) or saline (Saline group) into the border zone after MI. Protein and mRNA expression of CM-CXCR4 were quantified. Echocardiography was used to assess cardiac function. During hypoxia, DMOG treatment increased CXCR4 expression of H9c2 cells by 29 and 42% at 15 and 24 h, respectively. In vivo DMOG treatment increased CM-CXCR4 expression at 15 h post-MI in control mice but not in CM-CXCR4 null mice. DMOG resulted in increased ejection fraction in control mice but not in CM-CXCR4 null mice 21 days after MI. Consistent with greater cardiomyocyte survival with DMOG treatment, we observed a significant increase in cardiac myosin-positive area within the infarct zone after DMOG treatment in control mice, but no increase in CM-CXCR4 null mice. Inhibition of cardiomyocyte death in MI through the stabilization of HIF-1α requires downstream CM-CXCR4 expression. These data suggest that engagement of the SDF-1:CXCR4 axis through the early upregulation of CM-CXCR4 is a strategy for improving cardiac repair after MI. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. [Sodium hydrosulfide improves cardiac functions and structures in rats with chronic heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Chao-ying; Zhang, Ting

    2011-11-22

    To explore the effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) donor, on cardiac functions and structures in rats with chronic heart failure induced by volume overload and examine its influence on cardiac remodelling. A total of 47 SD rats (120 - 140 g) were randomly divided into 5 groups:shunt group (n = 11), sham group (n = 8), shunt + NaHS group (n = 10), sham + NaHS group (n = 8) and shunt + phentolamine group (n = 10). The rat model of chronic heart failure was induced by abdominal aorta-inferior vena cava puncture. At Week 8 post-operation, hemodynamic parameters, microstructures and ultrastructures of myocardial tissues were analyzed. Extracellular collagen content in myocardial tissues was analyzed after Sirius red staining. Right ventricular hydroxyproline concentration was determined and compared. At Week 8 post-operation, compared with the sham operation and shunt + NaHS groups, the shunt group showed significantly increased right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and right ventricular end diastolic pressure (RVEDP) (mm Hg: 35.2 ± 3.9 vs 21.4 ± 3.7 and 28.1 ± 2.7, 32 ± 5 vs 21 ± 4 and 26 ± 4, all P cardiac functions and ameliorate cardiac structures in rats with chronic heart failure probably through dilating the blood vessels and affecting the extracellular collagen metabolism.

  7. Extended cardiac rehabilitation for socially vulnerable patients improves attendance and outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Larsen, Mogens Lytken

    2013-01-01

    Patients living alone or having a low socioeconomic status are likely to quit cardiac rehabilitation. We aimed to compare patients being offered extended rehabilitation (ERP) with those being offered standard rehabilitation (SRP) as concerns 1) attendance rates and 2) achievement of treatment goa...

  8. Improved patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy by normalization of QRS duration to left ventricular dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweerink, A.; Wu, L.; Roest, G.J. de; Nijveldt, R.; Cock, C.C. de; Rossum, A.C. van; Allaart, C.P.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: This study evaluates the relative importance of two components of QRS prolongation, myocardial conduction velocity and travel distance of the electrical wave front (i.e. path length), for the prediction of acute response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in left bundle branch block

  9. Can recent insights into cardiac development improve our understanding of congenitally malformed hearts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsthuis, Thomas; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Anderson, Robert H.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.

    2009-01-01

    Congenital cardiac malformations account for one-quarter of all human congenital abnormalities. They are caused by environmental and genetic factors. Despite increasing efforts in fundamental research, as yet, the morphogenesis of only a limited number of malformations has been elucidated. Over the

  10. IMPROVING AGREEMENT BETWEEN THORACIC BIOIMPEDANCE AND DYE DILUTION CARDIAC-OUTPUT ESTIMATION IN CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OCONNELL, AJ; TIBBALLS, J; COULTHARD, M

    The measurement of thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) offers a continuous, non-invasive method for monitoring cardiac output (CO). For clinical use, agreement with a current standard should be demonstrated. We describe a modification to the manufacturer's suggested data entry into the NCCOM3-R6

  11. RevaTen platelet-rich plasma improves cardiac function after myocardial injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Allan; Velotta, Jeff; Brinton, Todd J; Wang, Xi; Chang, Stephanie; Palmer, Owen; Sheikh, Ahmad; Chung, Jaehoon; Yang, Phillip Chung-Ming; Robbins, Robert; Fischbein, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Cell therapy is an exciting area of investigation for repair of injured myocardial tissue. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous fractionation of whole blood containing high concentrations of growth factors including vascular endothelial growth factor and insulin-like growth factor, among many others. PRP has been shown to safely and effectively enhance healing of musculoskeletal tissue primarily by reparative cell signaling. Despite a growing body of evidence on PRP's safety and efficacy, limited studies have been performed using PRP in cardiovascular tissues. Utilizing a murine myocardial permanent ligation and ischemia/reperfusion model, this study sought to determine whether RevaTen PRP (Menlo Park, CA, USA), a proprietary formulation of PRP, improves cardiac function as measured by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Via thoracotomy, the left anterior descending arteries (LAD) of 28 mice were occluded by suture either permanently or for 45 min to induce ischemic injury and then reperfused. Mice undergoing permanent ligation had intramyocardial injections of either RevaTen PRP (n=5) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; n=4). Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed to calculate LVEF at 7 days. Mice undergoing ischemia and reperfusion had intramyocardial injections of either PRP (n=10) or PBS (n=9) and underwent MR imaging to calculate LVEF at 21 days. Hearts were harvested for histologic examination following imaging. Compared with PBS controls, RevaTen PRP-treated animals that underwent LAD ligation had a 38% higher LVEF 7 days after injury (PRP=36.1±6.1%; PBS=26.4±3.6%, P=.027). Compared with PBS controls, PRP-treated animals who underwent ischemia-reperfusion of the LAD had a 28% higher LVEF 21 days after injury (PRP=37.6±4.8%, control=29.3±9.7%, P=.038). Histologic analysis suggested the presence of more scar tissue in the control group compared to the PRP-treated animals. MR imaging demonstrated a positive effect of RevaTen PRP on left

  12. Metformin improves cardiac function in mice with heart failure after myocardial infarction by regulating mitochondrial energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dan; Yang, Fei

    2017-04-29

    To investigate whether metformin can improve the cardiac function through improving the mitochondrial function in model of heart failure after myocardial infarction. Male C57/BL6 mice aged about 8 weeks were selected and the anterior descending branch was ligatured to establish the heart failure model after myocardial infarction. The cardiac function was evaluated via ultrasound after 3 days to determine the modeling was successful, and the mice were randomly divided into two groups. Saline group (Saline) received the intragastric administration of normal saline for 4 weeks, and metformin group (Met) received the intragastric administration of metformin for 4 weeks. At the same time, Shame group (Sham) was set up. Changes in cardiac function in mice were detected at 4 weeks after operation. Hearts were taken from mice after 4 weeks, and cell apoptosis in myocardial tissue was detected using TUNEL method; fresh mitochondria were taken and changes in oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and respiratory control rate (RCR) of mitochondria in each group were detected using bio-energy metabolism tester, and change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of myocardial tissue was detected via JC-1 staining; the expressions and changes in Bcl-2, Bax, Sirt3, PGC-1α and acetylated PGC-1α in myocardial tissue were detected by Western blot. RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA levels in Sirt3 in myocardial tissues. Metformin improved the systolic function of heart failure model rats after myocardial infarction and reduced the apoptosis of myocardial cells after myocardial infarction. Myocardial mitochondrial respiratory function and membrane potential were decreased after myocardial infarction, and metformin treatment significantly improved the mitochondrial respiratory function and mitochondrial membrane potential; Metformin up-regulated the expression of Sirt3 and the activity of PGC-1α in myocardial tissue of heart failure after myocardial infarction. Metformin decreases the

  13. Cardiac rehabilitation improves the ischemic burden in patients with ischemic heart disease who are not suitable for revascularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Demerdash, Salah [Department of Cardiology, Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo (Egypt); Khorshid, Hazem, E-mail: hazemkhorshid@yahoo.com [Department of Cardiology, Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo (Egypt); Salah, Iman; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed A. [Department of Cardiology, Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo (Egypt); Salem, Alaa M. [Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Division, National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-07-15

    Background: Ischemic heart diseases including stable angina & acute events, represent a huge burden on both the individual & the society and represent an important source of disability. Aim: We aimed to identify the effect of cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) on the ischemic burden in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) unsuitable for coronary revascularization. Methods: The study included 40 patients with IHD who were not suitable for coronary revascularization either by PCI or CABG (due to unsuitable coronary anatomy, co morbidities, high surgical/procedural risk or patient preference). All patients were subjected to sophisticated CRP protocols, including patient education, nutritional, medical, psychological and sexual counseling and group smoking cessation. All patients participated in low intensity exercise program twice weekly. The patient’s symptoms, vitals and medications were evaluated at each visit and clinical and laboratory data, echocardiography and stress myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT) were evaluated before and 3 months after the end of the study. Results: The mean age was 56.8 ± 3.1 years and only 2 patients (5%) were females. 22 (55%) patients were diabetic, 21 (53%) were hypertensive and 30 (75%) were smokers. It was found that 3 months after completion of CRP, there was a significant decrease in BMI (30.3 ± 2.9 vs. 31.2 ± 1.9, p < 0.001), and mean blood pressure (93.4 ± 11 vs. 105 ± 10.6 mmHg, p < 0.001). There was also a favorable effect on lipid profile and a significant improvement of the functional capacity in terms of NYHA functional class (2.1 ± 0.62 vs. 1.4 ± 0.6, p < 0.001). Despite that wall motion score index did not significantly change after CRP, there was a strong trend toward a better ejection fraction (53.7 ± 7.8 vs. 54.5 ± 6.3 %, p = 0.06) and significant improvement of Canadian cardiovascular class (1.42 ± 0.6 vs. 1.95 ± 0.5, p < 0.001) post CRP. Importantly, the difference between the SPECT

  14. Improved survival with therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest with cold saline and surfacing cooling: keep it simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Cristina; Ferreira, Pedro; Ribeiro, Orquídea; Pina, João

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate whether the introduction of a therapeutic hypothermia (TH) protocol consisting of cold saline infusion and surface cooling would be effective in targeting mild therapeutic hypothermia (32-34°C). Additionally, to evaluate if TH would improve survival after cardiac arrest. Design. Before-after design. Setting. General Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at an urban general hospital with 470 beds. Patients and Methods. Patients admitted in the ICU after cardiac arrest between 2004 and 2009 were included. Effectiveness of the TH protocol to achieve the targeted temperature was evaluated. Hospital mortality was compared before (October 2004-March 2006) and after (April 2006-September 2009) the protocol implementation. Results. Hundred and thirty patients were included, 75 patients were not submitted to TH (before TH group), and 55 were submitted to TH (TH group). There were no significant differences concerning baseline, ICU, and cardiac arrest characteristics between both groups. There was a significant reduction in hospital mortality from 61% (n = 46) in the before TH group to 40% (n = 22) in the TH group. Conclusion. Our protocol consisting of cold saline infusion and surface cooling might be effective in inducing and maintaining mild therapeutic hypothermia. TH achieved with this protocol was associated with a significant reduction in hospital mortality.

  15. Epac-Rap1-activated mesenchymal stem cells improve cardiac function in rat model of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irfan; Ali, Anwar; Akhter, Muhammad Aleem; Naeem, Nadia; Chotani, Maqsood Ahmed; Iqbal, Hana'a; Kabir, Nurul; Atiq, Mehnaz; Salim, Asmat

    2017-04-01

    Rap1, a member of Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins, is involved in cardiovascular biology in numerous ways. It is an evolutionary conserved regulator of adhesion, polarity, differentiation and growth. Our aim was to analyze Rap1-activated rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for their potential role in adhesion and cardiac differentiation. Myocardial infarction (MI) was produced in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats through occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. MSCs were treated with 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP (CPT) to activate Rap1. Normal (untreated) and CPT-treated MSCs were transplanted through intramyocardial injection in respective groups. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography at 2 and 4 weeks after cell transplantation. Histological analysis was performed to observe changes at tissue level. Homing of CPT-treated MSCs was significantly (***Pinfarcted hearts. This may be due to increase in the gene expression of some of the cell adhesion molecules as evident by qRT-PCR analysis. Significant (***Ptherapy groups showed significant increase as compared to MI model. Our findings showed that pharmacological activation of Epac-Rap1 improves cardiac function through better survival, adhesion and differentiation of transplanted cells. Transplantation of these MSCs in the infarct area restored functional myocardium. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Exercise Prevents Cardiac Injury and Improves Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Advanced Diabetic Cardiomyopathy with PGC-1α and Akt Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM represents the major cause of morbidity and mortality among diabetics. Exercise has been reported to be effective to protect the heart from cardiac injury during the development of DCM. However, the potential cardioprotective effect of exercise in advanced DCM remains unclear. Methods: Seven-week old male C57BL/6 wild-type or db/db mice were either subjected to a running exercise program for 15 weeks or kept sedentary. Cardiac function, myocardial apoptosis and fibrosis, and mitochondrial biogenesis were examined for evaluation of cardiac injury. Results: A reduction in ejection fraction and fractional shortening in db/db mice was significantly reversed by exercise training. DCM induced remarkable cardiomyocyte apoptosis and increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 at the protein level. Meanwhile, DCM caused slightly myocardial fibrosis with elevated mRNA levels of collagen I and collagen III. Also, DCM resulted in a reduction of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication and transcription, together with reduced mtDNA content and impaired mitochondrial ultrastructure. All of these changes could be abolished by exercise training. Furthermore, DCM-associated inhibition of PGC-1α and Akt signaling was significantly activated by exercise, indicating that exercise-induced activation of PGC-1α and Akt signaling might be responsible for mediating cardioprotective effect of exercise in DCM. Conclusion: Exercise preserves cardiac function, prevents myocardial apoptosis and fbrosis, and improves mitochondrial biogenesis in the late stage of DCM. Exercise-induced activation of PGC-1α and Akt signaling might be promising therapeutic targets for advanced DCM.

  17. Silencing nox4 in the paraventricular nucleus improves myocardial infarction-induced cardiac dysfunction by attenuating sympathoexcitation and periinfarct apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infanger, David W; Cao, Xian; Butler, Scott D; Burmeister, Melissa A; Zhou, Yi; Stupinski, John A; Sharma, Ram V; Davisson, Robin L

    2010-06-11

    Myocardial infarction (MI)-induced heart failure is characterized by central nervous system-driven sympathoexcitation and deteriorating cardiac function. The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is a key regulator of sympathetic nerve activity and is implicated in heart failure. Redox signaling in the PVN and other central nervous system sites is a primary mechanism of neuro-cardiovascular regulation, and excessive oxidant production by activation of NADPH oxidases (Noxs) is implicated in some neuro-cardiovascular diseases. We tested the hypothesis that Nox-mediated redox signaling in the PVN contributes to MI-induced sympathoexcitation and cardiac dysfunction in mice. Real-time PCR revealed that Nox4 was the most abundantly expressed Nox in PVN under basal conditions. Coronary arterial ligation (MI) caused a selective upregulation of this homolog compared to Nox1 and Nox2. Adenoviral gene transfer of Nox4 (AdsiNox4) to PVN (bilateral) attenuated MI-induced superoxide formation in this brain region (day 14) to the same level as that produced by PVN-targeted gene transfer of cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase (AdCu/ZnSOD). MI mice treated with AdsiNox4 or AdCu/ZnSOD in the PVN showed marked improvement in cardiac function as assessed by echocardiography and left ventricular hemodynamic analysis. This was accompanied by significantly diminished sympathetic outflow and apoptosis in the periinfarct region of the heart. These results suggest that MI causes dysregulation of Nox4-mediated redox signaling in the PVN, which leads to sympathetic overactivation and a decline in cardiac function. Targeted inhibition of oxidant signaling in the PVN could provide a novel treatment for MI-induced heart failure.

  18. Upper-body progressive resistance training improves strength and household physical activity performance in women attending cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Lola A; Staffileno, Beth A; Braun, Lynne T; Gulanick, Meg

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of moderate-intensity, progressive, upper-body resistance training (RT) on muscle strength and perceived performance of household physical activities (HPA) among women in cardiac rehabilitation. The 10-week, pretest-posttest, experiment randomized women to either usual care (UC) aerobic exercise or RT. Muscle strength for 5 upper-body RT exercises (chest press, shoulder press, biceps curl, lateral row, and triceps extension) was measured using the 1-Repetition Maximum Assessment. The RT group progressively increased weight lifted using 40%, 50%, and 60% of obtained 1-Repetition Maximum Assessment at 3-week intervals. Perceived performance of HPA was measured with the Kimble Household Activities Scale. The RT group (n = 16, mean age 64 +/- 11) significantly increased muscle strength in all 5 exercises in comparison with the UC group (n = 14, mean age 65 +/- 10) (chest press, 18% vs 11%; shoulder press, 24% vs 14%; biceps curl, 21% vs 12%; lateral row, 32% vs 9%; and triceps extension, 28% vs 20%, respectively). By study end, Household Activities Scale scores significantly increased (F = 13.878, P = .001) in the RT group (8.75 +/- 3.19 vs 11.25 +/- 2.14), whereas scores in the UC group decreased (8.60 +/- 3.11 vs 6.86 +/- 4.13). Progressive upper-body RT in women shows promise as an effective tool to increase muscle strength and improve the ability to perform HPA after a cardiac event. Beginning RT early after a cardiac event in a monitored cardiac rehabilitation environment can maximize the strengthening benefit.

  19. Learning From Experience: Improving Early Tracheal Extubation Success After Congenital Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Peter D; Staudt, Anna M; Sebastian, Roby; Corridore, Marco; Tumin, Dmitry; Simsic, Janet; Galantowicz, Mark; Naguib, Aymen; Tobias, Joseph D

    2016-07-01

    The many advantages of early tracheal extubation following congenital cardiac surgery in young infants and children are now widely recognized. Benefits include avoiding the morbidity associated with prolonged intubation and the consequences of sedation and positive pressure ventilation in the setting of altered cardiopulmonary physiology. Our practice of tracheal extubation of young infants in the operating room following cardiac surgery has evolved and new challenges in the arena of postoperative sedation and pain management have appeared. Review our institutional outcomes associated with early tracheal extubation following congenital cardiac surgery. Inclusion criteria included all children less than 1 year old who underwent congenital cardiac surgery between October 1, 2010, and October 24, 2013. A total of 416 patients less than 1 year old were included. Of the 416 patients, 234 underwent tracheal extubation in the operating room (56%) with 25 requiring reintubation (10.7%), either immediately or following admission to the cardiothoracic ICU. Of the 25 patients extubated in the operating room who required reintubation, 22 failed within 24 hours of cardiothoracic ICU admission; 10 failures were directly related to narcotic doses that resulted in respiratory depression. As a result of this review, we have instituted changes in our cardiothoracic ICU postoperative care plans. We have developed a neonatal delirium score, and have adopted the "Kangaroo Care" approach that was first popularized in neonatal ICUs. This provision allows for the early parental holding of infants following admission to the cardiothoracic ICU and allows for appropriately selected parents to sleep in the same beds alongside their postoperative children.

  20. Intensive care unit admission parameters improve the accuracy of operative mortality predictive models in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, Marco; Ballotta, Andrea; Castelvecchio, Serenella; Baryshnikova, Ekaterina; Brozzi, Simonetta; Boncilli, Alessandra

    2010-10-21

    Operative mortality risk in cardiac surgery is usually assessed using preoperative risk models. However, intraoperative factors may change the risk profile of the patients, and parameters at the admission in the intensive care unit may be relevant in determining the operative mortality. This study investigates the association between a number of parameters at the admission in the intensive care unit and the operative mortality, and verifies the hypothesis that including these parameters into the preoperative risk models may increase the accuracy of prediction of the operative mortality. 929 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery were admitted to the study. The preoperative risk profile was assessed using the logistic EuroSCORE and the ACEF score. A number of parameters recorded at the admission in the intensive care unit were explored for univariate and multivariable association with the operative mortality. A heart rate higher than 120 beats per minute and a blood lactate value higher than 4 mmol/L at the admission in the intensive care unit were independent predictors of operative mortality, with odds ratio of 6.7 and 13.4 respectively. Including these parameters into the logistic EuroSCORE and the ACEF score increased their accuracy (area under the curve 0.85 to 0.88 for the logistic EuroSCORE and 0.81 to 0.86 for the ACEF score). A double-stage assessment of operative mortality risk provides a higher accuracy of the prediction. Elevated blood lactates and tachycardia reflect a condition of inadequate cardiac output. Their inclusion in the assessment of the severity of the clinical conditions after cardiac surgery may offer a useful tool to introduce more sophisticated hemodynamic monitoring techniques. Comparison between the predicted operative mortality risk before and after the operation may offer an assessment of the operative performance.

  1. Improved cardiac filling facilitates the postprandial elevation of stroke volume in Python regius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enok, Sanne; Leite, Gabriella S P C; Leite, Cléo A C; Gesser, Hans; Hedrick, Michael S; Wang, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    To accommodate the pronounced metabolic response to digestion, pythons increase heart rate and elevate stroke volume, where the latter has been ascribed to a massive and fast cardiac hypertrophy. However, numerous recent studies show that heart mass rarely increases, even upon ingestion of large meals, and we therefore explored the possibility that a rise in mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) serves to elevate venous pressure and cardiac filling during digestion. To this end, we measured blood flows and pressures in anaesthetized Python regius The anaesthetized snakes exhibited the archetypal tachycardia as well as a rise in both venous pressure and MCFP that fully account for the approximate doubling of stroke volume. There was no rise in blood volume and the elevated MCFP must therefore stem from increased vascular tone, possibly by means of increased sympathetic tone on the veins. Furthermore, although both venous pressure and MCFP increased during volume loading, there was no evidence that postprandial hearts were endowed with an additional capacity to elevate stroke volume. In vitro measurements of force development of paced ventricular strips also failed to reveal signs of increased contractility, but the postprandial hearts had higher activities of cytochrome oxidase and pyruvate kinase, which probably serves to sustain the rise in cardiac work during digestion. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. [Intracoronary and hypodermic injection of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor improved cardiac function in Swine with chronic myocardial ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong-chong; Yao, Kang; Lu, Hao; Yang, Jun; Shi, Hong-cheng; Zhang, Yi-qi; Huang, Zhe-yong; Zhang, Shu-ning; Yang, Shan; Sun, Ai-jun; Zou, Yun-zeng; Ge, Jun-bo

    2009-08-01

    To compare the efficacy and feasibility between intracoronary and hypodermic injection of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on improving cardiac function in a Swine model of chronic myocardial ischemia. Eighteen Swine underwent placement of ameroid constrictor on left circumflex coronary artery. The presence of myocardial ischemia was verified at four weeks after the operation, and the animals were then randomly assigned into three groups (n = 6 each): (1) administration of vehicle (control), (2) hypodermic injection of G-CSF (5 microgxkg(-1)x;d(-1)) for five days (IH), and (3) intracoronary injection of a bonus G-CSF (60 microg/kg) (IC). Coronary angiogram, cardiac MRI, and (18)F-FDG-SPECT/(99m)Tc-SPECT (DISA-SPECT) measurements were performed at pre-administration and at 4 weeks post administration. Global heart function such as left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVSDV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), myocardial perfusion, myocardial viability and myocardial infarct area were evaluated. Myocardial vWF, Bcl-2 and Bax expressions were detected by Western blot and RT-PCR. MRI data showed that left ventricular dilation and dysfunction were similarly prevented in IH and IC G-CSF treated animals at eight weeks after the operation. SPECT revealed that both IH and IC G-CSF equally improved the regional contractility of chronic myocardial ischemia and increased myocardial viability. Myocardial infarct size was also reduced after both G-CSF treatments as detected by MRI. Intracoronary injection of G-CSF did not lead to angiogenesis in other organs. G-CSF treatments were also associated with a significant reduction in myocardial apoptosis and significant increase in angiogenesis. Both intracoronary and hypodermic injection of G-CSF were safe and feasible and could equally improve cardiac function and increase angiogenesis in this Swine model of chronic myocardial ischemia.

  3. Non-invasive beat-to-beat cardiac output monitoring by an improved method of transthoracic bioimpedance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, J; Habenbacher, W; Heller, A; Hacker, A; Grüllenberger, R; Innerhofer, J; Passath, H; Wagner, Ch; Haitchi, G; Flotzinger, D; Pacher, R; Wach, P

    2006-11-01

    The report describes a method of impedance cardiography using an improved estimate of thoracic volume. The formulas and their implementation in hardware and software are explained and new shortband electrodes are described which generate a good homogeneous thoracic field. Examples of stroke volume and cardiac output curves underline the capabilities of the monitoring system "Task Force Monitor". In several experiments, results are compared to thermodilution as well as to BioZ measurements: the new method excels in comparison with thermodilution and is comparable to the BioZ device. Compared to traditional electrodes, the new shortband electrodes are shown to provide better reproducibility.

  4. Do Lower Target Temperatures or Prolonged Cooling Provide Improved Outcomes for Comatose Survivors of Cardiac Arrest Treated With Hypothermia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Eisuke; Dote, Keigo; Kato, Masaya; Sasaki, Shota; Oda, Noboru; Nakano, Yoshinori; Miura, Katsuya; Inoue, Ichiro; Kihara, Yasuki

    2015-09-21

    Optimal protocols for targeted temperature management are still unclear. This study investigated whether lower target temperatures and/or prolonged cooling could provide improved outcomes in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. This observational study was conducted using the prospectively collected targeted temperature management database in Hiroshima, Japan. Between September 2003 and September 2014, 237 patients treated with TTM after cardiac arrest were enrolled in this study. The target temperatures and durations were assigned by the treating physicians regardless of the patients' conditions. Favorable outcomes were defined as a cerebral performance category scale of 1 or 2 at the 90-day follow-up time point. The rate of favorable outcomes were similar between the patients whose protocols of target temperature were 28 hours and target temperatures <34°C were associated with more frequent lethal arrhythmia, pneumonia, and/or bleedings. Prolonged durations of cooling and rewarming ≥28 hours may not improve outcomes and may increase complications. Further studies are necessary to assess the hypothesis that target temperatures <34°C provide improved outcomes in patients treated with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  5. Albiglutide, a long lasting glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, protects the rat heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury: evidence for improving cardiac metabolic efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weike Bao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cardioprotective effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and analogs have been previously reported. We tested the hypothesis that albiglutide, a novel long half-life analog of GLP-1, may protect the heart against I/R injury by increasing carbohydrate utilization and improving cardiac energetic efficiency. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with albiglutide and subjected to 30 min myocardial ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion. Left ventricle infarct size, hemodynamics, function and energetics were determined. In addition, cardiac glucose disposal, carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic gene expression were assessed. Albiglutide significantly reduced infarct size and concomitantly improved post-ischemic hemodynamics, cardiac function and energetic parameters. Albiglutide markedly increased both in vivo and ex vivo cardiac glucose uptake while reducing lactate efflux. Analysis of metabolic substrate utilization directly in the heart showed that albiglutide increased the relative carbohydrate versus fat oxidation which in part was due to an increase in both glucose and lactate oxidation. Metabolic gene expression analysis indicated upregulation of key glucose metabolism genes in the non-ischemic myocardium by albiglutide. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Albiglutide reduced myocardial infarct size and improved cardiac function and energetics following myocardial I/R injury. The observed benefits were associated with enhanced myocardial glucose uptake and a shift toward a more energetically favorable substrate metabolism by increasing both glucose and lactate oxidation. These findings suggest that albiglutide may have direct therapeutic potential for improving cardiac energetics and function.

  6. A model-based time-reversal of left ventricular motion improves cardiac motion analysis using tagged MRI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Larry T

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial motion is an important observable for the assessment of heart condition. Accurate estimates of ventricular (LV wall motion are required for quantifying myocardial deformation and assessing local tissue function and viability. Harmonic Phase (HARP analysis was developed for measuring regional LV motion using tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tMRI data. With current computer-aided postprocessing tools including HARP analysis, large motions experienced by myocardial tissue are, however, often intractable to measure. This paper addresses this issue and provides a solution to make such measurements possible. Methods To improve the estimation performance of large cardiac motions while analyzing tMRI data sets, we propose a two-step solution. The first step involves constructing a model to describe average systolic motion of the LV wall within a subject group. The second step involves time-reversal of the model applied as a spatial coordinate transformation to digitally relax the contracted LV wall in the experimental data of a single subject to the beginning of systole. Cardiac tMRI scans were performed on four healthy rats and used for developing the forward LV model. Algorithms were implemented for preprocessing the tMRI data, optimizing the model parameters and performing the HARP analysis. Slices from the midventricular level were then analyzed for all systolic phases. Results The time-reversal operation derived from the LV model accounted for the bulk portion of the myocardial motion, which was the average motion experienced within the overall subject population. In analyzing the individual tMRI data sets, removing this average with the time-reversal operation left small magnitude residual motion unique to the case. This remaining residual portion of the motion was estimated robustly using the HARP analysis. Conclusion Utilizing a combination of the forward LV model and its time reversal improves the performance of

  7. Improvement of left ventricular function under cardiac resynchronization therapy goes along with a reduced incidence of ventricular arrhythmia.

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    Christian Eickholt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The beneficial effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT are thought to result from favorable left ventricular (LV reverse remodeling, however CRT is only successful in about 70% of patients. Whether response to CRT is associated with a decrease in ventricular arrhythmias (VA is still discussed controversially. Therefore, we investigated the incidence of VA in CRT responders in comparison with non-responders. METHODS: In this nonrandomized, two-center, observational study patients with moderate-to-severe heart failure, LV ejection fraction (LVEF ≤35%, and QRS duration >120 ms undergoing CRT were included. After 6 months patients were classified as CRT responders or non-responders. Incidence of VA was compared between both groups by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis. ROC analysis was performed to determine the aptitude of LVEF cut-off values to predict VA. RESULTS: In total 126 consecutive patients (64±11 years; 67%male were included, 74 were classified as responders and 52 as non-responders. While the mean LVEF at baseline was comparable in both groups (25±7% vs. 24±8%; P = 0.4583 only the responder group showed an improvement of LVEF (36±6% vs. 24±7; p7% was found to be a predictor of a significantly lower incidence of VA (AUC = 0.606. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement of left ventricular function under cardiac resynchronization therapy goes along with a reduced incidence of ventricular arrhythmia.

  8. Improving full-cardiac cycle strain estimation from tagged CMR by accurate modeling of 3D image appearance characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Nitzken

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the tagged cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR image analysis, we propose a 3D (2D space + 1D time energy minimization framework, based on learning first- and second-order visual appearance models from voxel intensities. The former model approximates the marginal empirical distribution of intensities with two linear combinations of discrete Gaussians (LCDG. The second-order model considers an image of a sample from a translation–rotation invariant 3D Markov–Gibbs random field (MGRF with multiple pairwise spatiotemporal interactions within and between adjacent temporal frames. Abilities of the framework to accurately recover noise-corrupted strain slopes were experimentally evaluated and validated on 3D geometric phantoms and independently on in vivo data. In multiple noise and motion conditions, the proposed method outperformed comparative image filtering in restoring strain curves and reliably improved HARP strain tracking during the entirety of the cardiac cycle. According to these results, our framework can augment popular spectral domain techniques, such as HARP, by optimizing the spectral domain characteristics and thereby providing more reliable estimates of strain parameters.

  9. Improvement of cardiac contractile function by peptide-based inhibition of NF-κB in the utrophin/dystrophin-deficient murine model of muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guttridge Denis C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an inherited and progressive disease causing striated muscle deterioration. Patients in their twenties generally die from either respiratory or cardiac failure. In order to improve the lifespan and quality of life of DMD patients, it is important to prevent or reverse the progressive loss of contractile function of the heart. Recent studies by our labs have shown that the peptide NBD (Nemo Binding Domain, targeted at blunting Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB signaling, reduces inflammation, enhances myofiber regeneration, and improves contractile deficits in the diaphragm in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Methods To assess whether cardiac function in addition to diaphragm function can be improved, we investigated physiological and histological parameters of cardiac muscle in mice deficient for both dystrophin and its homolog utrophin (double knockout = dko mice treated with NBD peptide. These dko mice show classic pathophysiological hallmarks of heart failure, including myocyte degeneration, an impaired force-frequency response and a severely blunted β-adrenergic response. Cardiac contractile function at baseline and frequencies and pre-loads throughout the in vivo range as well as β-adrenergic reserve was measured in isolated cardiac muscle preparations. In addition, we studied histopathological and inflammatory markers in these mice. Results At baseline conditions, active force development in cardiac muscles from NBD treated dko mice was more than double that of vehicle-treated dko mice. NBD treatment also significantly improved frequency-dependent behavior of the muscles. The increase in force in NBD-treated dko muscles to β-adrenergic stimulation was robustly restored compared to vehicle-treated mice. However, histological features, including collagen content and inflammatory markers were not significantly different between NBD-treated and vehicle-treated dko mice. Conclusions We conclude

  10. Long-term wheel running compromises diaphragm function but improves cardiac and plantarflexor function in the mdx mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Pedro; Sleeper, Meg M.; Barton, Elisabeth R.; Sweeney, H. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Dystrophin-deficient muscles suffer from free radical injury, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and inflammation, among other pathologies that contribute to muscle fiber injury and loss, leading to wheelchair confinement and death in the patient. For some time, it has been appreciated that endurance training has the potential to counter many of these contributing factors. Correspondingly, numerous investigations have shown improvements in limb muscle function following endurance training in mdx mice. However, the effect of long-term volitional wheel running on diaphragm and cardiac function is largely unknown. Our purpose was to determine the extent to which long-term endurance exercise affected dystrophic limb, diaphragm, and cardiac function. Diaphragm specific tension was reduced by 60% (P running compared with sedentary mdx mice. Dorsiflexor mass (extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior) and function (extensor digitorum longus) were not altered by endurance training. In mice that performed 1 yr of volitional wheel running, plantarflexor mass (soleus and gastrocnemius) was increased and soleus tetanic force was increased 36%, while specific tension was similar in wheel-running and sedentary groups. Cardiac mass was increased 15%, left ventricle chamber size was increased 20% (diastole) and 18% (systole), and stroke volume was increased twofold in wheel-running compared with sedentary mdx mice. These data suggest that the dystrophic heart may undergo positive exercise-induced remodeling and that limb muscle function is largely unaffected. Most importantly, however, as the diaphragm most closely recapitulates the human disease, these data raise the possibility of exercise-mediated injury in dystrophic skeletal muscle. PMID:23823150

  11. Passive hind-limb cycling improves cardiac function and reduces cardiovascular disease risk in experimental spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Christopher R; Crawford, Mark A; Poormasjedi-Meibod, Malihe-Sadat; Currie, Katharine D; Fallavollita, Andre; Yuen, Violet; McNeill, John H; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2014-04-15

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes altered autonomic control and severe physical deconditioning that converge to drive maladaptive cardiac remodelling. We used a clinically relevant experimental model to investigate the cardio-metabolic responses to SCI and to establish whether passive hind-limb cycling elicits a cardio-protective effect. Initially, 21 male Wistar rats were evenly assigned to three groups: uninjured control (CON), T3 complete SCI (SCI) or T3 complete SCI plus passive hind-limb cycling (SCI-EX; 2 × 30 min day(-1), 5 days week(-1) for 4 weeks beginning 6 days post-SCI). On day 32, cardio-metabolic function was assessed using in vivo echocardiography, ex vivo working heart assessments, cardiac histology/molecular biology and blood lipid profiles. Twelve additional rats (n = 6 SCI and n = 6 SCI-EX) underwent in vivo echocardiography and basal haemodynamic assessments pre-SCI and at days 7, 14 and 32 post-SCI to track temporal cardiovascular changes. Compared with CON, SCI exhibited a rapid and sustained reduction in left ventricular dimensions and function that ultimately manifested as reduced contractility, increased myocardial collagen deposition and an up-regulation of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Smad3) mRNA. For SCI-EX, the initial reduction in left ventricular dimensions and function at day 7 post-SCI was completely reversed by day 32 post-SCI, and there were no differences in myocardial contractility between SCI-EX and CON. Collagen deposition was similar between SCI-EX and CON. TGFβ1 and Smad3 were down-regulated in SCI-EX. Blood lipid profiles were improved in SCI-EX versus SCI. We provide compelling novel evidence that passive hind-limb cycling prevents cardiac dysfunction and reduces cardiovascular disease risk in experimental SCI.

  12. Vitamin D receptor agonist VS-105 improves cardiac function in the presence of enalapril in 5/6 nephrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Wong, J Ruth; Chen, Yung-Wu; Wessale, Jerry L

    2015-02-15

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists (VDRAs) are commonly used to manage hyperparathyroidism secondary to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients with CKD experience extremely high risks of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Clinical observations show that VDRA therapy may be associated with cardio-renal protective and survival benefits in patients with CKD. The 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) Sprague-Dawley rat with established uremia exhibits elevated serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), hypertension, and abnormal cardiac function. Treatment of 5/6 NX rats with VS-105, a novel VDRA (0.05 and 0.5 μg/kg po by gavage), once daily for 8 wk in the presence or absence of enalapril (30 mg/kg po via drinking water) effectively suppressed serum PTH without raising serum calcium. VS-105 alone reduced systolic blood pressure (from 174 ± 6 to 145 ± 9 mmHg, P < 0.05) as effectively as enalapril (from 174 ± 6 to 144 ± 7 mmHg, P < 0.05). VS-105 improved cardiac functional parameters such as E/A ratio, ejection fraction, and fractional shortening with or without enalapril. Enalapril or VS-105 alone significantly reduced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH); VS-105 plus enalapril did not further reduce LVH. VS-105 significantly reduced both cardiac and renal fibrosis. The lack of hypercalcemic toxicity of VS-105 is due to its lack of effects on stimulating intestinal calcium transport and inducing the expression of intestinal calcium transporter genes such as Calb3 and TRPV6. These studies demonstrate that VS-105 is a novel VDRA that may provide cardiovascular benefits via VDR activation. Clinical studies are required to confirm the cardiovascular benefits of VS-105 in CKD. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Improvements in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Survival from 1998 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yutaka; Woodin, Jeff A; Gibo, Koichiro; Zive, Dana M; Daya, Mohamud R

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains a major public health burden. Aggregate OHCA survival to hospital discharge has reportedly remained unchanged at 7.6% for almost 30 years from 1970 to 2008. We examined the trends in adult OHCA survival over a 16-year period from 1998 to 2013 within a single EMS agency. Observational cohort study of adult OHCA patients treated by Tualatin Valley Fire & Rescue (TVF&R) from 1998 to 2013. This is an ALS first response fire agency that maintains an active Utstein style cardiac arrest registry and serves a population of approximately 450,000 in 9 incorporated cities in Oregon. Primary outcomes were survival to hospital discharge in all patients and in the subgroup with witnessed ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT). The impact of key covariates on survival was assessed using univariate logistic regression. These included patient factors (age and sex), event factors (location of arrest, witnessed status, and first recorded cardiac arrest rhythm), and EMS system factors (response time interval, bystander CPR, and non-EMS AED shock). We used multivariate logistic regression to examine the impact of year increment on survival after multiple imputation for missing data. Sensitivity analysis was performed with complete cases. During the study period, 2,528 adult OHCA had attempted field resuscitation. The survival rate for treated cases increased from 6.7% to 18.2%, with witnessed VF/VT cases increasing from 14.3% to 31.4% from 1998 to 2013. Univariate analysis showed that younger age, male sex, public location of arrest, bystander or EMS witnessed event, initial rhythm of pulseless electrical activity (PEA) or VF/VT, bystander CPR, non-EMS AED shock, and a shorter EMS response time were independently associated with survival. After adjustment for covariates, the odds of survival increased by 9% (OR 1.09, 95%CI: 1.05-1.12) per year in all treated cases, and by 6% (OR 1.06, 95% 1.01-1.10) per year in

  14. Soccer training improves cardiac function in men with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Horton, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    , participated in a soccer training group (STG; n=12) that trained one h twice a week or a control group (CG; n=9) with no change in lifestyle. Examinations included comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, measurements of blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and intermittent endurance...... training can counteract the early signs of diabetic heart disease. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of soccer training on cardiac function, exercise capacity and blood pressure in middle-aged men with T2DM. METHODS: Twenty-one men aged 49.8±1.7 yrs with T2DM and no history of cardiovascular disease...... capacity before and after 12 and 24 wks. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was applied. RESULTS: After 24 wks of soccer training, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic diameter and volume were increased (P...

  15. Melatonin synergized with cyclosporine A improves cardiac allograft survival by suppressing inflammation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Hong, Tao; Shao, Mengping; Chen, Zhenghang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2014-09-01

    Melatonin, a widespread physiological mediator, has been demonstrated to exhibit a dose‑dependent immunoregulatory effect in vitro and in vivo, including mediating physiological circadian rhythms, neutralizing free radicals and exerting antisenescence actions. In the present study, the efficacy and mechanism of melatonin alone or in combination with cyclosporine (CsA) in prolonging heart transplantation survival was examined. Daily treatment with melatonin (200 mg/kg/day) through a gavage, significantly prolonged the survival of cardiac grafts (mean survival time, 13.4±2.4 days; n=7; Pcardiac allograft by inhibiting inflammation‑induced apoptosis. These results provide evidence for a novel therapeutic approach for future immunosuppressive agents in organ transplantation.

  16. Intra-arrest selective brain cooling improves success of resuscitation in a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Barbut, Denise; Tsai, Min-Shan; Sun, Shijie; Weil, Max Harry; Tang, Wanchun

    2010-05-01

    We have previously demonstrated that early intra-nasal cooling improved post-resuscitation neurological outcomes. The present study utilizing a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest investigated the effects of intra-nasal cooling initiated at the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on resuscitation success. Our hypothesis was that rapid nasal cooling initiated during "low-flow" improves return of spontaneous resuscitation (ROSC). In 16 domestic male pigs weighing 40+/-3 kg, VF was electrically induced and untreated for 15 min. Animals were randomized to either head cooling or control. CPR was initiated and continued for 5 min before defibrillation was attempted. Coincident with starting CPR, the hypothermic group was cooled with a RhinoChill device which produces evaporative cooling in the nasal cavity of pigs. No cooling was administrated to control animals. If ROSC was not achieved after defibrillation, CPR was resumed for 1 min prior to the next defibrillation attempt until either successful resuscitation or for a total of 15 min. Seven of eight animals in the hypothermic group (87.5%) and two of eight animals in control group (25%) (p=0.04) were successfully resuscitated. At ROSC, brain temperature was increased from baseline by 0.3 degrees C in the control group, and decreased by 0.1 degrees C in the hypothermic animals. Pulmonary artery temperature was above baseline in both groups. Intra-nasal cooling initiated at the start of CPR significantly improves the success of resuscitation in a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest. This may have occurred by preventing brain hyperthermia. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel, biodegradable, thermoresponsive hydrogel attenuates ventricular remodeling and improves cardiac function following myocardial infarction - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xin; Li, Xiaoyan; Ren, Shan; He, Yiyu; Wan, Weiguo; Wen, Ying; Jiang, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) and the subsequent heart failure remain among of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in world wide. A number of studies have demonstrated that intramyocardial biomaterials injections improve cardiac function after implantation because of their angiogenic potential. Thermoresponsive hydrogels, one member of the hydrogels family, are a kind of biomaterial whose structure is similar to that of extracellular matrix. These hydrogels have been interesting for biomedical uses as they can swell in situ under physiological conditions and provide the advantage of convenient administration. The hydrogel that our team is interested in is a novel biodegradable injectable thermoresponsive hydrogel-the copolymer dextran-poly (ε-caprolactone) -2-hydroxylethyl methacrylatepoly (N-isopropylacrylaminde) (Dex-PCL-HEMA/PNIPAAm). Thus, this review will focus on requirements and challenges of injectable synthetic material, and possible mechanism of thermoresponsive hydrogel in treating MI. The main emphases are on the work done and future interesting studies in our laboratory.

  18. High and low contact frequency cardiac rehabilitation programmes elicit similar improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHaye, Stephen A; Lacombe, Shawn P; Koppikar, Sahil; Lun, Grace; Parsons, Trisha L; Hopkins-Rosseel, Diana

    2014-12-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a proven intervention that substantially improves physical health and decreases death and disability following a cardiovascular event. Traditional CR typically involves 36 on-site exercise sessions spanning a 12-week period. To date, the optimal dose of CR has yet to be determined. This study compared a high contact frequency CR programme (HCF, 34 on-site sessions) with a low contact frequency CR programme (LCF, eight on-site sessions) of equal duration (4 months). A total of 961 low-risk cardiac patients (RARE score cardiovascular risk factors were measured on admission and discharge. Similar proportions of patients completed HCF (n = 346) and LCF (n = 351) (p = 0.398). Patients who were less fit (<8 METs) were more likely to drop out of the LCF group, while younger patients (<60 years) were more likely to drop out of the HCF group. Both groups experienced similar reductions in weight (-2.3 vs. -2.4 kg; p = 0.779) and improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness (+1.5 vs. +1.4 METs; p = 0.418). Patients in the LCF programme achieved equivalent results to those in the HCF programme. Certain subgroups of patients, however, may benefit from participation in a HCF programme, including those patients who are predisposed to prematurely discontinuing the programme and those patients who would benefit from increased monitoring. The LCF model can be employed as an alternative option to widen access and participation for patients who are unable to attend HCF programmes due to distance or time limitations. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Collaborative care model improves self-care ability, quality of life and cardiac function of patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Y. Hua

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic heart failure (CHF is a common chronic disease that requires much care. This study aimed to explore the effects of collaborative care model (CCM on patients with CHF. A total of 114 CHF patients were enrolled in this study, and were randomly and equally divided into two groups: control and experimental. Patients in the two groups received either usual care or CCM for 3 continuous months. The impacts of CCM on the self-care ability and quality of life were assessed using self-care of heart failure index and short form health survey 12, respectively. Further, cardiac function was assessed by measuring left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and the level of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, and by the 6-min walking test. Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients in the control and CCM groups were statistically equivalent. Compared with usual care, CCM significantly enhanced self-care abilities of patients with CHF, including self-care maintenance, self-care management and self-care confidence (all P<0.05. The physical and mental quality of life was also significantly improved by CCM (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Compared with usual care, CCM significantly increased the LVEF (P<0.01, decreased the NT-proBNP level (P<0.01, and enhanced exercise capacity (P<0.001. In conclusion, CCM improved the self-care, quality of life and cardiac function of patients with CHF compared with usual care.

  20. IL-10 improves cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction by stimulating M2 macrophage polarization and fibroblast activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mira; Ma, Yonggang; Iyer, Rugmani Padmanabhan; DeLeon-Pennell, Kristine Y; Yabluchanskiy, Andriy; Garrett, Michael R; Lindsey, Merry L

    2017-05-01

    Inflammation resolution is important for scar formation following myocardial infarction (MI) and requires the coordinated actions of macrophages and fibroblasts. In this study, we hypothesized that exogenous interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, promotes post-MI repair through actions on these cardiac cell types. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6J mice (male, 3- to 6-month old, n = 24/group) were treated with saline or IL-10 (50 μg/kg/day) by osmotic mini-pump infusion starting at day (d) 1 post-MI and sacrificed at d7 post-MI. IL-10 infusion doubled plasma IL-10 concentrations by d7 post-MI. Despite similar infarct areas and mortality rates, IL-10 treatment significantly decreased LV dilation (1.6-fold for end-systolic volume and 1.4-fold for end-diastolic volume) and improved ejection fraction 1.8-fold (both p IL-10 treatment attenuated inflammation at d7 post-MI, evidenced by decreased numbers of Mac-3-positive macrophages in the infarct (p IL-10 showed significantly elevated gene expression of M2 markers (Arg1, Ym1, and Tgfb1; all p IL-10 treatment). By functional network analysis grouping, the majority of genes (133 out of 410) were part of the cellular assembly and repair functional group. Of these, hyaluronidase 3 (Hyal3) was the most important feature identified by p value. IL-10 treatment decreased Hyal3 by 28%, which reduced hyaluronan degradation and limited collagen deposition (all p IL-10 treatment increased fibroblast activation (proliferation, migration, and collagen production), an effect that was both directly and indirectly influenced by macrophage M2 polarization. Combined, our results indicate that in vivo infusion of IL-10 post-MI improves the LV microenvironment to dampen inflammation and facilitate cardiac wound healing.

  1. [Cardiac amyloidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussabah, Elhem; Zakhama, Lilia; Ksontini, Iméne; Ibn Elhadj, Zied; Boukhris, Besma; Naffeti, Sana; Thameur, Moez; Ben Youssef, Soraya

    2008-09-01

    PREREQUIS: Amyloidosis is a rare infiltrative disease characterized by multiple clinical features. Various organs are involved and the cardiovascular system is a common target of amyloidosis. Cardiac involvement may occur with or without clinical manifestations and is considered as a major prognostic factor. To analyze the clinical features of cardiac involvement, to review actual knowledgement concerning echocardiographic diagnostic and to evaluate recent advances in treatment of the disease. An electronic search of the relevant literature was carried out using Medline and Pubmed. Keys words used for the final search were amyloidosis, cardiopathy and echocardiography. We considered for analysis reviews, studies and articles between 1990 and 2007. Amyloidosis represents 5 to 10% of non ischemic cardiomyoparhies. Cardiac involvement is the first cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy witch must be evoked in front of every inexplained cardiopathy after the age of forty. The amyloid nature of cardiopathy is suggered if some manifestations were associated as a peripheric neuropathy, a carpal tunnel sydrome and proteinuria > 3g/day. Echocardiography shows dilated atria, a granular sparkling appearance of myocardium, diastolic dysfunction and thickened left ventricle contrasting with a low electric voltage. The proof of amyloidosis is brought by an extra-cardiac biopsy, the indications of endomyocardial biopsy are very limited. The identification of the amyloid nature of cardiopathy has an direct therapeutic implication: it indicates the use of digitalis, calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers. Today the treatment of amyloidosis remains very unsatisfactory especially in the cardiac involvement. An early diagnosis before the cardiac damage may facilitate therapy and improve prognosis.

  2. Value of improved lipid control in patients at high risk for adverse cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Blumenthal, Daniel M; Stevens, Warren; Chou, Jacquelyn W; Ton, Thanh G N; Goldman, Dana P

    2016-06-01

    Lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) is suboptimally used in patients with hyperlipidemia in the 2 highest statin benefit groups (SBGs), as categorized by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association. This study estimated the social value of reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 50% for patients in SBGs 1 and 2 who have been treated with standard LLT but have not reached LDL-C goal, as well as the potential value of PCSK9 inhibitors for patients in these groups. Simulation model. We used National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and US Census data to project the population of SBGs 1 and 2 in the time period 2015 to 2035. We used insurance claims data to estimate incidence rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), and NHANES with National Vital Statistics data to estimate cardiovascular disease mortality rates. Using established associations between LDL-C and MACE risk, we estimated the value of reducing LDL-C levels by 50%. We incorporated results from a meta-analysis to estimate the value of PSCK9 inhibitors. Among those treated with LLT with LDL-C > 70 mg/dL in SBGs 1 and 2, the cumulative value of reducing LDL-C levels by 50% would be $2.9 trillion from 2015 to 2035, resulting primarily from 1.6 million deaths averted. The cumulative value of PCSK9 inhibitors would range from $3.4 trillion to $5.1 trillion (1.9-2.8 million deaths averted), or $12,000 to $17,000 per patient-year of treatment. Lowering LDL-C in high-risk patients with hyperlipidemia has enormous potential social value. For patients in these high-risk groups, PCSK9 inhibitors may have considerable net value depending on the final prices payers ultimately select.

  3. Coronary grafts flow and cardiac pacing modalities: how to improve perioperative myocardial perfusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    D'Ancona, Giuseppe

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to investigate modifications of coronary grafts flow during different pacing modalities after CABG. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two separate prospective studies were conducted in patients undergoing CABG and requiring intraoperative epicardial pacing. In a first study (22 patients) coronary grafts flows were measured during dual chamber pacing (DDD) and during ventricular pacing (VVI). In a second study (10 patients) flows were measured during DDD pacing at different atrio-ventricular (A-V) delay periods. A-V delay was adjusted in 25 ms increments from 25 to 250 ms and flow measurements were performed for each A-V delay increment. A transit time flowmeter was used for the measurements. RESULTS: An average of 3.4 grafts\\/patient were performed. In the first study, average coronary graft flow was 47.4+\\/-20.8 ml\\/min during DDD pacing and 41.8+\\/-18.2 ml\\/min during VVI pacing (P = 0.0004). Furthermore average systolic pressure was 94.3+\\/-10.1 mmHg during DDD pacing and 89.6+\\/-12.2 mmHg during VVV pacing (P = 0.0007). No significant differences in diastolic pressure were recorded during the two different pacing modalities. In the second study, maximal flows were achieved during DDD pacing with an A-V delay of 175 ms (54+\\/-9.6 ml\\/min) and minimal flows were detected at 25 ms A-V delay (38.1+\\/-4.7 ml\\/min) (P=ns). No significant differences in systolic or diastolic blood pressure were noticed during the different A-V delays. CONCLUSION: Grafts flowmetry provides an extra tool to direct supportive measures such as cardiac pacing after CABG. DDD mode with A-V delay around 175 ms. should be preferred to allow for maximal myocardial perfusion via the grafts.

  4. Reducing the late sodium current improves cardiac function during sodium pump inhibition by ouabain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Kirsten; Song, Yejia; Wang, Desuo; Phan, Dillon; Balschi, James; Ingwall, Joanne S; Belardinelli, Luiz; Shryock, John C

    2011-05-01

    Inhibition by cardiac glycosides of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase reduces sodium efflux from myocytes and may lead to Na(+) and Ca(2+) overload and detrimental effects on mechanical function, energy metabolism, and electrical activity. We hypothesized that inhibition of sodium persistent inward current (late I(Na)) would reduce ouabain's effect to cause cellular Na(+) loading and its detrimental metabolic (decrease of ATP) and functional (arrhythmias, contracture) effects. Therefore, we determined effects of ouabain on concentrations of intracellular sodium (Na(+)(i)) and high-energy phosphates using (23)Na and (31)P NMR, the amplitude of late I(Na) using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, and contractility and electrical activity of guinea pig isolated hearts, papillary muscles, and ventricular myocytes in the absence and presence of inhibitors of late I(Na). Ouabain (1-1.3 μM) increased Na(+)(i) and late I(Na) of guinea pig isolated hearts and myocytes by 3.7- and 4.2-fold, respectively. The late I(Na) inhibitors ranolazine and tetrodotoxin significantly reduced ouabain-stimulated increases in Na(+)(i) and late I(Na). Reductions of ATP and phosphocreatine contents and increased diastolic tension in ouabain-treated hearts were also markedly attenuated by ranolazine. Furthermore, the ouabain-induced increase of late I(Na) was also attenuated by the Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent kinase I inhibitors KN-93 [N-[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-propenyl]methylamino]methyl]phenyl]-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methoxybenzenesulphonamide] and autocamide-2 related inhibitory peptide, but not by KN-92 [2-[N-(4'-methoxybenzenesulfonyl)]amino-N-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2-propenyl-N-methylbenzylamine phosphate]. We conclude that ouabain-induced Na(+) and Ca(2+) overload is ameliorated by the inhibition of late I(Na).

  5. Cardiac function improved by sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase overexpression in a heart failure model induced by chronic myocardial ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei XIN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Chronic myocardial ischemia(CMI has become an important cause of heart failure(HF.The aim of present study was to examine the effects of Sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase(SERCA2a gene transfer in HF model in large animal induced by CMI.Methods HF was reproduced in minipigs by ligating the initial segment of proximal left anterior descending(LAD coronary artery with an ameroid constrictor to produce progressive vessel occlusion and ischemia.After confirmation of myocardial perfusion defect and cardiac function impairment by SPECT and echocardiography in the model,animals were divided into 4 groups: HF group;HF+enhanced green fluorescent protein(EGFP group;HF+SERCA2a group;and sham operation group as control.rAAV1-EGFP and rAAV1-SERCA2a(1×1012 vg for each animal were directly and intramyocardially injected to the animals of HF+EGFP and HF+SERCA2a groups.Sixty days after the gene transfer,the expression of SERCA2a at the protein level was examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry,the changes in cardiac function were determined by echocardiographic and hemodynamic analysis,and the changes in serum inflammatory and neuro-hormonal factors(including BNP,TNF-a,IL-6,ET-1 and Ang II were determined by radioimmunoassay.Results Sixty days after gene transfer,LVEF,Ev/Av and ±dp/dtmax increased significantly(P < 0.05,along with an increase of SERCA2a protein expression in the ischemic myocardium(PP < 0.05,accompanied by a significant decrease of inflammatory and neural-hormonal factors(PP < 0.05 in HF+SERCA2a group as compared with HF/HF+EGFP group.Conclusions Overexpression of SERCA2a may significantly improve the cardiac function of the ischemic myocardium of HF model induced by CMI and reverse the activation of neural-hormonal factors,implying that it has a potential therapeutic significance in CMI related heart failure.

  6. Half-molar sodium lactate infusion improves cardiac performance in acute heart failure: a pilot randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalos, Marek; Leverve, Xavier; Huang, Stephen; Weisbrodt, Leonie; Parkin, Ray; Seppelt, Ian; Ting, Iris; Mclean, Anthony

    2014-03-25

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is characterized by inadequate cardiac output (CO), congestive symptoms, poor peripheral perfusion and end-organ dysfunction. Treatment often includes a combination of diuretics, oxygen, positive pressure ventilation, inotropes and vasodilators or vasopressors. Lactate is a marker of illness severity but is also an important metabolic substrate for the myocardium at rest and during stress. We tested the effects of half-molar sodium lactate infusion on cardiac performance in AHF. We conducted a prospective, randomised, controlled, open-label, pilot clinical trial in 40 patients fulfilling two of the following three criteria for AHF: (1) left ventricular ejection fraction Hartmann's solution without continuous infusion. The primary outcome was CO assessed by transthoracic echocardiography 24 hours after randomisation. Secondary outcomes included a measure of right ventricular systolic function (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE)), acid-base balance, electrolyte and organ function parameters, along with length of stay and mortality. The infusion of half-molar sodium lactate increased (mean ± SD) CO from 4.05 ± 1.37 L/min to 5.49 ± 1.9 L/min (P < 0.01) and TAPSE from 14.7 ± 5.5 mm to 18.3 ± 7 mm (P = 0.02). Plasma sodium and pH increased (136 ± 4 to 146 ± 6 and 7.40 ± 0.06 to 7.53 ± 0.03, respectively; both P < 0.01), but potassium, chloride and phosphate levels decreased. There were no significant differences in the need for vasoactive therapy, respiratory support, renal or liver function tests, duration of ICU and hospital stay or 28- and 90-day mortality. Infusion of half-molar sodium lactate improved cardiac performance and led to metabolic alkalosis in AHF patients without any detrimental effects on organ function. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01981655. Registered 13 August 2013.

  7. Impact of Improved Glycemic Control on Cardiac Function in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Melissa; Wong, Vincent W; Hudson, Malcolm; Leung, Dominic Y

    2016-03-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at risk of heart failure. Specific therapeutic interventions for diabetic heart disease are still elusive. We aimed to examine the impact of improved glycemic control on left ventricular (LV) function in these patients. A total of 105 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (aged 54±10 years) and poor glycemic control received optimization of treatment for blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol to recommended targets for 12 months. LV systolic and diastolic function, measured by LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) and septal e' velocities, were compared before and after optimization. At baseline, patients had impaired LV systolic (GLS -14.9±3.2%) and diastolic function (e' 6.2±1.7 cm/s). After 12 months, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) decreased from 10.3±2.4% to 8.3±2.0%, which was associated with significant relative improvement in GLS of 21% and septal e' of 24%. There was a progressively greater improvement in GLS as patients achieved a lower final HbA1c. Patients achieving an HbA1c of 2% versus 8%; P=0.003). Baseline GLS, decrease in body mass index, and treatment with metformin were additional independent predictors of GLS improvement. Improvements in glycemic control over a 12-month period led to improvements in LV systolic and diastolic function. This may have long-term prognostic implications. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Inhibition Improves Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Health in Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmeshwar B. Katare

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInflammation remains a crucial factor for progression of cardiac diseases and cardiac hypertrophy remains an important cause of cardiac failure over all age groups. As a key regulator of inflammation, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 plays an important role in pathogenesis of cardiac diseases. Being an important regulator of innate immunity, the precise pathway of TLR4-mediated cardiac complications is yet to be established. Therefore, the primary objective of the present study was to find the role of TLR4 in cardiac hypertrophy and the molecular mechanism thereof.MethodsCardiac hypertrophy was induced with administration of isoproterenol (5 mg/kg/day, sc. TLR4 receptor inhibitor RS-LPS (lipopolysaccharide from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides; 5 μg/day and agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS (from Escherichia coli; 3.12 μg/day were administered through osmotic pump along with isoproterenol. Cardiac hypertrophy as well as oxidative stress and mitochondrial parameters were evaluated.ResultsCardiac hypertrophy was confirmed with increased heart weight/body weight ratio as well as assessment of hypertrophic markers in heart. There was a marked increase in the TLR4 expression and oxidative stress along with mitochondrial dysfunction in ISO group. TLR4 inhibition significantly decreased heart weight/body weight ratio and ANP, collagen, and β-MHC expression and restored the disturbed cellular antioxidant flux. The mitochondrial perturbations that were observed in hypertrophy heart was normalized after administration of TLR4 inhibitor but not with the agonist. TLR4 agonism further exaggerated the oxidative stress in heart and hence accelerated the disease development and progression.ConclusionOur data show that increased TLR4 ligand pool in cardiac hypertrophy may exaggerate the disease progression. However, inhibition of TLR4 attenuated cardiac hypertrophy through reduced cardiac redox imbalance and mitochondrial

  9. The nonpeptide ANG-(1-7) mimic AVE 0991 attenuates cardiac remodeling and improves baroreflex sensitivity in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Thelma Maria Bedeti; Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Souza Santos, Robson Augusto; Campagnole-Santos, Maria José; Alzamora, Andréia Carvalho

    2013-03-12

    The nonpeptide Ang-(1-7) analog, AVE 0991, is recognized as having beneficial cardiovascular effects similar to those induced by Ang-(1-7). In this study, we evaluated the effects of AVE 0991 on cardiovascular functions and on cardiac and renal remodeling in rats with 2K1C renovascular hypertension. Fisher rats underwent surgery to induce 2K1C renovascular hypertension and were then treated with AVE 0991 (1 or 3mg/kg) for 28days. At the end of treatment, the blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and baroreflex sensitivity were evaluated, in conscious animals. The rats were then euthanized and the heart and kidneys removed for subsequent histological analysis. Treatment with AVE 0991 in 2K1C rats restored the baroreflex sensitivity of both bradycardic and tachycardic components to levels comparable to those of normotensive SHAM rats. At a higher dose (3mg/kg), AVE 0991 was also anti-hypertensive in 2K1C rats. Furthermore, AVE 0991 reduced the heart weight, thickness of myocardial fibers, number of inflammatory cells, and area of collagen deposition in the hearts of 2K1C rats compared to SHAM rats. The inflammatory process and tissue area of collagen deposition were decreased in the clipped kidney of AVE 0091-treated 2K1C rats. Our data showed that oral treatment with AVE 0991 reduces blood-pressure cardiac remodeling and improves baroreflex sensitivity in 2K1C renovascular hypertensive rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Improved Prediction by Dynamic Modeling: An Exploratory Study in the Adult Cardiac Surgery Database of the Netherlands Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siregar, S.; Nieboer, D.; Vergouwe, Y.; Versteegh, M.I.; Noyez, L.; Vonk, A.B.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Takkenberg, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The predictive performance of static risk prediction models such as EuroSCORE deteriorates over time. We aimed to explore different methods for continuous updating of EuroSCORE (dynamic modeling) to improve risk prediction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data on adult cardiac surgery from 2007 to

  11. The improvement of care for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease across the World: a challenge for the World Society for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchervenkov, Christo I; Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Bernier, Pierre-Luc; Stellin, Giovanni; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Mavroudis, Constantine; Jonas, Richard A; Cicek, Sertac M; Al-Halees, Zohair; Elliott, Martin J; Jatene, Marcelo B; Kinsley, Robin H; Kreutzer, Christian; Leon-Wyss, Juan; Liu, Jinfen; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Nunn, Graham R; Ramirez-Marroquin, Samuel; Sandoval, Nestor; Sano, Shunji; Sarris, George E; Sharma, Rajesh; Shoeb, Ayman; Spray, Thomas L; Ungerleider, Ross M; Yangni-Angate, Hervé; Ziemer, Gerhard

    2008-12-01

    The diagnosis and treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease has undergone remarkable progress over the last 60 years. Unfortunately, this progress has been largely limited to the developed world. Yet every year approximately 90% of the more than 1,000,000 children who are born with congenital cardiac disease across the world receive either suboptimal care or are totally denied care.While in the developed world the focus has changed from an effort to decrease post-operative mortality to now improving quality of life and decreasing morbidity, which is the focus of this Supplement, the rest of the world still needs to develop basic access to congenital cardiac care. The World Society for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery [http://www.wspchs.org/] was established in 2006. The Vision of the World Society is that every child born anywhere in the world with a congenital heart defect should have access to appropriate medical and surgical care. The Mission of the World Society is to promote the highest quality comprehensive care to all patients with pediatric and/or congenital heart disease, from the fetus to the adult, regardless of the patient's economic means, with emphasis on excellence in education, research and community service.We present in this article an overview of the epidemiology of congenital cardiac disease, the current and future challenges to improve care in the developed and developing world, the impact of the globalization of cardiac surgery, and the role that the World Society should play. The World Society for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery is in a unique position to influence and truly improve the global care of children and adults with congenital cardiac disease throughout the world [http://www.wspchs.org/].

  12. Resveratrol activates endogenous cardiac stem cells and improves myocardial regeneration following acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lin; Gu, Shaohua; Cheng, Yan

    2017-03-01

    Stem cell antigen-1-positive (Sca-1+) cardiac stem cells (CSCs) therapy for myocardial regeneration following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is limited by insufficient cell viability and a high rate of apoptosis, due to the poor regional microenvironment. Resveratrol, which is a compound extracted from red wine, has been reported to protect myocardial tissue post‑AMI by increasing the expression of angiogenic and chemotactic factors. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on Sca‑1+ CSCs, and to optimize Sca‑1+ CSCs therapy for myocardial regeneration post‑AMI. C57/BL6 mice (age, 6 weeks) were divided into two groups, which received intragastric administration of PBS or 2.5 mg/kg.d resveratrol. The endogenous expression of Sca‑1+ CSCs in the heart was assessed on day 7. Furthermore, C57/BL6 mice underwent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for the construction of an AMI model, and received an injection of 1x106 CSCs into the peri‑ischemic area (n=8/group). Mice received intragastric administration of PBS or resveratrol (2.5 mg/kg.d) for 4 weeks after cell transplantation. Echocardiography was used to evaluate cardiac function 4 weeks after cell transplantation. Capillary density and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the peri‑ischemic myocardium were assessed by cluster of differentiation 31 immunofluorescent staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, respectively. Western blot analysis was conducted to detect the protein expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stromal cell‑derived factor (SDF)‑1α in the myocardium. Treatment with resveratrol increased the number of endogenous Sca‑1+ CSCs in heart tissue after 7 days (PBS vs. Res, 1.85±0.41/field vs. 3.14±0.26/field, P<0.05). Furthermore, intragastric administration of resveratrol significantly increased left ventricle (LV) function 4 weeks after AMI, as determined by an

  13. New knowledge, innovations, and improvement in a Magnet® Children's Hospital Cardiac Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Sharon J; Forster, Erin K; Stuart, Mary E; Patton, Ashley M; Rim, Jeong-Sook; Torowicz, Deborah L

    2012-06-01

    Bedside nurses involved in research and evidence-based practice (EBP) have the ability to change policies, patient care, and outcomes. This article describes the journey of a research committee using the Magnet® component of new knowledge, innovation, and improvements. Using several tools, the unit-based committee developed skills in meeting management, nursing research methods, and EBP. Focusing to improve family and nurse communication about the plan of care, the committee recommended changes in the existing Plan of Care tool, including family input and recommendations for families to view and add to the sheet and participate in daily rounds, which was not the standard practice. Since this intervention was implemented, patient satisfaction has increased, as well as nurse engagement and intent to stay. This project exemplifies how nurse-driven innovations and family partnership led to new knowledge, innovations in learning about research, applying it to practice, and improving practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. External Cardioversion of Atrial Fibrillation Causes an Early Improvement of Cardiac Performance: A Longitudinal Strain Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Stefano; Gabbai, Debbie; Francini, Sara; Rinaldi, Marta Casalone; Pedri, Stefano; Baldasseroni, Samuele; Tarantini, Francesca; Serio, Claudia Di; Lonetto, Giuseppe; Bari, Mauro Di; Padeletti, Luigi; Crijns, Harry J.; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is often associated with heart failure. Several studies have demonstrated that resumption of sinus rhythm (SR) improves cardiac output in the long-term. Aims of this study were to evaluate the acute variations of left ventricular (LV) performance, following successful external cardioversion (ECV) of persistent AF using longitudinal strain (LSt) analysis, and the influence of inflammation. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 48 patients with AF (age: 73 ± 12 years, men: 83.3%). A standard transthoracic echocardiographic evaluation was performed before the procedure and 6 h later; this included the analysis of LV endocardial peak LSt, a measure of myocardial deformation. In the last 32 patients, plasma concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was also determined. Results: Restoration of SR led to the decrease of heart rate (HR) (74 ± 21 vs 64 ± 10 bpm, P ECV of AF determines a significant and fast improvement of LV performance, which is readily captured by LSt analysis. Inflammatory status may impact the response to SR restoration. PMID:28465898

  15. Umbilical-cord-blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded onto fibronectin-immobilized polycaprolactone nanofiber improve cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byung-Jae; Kim, Hwan; Lee, Seul Ki; Kim, Joohyun; Shen, Yiming; Jung, Sunyoung; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Im, Sung Gap; Lee, So Yeong; Choi, Mincheol; Hwang, Nathaniel S; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2014-07-01

    Stem cells seeded onto biofunctional materials have greater potency for therapeutic applications. We investigated whether umbilical-cord-blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell (UCB-MSC)-seeded fibronectin (FN)-immobilized polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers could improve cardiac function and inhibit left ventricle (LV) remodeling in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Aligned nanofibers were uniformly coated with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) by initiated chemical vapor deposition followed by covalent immobilization of FN proteins. The degree of cell elongation and adhesion efficacy were improved by FN immobilization. Furthermore, genes related to angiogenesis and mesenchymal differentiations were up-regulated in the FN-immobilized PCL nanofibers in comparison to control PCL nanofibers in vitro. 4 weeks after the transplantation in the rat MI model, the echocardiogram showed that the UCB-MSC-seeded FN-immobilized PCL nanofiber group increased LV ejection fraction and fraction shortening as compared to the non-treated control and acellular FN-immobilized PCL nanofiber groups. Histological analysis indicated that the implantation of UCB-MSCs with FN-immobilized PCL nanofibers induced a decrease in MI size and fibrosis, and an increase in scar thickness. This study indicates that FN-immobilized biofunctional PCL nanofibers could be an effective carrier for UCB-MSC transplantation for the treatment of MI. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. QRS pattern and improvement in right and left ventricular function after cardiac resynchronization therapy: a radionuclide study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenichini Giulia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT remains a challenge. We evaluated the role of baseline QRS pattern to predict response in terms of improvement in biventricular ejection fraction (EF. Methods Consecutive patients (pts undergoing CRT implantation underwent radionuclide angiography at baseline and at mid-term follow-up. The relationship between baseline QRS pattern and mechanical dyssynchrony using phase analysis was evaluated. Changes in left and right ventricular EF (LVEF and RVEF were analyzed with regard to baseline QRS pattern. Results We enrolled 56 pts, 32 with left bundle branch block (LBBB, 4 with right bundle branch block (RBBB and 20 with non-specific intraventricular conduction disturbance (IVCD. A total of 48 pts completed follow-up. LBBB pts had significantly greater improvement in LVEF compared to RBBB or non-specific IVCD pts (+9.6 ± 10.9% vs. +2.6 ± 7.6%, p = 0.003. Response (defined as ≥ 5% increase in LVEF was observed in 68% of LBBB vs. 24% of non-specific IVCD pts (p = 0.006. None of the RBBB pts were responders. RVEF was significantly improved in LBBB (+5.0 ± 9.0%, p = 0.007, but not in non-specific IVCD and RBBB pts (+0.4 ± 5.8%, p = 0.76. At multivariate analysis, LBBB was the only predictor of LVEF response (OR, 7.45; 95% CI 1.80-30.94; p = 0.006, but not QRS duration or extent of mechanical dyssynchrony. Conclusions Presence of a LBBB is a marker of a positive response to CRT in terms of biventricular improvement. Pts with non-LBBB pattern show significantly less benefit from CRT than those with LBBB.

  17. Stem Cell Therapy with Overexpressed VEGF and PDGF Genes Improves Cardiac Function in a Rat Infarct Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Hiranmoy; George, Jon C.; Joseph, Matthew; Das, Manjusri; Abdulhameed, Nasreen; Blitz, Anna; Khan, Mahmood; Sakthivel, Ramasamy; Mao, Hai-Quan; Hoit, Brian D.; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Pompili, Vincent J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Therapeutic potential was evaluated in a rat model of myocardial infarction using nanofiber-expanded human cord blood derived hematopoietic stem cells (CD133+/CD34+) genetically modified with VEGF plus PDGF genes (VIP). Methods and Findings Myocardial function was monitored every two weeks up to six weeks after therapy. Echocardiography revealed time dependent improvement of left ventricular function evaluated by M-mode, fractional shortening, anterior wall tissue velocity, wall motion score index, strain and strain rate in animals treated with VEGF plus PDGF overexpressed stem cells (VIP) compared to nanofiber expanded cells (Exp), freshly isolated cells (FCB) or media control (Media). Improvement observed was as follows: VIP>Exp> FCB>media. Similar trend was noticed in the exercise capacity of rats on a treadmill. These findings correlated with significantly increased neovascularization in ischemic tissue and markedly reduced infarct area in animals in the VIP group. Stem cells in addition to their usual homing sites such as lung, spleen, bone marrow and liver, also migrated to sites of myocardial ischemia. The improvement of cardiac function correlated with expression of heart tissue connexin 43, a gap junctional protein, and heart tissue angiogenesis related protein molecules like VEGF, pNOS3, NOS2 and GSK3. There was no evidence of upregulation in the molecules of oncogenic potential in genetically modified or other stem cell therapy groups. Conclusion Regenerative therapy using nanofiber-expanded hematopoietic stem cells with overexpression of VEGF and PDGF has a favorable impact on the improvement of rat myocardial function accompanied by upregulation of tissue connexin 43 and pro-angiogenic molecules after infarction. PMID:19809493

  18. Acquisition-weighted chemical shift imaging improves SLOOP quantification of human cardiac phosphorus metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, Oliver [Oslo University Hospital (Norway). The Intervention Centre; Weng, Andreas Max; Toepell, Andreas; Hahn, Dietbert [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Spindler, Matthias [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Beer, Meinrad [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Medical Univ. Graz (Austria). Dept. of Pediatric Radiology; Koestler, Herbert [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Comprehensive Heart Failure Center

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Phosphorous metabolite ratios in human myocardium were determined by a combination of acquisition weighted CSI and a SLOOP evaluation and the results were compared to corresponding SLOOP experiments using standard CSI. Materials and Methods: 10 healthy subjects were examined at 1.5 T using both standard CSI and acquisition weighted CSI. Both experiments were performed with a similar acquisition time and the same spatial resolution. The PCr/ATP ratio was determined and the localization properties of both experiments were compared. Results: The PCr/ATP ratio of 2.2 ± 0.4 found for the experiment using acquisition weighted CSI was almost identical to the value of 2.0 ± 0.4 for standard CSI. The sensitivity and the localization properties improved in all subjects using SLOOP evaluation of the acquisition weighted sampling in comparison to the standard CSI acquisition with an average of 3% and 18%, respectively. Conclusion: The employment of acquisition weighting allows for a further improvement of the {sup 31}P SLOOP spectroscopy of the human heart. (orig.)

  19. Complement factor 5 blockade reduces porcine myocardial infarction size and improves immediate cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischke, Soeren E; Gustavsen, A; Orrem, H L; Egge, K H; Courivaud, F; Fontenelle, H; Despont, A; Bongoni, A K; Rieben, R; Tønnessen, T I; Nunn, M A; Scott, H; Skulstad, H; Barratt-Due, A; Mollnes, T E

    2017-05-01

    Inhibition of complement factor 5 (C5) reduced myocardial infarction in animal studies, while no benefit was found in clinical studies. Due to lack of cross-reactivity of clinically used C5 antibodies, different inhibitors were used in animal and clinical studies. Coversin (Ornithodoros moubata complement inhibitor, OmCI) blocks C5 cleavage and binds leukotriene B4 in humans and pigs. We hypothesized that inhibition of C5 before reperfusion will decrease infarct size and improve ventricular function in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. In pigs (Sus scrofa), the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded (40 min) and reperfused (240 min). Coversin or placebo was infused 20 min after occlusion and throughout reperfusion in 16 blindly randomized pigs. Coversin significantly reduced myocardial infarction in the area at risk by 39% (p = 0.03, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining) and by 19% (p = 0.02) using magnetic resonance imaging. The methods correlated significantly (R = 0.92, p infarcted area at risk by coversin treatment. Coversin ablated plasma C5 activation throughout the reperfusion period and decreased myocardial C5b-9 deposition, while neither plasma nor myocardial LTB4 were significantly reduced. Coversin substantially reduced the size of infarction, improved ventricular function, and attenuated interleukin-1β and E-selectin in this porcine model by inhibiting C5. We conclude that inhibition of C5 in myocardial infarction should be reconsidered.

  20. Sokolow-Lyon voltage is suitable for monitoring improvement in cardiac function and prognosis of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, Kenji; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Okumura, Takahiro; Hiraiwa, Hiroaki; Aoki, Soichiro; Ichii, Takeo; Sugiura, Yuki; Kitagawa, Katsuhide; Kondo, Toru; Watanabe, Naoki; Kano, Naoaki; Furusawa, Kenji; Sawamura, Akinori; Morimoto, Ryota; Bando, Yasuko; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2017-09-01

    The clinical significance of electrocardiogram in the assessment of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of recording serial changes in Sokolow-Lyon voltage (∆%QRS-voltage) in one year to estimate left ventricular reverse remodeling (LVRR) and predict a prognosis of IDCM patients under tailored medical therapy. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with mild symptoms (52.1 ± 13 years old; 69% men; NYHA I/II/III/IV; 33/29/6/0) underwent electrocardiography and echocardiography at baseline and 12 month follow-up (follow-up period: 3.9 years). LVRR was observed in 30 patients (44.1%). The ∆%QRS-voltage was significantly lower in the LVRR group (LVRR; -26.9%, non-LVRR: -9.2%, p voltage correlated with ∆%LV end-diastolic diameter (r = .634, p voltage group (voltage is associated with improvement in cardiac function and favorable prognosis in IDCM patients on medical therapy, suggesting that this index is a feasible marker for response to treatment of IDCM. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. c-Jun DNAzymes inhibit myocardial inflammation, ROS generation, infarct size, and improve cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao; Cai, Hong; Ni, Jun; Bhindi, Ravinay; Lowe, Harry C; Chesterman, Colin N; Khachigian, Levon M

    2009-11-01

    Coronary reperfusion has been the mainstay therapy for reduced infarct size after a heart attack. However, this intervention also results in myocardial injury by initiating a marked inflammatory reaction, and new treatments are keenly sought. The basic-region leucine zipper protein, c-Jun is poorly expressed in the normal myocardium and is induced within 24 hours after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Synthetic catalytic DNA molecules (DNAzymes) targeting c-Jun (Dz13) reduce infarct size in the area-at-risk (AAR) regardless of whether it is delivered intramyocardially at the initiation of ischemia or at the time of reperfusion. Dz13 attenuates neutrophil infiltration, c-Jun and ICAM-1 expression in vascular endothelium, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and the generation of reactive oxygen species in the reperfused myocardium. It inhibits infiltration into the AAR of complement 3 (C3), C3a receptor (C3aR), membrane attack complex-1 (Mac-1), or matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) positive inflammatory cells. Dz13 also improves cardiac function without influencing myocardial vascularity or fibrosis. These findings demonstrate the regulatory role of c-Jun in the pathogenesis of myocardial inflammation and infarction following ischemia-reperfusion injury, and inhibition of this process using catalytic DNA.

  2. Approaches to Improving Cardiac Structure and Function During and After an Acute Myocardial Infarction: Acute and Chronic Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloner, Robert A; Dai, Wangde; Hale, Sharon L; Shi, Jianru

    2016-07-01

    While progress has been made in improving survival following myocardial infarction, this injury remains a major source of mortality and morbidity despite modern reperfusion therapy. While one approach has been to develop therapies to reduce lethal myocardial cell reperfusion injury, this concept has not translated to the clinics, and several recent negative clinical trials raise the question of whether reperfusion injury is important in humans undergoing reperfusion for acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Therapy aimed at reducing myocardial cell death while the myocytes are still ischemic is more likely to further reduce myocardial infarct size. Developing new therapies to further reduce left ventricular remodeling after the acute event is another approach to preserving structure and function of the heart after infarction. Such therapy may include chronic administration of pharmacologic agents and/or therapies developed from the field of regenerative cardiology, including cellular or non-cellular materials such as extracellular matrix. The optimal therapy will be to administer agents that both reduce myocardial infarct size in the acute phase of infarction as well as reduce adverse left ventricular remodeling during the chronic or healing phase of myocardial infarction. Such a dual approach will help optimize the preservation of both cardiac structure and function. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Intracoronary Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Overexpressed Integrin-Linked Kinase Improves Cardiac Function in Porcine Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dan; Zhang, Xin-Lin; Xie, Jun; Yuan, Hui-Hua; Wang, Kun; Huang, Wei; Li, Guan-Nan; Lu, Jian-Rong; Mao, Li-Juan; Wang, Lian; Cheng, Le; Mai, Xiao-Li; Yang, Jun; Tian, Chuan-Shuai; Kang, Li-Na; Gu, Rong; Zhu, Bin; Xu, Biao

    2016-01-11

    The effect of mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs)-based therapy on treating acute myocardial infarction (MI) is limited due to poor engraftment and limited regenerative potential. Here we engineered MSCs with integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a pleiotropic protein critically regulating cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis. We firstly combined ferumoxytol with poly-L-lysine (PLL), and found this combination promisingly enabled MRI visualization of MSCs in vitro and in vivo with good safety. We provided visually direct evidence that intracoronary ILK-MSCs had substantially enhanced homing capacity to infarct myocardium in porcine following cardiac catheterization induced MI. Intracoronary transplantation of allogeneic ILK-MSCs, but not vector-MSCs, significantly enhanced global left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by 7.8% compared with baseline, by 10.3% compared with vehicles, and inhibited myocardial remodeling compared with vehicles at 15-day follow-up. Compared with vector-MSCs, ILK-MSCs significantly improved regional LV contractile function, reduced scar size, fibrosis, cell apoptosis, and increased regional myocardial perfusion and cell proliferation. This preclinical study indicates that ILK-engineered MSCs might promote the clinical translation of MSC-based therapy in post-MI patients, and provides evidence that ferumoxytol labeling of cells combined with PLL is feasible in in vivo cell tracking.

  4. Improved Early Postresuscitation EEG Activity for Animals Treated with Hypothermia Predicted 96 hr Neurological Outcome and Survival in a Rat Model of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bihua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of hypothermia on 96 hr neurological outcome and survival by quantitatively characterizing early postresuscitation EEG in a rat model of cardiac arrest. Materials and Methods. In twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats, cardiac arrest was induced through high frequency transesophageal cardiac pacing. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated after 5 mins untreated arrest. Immediately after resuscitation, animals were randomized to either 2 hrs of hypothermia (N=10 or normothermia (N=10. EEG, ECG, aortic pressure, and core temperature were continuously recorded for 6 hrs. Neurological outcome was evaluated daily during the 96 hrs postresuscitation period. Results. No differences in the baseline measurements and resuscitation outcome were observed between groups. However, 96 hr neurological deficit score (204 ± 255 versus 500 ± 0, P=0.005 and survival (6/10 versus 0/10, P=0.011 were significantly better in the hypothermic group. Quantitative analysis of early postresuscitation EEG revealed that burst frequency and spectrum entropy were greatly improved in the hypothermic group and correlated with 96 hr neurological outcome and survival. Conclusion. The improved burst frequency during burst suppression period and preserved spectrum entropy after restoration of continuous background EEG activity for animals treated with hypothermia predicted favorable neurological outcome and survival in this rat model of cardiac arrest.

  5. Improved early postresuscitation EEG activity for animals treated with hypothermia predicted 96 hr neurological outcome and survival in a rat model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bihua; Song, Feng-Qing; Sun, Lei-Lei; Lei, Ling-Yan; Gan, Wei-Ni; Chen, Meng-Hua; Li, Yongqin

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of hypothermia on 96 hr neurological outcome and survival by quantitatively characterizing early postresuscitation EEG in a rat model of cardiac arrest. In twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats, cardiac arrest was induced through high frequency transesophageal cardiac pacing. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated after 5 mins untreated arrest. Immediately after resuscitation, animals were randomized to either 2 hrs of hypothermia (N = 10) or normothermia (N = 10). EEG, ECG, aortic pressure, and core temperature were continuously recorded for 6 hrs. Neurological outcome was evaluated daily during the 96 hrs postresuscitation period. No differences in the baseline measurements and resuscitation outcome were observed between groups. However, 96 hr neurological deficit score (204 ± 255 versus 500 ± 0, P = 0.005) and survival (6/10 versus 0/10, P = 0.011) were significantly better in the hypothermic group. Quantitative analysis of early postresuscitation EEG revealed that burst frequency and spectrum entropy were greatly improved in the hypothermic group and correlated with 96 hr neurological outcome and survival. The improved burst frequency during burst suppression period and preserved spectrum entropy after restoration of continuous background EEG activity for animals treated with hypothermia predicted favorable neurological outcome and survival in this rat model of cardiac arrest.

  6. Paracrine action of HO-1-modified mesenchymal stem cells mediates cardiac protection and functional improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bin; Ren, Xiaofeng; Lin, Guosheng; Zhu, Chengang; Chen, Honglei; Yin, Jiechao; Jiang, Hong; Yang, Bo; Ding, Danhua

    2008-10-01

    The aim has been to determine whether the supernatants of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transfected with adenovirus carrying human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) gene protect cardiomyocytes from ischemic injury. We have found that hHO-1 infected MSCs (hHO-1-MSCs) increased expression of hHO-1 protein. Apoptosis of cultured hHO-1-MSCs exposed to hypoxia was suppressed. Several cytokines, including HGF, bFGF, TGF-beta, VEGF and IL-1beta, were produced by hHO-1-MSCs, some being significantly enhanced under hypoxia stimulation. Meanwhile, those cytokines reduced caspase-3 level and activity in cultured adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (ARVCs) exposed to hypoxia. Supernatants obtained from hHO-1-MSCs improved left ventricular function, limited myocardial infarct size, increased microvessel density, and inhibited apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in rat myocardial infarction. It can be concluded hHO-1-modified MSCs prevent myocardial cell injury via secretion of paracrine-acting mediators.

  7. Endurance training improves post-exercise cardiac autonomic modulation in obese women with and without type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Baynard, Tracy; Fernhall, Bo; Carhart, Robert; Kanaley, Jill A

    2007-07-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with abnormal cardiovascular autonomic function and increased risk for cardiac complications, especially after exercise. Since improvements at rest are not always observed after training, we investigated changes in resting and post-exercise autonomic function in obese women with and without T2D after16-week of walking training. Heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were measured at rest and 20 min after a 20 min bout of treadmill exercise at 65% VO(2) peak in obese women with (n = 8) and without T2D (n = 12) before and after training. HRV was analyzed by frequency-domain [high- (HF) power and low-frequency (LF)] and BRS by the sequence method. Exercise training induced similar significant changes in VO(2) peak, resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and post-exercise autonomic function in both groups. Training increased VO(2 )peak (6%; P < 0.01) and decreased resting SBP (8%; P < 0.001). Increased post-exercise HR recovery (5%; P < 0.001), HF power (14%; P < 0.05), LF power (14%; P < 0.05) and BRS (86%; P < 0.001) were also observed. Resting autonomic function and post-exercise SBP were not altered after training. In conclusion, endurance training reduced blood pressure without changes in HRV and BRS at rest, but training increased HRV and BRS during the recovery of acute endurance exercise indicating an improved post-exercise autonomic modulation of HR, which was similar in obese women with and without T2D.

  8. Cell salvage of cardiotomy suction blood improves the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäbel, Jakob; Westerberg, Martin; Bengtsson, Anders; Jeppsson, Anders

    2013-09-01

    The inflammatory response after cardiac surgery is characterized by a profound release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Recent data suggest that the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is of greater importance than the absolute levels. Retransfusion of unwashed cardiotomy suction blood contributes to the inflammatory response, but the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in cardiotomy suction blood and whether cell salvage before retransfusion influences the systemic balance have not been investigated previously. Twenty-five coronary artery bypass grafting patients were randomized to either cell salvage of cardiotomy suction blood or no cell salvage before retransfusion. Plasma levels of three anti-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist, IL-4 and IL-10] and two proinflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and IL-6), and the IL-6-to-IL-10 ratio was measured in cardiotomy suction blood before and after cell salvage, and in the systemic circulation before, during and after surgery. Plasma levels of all cytokines except IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly higher in cardiotomy suction blood than in the systemic circulation. The IL-6-to-IL-10 ratio was 6-fold higher in cardiotomy suction blood than in the systemic circulation [median 10.2 (range 1.1-75) vs 1.7 (0.2-24), P suction blood and improved the systemic IL-6-to-IL-10 ratio 24 h after surgery [median 5.2 (3.6-17) vs 12.4 (4.9-31)] compared with no cell salvage (P = 0.032). The balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in cardiotomy suction blood is unfavourable. Cell salvage reduces the absolute levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in cardiotomy suction blood and improves the balance in the systemic circulation after surgery.

  9. Improved out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival through the inexpensive optimization of an existing defibrillation program: OPALS study phase II. Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiell, I G; Wells, G A; Field, B J; Spaite, D W; De Maio, V J; Ward, R; Munkley, D P; Lyver, M B; Luinstra, L G; Campeau, T; Maloney, J; Dagnone, E

    1999-04-07

    Survival rates for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest are low; published survival rates in Ontario are only 2.5%. This study represents phase II of the Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support (OPALS) study, which is designed to systematically evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of various prehospital interventions for patients with cardiac arrest, trauma, and critical illnesses. To assess the impact on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival of the implementation of a rapid defibrillation program in a large multicenter emergency medical services (EMS) system with existing basic life support and defibrillation (BLS-D) level of care. Controlled clinical trial comparing survival for 36 months before (phase I) and 12 months after (phase II) system optimization. Nineteen urban and suburban Ontario communities (populations ranging from 16 000 to 750 000 [total, 2.7 million]). All patients who had out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the study communities for whom resuscitation was attempted by emergency responders. Study communities optimized their EMS systems to achieve the target response interval from when a call was received until a vehicle stopped with a defibrillator of 8 minutes or less for 90% of cardiac arrest cases. Working both locally and provincially, communities implemented multiple measures, including defibrillation by firefighters, base paging, tiered response agreements with fire departments, continuous quality improvement for response intervals, and province-wide revision and implementation of standard dispatch policies. All response times were obtained from a central dispatch system. Survival to hospital discharge. The 4690 cardiac arrest patients studied in phase I and the 1641 in phase II were similar for all clinical and demographic characteristics, including age, sex, witnessed status, rhythm, and receipt of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The proportion of cases meeting the 8-minute response criterion improved (76.7% vs 92

  10. Cardiac catheterization - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - cardiac - discharge; Heart catheterization - discharge: Catheterization - cardiac; Heart catheterization; Angina - cardiac catheterization discharge; CAD - cardiac catheterization discharge; Coronary ...

  11. Improved quality of life after treatment of prolonged asystole during breath holding spells with a cardiac pacemaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Kolterer

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Cardiac pacing using appropriate pacemaker settings seems effective in the prevention of LOC and reduction of the frequency of BHS. Our results imply a reduction of subjective stress levels of patients and parents as well as an increased quality of everyday life. After all, randomized controlled trials of the influence of cardiac pacemaker implantation on subjective stress levels in patients with BHS are needed.

  12. High intensity interval training (HIIT) improves resting blood pressure, metabolic (MET) capacity and heart rate reserve without compromising cardiac function in sedentary aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Fergal; Herbert, Peter; Elliott, Adrian D; Richards, Jo; Beaumont, Alexander; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F

    2017-05-13

    This study examined a programme of pre-conditioning exercise with subsequent high intensity interval training (HIIT) on blood pressure, echocardiography, cardiac strain mechanics and maximal metabolic (MET) capacity in sedentary (SED) aging men compared with age matched masters athletes (LEX). Using a STROBE compliant observational design, 39 aging male participants (SED; n=22, aged 62.7±5.2yrs) (LEX; n=17, aged=61.1±5.4yrs) were recruited to a study that necessitated three distinct assessment phases; enrolment (Phase A), following pre-conditioning exercise in SED (Phase B), then following 6weeks of HIIT performed once every five days by both groups before reassessment (Phase C). Hemodynamic, echocardiographic and cardiac strain mechanics were obtained at rest and maximal cardiorespiratory and chronotropic responses were obtained at each measurement phase. The training intervention improved systolic, mean arterial blood pressure, rate pressure product and heart rate reserve (each PHIIT. Echocardiography and cardiac strain measures were unremarkable apart from trivial increase to intra-ventricular septum diastole (IVSd) (PHIIT. A programme of preconditioning exercise with HIIT induces clinically relevant improvements in blood pressure, rate pressure product and encourages recovery of heart rate reserve in SED, while improving maximal MET capacity in both SED and LEX without inducing any pathological cardiovascular remodeling. These data add to the emerging repute of HIIT as a safe and promising exercise prescription to improve cardiovascular function and metabolic capacity in sedentary aging. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Serial measurement of neuron specific enolase improves prognostication in cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia: A prospective study

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    Storm Christian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuron specific enolase (NSE has repeatedly been evaluated for neurological prognostication in patients after cardiac arrest. However, it is unclear whether current guidelines for NSE cutoff levels also apply to cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia. Thus, we investigated the prognostic significance of absolute NSE levels and NSE kinetics in cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia. Methods In a prospective study of 35 patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest, NSE was measured daily for four days following admission. Outcome was assessed at ICU discharge using the CPC score. All patients received hypothermia treatment for 24 hours at 33°C with a surface cooling device according to current guidelines. Results The cutoff for absolute NSE levels in patients with unfavourable outcome (CPC 3-5 72 hours after cardiac arrest was 57 μg/l with an area under the curve (AUC of 0.82 (sensitivity 47%, specificity 100%. The cutoff level for NSE kinetics in patients with unfavourable outcome (CPC 3-5 was an absolute increase of 7.9 μg/l (AUC 0.78, sensitivity 63%, specificity 100% and a relative increase of 33.1% (AUC 0.803, sensitivity 67%, specificity 100% at 48 hours compared to admission. Conclusion In cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia, prognostication of unfavourable outcome by NSE kinetics between admission and 48 hours after resuscitation may be superior to prognostication by absolute NSE levels.

  14. MSCs transfected with hepatocyte growth factor or vascular endothelial growth factor improve cardiac function in the infarcted porcine heart by increasing angiogenesis and reducing fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fanglin; Zhao, Xianxian; Wu, Jun; Cui, Yong; Mao, Yanjun; Chen, Kebiao; Yuan, Yang; Gong, Dejun; Xu, Zhiyun; Huang, Shengdong

    2013-09-10

    Cell transplantation and gene therapy have been demonstrated to have beneficial effects after a myocardial infarction (MI). Here, we used a large animal model of MI to investigate the beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transfected with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) genes. A porcine MI model was created by balloon occlusion of the distal left anterior descending artery for 90 min followed by reperfusion. At 1 week after MI, the pigs were infused via the coronary vein with saline (n=8), MSCs + AdNull(n=8), MSC+VEGF(n=10), or MSC+HGF(n=10). Cardiac function and myocardial perfusion were evaluated by using echocardiography and gated cardiac perfusion imaging before and 4 weeks after transplantation. Morphometric and histological analyses were performed. All cell-implanted groups had better cardiac function than the saline control group. There were further functional improvements in the MSC+HGF group, accompanied by smaller infarct sizes, increased cell survival, and less collagen deposition. Blood vessel densities in the damaged area and cardiac perfusion were significantly greater in the MSC+AdNull group than in the saline control group, and further increased in the MSC+VEGF/HGF groups. Tissue fibrosis was significantly less extensive in the MSC and MSC+VEGF groups than in the saline control group and was most reduced in the MSC+HGF group. MSCs (alone or transfected with VEGF/HGF) delivered into the infarcted porcine heart via the coronary vein improved cardiac function and perfusion, probably by increasing angiogenesis and reducing fibrosis. MSC+HGF was superior to MSC+VEGF, possibly owing to its enhanced antifibrotic effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization of a polydopamine (PD)-based coating method and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates for improved mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency maintenance and cardiac differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiayin; Chuah, Yon Jin; Ang, Wee Tong; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Dong-An

    2017-05-30

    Myocardiocyte derived from pluripotent stem cells, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), is a promising cell source for cardiac tissue engineering. Combined with microfluidic technologies, a heart-on-a-chip is very likely to be developed and function as a platform for high throughput drug screening. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) silicone elastomer is a widely-used biomaterial for the investigation of cell-substrate interactions and biochip fabrication. However, the intrinsic PDMS surface hydrophobicity inhibits cell adhesion on the PDMS surface, and PDMS surface modification is required for effective cell adhesion. Meanwhile, the formulation of PDMS also affects the behaviors of the cells. To fabricate PDMS-based biochips for ESC pluripotency maintenance and cardiac differentiation, PDMS surface modification and formulation were optimized in this study. We found that a polydopamine (PD) with gelatin coating greatly improved the ESC adhesion, proliferation and cardiac differentiation on its surface. In addition, different PDMS substrates varied in their surface properties, which had different impacts on ESCs, with the 40 : 1 PDMS substrate being more favorable for ESC adhesion and proliferation as well as embryoid body (EB) attachment than the other PDMS substrates. Moreover, the ESC pluripotency was best maintained on the 5 : 1 PDMS substrate, while the cardiac differentiation of the ESCs was optimal on the 40 : 1 PDMS substrate. Based on the optimized coating method and PDMS formulation, biochips with two different designs were fabricated and evaluated. Compared to the single channels, the multiple channels on the biochips could provide larger areas and accommodate more nutrients to support improved ESC pluripotency maintenance and cardiac differentiation. These results may contribute to the development of a real heart-on-a-chip for high-throughput drug screening in the future.

  16. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  17. Scavenging superoxide selectively in mouse forebrain is associated with improved cardiac function and survival following myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Timothy E; Infanger, David W; Rishniw, Mark; Zhou, Yi; Doobay, Marc F; Sharma, Ram V; Davisson, Robin L

    2009-01-01

    Dysregulation in central nervous system (CNS) signaling that results in chronic sympathetic hyperactivity is now recognized to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF) following myocardial infarction (MI). We recently demonstrated that adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase (Ad-Cu/ZnSOD) to forebrain circumventricular organs, unique sensory structures that lack a blood-brain barrier and link peripheral blood-borne signals to central nervous system cardiovascular circuits, inhibits both the MI-induced activation of these central signaling pathways and the accompanying sympathoexcitation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this forebrain-targeted reduction in oxidative stress translates into amelioration of the post-MI decline in myocardial function and increase in mortality. Adult C57BL/6 mice underwent left coronary artery ligation or sham surgery along with forebrain-targeted gene transfer of Ad-Cu/ZnSOD or a control vector. The results demonstrate marked MI-induced increases in superoxide radical formation in one of these forebrain regions, the subfornical organ (SFO). Ad-Cu/ZnSOD targeted to this region abolished the increased superoxide levels and led to significantly improved myocardial function compared with control vector-treated mice. This was accompanied by diminished levels of cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the Ad-Cu/ZnSOD but not the control vector-treated group. These effects of superoxide scavenging with Ad-Cu/ZnSOD in the forebrain paralleled increased post-MI survival rates compared with controls. This suggests that oxidative stress in the SFO plays a critical role in the deterioration of cardiac function following MI and underscores the promise of CNS-targeted antioxidant therapy for the treatment of MI-induced HF.

  18. The patient education - Learning and Coping Strategies - improves adherence in cardiac rehabilitation (LC-REHAB): A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynggaard, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Taylor, Rod S; May, Ole

    2017-06-01

    Despite proven benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), adherence to CR remains suboptimal. This trial aimed to assess the impact of the patient education 'Learning and Coping Strategies' (LC) on patient adherence to an eight-week CR program. 825 patients with ischaemic heart disease or heart failure were open label randomised to either the LC arm (LC plus CR) or the control arm (CR alone) across three hospital units in Denmark. Both arms received same amount of training and education hours. LC consisted of individual clarifying interviews, participation of experienced patients as co-educators, situational, reflective and inductive teaching. The control arm received structured deductive teaching. The primary outcomes were patient adherence to at least 75% of the exercise training or education sessions. We tested for subgroup effects on the primary outcomes using interaction terms. The primary outcomes were compared across arms using logistic regression. More patients in the LC arm adhered to at least 75% of the exercise training sessions than control (80% versus 73%, adjusted odds ratio (OR):1.48; 95% CI:1.07 to 2.05, P=0.018) and 75% of education sessions (79% versus 70%, adjusted OR:1.61, 1.17 to 2.22, P=0.003). Some evidence of larger effects of LC on adherence was seen for patients with heart failure, low education and household income. Addition of LC strategies improved adherence in rehabilitation both in terms of exercise training and education. Patients with heart failure, low levels of education and household income appear to benefit most from this adherence promoting intervention. www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01668394. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Methotrexate associated to lipid core nanoparticles improves cardiac allograft vasculopathy and the inflammatory profile in a rabbit heart graft model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Fiorelli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coronary allograft vasculopathy is an inflammatory-proliferative process that compromises the long-term success of heart transplantation and has no effective treatment. A lipid nanoemulsion (LDE can carry chemotherapeutic agents in the circulation and concentrates them in the heart graft. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of methotrexate (MTX associated to LDE. Rabbits fed a 0.5% cholesterol diet and submitted to heterotopic heart transplantation were treated with cyclosporine A (10 mg·kg–1·day–1 orally and allocated to treatment with intravenous LDE-MTX (4 mg/kg, weekly, n=10 or with weekly intravenous saline solution (control group, n=10, beginning on the day of surgery. Animals were euthanized 6 weeks later. Compared to controls, grafts of LDE-MTX treated rabbits showed 20% reduction of coronary stenosis, with a four-fold increase in vessel lumen and 80% reduction of macrophage staining in grafts. Necrosis was attenuated by LDE-MTX. Native hearts of both LDE-MTX and Control groups were apparently normal. Gene expression of lipoprotein receptors was significantly greater in grafts compared to native hearts. In LDE-MTX group, gene expression of the pro-inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-18, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and matrix metalloproteinase-12 was strongly diminished whereas expression of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 increased. LDE-MTX promoted improvement of the cardiac allograft vasculopathy and diminished inflammation in heart grafts.

  20. Can a Home-based Cardiac Physical Activity Program Improve the Physical Function Quality of Life in Children with Fontan Circulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Roni M; Ginde, Salil; Mussatto, Kathleen; Neubauer, Jennifer; Earing, Michael; Danduran, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Patients after Fontan operation for complex congenital heart disease (CHD) have decreased exercise capacity and report reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Studies suggest hospital-based cardiac physical activity programs can improve HRQOL and exercise capacity in patients with CHD; however, these programs have variable adherence rates. The impact of a home-based cardiac physical activity program in Fontan survivors is unclear. This pilot study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and benefits of an innovative home-based physical activity program on HRQOL in Fontan patients. A total of 14 children, 8-12 years, with Fontan circulation enrolled in a 12-week moderate/high intensity home-based cardiac physical activity program, which included a home exercise routine and 3 formalized in-person exercise sessions at 0, 6, and 12 weeks. Subjects and parents completed validated questionnaires to assess HRQOL. The Shuttle Test Run was used to measure exercise capacity. A Fitbit Flex Activity Monitor was used to assess adherence to the home activity program. Of the 14 patients, 57% were male and 36% had a dominant left ventricle. Overall, 93% completed the program. There were no adverse events. Parents reported significant improvement in their child's overall HRQOL (P home-based cardiac physical activity program is safe and feasible in preteen Fontan patients. Parent proxy-reported HRQOL and objective measures of exercise capacity significantly improved. A 6-month follow up session is scheduled to assess sustainability. A larger study is needed to determine the applicability and reproducibility of these findings in other age groups and forms of complex CHD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. SR-targeted CaMKII inhibition improves SR Ca2+ handling, but accelerates cardiac remodeling in mice overexpressing CaMKIIδC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huke, Sabine; DeSantiago, Jaime; Kaetzel, Marcia A.; Mishra, Shikha; Brown, Joan H.; Dedman, John R.; Bers, Donald M.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac myocyte overexpression of CaMKIIδC leads to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF) possibly caused by altered myocyte Ca2+ handling. A central defect might be the marked CaMKII-induced increase in diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak which decreases SR Ca2+ load and Ca2+ transient amplitude. We hypothesized that inhibition of CaMKII near the SR membrane would decrease the leak, improve Ca2+ handling and prevent the development of contractile dysfunction and HF. To test this hypothesis we crossbred CaMKIIδC overexpressing mice (CaMK) with mice expressing the CaMKII-inhibitor AIP targeted to the SR via a modified phospholamban (PLB)-transmembrane-domain (SR-AIP). There was a selective decrease in the amount of activated CaMKII in the microsomal (SR/membrane) fraction prepared from these double-transgenic mice (CaMK/SR-AIP) mice. In ventricular cardiomyocytes from CaMK/SR-AIP mice, SR Ca2+ leak, assessed both as diastolic Ca2+ shift into SR upon tetracaine in intact myocytes or integrated Ca2+ spark release in permeabilized myocytes, was significantly reduced. The reduced leak was accompanied by enhanced SR Ca2+ load and twitch amplitude in double-transgenic mice (vs. CaMK), without changes in SERCA expression or NCX function. However, despite the improved myocyte Ca2+ handling, cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling was accelerated in CaMK/SR-AIP and cardiac function worsened. We conclude that while inhibition of SR localized CaMKII in CaMK mice improves Ca2+ handling, it does not necessarily rescue the HF phenotype. This implies that a non-SR CaMKIIδC exerts SR-independent effects that contribute to hypertrophy and HF, and this CaMKII pathway may be exacerbated by the global enhancement of Ca transients. PMID:20971119

  2. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in

    2012-01-15

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  3. Role of wearable and automatic external defibrillators in improving survival in patients at risk for sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byron K; Olgin, Jeffery E

    2009-10-01

    Cardiac arrest is a vexing public health problem. Fortunately, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have been proven to decrease overall mortality in several populations at high risk for cardiac arrest. However, it is still unclear how to treat patients who have an elevated risk of cardiac arrest but are not in one of the identified high-risk groups proven to benefit from an ICD. It also is uncertain how to manage high-risk patients who have an accepted indication for an ICD but are unable or unwilling to have an ICD. In these clinical situations, the wearable defibrillator and automatic external defibrillator are options that should be considered. Both devices have been shown in small series to be highly effective at restoring sinus rhythm in patients with a ventricular tachyarrhythmia. However, there is still a lack of large-scale trials proving that these devices should be employed routinely in specific high-risk patient populations.

  4. A knowledge translation collaborative to improve the use of therapeutic hypothermia in post-cardiac arrest patients: protocol for a stepped wedge randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wax Randy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in resuscitation science have dramatically improved survival rates following cardiac arrest. However, about 60% of adults that regain spontaneous circulation die before leaving the hospital. Recently it has been shown that inducing hypothermia in cardiac arrest survivors immediately following their arrival in hospital can dramatically improve both overall survival and neurological outcomes. Despite the strong evidence for its efficacy and the apparent simplicity of this intervention, recent surveys show that therapeutic hypothermia is delivered inconsistently, incompletely, and often with delay. Methods and design This study will evaluate a multi-faceted knowledge translation strategy designed to increase the utilization rate of induced hypothermia in survivors of cardiac arrest across a network of 37 hospitals in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. The study is designed as a stepped wedge randomized trial lasting two years. Individual hospitals will be randomly assigned to four different wedges that will receive the active knowledge translation strategy according to a sequential rollout over a number of time periods. By the end of the study, all hospitals will have received the intervention. The primary aim is to measure the effectiveness of a multifaceted knowledge translation plan involving education, reminders, and audit-feedback for improving the use of induced hypothermia in survivors of cardiac arrest presenting to the emergency department. The primary outcome is the proportion of eligible OHCA patients that are cooled to a body temperature of 32 to 34°C within six hours of arrival in the hospital. Secondary outcomes will include process of care measures and clinical outcomes. Discussion Inducing hypothermia in cardiac arrest survivors immediately following their arrival to hospital has been shown to dramatically improve both overall survival and neurological outcomes. However, this lifesaving treatment is

  5. Improved metabolism and redox state with a novel preservation solution: Implications for donor lungs after cardiac death (DCD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Schipper (David A.); Louis, A.V. (Anthony V.); Dicken, D.S. (Destiny S.); Johnson, K. (Kitsie); R.T. Smolenski (Ryszard); Black, S.M. (Stephen M.); Runyan, R. (Ray); Konhilas, J. (John); Garcia, J.G.N. (Joe G. N.); Z. Khalpey (Zain)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLungs donated after cardiac death (DCD) are an underutilized resource for a dwindling donor lung transplant pool. Our study investigates the potential of a novel preservation solution, Somah, to better preserve statically stored DCD lungs, for an extended time period, when compared to

  6. Dietary salt restriction improves cardiac and adipose tissue pathology independently of obesity in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Takuya; Murase, Tamayo; Takatsu, Miwa; Nagasawa, Kai; Matsuura, Natsumi; Watanabe, Shogo; Murohara, Toyoaki; Nagata, Kohzo

    2014-12-02

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) enhances salt sensitivity of blood pressure and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The effects of dietary salt restriction on cardiac pathology associated with metabolic syndrome remain unclear. We investigated whether dietary salt restriction might ameliorate cardiac injury in DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, which are derived from a cross between Dahl salt-sensitive and Zucker rats and represent a model of metabolic syndrome. DS/obese rats were fed a normal-salt (0.36% NaCl in chow) or low-salt (0.0466% NaCl in chow) diet from 9 weeks of age and were compared with similarly treated homozygous lean littermates (DahlS.Z-Lepr(+)/Lepr(+), or DS/lean rats). DS/obese rats fed the normal-salt diet progressively developed hypertension and showed left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction at 15 weeks. Dietary salt restriction attenuated all of these changes in DS/obese rats. The levels of cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation and the expression of cardiac renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system genes were increased in DS/obese rats fed the normal-salt diet, and dietary salt restriction downregulated these parameters in both DS/obese and DS/lean rats. In addition, dietary salt restriction attenuated the increase in visceral adipose tissue inflammation and the decrease in insulin signaling apparent in DS/obese rats without reducing body weight or visceral adipocyte size. Dietary salt restriction did not alter fasting serum glucose levels but it markedly decreased the fasting serum insulin concentration in DS/obese rats. Dietary salt restriction not only prevents hypertension and cardiac injury but also ameliorates insulin resistance, without reducing obesity, in this model of metabolic syndrome. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  7. Improved quality of life after treatment of prolonged asystole during breath holding spells with a cardiac pacemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolterer, Bruno; Gebauer, Roman Antonin; Janousek, Jan; Dähnert, Ingo; Riede, Frank Thomas; Paech, Christian

    2015-01-01

    To validate the physical and psychological effectiveness of cardiac pacing in pediatric patients with breath-holding spells (BHS) and prolonged asystole. The records and clinical data of all the patients with BHS who presented to our center in the period of 2001-2013 were reviewed. All patients who received cardiac pacemaker implantation for prolonged asystole during BHS were included. In addition, the parents were asked to fill out a standardized quality of life (QOL) questionnaire. Seven patients were identified. The mean onset of symptoms was 7 month (1-12 months) of age, documented asystole was 12-21 seconds, and a permanent cardiac pacemaker device was implanted at a mean age of 23 months (8 months-3.9 years). No pacemaker related adverse events were recorded. Follow up showed immediate resolution from spells in four cases (4/7). Two patients (2/7) showed significant reduction of frequency and severity of spells, with complete elimination of loss of consciousness (LOC). One patient (1/7) with an additional neurologic disorder continued to have minor pallid BHS and eventually switched from pallid to cyanotic spells without further detection of bradycardia or asystole in holter examination. QOL questionnaire revealed significant reduction in subjective stress levels of patients (P = 0.012) and parents (P = 0.007) after pacemaker implantation. Cardiac pacing using appropriate pacemaker settings seems effective in the prevention of LOC and reduction of the frequency of BHS. Our results imply a reduction of subjective stress levels of patients and parents as well as an increased quality of everyday life. After all, randomized controlled trials of the influence of cardiac pacemaker implantation on subjective stress levels in patients with BHS are needed.

  8. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 improves the negative functional effects of natriuretic peptide and nitric oxide signaling in hypertrophic cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tao; Scholz, Peter M; Weiss, Harvey R

    2010-07-03

    Both natriuretic peptides and nitric oxide may be protective in cardiac hypertrophy, although their functional effects are diminished in hypertrophy. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) may also protect in cardiac hypertrophy. We hypothesized that upregulation of HIF-1 would protect the functional effects of cyclic GMP (cGMP) signaling in hypertrophied ventricular myocytes. A cardiac hypertrophy model was created in mice by transverse aorta constriction. HIF-1 was increased by deferoxamine (150 mg/kg for 2 days). HIF-1alpha protein levels were examined. Functional parameters were measured (edge detector) on freshly isolated myocytes at baseline and after BNP (brain natriuretic peptide, 10(-8)-10(-7)M) or CNP (C-type natriuretic peptide, 10(-8)-10(-7)M) or SNAP (S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine, a nitric oxide donor, 10(-6)-10(-5)M) followed by KT5823 (a cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor, 10(-6)M). We also determined PKG expression levels and kinase activity. We found that under control conditions, BNP (-24%), CNP (-22%) and SNAP (-23%) reduced myocyte shortening, while KT5823 partially restored function. Deferoxamine treated control myocytes responded similarly. Baseline function was reduced in the myocytes from hypertrophied heart. BNP, CNP, SNAP and KT5823 also had no significant effects on function in these myocytes. Deferoxamine restored the negative functional effects of BNP (-22%), CNP (-18%) and SNAP (-19%) in hypertrophic cardiac myocytes and KT5823 partially reversed this effect. Additionally, deferoxamine maintained PKG expression levels and activity in hypertrophied heart. Our results indicated that the HIF-1 protected the functional effects of cGMP signaling in cardiac hypertrophy through preservation of PKG. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved quality of life after treatment of prolonged asystole during breath holding spells with a cardiac pacemaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolterer, Bruno; Gebauer, Roman Antonin; Janousek, Jan; Dähnert, Ingo; Riede, Frank Thomas; Paech, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To validate the physical and psychological effectiveness of cardiac pacing in pediatric patients with breath-holding spells (BHS) and prolonged asystole. Materials and Methods: The records and clinical data of all the patients with BHS who presented to our center in the period of 2001–2013 were reviewed. All patients who received cardiac pacemaker implantation for prolonged asystole during BHS were included. In addition, the parents were asked to fill out a standardized quality of life (QOL) questionnaire. Results: Seven patients were identified. The mean onset of symptoms was 7 month (1–12 months) of age, documented asystole was 12–21 seconds, and a permanent cardiac pacemaker device was implanted at a mean age of 23 months (8 months–3.9 years). No pacemaker related adverse events were recorded. Follow up showed immediate resolution from spells in four cases (4/7). Two patients (2/7) showed significant reduction of frequency and severity of spells, with complete elimination of loss of consciousness (LOC). One patient (1/7) with an additional neurologic disorder continued to have minor pallid BHS and eventually switched from pallid to cyanotic spells without further detection of bradycardia or asystole in holter examination. QOL questionnaire revealed significant reduction in subjective stress levels of patients (P = 0.012) and parents (P = 0.007) after pacemaker implantation. Conclusion: Cardiac pacing using appropriate pacemaker settings seems effective in the prevention of LOC and reduction of the frequency of BHS. Our results imply a reduction of subjective stress levels of patients and parents as well as an increased quality of everyday life. After all, randomized controlled trials of the influence of cardiac pacemaker implantation on subjective stress levels in patients with BHS are needed. PMID:26085761

  10. Sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Parakh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is one of the most common cause of mortality worldwide. Despite significant advances in the medical science, there is little improvement in the sudden cardiac death related mortality. Coronary artery disease is the most common etiology behind sudden cardiac death, in the above 40 years population. Even in the apparently healthy population, there is a small percentage of patients dying from sudden cardiac death. Given the large denominator, this small percentage contributes to the largest burden of sudden cardiac death. Identification of this at risk group among the apparently healthy individual is a great challenge for the medical fraternity. This article looks into the causes and methods of preventing SCD and at some of the Indian data. Details of Brugada syndrome, Long QT syndrome, Genetics of SCD are discussed. Recent guidelines on many of these causes are summarised.

  11. Silencing Nox4 in the Paraventricular Nucleus Improves Myocardial Infarction-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction by Attenuating Sympathoexcitation and Peri-infarct Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infanger, David W.; Cao, Xian; Butler, Scott D.; Burmeister, Melissa A.; Zhou, Yi; Stupinski, John A.; Sharma, Ram V.; Davisson, Robin L.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Myocardial infarction (MI)-induced heart failure (HF) is characterized by central nervous system (CNS)-driven sympathoexcitation and deteriorating cardiac function. The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is a key regulator of sympathetic nerve activity and is implicated in HF. Redox signaling in the PVN and other CNS sites is a primary mechanism of neuro-cardiovascular regulation, and excessive oxidant production by activation of NADPH oxidases (Nox) is implicated in some neuro-cardiovascular diseases. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that Nox-mediated redox signaling in the PVN contributes to MI-induced sympathoexcitation and cardiac dysfunction in mice. Methods and Results: Real-time PCR revealed that Nox4 was the most abundantly expressed Nox in PVN under basal conditions. Coronary arterial ligation (MI) caused a selective upregulation of this homologue compared to Nox1 and Nox2. Adenoviral gene transfer of Nox4 siRNA (AdsiNox4) to PVN (bilateral) attenuated MI-induced superoxide formation in this brain region (day 14) to the same level as that produced by PVN-targeted gene transfer of cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase (AdCu/ZnSOD). MI mice treated with AdsiNox4 or AdCu/ZnSOD in the PVN showed marked improvement in cardiac function as assessed by echocardiography and left ventricular hemodynamic analysis. This was accompanied by significantly diminished sympathetic outflow and apoptosis in the peri-infarct region of the heart. Conclusions: These results suggest that MI causes dysregulation of Nox4-mediated redox signaling in the PVN, which leads to sympathetic overactivation and a decline in cardiac function. Targeted inhibition of oxidant signaling in the PVN could provide a novel treatment for MI-induced HF. PMID:20413786

  12. Improving ultrasonic measurement of diaphragmatic excursion after cardiac surgery using the anatomical M-mode: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasero, Daniela; Koeltz, Adrien; Placido, Rui; Fontes Lima, Mariana; Haun, Olivia; Rienzo, Mario; Marrache, David; Pirracchio, Romain; Safran, Denis; Cholley, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Motion-mode (MM) echography allows precise measurement of diaphragmatic excursion when the ultrasound beam is parallel to the diaphragmatic displacement. However, proper alignment is difficult to obtain in patients after cardiac surgery; thus, measurements might be inaccurate. A new imaging modality named the anatomical motion-mode (AMM) allows free placement of the cursor through the numerical image reconstruction and perfect alignment with the diaphragmatic motion. Our goal was to compare MM and AMM measurements of diaphragmatic excursion in cardiac surgical patients. Cardiac surgical patients were studied after extubation. The excursions of the right and left hemidiaphragms were measured by two operators, an expert and a trainee, using MM and AMM successively, according to a blinded, randomized, crossover sequence. Values were averaged over three consecutive respiratory cycles. The angle between the MM and AMM cursors was quantified for each measurement. Fifty patients were studied. The mean (±SD) angle between the MM and AMM cursors was 37° ± 16°. The diaphragmatic excursion as measured by experts was 1.8 ± 0.7 cm using MM and 1.5 ± 0.5 cm using AMM (p AMM in 75 % of the measurements. Bland-Altman analysis showed tighter limits of agreement between experts and trainees with AMM [bias: 0.0 cm; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.8 cm] than with MM (bias: 0.0 cm; 95 % CI: 1.4 cm). MM overestimates diaphragmatic excursion in comparison to AMM in cardiac surgical patients. Using MM may lead to a lack of recognition of diaphragmatic dysfunction.

  13. Intramyocardial implantation of differentiated rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells enhanced by TGF-β1 improves cardiac function in heart failure rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Y. [Department of Histology and Embryology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China); Liu, B. [Department of Pathology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei (China); Wang, H.P. [Department of Histology and Embryology, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei (China); Zhang, L. [Department of Histology and Embryology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2016-05-31

    The present study tested the hypotheses that i) transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) enhances differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) towards the cardiomyogenic phenotype and ii) intramyocardial implantation of the TGF-β1-treated MSCs improves cardiac function in heart failure rats. MSCs were treated with different concentrations of TGF-β1 for 72 h, and then morphological characteristics, surface antigens and mRNA expression of several transcription factors were assessed. Intramyocardial implantation of these TGF-β1-treated MSCs to infarcted heart was also investigated. MSCs were initially spindle-shaped with irregular processes. On day 28 after TGF-β1 treatment, MSCs showed fusiform shape, orientating parallel with one another, and were connected with adjoining cells forming myotube-like structures. Immunofluorescence revealed the expression of cardiomyocyte-specific proteins, α-sarcomeric actin and troponin T, in these cells. The mRNA expression of GATA4 and Nkx2.5 genes was slightly increased on day 7, enhanced on day 14 and decreased on day 28 while α-MHC gene was not expressed on day 7, but expressed slightly on day 14 and enhanced on day 28. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the induced cells had myofilaments, z line-like substances, desmosomes, and gap junctions, in contrast with control cells. Furthermore, intramyocardial implantation of TGF-β1-treated MSCs to infarcted heart reduced scar area and increased the number of muscle cells. This structure regeneration was concomitant with the improvement of cardiac function, evidenced by decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, increased left ventricular systolic pressure and increased maximal positive pressure development rate. Taken together, these results indicate that intramyocardial implantation of differentiated MSCs enhanced by TGF-β1 improved cardiac function in heart failure rats.

  14. Transplantation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells improves cardiac contractile function and electrical stability in a rat myocardial infarction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Milan; Fujita, Daiki; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Ichikawa, Hinako; Izawa, Atsushi; Hirose, Masamichi; Kashihara, Toshihide; Yamada, Mitsuhiko; Takahashi, Masafumi; Ikeda, Uichi; Shiba, Yuji

    2015-04-01

    The transplantation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) improves cardiac contractility after myocardial infarction (MI); however, little is known about the electrophysiological consequences of transplantation. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether the transplantation of ADSCs increases or decreases the incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT) in a rat model of MI. MI was induced experimentally by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending artery of Lewis rats. ADSCs were harvested from GFP-transgenic rats, and were cultured until passage four. ADSCs (10×10(6)) resuspended in 100μL saline or pro-survival cocktail (PSC), which enhances cardiac graft survival, were injected directly into syngeneic rat hearts 1week after MI. The recipients of ADSCs suspended in PSC had a larger graft area compared with those receiving ASDCs suspended in saline at 1week post-transplantation (number of graft cells/section: 148.7±10.6 vs. 22.4±3.4, ptransplanted with ASDCs in PSC. ADSCs were transplanted into infarcted hearts, and the mechanical and electrophysiological functions were assessed. Echocardiography revealed that ADSC recipients had improved contractile function compared with those receiving PSC vehicle (fractional shortening: 21.1±0.9 vs. 14.1±1.2, ptransplantation, VT was induced via in vivo programmed electrical stimulation. The recipients of ADSCs showed a significantly lower incidence of induced VT compared with the control (31.3% vs. 83.3%, ptransplantation, we performed ex vivo optical mapping using a voltage sensitive dye, and found that ADSC transplantation decreased conduction velocity and its dispersion in the peri-infarct area. These results suggest that ADSC transplantation improved cardiac mechanical and electrophysiological functions in subacute MI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined administration of mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing IGF-1 and HGF enhances neovascularization but moderately improves cardiac regeneration in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Mauricio, Guadalupe; Moscoso, Isabel; Martín-Cancho, María-Fernanda; Crisóstomo, Verónica; Prat-Vidal, Cristina; Báez-Díaz, Claudia; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Bernad, Antonio

    2016-07-16

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are among the most promising growth factors for promoting cardiorepair. Here, we evaluated the combination of cell- and gene-based therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) genetically modified to overexpress IGF-1 or HGF to treat acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a porcine model. Pig MSC from adipose tissue (paMSC) were genetically modified for evaluation of different therapeutic strategies to improve AMI treatment. Three groups of infarcted Large White pigs were compared (I, control, non-transplanted; II, transplanted with paMSC-GFP (green fluorescent protein); III, transplanted with paMSC-IGF-1/HGF). Cardiac function was evaluated non-invasively using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for 1 month. After euthanasia and sampling of the animal, infarcted areas were studied by histology and immunohistochemistry. Intramyocardial transplant in a porcine infarct model demonstrated the safety of paMSC in short-term treatments. Treatment with paMSC-IGF-1/HGF (1:1) compared with the other groups showed a clear reduction in inflammation in some sections analyzed and promoted angiogenic processes in ischemic tissue. Although cardiac function parameters were not significantly improved, cell retention and IGF-1 overexpression was confirmed within the myocardium. The simultaneous administration of IGF-1- and HGF-overexpressing paMSC appears not to promote a synergistic effect or effective repair. The combined enhancement of neovascularization and fibrosis in paMSC-IGF-1/HGF-treated animals nonetheless suggests that sustained exposure to high IGF-1 + HGF levels promotes beneficial as well as deleterious effects that do not improve overall cardiac regeneration.

  16. Haemodynamics and oxygenation improvement induced by high frequency percussive ventilation in a patient with hypoxia following cardiac surgery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persi Bruno

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction High frequency percussive ventilation is a ventilatory technique that delivers small bursts of high flow respiratory gas into the lungs at high rates. It is classified as a pneumatically powered, pressure-regulated, time-cycled, high-frequency flow interrupter modality of ventilation. High frequency percussive ventilation improves the arterial partial pressure of oxygen with the same positive end expiratory pressure and fractional inspiratory oxygen level as conventional ventilation using a minor mean airway pressure in an open circuit. It reduces the barotraumatic events in a hypoxic patient who has low lung-compliance. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no papers published about this ventilation modality in patients with severe hypoxaemia after cardiac surgery. Case presentation A 75-year-old Caucasian man with an ejection fraction of 27 percent, developed a lung infection with severe hypoxaemia [partial pressure of oxygen/fractional inspiratory oxygen of 90] ten days after cardiac surgery. Conventional ventilation did not improve the gas exchange. He was treated with high frequency percussive ventilation for 12 hours with a low conventional respiratory rate (five per minute. His cardiac output and systemic and pulmonary pressures were monitored. Compared to conventional ventilation, high frequency percussive ventilation gives an improvement of the partial pressure of oxygen from 90 to 190 mmHg with the same fractional inspiratory oxygen and positive end expiratory pressure level. His right ventricular stroke work index was lowered from 19 to seven g-m/m2/beat; his pulmonary vascular resistance index from 267 to 190 dynes•seconds/cm5/m2; left ventricular stroke work index from 28 to 16 gm-m/m2/beat; and his pulmonary arterial wedge pressure was lowered from 32 to 24 mmHg with a lower mean airway pressure compared to conventional ventilation. His cardiac index (2.7 L/min/m2 and ejection fraction (27 percent

  17. Adding the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator to cardiac resynchronization therapy is associated with improved long-term survival in ischaemic, but not in non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, Christoffer Tobias; Kronborg, Mads Brix; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves symptoms, left ventricular function, and survival in patients with heart failure (HF) and wide QRS. The benefit of adding implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) backup is debated. We analysed the long-term outcome of patients with HF due...... to ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) or non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) treated with a CRT device with or without defibrillator backup. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this observational study, consecutive patients with an ejection fraction ≤35% and QRS width ≥120 ms receiving a CRT device at Aarhus University...

  18. Early Coronary Reperfusion Facilitates Return of Spontaneous Circulation and Improves Cardiovascular Outcomes After Ischemic Cardiac Arrest and Extracorporeal Resuscitation in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutin, Alice; Lamhaut, Lionel; Lidouren, Fanny; Kohlhauer, Matthias; Mongardon, Nicolas; Carli, Pierre; Berdeaux, Alain; Ghaleh, Bijan; Tissier, Renaud

    2016-12-22

    Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is widely proposed for the treatment of refractory cardiac arrest. It should be associated with coronary angiography if coronary artery disease is suspected. However, the prioritization of care remains unclear in this situation. Our goal was to determine whether coronary reperfusion should be instituted as soon as possible in such situations in a pig model. Anesthetized pigs were instrumented and submitted to coronary artery occlusion and ventricular fibrillation. After 5 minutes of untreated cardiac arrest, conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was started. Fifteen minutes later, ECPR was initiated for a total duration of 240 minutes. Animals randomly underwent either early or late coronary reperfusion at 20 or 120 minutes of ECPR, respectively. This timing was adapted to the kinetic of infarct extension in pigs. Return of spontaneous circulation was determined as organized electrocardiogram rhythm with systolic arterial pressure above 80 mm Hg. During conventional CPR, hemodynamic parameters were not different between groups. Carotid blood flow then increased by 70% after the onset of ECPR in both groups. No animal (0 of 7) elicited return of spontaneous circulation after late reperfusion versus 4 of 7 after early reperfusion (P=0.025). The hemodynamic parameters, such as carotid blood flow, were also improved in early versus late reperfusion groups (113±20 vs 43±17 mL/min after 240 minutes of ECPR, respectively; P=0.030), along with infarct size decrease (71±4% vs 84±2% of the risk zone, respectively; P=0.013). Early reperfusion improved hemodynamic status and facilitated return of spontaneous circulation in a porcine model of ischemic cardiac arrest treated by ECPR. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  19. Efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction underlies stroke work improvement in the acute response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuxuan; Gurev, Viatcheslav; Constantino, Jason; Trayanova, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Background The acute response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to be due to three mechanisms: resynchronization of ventricular contraction, efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction, and mitral regurgitation reduction. However, the contribution of each of the three mechanisms to the acute response of CRT, specifically stroke work improvement, has not been quantified. Objective The goal of this study was to use an MRI-based anatomically accurate 3D model of failing canine ventricular electromechanics to quantify the contribution of each of the three mechanisms to stroke work improvement and identify the predominant mechanisms. Methods An MRI-based electromechanical model of the failing canine ventricles assembled previously by our group was further developed and modified. Three different protocols were used to dissect the contribution of each of the three mechanisms to stroke work improvement. Results Resynchronization of ventricular contraction did not lead to significant stroke work improvement. Efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction was the predominant mechanism underlying stroke work improvement. Stroke work improvement peaked at an intermediate AV delay, as it allowed ventricular filling by atrial contraction to occur at a low diastolic LV pressure but also provided adequate time for ventricular filling before ventricular contraction. Diminution of mitral regurgitation by CRT led to stroke work worsening instead of improvement. Conclusion Efficient preloading of the ventricles by a properly timed atrial contraction is responsible for significant stroke work improvement in the acute CRT response. PMID:23928177

  20. Central exogenous nitric oxide decreases cardiac sympathetic drive and improves baroreflex control of heart rate in ovine heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandra, Rohit; Hood, Sally G; May, Clive N

    2014-08-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with increased cardiac and renal sympathetic drive, which are both independent predictors of poor prognosis. A candidate mechanism for the centrally mediated sympathoexcitation in HF is reduced synthesis of the inhibitory neuromodulator nitric oxide (NO), resulting from downregulation of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS). Therefore, we investigated the effects of increasing the levels of NO in the brain, or selectively in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) and baroreflex control of CSNA and heart rate in ovine pacing-induced HF. The resting level of CSNA was significantly higher in the HF than in the normal group, but the resting level of RSNA was unchanged. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 500 μg · ml(-1)· h(-1)) in conscious normal sheep and sheep in HF inhibited CSNA and restored baroreflex control of heart rate, but there was no change in RSNA. Microinjection of SNP into the PVN did not cause a similar cardiac sympathoinhibition in either group, although the number of nNOS-positive cells was decreased in the PVN of sheep in HF. Reduction of endogenous NO with intracerebroventricular infusion of N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester decreased CSNA in normal but not in HF sheep and caused no change in RSNA in either group. These findings indicate that endogenous NO in the brain provides tonic excitatory drive to increase resting CSNA in the normal state, but not in HF. In contrast, exogenously administered NO inhibited CSNA in both the normal and HF groups via an action on sites other than the PVN. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Why did high-dose rosuvastatin not improve cardiac remodeling in chronic heart failure? Mechanistic insights from the UNIVERSE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Emma; Windebank, Emma; Skiba, Marina; Reid, Christopher; Schneider, Hans; Rosenfeldt, Franklin; Tonkin, Andrew; Krum, Henry

    2011-02-03

    Statins are often prescribed for prevention of atherosclerotic outcomes in patients who have chronic heart failure (CHF), if this has an ischaemic etiology. These agents may also possess additional properties, independent of effects on blood lipid levels, which may have an effect on cardiac remodeling. However, beneficial effects were not observed in the recent UNIVERSE trial. We prospectively planned a sub-study of UNIVERSE to explore relevant mechanistic effects of rosuvastatin, including effects on collagen turnover and plasma coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) levels. Additionally, CoQ levels in CHF patients receiving chronic statin therapy were measured. CoQ levels were significantly reduced after 26 weeks of rosuvastatin statin therapy (n = 32), compared to placebo (n = 37) in CHF patients in UNIVERSE trial. Patients with CHF (n = 56) matched for age, gender and severity of disease who had been taking statins for 12 months or longer had CoQ levels of 847 ± 344 nmol/L, significantly lower than 1065.4 ± 394 nmol/L in UNIVERSE patients at baseline (p = 0.0001). Serum types I and III N-terminal procollagen peptide (PINP and PIIINP), measures of collagen turnover which can contribute to cardiac fibrosis were significantly increased in the rosuvastatin group compared to baseline in UNIVERSE patients (PINP: p = 0.03, PIIINP: p = 0.001). In conclusion putative beneficial effects of statin therapy on cardiac remodeling in UNIVERSE may have been negated by increases in collagen turnover markers as well as a reduction in plasma CoQ levels in these patients with CHF. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impedance Threshold Device Combined With High-Quality Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Improves Survival With Favorable Neurological Function After Witnessed Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Atsushi; Duval, Sue; Nakamura, Yuji; Yoshihara, Katsunori; Yannopoulos, Demetris

    2016-09-23

    The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been recently shown to affect clinical outcome. The Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) Prehospital Resuscitation Impedance Valve and Early Versus Delayed Analysis (PRIMED) trial showed no differences in outcomes with an active vs. sham impedance threshold device (ITD), a CPR adjunct that enhances circulation. It was hypothesized the active ITD would improve survival with favorable neurological outcomes in witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients when used with high-quality CPR. Using the publicly accessible ROC PRIMED database, a post-hoc analysis was performed on all witnessed subjects with both compression rate and depth data (n=1,808) who received CPR within the study protocol definition of adequate CPR quality (compression rate 80-120/min and depth 4-6 cm; n=929). Demographics were similar between sham and active ITD groups. In witnessed subjects who received quality CPR, survival with favorable neurological function was 11.9% for the active ITD subjects (56/470) vs. 7.4% for the sham (34/459) (odds ratio 1.69 [95% confidence interval 1.08, 2.64]). There were no statistically significant differences for this primary outcome when CPR was performed outside the boundaries of the definition of adequate CPR quality. Multivariable models did not change these associations. An active ITD combined with adequate-quality conventional CPR has the potential to significantly improve survival after witnessed cardiac arrest. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2124-2132).

  3. Catheter-based Intramyocardial Injection of FGF1 or NRG1-loaded MPs Improves Cardiac Function in a Preclinical Model of Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbayo, Elisa; Gavira, Juan José; de Yebenes, Manuel Garcia; Pelacho, Beatriz; Abizanda, Gloria; Lana, Hugo; Blanco-Prieto, María José; Prosper, Felipe

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular protein therapeutics such as neuregulin (NRG1) and acidic-fibroblast growth factor (FGF1) requires new formulation strategies that allow for sustained bioavailability of the drug in the infarcted myocardium. However, there is no FDA-approved injectable protein delivery platform due to translational concerns about biomaterial administration through cardiac catheters. We therefore sought to evaluate the efficacy of percutaneous intramyocardial injection of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles (MPs) loaded with NRG1 and FGF1 using the NOGA MYOSTAR injection catheter in a porcine model of ischemia-reperfusion. NRG1- and FGF1-loaded MPs were prepared using a multiple emulsion solvent-evaporation technique. Infarcted pigs were treated one week after ischemia-reperfusion with MPs containing NRG1, FGF1 or non-loaded MPs delivered via clinically-translatable percutaneous transendocardial-injection. Three months post-treatment, echocardiography indicated a significant improvement in systolic and diastolic cardiac function. Moreover, improvement in bipolar voltage and decrease in transmural infarct progression was demonstrated by electromechanical NOGA-mapping. Functional benefit was associated with an increase in myocardial vascularization and remodeling. These findings in a large animal model of ischemia-reperfusion demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of using MPs as a delivery system for growth factors and provide strong evidence to move forward with clinical studies using therapeutic proteins combined with catheter-compatible biomaterials.

  4. Traditional Formula, Modern Application: Chinese Medicine Formula Sini Tang Improves Early Ventricular Remodeling and Cardiac Function after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sini Tang (SNT is a traditional Chinese herbal formula consisting of four different herbs: the root of Aconitum carmichaelii, the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, and the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. This study aims to evaluate the improvement of early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function in myocardial infarction (MI rats by SNT. A MI model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Following treatment for 4 weeks, ultrasonic echocardiography was performed. Myocardial histopathological changes were observed using haematoxylin and eosin staining. Collagens (type I and type III, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, and Toll-like receptors (TLR-2 and TLR-4 were measured in plasma, serum, and myocardial tissue. SNT treatment decreased the infarct size, the left ventricular cavity area/heart cavity area ratio, and the left ventricle dimension at end systole and increased the left ventricular ejection fraction. SNT reduced the levels of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in myocardial tissue significantly and decreased the collagens content in serum and in myocardial tissue. SNT could partially reduce the level of TGF-β1 in serum and in myocardial tissue. Our data suggest that the Chinese medicine formula SNT has the potential to improve early ventricular remodeling and cardiac function after MI.

  5. Novel all-extremity high-intensity interval training improves aerobic fitness, cardiac function and insulin resistance in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chueh-Lung; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Kim, Han-Kyul; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Handberg, Eileen M; Petersen, John W; Christou, Demetra D

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with decreased aerobic fitness and cardiac remodeling leading to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the treadmill has been reported to be more effective in ameliorating these risk factors compared with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in patients with cardiometabolic disease. In older adults, however, weight-bearing activities are frequently limited due to musculoskeletal and balance problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of non-weight-bearing all-extremity HIIT in older adults. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that all-extremity HIIT will be more effective in improving aerobic fitness, cardiac function, and metabolic risk factors compared with all-extremity MICT. Fifty-one healthy sedentary older adults (age: 65±1years) were randomized to HIIT (n=17), MICT (n=18) or non-exercise control (CONT; n=16). HIIT (4×4min 90% of peak heart rate; HRpeak) and isocaloric MICT (70% of HRpeak) were performed on a non-weight-bearing all-extremity ergometer, 4×/week for 8weeks under supervision. All-extremity HIIT was feasible in older adults and resulted in no adverse events. Aerobic fitness (peak oxygen consumption; VO2peak) and ejection fraction (echocardiography) improved by 11% (PHIIT, while no changes were observed in MICT and CONT (P≥0.1). Greater improvements in ejection fraction were associated with greater improvements in VO2peak (r=0.57; PHIIT by 26% (P=0.016). Diastolic function, body composition, glucose and lipids were unaffected (P≥0.1). In conclusion, all-extremity HIIT is feasible and safe in older adults. HIIT, but not MICT, improved aerobic fitness, ejection fraction, and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiac progenitor-cell derived exosomes as cell-free therapeutic for cardiac repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, E. A.; Goumans, Marie-Jose; Sluijter, J. P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have emerged as potential therapy to improve cardiac repair and prevent damage in cardiac diseases. CPCs are a promising cell source for cardiac therapy as they can generate all cardiovascular lineages in vitro and in vivo. Originating from the heart itself, CPCs may

  7. Recent developments in cardiac pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, D J

    1995-10-01

    Indications for cardiac pacing continue to expand. Pacing to improve functional capacity, which is now common, relies on careful patient selection and technical improvements, such as complex software algorithms and diagnostic capabilities.

  8. Aliskiren Improves Ischemia- and Oxygen Glucose Deprivation-Induced Cardiac Injury through Activation of Autophagy and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsien Chiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aliskiren is a direct renin inhibitor that has been effective in anti-hypertension. We investigated whether aliskiren could improve the ischemia-induced cardiac injury and whether the autophagy was involved in this effect. A myocardial infarction (MI model was created by the ligation of the left anterior coronary artery in C57J/BL6 mice. They were treated for 1, 3, 7, and 14 days with vehicle or aliskiren (25 mg/kg/day via subcutaneous injection. In vivo, the MI mice exhibited worse cardiac function by echocardiographic assessment and showed larger myocardial scarring by light microscopy, whereas aliskiren treatment reversed these effects, which were also associated with the changes in caspase-3 and Bcl-2 expression as well as in the number of apoptotic cells. Aliskiren increased autophagy, as demonstrated by LC3B-II expression and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, H9c2 cardiomyocytes were employed as an in vitro model to examine the effects of aliskiren on apoptosis and autophagy under oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD-induced injury. Aliskiren significantly increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The beneficial effects of aliskiren were associated with decreased apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential as well as increased autophagy via increased autophagosome formation. We also found that aliskiren-induced cardiomyocyte survival occurred via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK-dependent autophagy. Taken together, these results indicated that aliskiren increased cardiomyocyte survival through increased autophagosomal formation and decreased apoptosis and necrosis via modulating AMPK expression. AMPK-dependent autophagy may represent a novel mechanism for aliskiren in ischemic cardiac disease therapy.

  9. Socially differentiated cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Larsen, Finn Breinholt

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme after myocardial infarction (MI) improves quality of life and results in reduced cardiac mortality and recurrence of MI. Hospitals worldwide face problems with low participation rates in rehabilitation programmes. Inequality...... cardiac rehabilitation programme. Methods: From 1 September 2002 to 31 December 2005, 388 first-incidence MI patients ≤75 years were hospitalised. Register check for newly hospitalised MI patients, screening interview, and systematic referral were conducted by a project nurse. Patients were referred...... to a standard rehabilitation programme (SRP). If patients were identified as socially vulnerable, they were offered an extended version of the rehabilitation programme (ERP). Excluded patients were offered home visits by a cardiac nurse. Concordance principles were used in the individualised programme elements...

  10. Training improves the oxidative phenotype of muscle during the transition from cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure without altering MyoD and myogenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacagnelli, Francis Lopes; Aguiar, Andreo Fernando; Campos, Dijon Henrique S; Castan, Eduardo Paulino; de Souza, Rodrigo Wagner Alves; de Almeida, Fernanda Losi Alves; Carani, Fernanda; Carvalho, Robson Francisco; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Silva, Maeli Dal Pai

    2016-08-01

    significant (P > 0.05) differences in the myogenic regulatory factors MyoD and myogenin (gene and protein) expression between the groups. Therefore, our results indicate that PT may be a suitable strategy to improve the oxidative phenotype in skeletal muscle during the transition from cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure, without altering MyoD and myogenin. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  11. Improved coronary in-stent visualization using a combined high-resolution kernel and a hybrid iterative reconstruction technique at 256-slice cardiac CT-Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Seitaro; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Funama, Yoshinori; Takaoka, Hiroko; Katahira, Kazuhiro; Honda, Keiichi; Noda, Katsuo; Oshima, Shuichi; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of 256-slice cardiac CT for the evaluation of the in-stent lumen by using a hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) algorithm combined with a high-resolution kernel. This study included 28 patients with 28 stents who underwent cardiac CT. Three different reconstruction images were obtained with: (1) a standard filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm with a standard cardiac kernel (CB), (2) an FBP algorithm with a high-resolution cardiac kernel (CD), and (3) an HIR algorithm with the CD kernel. We measured image noise and kurtosis and used receiver operating characteristics analysis to evaluate observer performance in the detection of in-stent stenosis. Image noise with FBP plus the CD kernel (80.2 ± 15.5 HU) was significantly higher than with FBP plus the CB kernel (28.8 ± 4.6 HU) and HIR plus the CD kernel (36.1 ± 6.4 HU). There was no significant difference in the image noise between FBP plus the CB kernel and HIR plus the CD kernel. Kurtosis was significantly better with the CD- than the CB kernel. The kurtosis values obtained with the CD kernel were not significantly different between the FBP- and HIR reconstruction algorithms. The areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves with HIR plus the CD kernel were significantly higher than with FBP plus the CB- or the CD kernel. The difference between FBP plus the CB- or the CD kernel was not significant. The average sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value for the detection of in-stent stenosis were 83.3, 50.0, 33.3, and 91.6% for FBP plus the CB kernel, 100, 29.6, 40.0, and 100% for FBP plus the CD kernel, and 100, 54.5, 40.0, and 100% for HIR plus the CD kernel. The HIR algorithm combined with the high-resolution kernel significantly improved diagnostic performance in the detection of in-stent stenosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Improved coronary in-stent visualization using a combined high-resolution kernel and a hybrid iterative reconstruction technique at 256-slice cardiac CT—Pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Seitaro, E-mail: seisei0430@nifty.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Utsunomiya, Daisuke, E-mail: utsunomi@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Funama, Yoshinori, E-mail: funama@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Takaoka, Hiroko, E-mail: hiroko_takayoka@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1 Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Katahira, Kazuhiro, E-mail: yy26kk@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1 Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Honda, Keiichi, E-mail: k-book@osu.bbiq.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1 Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Noda, Katsuo, E-mail: k-noda@kumachu.gr.jp [Department of Cardiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1 Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Oshima, Shuichi, E-mail: shuoshima@e-mail.jp [Department of Cardiology, Kumamoto Chuo Hospital, 1-5-1 Tainoshima, Kumamoto 862-0965 (Japan); Yamashita, Yasuyuki, E-mail: yama@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Objectives: To investigate the diagnostic performance of 256-slice cardiac CT for the evaluation of the in-stent lumen by using a hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) algorithm combined with a high-resolution kernel. Methods: This study included 28 patients with 28 stents who underwent cardiac CT. Three different reconstruction images were obtained with: (1) a standard filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm with a standard cardiac kernel (CB), (2) an FBP algorithm with a high-resolution cardiac kernel (CD), and (3) an HIR algorithm with the CD kernel. We measured image noise and kurtosis and used receiver operating characteristics analysis to evaluate observer performance in the detection of in-stent stenosis. Results: Image noise with FBP plus the CD kernel (80.2 ± 15.5 HU) was significantly higher than with FBP plus the CB kernel (28.8 ± 4.6 HU) and HIR plus the CD kernel (36.1 ± 6.4 HU). There was no significant difference in the image noise between FBP plus the CB kernel and HIR plus the CD kernel. Kurtosis was significantly better with the CD- than the CB kernel. The kurtosis values obtained with the CD kernel were not significantly different between the FBP- and HIR reconstruction algorithms. The areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves with HIR plus the CD kernel were significantly higher than with FBP plus the CB- or the CD kernel. The difference between FBP plus the CB- or the CD kernel was not significant. The average sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value for the detection of in-stent stenosis were 83.3, 50.0, 33.3, and 91.6% for FBP plus the CB kernel, 100, 29.6, 40.0, and 100% for FBP plus the CD kernel, and 100, 54.5, 40.0, and 100% for HIR plus the CD kernel. Conclusions: The HIR algorithm combined with the high-resolution kernel significantly improved diagnostic performance in the detection of in-stent stenosis.

  13. A Decade’s Experience With Quality Improvement in Cardiac Surgery Using the Veterans Affairs and Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Frederick L.; Shroyer, A. Laurie W.; Hammermeister, Karl; Edwards, Fred H.; Ferguson, T. Bruce; Dziuban, Stanley W.; Cleveland, Joseph C.; Clark, Richard E.; McDonald, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Objective To review the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) national databases over the past 10 years to evaluate their relative similarities and differences, to appraise their use as quality improvement tools, and to assess their potential to facilitate improvements in quality of cardiac surgical care. Summary Background Data The VA developed a mandatory risk-adjusted database in 1987 to monitor outcomes of cardiac surgery at all VA medical centers. In 1989 the STS developed a voluntary risk-adjusted database to help members assess quality and outcomes in their individual programs and to facilitate improvements in quality of care. Methods A short data form on every veteran operated on at each VA medical center is completed and transmitted electronically for analysis of unadjusted and risk-adjusted death and complications, as well as length of stay. Masked, confidential semiannual reports are then distributed to each program’s clinical team and the associated administrator. These reports are also reviewed by a national quality oversight committee. Thus, VA data are used both locally for quality improvement and at the national level with quality surveillance. The STS dataset (217 core fields and 255 extended fields) is transmitted for each patient semiannually to the Duke Clinical Research Institute (DCRI) for warehousing, analysis, and distribution. Site-specific reports are produced with regional and national aggregate comparisons for unadjusted and adjusted surgical deaths and complications, as well as length of stay for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valvular procedures, and valvular/CABG procedures. Both databases use the logistic regression modeling approach. Data for key processes of care are also captured in both databases. Research projects are frequently carried out using each database. Results More than 74,000 and 1.6 million cardiac surgical patients have been entered into the VA and STS databases

  14. High thoracic epidural analgesia in cardiac surgery. Part 2--high thoracic epidural analgesia does not reduce time in or improve quality of recovery in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Dorthe Viemose; Bhavsar, Rajesh; Greisen, Jacob; Ryhammer, Pia Katarina; Sloth, Erik; Jakobsen, Carl-Johan

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the postoperative effect of high thoracic epidural analgesia on the time in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the quality of cardiac recovery in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A randomized prospective study. Sixty low-risk patients 65 to 80 years of age scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery with or without aortic valve replacement. A university hospital. Patients randomized to receive high thoracic epidural analgesia (HTEA) as a supplement to general anesthesia. The eligible time to discharge from the ICU and the quality of recovery were evaluated by an objective ICU scoring system. The time to eligible discharge from the ICU, the ventilation time, and the actual time in the ICU were not shorter in the HTEA group compared with patients receiving conventional general anesthesia. Patients receiving HTEA in addition to general anesthesia received less morphine postoperatively but with no consequent beneficial effect on respiration, nausea, sedation, or motor function. HTEA does not reduce the time in the ICU or improve the quality of recovery in the ICU. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy of a nutritional education program to improve diet in patients attending a cardiac rehabilitation program: outcomes of a one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisi, Maria Luisa Eliana; Biffi, Barbara; Gheri, Chiara Francesca; Sarli, Ennio; Rafanelli, Elena; Graziano, Emanuela; Vidali, Sofia; Fattirolli, Francesco; Gensini, Gian Franco; Macchi, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    Dietary habits are widely reported to play a primary role in the occurrence of coronary artery disease (CAD). Cardiac rehabilitation is a multidisciplinary intervention that includes nutritional education. Proper nutrition plays an important role in cardiovascular health outcomes and in decreasing morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as highlighted in the literature. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an educational program to improve the diet of cardiac rehabilitation patients compared to usual treatment. 160 patients with CAD, (124 M, 36 F) were randomized into two groups. Data analysis was conducted on 133 patients (11 % dropped out). All enrolled patients attended two educational seminars about proper nutrition and cardiovascular prevention, and completed a questionnaire about dietary habits (before CAD). The Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated, and basal glycaemia and plasma lipids were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the study (12 months after hospital discharge). The intervention group patients underwent a mid-term evaluation of nutrient intakes, BMI, and received a personalized educational reinforcement by a dietitian. At the end of the study, the intervention group was shown to have significantly reduced their daily caloric intake (reduction of total proteins, total fat, carbohydrate, alcohol), and showed a significant reduction of weight and BMI compared to the control group. Individual nutritional counseling session as a reinforcement of a standard educational program is effective in reducing caloric intake and BMI, which may reduce cardiovascular risk factors in cardiovascular patients.

  16. Infarcted Myocardium-Primed Dendritic Cells Improve Remodeling and Cardiac Function After Myocardial Infarction by Modulating the Regulatory T Cell and Macrophage Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Eun Ho; Lee, Jun-Ho; Park, Eun-Hye; Park, Hyo Eun; Jung, Nam-Chul; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Koh, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Eunmin; Seung, Ki-Bae; Park, Cheongsoo; Hong, Kwan-Soo; Kang, Kwonyoon; Song, Jie-Young; Seo, Han Geuk; Lim, Dae-Seog; Chang, Kiyuk

    2017-04-11

    Inflammatory responses play a critical role in left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tDCs) can modulate immune responses, inducing regulatory T cells in a number of inflammatory diseases. We generated tDCs by treating bone marrow-derived dendritic cells with tumor necrosis factor-α and cardiac lysate from MI mice. We injected MI mice, induced by a ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in C57BL/6 mice, twice with tDCs within 24 hours and at 7 days after the ligation. In vivo cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and ex vivo histology confirmed the beneficial effect on postinfarct left ventricular remodeling in MI mice treated with tDCs. Subcutaneously administered infarct lysate-primed tDCs near the inguinal lymph node migrated to the regional lymph node and induced infarct tissue-specific regulatory T-cell populations in the inguinal and mediastinal lymph nodes, spleen, and infarcted myocardium, indicating that a local injection of tDCs induces a systemic activation of MI-specific regulatory T cells. These events elicited an inflammatory-to-reparative macrophage shift. The altered immune environment in the infarcted heart resulted in a better wound remodeling, preserved left ventricular systolic function after myocardial tissue damage, and improved survival. This study showed that tDC therapy in a preclinical model of MI was potentially translatable into an antiremodeling therapy for ischemic tissue repair. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Cardiac Malpositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Shi Joon; Im, Chung Gie; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Hasn, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    Cardiac Malposition refers to any position of the heart other than a left-sided heart in a situs solitus individual. Associated cardiac malformations are so complex that even angiocardiographic and autopsy studies may not afford an accurate information. Although the terms and classifications used to describe the internal cardiac anatomy and their arterial connections in cardiac malpositions differ and tend to be confusing, common agreement exists on the need for a segmental approach to diagnosis. Authors present 18 cases of cardiac malpositions in which cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between 1971 and 1979. Authors analyzed the clinical, radiographic, operative and autopsy findings with the emphasis on the angiocardiographic findings. The results are as follows: 1. Among 18 cases with cardiac malpositions, 6 cases had dextrocardia with situs inversus, 9 cases had dextrocardia with situs solitus and 3 cases had levocardia with situs inversus. 2. There was no genuine exception to visceroatrial concordance rule. 3. Associated cardiac malpositions were variable and complex with a tendency of high association of transposition and double outlet varieties with dextrocardia in situs solitus and levocardia in situs inversus. Only one in 6 cases of dextrocardia with situs inversus had pure transposition. 4. In two cases associated pulmonary atresia was found at surgery which was not predicted by angiocardiography. 5. Because many of the associated complex lesions can be corrected surgically provided the diagnosis is accurate, the selective biplane angiocardiography with or without cineradiography is essential.

  18. 1,25(OH)2D3improves cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy, and fibrosis through PARP1/SIRT1/mTOR-related mechanisms in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hua; Lin, Ke; Wang, Hang; Wei, Huili; Ji, Baolan; Yang, Zengsong; Peng, Chuan; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Deng, Huacong

    2017-05-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is one of the most important cardiac complications associated with diabetes. However, the mechanisms underlying diabetic cardiomyopathy remain unclear. The PARP1, SIRT1, and mTOR pathways have been implicated in cardiac diseases, and they are also associated with diabetes. 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 was recently recognized as a potential PARP1inhibitor in a macrophage cell line. The aim of our study was to investigate whether 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 can improve diabetic cardiomyopathy through a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent mechanism associated with the PARP1/SIRT1/mTOR pathway. 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 -treated diabetic rats displayed improved left ventricular wall thickness and end-diastolic/systolic diameter, end-diastolic/systolic volume, left ventricular ejection fraction, fractional shortening, atrial natriuretic peptide, and brain natriuretic peptide gene expression, and interstitial fibrosis compared with untreated diabetic rats, while silencing the VDR gene in DM rats blocked the above results. 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 treatment also decreased PARP1 and increased SIRT1 expression levels and repressed the phosphorylation of mTOR. Treating neonatal cardiomyocytes with 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and a PARP1 inhibitor decreased PARP1 and increased SIRT1 protein expression. The present study demonstrates that 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 treatment has the potential to improve diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats and suggests that VD-VDR signaling induces this protective effect against diabetic cardiomyopathy might partly through the PARP1/SIRT1/mTOR pathway. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Probenecid Improves Cardiac Function in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction In Vivo and Cardiomyocyte Calcium Sensitivity In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Nathan; Gilbert, Mark; Kumar, Mohit; McNamara, James W; Daly, Patrick; Koch, Sheryl E; Conway, Ginger; Effat, Mohamed; Woo, Jessica G; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; Rubinstein, Jack

    2018-01-13

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 is a calcium channel activated by probenecid. Probenecid is a Food and Drug Administration-approved uricosuric drug that has recently been shown to induce positive lusitropic and inotropic effects in animal models through cardiomyocyte transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 activation. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that oral probenecid can improve cardiac function and symptomatology in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and to further elucidate its calcium-dependent effects on myocyte contractility. The clinical trial recruited stable outpatients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction randomized in a single-center, double-blind, crossover design. Clinical data were collected including a dyspnea assessment, physical examination, ECG, echocardiogram to assess systolic and diastolic function, a 6-minute walk test, and laboratory studies. In vitro force generation studies were performed on cardiomyocytes isolated from murine tissue exposed to probenecid or control treatments. The clinical trial recruited 20 subjects (mean age 57 years, mean baseline fractional shortening of 13.6±1.0%). Probenecid therapy increased fractional shortening by 2.1±1.0% compared with placebo -1.7±1.0% ( P =0.007). Additionally, probenecid improved diastolic function compared with placebo by decreasing the E/E' by -2.95±1.21 versus 1.32±1.21 in comparison to placebo ( P =0.03). In vitro probenecid increased myofilament force generation (92.36 versus 80.82 mN/mm 2 , P Probenecid improves cardiac function with minimal effects on symptomatology and no significant adverse effects after 1 week in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and increases force development and calcium sensitivity at the cardiomyocyte level. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01814319. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  20. Cardiac sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello BT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Benedict T Costello,1,2 James Nadel,3 Andrew J Taylor,1,21Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, 2Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, 3School of Medicine, University of Notre Dame, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Cardiac sarcoidosis is a rare but life-threatening condition, requiring a high degree of clinical suspicion and low threshold for investigation to make the diagnosis. The cardiac manifestations include heart failure, conducting system disease, and arrhythmias predisposing to sudden cardiac death. A number of investigations are available to assist in making the diagnosis. The diagnosis may be made from the clinical history and evidence of inflammation on imaging modalities in the active phase and evidence of myocardial scarring in the chronic phase. Keywords: cardiac magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography, sarcoidosis, sudden cardiac death

  1. Cardiac ablation procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheter ablation; Radiofrequency catheter ablation; Cryoablation - cardiac ablation; AV nodal reentrant tachycardia - cardiac ablation; AVNRT - cardiac ablation; Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome - cardiac ablation; Atrial fibrillation - cardiac ablation; Atrial flutter - ...

  2. Gαq protein carboxyl terminus imitation polypeptide GCIP-27 improves cardiac function in chronic heart failure rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Lan Lu

    Full Text Available Gαq protein carboxyl terminus imitation polypeptide (GCIP-27 has been shown to alleviate pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by various factors. Pathological cardiac hypertrophy increases the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases while it compensates for poor heart function. This study was designed to investigate the effects of GCIP-27 on heart function in rats with heart failure induced by doxorubicin.Forty-eight rats were randomly divided into the following six groups receiving vehicle (control, doxorubicin (Dox, losartan (6 mg/kg, i.g. and three doses of GCIP-27 (10, 30, 90 μg/kg; i.p., bid, respectively. Heart failure was induced by Dox, which was administered at a 20 mg/kg cumulative dose. After 10 weeks of treatment, we observed that GCIP-27 (30, 90 μg/kg significantly increased ejection fraction, fraction shortening, stroke volume and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase activity of Dox-treated hearts. Additionally, GCIP-27 decreased myocardial injury, heart weight index and left ventricular weight index, fibrosis and serum cardiac troponin-I concentration in Dox-treated mice. Immunohistochemistry, western blotting and real-time PCR experiments indicated that GCIP-27 (10-90 μg/kg could markedly upregulate the protein expression of myocardial α-myosin heavy chain (MHC, Bcl-2, protein kinase C (PKC ε and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK 1/2 as well as the mRNA expression of α-MHC, but downregulated the expression of β-MHC, Bax and PKC βII, and the mRNA expression levels of β-MHC in Dox-treated mice. It was also found that GCIP-27 (30, 90 μg/L decreased cell size and protein content of cardiomyocytes significantly in vitro by comparison of Dox group.GCIP-27 could effectively ameliorate heart failure development induced by Dox. PKC-ERK1/2 signaling might represent the underlying mechanism of the beneficial effects of GCIP-27.

  3. The ABCD (Alternans Before Cardioverter Defibrillator) Trial: strategies using T-wave alternans to improve efficiency of sudden cardiac death prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Otto; Hohnloser, Stefan H; Kirk, Malcolm M; Lerman, Bruce B; Baker, James H; Sethuraman, Barathi; Dettmer, Mary M; Rosenbaum, David S

    2009-02-10

    Because risk stratification with electrophysiological study (EPS) improves efficiency but is invasive, we sought to determine whether noninvasive microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) testing could identify patients who benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) as well as EPS. Prevention of sudden cardiac death on the basis of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) alone is inefficient, because most ICDs never deliver therapy. The ABCD (Alternans Before Cardioverter Defibrillator) trial is a multicenter prospective study that enrolled patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (LVEF ABCD study is the first trial to use MTWA to guide prophylactic ICD insertion. Risk stratification strategies using noninvasive MTWA versus invasive EPS are comparable at 1 year and complementary when applied in combination. Strategies employing MTWA, EPS, or both might identify subsets of patients least likely to benefit from ICD insertion. (Study to Compare TWA Test and EPS Test for Predicting Patients at Risk for Life-Threatening Heart Rhythms [ABCD Study]; NCT00187291).

  4. Sulforaphane improves oxidative status without attenuating the inflammatory response or cardiac impairment induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetto, Jéssica Hellen Poletto; Fernandes, Rafael Oliveira; Seolin, Bruna Gazzi de Lima; Müller, Dalvana Daneliza; Teixeira, Rayane Brinck; Araujo, Alex Sander; Vassallo, Dalton; Schenkel, Paulo Cavalheiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2016-05-01

    Sulforaphane, a natural isothiocyanate, demonstrates cardioprotection associated with its capacity to stimulate endogenous antioxidants and to inhibit inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sulforaphane is capable of attenuating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through the TLR4/MyD88/NFκB pathway, and thereby could modulate post-ischemic ventricular function in isolated rat hearts submitted to ischemia and reperfusion. Male Wistar rats received sulforaphane (10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or vehicle i.p. for 3 days. Global ischemia was performed using isolated hearts, 24 h after the last injection, by interruption of the perfusion flow. The protocol included a 20 min pre-ischemic period followed by 20 min of ischemia and a 20 min reperfusion. Although no changes in mechanical function were observed, sulforaphane induced a significant increase in superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase-1 expression (both 66%) and significantly reduced reactive oxygen species levels (7%). No differences were observed for catalase and glutathione peroxidase expression or their activities, nor for thioredoxin reductase, glutaredoxin reductase and glutathione-S-transferase. No differences were found in lipid peroxidation or TLR4, MyD88, and NF-κB expression. In conclusion, although sulforaphane was able to stimulate endogenous antioxidants modestly, this result did not impact inflammatory signaling or cardiac function of hearts submitted to ischemia and reperfusion.

  5. Home-based aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen uptake equal to residential cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moholdt, Trine; Bekken Vold, Mona; Grimsmo, Jostein; Slørdahl, Stig Arild; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic capacity, measured as the peak oxygen uptake, is a strong predictor of survival in cardiac patients. Aerobic interval training (AIT), walking/running four times four minutes at 85-95% of peak heart rate, has proven to be effective in increasing peak oxygen uptake in coronary heart disease patients. As some patients do not attend organized rehabilitation programs, home-based exercise should be an alternative. We investigated whether AIT could be performed effectively at home, and compared the effects on peak oxygen uptake with that observed after a standard care, four-week residential rehabilitation. Thirty patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to residential rehabilitation or home-based AIT. At six months follow-up, peak oxygen uptake increased 4.6 (±2.7) and 3.9 (±3.6) mL·kg(-1) min(-1) (both peffect between patients randomized to home-based AIT compared to patients attending organized rehabilitation (95% confidence interval -1.8, 3.5). AIT patients reported good adherence to exercise training. Even though these first data indicate positive effects of home-based AIT in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery, more studies are needed to provide supporting evidence for the application of this rehabilitation strategy. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00363922.

  6. Telmisartan ramipril combination therapy reduces strokes and improves cardiac and renal protection in stroke prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Yu, Fangmin; Ene, Ada R; Catanzaro, Daniel F

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and animal experimental studies suggest that combination therapy using angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors provides superior blood pressure (BP) lowering and target organ protection than either agent alone. We tested combination therapy with telmisartan and ramipril in lowering BP and protecting against stroke and target-organ damage in salt-fed stroke prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Twenty-five rats were assigned to each of five groups: control (C), telmisartan (T), ramipril (R), and telmisartan + ramipril at full (TR) and at half-dose ((1/2)TR). Full dose telmisartan was 1 mg/kg/day and ramipril .4 mg/kg/day. Rats were fed a stroke prone diet for 8 weeks starting at age 7.5 weeks. Eighty-three percent C and 56% R showed behavioral signs of stroke. There were no strokes in other groups. BP was lower than control in all groups and lowest in TR. Urinary protein excretion, renal damage scores, and left ventricle cardiac collagen areas were lower than controls in all telmisartan treatment groups and lowest in TR. Telmisartan was superior to ramipril in preventing strokes, and telmisartan/ramipril combination therapy provided better BP control and greater cardio-renal protection than telmisartan alone.

  7. Exendin-4 pretreated adipose derived stem cells are resistant to oxidative stress and improve cardiac performance via enhanced adhesion in the infarcted heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Liu

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS, which were largely generated after myocardial ischemia, severely impaired the adhesion and survival of transplanted stem cells. In this study, we aimed to determine whether Exendin-4 pretreatment could improve the adhesion and therapeutic efficacy of transplanted adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs in ischemic myocardium. In vitro, H2O2 was used to provide ROS environments, in which ADSCs pretreated with Exendin-4 were incubated. ADSCs without pretreatment were used as control. Then, cell adhesion and viability were analyzed with time. Compared with control ADSCs, Exendin-4 treatment significantly increased the adhesion of ADSCs in ROS environment, while reduced intracellular ROS and cell injury as determined by dihydroethidium (DHE staining live/Dead staining, lactate dehydrogenase-release assay and MTT assay. Western Blotting demonstrated that ROS significantly decreased the expression of adhesion-related integrins and integrin-related focal adhesion proteins, which were significantly reversed by Exendin-4 pretreatment and followed by decreases in caspase-3, indicating that Exendin-4 may facilitate cell survival through enhanced adhesion. In vivo, myocardial infarction (MI was induced by the left anterior descending artery ligation in SD rats. Autologous ADSCs with or without Exendin-4 pretreatment were injected into the border area of infarcted hearts, respectively. Multi-techniques were used to assess the beneficial effects after transplantation. Longitudinal bioluminescence imaging and histological staining revealed that Exendin-4 pretreatment enhanced the survival and differentiation of engrafted ADSCs in ischemic myocardium, accompanied with significant benefits in cardiac function, matrix remodeling, and angiogenesis compared with non-pretreated ADSCs 4 weeks post-transplantation. In conclusion, transplantation of Exendin-4 pretreated ADSCs significantly improved cardiac performance and can be an innovative

  8. The System-Wide Effect of Real-Time Audiovisual Feedback and Postevent Debriefing for In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: The Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality Improvement Initiative*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Keith; Kimani, Peter K.; Abella, Benjamin S.; Chilwan, Mehboob; Cooke, Matthew W.; Davies, Robin P.; Field, Richard A.; Gao, Fang; Quinton, Sarah; Stallard, Nigel; Woolley, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of implementing real-time audiovisual feedback with and without postevent debriefing on survival and quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality at in-hospital cardiac arrest. Design: A two-phase, multicentre prospective cohort study. Setting: Three UK hospitals, all part of one National Health Service Acute Trust. Patients: One thousand three hundred and ninety-five adult patients who sustained an in-hospital cardiac arrest at the study hospitals and were treated by hospital emergency teams between November 2009 and May 2013. Interventions: During phase 1, quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and patient outcomes were measured with no intervention implemented. During phase 2, staff at hospital 1 received real-time audiovisual feedback, whereas staff at hospital 2 received real-time audiovisual feedback supplemented by postevent debriefing. No intervention was implemented at hospital 3 during phase 2. Measurements and Main Results: The primary outcome was return of spontaneous circulation. Secondary endpoints included other patient-focused outcomes, such as survival to hospital discharge, and process-focused outcomes, such as chest compression depth. Random-effect logistic and linear regression models, adjusted for baseline patient characteristics, were used to analyze the effect of the interventions on study outcomes. In comparison with no intervention, neither real-time audiovisual feedback (adjusted odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.31–1.22; p = 0.17) nor real-time audiovisual feedback supplemented by postevent debriefing (adjusted odds ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.35–1.21; p = 0.17) was associated with a statistically significant improvement in return of spontaneous circulation or any process-focused outcome. Despite this, there was evidence of a system-wide improvement in phase 2, leading to improvements in return of spontaneous circulation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.06–3.30; p = 0.03) and process

  9. The System-Wide Effect of Real-Time Audiovisual Feedback and Postevent Debriefing for In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: The Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality Improvement Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Keith; Kimani, Peter K; Abella, Benjamin S; Chilwan, Mehboob; Cooke, Matthew W; Davies, Robin P; Field, Richard A; Gao, Fang; Quinton, Sarah; Stallard, Nigel; Woolley, Sarah; Perkins, Gavin D

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of implementing real-time audiovisual feedback with and without postevent debriefing on survival and quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality at in-hospital cardiac arrest. A two-phase, multicentre prospective cohort study. Three UK hospitals, all part of one National Health Service Acute Trust. One thousand three hundred and ninety-five adult patients who sustained an in-hospital cardiac arrest at the study hospitals and were treated by hospital emergency teams between November 2009 and May 2013. During phase 1, quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and patient outcomes were measured with no intervention implemented. During phase 2, staff at hospital 1 received real-time audiovisual feedback, whereas staff at hospital 2 received real-time audiovisual feedback supplemented by postevent debriefing. No intervention was implemented at hospital 3 during phase 2. The primary outcome was return of spontaneous circulation. Secondary endpoints included other patient-focused outcomes, such as survival to hospital discharge, and process-focused outcomes, such as chest compression depth. Random-effect logistic and linear regression models, adjusted for baseline patient characteristics, were used to analyze the effect of the interventions on study outcomes. In comparison with no intervention, neither real-time audiovisual feedback (adjusted odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.31-1.22; p=0.17) nor real-time audiovisual feedback supplemented by postevent debriefing (adjusted odds ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.35-1.21; p=0.17) was associated with a statistically significant improvement in return of spontaneous circulation or any process-focused outcome. Despite this, there was evidence of a system-wide improvement in phase 2, leading to improvements in return of spontaneous circulation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.06-3.30; p=0.03) and process-focused outcomes. Implementation of real-time audiovisual feedback with or without postevent debriefing did not

  10. Home-based aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen uptake equal to residential cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trine Moholdt

    Full Text Available Aerobic capacity, measured as the peak oxygen uptake, is a strong predictor of survival in cardiac patients. Aerobic interval training (AIT, walking/running four times four minutes at 85-95% of peak heart rate, has proven to be effective in increasing peak oxygen uptake in coronary heart disease patients. As some patients do not attend organized rehabilitation programs, home-based exercise should be an alternative. We investigated whether AIT could be performed effectively at home, and compared the effects on peak oxygen uptake with that observed after a standard care, four-week residential rehabilitation. Thirty patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to residential rehabilitation or home-based AIT. At six months follow-up, peak oxygen uptake increased 4.6 (±2.7 and 3.9 (±3.6 mL·kg(-1 min(-1 (both p<0.005, non-significant between-group difference after residential rehabilitation and AIT, respectively. Quality of life increased significantly in both groups, with no statistical significant difference between groups. We found no evidence for a different treatment effect between patients randomized to home-based AIT compared to patients attending organized rehabilitation (95% confidence interval -1.8, 3.5. AIT patients reported good adherence to exercise training. Even though these first data indicate positive effects of home-based AIT in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery, more studies are needed to provide supporting evidence for the application of this rehabilitation strategy.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00363922.

  11. Exercise training does not improve cardiac function in compensated or decompensated left ventricular hypertrophy induced by aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deel, Elza D; de Boer, Martine; Kuster, Diederik W; Boontje, Nicky M; Holemans, Patricia; Sipido, Karin R; van der Velden, Jolanda; Duncker, Dirk J

    2011-06-01

    There is ample evidence that regular exercise exerts beneficial effects on left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, remodeling and dysfunction produced by ischemic heart disease or systemic hypertension. In contrast, the effects of exercise on pathological LV hypertrophy and dysfunction produced by LV outflow obstruction have not been studied to date. Consequently, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of voluntary wheel running in mice (which mitigates post-infarct LV dysfunction) on LV hypertrophy and dysfunction produced by mild (mTAC) and severe (sTAC) transverse aortic constriction. mTAC produced ~40% LV hypertrophy and increased myocardial expression of hypertrophy marker genes but did not affect LV function, SERCA2a protein levels, apoptosis or capillary density. Exercise had no effect on global LV hypertrophy and function in mTAC but increased interstitial collagen, and ANP expression. sTAC produced ~80% LV hypertrophy and further increased ANP expression and interstitial fibrosis and, in contrast with mTAC, also produced LV dilation, systolic as well as diastolic dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, apoptosis and capillary rarefaction and decreased SERCA2a and ryanodine receptor (RyR) protein levels. LV diastolic dysfunction was likely aggravated by elevated passive isometric force and Ca(2+)-sensitivity of myofilaments. Exercise training failed to mitigate the sTAC-induced LV hypertrophy and capillary rarefaction or the decreases in SERCA2a and RyR. Exercise attenuated the sTAC-induced increase in passive isometric force but did not affect myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity and tended to aggravate interstitial fibrosis. In conclusion, exercise had no effect on LV function in compensated and decompensated cardiac hypertrophy produced by LV outflow obstruction, suggesting that the effect of exercise on pathologic LV hypertrophy and dysfunction depends critically on the underlying cause. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High cumulative oxygen levels are associated with improved survival of children treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zellem, Lennart; de Jonge, Rogier; van Rosmalen, Joost; Reiss, Irwin; Tibboel, Dick; Buysse, Corinne

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) and in-hospital (IH) mortality in children after cardiac arrest (CA) using the conventional cutoff analysis, which was compared with the cumulative analysis, a new method in PaO2 analysis. Additionally, we analyzed this relationship for children with and without mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH; 32-34 °C). This observational cohort study included all children (aged >28 days) with CA and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) between 2002 and 2011. The first research question was the association between PaO2 and IH mortality after ROSC. This was analyzed for three hyperoxia cutoff values, and for three time intervals using the cumulative PaO2 determined with the area under the curve (AUC). For the second research question, these analyses were repeated for children with and without MTH. Of the 200 patients included (median age 2.6 years), 84 (42%) survived to hospital discharge. Fifty-eight children (29%) were treated with MTH. With the cutoff analysis and the AUC analysis we found no relationship between PaO2 and IH mortality. However, analysis of the MTH-group showed a lower IH mortality in children with high cumulative PaO2 levels on two of the three time intervals. Multivariable analysis showed significantly higher odds of survival (0.643 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.424-0.976), 0.554 (95% CI 0.335-0.916)). Cumulative PaO2 analysis showed that the IH mortality is significantly lower in MTH-treated children with high PaO2 levels. The effects of cumulative PaO2 on the outcome need to be studied further, and this will help us to achieve individualized goal-directed therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improved Diastolic Function Is Associated With Higher Cardiac Output in Patients With Heart Failure Irrespective of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobushi, Tomoyuki; Nakano, Masatsugu; Hosokawa, Kazuya; Koga, Hidenobu; Yamada, Akira

    2017-02-28

    Little is known regarding the impact of diastolic function on cardiac output (CO) in patients with heart failure, particularly in patients with lower ejection fraction. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship (EDPVR) on CO and end-diastolic pressure (EDP). We retrospectively analyzed 1840 consecutive patients who underwent heart catheterization. We divided patients into 8 groups according to ejection fraction (EF) (35-45%, 46-55%, 56-65%, and 66-75%) and EDP (>16 or ≤16 mm Hg). We estimated EDPVR from single measurements in the catheterization data set. Then, we replaced EDPVRs of high-EDP groups with those of normal-EDP groups and compared CO before and after EDPVR replacement. Normalized EDPVR significantly increased CO at EDP=10 mm Hg regardless of EF (EF 35-45%, from 4.5±1.6 to 4.9±1.0; EF 46-55%, 4.6±1.3 to 5.1±1.1; EF 56-65%, 4.9±1.5 to 5.2±1.0; EF 66-75%, 4.9±1.5 to 5.2±1.1). Changes in CO were similar across EF groups. Diastolic function normalization was associated with higher CO irrespective of EF. Diastolic dysfunction plays an important role in determining CO irrespective of EF in heart failure patients. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  14. Cardiac Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program to help people who have A heart attack Angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting for coronary heart disease A heart valve repair or replacement A ...

  15. Cardiac rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25503364 . Balady GJ, Williams MA, Ades PA, et al. Core components of ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22070836 . Thompson PD. Exercise-based, comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation. In: Mann DL, Zipes ...

  16. Cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also run other tests, depending on your health history and the results of these tests. Treatment Cardiac arrest needs emergency treatment right away to get the heart started again. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) . This is often the first type of ...

  17. Copeptin improves the sensitivity of cardiac troponin in patients 70 years or older, but not enough to rule out myocardial infarction at emergency department presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenevier-Gobeaux, Camille; Charpentier, Sandrine; Meune, Christophe; Claessens, Yann-Erick; Lavieuville, Megan; Ray, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the combination of cardiac troponin (cTn) and copeptin in a population older than 70 years of age to rule out non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) at emergency department (ED) presentation. Among 885 analyzed patients with acute chest pain presenting to the ED, 218 (25%) were aged at least 70 years. Patients with elevated copeptin values at presentation were more often aged at least 70 years and had higher blood pressure. Patients at least 70 years without NSTEMI more frequently had elevated copeptin values than younger counterparts (42 vs. 25%, Pcopeptin threshold value at 8.1 pmol/l in patients less than 70 years and at 10.7 pmol/l in patients at least 70 years. In patients at least 70 years, the combination of copeptin with cTnI significantly improved the sensitivity for the diagnosis of NSTEMI, at all copeptin thresholds tested, but the negative predictive value remained below 95%. The combination of copeptin with conventional cTnI significantly improved sensitivity for the diagnosis of NSTEMI in patients at least 70 years. However, this improvement was not enough to rule out NSTEMI with a single draw strategy at ED presentation.

  18. Observed improvements in an intern's ability to initiate critical emergency skills in different cardiac arrest scenarios using high-fidelity simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starmer, David J; Duquette, Sean A; Guiliano, Dominic; Tibbles, Anthony; Miners, Andrew; Finn, Kevin; Stainsby, Brynne E

    2014-10-01

    Objective : The objective of this study was to report observed changes in an intern's ability to initiate critical emergency skills in different cardiac arrest scenarios with high-fidelity simulation over a 10-month period. Methods : One intern's performance was retrospectively analyzed using video recordings of 4 simulations at different stages in the training program. The key outcome was the duration of time expired for 4 critical skills, including activating the emergency response system, initiating cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), using an automated external defibrillator (AED), and passively administrating oxygen. Results : The intern became more efficient in each subsequent simulation for activating the emergency response system and initiating CPR. The time to use the AED stayed relatively constant. The administration of oxygen was inconsistent. Conclusion : An improvement in the speed of applying emergency critical skills was observed with this intern. These improvements in skill may improve patient outcomes and survival rates. We propose further educational research with high-fidelity simulation in the area of assessing emergency skills.

  19. Cardiac Angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Esteves Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite cardiac metastases are found in about 20% of cancer deaths, the presence of primary cardiac tumors is rare. Most primary tumors are benign, and malignant tumors comprise about 15%. We report a 21-year-old man with fever, dyspnea, and hemoptysis that was diagnosed with angiosarcoma of the right atrium and pulmonary metastasis. Patient was submitted to surgical tumor resection without adjuvant therapy and died four months after diagnosis.

  20. Cardiac Angiosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Monique Esteves; Canale, Leonardo Secchin; Ramos, Rosana Grandelle; Salvador Junior, Edson da Silva; Lachtermacher, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Despite cardiac metastases are found in about 20% of cancer deaths, the presence of primary cardiac tumors is rare. Most primary tumors are benign, and malignant tumors comprise about 15%. We report a 21-year-old man with fever, dyspnea, and hemoptysis that was diagnosed with angiosarcoma of the right atrium and pulmonary metastasis. Patient was submitted to surgical tumor resection without adjuvant therapy and died four months after diagnosis.

  1. Cardiac Angiosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Monique Esteves; Canale, Leonardo Secchin; Ramos, Rosana Grandelle; Salvador Junior, Edson da Silva; Lachtermacher, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Despite cardiac metastases are found in about 20% of cancer deaths, the presence of primary cardiac tumors is rare. Most primary tumors are benign, and malignant tumors comprise about 15%. We report a 21-year-old man with fever, dyspnea, and hemoptysis that was diagnosed with angiosarcoma of the right atrium and pulmonary metastasis. Patient was submitted to surgical tumor resection without adjuvant therapy and died four months after diagnosis. PMID:24826214

  2. Modified high-intensity interval training reduces liver fat and improves cardiac function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallsworth, Kate; Thoma, Christian; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Cassidy, Sophie; Anstee, Quentin M; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael I

    2015-12-01

    Although lifestyle changes encompassing weight loss and exercise remain the cornerstone of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) management, the effect of different types of exercise on NAFLD is unknown. This study defines the effect of modified high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on liver fat, cardiac function and metabolic control in adults with NAFLD. Twenty-three patients with NAFLD [age 54±10 years, body mass index (BMI) 31±4 kg/m(2), intra-hepatic lipid >5%) were assigned to either 12 weeks HIIT or standard care (controls). HIIT involved thrice weekly cycle ergometry for 30-40 min. MRI and spectroscopy were used to assess liver fat, abdominal fat and cardiac structure/function/energetics. Glucose control was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test and body composition by air displacement plethysmography. Relative to control, HIIT decreased liver fat (11±5% to 8±2% compared with 10±4% to 10±4% P=0.019), whole-body fat mass (35±7 kg to 33±8 kg compared with 31±9 kg to 32±9 kg, P=0.013), alanine (52±29 units/l to 42±20 units/l compared with 47±22 units/l to 51±24 units/l, P=0.016) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 36±18 units/l to 33±15 units/l compared with 31±8 units/l to 35±8 units/l, P=0.017) and increased early diastolic filling rate (244±84 ml/s to 302±107 ml/s compared with 255±82 ml/s to 251±82 ml/s, P=0.018). There were no between groups differences in glucose control. Modified HIIT reduces liver fat and improves body composition alongside benefits to cardiac function in patients with NAFLD and should be considered as part of the broader treatment regimen by clinical care teams. ISRCTN trial ID: ISRCTN78698481. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  3. Early enhanced external counter pulsation improves neurological recovery after the return of spontaneous circulation in a mongrel dog cardiac arrest model*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun-Lin; Liu, Rong; Liao, Xiao-Xing; Wei, Hong-Yan; Li, Xin; Zhan, Hong; Jing, Xiao-Li; Xiong, Yan; Huang, Guo-Qing; Wu, Gui-Fu

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether early enhanced external counter pulsation therapy after cardiopulmonary resuscitation improved neurological outcome in a mongrel dog cardiac arrest model. Randomized, animal study. Assisted circulation laboratory. Twenty-four healthy male adult dogs (12-14 kg). After minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation followed by 2 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the dogs were randomized to receive 4 hours of enhanced external counter pulsation therapy, to receive 4 hours of hypertension with over 140 mm Hg or to be a control. Blood pressure and left ventricular ejection fraction were recorded. Cerebral flow was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Arterial blood gases and endothelium-derived vasoactive substances were assessed before cardiac arrest and 4 hours after the return of spontaneous circulation. Neurological outcome was assessed by the neurologic deficit score and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining. Enhanced external counter pulsation significantly improved the left ventricular ejection fraction and increased common carotid artery blood flow and shear stress. Enhanced external counter pulsation increased both relative cerebral blood volume (RCBV, p = 0.043) and relative cerebral blood flow (RCBF, p = 0.012) in animals 4 hours after return of spontaneous circulation. Enhanced external counter pulsation therapy promoted the production of nitric oxide and tissue plasminogen activator and decreased the release of endothelin-1 (p = 0.013) after return of spontaneous circulation. Treatment with norepinephrine in the high mean artery pressure also increased common carotid artery blood flow and shear stress. However, no effects on the left ventricular ejection fraction, the production of nitric oxide and tissue plasminogen activator, or the release of endothelin-1 were found. The neurologic deficit scores of the animals were significantly lower at 24, 48, 72

  4. Cardiac Dysautonomia in Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildtrup, Mads; Shattock, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a fatal, hereditary, neurodegenerative disorder best known for its clinical triad of progressive motor impairment, cognitive deficits and psychiatric disturbances. Although a disease of the central nervous system, mortality surveys indicate that heart disease is a leading cause of death. The nature of such cardiac abnormalities remains unknown. Clinical findings indicate a high prevalence of autonomic nervous system dysfunction - dysautonomia - which may be a result of pathology of the central autonomic network. Dysautonomia can have profound effects on cardiac health, and pronounced autonomic dysfunction can be associated with neurogenic arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Significant advances in the knowledge of neural mechanisms in cardiac disease have recently been made which further aid our understanding of cardiac mortality in Huntington's disease. Even so, despite the evidence of aberrant autonomic activity the potential cardiac consequences of autonomic dysfunction have been somewhat ignored. In fact, underlying cardiac abnormalities such as arrhythmias have been part of the exclusion criteria in clinical autonomic Huntington's disease research. A comprehensive analysis of cardiac function in Huntington's disease patients is warranted. Further experimental and clinical studies are needed to clarify how the autonomic nervous system is controlled and regulated in higher, central areas of the brain - and how these regions may be altered in neurological pathology, such as Huntington's disease. Ultimately, research will hopefully result in an improvement of management with the aim of preventing early death in Huntington's disease from cardiac causes.

  5. P-wave characteristics on routine preoperative electrocardiogram improve prediction of new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jim K; Lobato, Robert L; Pinesett, Andre; Maxwell, Bryan G; Mora-Mangano, Christina T; Perez, Marco V

    2014-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that including preoperative electrocardiogram (ECG) characteristics with clinical variables significantly improves the new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation prediction model. Retrospective analysis. Single-center university hospital. Five hundred twenty-six patients, ≥ 18 years of age, who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, aortic valve replacement, mitral valve replacement/repair, or a combination of valve surgery and coronary artery bypass grafting requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Retrospective review of medical records. Baseline characteristics and cardiopulmonary bypass times were collected. Digitally-measured timing and voltages from preoperative electrocardiograms were extracted. Postoperative atrial fibrillation was defined as atrial fibrillation requiring therapeutic intervention. Two hundred eight (39.5%) patients developed postoperative atrial fibrillation. Clinical predictors were age, ejection fractionelectrocardiogram variables to the prediction model with only clinical predictors significantly improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, from 0.71 to 0.78 (p<0.01). Overall net reclassification improvement was 0.059 (p = 0.09). Among those who developed postoperative atrial fibrillation, the net reclassification improvement was 0.063 (p = 0.03). Several p-wave characteristics are independently associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation. Addition of these parameters improves the postoperative atrial fibrillation prediction model. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Should ward nurses be using automatic external defibrillators as first responders to improve the outcome from cardiac arrest? A systematic review of the primary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenward, G; Castle, N; Hodgetts, T J

    2002-01-01

    The outcome from in-hospital cardiac arrest has improved little since the implementation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation 40 years ago. Early defibrillation improves survival following ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. The emergence of automatic external defibrillators and advisory defibrillators has been heralded as the answer to defibrillation delays in-hospital. To locate and evaluate the evidence supporting automatic external defibrillator use in-hospital on general wards. A systematic review of indexed and grey literature to identify primary research. Fifteen in-hospital automatic external defibrillator studies were located, five met the inclusion criteria. There is limited primary research evaluating automatic external defibrillators in-hospital. Manual defibrillators remain the most commonly used device for in-hospital defibrillation. Automated external defibrillators offer an alternative to manual defibrillation providing they have a screen and manual override capability, and the technology for pacing is close to hand. For in-hospital automatic external defibrillator programmes to be effective a change in nursing philosophy must occur, and defibrillation must become an expected rather than an extended nursing role.

  7. Xenotransplantation of Human Cardiomyocyte Progenitor Cells Does Not Improve Cardiac Function in a Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure. Results from a Randomized, Blinded, Placebo Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen of Lorkeers, Sanne J; Gho, Johannes M I H; Koudstaal, Stefan; van Hout, Gerardus P J; Zwetsloot, Peter Paul M; van Oorschot, Joep W M; van Eeuwijk, Esther C M; Leiner, Tim; Hoefer, Imo E; Goumans, Marie-José; Doevendans, Pieter A; Sluijter, Joost P G; Chamuleau, Steven A J

    2015-01-01

    Recently cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPCs) were successfully isolated from fetal and adult human hearts. Direct intramyocardial injection of human CMPCs (hCMPCs) in experimental mouse models of acute myocardial infarction significantly improved cardiac function compared to controls. Here, our aim was to investigate whether xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of fetal hCMPCs in a pig model of chronic myocardial infarction is safe and efficacious, in view of translation purposes. We performed a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled trial. Four weeks after ischemia/reperfusion injury by 90 minutes of percutaneous left anterior descending artery occlusion, pigs (n = 16, 68.5 ± 5.4 kg) received intracoronary infusion of 10 million fetal hCMPCs or placebo. All animals were immunosuppressed by cyclosporin (CsA). Four weeks after infusion, endpoint analysis by MRI displayed no difference in left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end diastolic and left ventricular end systolic volumes between both groups. Serial pressure volume (PV-)loop and echocardiography showed no differences in functional parameters between groups at any timepoint. Infarct size at follow-up, measured by late gadolinium enhancement MRI showed no difference between groups. Intracoronary pressure and flow measurements showed no signs of coronary obstruction 30 minutes after cell infusion. No premature death occurred in cell treated animals. Xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of hCMPCs is feasible and safe, but not associated with improved left ventricular performance and infarct size compared to placebo in a porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction.

  8. Evidence towards improved estimation of respiratory muscle effort from diaphragm mechanomyographic signals with cardiac vibration interference using sample entropy with fixed tolerance values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Sarlabous

    Full Text Available The analysis of amplitude parameters of the diaphragm mechanomyographic (MMGdi signal is a non-invasive technique to assess respiratory muscle effort and to detect and quantify the severity of respiratory muscle weakness. The amplitude of the MMGdi signal is usually evaluated using the average rectified value or the root mean square of the signal. However, these estimations are greatly affected by the presence of cardiac vibration or mechanocardiographic (MCG noise. In this study, we present a method for improving the estimation of the respiratory muscle effort from MMGdi signals that is robust to the presence of MCG. This method is based on the calculation of the sample entropy using fixed tolerance values (fSampEn, that is, with tolerance values that are not normalized by the local standard deviation of the window analyzed. The behavior of the fSampEn parameter was tested in synthesized mechanomyographic signals, with different ratios between the amplitude of the MCG and clean mechanomyographic components. As an example of application of this technique, the use of fSampEn was explored also in recorded MMGdi signals, with different inspiratory loads. The results with both synthetic and recorded signals indicate that the entropy parameter is less affected by the MCG noise, especially at low signal-to-noise ratios. Therefore, we believe that the proposed fSampEn parameter could improve estimates of respiratory muscle effort from MMGdi signals with the presence of MCG interference.

  9. Prominent R wave in ECG lead V1 predicts improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction after cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with or without left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Weeranun D; Bode, Michael F; Gettes, Leonard; Jensen, Brian C; Mounsey, John P; Chung, Eugene H

    2015-10-01

    QRS morphology on postprocedural ECG indicating posterolateral left ventricular pacing may be predictive of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The purpose of this study was to assess whether a positive vector in V1 and/or negative vector in lead I on the first postprocedural ECG, suggesting posterolateral capture from CRT, correlates with improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). A retrospective chart review was conducted on all patients who underwent CRT implantation at our institution between April 2008 and December 2011. Biventricular (BiV) paced QRS morphology was defined as R/S ≥1 in V1 and/or R/S ≤ 1 in lead I. The primary outcome was improvement of LVEF ≥7.5%. The χ(2) and t tests were used for analysis. Of 68 patients, 49 (72%) met our BiV paced QRS morphology criteria. Thirty-four of these 49 patients (69%) had improvement in LVEF. Of the 19 patients who did not meet our criteria, 17 (89%) did not have an improvement in LVEF (sensitivity 94%, specificity 53%, χ(2) = 19.04, P bundle branch block was not a predictor of echocardiographic response. Our results highlight the importance of periprocedural ECG analysis to optimize response to CRT. Moreover, patients without left bundle branch block still benefited from CRT if they met our BiV paced morphology criteria. This suggests that postprocedural left ventricular activation as reflected on the ECG may supersede the baseline conduction delay. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A genotype-specific, randomized controlled behavioral intervention to improve the neuroemotional outcome of cardiac surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauer, D.; Kolassa, I.T.; Laubender, R.P.; Mansmann, U.; Hagl, C.; Roozendaal, B.; Quervain, D.J. de; Schelling, G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures worldwide with >700,000 surgeries in 2006 in the US alone. Cardiac surgery results in a considerable exposure to physical and emotional stress; stress-related disorders such as depression or post-traumatic

  11. Improving left ventricular segmentation in four-dimensional flow MRI using intramodality image registration for cardiac blood flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vikas; Bustamante, Mariana; Fredriksson, Alexandru; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan; Ebbers, Tino

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of blood flow in the left ventricle using four-dimensional flow MRI requires accurate left ventricle segmentation that is often hampered by the low contrast between blood and the myocardium. The purpose of this work is to improve left-ventricular segmentation in four-dimensional flow MRI for reliable blood flow analysis. The left ventricle segmentations are first obtained using morphological cine-MRI with better in-plane resolution and contrast, and then aligned to four-dimensional flow MRI data. This alignment is, however, not trivial due to inter-slice misalignment errors caused by patient motion and respiratory drift during breath-hold based cine-MRI acquisition. A robust image registration based framework is proposed to mitigate such errors automatically. Data from 20 subjects, including healthy volunteers and patients, was used to evaluate its geometric accuracy and impact on blood flow analysis. High spatial correspondence was observed between manually and automatically aligned segmentations, and the improvements in alignment compared to uncorrected segmentations were significant (P flow analysis from manual and automatically corrected segmentations did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Our results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach in improving left-ventricular segmentation in four-dimensional flow MRI, and its potential for reliable blood flow analysis. Magn Reson Med 79:554-560, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Thoracic spinal cord stimulation improves cardiac contractile function and myocardial oxygen consumption in a porcine model of ischemic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Yue, Wen-Sheng; Liao, Song-Yan; Zhang, Yuelin; Au, Ka-Wing; Shuto, Chika; Hata, Cary; Park, Euljoon; Chen, Peter; Siu, Chung-Wah; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2012-05-01

    Prior experimental studies show that thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) improves left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF). The mechanism of this improvement in the LV contractile function after SCS and its effects on the myocardial oxygen consumption remains unknown. We performed thoracic SCS (T1-T2 level) followed by 4 weeks of rapid ventricular pacing in 9 adult pigs with ischemic heart failure (HF) induced by myocardial infarction (MI). At 24 hours off-pacing, detailed echocardiogram and invasive hemodynamic assessment were performed to determine LV contractile function and myocardial oxygen consumption. Serum norepinephrine level was measured before and after SCS. SCS was performed on 2 occasions for 15 minutes, 30 minutes apart (recovery) with 50 Hz frequency (pulse width 0.2 millisecond, 90% of motor threshold at 2 Hz output). Echocardiogram revealed significant decrease in LVEF (33.8 ± 1.8% vs 66.5 ± 1.7%, P porcine model of ischemic HF, acute SCS improved global and regional LV contractile function and intraventricular dyssynchrony, and decreased myocardial oxygen consumption without elevation of norepinephrine level. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Non-invasive technology that improves cardiac function after experimental myocardial infarction: Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz.

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    Arkady Uryash

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI may produce significant inflammatory changes and adverse ventricular remodeling leading to heart failure and premature death. Pharmacologic, stem cell transplantation, and exercise have not halted the inexorable rise in the prevalence and great economic costs of heart failure despite extensive investigations of such treatments. New therapeutic modalities are needed. Whole Body Periodic Acceleration (pGz is a non-invasive technology that increases pulsatile shear stress to the endothelium thereby producing several beneficial cardiovascular effects as demonstrated in animal models, normal humans and patients with heart disease. pGz upregulates endothelial derived nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and its phosphorylation (p-eNOS to improve myocardial function in models of myocardial stunning and preconditioning. Here we test whether pGz applied chronically after focal myocardial infarction in rats improves functional outcomes from MI. Focal MI was produced by left coronary artery ligation. One day after ligation animals were randomized to receive daily treatments of pGz for four weeks (MI-pGz or serve as controls (MI-CONT, with an additional group as non-infarction controls (Sham. Echocardiograms and invasive pressure volume loop analysis were carried out. Infarct transmurality, myocardial fibrosis, and markers of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were determined along with protein analysis of eNOS, p-eNOS and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS.At four weeks, survival was 80% in MI-pGz vs 50% in MI-CONT (p< 0.01. Ejection fraction and fractional shortening and invasive pressure volume relation indices of afterload and contractility were significantly better in MI-pGz. The latter where associated with decreased infarct transmurality and decreased fibrosis along with increased eNOS, p-eNOS. Additionally, MI-pGz had significantly lower levels of iNOS, inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and higher level of anti

  14. Cardiac resynchronization therapy by multipoint pacing improves response of left ventricular mechanics and fluid dynamics: a three-dimensional and particle image velocimetry echo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Mariachiara; Migliore, Federico; Badano, Luigi; Bertaglia, Emanuele; Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Cavedon, Stefano; Zorzi, Alessandro; Corrado, Domenico; Iliceto, Sabino; Muraru, Denisa

    2017-11-01

    To characterize the effect of multipoint pacing (MPP) compared to biventricular pacing (BiV) on left ventricle (LV) mechanics and intraventricular fluid dynamics by three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and echocardiographic particle imaging velocimetry (Echo-PIV). In 11 consecutive patients [8 men; median age 65 years (57-75)] receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with a quadripolar LV lead (Quartet,St.Jude Medical,Inc.), 3DE and Echo-PIV data were collected for each pacing configuration (CRT-OFF, BiV, and MPP) at follow-up after 6 months. 3DE data included LV volumes, LV ejection fraction (LVEF), strain, and systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI). Echo-PIV was used to evaluate the directional distribution of global blood flow momentum, ranging from zero, when flow force is predominantly along the base-apex direction, up to 90° when it becomes transversal. MPP resulted in significant reduction in end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes compared with both CRT-OFF (P = 0.02; P = 0.008, respectively) and BiV (P = 0.04; P = 0.03, respectively). LVEF and cardiac output were significant superior in MPP compared with CRT-OFF, but similar between MPP and BiV. Statistical significant differences when comparing global longitudinal and circumferential strain and SDI with MPP vs. CRT-OFF were observed (P = 0.008; P = 0.008; P = 0.01, respectively). There was also a trend towards improvement in strain between BiV and MPP that did not reach statistical significance. MPP reflected into a significant reduction of the deviation of global blood flow momentum compared with both CRT-OFF and BiV (P = 0.002) indicating a systematic increase of longitudinal alignment from the base-apex orientation of the haemodynamic forces. These preliminary results suggest that MPP resulted in significant improvement of LV mechanics and fluid dynamics compared with BiV. However, larger studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  15. Use of a checklist during observation of a simulated cardiac arrest scenario does not improve time to CPR and defibrillation over observation alone for subsequent scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Stuart J; Weiland, Tracey J; O'Brien, Robert; Cunningham, Neil J; Van Dijk, Julian E; Mahoney, Rosie M; Williams, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    ) =.46, p =.008, for their first scenario counterparts. Observation alone leads to improved performance in the management of a simulated cardiac arrest. The active use of a simple skills-based checklist during observation did not appear to improve performance over passive observation alone.

  16. Cardiac echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Krstić Branislava A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatid disease is rare. We report on an uncommon hydatid cyst localized in the right ventricular wall, right atrial wall tricuspid valve left atrium and pericard. A 33-year-old woman was treated for cough, fever and chest pain. Cardiac echocardiograpic examination revealed a round tumor (5.8 x 4 cm in the right ventricular free wall and two smaller cysts behind that tumor. There were cysts in right atrial wall and tricuspidal valve as well. Serologic tests for hydatidosis were positive. Computed tomography finding was consistent with diagnosis of hydatid cyst in lungs and right hylar part. Surgical treatment was rejected due to great risk of cardiac perforation. Medical treatment with albendazole was unsuccessful and the patient died due to systemic hydatid involvement of the lungs, liver and central nervous system.

  17. Discovery and progress of direct cardiac reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hidenori; Ieda, Masaki

    2017-06-01

    Cardiac disease remains a major cause of death worldwide. Direct cardiac reprogramming has emerged as a promising approach for cardiac regenerative therapy. After the discovery of MyoD, a master regulator for skeletal muscle, other single cardiac reprogramming factors (master regulators) have been sought. Discovery of cardiac reprogramming factors was inspired by the finding that multiple, but not single, transcription factors were needed to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts. We first reported a combination of cardiac-specific transcription factors, Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT), that could convert mouse fibroblasts into cardiomyocyte-like cells, which were designated as induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs). Following our first report of cardiac reprogramming, many researchers, including ourselves, demonstrated an improvement in cardiac reprogramming efficiency, in vivo direct cardiac reprogramming for heart regeneration, and cardiac reprogramming in human cells. However, cardiac reprogramming in human cells and adult fibroblasts remains inefficient, and further efforts are needed. We believe that future research elucidating epigenetic barriers and molecular mechanisms of direct cardiac reprogramming will improve the reprogramming efficiency, and that this new technology has great potential for clinical applications.

  18. Effect of indacaterol on lung deflation improves cardiac performance in hyperinflated COPD patients: an interventional, randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santus P

    2015-09-01

    residual capacity on right heart systolic and diastolic function indexes evaluated by TTE in patients treated with indacaterol, as compared to placebo.Results: Vital capacity, inspiratory capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were significantly increased by indacaterol, when compared with placebo, while residual volume, intrathoracic gas volume, and specific airway resistance were significantly reduced in patients treated with indacaterol. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was significantly increased versus placebo, paralleled by an increase of tricuspid E-wave deceleration time. The cardiac frequency was also significantly reduced in indacaterol-treated patients.Conclusion: Indacaterol significantly reduces lung hyperinflation in acute conditions, with a clinically relevant improvement of dyspnea. These modifications are associated with a significant increase of the right ventricular compliance indexes and may have a role in improving left ventricular preload leading to a reduction in cardiac frequency.Keywords: lung deflation, bronchodilator, cardiac performance, right ventricular function, echocardiography

  19. Optimization of left ventricular pacing site plus multipoint pacing improves remodeling and clinical response to cardiac resynchronization therapy at 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanon, Francesco; Marcantoni, Lina; Baracca, Enrico; Pastore, Gianni; Lanza, Daniela; Fraccaro, Chiara; Picariello, Claudio; Conte, Luca; Aggio, Silvio; Roncon, Loris; Pacetta, Domenico; Badie, Nima; Noventa, Franco; Prinzen, Frits W

    2016-08-01

    Approximately one-third of the patients with heart failure (HF) treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) fail to respond. Positioning the left ventricular (LV) pacing lead in the area of the latest electrical delay may improve the response to CRT. Multipoint pacing (MPP) of the LV has been shown to improve the acute hemodynamic response. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that patients treated with MPP in whom LV pacing location is optimized have better long-term clinical outcomes than do patients treated with conventional CRT. We evaluated the echocardiographic and clinical response of 110 patients with HF treated for nearly 1 year with either conventional CRT (standard [STD] group, n = 54, 49%), CRT with hemodynamic and electrical optimization of the LV pacing site (optimized [OPT] group, n = 36, 33%), or OPT combined with MPP (OPT + MPP group, n = 20, 18%). Responders were classified in terms of reduction in end-systolic volume index ≥15%, reduction in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class ≥1, and Packer score variation (NYHA response with no HF-related hospitalization events or death). In STD, OPT, and OPT + MPP groups, 56%, 72%, and 90% of patients, respectively, were end-systolic volume index responders (P = .004) and 67%, 78%, and 95% were NYHA class responders (P = .012); 59%, 67%, and 90% of patients exhibited a 1-year Packer score of 0 (P = .018). These trends remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors by multivariate logistic analysis. Combining MPP with optimal positioning of the LV lead on the basis of electrical delay and hemodynamics enhances reverse remodeling and improves clinical outcomes beyond the effect due to conventional CRT. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Does everolimus associated with a low dose of cyclosporine in long-term cardiac transplant recipients improve renal function? Initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffini, M; Sansone, F; Patanè, F; Bonato, R; Ribezzo, M; Iacovino, C; Comoglio, C; Rinaldi, M

    2009-05-01

    Cyclosporine (CsA) renal toxicity is a well-known side effect. Various immunosuppressive strategies have been developed to minimize renal insufficiency. The use of everolimus associated with low levels of CsA can be an alternative strategy. From October 2007 to April 2008, everolimus was started with a lower dose of cyclosporine (trough levels from 109.3 +/- 27.5 to 93.7 +/- 30.1 ng/mL after 45 days) in 21 cardiac transplant recipients (18 male and 3 female patients, mean age 56.4 +/- 10.7 years). Pre-everolimus therapy creatinine levels, creatinine clearances, and glomerular filtration rates were 1.9 +/- 0.9 mg/dL, 54.2 +/- 18.1 mL/mins and 44.3 +/- 16.5 mL/min/m(2), respectively. We observed a significant reduction in creatinine levels (from 1.9 +/- 0.9 to 1.4 +/- 0.3 mg/dL, P = .022) as well as a significant improvement in creatinine clearances (from 54.2 +/- 18.1 to 69.0 +/- 19.0 mL/min, P = .020) and glomerular filtration rates (from 44.3 +/- 16.5 to 57.1 +/- 16.3 mL/min/m(2), P = .010) after 7 days of everolimus therapy. Upon univariate analysis patient age, pretransplantation creatinine clearance, creatinine clearance after everolimus introduction, glomerular filtration rate at 45 days, and time from transplantation were associated with renal improvement. Upon multivariate analysis, only creatinine clearance at 7 days was related to the renal improvement. These preliminary data suggested that everolimus with a low dose of CsA may be safe and effective to reduce CsA-related renal insufficiency among selected, heart transplant patients.

  1. How does audit and feedback influence intentions of health professionals to improve practice? A laboratory experiment and field study in cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Wouter T; van Engen-Verheul, Mariëtte M; van der Veer, Sabine N; de Keizer, Nicolette F; Peek, Niels

    2017-04-01

    To identify factors that influence the intentions of health professionals to improve their practice when confronted with clinical performance feedback, which is an essential first step in the audit and feedback mechanism. We conducted a theory-driven laboratory experiment with 41 individual professionals, and a field study in 18 centres in the context of a cluster-randomised trial of electronic audit and feedback in cardiac rehabilitation. Feedback reports were provided through a web-based application, and included performance scores and benchmark comparisons (high, intermediate or low performance) for a set of process and outcome indicators. From each report participants selected indicators for improvement into their action plan. Our unit of observation was an indicator presented in a feedback report (selected yes/no); we considered selecting an indicator to reflect an intention to improve. We analysed 767 observations in the laboratory experiment and 614 in the field study, respectively. Each 10% decrease in performance score increased the probability of an indicator being selected by 54% (OR, 1.54; 95% CI 1.29% to 1.83%) in the laboratory experiment, and 25% (OR, 1.25; 95% CI 1.13% to 1.39%) in the field study. Also, performance being benchmarked as low and intermediate increased this probability in laboratory settings. Still, participants ignored the benchmarks in 34% (laboratory experiment) and 48% (field study) of their selections. When confronted with clinical performance feedback, performance scores and benchmark comparisons influenced health professionals' intentions to improve practice. However, there was substantial variation in these intentions, because professionals disagreed with benchmarks, deemed improvement unfeasible or did not consider the indicator an essential aspect of care quality. These phenomena impede intentions to improve practice, and are thus likely to dilute the effects of audit and feedback interventions. NTR3251, pre

  2. Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang Protects Rats from Cardiac Damages Induced by Metabolic Disorder by Improving Inflammation-Mediated Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan Bao; Li, Xiao Xing; Chen, Yu Guo; Gao, Hai Qing; Bu, Pei Li; Zhang, Yun; Ji, Xiao Ping

    2013-01-01

    Huang-lian-jie-du-tang (HLJDT), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to improve insulin resistance (IR) induced by inflammation, a key event in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS). The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of HLJDT on MS and explore the underlying mechanism. MS rats were established with obese-diets and treated with normal saline, aspirin or HLJDT. The myocardial lesions were identified by echocardiogram, transmission electron microscope, and Sirius-red staining. The inflammatory cytokines were measured by ELISA and real-time PCR. The activation of NF-κB, JNK, SOCS3, IRS1 and AKT in the heart was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Compared with the controls, MS rats developed obvious obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, IR, inflammation, and cardiac damage. Moreover, phosphorylated IRS-1 at Ser307 was correlated with the activation of NF-κB, JNK and SOCS3 and the inhibition of AKT in the heart from MS rats. These data suggest that serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in response to inflammation is mediated, in part, by NF-κB, JNK and SOCS3. Notably, HLJDT inhibited the activation of NF-κB and reduced serine phosphorylation of IRS-1. In summary, HLJDT protects myocardium from IR-mediated injury by inhibiting serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in MS rats. PMID:23840732

  3. Information technology implementing globalization on strategies for quality care provided to children submitted to cardiac surgery: International Quality Improvement Collaborative Program - IQIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Adilia Maria Pires; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; Batigalia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Congenital heart diseases are the world's most common major birth defect, affecting one in every 120 children. Ninety percent of these children are born in areas where appropriate medical care is inadequate or unavailable. Objective To share knowledge and experience between an international center of excellence in pediatric cardiac surgery and a related program in Brazil. Methods The strategy used by the program was based on long-term technological and educational support models used in that center, contributing to the creation and implementation of new programs. The Telemedicine platform was used for real-time monthly broadcast of themes. A chat software was used for interaction between participating members and the group from the center of excellence. Results Professionals specialized in care provided to the mentioned population had the opportunity to share to the knowledge conveyed. Conclusion It was possible to observe that the technological resources that implement the globalization of human knowledge were effective in the dissemination and improvement of the team regarding the care provided to children with congenital heart diseases. PMID:24896168

  4. Information technology implementing globalization on strategies for quality care provided to children submitted to cardiac surgery: International Quality Improvement Collaborative Program--IQIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Adilia Maria Pires; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; Batigalia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Congenital heart diseases are the world's most common major birth defect, affecting one in every 120 children. Ninety percent of these children are born in areas where appropriate medical care is inadequate or unavailable. To share knowledge and experience between an international center of excellence in pediatric cardiac surgery and a related program in Brazil. The strategy used by the program was based on long-term technological and educational support models used in that center, contributing to the creation and implementation of new programs. The Telemedicine platform was used for real-time monthly broadcast of themes. A chat software was used for interaction between participating members and the group from the center of excellence. Professionals specialized in care provided to the mentioned population had the opportunity to share to the knowledge conveyed. It was possible to observe that the technological resources that implement the globalization of human knowledge were effective in the dissemination and improvement of the team regarding the care provided to children with congenital heart diseases.

  5. Characterization of respiratory and cardiac motion from electro-anatomical mapping data for improved fusion of MRI to left ventricular electrograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Roujol

    Full Text Available Accurate fusion of late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and electro-anatomical voltage mapping (EAM is required to evaluate the potential of MRI to identify the substrate of ventricular tachycardia. However, both datasets are not acquired at the same cardiac phase and EAM data is corrupted with respiratory motion limiting the accuracy of current rigid fusion techniques. Knowledge of cardiac and respiratory motion during EAM is thus required to enhance the fusion process. In this study, we propose a novel approach to characterize both cardiac and respiratory motion from EAM data using the temporal evolution of the 3D catheter location recorded from clinical EAM systems. Cardiac and respiratory motion components are extracted from the recorded catheter location using multi-band filters. Filters are calibrated for each EAM point using estimates of heart rate and respiratory rate. The method was first evaluated in numerical simulations using 3D models of cardiac and respiratory motions of the heart generated from real time MRI data acquired in 5 healthy subjects. An accuracy of 0.6-0.7 mm was found for both cardiac and respiratory motion estimates in numerical simulations. Cardiac and respiratory motions were then characterized in 27 patients who underwent LV mapping for treatment of ventricular tachycardia. Mean maximum amplitude of cardiac and respiratory motion was 10.2±2.7 mm (min = 5.5, max = 16.9 and 8.8±2.3 mm (min = 4.3, max = 14.8, respectively. 3D Cardiac and respiratory motions could be estimated from the recorded catheter location and the method does not rely on additional imaging modality such as X-ray fluoroscopy and can be used in conventional electrophysiology laboratory setting.

  6. Combined moderate and high intensity exercise with dietary restriction improves cardiac autonomic function associated with a reduction in central and systemic arterial stiffness in obese adults: a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study aimed to assess the effects of exercise with dietary restriction on cardiac autonomic activity, arterial stiffness, and cardiovascular biomarkers in obese individuals. Methods Seventeen obese adults completed an 8-week exercise and dietary program. Anthropometry, body composition, and multiple biochemical markers were measured. We used carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, central blood pressure, and augmentation index (AIx to assess arterial stiffness. To determine cardiac autonomic activity, heart rate variability (HRV was analyzed by standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN, square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to-normal intervals (RMSSD, total power (TF, low-frequency power in normalized units (LFnu, high-frequency power in normalized units (HFnu, and low-frequency power/high-frequency power (LF/HF. Results Following the exercise and diet intervention, obese subjects had significant reductions in body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, brachial systolic blood pressure, and resting heart rate, and they had shown improvements in blood chemistry markers such as lipid profiles, insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. There was a significant reduction in both cfPWV and baPWV following the intervention when compared to baseline levels. Moreover, the AIx and aortic systolic blood pressure were significantly reduced after the intervention. The diet and exercise intervention significantly increased cardiac autonomic modulation (determined by improved SDNN, RMSSD, TP LF, HF, and LF/HF, which was partly due to changes in heart rate, insulin resistance, and the inflammatory pattern. Furthermore, we observed a correlation between enhanced cardiac autonomic modulation (LF/HF and decreased arterial stiffness, as measured by central cfPWV and systemic baPWV. Discussion An 8-week combined intervention of diet and

  7. End-Tidal CO2-Guided Chest Compression Delivery Improves Survival in a Neonatal Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Justin T; Hamrick, Jennifer L; Bhalala, Utpal; Armstrong, Jillian S; Lee, Jeong-Hoo; Kulikowicz, Ewa; Lee, Jennifer K; Kudchadkar, Sapna R; Koehler, Raymond C; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Shaffner, Donald H

    2017-11-01

    To determine whether end-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery improves survival over standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation after prolonged asphyxial arrest. Preclinical randomized controlled study. University animal research laboratory. 1-2-week-old swine. After undergoing a 20-minute asphyxial arrest, animals received either standard or end-tidal CO2-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In the standard group, chest compression delivery was optimized by video and verbal feedback to maintain the rate, depth, and release within published guidelines. In the end-tidal CO2-guided group, chest compression rate and depth were adjusted to obtain a maximal end-tidal CO2 level without other feedback. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation included 10 minutes of basic life support followed by advanced life support for 10 minutes or until return of spontaneous circulation. Mean end-tidal CO2 at 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was 34 ± 8 torr in the end-tidal CO2 group (n = 14) and 19 ± 9 torr in the standard group (n = 14; p = 0.0001). The return of spontaneous circulation rate was 7 of 14 (50%) in the end-tidal CO2 group and 2 of 14 (14%) in the standard group (p = 0.04). The chest compression rate averaged 143 ± 10/min in the end-tidal CO2 group and 102 ± 2/min in the standard group (p CO2-guided chest compression delivery. The response of the relaxation arterial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure to the initial epinephrine administration was greater in the end-tidal CO2 group than in the standard group (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). The prevalence of resuscitation-related injuries was similar between groups. End-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery is an effective resuscitation method that improves early survival after prolonged asphyxial arrest in this neonatal piglet model. Optimizing end-tidal CO2 levels during cardiopulmonary resuscitation required that chest compression delivery rate exceed current guidelines. The

  8. Pip6-PMO, A New Generation of Peptide-oligonucleotide Conjugates With Improved Cardiac Exon Skipping Activity for DMD Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Betts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotides (AOs are currently the most promising therapeutic intervention for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. AOs modulate dystrophin pre-mRNA splicing, thereby specifically restoring the dystrophin reading frame and generating a truncated but semifunctional dystrophin protein. Challenges in the development of this approach are the relatively poor systemic AO delivery and inefficient dystrophin correction in affected non-skeletal muscle tissues, including the heart. We have previously reported impressive heart activity including high-splicing efficiency and dystrophin restoration following a single administration of an arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptide (CPPs conjugated to a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotide (PMO: Pip5e-PMO. However, the mechanisms underlying this activity are poorly understood. Here, we report studies involving single dose administration (12.5 mg/kg of derivatives of Pip5e-PMO, consecutively assigned as Pip6-PMOs. These peptide-PMOs comprise alterations to the central hydrophobic core of the Pip5e peptide and illustrate that certain changes to the peptide sequence improves its activity; however, partial deletions within the hydrophobic core abolish its efficiency. Our data indicate that the hydrophobic core of the Pip sequences is critical for PMO delivery to the heart and that specific modifications to this region can enhance activity further. The results have implications for therapeutic PMO development for DMD.

  9. Dipyridamole potentiated the trypanocidal effect of nifurtimox and improved the cardiac function in NMRI mice with acute chagasic myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santeliz, Sonia; Caicedo, Peter; Giraldo, Elidiosmar; Alvarez, Carmen; Yustiz, María-Daniela; Rodríguez-Bonfante, Claudina; Bonfante-Rodríguez, Romina; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    As chronic Chagas disease does not have a definitive treatment, the development of alternative therapeutic protocols is a priority. Dipyridamole (DPY) is an alternative to counteract the pathophysiological phenomena involved in Chagas cardiomyopathy. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of DPY associated with nifurtimox (Nfx) in epimastigote axenic cultures and in mice with acute Chagas disease. NMRI adult male mice were divided into nine groups: three healthy and six Trypanosoma cruzi-infected groups. Mice received vehicle, Nfx or DPY, alone or combined. The doses assayed were Nfx 10 and 40 mg/kg and DPY 30 mg/kg. The treatment efficacy was evaluated by clinical, electrocardiographic, parasitological, biochemical and histopathological methods. In vitro, DPY and Nfx had a trypanocidal effect with IC50 values of 372 ± 52 and 21.53 ± 2.13 µM, respectively; DPY potentiated the Nfx effect. In vivo, Nfx (40 mg/kg) with or without DPY had a therapeutic effect, which was reflected in the 84-92% survival rate and elimination of parasitaemia and heart tissue amastigotes. Nfx (10 mg/kg) had a subtherapeutic effect with no survival and persistence of amastigotes, inflammation and fibrosis in heart tissue; adding DPY increased the survival rate to 85%, and all tested parameters were significantly improved. DPY has a trypanocidal effect in vitro and enhances the Nfx therapeutic effect in an in vivo murine model.

  10. Dipyridamole potentiated the trypanocidal effect of nifurtimox and improved the cardiac function in NMRI mice with acute chagasic myocarditis

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    Sonia Santeliz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND As chronic Chagas disease does not have a definitive treatment, the development of alternative therapeutic protocols is a priority. Dipyridamole (DPY is an alternative to counteract the pathophysiological phenomena involved in Chagas cardiomyopathy. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of DPY associated with nifurtimox (Nfx in epimastigote axenic cultures and in mice with acute Chagas disease. METHODS NMRI adult male mice were divided into nine groups: three healthy and six Trypanosoma cruzi-infected groups. Mice received vehicle, Nfx or DPY, alone or combined. The doses assayed were Nfx 10 and 40 mg/kg and DPY 30 mg/kg. The treatment efficacy was evaluated by clinical, electrocardiographic, parasitological, biochemical and histopathological methods. FINDINGS In vitro, DPY and Nfx had a trypanocidal effect with IC50 values of 372 ± 52 and 21.53 ± 2.13 µM, respectively; DPY potentiated the Nfx effect. In vivo, Nfx (40 mg/kg with or without DPY had a therapeutic effect, which was reflected in the 84-92% survival rate and elimination of parasitaemia and heart tissue amastigotes. Nfx (10 mg/kg had a subtherapeutic effect with no survival and persistence of amastigotes, inflammation and fibrosis in heart tissue; adding DPY increased the survival rate to 85%, and all tested parameters were significantly improved. MAIN CONCLUSION DPY has a trypanocidal effect in vitro and enhances the Nfx therapeutic effect in an in vivo murine model.

  11. Reduction of radiation exposure and improvement of image quality with BMI-adapted prospective cardiac computed tomography and iterative reconstruction

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    Hosch, Waldemar, E-mail: waldemar.hosch@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Stiller, Wolfram [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Mueller, Dirk [Philips GmbH Healthcare Division, Hamburg (Germany); Gitsioudis, Gitsios [University of Heidelberg, Department of Cardiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Welzel, Johanna; Dadrich, Monika [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Buss, Sebastian J.; Giannitsis, Evangelos [University of Heidelberg, Department of Cardiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans U. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Katus, Hugo A. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Cardiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Korosoglou, Grigorios, E-mail: gkorosoglou@hotmail.com [University of Heidelberg, Department of Cardiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact of body mass index (BMI)-adapted protocols and iterative reconstruction algorithms (iDose) on patient radiation exposure and image quality in patients undergoing prospective ECG-triggered 256-slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Methods: Image quality and radiation exposure were systematically analyzed in 100 patients. 60 Patients underwent prospective ECG-triggered CCTA using a non-tailored protocol and served as a 'control' group (Group 1: 120 kV, 200 mA s). 40 Consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent prospective CCTA, using BMI-adapted tube voltage and standard (Group 2: 100/120 kV, 100-200 mA s) versus reduced tube current (Group 3: 100/120 kV, 75-150 mA s). Iterative reconstructions were provided with different iDose levels and were compared to filtered back projection (FBP) reconstructions. Image quality was assessed in consensus of 2 experienced observers and using a 5-grade scale (1 = best to 5 = worse), and signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios (SNR and CNR) were quantified. Results: CCTA was performed without adverse events in all patients (n = 100, heart rate of 47-87 bpm and BMI of 19-38 kg/m{sup 2}). Patients examined using the non-tailored protocol in Group 1 had the highest radiation exposure (3.2 {+-} 0.4 mSv), followed by Group 2 (1.7 {+-} 0.7 mSv) and Group 3 (1.2 {+-} 0.6 mSv) (radiation savings of 47% and 63%, respectively, p < 0.001). Iterative reconstructions provided increased SNR and CNR, particularly when higher iDose level 5 was applied with Multi-Frequency reconstruction (iDose5 MFR) (14.1 {+-} 4.6 versus 21.2 {+-} 7.3 for SNR and 12.0 {+-} 4.2 versus 18.1 {+-} 6.6 for CNR, for FBP versus iDose5 MFR, respectively, p < 0.001). The combination of BMI adaptation with iterative reconstruction reduced radiation exposure and simultaneously improved image quality (subjective image quality of 1.4 {+-} 0.4 versus 1.9 {+-} 0.5 for Group 2 reconstructed using

  12. Transcranial direct current stimulation improves the QT variability index and autonomic cardiac control in healthy subjects older than 60 years

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    Piccirillo G

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gianfranco Piccirillo,1 Cristina Ottaviani,2 Claudia Fiorucci,1 Nicola Petrocchi,2 Federica Moscucci,1 Claudia Di Iorio,1 Fabiola Mastropietri,1 Ilaria Parrotta,1 Matteo Pascucci,1 Damiano Magrì3 1Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nephrological, Anestesiological and Geriatric Sciences, “Sapienza” University, 2Neuroimaging Laboratory, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, 3Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy Background: Noninvasive brain stimulation technique is an interesting tool to investigate the causal relation between cortical functioning and autonomic nervous system (ANS responses. Objective: The objective of this report is to evaluate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the temporal cortex influences short-period temporal ventricular repolarization dispersion and cardiovascular ANS control in elderly subjects. Subjects and methods: In 50 healthy subjects (29 subjects younger than 60 years and 21 subjects older than 60 years matched for gender, short-period RR and systolic blood pressure spectral variability, QT variability index (QTVI, and noninvasive hemodynamic data were obtained during anodal tDCS or sham stimulation. Results: In the older group, the QTVI, low-frequency (LF power expressed in normalized units, the ratio between LF and high-frequency (HF power, and systemic peripheral resistances decreased, whereas HF power expressed in normalized units and α HF power increased during the active compared to the sham condition (P<0.05. Conclusion: In healthy subjects older than 60 years, tDCS elicits cardiovascular and autonomic changes. Particularly, it improves temporal ventricular repolarization dispersion, reduces sinus sympathetic activity and systemic peripheral resistance, and increases vagal sinus activity and baroreflex sensitivity. Keywords: transcranial direct current stimulation, QT variability, heart rate variability

  13. [Cardiac screening of young athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokstad, Magnus Thue; Berge, Hilde Moseby; Gjesdal, Knut

    2013-09-03

    Young athletes are at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death compared to others. Cardiac screening has been proposed to prevent deaths. We wished to review the evidence for cardiac screening of young athletes. We have conducted a literature search in PubMed on sudden cardiac death in young athletes, using a combination of search terms related to screening, incidence, cost efficiency and recommendations, supplemented by secondary references and articles from our own archive. Published studies utilise a variety of definitions of athlete and sudden death, and some studies also include cardiac arrest with subsequent successful resuscitation. Retrospective studies, often based on media searches, remain the most common form. The cause of death is not invariably determined by an autopsy. Recommendations in favour of screening are based on studies of limited quality and on the personal, often regional, experiences of experts. The differences in study methods result in uncertain incidence figures. The estimates of cost efficiency are therefore questionable. To improve the quality of knowledge, standardised methods need to be devised, ideally also including a register of cardiac arrest in children and young people. To date, we have insufficient knowledge to recommend mandatory cardiac screening with ECG in Norway. Should this be introduced, it should be differentiated according to gender, type of sport and competition level. Cost efficiency could probably be improved with the aid of standardised questionnaires and a standardised interpretation of ECG among athletes.

  14. Cobalt Protoporphyrin Improves Heart Function by Attenuating Cardiac Beta-oxidation and Restoring Redox Balance in an Animal Model of Experimental Diabetes

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    Jian eCao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial dysfunction and coronary macro/microvascular alterations are the hallmarks of diabetic cardiomyopathy and are ascribed to increased oxidative stress and altered nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity. We hypothesize that pretreatment by cobalt-protoporphyrin IX (CoPP ameliorates both myocardial function and coronary circulation in streptozotocin(STZ-induced diabetic rats. Isolated hearts from diabetic rats in Langendorff configuration displayed lower left ventricular (LV function and higher coronary resistance (CR compared to hearts from control animals. CoPP treatment of diabetic animals (0.3mg/100g body weight i.p., once a week for three weeks significantly increased all the contractile/relaxation indexes (p<0.01, while decreasing CR (p<0.01. CoPP enhanced HO-1 protein levels and reduced oxidative/nitrosative stress in diabetic animals, as indicated by the significant (p<0.05 decrease in heart GSSG/GSHtotal, O2-, malondialdehyde (MDA, and 3-nitrotyrosine levels. CoPP increased adiponectin levels and phosphorylation of AKT and AMPK and reversed the eNOS/iNOS expression imbalance observed in the untreated diabetic heart. Furthermore, after CoPP treatment, a rise in malonylCoA as well as a decrease in acetylCoA was observed in diabetic hearts. In this experimental model of diabetic cardiomyopathy, CoPP treatment improved both cardiac function and coronary flow by blunting oxidative/nitrosative stress, restoring eNOS/ iNOS expression balance and increasing HO-1 levels, thereby favoring improvement in both endothelial function and insulin sensitivity.

  15. A handoff protocol from the cardiovascular operating room to cardiac ICU is associated with improvements in care beyond the immediate postoperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmnan, Jon; Twite, Mark; Barrett, Cindy; Peyton, Christine; Koehler, Julianne; Rannie, Michael; Kahn, Michael G; Schofield, Samuel; Ing, Richard J; Jaggers, James; Hyman, Daniel; da Cruz, Eduardo M

    2013-07-01

    Handoff protocols from the cardiovascular operating room (CVOR) to the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) can improve patient outcomes and delivery of care beyond the immediate postoperative period. In a prospective quality improvement study, a structured CVOR-to-CICU handoff protocol was implemented at a university-affiliated children's hospital. As a parallel project, an initiative to reduce unplanned extubations in the CICU was implemented. In a 41-month period, 1,507 neonates, infants, children, and adults were admitted to the CICU from the CVOR after undergoing a surgical procedure. The study was divided into a 17-month prehandoff-protocol period (January 2009-May 2010) and a 24-month posthandoff-protocol period (June 2010-May 2012). The handoff protocol was intended to streamline the handoff process from the CVOR and throughout the transition to the CICU. The specifics of the handoff, as outlined in a bedside laminated flowchart, included patient transport from the CVOR, the cardiovascular surgeon's report, the anesthesiologist's report, and the patient status summary and care plan. After introduction of the handoff protocol, there was a statistically significant and sustained reduction in the mean rate of unplanned extubations from 0.62 to 0.24 per 100 ventilator-days (p = .03). There was a statistically significant reduction in median ventilator time per patient--from 17 hours (interquartile range [IQR]: 5.3 to 57.7) to 12.8 hours (IQR: 4.8 to 31.8); p = .02). The mean rate of unplanned extubations was 0.26 in 2011 and 0.30 in 2012. Implementation of a handoff protocol from the CVOR to the CICU was associated with sustained decrease in unplanned extubations and in mean ventilator times.

  16. What is needed to implement a web-based audit and feedback intervention with outreach visits to improve care quality: A concept mapping study among cardiac rehabilitation teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engen-Verheul, Mariëtte M; Peek, Niels; Haafkens, Joke A; Joukes, Erik; Vromen, Tom; Jaspers, Monique W M; de Keizer, Nicolette F

    2017-01-01

    Evidence on successful quality improvement (QI) in health care requires quantitative information from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on the effectiveness of QI interventions, but also qualitative information from professionals to understand factors influencing QI implementation. Using a structured qualitative approach, concept mapping, this study determines factors identified by cardiac rehabilitation (CR) teams on what is needed to successfully implement a web-based audit and feedback (A&F) intervention with outreach visits to improve the quality of CR care. Participants included 49 CR professionals from 18 Dutch CR centres who had worked with the A&F system during a RCT. In three focus group sessions participants formulated statements on factors needed to implement QI successfully. Subsequently, participants rated all statements for importance and feasibility and grouped them thematically. Multi dimensional scaling was used to produce a final concept map. Forty-two unique statements were formulated and grouped into five thematic clusters in the concept map. The cluster with the highest importance was QI team commitment, followed by organisational readiness, presence of an adequate A&F system, access to an external quality assessor, and future use and functionalities of the A&F system. Concept mapping appeared efficient and useful to understand contextual factors influencing QI implementation as perceived by healthcare teams. While presence of a web-based A&F system and external quality assessor were seen as instrumental for gaining insight into performance and formulating QI actions, QI team commitment and organisational readiness were perceived as essential to actually implement and carry out these actions. These two sociotechnical factors should be taken into account when implementing and evaluating the success of QI implementations in future research. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Remodelling of cardiac sympathetic re-innervation with thoracic spinal cord stimulation improves left ventricular function in a porcine model of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Song-Yan; Liu, Yuan; Zuo, Mingliang; Zhang, Yuelin; Yue, Wensheng; Au, Ka-Wing; Lai, Wing-Hon; Wu, Yangsong; Shuto, Chika; Chen, Peter; Siu, Chung-Wah; Schwartz, Peter J; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2015-12-01

    Thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to improve left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in heart failure (HF). Nevertheless, the optimal duration (intermittent vs. continuous) of stimulation and the mechanisms of action remain unclear. We performed chronic thoracic SCS at the level of T1-T3 (50 Hz, pulse width 0.2 ms) in 30 adult pigs with HF induced by myocardial infarction and rapid ventricular pacing for 4 weeks. All the animals were treated with daily oral metoprolol succinate (25 mg) plus ramipril (2.5 mg), and randomized to a control group (n = 10), intermittent SCS (4 h ×3, n = 10) or continuous SCS (24 h, n = 10) for 10 weeks. Serial measurements of LVEF and +dP/dt and serum levels of norepinephrine and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured. After sacrifice, immunohistological studies of myocardial sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve sprouting and innervation were performed. Echocardiogram revealed a significant increase in LVEF and +dP/dt at 10 weeks in both the intermittent and continuous SCS group compared with controls (P < 0.05). In both SCS groups, there was diffuse sympathetic nerve sprouting over the infarct, peri-infarct, and normal regions compared with only the peri-infarct and infarct regions in the control group. In addition, sympathetic innervation at the peri-infarct and infarct regions was increased following SCS, but decreased in the control group. Myocardium norepinephrine spillover and serum BNP at 10 weeks was significantly decreased only in the continuous SCS group (P < 0.05). In a porcine model of HF, SCS induces significant remodelling of cardiac sympathetic innervation over the peri-infarct and infarct regions and is associated with improved LV function and reduced myocardial norepinephrine spillover. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Adding the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator to cardiac resynchronization therapy is associated with improved long-term survival in ischaemic, but not in non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Christoffer Tobias; Kronborg, Mads Brix; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Mortensen, Peter Thomas; Gerdes, Christian; Jensen, Henrik Kjærulf; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves symptoms, left ventricular function, and survival in patients with heart failure (HF) and wide QRS. The benefit of adding implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) backup is debated. We analysed the long-term outcome of patients with HF due to ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) or non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) treated with a CRT device with or without defibrillator backup. In this observational study, consecutive patients with an ejection fraction ≤35% and QRS width ≥120 ms receiving a CRT device at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark from 2000 to 2010 were included. Baseline characteristics were retrieved from patient files and survival data were obtained from the Danish Civil Registration System. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The effect of ICD backup was estimated using Cox proportional hazards model, and the multivariate analyses were adjusted for a priori selected variables. We included 917 HF patients, 427 with NICM, and 490 with ICM. Median follow-up was 4.0 years. Adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for all-cause mortality was 0.76 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.60-0.97; P = 0.03] in all patients; 0.96 (95% CI, 0.60-1.51; P = 0.85) in patients with NICM, and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.56-0.97; P = 0.03) in patients with ICM. In patients with NICM, ICD backup seemed to be associated with improved survival among non-responders to CRT (P = 0.08), but not among responders (P = 0.61). Adding an ICD backup is associated with better survival in CRT recipients. This effect was evident among patients with ICM, but not in patients with NICM. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Xenotransplantation of Human Cardiomyocyte Progenitor Cells Does Not Improve Cardiac Function in a Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure. Results from a Randomized, Blinded, Placebo Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne J Jansen of Lorkeers

    Full Text Available Recently cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPCs were successfully isolated from fetal and adult human hearts. Direct intramyocardial injection of human CMPCs (hCMPCs in experimental mouse models of acute myocardial infarction significantly improved cardiac function compared to controls.Here, our aim was to investigate whether xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of fetal hCMPCs in a pig model of chronic myocardial infarction is safe and efficacious, in view of translation purposes.We performed a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled trial. Four weeks after ischemia/reperfusion injury by 90 minutes of percutaneous left anterior descending artery occlusion, pigs (n = 16, 68.5 ± 5.4 kg received intracoronary infusion of 10 million fetal hCMPCs or placebo. All animals were immunosuppressed by cyclosporin (CsA. Four weeks after infusion, endpoint analysis by MRI displayed no difference in left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end diastolic and left ventricular end systolic volumes between both groups. Serial pressure volume (PV-loop and echocardiography showed no differences in functional parameters between groups at any timepoint. Infarct size at follow-up, measured by late gadolinium enhancement MRI showed no difference between groups. Intracoronary pressure and flow measurements showed no signs of coronary obstruction 30 minutes after cell infusion. No premature death occurred in cell treated animals.Xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of hCMPCs is feasible and safe, but not associated with improved left ventricular performance and infarct size compared to placebo in a porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction.

  20. Combining Amplitude Spectrum Area with Previous Shock Information Using Neural Networks Improves Prediction Performance of Defibrillation Outcome for Subsequent Shocks in Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients.

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    Mi He

    Full Text Available Quantitative ventricular fibrillation (VF waveform analysis is a potentially powerful tool to optimize defibrillation. However, whether combining VF features with additional attributes that related to the previous shock could enhance the prediction performance for subsequent shocks is still uncertain.A total of 528 defibrillation shocks from 199 patients experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were analyzed in this study. VF waveform was quantified using amplitude spectrum area (AMSA from defibrillator's ECG recordings prior to each shock. Combinations of AMSA with previous shock index (PSI or/and change of AMSA (ΔAMSA between successive shocks were exercised through a training dataset including 255shocks from 99patientswith neural networks. Performance of the combination methods were compared with AMSA based single feature prediction by area under receiver operating characteristic curve(AUC, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and prediction accuracy (PA through a validation dataset that was consisted of 273 shocks from 100patients.A total of61 (61.0% patients required subsequent shocks (N = 173 in the validation dataset. Combining AMSA with PSI and ΔAMSA obtained highest AUC (0.904 vs. 0.819, p<0.001 among different combination approaches for subsequent shocks. Sensitivity (76.5% vs. 35.3%, p<0.001, NPV (90.2% vs. 76.9%, p = 0.007 and PA (86.1% vs. 74.0%, p = 0.005were greatly improved compared with AMSA based single feature prediction with a threshold of 90% specificity.In this retrospective study, combining AMSA with previous shock information using neural networks greatly improves prediction performance of defibrillation outcome for subsequent shocks.

  1. TIME-COURSE OF HEMODYNAMIC-CHANGES AND IMPROVEMENT OF EXERCISE TOLERANCE AFTER CARDIOVERSION OF CHRONIC ATRIAL-FIBRILLATION UNASSOCIATED WITH CARDIAC-VALVE DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANGELDER, IC; CRIJNS, HJGM; BLANKSMA, PK; LANDSMAN, MLJ; POSMA, JL; VANDENBERG, MP; MEIJLER, FL; LIE, KI

    1993-01-01

    This study prospectively assessed the time course, magnitude and mechanism of the hemodynamic changes after restoration of sinus rhythm in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) unassociated with valvular disease. Severe cardiac dysfunction may occur after chronic supraventricular

  2. Time course of hemodynamic changes and improvement of exercise tolerance after cardioversion of chronic atrial fibrillation unassociated with cardiac valve disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, I.C. van; Crijns, H.J.G.M.; Blanksma, P.K.; Landsman, M.L.J.; Posma, J.L.; Berg, M.P. van den; Meijler, F.L.; Lie, K.I.

    1993-01-01

    This study prospectively assessed the time course, magnitude and mechanism of the hemodynamic changes after restoration of sinus rhythm in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) unassociated with valvular disease. Severe cardiac dysfunction may occur after chronic

  3. [Experimental therapy of cardiac remodeling with quercetin-containing drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, M A; Pavlyuchenko, V B; Tumanovskaya, L V; Dosenko, V E; Moybenko, A A

    2013-01-01

    It was shown that continuous beta-adrenergic hyperstimulation resulted in cardiac function disturbances and fibrosis of cardiac tissue. Treatment with quercetin-containing drugs, particularly, water-soluble corvitin and tableted quertin exerted favourable effect on cardiac hemodynamics, normalized systolic and diastolic function in cardiac remodeling, induced by sustained beta-adrenergic stimulation. It was estimated that conducted experimental therapy limited cardiac fibrosis area almost three-fold, that could be associated with first and foremost improved cardiac distensibility, characteristics of diastolic and also pump function in cardiac remodeling.

  4. Addition of copeptin improves diagnostic performance of point-of-care testing (POCT) for cardiac troponin T in early rule-out of myocardial infarction - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaie, Mehrshad; Biener, Moritz; Mueller, Matthias; Abu Sharar, Haitham; Hartmann, Oliver; Hertel, Sabine; Katus, Hugo A; Giannitsis, Evangelos

    2015-11-01

    Point of care testing (POCT) assays for cardiac troponin (cTn) are hampered by lower analytical sensitivity and thus suboptimal rule-out of myocardial infarction (MI). We investigated, whether additional measurement of copeptin using an ultrasensitive assay improves diagnostic performance of POCT for cTn T compared to a high sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) assay. 131 patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome were prospectively enrolled in our center 08/2010 to 11/2011. In blood samples obtained at presentation, ultrasensitive copeptin (Kryptor, BRAHMS) and two commercially available POCT assays, AQT90 Flex Radiometer (Radiometer) and Cobas h232 POC-System (Cobas), were tested. HsTnT (Cobas E411, Roche) at baseline and after 3 and 6h in the central laboratory served as reference. Copeptin improved rule-out of non-STEMI combined with all tested troponin assays. Addition of copeptin increased sensitivity of Cobas from 67.9% (95% CI: 0.506; 0.852) to 89.3% (95% CI: 0.778; 1.007) and Radiometer from 71.4% (95% CI: 0.547; 0.882) to 85.7% (95% CI: 0.728; 0.987), achieving the sensitivity of hsTnT alone at admission of 85.7% (95% CI: 0.728; 0.987). The area under the curve (AUC) of Radiometer (0.822) was numerically but insignificantly (p=0.17) higher than AUC of Cobas (0.725). Addition of copeptin increased AUC of Radiometer to 0.826 (p=0.96) and AUC of Cobas to 0.814 (p=0.20). Additional use of ultrasensitive copeptin improves diagnostic performance of conventional sensitive POCT assays overcoming lower sensitivities at the cost of a drop of clinical specificity. When hsTn is temporarily unavailable, copeptin and POCT for cTn may allow initial evaluation at a comparable performance as hsTnT at admission. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Allogeneic transplantation of fetal membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cell sheets increases neovascularization and improves cardiac function after myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikane, Shin; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Yamahara, Kenichi; Akitake, Yoshiharu; Kyoungsook, Jung; Mishima, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Fujiwara, Michihiro; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji; Ikeda, Tomoaki

    2013-10-27

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has been pursued as a new method to repair damaged myocardium. We focused on the fetal membrane (FM) as an alternative source to bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs. In this study, we investigated whether transplantation of allogeneic FM-MSC sheets could attenuate myocardial dysfunction in a rat chronic myocardial infarction (MI) model. Sheets of allogeneic FM-MSC or autologous BM-MSC were transplanted into the scarred myocardium 4 weeks after coronary ligation. Four weeks after transplantation, both allogeneic FM-MSC and autologous BM-MSC sheets had significantly improved cardiac function and reduced myocardial fibrosis compared with the untreated MI group. In both MSC sheet-transplanted groups, the peri-infarct regional capillary density was increased. Some engrafted MSCs formed vascular structures and were positive for lectin I and α-smooth muscle actin. The numbers of engrafted cells and differentiated cells were very low after both types of MSC sheet transplantation. CD3 T cells did not increase in the transplantation site, but CD163 M2 macrophages increased in the groups transplanted with allogeneic FM-MSC and autologous BM-MSC. Transplantation of allogeneic FM-MSC or autologous BM-MSC sheets attenuated myocardial dysfunction in a rat MI model to a similar degree. The engraftment rate of transplanted cells and immune cell infiltration into the transplanted area did not differ between the two types of MSC transplants. M2 macrophage induction has possible involvement in the therapeutic effects of MSC transplantation. Allogeneic FM-MSC sheet transplantation might be a new therapeutic strategy after MI.

  6. Longer right to left ventricular activation delay at cardiac resynchronization therapy implantation is associated with improved clinical outcome in left bundle branch block patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosztin, Annamaria; Kutyifa, Valentina; Nagy, Vivien Klaudia; Geller, Laszlo; Zima, Endre; Molnar, Levente; Szilagyi, Szabolcs; Ozcan, Emin Evren; Szeplaki, Gabor; Merkely, Bela

    2016-04-01

    Data on longer right to left ventricular activation delay (RV-LV AD) predicting clinical outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) by left bundle branch block (LBBB) are limited. We aimed to evaluate the impact of RV-LV AD on N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), ejection fraction (EF), and clinical outcome in patients implanted with CRT, stratified by LBBB at baseline. Heart failure (HF) patients undergoing CRT implantation with EF ≤ 35% and QRS ≥ 120 ms were evaluated based on their RV-LV AD at implantation. Baseline and 6-month clinical parameters, EF, and NT-proBNP values were assessed. The primary endpoint was HF or death, the secondary endpoint was all-cause mortality. A total of 125 patients with CRT were studied, 62% had LBBB. During the median follow-up of 2.2 years, 44 (35%) patients had HF/death, 36 (29%) patients died. Patients with RV-LV AD ≥ 86 ms (lower quartile) had significantly lower risk of HF/death [hazard ratio (HR): 0.44; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.23-0.82; P = 0.001] and all-cause mortality (HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.23-1.00; P = 0.05), compared with those with RV-LV AD bundle branch block patients with longer RV-LV activation delay at CRT implantation had greater improvement in NT-proBNP, EF, and significantly better clinical outcome. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  7. Daily Oxygen/O3 Treatment Reduces Muscular Fatigue and Improves Cardiac Performance in Rats Subjected to Prolonged High Intensity Physical Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Di Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rats receiving daily intraperitoneal administration of O2 and running on a treadmill covered an average distance of 482.8 ± 21.8 m/week as calculated during 5-week observation. This distance was increased in rats receiving daily intraperitoneal administration of an oxygen/O3 mixture at a dose of 100; 150; and 300 μg/kg with the maximum increase being +34.5% at 300 μg/kg and still present after stopping the administration of oxygen/O3. Oxygen/O3 decreased the mean arterial blood pressure (−13%, the heart rate (−6%, the gastrocnemius and cardiac hypertrophy, and fibrosis and reduced by 49% the left ventricular mass and relative wall thickness measurements. Systolic and diastolic functions were improved in exercised oxygen/O3 rats compared to O2 rats. Oxygen/O3 treatment led to higher MPI index starting from the dose of 150 μg/kg (p<0.05 and more effective (+14% at a dose of 300 μg/kg oxygen/O3. Oxygen/O3 dose-dependently increased the expression of the antioxidant enzymes Mn-SOD and GPx1 and of eNOS compared to the exercised O2 rats. The same doses resulted in decrease of LDH levels, CPK, TnI, and nitrotyrosine concentration in the heart and gastrocnemius tissues, arguing a beneficial effect of the ozone molecule against the fatigue induced by a prolonged high intensity exercise.

  8. Carbon monoxide releasing molecule-3 improves myocardial function in mice with sepsis by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation in cardiac fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Tao, Aibin; Lan, Ting; Cepinskas, Gediminas; Kao, Raymond; Martin, Claudio M; Rui, Tao

    2017-03-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is an intracellular multiple-protein complex that controls the maturation and release of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) is anti-inflammatory. The aim of this study was to assess the effects/mechanisms of CO-releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3)-dependent modulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in cardiac fibroblasts (CF) and its effect on myocardial function in sepsis. CF were treated with CORM-3 or inactive CORM-3 (iCORM-3) before NLRP3 inflammasome priming with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or following activation with adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In parallel, cardiomyocytes (CM) were challenged with supernatants of LPS/ATP-stimulated CF or a cytokine mixture (Cyto-mix) containing IL-1β, IL-18, and HMGB1. In vivo, mice were treated with CORM-3 before or after LPS to induce sepsis (endotoxemia). Pretreatment of CF with CORM-3 prevented an LPS-induced increase in NLRP3 and pro-IL-1β expression. Treatment of CF with CORM-3 before ATP prevented ATP-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Challenging CF with LPS/ATP promoted NLRP3 interactions with adaptor ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain), which was prevented by CORM-3. Challenging CM with supernatants of CF with LPS/ATP or Cyto-mix (IL-1β, IL-18, and HMGB1) resulted in CM apoptosis, which was attenuated with either a CORM-3 or IL-1 receptor antagonist. Finally, myocardial NLRP3 inflammasome activation and myocardial dysfunction in septic mice were abolished by CORM-3. In NLRP3-deficient mice with sepsis, CORM-3 did not show additional benefits in improving myocardial function. Our results indicate that CORM-3 suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome activation by blocking NLRP3 interactions with the adaptor protein ASC and attenuates myocardial dysfunction in mice with sepsis.

  9. Left Ventricular Lead Placement Targeted at the Latest Activated Site Guided by Electrophysiological Mapping in Coronary Sinus Branches Improves Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanchun; Yu, Haibo; Zhou, Weiwei; Xu, Guoqing; Sun, Y I; Liu, Rong; Wang, Zulu; Han, Yaling

    2015-12-01

    Electrophysiological mapping (EPM) in coronary sinus (CS) branches is feasible for guiding LV lead placement to the optimal, latest activated site at cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) procedures. However, whether this procedure optimizes the response to CRT has not been demonstrated. This study was to evaluate effects of targeting LV lead at the latest activated site guided by EPM during CRT. Seventy-six consecutive patients with advanced heart failure who were referred for CRT were divided into mapping (MG) and control groups (CG). In MG, the LV lead, also used as a mapping bipolar electrode, was placed at the latest activated site determined by EPM in CS branches. In CG, conventional CRT procedure was performed. Patients were followed for 6 months after CRT. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the 2 groups. In MG (n = 29), EPM was successfully performed in 85 of 91 CS branches during CRT. A LV lead was successfully placed at the latest activated site guided by EPM in 27 (93.1%) patients. Compared with CG (n = 47), MG had a significantly higher rate (86.2% vs. 63.8%, P = 0.039) of response (>15% reduction in LV end-systolic volume) to CRT, a higher percentage of patients with clinical improvement of ≥2 NYHA functional classes (72.4% vs. 44.7%, P = 0.032), and a shorter QRS duration (P = 0.004). LV lead placed at the latest activated site guided by EPM resulted in a significantly greater CRT response, and a shorter QRS duration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Use of antidepressant serotoninergic medications and cardiac valvulopathy: a nested case–control study in the health improvement network (THIN) database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, Francesco; Nicotra, Federica; Scotti, Lorenza; Vannacci, Alfredo; Thompson, Mary; Pieri, Francesco; Mugelli, Niccolò; Zambon, Antonella; Corrao, Giovanni; Mugelli, Alessandro; Rubino, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    AIMS To quantify the risk of cardiac valvulopathy (CV) associated with the use of antidepressant serotoninergic medications (SMs). METHODS We conducted a case–control study nested in a cohort of users of antidepressant SMs selected from The Health Improvement Network database. Patients who experienced a CV event during follow-up were cases. Cases were ascertained in a random sample of them. Up to 10 controls were matched to each case by sex, age, month and year of the study entry. Use of antidepressant SMs during follow-up was defined as current (the last prescription for antidepressant SMs occurred in the 2 months before the CV event), recent (in the 2–12 months before the CV event) and past (>12 months before the CV event). We fitted a conditional regression model to estimate the association between use of antidepressant SMs and the risk of CV by means of odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of our results. RESULTS The study cohort included 752 945 subjects aged 18–89 years. Throughout follow-up, 1663 cases (incidence rate: 3.4 per 10 000 person-years) of CV were detected and were matched to 16 566 controls. The adjusted OR (95% CI) for current and recent users compared with past users of antidepressant SMs were 1.16 (0.96–1.40) and 1.06 (0.93–1.22), respectively. Consistent effect estimates were obtained when considering cumulative exposure to antidepressant SMs during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS These results would suggest that exposure to antidepressant SMs is not associated with an increased risk of CV. PMID:22356433

  11. Repetitive optimizing left ventricular pacing configurations with quadripolar leads improves response to cardiac resynchronization therapy: A single-center randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Min; Jin, Han; Hua, Wei; Fan, Xiao-Han; Ding, Li-Gang; Wang, Jing; Niu, Hong-Xia; Cai, Chi; Zhang, Shu

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether repetitive optimizing left ventricular pacing configurations (LVPCs) with quadripolar leads (QUAD) can improve response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Fifty-two eligible patients were enrolled and 1:1 randomized to either the quadripolar LV leads (QUAD) group or the conventional bipolar leads (CONV) group. In the QUAD group, optimization of LVPC was performed for all patients before discharge and for nonresponders at 3 months follow-up. Clinical evaluations and transthoracic echocardiograms were performed before, 3, and 6 months after CRT implantation. At 3 months follow-up, 16 of 25 (64%) patients in the CONV group (1 patient was lost to follow-up) and 18 of 26 (69%) patients in the QUAD group were classified as responders. After optimizing the LVPCs in 3-month nonresponders in the QUAD group, 21 of 26 (80.8%) patients in the QUAD group were classified as responders at 6 months as compared with 17 of 25 (68%) patients in the CONV group. Left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) reduction, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) increase, and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class reduction at 6 months were significantly greater in the QUAD group than in the CONV group (LVESV: -26.9 ± 13.8 vs -17.2 ± 13.3%; P = .013; LVEF: +12.7 ± 8.0 vs +7.8 ± 6.3 percentage points; P = .017; NYHA: -1.27 ± 0.67 vs -0.72 ± 0.54 functional classes; P = .002). Compared with conventional bipolar leads, CRT using quadripolar leads with repetitive optimized LVPCs resulted in an additional increase in LVEF and reduction in LVESV and NYHA functional class at 6-month follow-up.

  12. The continuous quality improvement project for telephone-assisted instruction of cardiopulmonary resuscitation increased the incidence of bystander CPR and improved the outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Junro; Wato, Yukihiro; Yoshida, Yutaka; Inaba, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    In 2007, the Ishikawa Medical Control Council initiated the continuous quality improvement (CQI) project for telephone-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (telephone-CPR), which included instruction on chest-compression-only CPR, education on how to recognise out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) with agonal breathing, emesis and convulsion, recommendations for on-line or redialling instructions and feedback from emergency physicians. This study aimed to investigate the effect of this project on the incidence of bystander CPR and the outcomes of OHCAs. The baseline data were prospectively collected on 4995 resuscitation-attempted OHCAs, which were recognised or witnessed by citizens rather than emergency medical technicians during the period of February 2004 to March 2010. The incidence of telephone-CPR and bystander CPR, as well as the outcomes of the OHCAs, was compared before and after the project. The incidence of telephone-CPR and bystander CPR significantly increased after the project (from 42% to 62% and from 41% to 56%, respectively). The incidence of failed telephone-CPR due to human factors significantly decreased from 30% to 16%. The outcomes of OHCAs significantly improved after the projects. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the CQI project is one of the independent factors associated with one-year (1-Y) survival with favourable neurological outcomes (odds ratio=1.81, 95% confidence interval=1.20-2.76). The CQI project for telephone-CPR increased the incidence of bystander CPR and improved the outcome of OHCAs. A CQI project appeared to be essential to augment the effects of telephone-CPR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling Major Adverse Outcomes of Pediatric and Adult Patients With Congenital Heart Disease Undergoing Cardiac Catheterization: Observations From the NCDR IMPACT Registry (National Cardiovascular Data Registry Improving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Natalie; Spertus, John A; Kennedy, Kevin F; Vincent, Robert; Martin, Gerard R; Curtis, Jeptha P; Nykanen, David; Moore, Phillip M; Bergersen, Lisa

    2017-11-21

    Risk standardization for adverse events after congenital cardiac catheterization is needed to equitably compare patient outcomes among different hospitals as a foundation for quality improvement. The goal of this project was to develop a risk-standardization methodology to adjust for patient characteristics when comparing major adverse outcomes in the NCDR's (National Cardiovascular Data Registry) IMPACT Registry (Improving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment). Between January 2011 and March 2014, 39 725 consecutive patients within IMPACT undergoing cardiac catheterization were identified. Given the heterogeneity of interventional procedures for congenital heart disease, new procedure-type risk categories were derived with empirical data and expert opinion, as were markers of hemodynamic vulnerability. A multivariable hierarchical logistic regression model to identify patient and procedural characteristics predictive of a major adverse event or death after cardiac catheterization was derived in 70% of the cohort and validated in the remaining 30%. The rate of major adverse event or death was 7.1% and 7.2% in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. Six procedure-type risk categories and 6 independent indicators of hemodynamic vulnerability were identified. The final risk adjustment model included procedure-type risk category, number of hemodynamic vulnerability indicators, renal insufficiency, single-ventricle physiology, and coagulation disorder. The model had good discrimination, with a C-statistic of 0.76 and 0.75 in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. Model calibration in the validation cohort was excellent, with a slope of 0.97 (standard error, 0.04; P value [for difference from 1] =0.53) and an intercept of 0.007 (standard error, 0.12; P value [for difference from 0] =0.95). The creation of a validated risk-standardization model for adverse outcomes after congenital cardiac catheterization can support reporting of risk

  14. Lvad pump speed increase is associated with increased peak exercise cardiac output and vo2, postponed anaerobic threshold and improved ventilatory efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignati, Carlo; Apostolo, Anna; Cattadori, Gaia; Farina, Stefania; Del Torto, Alberico; Scuri, Silvia; Gerosa, Gino; Bottio, Tomaso; Tarzia, Vincenzo; Bejko, Jonida; Sisillo, Erminio; Nicoli, Flavia; Sciomer, Susanna; Alamanni, Francesco; Paolillo, Stefania; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe

    2017-03-01

    Peak exercise cardiac output (CO) increase is associated with an increase of peak oxygen uptake (VO2), provided that arteriovenous O2 difference [Δ(Ca-Cv)O2] does not decrease. At anaerobic threshold, VO2, is related to CO. We tested the hypothesis that, in heart failure (HF) patients with left ventricular assistance device (LVAD), an acute increase of CO obtained through changes in LVAD pump speed is associated with peak exercise and anaerobic threshold VO2 increase. Fifteen of 20 patients bearing LVAD (Jarvik 2000) enrolled in the study successfully performed peak exercise evaluation. All patients had severe HF as shown by clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, echocardiography, spirometry with alveolar-capillary diffusion, and maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). CPETs with non-invasive CO measurements at rest and peak exercise were done on 2days at LVAD pump speed set randomly at 2 and 4. Increasing LVAD pump speed from 2 to 4 increased CO from 3.4±0.9 to 3.8±1.0L/min (ΔCO 0.4±0.6L/min, p=0.04) and from 5.3±1.3 to 5.9±1.4L/min (ΔCO 0.6±0.7L/min, pexercise, respectively. Similarly, VO2 increased from 788±169 to 841±152mL/min (ΔVO2 52±76mL/min, p=0.01) and from 568±116 to 619±124mL/min (ΔVO2 69±96mL/min, p=0.02) at peak exercise and at anaerobic threshold, respectively. Δ(Ca-Cv)O2 did not change significantly, while ventilatory efficiency improved (VE/VCO2 slope from 39.9±5.4 to 34.9±8.3, ΔVE/VCO2 -5.0±6.4, panaerobic threshold, and improved ventilatory efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Minimum Information about a Cardiac Electrophysiology Experiment (MICEE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinn, T A; Granite, S; Allessie, M A

    2011-01-01

    (MICEE). The ultimate goal is to develop a useful tool for cardiac electrophysiologists which facilitates and improves dissemination of the minimum information necessary for reproduction of cardiac electrophysiology research, allowing for easier comparison and utilisation of findings by others...

  16. Use of intensified comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation to improve risk factor control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance--the randomized DANish StUdy of impaired glucose metabolism in the settings of cardiac rehabilitation (DANSUK) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen; Frederiksen, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    hospital-based outpatient comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CCR) compared to usual care (UC). METHODS: Patients with ischemic heart disease (67%), congestive heart failure (7%), or at least 3 risk factors for ischemic heart disease (26%) discharged from 1 coronary care unit were referred to CCR. Of 473.......9% compared with a mean change of -0.08% +/- 0.7% in the UC group (P blood pressures was -8 +/- 15 and -5 +/- 9 mm Hg in the CCR group compared with a mean change of -0.8 +/- 15 and -0.2 +/- 7 mm Hg in the UC group (P ... control than UC. Besides the improvement in the exercise capacity of patients with IGT, in patients with T2DM, both HbA1c and blood pressure were lowered to a level that has been shown to reduce both cardiac and diabetic complications. These findings have important implications for patients with impaired...

  17. Robotic Applications in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan P. Kypson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cardiac surgery has been performed through a median sternotomy, which allows the surgeon generous access to the heart and surrounding great vessels. As a paradigm shift in the size and location of incisions occurs in cardiac surgery, new methods have been developed to allow the surgeon the same amount of dexterity and accessibility to the heart in confined spaces and in a less invasive manner. Initially, long instruments without pivot points were used, however, more recent robotic telemanipulation systems have been applied that allow for improved dexterity, enabling the surgeon to perform cardiac surgery from a distance not previously possible. In this rapidly evolving field, we review the recent history and clinical results of using robotics in cardiac surgery.

  18. Robotic Applications in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan P. Kypson MD

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cardiac surgery has been performed through a median sternotomy, which allows the surgeon generous access to the heart and surrounding great vessels. As a paradigm shift in the size and location of incisions occurs in cardiac surgery, new methods have been developed to allow the surgeon the same amount of dexterity and accessibility to the heart in confined spaces and in a less invasive manner. Initially, long instruments without pivot points were used, however, more recent robotic telemanipulation systems have been applied that allow for improved dexterity, enabling the surgeon to perform cardiac surgery from a distance not previously possible. In this rapidly evolving field, we review the recent history and clinical results of using robotics in cardiac surgery.

  19. Innovations in cardiac transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Reema; Ela, Ashraf Abou El; Goldstein, Daniel

    2017-03-16

    As the number of people living with heart failure continues to grow, future treatments will focus on efficient donor organ donation and ensuring safe and durable outcomes. This review will focus on organ procurement, graft surveillance and emerging therapies. Preliminary studies into donation after cardiac death have indicated that this may be an effective means to increase the donor pool. Novel preservation techniques that include ex-vivo perfusion to improve donor metabolic stabilization prior to implantation may also expand the donor pool. Biomarkers, including circulating-free DNA, are emerging that could replace the endomyocardial biopsy for acute graft rejection, but we lack a risk predictive biomarker in heart transplantation. Novel immune suppressants are being investigated. Emerging therapeutics to reduce the development of chronic allograft vasculopathy are yet to be found. This review highlights the most recent studies and future possible therapies that will improve outcomes in cardiac transplantation. Larger clinical trials are currently taking place and will be needed in the future to develop and sustain current trends toward better survival rates with cardiac transplantation.

  20. Cardiac conduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cardiac conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals to the ... contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle of ...

  1. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arrest (SCA) Back to Heart Diseases & Disorders Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Sudden Cardiac Arrest ( SCA ) occurs when the heart stops beating, abruptly ... to saving someone who is having a sudden cardiac arrest , it is important to understand the difference. The ...

  2. Stem cell mobilization induced by subcutaneous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to improve cardiac regeneration after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: result of the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled stem cells in myocardial infarction (STEMMI) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Jørgensen, Erik; Wang, Yongzhong

    2006-01-01

    hours after symptom onset. Patients were randomized to double-blind treatment with G-CSF (10 microg/kg of body weight) or placebo for 6 days. The primary end point was change in systolic wall thickening from baseline to 6 months determined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An independent core...... laboratory analyzed all MRI examinations. Systolic wall thickening improved 17% in the infarct area in the G-CSF group and 17% in the placebo group (P=1.0). Comparable results were found in infarct border and noninfarcted myocardium. Left ventricular ejection fraction improved similarly in the 2 groups...

  3. A novel needleless liquid jet injection methodology for improving direct cardiac gene delivery: An optimization of parameters, AAV mediated therapy and investigation of host responses in ischemic heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargnoli, Anthony Samuel

    Heart disease remains the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with 22 million new patients diagnosed annually. Essentially, all present therapies have significant cost burden to the healthcare system, yet fail to increase survival rates. One key employed strategy is the genetic reprogramming of cells to increase contractility via gene therapy, which has advanced to Phase IIb Clinical Trials for advanced heart failure patients. It has been argued that the most significant barrier preventing FDA approval are resolving problems with safe, efficient myocardial delivery, whereby direct injection in the infarct and remote tissue areas is not clinically feasible. Here, we aim to: (1) Improve direct cardiac gene delivery through the development of a novel liquid jet device approach (2) Compare the new method against traditional IM injection with two different vector constructions and evaluate outcome (3) Evaluate the host response resulting from both modes of direct cardiac injection, then advance a drug/gene combination with controlled release nanoparticle formulations.

  4. Green tea polyphenols improve cardiac muscle mRNA, and protein levels of signal pathways related to insulin and lipid metabolism and inflammation in insulin-resistant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that the consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTP) may reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. To explore the underlying mechanisms of action at the molecular level, we examined the effects of GTP on cardiac mRNA and protein levels of genes involved in insulin an...

  5. Green tea Improves Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism and Regulates Cardiac mRNA Expression Related to Insulin, Lipid and Inflammatory Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green tea has multiple benefits to human health. Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that the consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTP) reduces the risk of coronary artery disease and cardiac events. To explore the underlying mechanisms of action at a molecular level, we examined the effects of GTP o...

  6. Human adipose stem cell and ASC-derived cardiac progenitor cellular therapy improves outcomes in a murine model of myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Philip MC; Lye, Kevin D; Mathews, Juanita; Owens, Jesse B; Chow, Alice Y; Wong, Livingston; Moisyadi, Stefan; Allsopp, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue is an abundant and potent source of adult stem cells for transplant therapy. In this study, we present our findings on the potential application of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) as well as induced cardiac-like progenitors (iCPs) derived from ASCs for the treatment of myocardial infarction. Methods and results Human bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells, ASCs, and iCPs generated from ASCs using three defined cardiac lineage transcription factors were assessed in an immune-compromised mouse myocardial infarction model. Analysis of iCP prior to transplant confirmed changes in gene and protein expression consistent with a cardiac phenotype. Endpoint analysis was performed 1 month posttransplant. Significantly increased endpoint fractional shortening, as well as reduction in the infarct area at risk, was observed in recipients of iCPs as compared to the other recipient cohorts. Both recipients of iCPs and ASCs presented higher myocardial capillary densities than either recipients of BM-derived stem cells or the control cohort. Furthermore, mice receiving iCPs had a significantly higher cardiac retention of transplanted cells than all other groups. Conclusion Overall, iCPs generated from ASCs outperform BM-derived stem cells and ASCs in facilitating recovery from induced myocardial infarction in mice. PMID:26604802

  7. Getting better : Nurse practitioner’s research for quality improvement in cardiac surgery : Beter worden : Onderzoek door verpleegkundig specialisten naar kwaliteitsverbetering rondom hartchirurgie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Valen (Richard)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis describes the efforts to reduce complications during and after cardiac surgery and to enhance the quality of patient care during the in-hospital stay after surgery. Several important topics for daily patient care will be addressed. In light of this goal, the scope and

  8. A moderate dose of propofol and rapidly induced mild hypothermia with extracorporeal lung and heart assist (ECLHA) improve the neurological outcome after prolonged cardiac arrest in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Keisuke; Okamoto, Taisuke; Tanimoto, Hironari; Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Masafumi; Sugita, Michiko; Takeya, Motohiro; Terasaki, Hidenori

    2006-08-01

    Propofol has been shown to protect against neuronal damage induced by brain ischaemia in small animal models. We reported previously that mild hypothermia (33 degrees C) in combination with extracorporeal lung and heart assist (ECLHA) improved the neurological outcome in dogs with cardiac arrest (CA) of 15 min induced during normothermia. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of propofol infusion under mild hypothermia with ECLHA in this model. Twenty-one female dogs (15 mongrel dogs and 6 beagles) were divided into three groups: Midazolam 0.1 mg/(kg h) infusion group (M, n=7), Propofol 2 mg/(kg h) infusion group (P2, n=7), Propofol 4 mg/(kg h) infusion group (P4, n=7). Normothermic ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced in all dogs for 15 min, followed by brief ECLHA and 168 h of intensive care. The drug infusion was initiated at a constant rate after the restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) to 24 h. Mild hypothermia (33 degrees C) was maintained for 20 h. Neurological deficit scores (NDS: 0%=normal, 100%=brain death) were evaluated for neurological function from 33 to 168 h. One dog in the M group died, and the remaining dogs survived for 168 h. The P4 group showed better neurological recovery compared with the M group (48 h, 21+/-16% versus 32+/-15%; 72 h, 7+/-6% versus 25+/-11%; 96 h, 6+/-6% versus 21+/-6%; 120 h, 5+/-5% versus 20+/-6%; 144 h, 4+/-4% versus 20+/-6%; 168 h, 4+/-4% versus 20+/-6%, pdog in the P2 and three dogs in the P4 group achieved full neurological recovery (NDS: 0%). The number of intact pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 was greater in the propofol groups than midazolam group (p<0.05). The combination of propofol infusion at a rate of 4 mg/(kg h), 24h and rapidly induced mild hypothermia (33 degrees C) with ECLHA might provide a successful means of cerebral resuscitation from CA.

  9. Transplantation of Immortalized CD34+ and CD34- Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Improve Cardiac Function and Mitigate Systemic Pro-Inflammatory Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Ho; Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Chi-Yeon; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Choi, Ji-Hyun; Joo, Hyung-Joon; Hong, Soon-Jun; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have the potential to differentiate into various cell lineages and they are easily obtainable from patients, which makes them a promising candidate for cell therapy. However, a drawback is their limited life span during in vitro culture. Therefore, hTERT-immortalized CD34+ and CD34- mouse ADSC lines (mADSCshTERT) tagged with GFP were established. We evaluated the proliferation capacity, multi-differentiation potential, and secretory profiles of CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT in vitro, as well as their effects on cardiac function and systemic inflammation following transplantation into a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to assess whether these cells could be used as a novel cell source for regeneration therapy in the cardiovascular field. CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT demonstrated phenotypic characteristics and multi-differentiation potentials similar to those of primary mADSCs. CD34+ mADSCshTERT exhibited a higher proliferation ability compared to CD34- mADSCshTERT, whereas CD34- mADSCshTERT showed a higher osteogenic differentiation potential compared to CD34+ mADSCshTERT. Primary mADSCs, CD34+, and CD34- mADSCshTERT primarily secreted EGF, TGF-β1, IGF-1, IGF-2, MCP-1, and HGFR. CD34+ mADSCshTERT had higher secretion of VEGF and SDF-1 compared to CD34- mADSCshTERT. IL-6 secretion was severely reduced in both CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT compared to primary mADSCs. Transplantation of CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT significantly improved the left ventricular ejection fraction and reduced infarct size compared to AMI-induced rats after 28 days. At 28 days after transplantation, engraftment of CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT was confirmed by positive Y chromosome staining, and differentiation of CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT into endothelial cells was found in the infarcted myocardium. Significant decreases were observed in circulating IL-6 levels in CD34+ and CD34- mADSCshTERT groups compared to the AMI-induced control group

  10. Human adipose stem cell and ASC-derived cardiac progenitor cellular therapy improves outcomes in a murine model of myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davy PMC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Philip MC Davy,1 Kevin D Lye,2,3 Juanita Mathews,1 Jesse B Owens,1 Alice Y Chow,1 Livingston Wong,2 Stefan Moisyadi,1 Richard C Allsopp1 1Institute for Biogenesis Research, 2John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, 3Tissue Genesis, Inc., Honolulu, HI, USA Background: Adipose tissue is an abundant and potent source of adult stem cells for transplant therapy. In this study, we present our findings on the potential application of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs as well as induced cardiac-like progenitors (iCPs derived from ASCs for the treatment of myocardial infarction. Methods and results: Human bone marrow (BM-derived stem cells, ASCs, and iCPs generated from ASCs using three defined cardiac lineage transcription factors were assessed in an immune-compromised mouse myocardial infarction model. Analysis of iCP prior to transplant confirmed changes in gene and protein expression consistent with a cardiac phenotype. Endpoint analysis was performed 1 month posttransplant. Significantly increased endpoint fractional shortening, as well as reduction in the infarct area at risk, was observed in recipients of iCPs as compared to the other recipient cohorts. Both recipients of iCPs and ASCs presented higher myocardial capillary densities than either recipients of BM-derived stem cells or the control cohort. Furthermore, mice receiving iCPs had a significantly higher cardiac retention of transplanted cells than all other groups. Conclusion: Overall, iCPs generated from ASCs outperform BM-derived stem cells and ASCs in facilitating recovery from induced myocardial infarction in mice. Keywords: adipose stem cells, myocardial infarction, cellular reprogramming, cellular therapy, piggyBac, induced cardiac-like progenitors

  11. What Causes Sudden Cardiac Arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  12. What Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  13. Management of cardiac emergencies in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrancesco, Teresa C

    2013-07-01

    Cardiac emergencies are life-threatening conditions that must be diagnosed quickly to avoid delays in therapy. A timely and accurate diagnosis leads to early relief of symptoms and improved survival. This article provides both a comprehensive review and updated management recommendations for common cardiac emergencies in dogs and cats. Specifically, the article confers updates for the efficient clinical recognition of decompensated cardiac patients, including focused echocardiography, cardiac biomarkers, and electrocardiogram interpretation. This article also reviews the latest recommendations for the treatment of heart failure (including the use of pimobendan) and the management of arrhythmias, pericardial effusion, and aortic thromboembolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Contemporary Breast Radiotherapy and Cardiac Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboa, Debra Nana; Evans, Suzanne Buckley

    2016-01-01

    Long-term cardiac effects are an important component of survivorship after breast radiotherapy. The pathophysiology of cardiotoxicity, history of breast radiotherapy, current methods of cardiac avoidance, modern outcomes, context of historical outcomes, quantifying cardiac effects, and future directions are reviewed in this article. Radiation-induced oxidative stress induces proinflammatory cytokines and is a process that potentiates late effects of fibrosis and intimal proliferation in endothelial vasculature. Breast radiation therapy has changed substantially in recent decades. Several modern technologies exist to improve cardiac avoidance such as deep inspiration breath hold, gating, accelerated partial breast irradiation, and use of modern 3-dimensional planning. Modern outcomes may vary notably from historical long-term cardiac outcomes given the differences in cardiac dose with modern techniques. Methods of quantifying radiation-related cardiotoxicity that correlate with future cardiac risks are needed with current data exploring techniques such as measuring computed tomography coronary artery calcium score, single-photon emission computed tomography imaging, and biomarkers. Placing historical data, dosimetric correlations, and relative cardiac risk in context are key when weighing the benefits of radiotherapy in breast cancer control and survival. Estimating present day cardiac risk in the modern treatment era includes challenges in length of follow-up and the use of confounding cardiotoxic agents such as evolving systemic chemotherapy and targeted therapies. Future directions in both multidisciplinary management and advancing technology in radiation oncology may provide further improvements in patient risk reduction and breast cancer survivorship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. About Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More About Cardiac Arrest Updated:Mar 10,2017 What is cardiac arrest? ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Cardiac Arrest • Home • About Cardiac Arrest • Understand Your Risk for ...

  16. Cardiac MRI in Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is often used in athletes to image cardiac anatomy and function and is increasingly requested in the context of screening for pathology that can cause sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this thesis, patterns of cardiac adaptation to sports are investigated with

  17. Nomenclature and databases for the surgical treatment of congenital cardiac disease--an updated primer and an analysis of opportunities for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Jacobs, Marshall Lewis; Mavroudis, Constantine; Backer, Carl Lewis; Lacour-Gayet, Francois G; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Franklin, Rodney C G; Béland, Marie J; Jenkins, Kathy J; Walters, Hal; Bacha, Emile A; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Clarke, David Robinson; Gaynor, J William; Spray, Thomas L; Stellin, Giovanni; Ebels, Tjark; Krogmann, Otto N; Aiello, Vera D; Colan, Steven D; Weinberg, Paul; Giroud, Jorge M; Everett, Allen; Wernovsky, Gil; Elliott, Martin J; Edwards, Fred H

    2008-12-01

    This review discusses the historical aspects, current state of the art, and potential future advances in the areas of nomenclature and databases for the analysis of outcomes of treatments for patients with congenitally malformed hearts. We will consider the current state of analysis of outcomes, lay out some principles which might make it possible to achieve life-long monitoring and follow-up using our databases, and describe the next steps those involved in the care of these patients need to take in order to achieve these objectives. In order to perform meaningful multi-institutional analyses, we suggest that any database must incorporate the following six essential elements: use of a common language and nomenclature, use of an established uniform core dataset for collection of information, incorporation of a mechanism of evaluating case complexity, availability of a mechanism to assure and verify the completeness and accuracy of the data collected, collaboration between medical and surgical subspecialties, and standardised protocols for life-long follow-up. During the 1990s, both The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons created databases to assess the outcomes of congenital cardiac surgery. Beginning in 1998, these two organizations collaborated to create the International Congenital Heart Surgery Nomenclature and Database Project. By 2000, a common nomenclature, along with a common core minimal dataset, were adopted by The European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and published in the Annals of Thoracic Surgery. In 2000, The International Nomenclature Committee for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease was established. This committee eventually evolved into the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease. The working component of this international nomenclature society has been The International Working Group for Mapping and Coding

  18. Alteration of cardiac ACE2/Mas expression and cardiac remodelling in rats with aortic constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Li, Bing; Wang, Bingxiangi; Zhang, Jingjun; Wu, Junyan; Morgan, Trefor

    2014-12-31

    The recent discovery of the new components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) suggests the importance of the maintenance of cardiovascular structure and functions. To assess the role of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-Mas receptor axis in the regulation of cardiac structure and function, the present work investigated the expression of ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart in the cardiac remodeling that occurs in aortic constricted rats. Partial abdominal aortic ligation was carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Angiotensin AT1 receptor blockade and ACE inhibition were achieved by losartan and enalapril treatment, respectively. Results showed that aortic constriction increased left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, mean arterial pressure (MAP), plasma renin activity (PRA) and cardiac ACE levels, but decreased the expression of cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor. Losartan treatment significantly decreased MAP, left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH), fibrosis, and increased cardiac ACE2 and Mas expression. Enalapril also improved the cardiac parameters with a rise in cardiac ACE2, but did not change the Mas level. In conclusion, aortic constriction results in cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and a rise of cardiac ACE expression. Both AT1 receptor blocker and ACE inhibitor play a cardioprotective role in aortic constriction. However, AT1 receptor blocker particularly promotes cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor levels. ACE inhibitor is associated with the inhibition of ACE and normalization of cardiac ACE2 activity.

  19. [Cardiac rehabilitation in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannem, M; Ghannem, L; Lamouchi, S; Justin, K D; Meimoun, P; Ghannem, L

    2016-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) occurs later in life in women when compared to men (10 years later). The FAST-MI study has shown that the profile of women with CAD has changed in the past 15 years, they are younger, more obese, and usually smokers. Whatever the age at which CAD occurs in women, the prognosis tends to be worse than in men, despite a higher frequency of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with angiographically normal coronary arteries in women. In women without significant lesion at coronary angiography, the WISE study has shown abnormalities of the coronary vasomotricy. Despite its beneficial effect on morbidity and mortality, cardiac rehabilitation is underused particularly in women. Indeed, several factors do not encourage a woman to follow a cardiac rehabilitation program, even after an ACS. These factors may be cultural, domestic, familial, orthopedic, or even the fear of exercising. Therefore, physicians have to be particularly convincing in women, in order to have them participating in rehabilitation programs. Physical capacity is lower in women when compared to men. However, the weaker the physical capacity, the better the benefit of cardiac rehabilitation. Physical endurance training continuously or in interval, associated to muscle strengthening can improve the physical capacity in women. Vascular risk factors correction is also an important step for the management of women with CAD. Therapeutic education and several available workshops help women to better understand their disease and to improve their self-management when they return home. Anxiety, depression, and sexual dysfunction frequently deteriorate the quality of life of our patients. Therefore, psychological management is also essential in our departments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Myocardial Dysfunction and Shock after Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzer, Jacob C.; Chonde, Meshe D.; Dezfulian, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Postarrest myocardial dysfunction includes the development of low cardiac output or ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction after cardiac arrest. Impaired left ventricular systolic function is reported in nearly two-thirds of patients resuscitated after cardiac arrest. Hypotension and shock requiring vasopressor support are similarly common after cardiac arrest. Whereas shock requiring vasopressor support is consistently associated with an adverse outcome after cardiac arrest, the association between myocardial dysfunction and outcomes is less clear. Myocardial dysfunction and shock after cardiac arrest develop as the result of preexisting cardiac pathology with multiple superimposed insults from resuscitation. The pathophysiology involves cardiovascular ischemia/reperfusion injury and cardiovascular toxicity from excessive levels of inflammatory cytokine activation and catecholamines, among other contributing factors. Similar mechanisms occur in myocardial dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass, in sepsis, and in stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Hemodynamic stabilization after resuscitation from cardiac arrest involves restoration of preload, vasopressors to support arterial pressure, and inotropic support if needed to reverse the effects of myocardial dysfunction and improve systemic perfusion. Further research is needed to define the role of postarrest myocardial dysfunction on cardiac arrest outcomes and identify therapeutic strategies. PMID:26421284

  1. Levosimendan combined with epinephrine improves rescue outcomes in a rat model of lipid-based resuscitation from bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Fubei; Cai, Xixi; Ye, Yingchao; Xu, Xuzhong; Li, Zhengqian; Li, Min; Chen, Limei

    2017-09-15

    The effectiveness of a combination of a lipid emulsion with epinephrine in reversing local anesthetic-induced cardiac arrest has been confirmed. The combination of a lipid emulsion with levosimendan, was shown to be superior to administration of a lipid emulsion alone with regard to successful resuscitation. In this study, we compared the reversal effects of levosimendan, epinephrine, and a combination of the two agents in lipid-based resuscitation in a rat model of bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest. Fifty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to bupivacaine (15 mg·kg(-1)) -induced asystole and were then randomly divided into 3 groups. A lipid emulsion was used as the basic treatment, and administration of drug combinations varied in each group as follows: (1) levosimendan combined with epinephrine (LiEL); (2) epinephrine (LiE); and (3) levosimendan (LiL). The resuscitation outcomes were recorded and included the rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival at 40 min, time to first heartbeat, time to ROSC, and cumulative dose of epinephrine. We calculated the wet-to-dry ratio of the lung, blood gas values at 40 min and bupivacaine concentration of cardiac tissue and plasma. The rates of ROSC in LiEL and LiE groups were higher than LiL group (P rate in LiEL group was higher than LiE group (P = 0.003; LiEL vs LiE, P = 0.008; LiEL vs LiL, P = 0.001). The time to first heart beat in LiEL group was shorter than LiE, LiL groups. (P weight ratio, and ratio of damaged alveoli among groups. The LiEL group had the best result for all parameters (P rate as well as decreased epinephrine consumption and lung damage.

  2. Pain-related Somato Sensory Evoked Potentials: a potential new tool to improve the prognostic prediction of coma after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Paolo; Linassi, Federico; Mazzarolo, Anna Paola; Aricò, Maria; Bosco, Enrico; Bendini, Matteo; Sorbara, Carlo; Ori, Carlo; Carron, Michele; Scarpa, Bruno

    2015-11-17

    Early prediction of a good outcome in comatose patients after cardiac arrest still remains an unsolved problem. The main aim of the present study was to examine the accuracy of middle-latency SSEP triggered by a painful electrical stimulation on median nerves to predict a favorable outcome. No- and low-flow times, pupillary reflex, Glasgow motor score and biochemical data were evaluated at ICU admission. The following were considered within 72 h of cardiac arrest: highest creatinine value, hyperthermia occurrence, EEG, SSEP at low- (10 mA) and high-intensity (50 mA) stimulation, and blood pressure reactivity to 50 mA. Intensive care treatments were also considered. Data were compared to survival, consciousness recovery and 6-month CPC (Cerebral Performance Category). Pupillary reflex and EEG were statistically significant in predicting survival; the absence of blood pressure reactivity seems to predict brain death within 7 days of cardiac arrest. Middle- and short-latency SSEP were statistically significant in predicting consciousness recovery, and middle-latency SSEP was statistically significant in predicting 6-month CPC outcome. The prognostic capability of 50 mA middle-latency-SSEP was demonstrated to occur earlier than that of EEG reactivity. Neurophysiological evaluation constitutes the key to early information about the neurological prognostication of postanoxic coma. In particular, the presence of 50 mA middle-latency SSEP seems to be an early and reliable predictor of good neurological outcome, and its absence constitutes a marker of poor prognosis. Moreover, the absence 50 mA blood pressure reactivity seems to identify patients evolving towards the brain death.

  3. Cell therapy in reperfused acute myocardial infarction does not improve the recovery of perfusion in the infarcted myocardium: a cardiac MR imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbers, Lourens F H J; Nijveldt, Robin; Beek, Aernout M; Hirsch, Alexander; van der Laan, Anja M; Delewi, Ronak; van der Vleuten, Pieter A; Tio, René A; Tijssen, Jan G P; Hofman, Mark B M; Piek, Jan J; Zijlstra, Felix; van Rossum, Albert C

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the effects of cell therapy on myocardial perfusion recovery after treatment of acute myocardial infarction (MI) with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this HEBE trial substudy, which was approved by the institutional review board (trial registry number ISRCTN95796863), the authors assessed the effects of intracoronary infusion with bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMCs) or peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells (PBMCs) on myocardial perfusion recovery by using cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging after revascularization. In 152 patients with acute MI treated with PCI, cardiac MR imaging was performed after obtaining informed consent-before randomization to BMMC, PBMC, or standard therapy (control group)-and repeated at 4-month follow-up. Cardiac MR imaging consisted of cine, rest first-pass perfusion, and late gadolinium enhancement imaging. Perfusion was evaluated semiquantitatively with signal intensity-time curves by calculating the relative upslope (percentage signal intensity change). The relative upslope was calculated for the MI core, adjacent border zone, and remote myocardium. Perfusion differences among treatment groups or between baseline and follow-up were assessed with the Wilcoxon signed rank or Mann-Whitney U test. At baseline, myocardial perfusion differed between the MI core (median, 6.0%; interquartile range [IQR], 4.1%-8.0%), border zone (median, 8.4%; IQR, 6.4%-10.2%), and remote myocardium (median, 12.2%; IQR, 10.5%-15.9%) (P < .001 for all), with equal distribution among treatment groups. These interregional differences persisted at follow-up (P < .001 for all). No difference in perfusion recovery was found between the three treatment groups for any region. After revascularization of ST-elevation MI, cell therapy does not augment the recovery of resting perfusion in either the MI core or border zone. © RSNA, 2014.

  4. Mechanical Regulation of Cardiac Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E Lindsey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical forces are an essential contributor to and unavoidable component of cardiac formation, both inducing and orchestrating local and global molecular and cellular changes. Experimental animal studies have contributed substantially to understanding the mechanobiology of heart development. More recent integration of high-resolution imaging modalities with computational modeling has greatly improved our quantitative understanding of hemodynamic flow in heart development. Merging these latest experimental technologies with molecular and genetic signaling analysis will accelerate our understanding of the relationships integrating mechanical and biological signaling for proper cardiac formation. These advances will likely be essential for clinically translatable guidance for targeted interventions to rescue malforming hearts and/or reconfigure malformed circulations for optimal performance. This review summarizes our current understanding on the levels of mechanical signaling in the heart and their roles in orchestrating cardiac development.

  5. Alcohol effects on cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jason D; Mouton, Alan J

    2015-04-01

    The consumption of ethanol can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the function of the heart and cardiovascular system, depending on the amount consumed. Low-to-moderate amounts of ethanol intake are associated with improvements in cardiac function and vascular health. On the other hand, ethanol chronically consumed in large amounts acts as a toxin to the heart and vasculature. The cardiac injury produced by chronic alcohol abuse can progress to heart failure and eventual death. Furthermore, alcohol abuse may exacerbate preexisting heart conditions, such as hypertension and cardiomyopathy. This article focuses on the molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology of both the beneficial and detrimental cardiac effects of alcohol. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  6. Application of appropriate use criteria to cardiac stress testing in the hospital setting: limitations of the criteria and areas for improved practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertz, Zachary M; O'Donnell, William; Raina, Amresh; Litwack, Andrew J; Balderston, Jessica R; Goldberg, Lee R

    2015-01-01

    Imaging cardiac stress test use has risen significantly, leading to the development of appropriate use criteria. Prior studies have suggested the rate of inappropriate testing is 13% to 14%, but inappropriate testing in hospitalized patients has not been well studied. Appropriate use of stress testing in hospitalized patients is not comparable to the ambulatory setting. We studied 459 consecutive patients referred for imaging stress tests (nuclear imaging or stress echocardiography) at a single institution over a 6-month period. Appropriate use was determined by research cardiologists blinded to patient outcomes. Most tests (68%) were in patients with chest pain or possible acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Another 20% were for preoperative evaluation. The rate of inappropriate testing was 13%. Imaging modality did not correlate with appropriate use. Only 2% of the chest pain or possible ACS were inappropriate, compared to 49% of the preoperative exams (P exam (77% of inappropriate tests). Using Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction score 0 to define inappropriate testing in the possible ACS cohort might make an additional 27% inappropriate. The rate of inappropriate use of cardiac stress testing with imaging in the inpatient setting is similar to that in the ambulatory setting. However, there is wide variation in inappropriate testing based on the indication for the test. Taking risk into consideration in possible ACS patients could result in a larger number of tests being considered inappropriate. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cardiac Function Remains Impaired Despite Reversible Cardiac Remodeling after Acute Experimental Viral Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Moritz Becher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infection with Coxsackievirus B3 induces myocarditis. We aimed to compare the acute and chronic phases of viral myocarditis to identify the immediate effects of cardiac inflammation as well as the long-term effects after resolved inflammation on cardiac fibrosis and consequently on cardiac function. Material and Methods. We infected C57BL/6J mice with Coxsackievirus B3 and determined the hemodynamic function 7 as well as 28 days after infection. Subsequently, we analyzed viral burden and viral replication in the cardiac tissue as well as the expression of cytokines and matrix proteins. Furthermore, cardiac fibroblasts were infected with virus to investigate if viral infection alone induces profibrotic signaling. Results. Severe cardiac inflammation was determined and cardiac fibrosis was consistently colocalized with inflammation during the acute phase of myocarditis. Declined cardiac inflammation but no significantly improved hemodynamic function was observed 28 days after infection. Interestingly, cardiac fibrosis declined to basal levels as well. Both cardiac inflammation and fibrosis were reversible, whereas the hemodynamic function remains impaired after healed viral myocarditis in C57BL/6J mice.

  8. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and cardiac ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Gredilla, Ricardo

    2018-02-02

    According with different international organizations, cardiovascular diseases are becoming the first cause of death in western countries. Although exposure to different risk factors, particularly those related to lifestyle, contribute to the etiopathogenesis of cardiac disorders, the increase in average lifespan and aging are considered major determinants of cardiac diseases events. Mitochondria and oxidative stress have been pointed out as relevant factors both in heart aging and in the development of cardiac diseases such as heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy and diabetic cardiomyopathy. During aging, cellular processes related with mitochondrial function, such as bioenergetics, apoptosis and inflammation are altered leading to cardiac dysfunction. Increasing our knowledge about the mitochondrial mechanisms related with the aging process, will provide new strategies in order to improve this process, particularly the cardiovascular ones. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Pioglitazone improves cardiac function and alters myocardial substrate metabolism without affecting cardiac triglyceride accumulation and high-energy phosphate metabolism in patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der R.W.; Rijzewijk, L.; Jong, de H.W.A.M.; Lamb, H.J.; Lubberink, J.M.; Romijn, J.A.; Bax, J.J.; Roos, de A.M.; Kamp, O.; Paulus, W.J.; Heine, R.J.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Smit, J.W.A.; Diamant, M.

    2009-01-01

    0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In T2DM patients, pioglitazone was associated with improvement in some measures of left ventricular diastolic function, myocardial glucose uptake, and whole-body insulin sensitivity. The functional changes, however, were not associated with myocardial substrate and high-energy

  10. Pioglitazone improves cardiac function and alters myocardial substrate metabolism without affecting cardiac triglyceride accumulation and high-energy phosphate metabolism in patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Meer, Van Der, Alex J.; Rijzewijk, L.; Jong, de, Anne; Lamb, H J; Lubberink, J.M.; Romijn, J. A.; Bax, J J; Roos, de, T.A.; Kamp, O.; Paulus, W.J.; Heine, R.J.; Lammertsma, A A; Smit, J.W.A.; Diamant, M.

    2009-01-01

    0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In T2DM patients, pioglitazone was associated with improvement in some measures of left ventricular diastolic function, myocardial glucose uptake, and whole-body insulin sensitivity. The functional changes, however, were not associated with myocardial substrate and high-energy phosphate metabolism

  11. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? A cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) program takes place in a hospital or ... special help in making lifestyle changes. During your rehabilitation program you’ll… • Have a medical evaluation to ...

  12. Cardiac Syndrome X

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Sudden Cardiac Arrest Valve Disease Vulnerable Plaque Coronary Microvascular Disease (CMD) Related terms: angina, cardiac syndrome X, CMD, MVD, microvascular angina Coronary Microvascular Disease (CMD or MVD) is a type of heart ...

  13. Cardiac sodium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Ahmad S.; Asghari-Roodsari, Alaleh; Tan, Hanno L.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (I-Na) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of I-Na for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of

  14. Amlodipine and atorvastatin improved hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy through regulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B/osteoprotegerin system in spontaneous hypertension rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jingchao; Liu, Fan; Liu, Demin; Du, Hong; Hao, Jie; Yang, Xiuchun; Cui, Wei

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to study the role of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/RANK/OPG) system in cardiac hypertrophy in a spontaneous hypertension rat (SHR) model and the effects of amlodipine and atorvastatin intervention. Thirty-six-week-old male SHRs were randomly divided into four groups: 1) SHR control group; 2) amlodipine alone (10 mg/kg/d) group, 3) atorvastatin alone (10 mg/kg/d) group, 4) combination of amlodinpine and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg/d for each) group. Same gender, weight, and age of Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats with normal blood pressure were used as normal control. Drugs were administered by oral gavage over 12 weeks. The thicknesses of left ventricle walls, left ventricle weight, and cardiac function were measured by transthoracic echocardiography. Left ventricular pressure and function were assessed by hemodynamic examination. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and collagen accumulation in cardiac tissue were measured by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Masson staining, respectively. The hydroxyproline content of cardiac tissue was examined by biochemistry technique. RANKL, RANK and OPG mRNA, protein expression and tissue localization were studied by RT-PCR, Immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Treatment with amlodipine or atorvastatin alone significantly decreased left ventricular mass index, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and interstitial fibrosis in SHR (each P < 0.05). Moreover, combined amlodipine and atorvastatin treatment induced significant reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy and decreased cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and interstitial fibrosis in SHR to a greater extent than each agent alone (P < 0.05). Compared with WKY rats, the myocardial expression of RANKL, RANK, and OPG was increased. Both amlodipine and atorvastatin reduced RANKL, RANK, and OPG expression, with the best effects seen with the combination. Based on our results

  15. Pulse transit time measured by photoplethysmography improves the accuracy of heart rate as a surrogate measure of cardiac output, stroke volume and oxygen uptake in response to graded exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollonini, L; Padhye, N S; Re, R; Torricelli, A; Simpson, R J; Dacso, C C

    2015-05-01

    Heart rate (HR) is a valuable and widespread measure for physical training programs, although its description of conditioning is limited to the cardiac response to exercise. More comprehensive measures of exercise adaptation include cardiac output (Q̇), stroke volume (SV) and oxygen uptake (V̇O2), but these physiological parameters can be measured only with cumbersome equipment installed in clinical settings. In this work, we explore the ability of pulse transit time (PTT) to represent a valuable pairing with HR for indirectly estimating Q̇, SV and V̇O2 non-invasively. PTT was measured as the time interval between the peak of the electrocardiographic (ECG) R-wave and the onset of the photoplethysmography (PPG) waveform at the periphery (i.e. fingertip) with a portable sensor. Fifteen healthy young subjects underwent a graded incremental cycling protocol after which HR and PTT were correlated with Q̇, SV and V̇O2 using linear mixed models. The addition of PTT significantly improved the modeling of Q̇, SV and V̇O2 at the individual level ([Formula: see text] for SV, 0.548 for Q̇, and 0.771 for V̇O2) compared to predictive models based solely on HR ([Formula: see text] for SV, 0.503 for Q̇, and 0.745 for V̇O2). While challenges in sensitivity and artifact rejection exist, combining PTT with HR holds potential for development of novel wearable sensors that provide exercise assessment largely superior to HR monitors.

  16. The Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We......-CCTR, showed that coronary CT angiographies accounted for only 23% of all nonregistered cardiac CTs, indicating >90% completeness of coronary CT angiographies in the WDHR-CCTR. The completeness of individual variables varied substantially (range: 0%-100%), but was >85% for more than 70% of all variables. Using......, making it a valuable tool for clinical epidemiological research....

  17. Predictors for outcome among cardiac arrest patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibrandt-Johansen, Ida Maria; Norsted, Kristine; Schmidt, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundIn the past decade, early treatment of cardiac arrest (CA) victims has been improved in several ways, leading to more optimistic over all prognoses. However, the global survival rate after out-of-hospital CA (OHCA) is still not more than 5-10%. With a better knowledge of the predictors...... circulation (ROSC).ResultsThe overall mortality was 44% and a favorable neurological outcome was seen among 52%. Strong predictors for survival and favorable neurological outcome were ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) as initial rhythm, cardiac etiology and time to ROSC¿... rhythm of VT/VF and a cardiac etiology were the strongest....

  18. Cardiac rehabilitation in Europe: results from the European Cardiac Rehabilitation Inventory Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna; McGee, Hannah; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes support patients to achieve professionally recommended cardiovascular prevention targets and thus good clinical status and improved quality of life and prognosis. Information on CR service delivery in Europe is sketchy....

  19. Efficacy of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Performed Concomitantly with Primary Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Morimoto, MD

    2005-01-01

    CONCLUSION: In patients with poor left ventricular function and impaired cardiac conduction, CRT performed concomitantly with primary surgery may improve the postoperative course. Further study on indications for implantation of a CRT device during primary surgery is needed.

  20. [Cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannem, M; Ghannem, L; Ghannem, L

    2015-12-01

    Although the proofs of the benefits of cardiac rehabilitation accumulate, many patients are not sent to rehabilitation units, especially younger and very elderly patients. As the length of stay in acute care units decreases, rehabilitation offers more time to fully assess the patients' conditions and needs. Meta-analyses of randomised trials suggest that mortality can be improved by as much as 20-30%. In addition, rehabilitation helps managing risk factors, including hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking and sedentary behaviours. Physical training also helps improving exercise capacity. Because of all of these effects, cardiac rehabilitation for post-myocardial infarction patients has been given a class IA recommendation in current guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Geometry-independent inclusion of basal myocardium yields improved cardiac magnetic resonance agreement with echocardiography and necropsy quantified left-ventricular mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simprini, Lauren A; Goyal, Parag; Codella, Noel; Fieno, David S; Afroz, Anika; Mullally, Jamie; Cooper, Mitchell; Wang, Yi; Finn, John Paul; Devereux, Richard B; Weinsaft, Jonathan W

    2013-10-01

    Left-ventricular mass (LVM) is widely used to guide clinical decision-making. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) quantifies LVM by planimetry of contiguous short-axis images, an approach dependent on reader-selection of images to be contoured. Established methods have applied different binary cut-offs using circumferential extent of left-ventricular myocardium to define the basal left ventricle (LV), omitting images containing lesser fractions of left-ventricular myocardium. This study tested impact of basal slice variability on LVM quantification. CMR was performed in patients and laboratory animals. LVM was quantified with full inclusion of left-ventricular myocardium, and by established methods that use different cut-offs to define the left-ventricular basal-most slice: 50% circumferential myocardium at end diastole alone (ED50), 50% circumferential myocardium throughout both end diastole and end systole (EDS50). One hundred and fifty patients and 10 lab animals were studied. Among patients, fully inclusive LVM (172.6±42.3g) was higher vs. ED50 (167.2±41.8g) and EDS50 (150.6±41.1g; both Pmyocardium, yields smallest CMR discrepancy with echocardiography-measured LVM and non-significant differences with necropsy-measured left-ventricular weight.

  2. Oral treatment with Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) extract improves cardiac dysfunction and exercise intolerance in rats subjected to myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; da Silva, Jaqueline S; Pereira, Sharlene L; Souza, Pergentino J C; de Moura, Roberto S; Sudo, Roberto Takashi

    2014-07-08

    This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart., popularly known as "açaí", on rats subjected to myocardial infarction (MI). Hydroalcoholic extracts of açaí were obtained from a decoction of the seeds. Two male Wistar rat groups were delineated: 1) the sham-operated group (control, n = 6), with no surgical amendment, and 2) the MI group (n = 12), in which the anterior descendent coronary artery was occluded during surgery. MI group was divided into two subgroups, in which rats were either treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Euterpe oleracea seeds (100 mg/kg/day p.o.) or received no treatment. Treatment began on the day of surgery, and lasted 4 weeks. Subsequently, rats were subject to an exercise test protocol, hemodynamic evaluation, and histological analysis of the left ventricle. Groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett's test. The total running distance of sham rats was 1339.0 ± 276.6 m, MI rats was 177.6 ± 15.8 m (P Euterpe oleracea treatment of MI rats prevented the development of exercise intolerance, cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction.

  3. Human platelet lysate as a fetal bovine serum substitute improves human adipose-derived stromal cell culture for future cardiac repair applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaijkens, B A; Niessen, H W M; Prins, H-J; Krijnen, P A J; Kokhuis, T J A; de Jong, N; van Hinsbergh, V W M; Kamp, O; Helder, M N; Musters, R J P; van Dijk, A; Juffermans, L J M

    2012-04-01

    Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASC) are promising candidates for cell therapy, for example to treat myocardial infarction. Commonly, fetal bovine serum (FBS) is used in ASC culturing. However, FBS has several disadvantages. Its effects differ between batches and, when applied clinically, transmission of pathogens and antibody development against FBS are possible. In this study, we investigated whether FBS can be substituted by human platelet lysate (PL) in ASC culture, without affecting functional capacities particularly important for cardiac repair application of ASC. We found that PL-cultured ASC had a significant 3-fold increased proliferation rate and a significantly higher attachment to tissue culture plastic as well as to endothelial cells compared with FBS-cultured ASC. PL-cultured ASC remained a significant 25% smaller than FBS-cultured ASC. Both showed a comparable surface marker profile, with the exception of significantly higher levels of CD73, CD90, and CD166 on PL-cultured ASC. PL-cultured ASC showed a significantly higher migration rate compared with FBS-cultured ASC in a transwell assay. Finally, FBS- and PL-cultured ASC had a similar high capacity to differentiate towards cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, this study showed that culturing ASC is more favorable in PL-supplemented medium compared with FBS-supplemented medium.

  4. Combining Amplitude Spectrum Area with Previous Shock Information Using Neural Networks Improves Prediction Performance of Defibrillation Outcome for Subsequent Shocks in Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mi; Lu, Yubao; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Hehua; Gong, Yushun; Li, Yongqin

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative ventricular fibrillation (VF) waveform analysis is a potentially powerful tool to optimize defibrillation. However, whether combining VF features with additional attributes that related to the previous shock could enhance the prediction performance for subsequent shocks is still uncertain. A total of 528 defibrillation shocks from 199 patients experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were analyzed in this study. VF waveform was quantified using amplitude spectrum area (AMSA) from defibrillator's ECG recordings prior to each shock. Combinations of AMSA with previous shock index (PSI) or/and change of AMSA (ΔAMSA) between successive shocks were exercised through a training dataset including 255shocks from 99patientswith neural networks. Performance of the combination methods were compared with AMSA based single feature prediction by area under receiver operating characteristic curve(AUC), sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and prediction accuracy (PA) through a validation dataset that was consisted of 273 shocks from 100patients. A total of61 (61.0%) patients required subsequent shocks (N = 173) in the validation dataset. Combining AMSA with PSI and ΔAMSA obtained highest AUC (0.904 vs. 0.819, pdefibrillation outcome for subsequent shocks.

  5. Meaningful Outcome Measures in Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Myles, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    The most common cardiac surgical procedures are coronary artery bypass graft surgery and aortic or mitral valve repair or replacement. Underlying conditions include coronary artery disease and heart failure, manifesting as exertional angina, dyspnea, and poor exercise tolerance. The major goals of surgery are to alleviate symptoms and improve patient survival. These, therefore, should inform the choice of primary outcome measures in clinical studies enrolling patients undergoing cardiac surge...

  6. The cardiac patient in Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamsi-Pasha, Majed; Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Ramadan is one of the five fundamental pillars of Islam. During this month, the majority of the 1.6 billion Muslims worldwide observe an absolute fast from dawn to sunset without any drink or food. Our review shows that the impact of fasting during Ramadan on patients with stable cardiac disease is minimal and does not lead to any increase in acute events. Most patients with the stable cardiac disease can fast safely. Most of the drug doses and their regimen are easily manageable during this month and may need not to be changed. Ramadan fasting is a healthy nonpharmacological means for improving cardiovascular risk factors. Most of the Muslims, who suffer from chronic diseases, insist on fasting Ramadan despite being exempted by religion. The Holy Quran specifically exempts the sick from fasting. This is particularly relevant if fasting worsens one's illness or delays recovery. Patients with unstable angina, recent myocardial infarction, uncontrolled hypertension, decompensated heart failure, recent cardiac intervention or cardiac surgery or any debilitating diseases should avoid fasting.

  7. Terapia de ressincronização melhora a captação do MIBI-99mTc e a função cardíaca Cardiac resynchronization therapy improves the uptake of MIBI-99mTc and cardiac function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cristina Soares Brandão

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este caso mostra a melhora proporcionada pela terapia de ressincronização cardíaca (TRC sobre a perfusão miocárdica e o desempenho do ventrículo esquerdo (VE avaliados pela cintilografia de perfusão miocárdica com MIBI-99mTc sincronizada ao eletrocardiograma. Paciente portadora de miocardiopatia dilatada idiopática, bloqueio de ramo esquerdo e insuficiência cardíaca refratária ao tratamento medicamentoso otimizado. Após TRC, foi observada melhora clínica, redução da duração do QRS e melhora na perfusão das paredes anterior e ântero-septal que se encontravam previamente hipoperfundidas. Houve também redução dos volumes diastólico e sistólico finais e aumento da fração de ejeção do VE.This case shows the improvement promoted by cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT on myocardial perfusion and left ventricular (LV performance assessed by gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. The patient had idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, left bundle branch block and severe heart failure despite optimized medical treatment. After CRT, clinical improvement, QRS reduction and improvement of previously hypoperfused anterior and septal walls were observed. There was also decrease in LV end-diastolic and systolic volumes and increase in LV ejection fraction.

  8. Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissenberg Jørgensen, Mads

    BACK COVER TEXT Cardiac arrest is an emergency medical condition characterized by the cessation of cardiac mechanical activity; without immediate and decisive treatment, a victim’s chances of survival are minimal. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a particular arrest subgroup that poses additional...... challenges, due to the victim’s physical location, which brings an inherent risk of delay (or altogether absence) of recognition and treatment of cardiac arrest. A low frequency of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and low 30-day survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were identified nearly ten...... in patient survival following out-of hospital cardiac arrest; utilizing the Danish nationwide registries, we sought to answer these questions. Moreover, in order to further improve understanding and target future national strategies for cardiac arrest management, we examined whether there were sex- and age...

  9. Cardiac Innervation and Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Keiichi; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Ardell, Jeffrey L.; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2015-01-01

    Afferent and efferent cardiac neurotransmission via the cardiac nerves intricately modulates nearly all physiological functions of the heart (chronotropy, dromotropy, lusitropy and inotropy). Afferent information from the heart is transmitted to higher levels of the nervous system for processing (intrinsic cardiac nervous system, extracardiac-intrathoracic ganglia, spinal cord, brain stem and higher centers) which ultimately results in efferent cardiomotor neural impulses (via the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves). This system forms interacting feedback loops that provide physiological stability for maintaining normal rhythm and life-sustaining circulation. This system also ensures that there is fine-tuned regulation of sympathetic-parasympathetic balance in the heart under normal and stressed states in the short (beat to beat), intermediate (minutes-hours) and long term (days-years). This important neurovisceral /autonomic nervous system also plays a major role in the pathophysiology and progression of heart disease, including heart failure and arrhythmias leading to sudden cardiac death (SCD). Transdifferentiation of neurons in heart failure, functional denervation, cardiac and extra-cardiac neural remodeling have also been identified and characterized during the progression of disease. Recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular processes governing innervation and the functional control of the myocardium in health and disease provides a rational mechanistic basis for development of neuraxial therapies for preventing SCD and other arrhythmias. Advances in cellular, molecular, and bioengineering realms have underscored the emergence of this area as an important avenue of scientific inquiry and therapeutic intervention. PMID:26044253

  10. Clinical evaluation of the Spiral Pump® after improvements to the original project in patients submitted to cardiac surgeries with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas Jakson Dinkhuysen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to present the results from Spiral Pump clinical trial after design modifications performed at its previous project. This pump applies axial end centrifugal hydraulic effects for blood pumping during cardiopulmonary bypass for patients under cardiac surgery. Methods: This study was performed in 52 patients (51% males, between 20 to 80 (67±14.4 years old weighing 53 to 102 (71.7±12.6 kg, mostly under myocardial revascularization surgery (34.6% and valvular surgery (32.8%. Besides the routine evaluation of the data observed in these cases, we monitored pump rotational speed, blood flow, cardiopulmonary bypass duration, urine free hemoglobin for blood cell trauma analysis (+ to 4+, lactate desidrogenase (UI/L, fibrinogen level (mg/dL and platelet count (nº/mm3. Results: Besides maintaining appropriate blood pressure and metabolic parameters it was also observed that the Free Hemoglobin levels remained normal, with a slight increase after 90 minutes of cardiopulmonary bypass. The Lactate Dehydrogenase showed an increase, with medians varying between 550-770 IU/L, whereas the decrease in Fibrinogen showed medians of 130-100 mg/dl. The number of platelets showed a slight decrease with the medians ranging from 240,000 to 200,000/mm3. No difficulty was observed during perfusion terminations, nor were there any immediate deaths, and all patients except one, were discharged in good condition. CONCLUSION: The Spiral Pump, as blood propeller during cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrated to be reliable and safe, comprising in a good option as original and national product for this kind of application.

  11. Cardiac arrest: resuscitation and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Kaustubha D; Halperin, Henry R; Becker, Lance B

    2015-06-05

    The modern treatment of cardiac arrest is an increasingly complex medical procedure with a rapidly changing array of therapeutic approaches designed to restore life to victims of sudden death. The 2 primary goals of providing artificial circulation and defibrillation to halt ventricular fibrillation remain of paramount importance for saving lives. They have undergone significant improvements in technology and dissemination into the community subsequent to their establishment 60 years ago. The evolution of artificial circulation includes efforts to optimize manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation, external mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation devices designed to augment circulation, and may soon advance further into the rapid deployment of specially designed internal emergency cardiopulmonary bypass devices. The development of defibrillation technologies has progressed from bulky internal defibrillators paddles applied directly to the heart, to manually controlled external defibrillators, to automatic external defibrillators that can now be obtained over-the-counter for widespread use in the community or home. But the modern treatment of cardiac arrest now involves more than merely providing circulation and defibrillation. As suggested by a 3-phase model of treatment, newer approaches targeting patients who have had a more prolonged cardiac arrest include treatment of the metabolic phase of cardiac arrest with therapeutic hypothermia, agents to treat or prevent reperfusion injury, new strategies specifically focused on pulseless electric activity, which is the presenting rhythm in at least one third of cardiac arrests, and aggressive post resuscitation care. There are discoveries at the cellular and molecular level about ischemia and reperfusion pathobiology that may be translated into future new therapies. On the near horizon is the combination of advanced cardiopulmonary bypass plus a cocktail of multiple agents targeted at restoration of normal metabolism and

  12. Mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation in in-hospital cardiac arrest : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lameijer, Heleen; Immink, Rosa S.; Broekema, Josien J.; Ter Maaten, Jan C.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing rates of in-hospital cardiac arrest, improving resuscitation outcomes is essential. Mechanical chest compressors seem to be related to improved outcome in out-of hospital cardiac arrest; however, the literature on its use in in-hospital cardiac arrest is scarce. We used the Medline

  13. Cardiac rehabilitation with a nurse case manager (GoHeart across local and regional health authorities improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial outcomes. A one-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibeke Brogaard Hansen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives In Denmark, the local and regional health authorities share responsibility for cardiac rehabilitation (CR. The objective was to assess effectiveness of CR across sectors coordinated by a nurse case manager (NCM. Design A one-year follow-up study. Setting A CR programme (GoHeart was evaluated in a cohort at Lillebaelt Hospital Vejle, DK from 2010 to 2011. Participants Consecutive patients admitted to CR were included. The inclusion criteria were the event of acute myocardial infarction or stable angina and invasive revascularization (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≥45%. Main outcome measures Cardiac risk factors, stratified self-care and self-reported psychosocial factors (SF12 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were assessed at admission (phase IIa, at three months at discharge (phase IIb and at one-year follow-up (phase III. Intention-to-treat and predefined subgroup analysis on sex was performed. Results Of 241 patients, 183 (75.9% were included (mean age 63.8 years. At discharge improvements were found in total-cholesterol ( p  < 0.001, low density lipoprotein (LDL; p  < 0.001, functional capacities (metabolic equivalent of tasks (METS, p  < 0.01, self-care management ( p  < 0.001, Health status Short Form 12 version (SF12; physical; p  < 0.001 and mental; p  < 0.01 and in depression symptoms ( p  < 0.01. At one-year follow-up these outcomes were maintained; additionally there was improvement in body mass index (BMI; p  < 0.05, and high density lipoprotein (HDL; p  < 0.05. There were no sex differences. Conclusion CR shared between local and regional health authorities led by a NCM (GoHeart improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial factors. Further improvements in most variables were at one-year follow-up.

  14. What is needed to implement a web-based audit and feedback intervention with outreach visits to improve care quality : A concept mapping study among cardiac rehabilitation teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engen-Verheul, M.M.; Peek, N.; Haafkens, J.A; Joukes, E.; Vromen, T.; Jaspers, M.W.M.; de Keizer, N.F.

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence on successful quality improvement (QI) in health care requires quantitative information from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on the effectiveness of QI interventions, but also qualitative information from professionals to understand factors influencing QI implementation.

  15. What is needed to implement a web-based audit and feedback intervention with outreach visits to improve care quality: A concept mapping study among cardiac rehabilitation teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engen-Verheul, Mariëtte M.; Peek, Niels; Haafkens, Joke A.; Joukes, Erik; Vromen, Tom; Jaspers, Monique W. M.; de Keizer, Nicolette F.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence on successful quality improvement (QI) in health care requires quantitative information from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on the effectiveness of QI interventions, but also qualitative information from professionals to understand factors influencing QI implementation. Using a

  16. Echocardiography and cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Constantinos H; Oikonomidis, Dimitrios; Lazaris, Efstathios; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros

    2017-12-05

    Cardiac arrhythmias refer to any abnormality or disturbance in the normal activation sequence of the myocardium and may be indicative of structural heart disease and the cause of significant cardiovascular complications and sudden cardiac death. The following review summarizes the current state-of-the-art knowledge on the role of echocardiography in the management of cardiac arrhythmias and focuses on atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias where echocardiography presents a particular diagnostic and prognostic interest. Moreover, a brief reference is made to the effect of cardiac arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities on echocardiographic examination. Copyright © 2017 Hellenic Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger

    1999-08-01

    Great strides have been made in the approach to the management of sudden cardiac death. Patients who have been successfully resuscitated from an episode of sudden cardiac death are at high risk of recurrence. Much larger groups of patients who have not had episodes of sudden cardiac death are also at substantial risk for this event, however. Because the survival rates associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest are dismal, these high-risk populations must be targeted for prophylaxis. Beta-blockers have been shown to be an effective pharmacologic therapy in patients who have had myocardial infarction and, most recently, in patients with congestive heart failure. When possible, these agents should be used in these populations. No class I or class III antiarrhythmic drugs, with the possible exception of amiodarone, have been shown to have efficacy as prophylactic agents for the reduction of mortality in these populations. In patients who have hemodynamically significant sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias or an aborted episode of sudden cardiac death, the current therapy of choice is an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). For prophylaxis of sudden cardiac death in patients who have not had a previous event, several approaches may be considered. Currently, the best therapeutic approach for prophylaxis of sudden cardiac death seems to be the ICD; however, use of this device can be justified only in patients at substantial risk of sudden cardiac death. Defining the high-risk populations that will benefit from ICDs is critical in managing the problem of sudden cardiac death.

  18. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-06

    right ventricular fibrosis); (d) idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. (midwall fibrosis); (e) infiltrative cardiomyopathies (cardiac sarcoidosis); and (f) systemic vasculitides (Churg Strauss Syndrome). LV = left ventricle;. RV = right ...

  19. Melt Electrospinning Writing of Poly-Hydroxymethylglycolide-co-ε-Caprolactone-Based Scaffolds for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castilho, Miguel; Feyen, Dries; Flandes-Iparraguirre, María; Hochleitner, Gernot; Groll, Jürgen; Doevendans, Pieter A.F.; Vermonden, Tina; Ito, Keita; Sluijter, Joost P G; Malda, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Current limitations in cardiac tissue engineering revolve around the inability to fully recapitulate the structural organization and mechanical environment of native cardiac tissue. This study aims at developing organized ultrafine fiber scaffolds with improved biocompatibility and architecture in

  20. CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES IN UP-TO-DATE CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gurevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the use of cardiac glycosides in patients with chronic heart failure, paroxysmal tachyarrhythmia and chronic atrial fibrillation (rate control. According to the recent studies results cardiac glycosides may be substituted by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor antagonists, diuretics, calcium antagonists and beta-adrenoceptor blockers in order to decrease the risk of cardiac glycoside toxicity and, in some cases, to improve quality of life and prognosis of the patients.

  1. Design of the Circulation Improving Resuscitation Care (CIRC) Trial: a new state of the art design for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerner, E.B.; Persse, D.; Souders, C.M.; Sterz, F.; Malzer, R.; Lozano, M., Jr.; Westfall, M.; Brouwer, M.A.; Grunsven, P.M. van; Whitehead, A.; Olsen, J.A.; Herken, U.R.; Wik, L.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Mechanical chest compression devices, such as the AutoPulse((R)), have been developed to overcome problems associated with manual CPR (M-CPR). Animal and human studies have shown that AutoPulse CPR improves hemodynamic parameters over M-CPR. However, human studies conducted in the

  2. Low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet improves diastolic cardiac function and the metabolic syndrome in overweight-obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. von Bibra

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: These data indicate, that a low-glycaemic/high-protein but not a low-fat/high-carbohydrate nutrition modulates diastolic dysfunction in overweight T2D patients, improves insulin resistance and may prevent or delay the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy and the metabolic syndrome.

  3. Serum cortisol concentration with exploratory cut-off values do not predict the effects of hydrocortisone administration in children with low cardiac output after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, E. J.; Hogenbirk, Karin; Roest, Arno A. W.; van Brempt, Ronald; Hazekamp, Mark G.; de Jonge, Evert

    2012-01-01

    Low cardiac output syndrome is common after paediatric cardiac surgery. Previous studies suggested that hydrocortisone administration may improve haemodynamic stability in case of resistant low cardiac output syndrome in critically ill children. This study was set up to test the hypothesis that the

  4. Cardiac myxoma in pregnancy: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective:Cardiac myxoma in pregnancy is rare and the clinical characteristics of this entity have been insufficiently elucidated. This article aims to describe the treatment options and the risk factors responsible for the maternal and feto-neonatal prognoses.Methods:A comprehensive search of the literature of cardiac myxoma in pregnancy was conducted and 44 articles with 51 patients were included in the present review.Results:Transthoracic echocardiography was the most common diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of cardiac myxoma during pregnancy. Cardiac myxoma resection was performed in 95.9% (47/49; while no surgical resection was performed in 4.1% (2/49 patients (P=0.000. More patients had an isolated cardiac myxoma resection in comparison to those with a concurrent or staged additional cardiac operation [87.2% (41/47 vs. 12.8% (6/47, P=0.000]. A voluntary termination of the pregnancy was done in 7 (13.7% cases. In the remaining 31 (60.8% pregnant patients, cesarean section was the most common delivery mode representing 61.3% and vaginal delivery was more common accounting for 19.4%. Cardiac surgery was performed in the first, second and third trimester in 5 (13.9%, 14 (38.9% and 17 (47.2% patients, respectively. No patients died. In the delivery group, 20 (76.9% neonates were event-free survivals, 4 (15.4% were complicated and 2 (7.7% died. Neonatal prognoses did not differ between the delivery modes, treatment options, timing of cardiac surgery and sequence of cardiac myxoma resection in relation to delivery.Conclusion:The diagnosis of cardiac myxoma in pregnancy is important. Surgical treatment of cardiac myxoma in the pregnant patients has brought about favorable maternal and feto-neonatal outcomes in the delivery group, which might be attributable to the shorter operation duration and non-emergency nature of the surgical intervention. Proper timing of cardiac surgery and improved cardiopulmonary bypass conditions may result in

  5. Cardiac myxoma in pregnancy: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac myxoma in pregnancy is rare and the clinical characteristics of this entity have been insufficiently elucidated. This article aims to describe the treatment options and the risk factors responsible for the maternal and feto-neonatal prognoses. A comprehensive search of the literature of cardiac myxoma in pregnancy was conducted and 44 articles with 51 patients were included in the present review. Transthoracic echocardiography was the most common diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of cardiac myxoma during pregnancy. Cardiac myxoma resection was performed in 95.9% (47/49); while no surgical resection was performed in 4.1% (2/49) patients (P=0.000). More patients had an isolated cardiac myxoma resection in comparison to those with a concurrent or staged additional cardiac operation [87.2% (41/47) vs. 12.8% (6/47), P=0.000]. A voluntary termination of the pregnancy was done in 7 (13.7%) cases. In the remaining 31 (60.8%) pregnant patients, cesarean section was the most common delivery mode representing 61.3% and vaginal delivery was more common accounting for 19.4%. Cardiac surgery was performed in the first, second and third trimester in 5 (13.9%), 14 (38.9%) and 17 (47.2%) patients, respectively. No patients died. In the delivery group, 20 (76.9%) neonates were event-free survivals, 4 (15.4%) were complicated and 2 (7.7%) died. Neonatal prognoses did not differ between the delivery modes, treatment options, timing of cardiac surgery and sequence of cardiac myxoma resection in relation to delivery. The diagnosis of cardiac myxoma in pregnancy is important. Surgical treatment of cardiac myxoma in the pregnant patients has brought about favorable maternal and feto-neonatal outcomes in the delivery group, which might be attributable to the shorter operation duration and non-emergency nature of the surgical intervention. Proper timing of cardiac surgery and improved cardiopulmonary bypass conditions may result in even better maternal and feto-neonatal survivals.

  6. [Advances in cardiac pacing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carranza, María-José Sancho-Tello; Fidalgo-Andrés, María Luisa; Ferrer, José Martínez; Mateas, Francisco Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    This article contains a review of the current status of remote monitoring and follow-up involving cardiac pacing devices and of the latest developments in cardiac resynchronization therapy. In addition, the most important articles published in the last year are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Safety in cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siregar, S.

    2013-01-01

    The monitoring of safety in cardiac surgery is a complex process, which involves many clinical, practical, methodological and statistical issues. The objective of this thesis was to measure and to compare safety in cardiac surgery in The Netherlands using the Netherlands Association for

  8. Pregnancy and cardiac disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnosing cardiac disease. History and examination. Many disorders can be identified by a clinical examination and a patient's history, but in the majority, if not all cases, an echocardiogram is required to confirm clinical suspicions. ARTICLE. Pregnancy and cardiac disease. C Elliott,1 MB ChB, FCOG (SA), MMed; K Sliwa ...

  9. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  10. Mathematical cardiac electrophysiology

    CERN Document Server

    Colli Franzone, Piero; Scacchi, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the main mathematical and numerical models in computational electrocardiology, ranging from microscopic membrane models of cardiac ionic channels to macroscopic bidomain, monodomain, eikonal models and cardiac source representations. These advanced multiscale and nonlinear models describe the cardiac bioelectrical activity from the cell level to the body surface and are employed in both the direct and inverse problems of electrocardiology. The book also covers advanced numerical techniques needed to efficiently carry out large-scale cardiac simulations, including time and space discretizations, decoupling and operator splitting techniques, parallel finite element solvers. These techniques are employed in 3D cardiac simulations illustrating the excitation mechanisms, the anisotropic effects on excitation and repolarization wavefronts, the morphology of electrograms in normal and pathological tissue and some reentry phenomena. The overall aim of the book is to present rigorously the mathematica...

  11. An Unusual Cause of Cardiac Tamponade during Cardiac Catheterization Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepanwita Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Catheter-based diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are rapidly advancing. However, catheter related complications sometimes become life threatening. Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious complication of this procedure. We have summarized one cardiac tamponade pejoration due to secondary coronary vessels laceration by the implanted pericardial drainage. Case report. A 4-year-old baby having Tetralogy of Fallot was posted for diagnostic catheterization study. Patient was induced with sevoflurane and spontaneous respiration was maintained. After catheter insertion to RV, dye was injected through the catheter which rapidly spread into the pericardial cavity indicating right ventricle perforation. Immediately, blood was aspirated under transthoracic echocardiographic guidance and hemodynamics started improving. For the provision of quick access to aspirate further collection, an intrapericardial sheath was inserted after multiple attempts. Patient’s condition started deteriorating again. TTE revealed again some collection and it was increasing gradually. On exploration, it was found that there was continuous bleeding from a lacerated epicardial vessel which contributed to the pericardial collection leading to further tamponade effect. This second iatrogenic injury complicated the management of the first iatrogenic cardiac perforation and, thereby, created a life-threatening situation which needed immediate surgical exploration. Discussion. Usual cause of tamponade after right ventricular perforation is bleeding from the RV, but in our case the second tamponade was not due to bleeding from the RV, but was rather from new laceration injury of epicardial vessels which was remained undiagnosed till exploration.

  12. How Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  13. How Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  14. Cardiac Mapping: Utility or Futility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Anoop Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac mapping is a broad term that covers several modes of mapping such as body surface,1 endocardial,2 and epicardial3 mapping. The recording and analysis of extracellular electrograms, reported as early as 1915, forms the basis for cardiac mapping.4 More commonly, cardiac mapping is performed with catheters that are introduced percutaneously into the heart chambers and sequentially record the endocardial electrograms with the purpose of correlating local electrogram to cardiac anatomy. These electrophysiological catheters are navigated and localized with the use of fluoroscopy. Nevertheless, the use of fluoroscopy for these purposes may be problematic for a number of reasons, including: 1 the inability to accurately associate intracardiac electrograms with their precise location within the heart; 2 the endocardial surface is invisible using fluoroscopy and the target sites can only be approximated by their relationship with nearby structures such as ribs, blood vessels, and the position of other catheters; 3 due to the limitations of two-dimensional fluoroscopy, navigation is not exact, time consuming, and requires multiple views to estimate the three-dimensional location of the catheter; 4 inability to accurately return the catheter precisely to a previously mapped site; and 5 exposure of the patient and medical team to radiation. Newer mapping systems have revolutionized the clinical electrophysiology laboratory in recent years and have offered new insights into arrhythmia mechanisms. They are aimed at improving the resolution, three-dimensional spatial localization, and/or rapidity of acquisition of cardiac activation maps. These systems use novel approaches to accurately determine the three-dimensional location of the mapping catheter and local electrograms are acquired using conventional, well-established methods. Recorded data of the catheter location and intracardiac electrogram at that location are used to reconstruct in real-time a

  15. Almanac 2013: cardiac arrhythmias and pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Reginald

    2013-10-01

    Important advances have been made in the past few years in the fields of clinical cardiac electrophysiology and pacing. Researchers and clinicians have a greater understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation (AF), which has transpired into improved methods of detection, risk stratification, and treatments. The introduction of novel oral anticoagulants has provided clinicians with alternative options in managing patients with AF at moderate to high thromboembolic risk and further data has been emerging on the use of catheter ablation for the treatment of symptomatic AF. Another area of intense research in the field of cardiac arrhythmias and pacing is in the use of cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) for the treatment of patients with heart failure. Following the publication of major landmark randomised controlled trials reporting that CRT confers a survival advantage in patients with severe heart failure and improves symptoms, many subsequent studies have been performed to further refine the selection of patients for CRT and determine the clinical characteristics associated with a favourable response. The field of sudden cardiac death and implantable cardioverter defibrillators also continues to be actively researched, with important new epidemiological and clinical data emerging on improved methods for patient selection, risk stratification, and management. This review covers the major recent advances in these areas related to cardiac arrhythmias and pacing.

  16. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Supplementation Induces Changes in Cardiac miRNA Expression, Reduces Oxidative Stress and Left Ventricular Mass, and Improves Diastolic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Bruna L B; Arruda, Fernanda C O; Reis, Patrícia P; Felix, Tainara F; Santos, Priscila P; Rafacho, Bruna P; Gonçalves, Andrea F; Claro, Renan T; Azevedo, Paula S; Polegato, Bertha F; Okoshi, Katashi; Fernandes, Ana A H; Paiva, Sergio A R; Zornoff, Leonardo A M; Minicucci, Marcos F

    2015-11-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tomato supplementation on the normal rat heart and the role of oxidative stress in this scenario. Male Wistar rats were assigned to two groups: a control group (C; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet + 0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day, and a tomato group (T; n = 16), in which animals received a control diet supplemented with tomato +0.5 mL of corn oil/kg body weight/day. After three months, morphological, functional, and biochemical analyses were performed. Animals supplemented with tomato had a smaller left atrium diameter and myocyte cross-sectional area (CSA) compared to the control group (C group: 474 (415-539); T group: 273 (258-297) µm²; p = 0.004). Diastolic function was improved in rats supplemented with tomato. In addition, lipid hydroperoxide was lower (C group: 267 ± 46.7; T group: 219 ± 23.0 nmol/g; p = 0.039) in the myocardium of rats supplemented with tomato. Tomato intake was also associated with up-regulation of miR-107 and miR-486 and down-regulation of miR-350 and miR-872. In conclusion, tomato supplementation induces changes in miRNA expression and reduces oxidative stress. In addition, these alterations may be responsible for CSA reduction and diastolic function improvement.

  17. Cardiac MRI in restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Singh Gulati, G., E-mail: gulatigurpreet@rediffmail.com [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Seth, S. [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Sharma, S. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India)

    2012-02-15

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a specific group of heart muscle disorders characterized by inadequate ventricular relaxation during diastole. This leads to diastolic dysfunction with relative preservation of systolic function. Although short axis systolic function is usually preserved in RCM, the long axis systolic function may be severely impaired. Confirmation of diagnosis and information regarding aetiology, extent of myocardial damage, and response to treatment requires imaging. Importantly, differentiation from constrictive pericarditis (CCP) is needed, as only the latter is managed surgically. Echocardiography is the initial cardiac imaging technique but cannot reliably suggest a tissue diagnosis; although recent advances, especially tissue Doppler imaging and spectral tracking, have improved its ability to differentiate RCM from CCP. Cardiac catheterization is the reference standard, but is invasive, two-dimensional, and does not aid myocardial characterization. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile technique providing anatomical, morphological and functional information. In recent years, it has been shown to provide important information regarding disease mechanisms, and also been found useful to guide treatment, assess its outcome and predict patient prognosis. This review describes the CMR features of RCM, appearances in various diseases, its overall role in patient management, and how it compares with other imaging techniques.

  18. Early and Late Neurological Complications after Cardiac Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Balkanay; Cengiz Köksal; Deniz Çevirme; Hasan Sunar

    2011-01-01

    The clinical use of cyclosporine as an immunosuppressant improved the recipient’s life span and revolutionized the field of cardiac transplantation. But most of the immunesuppressant drugs including cyclosporine may cause neurological and many other side effects. In this article we present three cases, from 58 patients, undergoing cardiac transplantation at our hospital from 1989 to 2008 in whom developed transient neurological complications.

  19. Early and Late Neurological Complications After Cardiac Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Çevirme, Deniz; Köksal, Cengiz; Balkanay, Mehmet; Sunar, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    The clinical use of cyclosporine as an immunosuppressant improved the recipient's life span and revolutionized the field of cardiac transplantation. But most of the immunesuppressant drugs including cyclosporine may cause neurological and many other side effects. In this article we present three cases, from 58 patients, undergoing cardiac transplantation at our hospital from 1989 to 2008 in whom developed transient neurological complications.

  20. Cooling the crisis: Therapeutic hypothermia after sickle cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metske, Hennie A.; Postema, Pieter G.; Biemond, Bart J.; Bouman, Catherine S. C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The management of patients with sickle-cell disease and cardiac arrest presents special challenges. Mild therapeutic hypothermia may improve survival and neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest, however, it may also precipitate sickling in patients with sickle-cell disease. Rigorous

  1. Correlation between athlete training intensity and cardiac performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... After the three groups of athletes received training of different intensities, there is a significant improvement in their cardiac function to a certain extent, especially Group. C athletes receiving 90-minute running. After training, athletes' cardiac muscle is effectively enhanced, and their myocardial strength is ...

  2. Technological advances in catheter-based cardiac therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, R

    2016-01-01

    Part 1 – Optimizing navigation for cardiac regenerative therapy In the first part of this thesis we focus on improving navigation strategies for cardiac regenerative therapies. The key point in this part is getting the therapy exactly to the position in the heart where the expected effects are

  3. Optimization of Electrical Stimulation Parameters for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Nina; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wan, Leo; Park, Hyoungshin; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2010-01-01

    In vitro application of pulsatile electrical stimulation to neonatal rat cardiomyocytes cultured on polymer scaffolds has been shown to improve the functional assembly of cells into contractile cardiac tissue constrcuts. However, to date, the conditions of electrical stimulation have not been optimized. We have systematically varied the electrode material, amplitude and frequency of stimulation, to determine the conditions that are optimal for cardiac tissue engineering. Carbon electrodes, exhibiting the highest charge-injection capacity and producing cardiac tissues with the best structural and contractile properties, and were thus used in tissue engineering studies. Cardiac tissues stimulated at 3V/cm amplitude and 3Hz frequency had the highest tissue density, the highest concentrations of cardiac troponin-I and connexin-43, and the best developed contractile behavior. These findings contribute to defining bioreactor design specifications and electrical stimulation regime for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:21604379

  4. Korean guidelines for the appropriate use of cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul(Korea, Republic of); Yong, Hwan Seok [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul(Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Mok [Dept. of Radiology, amsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung A [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yoo Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    The development of cardiac CT has provided a non-invasive alternative to echocardiography, exercise electrocardiogram, and invasive angiography and cardiac CT continues to develop at an exponential speed even now. The appropriate use of cardiac CT may lead to improvements in the medical performances of physicians and can reduce medical costs which eventually contribute to better public health. However, until now, there has been no guideline regarding the appropriate use of cardiac CT in Korea. We intend to provide guidelines for the appropriate use of cardiac CT in heart diseases based on scientific data. The purpose of this guideline is to assist clinicians and other health professionals in the use of cardiac CT for diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases, especially in patients at high risk or suspected of heart disease.

  5. Stroke and cardiac cell death: Two peas in a pod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Portillo, Chiara; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Tajiri, Naoki; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2016-03-01

    A close pathological link between stroke brain and heart failure may exist. Here, we discuss relevant laboratory and clinical reports demonstrating neural and cardiac myocyte cell death following ischemic stroke. Although various overlapping risk factors exist between cerebrovascular incidents and cardiac incidents, stroke therapy has largely neglected the cardiac pathological consequences. Recent preclinical stroke studies have implicated an indirect cell death pathway, involving toxic molecules, that originates from the stroke brain and produces cardiac cell death. In concert, previous laboratory reports have revealed a reverse cell death cascade, in that cardiac arrest leads to ischemic cell death in the brain. A deeper understanding of the crosstalk of cell death pathways between stroke and cardiac failure will facilitate the development of novel treatments designed to arrest the global pathology of both diseases thereby improving the clinical outcomes of patients diagnosed with stroke and heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiac tumors: echo assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Mankad MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tumors are exceedingly rare (0.001–0.03% in most autopsy series. They can be present anywhere within the heart and can be attached to any surface or be embedded in the myocardium or pericardial space. Signs and symptoms are nonspecific and highly variable related to the localization, size and composition of the cardiac mass. Echocardiography, typically performed for another indication, may be the first imaging modality alerting the clinician to the presence of a cardiac mass. Although echocardiography cannot give the histopathology, certain imaging features and adjunctive tools such as contrast imaging may aid in the differential diagnosis as do the adjunctive clinical data and the following principles: (1 thrombus or vegetations are the most likely etiology, (2 cardiac tumors are mostly secondary and (3 primary cardiac tumors are mostly benign. Although the finding of a cardiac mass on echocardiography may generate confusion, a stepwise approach may serve well practically. Herein, we will review such an approach and the role of echocardiography in the assessment of cardiac masses.

  7. Naturally occurring cardiac glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, D J; Gillies, A D; Hinds, J A; Duffy, P

    1986-05-12

    Cardiac glycoside poisoning from the ingestion of plants, particularly of oleanders, occurs with reasonable frequency in tropical and subtropical areas. We have assessed a variety of plant specimens for their cardiac glycoside content by means of radioimmunoassays with antibodies that differ in their specificity for cardiac glycosides. Significant amounts of immunoreactive cardiac glycoside were found to be present in the ornamental shrubs: yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana); oleander (Nerium oleander); wintersweet (Carissa spectabilis); bushman's poison (Carissa acokanthera); sea-mango (Cerbera manghas); and frangipani (Plumeria rubra); and in the milkweeds: redheaded cotton-bush (Asclepias curassavica); balloon cotton (Asclepias fruiticosa); king's crown (Calotropis procera); and rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandifolia). The venom gland of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) also contained large quantities of cardiac glycosides. The competitive immunoassay method permits the rapid screening of specimens that are suspected to contain cardiac glycosides. Awareness of the existence of these plant and animal toxins and their dangers allows them to be avoided and poisoning prevented. The method is also useful for the confirmation of the presence of cardiac glycosides in serum in cases of poisoning.

  8. Imaging for cardiac electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Desjardins

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical cardiac electrophysiology is the study of the origin and treatment of arrhythmia. There has been considerable recent development in this field, where imaging has had a transformational impact. In this invited review, we offer a global overview of the most important developments in the use of imaging in cardiac electrophysiology. We first describe the radiological imaging modalities involved in cardiac electrophysiology, to assess cardiac anatomy, function and scar. We then introduce an imaging modality with which readers are probably unfamiliar (electroanatomical mapping [EAM], but which is routinely used by electrophysiologists to plan and guide cardiac mapping and cardiac ablation therapy by catheter, a therapy which can reduce or even cure arrhythmia. We identify the limitations of EAM and describe how radiological imaging modalities can complement this technique. We then describe and illustrate how imaging has helped the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic conditions, and how imaging is used to plan and guide clinical cardiac electrophysiologic procedures and assess their results and complications. We focus on the two most common arrhythmias for which imaging has the greatest impact: atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.

  9. Lack of improved outcomes with increased use of targeted temperature management following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a multicenter retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Dustin G; Vinson, David R; Hung, Yun-Yi; Anderson, Erik S; Escobar, Gabriel J; Carr, Brendan G; Abella, Benjamin S; Ballard, Dustin W

    2014-11-01

    To assess whether increased use of targeted temperature management (TTM) within an integrated healthcare delivery system resulted in improved rates of good neurologic outcome at hospital discharge (Cerebral Performance Category score of 1 or 2). Retrospective cohort study of patients with OHCA admitted to 21 medical centers between January 2007 and December 2012. A standardized TTM protocol and educational program were introduced throughout the system in early 2009. Comatose patients eligible for treatment with TTM were included. Adjusted odds of good neurologic outcome at hospital discharge and survival to hospital discharge were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 1119 patients were admitted post-OHCA with coma, 59.1% (661 of 1119) of which were eligible for TTM. The percentage of patients treated with TTM markedly increased during the study period: 10.5% in the years preceding (2007-2008) vs. 85.1% in the years following (2011-2012) implementation of the practice improvement initiative. However, unadjusted in-hospital survival (37.3% vs. 39.0%, p=0.77) and good neurologic outcome at hospital discharge (26.3% vs. 26.6%, p=1.0) did not change. The adjusted odds of survival to hospital discharge (AOR 1.0, 95% CI 0.85-1.17) or a good neurologic outcome (AOR 0.94, 95% CI 0.79-1.11) were likewise non-significant. Despite a marked increase in TTM rates across hospitals in an integrated delivery system, there was no appreciable change in the crude or adjusted odds of in-hospital survival or good neurologic outcomes at hospital discharge among eligible post-arrest patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetics of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezzina, Connie R.; Lahrouchi, Najim; Priori, Silvia G.

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death occurs in a broad spectrum of cardiac pathologies and is an important cause of mortality in the general population. Genetic studies conducted during the past 20 years have markedly illuminated the genetic basis of the inherited cardiac disorders associated with sudden cardiac

  11. Cardiac expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is increased in obesity and serves to attenuate cardiac triglyceride accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil D Bartels

    Full Text Available Obesity causes lipid accumulation in the heart and may lead to lipotoxic heart disease. Traditionally, the size of the cardiac triglyceride pool is thought to reflect the balance between uptake and beta-oxidation of fatty acids. However, triglycerides can also be exported from cardiomyocytes via secretion of apolipoproteinB-containing (apoB lipoproteins. Lipoprotein formation depends on expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP; the mouse expresses two isoforms of MTP, A and B. Since many aspects of the link between obesity-induced cardiac disease and cardiac lipid metabolism remain unknown, we investigated how cardiac lipoprotein synthesis affects cardiac expression of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes, insulin sensitivity, and function in obese mice. Heart-specific ablation of MTP-A in mice using Cre-loxP technology impaired upregulation of MTP expression in response to increased fatty acid availability during fasting and fat feeding. This resulted in cardiac triglyceride accumulation but unaffected cardiac insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Long-term fat-feeding of male C57Bl/6 mice increased cardiac triglycerides, induced cardiac expression of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes and attenuated heart function. Abolishing cardiac triglyceride accumulation in fat-fed mice by overexpression of an apoB transgene in the heart prevented the induction of triglyceride metabolism-controlling genes and improved heart function. The results suggest that in obesity, the physiological increase of cardiac MTP expression serves to attenuate cardiac triglyceride accumulation albeit without major effects on cardiac insulin sensitivity. Nevertheless, the data suggest that genetically increased lipoprotein secretion prevents development of obesity-induced lipotoxic heart disease.

  12. Survival in patients without acute ST elevation after cardiac arrest and association with early coronary angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankiewicz, J; Nielsen, N; Annborn, M

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether early coronary angiography (CAG) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of a presumed cardiac cause is associated with improved outcomes in patients without acute ST elevation. METHODS: The target temperature management after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (TTM) tria...

  13. Quantitative cardiac ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Rijsterborgh (Hans)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is about the various aspects of quantitative cardiac ultrasound. The first four chapters are mainly devoted to the reproducibility of echocardiographic measurements. These . are focussed on the variation of echocardiographic measurements within patients. An important

  14. Cardiac Tumors; Tumeurs cardiaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissy, J.P.; Fernandez, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bichat Claude Bernard, Service d' Imagerie, 76 - Rouen (France); Mousseaux, E. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), Service de Radiologie Cardio Vasculaire et Interventionnelle, 75 - Paris (France); Dacher, J.N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Charles Nicolle, 75 - Rouen (France); Crochet, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Laennec, Centre Hemodynamique, Radiologie Thoracique et Vasculaire, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2004-04-01

    Metastases are the most frequent tumors of the heart even though they seldom are recognized. Most primary cardiac tumors are benign. The main role of imaging is to differentiate a cardiac tumor from thrombus and rare pseudo-tumors: tuberculoma, hydatid cyst. Echocardiography is the fist line imaging technique to detect cardiac tumors, but CT and MRl arc useful for further characterization and differential diagnosis. Myxoma of the left atrium is the most frequent benign cardiac tumor. It usually is pedunculated and sometimes calcified. Sarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant tumor and usually presents as a sessile infiltrative tumor. Lymphoma and metastases are usually recognized by the presence of known tumor elsewhere of by characteristic direct contiguous involvement. Diagnosing primary and secondary pericardial tumors often is difficult. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis, characterization, pre-surgical evaluation and follow-up. (author)

  15. Cardiac Catheterization (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... will do the cardiac catheterization in a catheterization lab . The lab contains X-ray and imaging machines ...

  16. Autonomic cardiac innervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Wohaib

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targets, upon which target-derived trophic factors take over final maturation, synaptic strength and postnatal survival. Although target-derived neurotrophins have a central role to play in development, alternative sources of neurotrophins may also modulate innervation. Both developing and adult sympathetic neurons express proNGF, and adult parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons also synthesize and release NGF. The physiological function of these “non-classical” cardiac sources of neurotrophins remains to be determined, especially in relation to autocrine/paracrine sustenance during development.   Cardiac autonomic nerves are closely spatially associated in cardiac plexuses, ganglia and pacemaker regions and so are sensitive to release of neurotransmitter, neuropeptides and trophic factors from adjacent nerves. As such, in many cardiac pathologies, it is an imbalance within the two arms of the autonomic system that is critical for disease progression. Although this crosstalk between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves has been well established for adult nerves, it is unclear whether a degree of paracrine regulation occurs across the autonomic limbs during development. Aberrant nerve remodeling is a common occurrence in many adult cardiovascular pathologies, and the mechanisms regulating outgrowth or denervation are disparate. However, autonomic neurons display considerable plasticity in this regard with neurotrophins and inflammatory cytokines having a central regulatory

  17. Awareness in cardiac anesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Serfontein, Leon

    2010-02-01

    Cardiac surgery represents a sub-group of patients at significantly increased risk of intraoperative awareness. Relatively few recent publications have targeted the topic of awareness in this group. The aim of this review is to identify areas of awareness research that may equally be extrapolated to cardiac anesthesia in the attempt to increase understanding of the nature and significance of this scenario and how to reduce it.

  18. Cardiac imaging in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book approaches adult cardiac disease from the correlative imaging perspective. It includes chest X-rays and angiographs, 2-dimensional echocardiograms with explanatory diagrams for clarity, plus details on digital radiology, nuclear medicine techniques, CT and MRI. It also covers the normal heart, valvular heart disease, myocardial disease, pericardial disease, bacterial endocarditis, aortic aneurysm, cardiac tumors, and congenital heart disease of the adult. It points out those aspects where one imaging technique has significant superiority.

  19. [Cardiac CT: new applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesenti-Rossi, D; Baron, N; Allouch, P; Convers, R; Gibault-Genty, G; Aubert, S

    2014-11-01

    Since the introduction of the 64-generation scanners, the accuracy and robustness of the diagnosis of coronary artery disease has progressed. The main advantage of cardiac CT is the exclusion of coronary artery disease by its excellent negative predictive value. Currently, cardiac CT applications extend thanks to innovations both in terms of technological development systems scanner or stents implanted, that the evolution of surgical procedures such as TAVI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiac T1 Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Kwong, Raymond Y.

    2014-01-01

    T1 mapping of the heart has evolved into a valuable tool to evaluate myocardial tissue properties, with or without contrast injection, including assessment of myocardial edema and free water content, extra-cellular volume (expansion), and most recently cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The MRI pulse sequence techniques developed for these applications have had to address at least two important considerations for cardiac applications: measure magnetization inversion recoveries during cardiac motion w...

  1. Postoperative cardiac arrest after heart surgery: does extracorporeal perfusion support a paradigm change in management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gologorsky, Edward; Macedo, Francisco Igor B; Carvalho, Enisa M; Gologorsky, Angela; Ricci, Marco; Salerno, Tomas A

    2010-01-01

    Early institution of extracorporeal perfusion support (ECPS) may improve survival after cardiac arrest. Two patients sustained unexpected cardiac arrest in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) following cardiac interventions. ECPS was initiated due to failure to restore hemodynamics after prolonged (over 60 minutes) advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) protocol-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Despite relatively late institution of ECPS, both patients survived with preserved neurological function. This communication focuses on the utility of ECPS in the ICU as a part of resuscitative efforts.

  2. Sudden cardiac death in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, C; Borjesson, M

    2014-02-01

    A 'paradox of sport' is that in addition to the undisputed health benefits of physical activity, vigorous exertion may transiently increase the risk of acute cardiac events. In general, the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) approximately doubles during physical activity and is 2- to 3-fold higher in athletes compared to nonathletes. The incidence of SCD in young athletes is in fact very low, at around 1-3 per 100,000, but attracts much public attention. Variations in incidence figures may be explained by the methodology used for data collection and more importantly by differences between subpopulations of athletes. The incidence of SCD in older (≥ 35 years) athletes is higher and may be expected to rise, as more and older individuals take part in organized sports. SCD is often the first clinical manifestation of a potentially fatal underlying cardiovascular disorder and usually occurs in previously asymptomatic athletes. In the young (cardiac abnormalities, whilst coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause in older athletes. Cardiac screening including family/personal history, physical examination and resting electrocardiogram (ECG) may identify individuals at risk and has the potential to decrease the risk of SCD in young athletes. Screening including the ECG has a high sensitivity for underlying disease in young athletes, but the specificity needs to be improved, whereas the sensitivity of screening without the use of ECG is very low. The screening modality recommended for young athletes is of limited value in older athletes, who should receive individualized screening with cardiac stress testing for patients with high risk of underlying CAD. As cardiovascular screening will never be able to identify all athletes at risk, adequate preparedness is vital in case of a potentially fatal event at the sporting arena/facility. Firstly, we will review the magnitude of the problem of SCD in athletes of different ages, as well as the aetiology. Secondly, we

  3. Strategies for the prevention of sudden cardiac death during sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Domenico; Drezner, Jonathan; Basso, Cristina; Pelliccia, Antonio; Thiene, Gaetano

    2011-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death of a young athlete is the most tragic event in sports and devastates the family, the sports medicine team, and the local community. Such a fatality represents the first manifestation of cardiac disease in up to 80% of young athletes who remain asymptomatic before sudden cardiac arrest occurs; this explains the limited power of screening modalities based solely on history and physical examination. The long-running Italian experience showed that electrocardiogram (ECG) screening definitively improves the sensitivity of pre-participation evaluation for heart diseases and substantially reduces the risk of death in the athletic field (primary prevention). However, some cardiac conditions, such as coronary artery diseases, present no abnormalities on 12-lead ECG. Moreover, cardiac arrest due to non-penetrating chest injury (commotio cordis) cannot be prevented by screening. This justifies the efforts for implementing programmes of early external defibrillation of unpredictable arrhythmic cardiac arrest. This article reviews the epidemiology of sudden cardiac arrest in the athlete in terms of incidence, sport-related risk, underlying causes, and the currently available prevention programmes such as pre-participation screening and early external defibrillation by using automated external defibrillators. The best strategy is to combine synergistically primary prevention of sudden cardiac death by pre-participation identification of athletes affected by at-risk cardiomyopathies and secondary prevention with back-up defibrillation of unpredictable sudden cardiac arrest on the athletic field.

  4. Cardiac biomarkers in neonatal hypoxic ischaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweetman, D

    2012-04-01

    Following a perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic insult, term infants commonly develop cardiovascular dysfunction. Troponin-T, troponin-I and brain natriuretic peptide are sensitive indicators of myocardial compromise. The long-term effects of cardiovascular dysfunction on neurodevelopmental outcome following perinatal hypoxic ischaemia remain controversial. Follow-up studies are warranted to ensure optimal cardiac function in adulthood. CONCLUSION: Cardiac biomarkers may improve the diagnosis of myocardial injury, help guide management, estimate mortality risk and may also aid in longterm neurodevelopmental outcome prediction following neonatal hypoxic-ischaemia.

  5. Cardiac Tumors: Echocardiographic Diagnosis and Forensic Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capotosto, Lidia; Elena, Giulia; Massoni, Francesco; De Sio, Simone; Carnevale, Aldo; Ricci, Serafino; Vitarelli, Antonio

    2016-12-01

    In the past, cardiac tumors were a just clinical curiosity and the prognosis was poor. Surgical management became possible after the advent of cardiopulmonary bypass, and more recently, preoperative diagnosis was greatly improved by the development of echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The value of echocardiography for diagnosing cardiac mass lesions has become well established. Numerous advances have occurred in the last 5 decades, and the evolution of echocardiography involves the development of its many modalities. This review is intended to help echocardiologists and forensic pathologists in providing good medical practice when faced with the challenge of investigating unexpected clinical signs, particularly in young people, or unexpected postmortem findings.

  6. Association between a Hospital’s Rate of Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Cardiac Arrest Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lena M.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Spertus, John A.; Li, Yan; Chan, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Context National efforts to measure hospital performance for cardiac arrest have focused on case survival, with the hope of improving survival after cardiac arrest. However, it is plausible that hospitals with high case-survival rates do a poor job of preventing cardiac arrests in the first place. Objective To describe the association between inpatient cardiac arrest incidence and survival rates. Design, Setting, and Patients Within a large, national registry, we identified hospitals with at least 50 adult in-hospital cardiac arrest cases between January 1, 2000 and November 30, 2009. We used multivariable hierarchical regression to evaluate the correlation between a hospital’s cardiac arrest incidence rate and its case-survival rate after adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Main Outcome Measure The correlation between a hospital’s incidence rate and case-survival rate for cardiac arrest. Results Of 102,153 cases at 358 hospitals, the median hospital cardiac arrest incidence rate was 4.02 per 1000 admissions (IQR: 2.95 to 5.65 per 1000 admissions), and the median hospital case-survival rate was 18.8% (IQR: 14.5% to 22.6%). In crude analyses, hospitals with higher case-survival rates also had lower cardiac arrest incidence (correlation of -0.16; P=0.003). This relationship persisted after adjusting for patient characteristics (correlation of -0.15; P=0.004). After adjusting for potential mediators of this relationship (i.e., hospital characteristics), the relationship between incidence and case-survival was attenuated (correlation of -0.07; P=0.18). The one modifiable hospital factor that most attenuated this relationship was a hospital’s nurse-to-bed ratio (correlation of -0.12; P=0.03). Conclusions Hospitals with exceptional rates of survival for in-hospital cardiac arrest are also better at preventing cardiac arrests, even after adjusting for patient case-mix. This relationship is partially mediated by measured hospital attributes

  7. [Psychosomatic aspects of cardiac arrhythmias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepmann, Martin; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2010-07-01

    Emotional stress facilitates the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias including sudden cardiac death. The prevalence of anxiety and depression is increased in cardiac patients as compared to the normal population. The risk of cardiovascular mortality is enhanced in patients suffering from depression. Comorbid anxiety disorders worsen the course of cardiac arrhythmias. Disturbance of neurocardiac regulation with predominance of the sympathetic tone is hypothesized to be causative for this. The emotional reaction to cardiac arrhythmias is differing to a large extent between individuals. Emotional stress may result from coping with treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Emotional stress and cardiac arrhythmias may influence each other in the sense of a vicious circle. Somatoform cardiac arrhythmias are predominantly of psychogenic origin. Instrumental measures and frequent contacts between physicians and patients may facilitate disease chronification. The present review is dealing with the multifaceted relationships between cardiac arrhythmias and emotional stress. The underlying mechanisms and corresponding treatment modalities are discussed.

  8. The outcome of anaesthesia related cardiac arrest in a

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    O.O. Adekola

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Anaesthesia related cardiac arrest and mortality were linked to cardiovascular depression from halothane overdose in our institution. The burden can be reduced by improving on establishing standard monitoring in the perioperative period, and a team approach to patients care.

  9. ICD in cardiac resinhronization therapy

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    Damijan Vokač

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with advanced heart failure bears bad prognosis, despite modern medical treatment year mortality rate spans from 30 up to 70%. Besides terminal heart failure the second most frequent cause is sudden death due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias as ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Ventricular fibrillation is very frequent cause of mortality of terminal heart failure especially in ischemic subgroup. Clinical studies have presented improvement of heart function by use of biventricular stimulation of patients with advanced heart failure and intraventricular conduction defects as left bundle branch block. Method very successfully improves acute hemodynamic parameters due to resynchronization of septal and lateral wall of left ventricle and improves economy of the heart contraction. Although these effects are present immediately after implantation they persist also through longer period. Method improves quality of life and also decreases mortality rate proved by clinical studies. Despite successful therapy mortality rate due to sudden death remains high. Implantable cardioverters defibrillators successfully prevent sudden cardiac death due to ventricular tachyarrhythmia. They are successful due to straightforward recognition of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation and immediate electrical schock delivery. Cardiovertes defibrillators are successful in prevention of sudden cardiac death but they do not improve quality of life of heart failure patients like resynchronization therapy. Thus, combined therapy resynchronization and cardioverter defibrillator as a single implantable device has been developed.Conclusions: Due to very successful combined therapy the application of biventricular cardioverters defibrillators into clinical practice has increased. Implantation of biventricular cardioverter defibrillator is complex but very successful procedure. It is economically acceptable when proper indication has been stated. Large

  10. Inhibition of the Unfolded Protein Response Mechanism Prevents Cardiac Fibrosis.

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    Jody Groenendyk

    Full Text Available Cardiac fibrosis attributed to excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins is a major cause of heart failure and death. Cardiac fibrosis is extremely difficult and challenging to treat in a clinical setting due to lack of understanding of molecular mechanisms leading to cardiac fibrosis and effective anti-fibrotic therapies. The objective in this study was to examine whether unfolded protein response (UPR pathway mediates cardiac fibrosis and whether a pharmacological intervention to modulate UPR can prevent cardiac fibrosis and preserve heart function.We demonstrate here that the mechanism leading to development of fibrosis in a mouse with increased expression of calreticulin, a model of heart failure, stems from impairment of endoplasmic reticulum (ER homeostasis, transient activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR pathway and stimulation of the TGFβ1/Smad2/3 signaling pathway. Remarkably, sustained pharmacologic inhibition of the UPR pathway by tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA is sufficient to prevent cardiac fibrosis, and improved exercise tolerance.We show that the mechanism leading to development of fibrosis in a mouse model of heart failure stems from transient activation of UPR pathway leading to persistent remodelling of cardiac tissue. Blocking the activation of the transiently activated UPR pathway by TUDCA prevented cardiac fibrosis, and improved prognosis. These findings offer a window for additional interventions that can preserve heart function.

  11. Alterations in Cerebral Blood Flow after Resuscitation from Cardiac Arrest

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    Bistra Iordanova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Greater than 50% of patients successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest have evidence of neurological disability. Numerous studies in children and adults, as well as in animal models have demonstrated that cerebral blood flow (CBF is impaired after cardiac arrest. Stages of cerebral perfusion post-resuscitation include early hyperemia, followed by hypoperfusion, and finally either resolution of normal blood flow or protracted hyperemia. At the level of the microcirculation the blood flow is heterogeneous, with areas of no flow, low flow, and increased flow. CBF directed therapies in animal models of cardiac arrest improved neurological outcome, and therefore, the alterations in CBF after cardiac arrest likely contribute to the development of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Current intensive care after cardiac arrest is centered upon maintaining systemic oxygenation, normal blood pressure values for age, maintaining general homeostasis, and avoiding hyperthermia. Assessment of CBF and oxygenation is not routinely performed after cardiac arrest. Currently available and underutilized techniques to assess cerebral perfusion include transcranial doppler, near-infrared spectroscopy, and arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging. Limited clinical studies established the role of CBF and oxygenation monitoring in prognostication after cardiac arrest and few studies suggest that guiding critical care post-resuscitation to mean arterial pressures above the minimal autoregulatory range might improve outcome. Important knowledge gaps thus remain in cerebral monitoring and CBF and oxygen goal-directed therapies post-resuscitation from cardiac arrest.

  12. The Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We...... examined the content, data quality, and research potential of the WDHR-CCTR. METHODS: We retrieved 2008-2012 data to examine the 1) content; 2) completeness of procedure registration using the Danish National Patient Registry as reference; 3) completeness of variable registration comparing observed vs...... expected numbers; and 4) positive predictive values as well as negative predictive values of 19 main patient and procedure variables. RESULTS: By December 31, 2012, almost 22,000 cardiac CTs with up to 40 variables for each procedure have been registered. Of these, 87% were coronary CT angiography...

  13. The value of cardiac genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Jodie; Semsarian, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    Genetic testing is an important and necessary aspect of the management of families with cardiac genetic conditions. Commercial genetic tests are available for most cardiac genetic diseases, and increasing uptake amongst patients has contributed to a vastly improved knowledge of the genetic basis of these diseases. The incredible advances in genetic technologies have translated to faster, more comprehensive, and inexpensive commercial genetic tests and has completely changed the landscape of commercial genetic testing in recent years. While there are enormous challenges, mostly relating to interpretation of variants, the value of a genetic diagnosis should not be underestimated. In almost all cases, the single greatest utility is for the predictive genetic testing of family members. This review will describe the value of cardiac genetic testing in the current climate of rapid genetic advancements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Accelerating Dynamic Cardiac MR Imaging Using Structured Sparse Representation

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