WorldWideScience

Sample records for neuralgia phn hiv-related

  1. A Non-Drug Treatment for Post–Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN): A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient reported after the last treatment that she had great improvement and correspondence with her 2 months later indicated that she was pain-free. The remarkable decrease in pain perception experienced by this patient is therefore, an indication that SWD therapy may be a treatment of choice for PHN. Based on the ...

  2. Neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Postherptic neuralgia (pain that continues after a bout of shingles) Trigeminal neuralgia (stabbing or electric-shock- ... ask about the symptoms. The exam may show: Abnormal sensation in the skin Reflex problems Loss of ...

  3. Treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: focus on pregabalin

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuzzo, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Kimberly A CappuzzoThe Geriatric Pharmacotherapy Program, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Pharmacy, Richmond, Virginia, USAAbstract: Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a devastating, chronic pain syndrome that can develop following an outbreak of herpes zoster and becomes increasingly common as patients age. PHN can be difficult to treat and often requires trials of multiple agents to achieve significant pain relief. Pregabalin is the newest agent to gain approval for PHN. Data sugge...

  4. Safety and Efficacy of a Topical Sodium Channel Inhibitor (TV-45070) in Patients With Postherpetic Neuralgia (PHN): A Randomized, Controlled, Proof-of-Concept, Crossover Study, With a Subgroup Analysis of the Nav1.7 R1150W Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Nicola; Namdari, Rostam; Neville, Judith; Proctor, Katie J W; Kaber, Samer; Vest, Jeffery; Fetell, Michael; Malamut, Richard; Sherrington, Robin P; Pimstone, Simon N; Goldberg, Yigal P

    2017-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TV-45070 ointment, as a treatment for postherpetic neuralgia, and to explore the response in patients with the Nav1.7 R1150W gain-of-function polymorphism. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, 2-period, 2-treatment crossover trial. Patients with postherpetic neuralgia with moderate or greater pain received TV-45070 and placebo ointments, each applied twice daily for 3 weeks. The primary efficacy measure was the difference in change in mean daily pain score from baseline compared with the last week of placebo and active treatment. Secondary endpoints included responder rate analyses and a further exploratory analysis of response in carriers of the Nav1.7 R1150W polymorphism was conducted. Seventy patients were enrolled and 54 completed the study. TV-45070 was safe and well tolerated. No statistical difference was observed between treatments for the primary endpoint. However, the proportion of patients with ≥50% reduction in mean pain scores at week 3 was greater on TV-45070 than on placebo (26.8% vs. 10.7%, P=0.0039). Similarly, a greater proportion of patients on TV-45070 had a ≥30% reduction in mean pain scores at week 3 (39.3% on TV-45070 vs. 23.2% on placebo, P=0.0784). Of note, 63% of patients with the R1150W polymorphism versus 35% of wild-type carriers had a ≥30% reduction in mean pain score on TV-45070 at week 3 (no inferential analysis performed). The 50% responder analysis suggests a subpopulation may exist with a more marked analgesic response to TV-45070.The trend toward a larger proportion of responders within Nav1.7 R1150W carriers warrants further investigation.

  5. Postherpetic neuralgia: Therapeutic and prophylactic aspects and pregabalin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Mendelevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN is one of the most common and persistent chronic pain syndromes caused by chickenpox virus affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems. PHN is a typical neuropathic pain resulting from injury or dysfunction of the somatosensory system whose development involves a few mechanisms. Elderly people are more prone to PHN, which is associated with the weakened immune system. Treatment of shingles cannot completely prevent subsequent neuralgia; however, some drugs can reduce its manifestations. The diagnosis of PHN is largely based on the duration of pain after rash onset. However, it is difficult to estimate the real rate of PHN development because there is neither consensus of opinion on this issue nor common criteria for pat duration (1 to 6 months, as shown by different data. The significant factors that may predispose to PHN are older age, female gender, and acute herpes zoster indicators, such as pain intensity, the severity of herpetic rash and infectious manifestations. Pain syndrome in PHN can reach a high intensity level, accompanied by the development of chronic fatigue, depression, and loss of social skills. There are several types of pain in PHN: constant, paroxysmal and allodynia, which are due to different pathophysiological mechanisms. Variability in the clinical manifestations of PHN may underlie the inadequate efficacy of one or other drug. The treatment of PHN poses definite difficulties. About 40-50% of patients continue to suffer from pain despite the fact that the multitude of currently available therapies is performed. Pregabalin, whose high efficacy and advantages in the treatment of pain in PHN are demonstrated in numerous studies, is one of the most effective first-line drugs for PHN. In-depth analysis suggests that inadequately low doses of pregabalin are frequently used in the treatment of PHN, which may lead to an insufficient analgesic effect.

  6. Laser therapy in post herpetic neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Combi laser therapy was evaluated in 50 cases of established post herpetic neuralgia (PHN. Established PHN term was used when neuralgia persisted after 3 months of disappearance of herpes zoster (HZ vesicles. Twenty exposures were given and affected areas were irradiated from a distance of 2 cm at a frequency of 5000 Hz each area being exposed for a period of 1.23 minutes ie, 8J/cm2 of beam was given. Therapeutic evaluation was done on 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th, and 20th day. All 17 cases of established PHN of duration upto 3 months healed after 16 exposures and in the end 44/50 had cure, 5/50 had partial relief and one patient left trial after 2nd exposure.

  7. Role of impaired glucose metabolism in the postherpetic neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Domenico; Plastino, Massimiliano; De Bartolo, Matteo; Cristiano, Dario; Ettore, Maria; Zurlo, Gaetano; Bosco, Francesca; Colica, Carmen; Tallarigo, Federico; Fava, Antonietta

    2013-08-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is one of the most common and debilitating sequela of herpes zoster. The etiology of PHN is not completely understood. Several studies showed that diabetes mellitus may increase the risk of infectious diseases, including herpes zoster. Instead, the relationship between PHN and prediabetes has never been described. To evaluate glucose metabolism abnormalities in patients with PHN. We studied 87 consecutive patients with PHN and normal fasting glycemia and 108 pain-free controls. In both groups we evaluated glucose and insulin levels after a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test and insulin resistance. In addition, in all patients we performed skin thoracic biopsy to exclude a small fiber neuropathy. After a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test, the prevalence of glucose metabolism abnormalities was significantly higher in patients than in controls (Ptest should be considered in patients presenting with PHN.

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a vaccination program for the prevention of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in adults aged 50 and over in Germany

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Préaud, Emmanuelle; Uhart, Mathieu; Böhm, Katharina; Aidelsburger, Pamela; Anger, Delphine; Bianic, Florence; Largeron, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ; shingles) is a common viral disease that affects the nerves and surrounding skin causing a painful dermatomal rash and leading to debilitating complications such as, mainly, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN...

  9. Postherpetic Neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Postherpetic neuralgia Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Doctors & departments Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  10. Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as touching the face, chewing, speaking or brushing teeth Bouts of pain lasting from a few seconds ... neuralgia, including: Shaving Touching your face Eating Drinking Brushing your teeth Talking Putting on makeup Encountering a breeze Smiling ...

  11. Options for treating postherpetic neuralgia in the medically complicated patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruckenthal P

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Patricia Bruckenthal,1 Robert L Barkin2,31Department of Graduate Studies in Advanced Practice Nursing, Stony Brook University School of Nursing, Stony Brook, NY, USA; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Family Medicine, and Pharmacology, Rush University Medical College, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Department of Anesthesiology, Northshore University Health System Pain Centers, Skokie and Evanston Hospitals, Skokie and Evanston, IL, USAAbstract: Patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN are often of advanced age or immunocompromised and likely to have ≥1 comorbid medical condition for which they receive ≥1 medication (polypharmacy. Comorbidities affecting renal or hepatic function can alter pharmacokinetics, thereby impacting the efficacy or tolerability of PHN analgesic therapies. Cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, or psychiatric comorbidities may increase patient vulnerability to potential adverse events associated with some PHN analgesic therapies. Because PHN is a localized condition, localized therapy with a topical analgesic (lidocaine patch 5% and capsaicin 8% patch or cream may provide adequate efficacy while mitigating the risk of systemic adverse events compared with oral analgesics (eg, tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants, opioids. However, combined therapy with a topical and an oral analgesic or with >1 oral analgesic may be needed for optimal pain management in some patients. This review summarizes how comorbidities and concomitant medications should be taken into account when selecting among available pharmacotherapies for PHN and provides recommendations for the selection of therapies that will provide analgesia while minimizing the risk of adverse events.Keywords: calcium channel α2-δ ligand, comorbidities, lidocaine patch, polypharmacy, postherpetic neuralgia, TCA

  12. PhnW-PhnX pathway in dinoflagellates not functional to utilize extracellular phosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong eCui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential nutrient for marine phytoplankton but its preferred form, dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP, is often limited in the euphotic zone of the ocean. Many phytoplankton species have developed the ability to utilize dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP such as phosphoesters or phosphonates. Phosphonates are characterized by the stable C-P bond and its utilization is known to rely on either a C-P lyase pathway or C–P hydrolase pathways in bacteria. In this study by transcriptomic analysis we detected the genes encoding the C-P hydrolase pathway enzymes PhnW and PhnX in Karlodinium veneficum and other dinoflagellates. However, we found that these dinoflagellates are unable to utilize the presumably dominant type of phosphonate in the ocean, 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid (2-AEP, under the antibiotic-treated condition. In accordance, our RT-qPCR and proteomic analyses of K. veneficum grown on 2-AEP showed no up-regulation of PhnW and PhnX at both transcriptional and translational levels. Nevertheless, the genes related to phosphonate biosynthesis and utilization were widely found in dinoflagellates. Taken together our results suggest that the PhnW-PhnX pathway in dinoflagellates may serve for intracellular phosphonate metabolism instead of scavenging environmental phosphonates.

  13. Postherpetic Neuralgia: Practical Experiences Return to Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avijgan, Majid; Hajzargarbashi, Seyedeh Tahoora; Kamran, Aliasghar; Avijgan, Mahtab

    2017-06-01

    Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a complication of herpes zoster that can cause different types of pain in the affected area. It often occurs mainly in severe cases of herpes zoster. The problem is defined as a persisting pain for 90-120 days after relieving of acute phase of herpes lesions. This complication causes suffering in patients and reduces the quality of life. In western medicine's viewpoints, PHN is due to disturbance in local and dermatomal nerves. There are several topical and systemic drugs that are used to manage the pain relief. In traditional medicine (TM), PHN is mostly due to incomplete heat and damp clearing in liver and spleen meridians, qi and toxic pathogens stagnation, accumulation of yin (blood stagnation in microcapillary), internal fire, and heat and obstruction of meridians. Acupuncture works based on the eradication of wind, clearing of heat, and destroying of damp by regulating qi and blood movement. In clinics, several methods of TM are used to relief PHN, such as simultaneous needling, surrounding needling, acupuncture, electro acupuncture, moxibustion, wet cupping or hijamat, and herbal medicine. In this review, we discussed all these methods and their role in reducing PHN and pain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. White matter microstructure degenerates in patients with postherpetic neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fuxiang; Chen, Fuyong; Shang, Zhanfang; Shui, Yuan; Wu, Guorong; Liu, Chen; Lin, Zhangya; Lin, Yuanxiang; Yu, Lianghong; Kang, Dezhi; Tao, Wei; Li, Yongjie

    2017-08-24

    The central mechanisms underlying postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) pain remains unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to identify microstructural white matter changes closely related to the PHN pain by means of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. DTI data of the brains were obtained from 8 PHN patients and 8 healthy controls (HC) that were matched in age, gender, and educational level. DTI metrics, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD), were separately compared between the two groups using TBSS analysis to detect subtle microstructural changes. Partial correlation analyses were also conducted to evaluate the association between the altered DTI measures and clinical features. Average diffusion indices of white matter skeletons in the whole-brain showed no significant difference between the two groups. However, compared to the HC group, patients with PHN pain revealed reductions in localized FA and AD values in white matter underlying insula, occipital lobe, cerebellum, precentral gyrus, and many other regions, but without distinct change in regional MD and RD levels. In addition, decline of FA and AD values in patients represented significant negative correlations with PHN pain duration when the effect of VAS scores were excluded. The current study suggest that there exists altered microstructure integrity of white matter in multiple brain regions in patients with PHN, and these changes increase in size as the duration of the pain increases. These findings might provide a new insight into the mechanism of PHN pain in brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Infratrochlear neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Casanova, Ignacio; Arbex, Andrea; Cuadrado, María L

    2015-11-01

    The infratrochlear nerve supplies the medial aspect of the upper eyelid, the superolateral aspect of the nose and the lacrimal caruncle. This nerve may contribute to the pain stemming from the trochlea, but infratrochlear neuralgia has not been identified as a specific cause of pain. Over a 10-year period we have been recruiting patients with pain in the internal angle of the orbit that did not show features of trochlear pain. Seven patients (six female, one male; mean age, 46.1 ± 18.9) presented with pain in the territory of the infratrochlear nerve. The pain appeared in the internal angle of the orbit and upper eyelid (n = 3), the superolateral aspect of the nose (n = 3), or the lacrimal caruncle (n = 1). All patients had a paroxysmal pain, with the attacks lasting five to 30 seconds. Pain attacks were mostly spontaneous, but two patients had triggers. Between attacks, all patients had local allodynia. Pain did not increase with vertical eye movements. Six patients were treated with gabapentin with complete response, and one patient experienced long-lasting relief with an anesthetic blockade of the infratrochlear nerve. Infratrochlear neuralgia should be considered as a possible cause of pain in the internal angle of the orbit. © International Headache Society 2015.

  16. Practical considerations in the pharmacological treatment of postherpetic neuralgia for the primary care provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massengill JS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jamie S Massengill,1 John L Kittredge2 1JSM Medical, Edmond, OK, USA; 2Michiana Spine, Sports and Occupational Rehab, PC, Mishawaka, IN, USA Abstract: An estimated one million individuals in the US are diagnosed with herpes zoster (HZ; shingles each year. Approximately 20% of these patients will develop postherpetic neuralgia (PHN, a complex HZ complication characterized by neuropathic pain isolated to the dermatome that was affected by the HZ virus. PHN is debilitating, altering physical function and quality of life, and commonly affects vulnerable populations, including the elderly and the immunocompromised. Despite the availability of an immunization for HZ prevention and several approved HZ treatments, the incidence of PHN is increasing. Furthermore, management of the neuropathic pain associated with PHN is often suboptimal, and the use of available therapeutics may be complicated by adverse effects and complex, burdensome treatment regimens, as well as by patients' comorbidities and polypharmacy, which may lead to drug–drug interactions. Informed and comprehensive assessments of currently available pharmacological treatment options to achieve effective pain control in the primary care setting are needed. In this article, we discuss the situation in clinical practice, review currently recommended prevention and treatment options for PHN, and outline practical considerations for the management of this neuropathic pain syndrome, with a focus on optimal, individual-based treatment plans for use in the primary care setting. Keywords: herpes zoster, postherpetic neuralgia, primary care, clinical practice, pharmacological treatment, practical guidelines

  17. Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleras, Luis; Salleras, Montse; Salvador, Patricia; Soldevila, Núria; Prat, Andreu; Garrido, Patricio; Domínguez, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the descriptive epidemiology and costs of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in people aged ≥50 years in Catalonia (Spain). The incidence of HZ in Catalonia was estimated by extrapolating the incidence data from Navarre (Spain) to the population of Catalonia. The incidence of PHN was estimated according to the proportion of cases of HZ in the case series of the Hospital del Sagrado Corazón de Barcelona that evolved to PHN. Drug costs were obtained directly from the prescriptions included in the medical record (according to official prices published by the General Council of the College of Pharmacists). The cost of care was obtained by applying the tariffs of the Catalan Health Institute to the number of outpatient visits and the number and duration of hospital admissions. The estimated annual incidence of HZ was 31 763, of which 21 532 (67.79%) were in patients aged ≥50 years. The respective figures for PHN were 3194 and 3085 (96.59) per annum, respectively. The mean cost per patient was markedly higher in cases of PHN (916.66 euros per patient) than in cases of HZ alone (301.52 euros per patient). The cost increased with age in both groups of patients. The estimated total annual cost of HZ and its complications in Catalonia was € 9.31 million, of which 6.54 corresponded to HZ and 2.77 to PHN. This is the first Spanish study of the disease burden of HZ in which epidemiological data and costs were collected directly from medical records. The estimated incidence of HZ is probably similar to the real incidence. In contrast, the incidence of PHN may be an underestimate, as around 25% of patients in Catalonia attend private clinics financed by insurance companies. It is also probable that the costs may be an underestimate as the costs derived from the prodromal phase were not included. In Catalonia, HZ and PHN cause an important disease burden (21 532 cases of HZ and 3085 de PHN with an annual cost

  18. Herpes zoster chronification to postherpetic neuralgia induces brain activity and grey matter volume change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Song; Qin, Bangyong; Zhang, Yi; Yuan, Jie; Fu, Bao; Xie, Peng; Song, Ganjun; Li, Ying; Yu, Tian

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Herpes zoster (HZ) can develop into postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), which is a chronic neuropathic pain (NP). Whether the chronification from HZ to PHN induced brain functional or structural change is unknown and no study compared the changes of the same brains of patients who transited from HZ to PHN. We minimized individual differences and observed whether the chronification of HZ to PHN induces functional and pain duration dependent grey matter volume (GMV) change in HZ-PHN patients. Methods: To minimize individual differences induced error, we enrolled 12 patients with a transition from HZ to PHN. The functional and structural changes of their brains between the two states were identified with resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) technique (i.e., the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and fractional aptitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) method) and the voxel based morphometry (VBM) technology respectively. The correlations between MRI parameters (i.e., ΔReHo, ΔfALFF and ΔVBM) and Δpain duration were analyzed too. Results: Compared with HZ brains, PHN brains exhibited abnormal ReHo, fALFF and VBM values in pain matrix (the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, thalamus, limbic lobe and cerebellum) as well as the occipital lobe and temporal lobe. Nevertheless, the activity of vast area of cerebellum and frontal lobe significantly increased while that of occipital lobe and limbic lobe showed apparent decrease when HZ developed to PHN. In addition, PHN brain showed decreased GMV in the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe and the occipital lobe but increased in the cerebellum and the temporal lobe. Correlation analyses showed that some of the ReHo, fALFF and VBM differential areas (such as the cerebellum posterior lobe, the thalamus extra-nuclear and the middle temporal gyrus) correlated well with Δpain duration. Conclusions: HZ chronification induced functional and structural change in cerebellum, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe and limbic lobe

  19. PhnY and PhnZ comprise a new oxidative pathway for enzymatic cleavage of a carbon-phosphorus bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McSorley, Fern R.; Wyatt, Peter W.; Martinez, Ascuncion

    2012-01-01

    The sequential activities of PhnY, an α-ketoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenase, and PhnZ, a Fe(II)-dependent enzyme of the histidine-aspartate motif hydrolase family, cleave the carbon-phosphorus bond of the organophosphonate natural product 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid. PhnY adds a hydroxyl g...... group to the α-carbon, yielding 2-amino-1-hydroxyethylphosphonic acid, which is oxidatively converted by PhnZ to inorganic phosphate and glycine. The PhnZ reaction represents a new enzyme mechanism for metabolic cleavage of a carbon-phosphorus bond.......The sequential activities of PhnY, an α-ketoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenase, and PhnZ, a Fe(II)-dependent enzyme of the histidine-aspartate motif hydrolase family, cleave the carbon-phosphorus bond of the organophosphonate natural product 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid. PhnY adds a hydroxyl...

  20. Familial classic trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Rodríguez, B; Simonet, C; Cerdán, D M; Morollón, N; Guerrero, P; Tabernero, C; Duarte, J

    2017-03-24

    The classic form of trigeminal neuralgia is usually sporadic (no familial clustering). However, around 2% of all cases of trigeminal neuralgia may be familial. Describing this entity may be useful for diagnosing this process and may also be key to determining the underlying causes of sporadic classical trigeminal neuralgia. We report on cases in a series of 5 families with at least 2 members with classic trigeminal neuralgia, amounting to a total of 11 cases. We recorded cases of familial classical trigeminal neuralgia between March 2014 and March 2015 by systematically interviewing all patients with a diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia who visited the neurology department on an outpatient basis. In our sample, most patients with familial classic trigeminal neuralgia were women. Mean age at onset was 62.9±13.93 years, decreasing in subsequent generations. V2 was the most frequently affected branch. Most of our patients responded well to medical treatment, and surgery was not effective in all cases. These family clusters support the hypothesis that classic trigeminal neuralgia may have a genetic origin. Several causes have been suggested, including inherited anatomical changes affecting the base of the skull which would promote compression of the trigeminal nerve by vascular structures, familial AHT (resulting in tortuous vessels that would compress the trigeminal nerve), and mutations in the gene coding for calcium channels leading to hyperexcitability. Classic trigeminal neuralgia may be an autosomal dominant disorder displaying genetic anticipation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevention of postherpetic neuralgia with varicella-zoster hyperimmune globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hügler, Peter; Siebrecht, Peter; Hoffmann, Klaus; Stücker, Markus; Windeler, Jürgen; Altmeyer, Peter; Laubenthal, Heinz

    2002-01-01

    Recovery after an acute attack of herpes zoster is followed by postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in 9-14% of all patients. Depending on the patient's age, the severity of the acute attack of herpes zoster and the dermatome involved, the incidence of PHN may be as high as 65%. The purpose of our study was to ascertain the incidence of PHN after a prophylactic intravenous injection of varicella-zoster hyperimmune globulin (VZV-IG) (Varitect Biotest Pharma). For this double-blind placebo-controlled randomised investigation we defined PHN as pain confined to the dermatome previously affected by herpes zoster, and we required a pain intensity of at least 15% points on a visual analogue scale (VAS) for this dermatome. The inclusion criteria were the dermatological diagnosis of herpes zoster together with age over 50 years. On Day 1, 20 patients received a single intravenous infusion of VZV-IG in a dose of 2mL/kg body weight, 20 patients (control group) received a single infusion of human albumin 5% in a dose of 2mL/kg body weight. All patients received acyclovir intravenously in a dose of 15mg/kg body weight per 24h for 5 days. The patients were followed up for a total of 42 days. The incidence of PHN at Day 42 was selected as the main outcome criterion for assessing the efficacy of prophylaxis. On reaching a significant difference between the groups (t test; alphaVAS and a NAS. As auxiliary outcome criteria, we used the McGill Pain-Rating Questionnaire in its German version, the revised multidimensional pain scale (RMSS) and the Freiburg symptom list (FBL). All results were assessed by the t test (alpha<0.05). The frequency of PHN in the placebo group was 70% (14/20), in the active treatment group it was 35% (7/20) at Day 42. The results of the McGill test showed the variability of the perception of pain in the placebo group significantly greater. No significant group differences were found in the FBL. Being tested with the RMSS, the patients of the placebo group assessed

  2. Reappraisal of glossopharyngeal neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Albahkaly

    2018-03-01

    We describe a 42-year old Saudi male suffering from glossopharyngeal neuralgia with transitory unconsciousness due to cardiac asystole and arterial hypotension accompanying the attack of pain. We review pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

  3. The clinical significance of infrared thermography for the prediction of postherpetic neuralgia in acute herpes zoster patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, E J; No, Y A; Park, K Y; Li, K; Seo, S J; Hong, C K

    2016-02-01

    Infrared thermography is a non-invasive diagnostic tool that provides information for damage to the nerve, there was some reports that thermal asymmetry of acute Herpes zoster (HZ) patients was significantly related to development of PHN. To identify whether infrared thermography is useful as a predictor for the development of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and as an objective assessment tool of subjective pain in acute HZ patients. Infrared thermography was performed on the affected body regions of 112 patients who had been diagnosed with an acute stage of HZ. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. Differences >0.5°C for the mean temperature across the face and trunk were considered abnormal. According to whether PHN developed or not, we analyzed the correlation of risk factors. The study consisted of a total of 112 subjects (46 males and 66 females) with an age range of 9-93 years. The following summarizes the analysis results. (1) As pain severity increased, the occurrence of PHN increased significantly. (2) In older patients, the occurrence of PHN was significantly higher. (3) As the temperature difference between the affected and contralateral dermatome (ΔT) increased, the occurrence of PHN increased significantly. (4) There is a statically significant association between diabetes mellitus and the occurrence of PHN. (5) There is no correlation between pain intensity and ΔT. In this study, we showed that infrared thermography is useful as a predictor of PHN development in acute HZ patients but is not useful as an objective assessment tool for indicating subjective pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. HIV-related diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P

    1998-02-01

    Common causes of persistent diarrhea, diarrhea which lasts for more than 2 weeks, in developing countries include infection with protozoans, bacteria, and viruses. The cause of HIV-related diarrhea varies from one area to another. Persistent diarrhea is more common among people who have advanced HIV disease than among those who do not, and is a major problem for many people with HIV/AIDS. The main dangers of diarrhea are dehydration and malnutrition. People with HIV-related diarrhea can become malnourished and lose weight quickly, mainly because they do not eat well due to poor appetite. Moreover, since weight loss is associated with HIV infection, people with diarrhea may be assumed to have HIV, and be stigmatized. Good hygiene and nutrition are the best ways to prevent diarrhea. While drinking boiled water is recommended, it is often not practical. Washing hands frequently with soap is a more practical prevention strategy. Other prevention strategies include storing food under a cover; washing eating and cooking utensils; washing raw fruit and vegetables; disposing of waste properly; and keeping anything dirty, such as soiled bedding, out of the reach of children. Nutritious, readily digestible food is also needed to prevent and treat diarrhea. Treatment recommendations are offered, as well as a guide to eating well.

  5. Expression, purification and preliminary diffraction studies of PhnP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podzelinska, Kateryna; He, Shumei; Soares, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    PhnP belongs to a 14-gene operon that supports the growth of Escherichia coli on alkylphosphonates as a sole source of phosphorus; however, the exact biochemistry of phosphonate degradation by this pathway is poorly understood. The protein was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and purif...

  6. Triggering trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Stefano, Giulia; Maarbjerg, Stine; Nurmikko, Turo

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Although it is widely accepted that facial pain paroxysms triggered by innocuous stimuli constitute a hallmark sign of trigeminal neuralgia, very few studies to date have systematically investigated the role of the triggers involved. In the recently published diagnostic classification...... and where cutaneous and mucosal trigger zones are located. Methods Clinical characteristics focusing on trigger factors were collected from 140 patients with trigeminal neuralgia, in a cross-sectional study design. Results Provocation of paroxysmal pain by various trigger manoeuvres was reported by 136...... of the 140 patients. The most frequent manoeuvres were gentle touching of the face (79%) and talking (54%). Trigger zones were predominantly reported in the perioral and nasal region. Conclusion This study confirms that in trigeminal neuralgia, paroxysmal pain is associated with triggers in virtually all...

  7. Postmarketing surveillance study of OxyContin tablets for relieving moderate to severe postherpetic neuralgia pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bi Fa

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of OxyContin tablets(controlled-release oxycodone hydrochloride: 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg) in relieving moderate to severe postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) pain. A multicenter, open-label, prospective, self-controlled clinical observation. Pain was relieved in 17.3% of patients within 30 min and in 94.1% patients within 1 h after drug administration. OxyContin tablets showed good clinical efficacy in relieving both moderate and severe PHN pain. Response rate reached 98.4% at the end of the 8th week of treatment. After the 1st week of treatment, stable pain relief was achieved, and pain scores on a Visual Analogue Scale decreased dramatically in most patients. During treatment with controlled-release OxyContin tablets, the use of concomitant medications was significantly decreased. Some patients developed adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the 1st week, which decreased significantly during the following weeks of treatment. Nausea (18.1%) was the most commonly reported ADR, followed by constipation (10.1%) and dizziness (10.1%). A number of ADRs disappeared during treatment. Controlled-release OxyContin tablets demonstrated fast onset of PHN pain control, superior efficacy in relieving both moderate and severe PHN pain, and a good safety profile. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Epidemiology and cost of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia among patients treated in primary care centres in the valencian community of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebrián-Cuenca Ana M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on the epidemiology and costs related to herpes zoster (HZ and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN in Spain are scarce; therefore, studies are needed to evaluate the epidemiological and economic impact of HZ and its most common complication, PHN. The present study aimed to estimate the clinical and economic burden of HZ and PHN in Valencia (Spain. Methods We prospectively analyzed the burden of HZ and PHN and their attributable costs in patients from 25 general practices in the Autonomous Community of Valencia serving 36,030 persons aged > 14 years. All patients with a clinical diagnosis of HZ who attended these centers between December 1st 2006 and November 30th 2007 were asked to participate. Patients included were followed for 1 year. Results Of the 130 cases of HZ followed up, continued pain was experienced by 47.6% (95% confidence interval (CI = 35.6-56.7% at 1 month after rash onset, by 14.5% (95% CI = 7.8-1.2% at 3 months, by 9.0% (95% CI = 3.7-14.3% at 6 months, and by 5.9% (95% CI = 1.5-10.3% at 12 months. The percentage of patients with PHN increased with age, from 21.4% (95% CI = 8.3-40 in patients Conclusions This study shows that PHN is a relatively common complication of HZ and that both conditions combined give rise to a significant clinical and economic burden for patients and providers.

  9. Health economic evidence of 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in post-herpetic neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liedgens H

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hiltrud Liedgens,1 Marko Obradovic,1 Mark Nuijten2 1Grunenthal GmbH, Aachen, Germany; 2Ars Accessus Medica, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Background: Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN is the most common and most debilitating complication of herpes zoster, and involves considerable associated costs. Objective: This paper presents results from nine health economic studies undertaken in eight European countries that compared lidocaine medicated plaster with gabapentin and/or pregabalin in PHN. It aims to support the increasing need for published cost-effectiveness data for health care decision-making processes in Europe. Methods: All studies were based on a similar core Markov model with data derived from clinical trials, local Delphi panels, and official national price and tariff lists. The main outcome measure was cost per quality-adjusted life year gained; time without pain or intolerable adverse events was also included as a secondary outcome measure. All studies focused on an elderly population of patients with PHN who had insufficient pain relief with standard analgesics and could not tolerate or had contraindications to tricyclic antidepressants. Results: Despite considerable differences in many of the variables used, the results showed remarkable similarity and suggested that use of lidocaine medicated plaster offered cost-savings in many of the countries studied, where it proved a highly cost-effective alternative to both gabapentin and pregabalin. Conclusion: Lidocaine medicated plaster is a cost-effective alternative to gabapentin and pregabalin in the treatment of PHN. These savings are largely the result of the superior safety profile of the lidocaine medicated plaster. Keywords: post-herpetic neuralgia, zoster, cost-effectiveness, lidocaine, plaster

  10. Postherpetic Zoster Neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Кharlamova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted postzoster neuralgia, which presents a literature review and clinical case own observations — unfavorable outcome of varicella in a child of 7 years in the form of formed postzoster ganglionitis facial and trigeminal nerve - Hunt syndrome, neuropathy greater occipital nerve. Debated tactics of complex treatment and prevention methods for this pathology

  11. Varicella-Zoster Viruses Associated with Post-Herpetic Neuralgia Induce Sodium Current Density Increases in the ND7-23 Nav-1.8 Neuroblastoma Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter G. E.; Montague, Paul; Scott, Fiona; Grinfeld, Esther; Ashrafi, G. H.; Breuer, Judith; Rowan, Edward G.

    2013-01-01

    Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most significant complication of herpes zoster caused by reactivation of latent Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV). We undertook a heterologous infection in vitro study to determine whether PHN-associated VZV isolates induce changes in sodium ion channel currents known to be associated with neuropathic pain. Twenty VZV isolates were studied blind from 11 PHN and 9 non-PHN subjects. Viruses were propagated in the MeWo cell line from which cell-free virus was harvested and applied to the ND7/23-Nav1.8 rat DRG x mouse neuroblastoma hybrid cell line which showed constitutive expression of the exogenous Nav 1.8, and endogenous expression of Nav 1.6 and Nav 1.7 genes all encoding sodium ion channels the dysregulation of which is associated with a range of neuropathic pain syndromes. After 72 hrs all three classes of VZV gene transcripts were detected in the absence of infectious virus. Single cell sodium ion channel recording was performed after 72 hr by voltage-clamping. PHN-associated VZV significantly increased sodium current amplitude in the cell line when compared with non-PHN VZV, wild-type (Dumas) or vaccine VZV strains ((POka, Merck and GSK). These sodium current increases were unaffected by acyclovir pre-treatment but were abolished by exposure to Tetrodotoxin (TTX) which blocks the TTX-sensitive fast Nav 1.6 and Nav 1.7 channels but not the TTX-resistant slow Nav 1.8 channel. PHN-associated VZV sodium current increases were therefore mediated in part by the Nav 1.6 and Nav 1.7 sodium ion channels. An additional observation was a modest increase in message levels of both Nav1.6 and Nav1.7 mRNA but not Nav 1.8 in PHN virally infected cells. PMID:23382806

  12. Varicella-zoster viruses associated with post-herpetic neuralgia induce sodium current density increases in the ND7-23 Nav-1.8 neuroblastoma cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G E Kennedy

    Full Text Available Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN is the most significant complication of herpes zoster caused by reactivation of latent Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV. We undertook a heterologous infection in vitro study to determine whether PHN-associated VZV isolates induce changes in sodium ion channel currents known to be associated with neuropathic pain. Twenty VZV isolates were studied blind from 11 PHN and 9 non-PHN subjects. Viruses were propagated in the MeWo cell line from which cell-free virus was harvested and applied to the ND7/23-Nav1.8 rat DRG x mouse neuroblastoma hybrid cell line which showed constitutive expression of the exogenous Nav 1.8, and endogenous expression of Nav 1.6 and Nav 1.7 genes all encoding sodium ion channels the dysregulation of which is associated with a range of neuropathic pain syndromes. After 72 hrs all three classes of VZV gene transcripts were detected in the absence of infectious virus. Single cell sodium ion channel recording was performed after 72 hr by voltage-clamping. PHN-associated VZV significantly increased sodium current amplitude in the cell line when compared with non-PHN VZV, wild-type (Dumas or vaccine VZV strains ((POka, Merck and GSK. These sodium current increases were unaffected by acyclovir pre-treatment but were abolished by exposure to Tetrodotoxin (TTX which blocks the TTX-sensitive fast Nav 1.6 and Nav 1.7 channels but not the TTX-resistant slow Nav 1.8 channel. PHN-associated VZV sodium current increases were therefore mediated in part by the Nav 1.6 and Nav 1.7 sodium ion channels. An additional observation was a modest increase in message levels of both Nav1.6 and Nav1.7 mRNA but not Nav 1.8 in PHN virally infected cells.

  13. Pulsed Radiofrequency to the Dorsal Root Ganglion in Acute Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Koohyun; Jo, Daehyun; Kim, EungDon

    2017-03-01

    Latent varicella zoster virus reactivates mainly in sensory ganglia such as the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) or trigeminal ganglion. The DRG contains many receptor channels and is an important region for pain signal transduction. Sustained abnormal electrical activity to the spinal cord via the DRG in acute herpes zoster can result in neuropathic conditions such as postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Although the efficacy of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) application to the DRG in various pain conditions has been previously reported, the application of PRF to the DRG in patients with herpes zoster has not yet been studied. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical effects of PRF to the DRG in patients with herpes zoster to those of PRF to the DRG in patients with PHN. Retrospective comparative study. University hospital pain center in Korea. The medical records of 58 patients who underwent PRF to the DRG due to zoster related pain (herpes zoster or PHN) were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the timing of PRF after zoster onset: an early PRF group (within 90 days) and a PHN PRF group (more than 90 days). The efficacy of PRF was assessed by a numeric rating scale (NRS) and by recording patient medication doses before PRF and at one week, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks after PRF. Pain intensity was decreased after PRF in all participants. However, the degree of pain reduction was significantly higher in the early PRF group. Moreover, more patients discontinued their medication in the early PRF group, and the PRF success rate was also higher in the early PRF group. The relatively small sample size from a single center, short duration of review of medical records, and the retrospective nature of the study. PRF to the DRG is a useful treatment for treatment-resistant cases of herpes zoster and PHN. Particularly in herpes zoster patients with intractable pain, application of PRF to the DRG should be considered for pain control

  14. Management of pudendal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, F R; Hita-Contreras, F

    2014-12-01

    Pelvic pain is a frequent complaint in women during both reproductive and post-reproductive years. Vulvodynia includes different manifestations of chronic vulvar pain with no known cause. Many women do not receive a diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Pudendal neuralgia is a painful condition caused by inflammation, compression or entrapment of the pudendal nerve; it may be related to or be secondary to childbirth, pelvic surgery, intense cycling, sacroiliac skeletal abnormalities or age-related changes. Clinical characteristics include pelvic pain with sitting which increases throughout the day and decreases with standing or lying down, sexual dysfunction and difficult with urination and/or defecation. To confirm pudendal neuralgia, the Nantes criteria are recommended. Treatment includes behavioral modifications, physiotherapy, analgesics and nerve block, surgical pudendal nerve decompression, radiofrequency and spinal cord stimulation.

  15. An uncommonly common: Glossopharyngeal neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P. M.; Kaur, Manpreet; Trikha, Anjan

    2013-01-01

    Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is a relatively rare condition characterized by severe, paroxysmal episodes of pain localized to the external ear canal, the base of the tongue, the tonsil or the area beneath the angle of the jaw. This pain is many a times confused with Trigeminal Neuralgia and mistreated. There are various diagnostic and management dilemmas which are herein addressed in this review. PMID:23661955

  16. The impact of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia on quality-of-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmader Kenneth E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potentially serious nature of herpes zoster (HZ and the long-term complication post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN are often underestimated. One in four people will contract herpes zoster in their lifetime, with this risk rising markedly after the age of 50 years, and affecting one in two in elderly individuals. Pain is the predominant symptom in all phases of HZ disease, being reported by up to 90% of patients. In the acute phase, pain is usually moderate or severe, with patients ranking HZ pain as more intense than post-surgical or labour pains. Up to 20% of patients with HZ develop PHN, which is moderate-to-severe chronic pain persisting for months or years after the acute phase. We review the available data on the effect of HZ and PHN on patients' quality-of-life. Discussion Findings show that HZ, and particularly PHN, have a major impact on patients' lives across all four health domains - physical, psychological, functional and social. There is a clear correlation between increasing severity of pain and greater interference with daily activities. Non-pain complications such as HZ ophthalmicus can increase the risk of permanent physical impairment. Some elderly individuals may experience a permanent loss of independence after an acute episode of HZ. Current challenges in the management of HZ and PHN are highlighted, including the difficulty in administering antiviral agents before pain becomes established and the limited efficacy of pain treatments in many patients. We discuss the clinical rationale for the HZ vaccine and evidence demonstrating that the vaccine reduces the burden of the disease. The Shingles Prevention Study, conducted among >38,000 people aged ≥60 years old, showed that the HZ vaccine significantly reduces the burden of illness and the incidence of both HZ and PHN. In the entire study population, zoster vaccination reduced the severity of interference of HZ and PHN with activities of daily living by two

  17. Detection and expression of the phosphonate transporter gene phnD in marine and freshwater picocyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilikchyan, Irina N; McKay, R Michael L; Zehr, Jonathan P; Dyhrman, Sonya T; Bullerjahn, George S

    2009-05-01

    We describe a PCR-based assay designed to detect expression of the phosphonate assimilation gene phnD from picocyanobacteria. The phnD gene encodes the phosphonate binding protein of the ABC-type phosphonate transporter, present in many of the picocyanobacterial genome sequences. Detection of phnD expression can indicate a capacity of picoplankton to utilize phosphonates, a refractory form of phosphorus that can represent 25% of the high-molecular-weight dissolved organic phosphorus pool in marine systems. Primer sets were designed to specifically amplify phnD sequences from marine and freshwater Synechococcus spp., Prochlorococcus spp. and environmental samples from the ocean and Laurentian Great Lakes. Quantitative RT-PCR from cultured marine Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102 and freshwater Synechococcus sp. ARC-21 demonstrated induction of phnD expression in P-deficient media, suggesting that phn genes are regulated coordinately with genes under phoRB control. Last, RT-PCR of environmental RNA samples from the Sargasso Sea and Pacific Ocean detected phnD expression from the endemic picocyanobacterial population. Synechococcus spp. phnD expression yielded a depth-dependent pattern following gradients of P bioavailability. By contrast, the Prochlorococcus spp. primers revealed that in all samples tested, phnD expression was constitutive. The method described herein will allow future studies aimed at understanding the utilization of naturally occurring phoshonates in the ocean as well as monitoring the acquisition of synthetic phosphonate herbicides (e.g. glyphosate) by picocyanobacteria in freshwaters.

  18. The Association of Perceived Mental Stress, Sense of Purpose in Life, and Negative Life Events With the Risk of Incident Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: The SHEZ Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Yukiko; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2017-09-20

    This population-based prospective study examined the relationships of perceived mental stress, sense of purpose in life, and negative life events to the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). The data were collected from 12,359 participants (aged ≥50 years old in Shozu County, Kagawa Prefecture, Japan) who answered a self-completed health questionnaire. During a 3-year follow-up between December 2008 and November 2012, HZ and PHN were diagnosed in 400 and 79 subjects, respectively. We used Cox regression analysis to estimate hazard ratios of incident HZ and PHN according to psychosocial factors, adjusting for age, sex, history of HZ, cancer, and diabetes, smoking and drinking habits and the period from the onset to treatment. Men who felt their mental stress very high versus low had twice the risk of incident HZ. The risk of incident HZ was approximately 60% lower among men and women confirming very high versus low sense of purpose in life. Women who experienced negative life events, especially changes in their work and living environments and human relations, had two to three fold higher risk of incident PHN. Psychosocial factors may contribute to the development of HZ and PHN in the general population. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Intravenous Nefopam Reduces Postherpetic Neuralgia during the Titration of Oral Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young Chan; Ko, Eun Sung; Cho, Jae Geun; Ok, Young Min; Jung, Gyu Yong; Kim, Kyung Hoon

    2014-01-01

    The recently known analgesic action mechanisms of nefopam (NFP) are similar to those of anticonvulsants and antidepressants in neuropathic pain treatment. It is difficult to prescribe high doses of oral neuropathic drugs without titration due to adverse effects. Unfortunately, there are few available intravenous analgesics for the immediate management of acute flare-ups of the chronic neuropathic pain. The aim of this study was to determine the additional analgesic effects for neuropathic pain of NFP and its adverse effects during the titration of oral medications for neuropathic pain among inpatients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Eighty inpatients with PHN were randomly divided into either the NFP or normal saline (NS) groups. Each patient received a 3-day intravenous continuous infusion of either NFP with a consecutive dose reduction of 60, 40, and 20 mg/d, or NS simultaneously while dose titrations of oral medications for neuropathic pain gradually increased every 3 days. The efficacy of additional NFP was evaluated by using the neuropathic pain symptom inventory (NPSI) score for 12 days. Adverse effects were also recorded. The median NPSI score was significantly lower in the NFP group from days 1 to 6 of hospitalization. The representative alleviating symptoms of pain after using NFP were both spontaneous and evoked neuropathic pain. Reported common adverse effects were nausea, dizziness, and somnolence, in order of frequency. An intravenous continuous infusion of NFP reduces spontaneous and evoked neuropathic pain with tolerable adverse effects during the titration of oral medications in inpatients with PHN.

  20. [Impacts of bleeding and cupping therapy on serum P substance in patients of postherpetic neuralgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hao; Tian, Yong-Jing; Wang, Bing; Yang, Li; Wang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Jin-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    To observe the effect of bleeding and cupping therapy on postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and preliminarily discuss the analgesic mechanism. Sixty-four cases of PHN were randomized into two groups, 32 cases in each one. In the bleeding and cupping group, the local pricking with syringe needle and cupping was applied in the local painful area, once every two days. And totally 8 treatments were required. In the pregabalin group, pregabalin was prescribed for oral administration, 150mg/time, twice a day. And totally 16 days of medication were required. Visual analogue scale (VAS) score and the changes of P substance content in the peripheral and local serum before and after treatment were observed in the two groups. VAS score and peripheral serum P substance after treatment were lower significantly than those before treatment in the two groups (all Pcupping group was much more significant (Pcupping group [(93.86 +/- 9.87) pg/mL vs (46.13 +/- 6.31) pg/mL, Pcupping therapy achieves the definite efficacy on PHN and it can reduce significantly peripheral and local serum P substance content in the patients. It is possibly one of the mechanisms of analgesic effect.

  1. Increased Incidence of Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia in Adult Patients following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ching Tung

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to estimate the incidences of herpes zoster (HZ and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN in patients after traumatic brain injury (TBI. Furthermore, we aimed to explore the risk factors of the development of HZ and PHN in patients after TBI. This population-based, longitudinal analysis was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (consisting of 1,000,000 beneficiaries from 1996 to 2010. Using the longitudinal National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study to evaluate the incidence of HZ and PHN in adult TBI patients and controls. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression were used to compare differences in the development of HZ and PHN. The effects of gender, comorbidity and surgery on the risk of HZ and PHN development were assessed by subgroup analyses. Over a 15-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of HZ in 28,234 TBI patients (604.00/100,000 person-years was significantly higher than 34,085 controls (322.21/100,000 person-years (P<0.0001, by log-rank test. Females showed a significantly higher incidence of HZ than males (p for interaction = 0.0010. The time to HZ development in the follow-up period was 5.9 years in TBI patients compared to 9.9 years in the control set (p <0.0001. TBI patients were 2.93 and 2.11 times likely to develop HZ and PHN, respectively, than the general population. The incidences of HZ and PHN in TBI patients were also significantly greater than for controls in the CCI = 0 subgroup. To our knowledge, this is the first population-based cohort study to reveal that TBI is an independent risk factor for HZ and PHN in TBI patients, especially in females. Physician should pay attention to the possibility of HZ and PHN in TBI patients and be aware that HZ vaccination early after brain trauma may lower the incidence of HZ and PHN.

  2. Price of pain: population-based cohort burden of disease analysis of medication cost of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friesen KJ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kevin J Friesen,1 Jamie Falk,1 Silvia Alessi-Severini,1 Dan Chateau,2 Shawn Bugden1 1College of Pharmacy, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2Department of Community Health Sciences, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Background: Pain is a main symptom of herpes zoster (HZ, and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN is a frequent complication occurring in 5% to 15% of cases, causing moderate to severe neuropathic pain. A population-based observational study was conducted to evaluate the treatment patterns and economic burden of prescription drug treatment of HZ and PHN pain in the province of Manitoba (Canada over a period of 15 years. Methods: Administrative health care data, including medical and hospital separation records, were examined to identify episodes of HZ using International Classification of Diseases-9/10 codes between April 1, 1997 and March 31, 2014. Episodes of PHN were identified using medical and prescription claims. Incident use of analgesic, antidepressant, or anticonvulsant drugs was used to determine prescription pain costs. Results: The age-adjusted incidence of HZ increased from 4.7 episodes/1,000 person-years in 1997/98 to 5.7/1,000 person-years in 2013/14. PHN occurred in 9.2% of HZ cases, a rate that did not change over the study period (P=0.57. The annual cost to treat HZ pain rose by 174% from 1997/98, reaching CAD $332,981 in 2011/12, 82.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 81.2%, 84.3% of which was related to PHN. The per episode cost of HZ rose by 111% from $31.59 (95% CI $25.35, $37.84 to $66.81 (95% CI $56.84, $76.78 and by 94% for PHN from $292 (95% CI $225, $358 to $566 (95% CI $478, $655. These increases were driven by increasing use of anticonvulsants, primarily gabapentin, which accounted for 57% of the increase in cost. Conclusion: There has been an increase in the incidence of HZ and PHN and in the average cost associated with the

  3. Correlation of serum inflammatory cytokine and immunoglobulin content with post-herpetic neuralgia in patients with acute herpes zoster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Jun Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of serum inflammatory cytokine and immunoglobulin content with post-herpetic neuralgia in patients with acute herpes zoster. Methods: Patients diagnosed with herpes zoster in our hospital between May 2012 and October 2015 were selected and divided into herpes zoster-post-herpetic neuralgia group (VZV-PHN group and herpes zoster-control group (VZV-Con group according to the incidence of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN; healthy volunteers receiving physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as normal control group (Con group. Results: Serum β-EP, NT, IFN-γ and IL-2 levels of VZV-PHN group and VZV-Con group were significantly lower than those of Con group (P<0.05, while SP, VGF, CGRP, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, TNF-α, IL-10, TGF-β1, IgG, IgM and IgA levels were significantly higher than those of Con group (P<0.05; serum β-EP, NT, IFN-γ, IL-2, IgG, IgM and IgA levels of VZV-PHN group were significantly lower than those of VZV-Con group (P<0.05 while SP, VGF, CGRP, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, IL- 21, TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β1 levels were significantly higher than those of VZV-Con group (P<0.05; β-EP and NT were positively correlated with IFN-γ, IL-2, IgG, IgM and IgA, and negatively correlated with IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β1; SP, VGF and CGRP were negatively correlated with IFN-γ, IL-2, IgG, IgM and IgA, and positively correlated with IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β1. Conclusions: Abnormal secretion of inflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulin caused by humoral immune and cellular immune response disorder is associated with the occurrence of post-herpetic neuralgia in patients with acute herpes zoster.

  4. MRI EVALUATION OF TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Surya Sravani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Neuralgia is the set of symptoms associated with nerve dysfunction. The most common of these symptoms is pain, which can occur intermittently in one area of the body or can radiate along the length of a damaged nerve. The most common type of neuralgia is trigeminal neuralgia. This study focuses on the effectiveness of MRI in visualising the entire course of trigeminal nerve and to diagnose the exact location, aetiology responsible for trigeminal neuralgia and possible pretreatment evaluation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Clinical records and imaging studies of 30 patients between the ages of 18-60 years who presented to the Department of Radiodiagnosis, KIMS, for brain magnetic resonance imaging with (Philips 1.5T machine during June 2015 to December 2016 were analysed retrospectively. RESULTS  The entire course of trigeminal nerve is evaluated in these patients.  There are different causes of trigeminal neuralgia, but in our study, most frequent cause is mechanical irritation of nerve is due to neurovascular contact (24 cases. The other causes identified are cerebellopontine angle lesions, brainstem tumours, demyelinating disease involving brainstem.  The cisternal portion of the nerve is the most common site of involvement. CONCLUSION Trigeminal nerve is the largest cranial nerve. MRI is unique as it produces images of entire course of the nerve. Of the many causes of trigeminal neuralgia, neurovascular conflict is the most common cause. The exact location and degree of neurovascular compression is graded on MRI.

  5. Lacrimal neuralgia: so far, a missing cranial neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado, María-Luz

    2013-10-01

    The lacrimal nerve supplies the lacrimal gland, the lateral upper eyelid, and a small cutaneous area adjacent to the external CANTHUS . First division trigeminal neuralgia, supraorbital/supratrochlear neuralgia, and infraorbital neuralgia have been acknowledged as neuralgic causes of pain in the forehead and periorbit. However, the lacrimal nerve has never been identified as a source of facial pain. Here we report two cases of lacrimal neuralgia. A 66-year-old woman had continuous pain in the lateral aspect of her left superior eyelid and an adjacent area of the temple since age 64. A 33-year-old woman suffered from continuous pain in a small area next to the lateral CANTHUS of her left eye since age 25. In both patients the superoexternal edge of the orbit was tender. In addition, sensory dysfunction could be demonstrated within the painful area. Anaesthetic blockades of the lacrimal nerve with lidocaine 2% resulted in complete but short-lasting relief. Pregabalin provided a complete response in the first patient. The second patient was refractory to various oral and topical drugs and different radiofrequency procedures, but she eventually obtained partial relief with pregabalin. Lacrimal neuralgia should be considered among the neuralgic causes of orbital and periorbital pain.

  6. Historical characterization of trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eboli, Paula; Stone, James L; Aydin, Sabri; Slavin, Konstantin V

    2009-06-01

    TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA IS a well known clinical entity characterized by agonizing, paroxysmal, and lancinating facial pain, often triggered by movements of the mouth or eating. Historical reviews of facial pain have attempted to describe this severe pain over the past 2.5 millennia. The ancient Greek physicians Hippocrates, Aretaeus, and Galen, described kephalalgias, but their accounts were vague and did not clearly correspond with what we now term trigeminal neuralgia. The first adequate description of trigeminal neuralgia was given in 1671, followed by a fuller description by physician John Locke in 1677. André described the convulsive-like condition in 1756, and named it tic douloureux; in 1773, Fothergill described it as "a painful affection of the face;" and in 1779, John Hunter more clearly characterized the entity as a form of "nervous disorder" with reference to pain of the teeth, gums, or tongue where the disease "does not reside." One hundred fifty years later, the neurological surgeon Walter Dandy equated neurovascular compression of the trigeminal nerve with trigeminal neuralgia.

  7. Trigeminal neuralgia - diagnosis and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine; Di Stefano, Giulia; Bendtsen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by touch-evoked unilateral brief shock-like paroxysmal pain in one or more divisions of the trigeminal nerve. In addition to the paroxysmal pain, some patients also have continuous pain. TN is divided into classical TN (CTN) and secondary TN...

  8. Measuring the burden of herpes zoster and post herpetic neuralgia within primary care in rural Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionis Christos D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has indicated that general practitioners (GPs have good clinical judgment in regards to diagnosing and managing herpes zoster (HZ within clinical practice in a country with limited resources for primary care and general practice. The objective of the current study was to assess the burden of HZ and post herpetic neuralgia (PHN within rural general practices in Crete, Greece. Methods The current study took place within a rural setting in Crete, Greece during the period of November 2007 to November 2009 within the catchment area in which the Cretan Rural Practice-based Research Network is operating. In total 19 GP's from 14 health care units in rural Crete were invited to participate, covering a total turnover patient population of approximately 25, 000 subjects. For the purpose of this study an electronic record database was constructed and used as the main tool for monitoring HZ and PHN incidence. Stress related data was also collected with the use of the Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST. Results The crude incidence rate of HZ was 1.4/1000 patients/year throughout the entire network of health centers and satellite practices, while among satellite practices alone it was calculated at 1.3/1000 patients/year. Additionally, the standardised incidence density within satellite practices was calculated at 1.6/1000 patients/year. In regards to the stress associated with HZ and PHN, the latter were found to have lower levels of anxiety, as assessed through the SAST score (17.4 ± 3.9 vs. 21.1 ± 5.7; p = 0.029. Conclusions The implementation of an electronic surveillance system was feasible so as to measure the burden of HZ and PHN within the rural general practice setting in Crete.

  9. Measuring the burden of herpes zoster and post herpetic neuralgia within primary care in rural Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Research has indicated that general practitioners (GPs) have good clinical judgment in regards to diagnosing and managing herpes zoster (HZ) within clinical practice in a country with limited resources for primary care and general practice. The objective of the current study was to assess the burden of HZ and post herpetic neuralgia (PHN) within rural general practices in Crete, Greece. Methods The current study took place within a rural setting in Crete, Greece during the period of November 2007 to November 2009 within the catchment area in which the Cretan Rural Practice-based Research Network is operating. In total 19 GP's from 14 health care units in rural Crete were invited to participate, covering a total turnover patient population of approximately 25, 000 subjects. For the purpose of this study an electronic record database was constructed and used as the main tool for monitoring HZ and PHN incidence. Stress related data was also collected with the use of the Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST). Results The crude incidence rate of HZ was 1.4/1000 patients/year throughout the entire network of health centers and satellite practices, while among satellite practices alone it was calculated at 1.3/1000 patients/year. Additionally, the standardised incidence density within satellite practices was calculated at 1.6/1000 patients/year. In regards to the stress associated with HZ and PHN, the latter were found to have lower levels of anxiety, as assessed through the SAST score (17.4 ± 3.9 vs. 21.1 ± 5.7; p = 0.029). Conclusions The implementation of an electronic surveillance system was feasible so as to measure the burden of HZ and PHN within the rural general practice setting in Crete. PMID:22145678

  10. Trigeminal Neuralgia: Important Aspects in Dental Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Borbolato, Rodrigo Martini; Ambiel, Celia Regina; Universidade Estadual de Maringá

    2009-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is the most known and debilitating form of facial neuralgia. It is considered one of the most severe and unbearable pains described by medicine, and it may even lead to suicide. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of intense, paroxysmal facial pain (sudden onset and brief duration), described as throbbing, burning or in the form of electric shock, prick or stab. There is no doubt that the trigeminal neuralgia results from irritation of one or more branches of the fi...

  11. Linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varela-Lema, Leonor; Lopez-Garcia, Marisa; Maceira-Rozas, Maria; Munoz-Garzon, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is accepted as an alternative for patients with refractory trigeminal neuralgia, but existing evidence is fundamentally based on the Gamma Knife, which is a specific device...

  12. Trigeminal Neuralgia and Radiofrequency Lesioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy R. Eugene

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Trigeminal Neuralgia is a disorder that is characterized with electrical-type shocking pain in the face and jaw. This pain may either present as sharp unbearable pain unilateral or bilaterally. There is no definite etiology for this condition. There are various treatment methods that are currently being used to relieve the pain. One of the pharmacological treatments is Carbamazepine and the most prevalent surgical treatments include Gamma Knife Surgery (GKS, Microvascular Decompression (MVD and Radiofrequency Lesioning (RFL. Although, MVD is the most used surgical method it is not an option for all the patients due to the intensity of the procedure. RFL is used when MVD is not suitable. In this paper we present the various treatments and Monte-Carlo based pharmacokinetic simulations of Carbamazepine in treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia.

  13. Structure of PhnP: a phosphodiesterase of the carbon-phosphorous lyase pathway for phosphonate degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podzelinska, Kateryna; He, Shu-Mei; Wathier, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Carbon-phosphorus lyase is a multienzyme system encoded by the phn operon that enables bacteria to metabolize organophosphonates when the preferred nutrient, inorganic phosphate, is scarce. One of the enzymes encoded by this operon, PhnP, is predicted by sequence homology to be a metal-dependent ...

  14. Facial neuralgias: analysis of the different types seen at Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six patients with Trigeminal neuralgia responded to carbamazepine alone and 2 had additional drugs. The only patients with glossopharyngeal neuralgia responded to carbamazepine. One patient with post herpetic neuralgia tested positive for HIV. All the post herpetic neuralgia responded poorly to carbamezepine.

  15. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) impairs visuospatial perception,whereas post-herpetic neuralgia does not: possible implications for supraspinal mechanism of CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Hironobu; Sumitani, Masahiko; Yozu, Arito; Otake, Yuko; Shibata, Masahiko; Mashimo, Takashi; Miyauchi, Satoru

    2009-11-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients show impaired visuospatial perception in the dark, as compared to normal patients with acute nociceptive pain. The purpose of this study is 2-fold: (i) to ascertain whether this distorted visuospatial perception is related to the chronicity of pain, and (ii) to analyse visuospatial perception of CRPS in comparison with another neuropathic pain condition. We evaluated visual subjective body-midline (vSM) representation in 27 patients with post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) and 22 with CRPS under light and dark conditions. A red laser dot was projected onto a screen and moved horizontally towards the sagittal plane of the objective body-midline (OM). Each participant was asked to direct the dot to a position where it crossed their vSM. The distance between the vSM and OM was analysed to determine how and in which direction the vSM deviated. Under light condition, all vSM judgments approximately matched the OM. However, in the dark, CRPS patients, but not PHN patients, showed a shifted vSM towards the affected side. We demonstrated that chronic pain does not always impair visuospatial perception. The aetiology of PHN is limited to the peripheral nervous system, whereas the distorted visuospatial perception suggests a supraspinal aetiology of CRPS.

  16. PainVision® Apparatus for Assessment of Efficacy of Pulsed Radiofrequency Combined with Pharmacological Therapy in the Treatment of Postherpetic Neuralgia and Correlations with Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. PainVision device was a developed application for the evaluation of pain intensity. The objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF combined with pharmacological therapy in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN. We also discussed the correlation of the measurements. Method. Forty patients with PHN were randomized for treatment with PRF combined with pharmacological therapy (PRF group, n=20 or pharmacological therapy (control group, n=20 at postoperative 48 hours. The efficacy measure was pain degree (PD that was assessed by PainVision and visual analog scale (VAS, short form Mcgill pain questionnaire (SF-Mcgill, and numeric rate scale sleep interference score (NRSSIS. Correlations between PD, VAS, SF-Mcgill, and NRSSIS were determined. Results. The PD for persistent pain (PP and breakthrough pain (BTP at postoperative 48 hours assessed by PainVision were significantly lower in PRF group than in control group (PD-PP, P<0.01; PD-BTP, P<0.01. PD and VAS were highly correlated for both persistent pain (r=0.453, ρ=0.008 and breakthrough pain (r=0.64, ρ=0.001. Conclusion. PRF was well tolerated and superior to isolated pharmacological therapy in the treatment of PHN. PainVision device showed great value in the evaluation of pain intensity and PD had an excellent correlation with VAS and SF-Mcgill.

  17. Bilateral trigeminal neuralgia: a therapeutic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconi, L; Miles, J B

    2000-02-01

    In order to illustrate the inherent problems of managing bilateral trigeminal neuralgia a retrospective study of the 16 cases of bilateral trigeminal neuralgia, out of just over 300 cases of trigeminal neuralgia, treated over a 14-year period, has been performed. All the patients, presented with a typical history of trigeminal neuralgia and underwent surgical exploration. Pain relief was initially achieved in all cases; however, only four remained cured, three have become pain free after additional rhizotomy, a further one after peripheral cryotherapy and four with medical treatment. Four patients have had bilateral operations for trigeminal neuralgia, but in two cases the pain was relieved on one side only. Bilateral trigeminal neuralgia presents special problems of management with respect to underlying neuropathology (e.g. multiple sclerosis), the need for the limitation of the use of ablative techniques in order to minimise the disability of bilateral sensory and motor dysfunction, and the relatively poor response to microvascular decompression. These factors emphasize the multifactorial nature of the cause of trigeminal neuralgia. Magnetic resonance tomographic angiography is now available and is important in determining the range of therapeutic options for this group of patients.

  18. Efficacy of intrathecal midazolam with or without epidural methylprednisolone for management of post-herpetic neuralgia involving lumbosacral dermatomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dureja, G P; Usmani, Hammad; Khan, Mozaffar; Tahseen, Mohd; Jamal, Aslam

    2010-01-01

    Post herpetic neuralgia is a chronic neuropathic pain syndrome which remains one of the most difficult pain disorders to treat. Epidural injection of methylprednisolone with or without local anesthetic provides relief for neuralgia for a short duration only. Recent studies have shown a promising anti nociceptive effect for intrathecal midazolam, a water soluble benzodiazepine, due to its interaction with benzodiazepine-GABA-A receptor complex within the spinal cord. A randomized, double blind study was conducted at 2 different centers in India. Two different interventional pain practice centers in India. To quantify the effectiveness of a single intrathecal injection of midazolam 2 mg with and without epidural methylprednisolone 60 mg for management of pain and allodynia in 150 adult patients with postherpetic neuralgia of 3-6 months duration involving lumbosacral dermatomes. Patients in Group M-0 (n=50) received epidural methylprednisolone (60 mg), patients in group M-1 (n=50) received midazolam 2 mg in the intrathecal space while patients in Group M-2 (n=50) received methylprednisolone (60 mg) in the epidural space plus midazolam 2 mg in the intrathecal space. The administration of intrathecal midazolam (2 mg) provided short term improvement in post herpetic neuralgia similar to epidural methylprednisolone. However, the combination of intrathecal midazolam with epidural methylprednisolone resulted in prolonged duration of analgesia in patients with post herpetic neuralgia. The need for analgesics was also significantly less in patients who received the combination compared to those who received either intrathecal midazolam or epidural methylprednisolone. No serious adverse effect was reported with the use of intrathecal midazolam except a mild degree of sedation. The combination of intrathecal midazolam with epidural methylprednisolone resulted in prolonged duration of analgesia in patients with post herpetic neuralgia of lumbosacral dermatomes due to the

  19. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Classical Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Kodrat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Trigeminal neuralgia is a debilitating pain syndrome with a distinct symptom mainly excruciating facial pain that tends to come and go unpredictably in sudden shock-like attacks. Medical management remains the primary treatment for classical trigeminal neuralgia. When medical therapy failed, surgery with microvascular decompression can be performed. Radiosurgery can be offered for classical trigeminal neuralgia patients who are not surgical candidate or surgery refusal and they should not in acute pain condition. Radiosurgery is widely used because of good therapeutic result and low complication rate. Weakness of this technique is a latency period, which is time required for pain relief. It usually ranges from 1 to 2 months. This review enlightens the important role of radiosurgery in the treatment of classical trigeminal neuralgia.

  20. Combination of low frequency electroacupuncture plus subdissociative doses of ketamine in post-herpetic neuralgia patients. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara B. Garrido-Suárez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pain processing implicates multiple concurrent mechanisms of nociceptive transmission and modulation. Electroacupuncture (EA analgesia involves mainly the activation of the endogenous anti-nociceptive systems that modulate pain transmission in addition to the regulation of glial activity and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the spinal cord. Aims: To examine the potential anti-hyperalgesic effects the EA and the combination EA-ketamine in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN. Methods: Sixty-eight patients with PHN irritable nociceptor type were randomly allocated to 3 groups: group I (n=26, that received treatment with EA (10 Hz, 2-3 mA, 0.5 ms, 20 min/15 sessions alone, group II (n=21 with a combination EA-ketamine (0.25-0.5 mg/kg, i.m. or group III (n=21 with sham EA-ketamine for 15 days. The average daily pain score (ADPS using the Likert scale, area and rate of dynamic allodynia, the rate of thermal allodynia, and frequency of intermittent lancinating pain were evaluated during five visits – before treatment and at 15, 30, 60, 90 days. Results: ADPS and sensory abnormalities decreased significantly concerning baseline data at 90 days in the three groups, but patients treated with the combination EA-ketamine significantly improved compared with the other groups. Conclusions: These results suggest that the combination EA-ketamine shows an early and long-term anti-hyperalgesic effect in PHN patients. However, a controlled clinical trial is necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  1. Herpes Zoster Vaccine Effectiveness against Incident Herpes Zoster and Post-herpetic Neuralgia in an Older US Population: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Sinéad M.; Smeeth, Liam; Margolis, David J.; Thomas, Sara L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster is common and has serious consequences, notably post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). Vaccine efficacy against incident zoster and PHN has been demonstrated in clinical trials, but effectiveness has not been studied in unselected general populations unrestricted by region, full health insurance coverage, or immune status. Our objective was to assess zoster vaccine effectiveness (VE) against incident zoster and PHN in a general population-based setting. Methods and Findings A cohort study of 766,330 fully eligible individuals aged ≥65 years was undertaken in a 5% random sample of Medicare who received and did not receive zoster vaccination between 1st January 2007 and 31st December 2009. Incidence rates and hazard ratios for zoster and PHN were determined in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, race, low income, immunosuppression, and important comorbidities associated with zoster, and then stratified by immunosuppression status. Adjusted hazard ratios were estimated using time-updated Cox proportional hazards models. Vaccine uptake was low (3.9%) particularly among black people (0.3%) and those with evidence of low income (0.6%). 13,112 US Medicare beneficiaries developed incident zoster; the overall zoster incidence rate was 10.0 (9.8–10.2) per 1,000 person-years in the unvaccinated group and 5.4 (95% CI 4.6–6.4) per 1,000 person-years in vaccinees, giving an adjusted VE against incident zoster of 0.48 (95% CI 0.39–0.56). In immunosuppressed individuals, VE against zoster was 0.37 (95% CI 0.06–0.58). VE against PHN was 0.59 (95% CI 0.21–0.79). Conclusions Vaccine uptake was low with variation in specific patient groups. In a general population cohort of older individuals, zoster vaccination was associated with reduction in incident zoster, including among those with immunosuppression. Importantly, this study demonstrates that zoster vaccination is associated with a reduction in PHN. Please

  2. Structure and Mechanism of PhnP, a Phosphodiesterase of the Carbon-Phosphorus Lyase Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Shu-Mei; Wathier, Matthew; Podzelinska, Kateryna

    2011-01-01

    /KM with pKa values (pKa1 = 6.3; pKa2 = 7.8) that were comparable to those of the wild-type enzyme (pKa1 = 6.5; pKa2 = 7.8). Such modest effects are counter to what is expected for a general acid catalyst and suggest an alternate role for H200 in this enzyme. A Brønsted analysis of the PhnP reaction...

  3. Significance of neurovascular contact in classical trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine; Wolfram, Frauke; Gozalov, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Neurovascular contact is considered a frequent cause of classical trigeminal neuralgia and microvascular decompression with transposition of a blood vessel is preferred over other surgical options in medically refractory patients with classical trigeminal neuralgia. However, the prevalence...

  4. Dose-response of pregabalin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Lesley M; McCarberg, Bill H; Clair, Andrew G; Whalen, Ed; Thomas, Neal; Jorga, Anamaria; Pauer, Lynne; Vissing, Richard; Park, Peter W

    2017-11-01

    The pregabalin dose-response for pain, Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC), and sleep quality measures in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN), postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), and fibromyalgia (FM) is relevant for physicians treating these patients. This analysis aimed to demonstrate the dose-response of pregabalin for each indication and describe the onset (incidence), onset/continuation (prevalence), and resolution of adverse events (AEs) occurring during treatment. Data from 14 placebo-controlled, fixed-dose pregabalin trials in pDPN, PHN, and FM were pooled within each indication. Patients had mean baseline pain scores ≥6 on an 11-point numeric rating scale. A hyperbolic Emax dose-response model examined the dose-response of pregabalin for pain, PGIC, and sleep quality. Safety assessments included onset and prevalence of common AEs each week, and resolution in the first 2 months of treatment. In all indications, the likelihood of patients experiencing pain relief and improvements in PGIC and sleep quality increased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing doses. In all indications, new incidences of dizziness and somnolence were highest after 1 week of treatment, with few subsequent new reports at a given dose. Prevalence rates decreased steadily after 1 week of treatment. In FM, new onset weight gain emerged 6-8 weeks following treatment; prevalence rates generally increased then remained steady over time. With the exception of weight gain, many AEs resolved in month 1. The dose-response of pregabalin for pain, PGIC, and sleep quality was demonstrated, highlighting the benefit of achieving the maximum recommended dose of 300 mg/day for pDPN, 300-600 mg/day for PHN, and 300-450 mg/day for FM. Common AEs are generally seen within 1 week of starting treatment, with few subsequent new reports at a given dose. New onset weight gain occurs after 6 weeks of treatment, reinforcing the need for regular monitoring of weight.

  5. Trigeminal neuralgia: report of 3 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Geum Mee; Ki, Joo Yeon; Cho, Bong Hae; Nah, Kyung Soo [College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Orofacial pain can be caused by intracranial disorders or can be musculoskeletal, vascular, internal derangemental, and neurologic in origin. The neurologic pain is derived from structural and functional disorders of nerve, and the trigeminal neuralgia is the typical manifestation. Trigeminal neuralgia is known from centuries ago, and is one of the most common pains in human. We present our experience with three patients who have trigeminal neuralgia. The first case is a 50-year-old female who had no specific evidence radiographically. Second is a 50-year-old male with microvascular compression on right trigeminal nerve. The third case is a 60-year-old female who had a neoplasm in cerebellopontine angle with associated mass effect.

  6. Trigeminal neuralgia treatment dosimetry of the Cyberknife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Lo, Anthony T., E-mail: tonyho22003@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Dieterich, Sonja; Soltys, Scott G.; Gibbs, Iris C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Chang, Steve G.; Adler, John R. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    There are 2 Cyberknife units at Stanford University. The robot of 1 Cyberknife is positioned on the patient's right, whereas the second is on the patient's left. The present study examines whether there is any difference in dosimetry when we are treating patients with trigeminal neuralgia when the target is on the right side or the left side of the patient. In addition, we also study whether Monte Carlo dose calculation has any effect on the dosimetry. We concluded that the clinical and dosimetric outcomes of CyberKnife treatment for trigeminal neuralgia are independent of the robot position. Monte Carlo calculation algorithm may be useful in deriving the dose necessary for trigeminal neuralgia treatments.

  7. Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia evolving to hemicrania continua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzukowiak, Tina Renae

    2015-04-01

    Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia is most commonly characterized as deep, boring, nonpulsatile, severe, unilateral facial and head pain in the distribution of the V1 area combined with ipsilateral oculosympathetic palsy and autonomic symptoms. Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia evolving into hemicrania continua, a rare primary, chronic headache syndrome characterized by unilateral pain and response to indomethacin, has rarely been documented. The purpose of this case report is to contribute to the medical literature a single case of Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia presenting as multiple cranial nerve palsies that evolved into hemicrania continua that was successfully treated with onabotulinumtoxinA. A 52-year-old white woman presented to the emergency department with the complaint of severe, aching, constant eye pain radiating to the V1 area for 1 week with associated ptosis and photophobia of the left eye. Ocular examination revealed involvement of cranial nerves II, III, V, and VI. Additional symptoms included ipsilateral lacrimation, eyelid edema, and rhinorrhea. Extensive medical work-up showed normal results. Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia was diagnosed with multiple cranial nerve involvement; the headache component became chronic with periodic exacerbations of autonomic symptoms evolving to a diagnosis of hemicrania continua. The patient was intolerant to traditional indomethacin treatment, and the headache was successfully treated with onabotulinumtoxinA injections. Recognition of ipsilateral signs such as miosis, ptosis, hydrosis, eyelid edema, hyperemia, rhinorrhea, or nasal congestion is useful in the differential diagnosis of painful ophthalmoplegia, particularly in the diagnosis of Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia and hemicrania continua. This case study illustrates a rare presentation of Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia evolving into hemicrania continua presenting as a painful ophthalmoplegia with multiple cranial nerve involvement. The example supports the

  8. Liposomal topical capsaicin in post-herpetic neuralgia: a safety pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Topical treatments have gained popularity for general use as an adjunct to systemic drugs in neuropathic pain, but their use produces variable clinical results and local adverse events. Objective To evaluate the safety and analgesic effect of a formulation of liposomal capsaicin (LC (0.025% in patients with post herpetic neuralgia (PHN. Method Patients who remained symptomatic after first-and second-line treatment were randomized to receive LC for six weeks in a placebo-controlled, crossover design study. Clinical assessment was performed at baseline, in the second, fourth and sixth week of treatment. Results Thirteen patients completed both treatment periods. Visual Analog Scale (VAS was significantly decreased after the end of the study (p = 0.008, however the effect of treatment was not significant (p = 0.076. There was no difference on global impression of change and other pain characteristics. LC was safe and well tolerated. However, at the concentration used, its analgesic effects were marginal and not significant.

  9. Postherpetic Neuralgia: Practical Experiences Return to Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Avijgan

    2017-06-01

    In traditional medicine (TM, PHN is mostly due to incomplete heat and damp clearing in liver and spleen meridians, qi and toxic pathogens stagnation, accumulation of yin (blood stagnation in microcapillary, internal fire, and heat and obstruction of meridians. Acupuncture works based on the eradication of wind, clearing of heat, and destroying of damp by regulating qi and blood movement. In clinics, several methods of TM are used to relief PHN, such as simultaneous needling, surrounding needling, acupuncture, electro acupuncture, moxibustion, wet cupping or hijamat, and herbal medicine. In this review, we discussed all these methods and their role in reducing PHN and pain.

  10. Unilateral black hairy tongue in trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, William P

    2004-10-01

    Unilateral hairlike discoloration of the tongue is described in a patient with ipsilateral mandibular division trigeminal neuralgia. This unusual physical sign coincided with the patient's painful trigger zone and was attributed to hypertrophy of keratinized filiform papillae, where guarded avoidance of mechanical stimulation over time prevented normal desquamation.

  11. Management of trigeminal neuralgia by radiofrequency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This retrospective study included 312 patients (280 with idiopathic TN, 8 with secondary or symptomatic TN, 20 with atypical TN, and 4 with post herpetic neuralgia) who underwent radiofrequency thermocoagulation of trigeminal nerve. This study was done in Alexandria main university hospital over a period of 7 ...

  12. Management of Trigeminal Neuralgia using Amitriptyline and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    in the nucleus caudalis and hypersensitivity of low- threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMs) in the nucleus oralis are responsible for the paroxysmal pain of trigeminal neuralgia, which may occur in ... but it is thought to act by strongly binding to this subunit and reducing calcium influx to the nerve endings. In this way, the drug.

  13. Management of trigeminal neuralgia by radiofrequency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wael Fouad

    2011-06-24

    Jun 24, 2011 ... etiology and some cases of secondary causes. The mixed type characterized by constant dull, burning pain between paroxysms and includes all cases of atypical TN, post herpetic neuralgia and some cases of secondary TN.7. The treatment of TN which is resistant to medical treat- ment has benefited from ...

  14. Management of Trigeminal Neuralgia using Amitriptyline and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a clinical condition presenting with severe, paroxysmal facial pain, often described by patients also known as tic douloureux. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is the drug of choice, but some patients develop adverse effects and some others may become unresponsive to CBZ. We present three cases of TN ...

  15. FV-100 versus valacyclovir for the prevention of post-herpetic neuralgia and the treatment of acute herpes zoster-associated pain: A randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyring, Stephen K; Lee, Patricia; Hill, Gordon T; Silverfield, Joel C; Moore, Angela Yen; Matkovits, Theresa; Sullivan-Bolyai, John

    2017-07-01

    This prospective, parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study compared the efficacy and safety of FV-100 with valacyclovir for reducing pain associated with acute herpes zoster (HZ). Patients, ≥50 years of age, diagnosed with HZ within 72 h of lesion appearance who had HZ-associated pain, were randomized 1:1:1 to a 7-day course of either FV-100 200 mg QD (n = 117), FV-100 400 mg QD (n = 116), or valacyclovir 1000 mg TID (n =117). Efficacy was evaluated on the basis of the burden of illness (BOI; Zoster Brief Pain Inventory scores); incidence and duration of clinically significant pain (CSP); pain scores; incidence and severity of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN); and times to full lesion crusting and to lesion healing. Safety was evaluated on the basis of adverse event (AE)/SAE profiles, changes in laboratory and vital signs values, and results of electrocardiograms. The burden of illness scores for pain through 30 days were 114.5, 110.3, and 118.0 for FV-100 200 mg, FV-100 400 mg, and valacyclovir 3000 mg, respectively. The incidences of PHN at 90 days for FV-100 200 mg, FV-100 400 mg, and valacyclovir 3000 mg were 17.8%, 12.4%, and 20.2%, respectively. Adverse event and SAE profiles of the two FV-100 and the valacyclovir groups were similar and no untoward signals or trends were evident. These results demonstrate a potential for FV-100 as an antiviral for the treatment of shingles that could both reduce the pain burden of the acute episode and reduce the incidence of PHN compared with available treatments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Anti-cytokine autoantibodies in postherpetic neuralgia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bayat, Ahmad; Burbelo, Peter D; Browne, Sarah K; Quinlivan, Mark; Martinez, Bianca; Holland, Steven M; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Kroin, Jeffrey S; Mannes, Andrew J; Breuer, Judith; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Iadarola, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    ...), a debilitating chronic pain condition, have not been fully elucidated. Based on previous studies identifying a causative role for anti-cytokine autoantibodies in patients with opportunistic infections, we explored this possibility in PHN...

  17. Neuralgia trójdzielna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kochanowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuralgia trójdzielna należy do najcięższych bólów w obrębie twarzy. Choć została opisana przez wielu badaczy, dzisiaj nazywa się ją chorobą Fothergilla, co upamiętnia przedstawienie neuralgii trójdzielnej przez tego uczonego w 1773 roku. Zachorowalność jest oceniana na 2–5/100 tys. osób, częściej chorują kobiety. Nerw trójdzielny to nerw czuciowo-ruchowy, który wspólnie z nerwami językowo-gardłowym i błędnym, nerwami podpotylicznym, potylicznymi mniejszymi i większymi oraz nerwem usznym wielkim unerwia skórę głowy. Włókna przewodzące bodźce bólowe przez zwój nerwu trójdzielnego kończą się w jądrze rdzeniowym, skąd przez jądra wzgórza docierają do kory czuciowej, układu limbicznego i wyspy. Przyczyn bólu w neuralgii upatruje się w uszkodzeniu włókien czuciowych grubych Aβ i powstałych ogniskach ektopowego pobudzenia – przenoszonego na uszkodzone strukturalnie włókna cienkie Aδ i C w obrębie połączeń zwanych efapsami. Neuralgię trójdzielną dzieli się na klasyczną i objawową. Obie postacie charakteryzują się napadami bólu o typie rażenia prądem elektrycznym, trwającymi od kilku sekund do dwóch minut. Ból najczęściej dotyczy obszaru unerwionego przez drugą i trzecią gałąź nerwu trójdzielnego, czyli nerw szczękowy i żuchwowy. Cechą charakterystyczną są strefy spustowe, których drażnienie przez bodźce niebólowe wywołuje napad neuralgii. Leczenie neuralgii trójdzielnej obejmuje postępowanie zachowawcze i chirurgiczne. W leczeniu zachowawczym złotym standardem jest stosowanie karbamazepiny lub okskarbazepiny. W przypadku niepowodzenia można włączyć baklofen, lamotryginę albo inny lek używany w leczeniu padaczki. Spośród metod chirurgicznych najczęściej stosuje się: odbarczenie konfliktu naczyniowo-nerwowego, ucisk zwoju troistego balonem, przezskórną blokadę zwoju Gassera glicerolem, przecięcie włókien zazwojowych nerwu tr

  18. Treatment of recurrent trigeminal neuralgia due to Teflon granuloma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Capelle, Hans-Holger; Brandis, Almuth; Tschan, Christoph A; Krauss, Joachim K

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent trigeminal neuralgia after microvascular decompression (MVD) may be due to insufficient decompression, dislocation of the implant to pad the neurovascular contact, or the development of granuloma...

  19. Rare cause of trigeminal neuralgia: Meckel's cave meningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobaid, Abdullah; Schaeffer, Todd; Virojanapa, Justin; Dehdashti, Amir R

    2015-07-01

    The most common etiology of classic trigeminal neuralgia is vascular compression. However, other causes must be excluded. It is very unlikely that a meningocele presents with symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia. We present a rare case of a patient presenting with left trigeminal neuralgia. Thin-slice CT and MRI showed a transclival Meckel's cave meningocele. The patient underwent endoscopic repair of the meningocele, which resulted in complete resolution of her symptoms. Meckel's cave meningocele or encephalocele should be considered among the differential diagnoses of trigeminal neuralgia. Meningocele repair should be suggested as the first treatment option in this rare situation.

  20. PhnJ – A novel radical SAM enzyme from the C–P lyase complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhesh S. Kamat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PhnJ from the C–P lyase complex catalyzes the cleavage of the carbon–phosphorus bond in ribose-1-phosphonate-5-phosphate (PRPn to produce methane and ribose-1,2-cyclic-phosphate-5-phosphate (PRcP. This protein is a novel radical SAM enzyme that uses glycyl and thiyl radicals as reactive intermediates in the proposed reaction mechanism. The overall reaction is initiated with the reductive cleavage of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM by a reduced [4Fe–4S]1+-cluster to form an Ado-CH2∙ radical intermediate. This intermediate abstracts the proR hydrogen from Gly-32 of PhnJ to form Ado-CH3 and a glycyl radical. In the next step, there is hydrogen atom transfer from Cys-272 to the Gly-32 radical to generate a thiyl radical. The thiyl radical attacks the phosphorus center of the substrate, PRPn, to form a transient thiophosphonate radical intermediate. This intermediate collapses via homolytic C–P bond cleavage and hydrogen atom transfer from the proS hydrogen of Gly-32 to produce a thiophosphate intermediate, methane, and a radical intermediate at Gly-32. The final product, PRcP, is formed by nucleophilic attack of the C2-hydroxyl on the transient thiophosphate intermediate. This reaction regenerates the free thiol group of Cys-272. After hydrogen atom transfer from Cys-272 to the Gly-32 radical, the entire process is repeated with another substrate molecule without the use of another molecule of SAM or involvement from the [4Fe–4S]-cluster again.

  1. Small-fiber dysfunction in trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruccu, G.; Leandri, M.; Iannetti, G. D.

    2001-01-01

    on small-afferent (nociceptive) function. Methods: The brain potentials evoked by CO2-laser pulses directed to the perioral and supraorbital regions were studied in 67 patients with idiopathic or symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia and 30 normal subjects. Of the 67 patients, 49 were receiving carbamazepine...... was significantly longer than that of the age-matched controls. The nonpainful-side latency correlated significantly with the carbamazepine dose. Conclusions: LEP detect severe impairment of the nociceptive afferent system on the painful side of patients with idiopathic as well as symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia....... A dysfunction of small-myelinated afferents may play an important role in the pathophysiology of neuralgic pain. Carbamazepine markedly dampens these brain potentials. The authors propose that this effect may result from inhibition of nociceptive transmission in the cingulate gyrus....

  2. HIV-related stigma: implications for symptoms of anxiety and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-related stigma: implications for symptoms of anxiety and depression among Malawian women. ... African Journal of AIDS Research ... These findings suggest that interventions that reduce HIV-related stigma are likely to enhance psychological functioning among Malawian women, which in turn will improve the women's ...

  3. Understanding HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of epidemiological studies have attempted to measure the prevalence of HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic review of the literature identified eight relevant studies that put current estimates of the prevalence of HIV-related PTSD between 4.2% and 40%. Even the ...

  4. EBV AND HIV-RELATED LYMPHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Bibas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders represent a heterogeneous group of diseases, arising in the presence of HIV-associated immunodeficiency. The overall prevalence of HIV-associated lymphoma is significantly higher compared to that of the general population and it continues to be relevant even after the wide availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART (1. Moreover, they still represent one of the most frequent cause of death in HIV-infected patients. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV, a γ-Herpesviruses, is involved in human lymphomagenesis, particularly in HIV immunocompromised patients. It has been largely implicated in the development of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders as Burkitt lymphoma (BL, Hodgkin disease (HD, systemic non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NC. Virus-associated lymphomas are becoming of significant concern for the mortality of long-lived HIV immunocompromised patients, and therefore, research of advanced strategies for AIDS-related lymphomas is an important field in cancer chemotherapy. Detailed understanding of the EBV  lifecycle and related cancers at the molecular level is required for novel strategies of molecular-targeted cancer chemotherapy The linkage of HIV-related lymphoma with EBV infection of the tumor clone has several pathogenetic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications which are reviewed herein

  5. Efficacy of traditional Japanese herbal medicines-Keishikajutsubuto (TJ-18) and Bushi-matsu (TJ-3022)-against postherpetic neuralgia aggravated by self-reported cold stimulation: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Miho; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Kageyama, Mitsuru; Otsuka, Shizue; Inoue, Takaya; Nishida, Shinji; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kishida, Yuki

    2012-07-01

    It has been reported that postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in patients over 60 years of age is aggravated under cold stimulation and is often difficult to treat. Keishikajutsubuto (TJ-18) and Bushi-matsu (TJ-3022) are traditional Japanese herbal medicines and have long been used to treat neuralgia and arthralgia, which are aggravated following cold stimulation. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of combined TJ-18 and TJ-3022 therapy in cases of PHN aggravated by self-reported cold stimulation. Fifteen (15) PHN patients aged 60 years and over were examined. Patients were aware of the persistent pain despite other treatments; pain was generally aggravated following exposure to cold stimulation. First, TJ-18 (7.5 g/day) was administered to patients, and then TJ-3022 (1.0 g/day) was also administered and progressively increased by 0.5-1.0 g increments every 2-4 weeks, until stable improvement was achieved, which was rated using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Analgesic effects were evaluated using the VAS during each patient visit. Background variables, responses to treatment (time course of VAS rating, VAS improvement rate), the amount of additional TJ-3022 administered, and adverse reactions were analyzed. Twelve (12) of the 15 patients completed the entire trial. Patient ages were 61-85 years, the male-to-female ratio was 4:8, and length of time after onset of herpes zoster was 2-92 months. In 3 patients, oral TJ-18 treatment was not possible due to hot flash or gastric discomfort. The VAS improvement rate for patients being orally administered both TJ-18 and TJ-3022 was 76.5±27.7% (mean±standard deviation). The additional TJ-3022 dose was 1.0-5.0 g/day. Twelve (12) patients have been treated without serious adverse reactions. TJ-18 and TJ-3022 combination treatment is a promising means of treating intractable PHN, which has a self-reported tendency to aggravate pain under cold stimulation.

  6. Facial neuralgias: analysis of the different types seen at Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To highlight the presentations, characteristics, the difficulties in diagnosis, treatment and response to treatment types of facial neuralgias seen at Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Methods: Twelve patients with facial neuralgias diagnosed and treated in dental clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital ...

  7. Psychological assessment of a case of trigeminal neuralgia | Osawe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Recent report links trigeminal neuralgia as a trigger for psychiatric crisis. This article reports the findings from psychological assessment of a case of trigeminal neuralgia, to highlight the associated psychological problems of this condition. Method: A 58 years old male trader, who presented with one year history of ...

  8. Association between paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia and atypical facial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper, R P; Glynn, C J

    1999-12-01

    Paroxysmal trigeminal neuralgia and atypical facial pain are both fairly common conditions that produce pain in the face of different character. Trigeminal neuralgia is sharp and shooting, brought on by facial movement, change of temperature and by touching the face at a specific point (the trigger point). Atypical facial pain is dull and unrelenting and its site is ill-defined. Trigeminal neuralgia is generally more common in older people, and affects women slightly more than men, and atypical facial pain generally affects younger people, with women predominating. The pains should never be confused. We have noticed that many patients with trigeminal neuralgia have additional symptoms of atypical facial pain and so we reviewed the records of the Pain Relief Unit retrospectively. Of the 83 patients identified with trigeminal neuralgia where records were adequate, 35 (42%) also had atypical facial pain. Five of these had developed it before the onset of trigeminal neuralgia and could be examples of pretrigeminal neuralgia. There were eight patients in the series with multiple sclerosis, of whom two also had atypical facial pain. There seemed to be no relationship between the development of atypical facial pain and the interventions used to treat trigeminal neuralgia. It is important that both conditions are identified and treated individually.

  9. Self-Regulation of Brain Activity in Patients with Postherpetic Neuralgia: A Double-Blind Randomized Study Using Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yan, Bin; Zhao, Lu; Tong, Li; Dou, Shewei; Xia, Linjie; Wang, Meiyun; Shi, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Background A pilot study has shown that real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback could be an alternative approach for chronic pain treatment. Considering the relative small sample of patients recruited and not strictly controlled condition, it is desirable to perform a replication as well as a double-blinded randomized study with a different control condition in chronic pain patients. Here we conducted a rtfMRI neurofeedback study in a subgroup of pain patients – patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and used a different sham neurofeedback control. We explored the feasibility of self-regulation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) activation in patients with PHN through rtfMRI neurofeedback and regulation of pain perception. Methods Sixteen patients (46–71 years) with PHN were randomly allocated to a experimental group (n = 8) or a control group (n = 8). 2 patients in the control group were excluded for large head motion. The experimental group was given true feedback information from their rACC whereas the control group was given sham feedback information from their posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). All subjects were instructed to perform an imagery task to increase and decrease activation within the target region using rtfMRI neurofeedback. Results Online analysis showed 6/8 patients in the experimental group were able to increase and decrease the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal magnitude during intermittent feedback training. However, this modulation effect was not observed in the control group. Offline analysis showed that the percentage of BOLD signal change of the target region between the last and first training in the experimental group was significantly different from the control group’s and was also significantly different than 0. The changes of pain perception reflected by numerical rating scale (NRS) in the experimental group were significantly different from the control group. However, there existed no significant

  10. Self-regulation of brain activity in patients with postherpetic neuralgia: a double-blind randomized study using real-time FMRI neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Min; Ma, Lijia; Li, Li; Yan, Bin; Zhao, Lu; Tong, Li; Dou, Shewei; Xia, Linjie; Wang, Meiyun; Shi, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    A pilot study has shown that real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback could be an alternative approach for chronic pain treatment. Considering the relative small sample of patients recruited and not strictly controlled condition, it is desirable to perform a replication as well as a double-blinded randomized study with a different control condition in chronic pain patients. Here we conducted a rtfMRI neurofeedback study in a subgroup of pain patients - patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and used a different sham neurofeedback control. We explored the feasibility of self-regulation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) activation in patients with PHN through rtfMRI neurofeedback and regulation of pain perception. Sixteen patients (46-71 years) with PHN were randomly allocated to a experimental group (n = 8) or a control group (n = 8). 2 patients in the control group were excluded for large head motion. The experimental group was given true feedback information from their rACC whereas the control group was given sham feedback information from their posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). All subjects were instructed to perform an imagery task to increase and decrease activation within the target region using rtfMRI neurofeedback. Online analysis showed 6/8 patients in the experimental group were able to increase and decrease the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI signal magnitude during intermittent feedback training. However, this modulation effect was not observed in the control group. Offline analysis showed that the percentage of BOLD signal change of the target region between the last and first training in the experimental group was significantly different from the control group's and was also significantly different than 0. The changes of pain perception reflected by numerical rating scale (NRS) in the experimental group were significantly different from the control group. However, there existed no significant correlations between BOLD signal

  11. Trigeminal Neuralgia, Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia, and Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Shamima Easmin; Hassan, Siti Nazihahasma

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a common phenomenon that affects millions of people worldwide. Maxillofacial structures consist of various tissues that receive frequent stimulation during food digestion. The unique functions (masticatory process and facial expression) of the maxillofacial structure require the exquisite organization of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Neuralgia is painful paroxysmal disorder of the head-neck region characterized by some commonly shared features such as the unilateral pain, transience and recurrence of attacks, and superficial and shock-like pain at a trigger point. These types of pain can be experienced after nerve injury or as a part of diseases that affect peripheral and central nerve function, or they can be psychological. Since the trigeminal and glossopharyngeal nerves innervate the oral structure, trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia are the most common syndromes following myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. Nevertheless, misdiagnoses are common. The aim of this review is to discuss the currently available diagnostic procedures and treatment options for trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, and myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. PMID:28827979

  12. Trigeminal Neuralgia, Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia, and Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad; Nishi, Shamima Easmin; Hassan, Siti Nazihahasma; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a common phenomenon that affects millions of people worldwide. Maxillofacial structures consist of various tissues that receive frequent stimulation during food digestion. The unique functions (masticatory process and facial expression) of the maxillofacial structure require the exquisite organization of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Neuralgia is painful paroxysmal disorder of the head-neck region characterized by some commonly shared features such as the unilateral pain, transience and recurrence of attacks, and superficial and shock-like pain at a trigger point. These types of pain can be experienced after nerve injury or as a part of diseases that affect peripheral and central nerve function, or they can be psychological. Since the trigeminal and glossopharyngeal nerves innervate the oral structure, trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia are the most common syndromes following myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. Nevertheless, misdiagnoses are common. The aim of this review is to discuss the currently available diagnostic procedures and treatment options for trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, and myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome.

  13. Trigeminal Neuralgia, Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia, and Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is a common phenomenon that affects millions of people worldwide. Maxillofacial structures consist of various tissues that receive frequent stimulation during food digestion. The unique functions (masticatory process and facial expression of the maxillofacial structure require the exquisite organization of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Neuralgia is painful paroxysmal disorder of the head-neck region characterized by some commonly shared features such as the unilateral pain, transience and recurrence of attacks, and superficial and shock-like pain at a trigger point. These types of pain can be experienced after nerve injury or as a part of diseases that affect peripheral and central nerve function, or they can be psychological. Since the trigeminal and glossopharyngeal nerves innervate the oral structure, trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia are the most common syndromes following myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. Nevertheless, misdiagnoses are common. The aim of this review is to discuss the currently available diagnostic procedures and treatment options for trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, and myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome.

  14. Nonadherence is Associated with Lack of HIV-Related Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrehave, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Dlama Nggida; Hønge, Bo Langhoff

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poor treatment adherence is a main barrier for effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. HIV-related knowledge may affect understanding and utilization of HIV medical information, hence limited health literacy is a known barrier to treatment adherence. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cro...... effects, food insecurity, and simply forgetting. Lack of HIV-related knowledge about ART and HIV may be a barrier to nonadherence.......% skipped their medicine during weekends. The most frequent reasons for not taking medicine were simply forgetting, side effects, lack of food, and being too ill to attend the clinic. Nonadherent patients had a lower level of HIV-related knowledge. CONCLUSION: Main barriers for nonadherence were side...

  15. EBV AND HIV-RELATED LYMPHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Antinori

    2009-11-01

    strategies of molecular-targeted cancer chemotherapy The linkage of HIV-related lymphoma with EBV infection of the tumor clone has several pathogenetic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications which are reviewed herein

  16. Methodological Issues in HIV-Related Social Research in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodological Issues in HIV-Related Social Research in Nigeria. ... like sexual mores and sexuality requires much more than a straightjacket social science method, such as simply doing a cross-section study and/or using interview schedule.

  17. Supratentorial lesions contribute to trigeminal neuralgia in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Kilian; Winder, Klemens; Linker, Ralf A; Engelhorn, Tobias; Dörfler, Arnd; Lee, De-Hyung; Hilz, Max J; Schwab, Stefan; Seifert, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that multiple sclerosis lesions afflicting the pontine trigeminal afferents contribute to trigeminal neuralgia in multiple sclerosis. So far, there are no imaging studies that have evaluated interactions between supratentorial lesions and trigeminal neuralgia in multiple sclerosis patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective study and sought multiple sclerosis patients with trigeminal neuralgia and controls in a local database. Multiple sclerosis lesions were manually outlined and transformed into stereotaxic space. We determined the lesion overlap and performed a voxel-wise subtraction analysis. Secondly, we conducted a voxel-wise non-parametric analysis using the Liebermeister test. Results From 12,210 multiple sclerosis patient records screened, we identified 41 patients with trigeminal neuralgia. The voxel-wise subtraction analysis yielded associations between trigeminal neuralgia and multiple sclerosis lesions in the pontine trigeminal afferents, as well as larger supratentorial lesion clusters in the contralateral insula and hippocampus. The non-parametric statistical analysis using the Liebermeister test yielded similar areas to be associated with multiple sclerosis-related trigeminal neuralgia. Conclusions Our study confirms previous data on associations between multiple sclerosis-related trigeminal neuralgia and pontine lesions, and showed for the first time an association with lesions in the insular region, a region involved in pain processing and endogenous pain modulation.

  18. [Angle-stable intramedullary nailing of proximal humerus fractures with the PHN (proximal humeral nail)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Jochen; Hansen, Matthias; Rommens, Pol Maria

    2009-09-01

    Stable fixation of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus through minimally invasive operative technique and rapid bone healing as well as restoration of original anatomy. Early functional training with the goal of restoration of former mobility and daily activities. Unstabile two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus (AO classification: 11-A2, 11-A3, 11-B1, 11-B2, 11-B3). Subcapital nonunion of the humerus. Pathologic fractures. Pediatric fractures of the proximal humerus. Fractures of the proximal humerus types 11-C2 und 11-C3 according to the AO classification. Active local infection, e.g., after former operation. Closed reduction. Anterior acromial incision, splitting of the deltoid muscle and the rotator cuff. Opening of the medullary canal with the awl. Nail introduction. Spiral blade introduction in cannulated technique through stab incision. Distal interlocking through aiming device, angle-stable blocking of nail and blade through end cap. Postoperative fixation in Gilchrist sling until 2nd postoperative day; then physiotherapy respecting fracture type and stability, local swelling, patient's age and compliance, and concomitant injuries. 151 proximal humeral fractures were treated with a proximal humeral nail (PHN). 108 patients could be followed up 1 year postoperatively. Significant complications were perforation of the articular surface through bolts or blades (n = 8), implant-related pain (n = 10), fragment dislocation (n = 2), nonunion (n = 2), humeral head necrosis (n = 3), and superficial infection (n = 1). 1 year after the operation, the Constant-Murley Score showed a median value of 75.3 in the injured shoulder and of 89.9 in the uninjured shoulder. The DASH (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) Score was 5.9 preoperatively and 9.3 at 1 year postoperatively. The worst results regarding the Constant-Murley Score as well as the DASH Score were found in C-type fractures.

  19. Trigeminal Neuralgia, Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia, and Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Khan; Shamima Easmin Nishi; Siti Nazihahasma Hassan; Md. Asiful Islam; Siew Hua Gan

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a common phenomenon that affects millions of people worldwide. Maxillofacial structures consist of various tissues that receive frequent stimulation during food digestion. The unique functions (masticatory process and facial expression) of the maxillofacial structure require the exquisite organization of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Neuralgia is painful paroxysmal disorder of the head-neck region characterized by some commonly shared features such as th...

  20. Treatment of recurrent trigeminal neuralgia due to Teflon granuloma

    OpenAIRE

    Capelle, Hans-Holger; Brandis, Almuth; Tschan, Christoph A.; Krauss, Joachim K

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent trigeminal neuralgia after microvascular decompression (MVD) may be due to insufficient decompression, dislocation of the implant to pad the neurovascular contact, or the development of granuloma. Here, we report on our experience with Teflon granuloma including its treatment and histopathological examination. In a series of 200 patients with trigeminal neuralgia MVD was performed with Teflon felt according to Jannetta’s technique. In three patients with recurrent facial pain Teflon...

  1. Gender differences in HIV-related stigma in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugoya, George C T; Ernst, Kacey

    2014-02-01

    Stigma associated with HIV/AIDS directly and indirectly drives HIV transmission. We examined how factors associated with HIV-related stigma differed by gender, using data from the 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS). Descriptive, bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted on selected HIV-related stigma indicators for men and women. Bivariate analyses showed significant gender differences in the overall HIV Stigma index with a higher proportion of women than men presented at the highest stigma level (4.9% vs 2.7%, p differences were found in employment, marital status, ethnicity, region of residence, wealth and media exposure. Our results showed that women in the general Kenyan population had higher stigmatic attitudes than men. This was associated with differences in risk factor profile and confirmed previous literature on complexity of social-cultural factors associated with HIV-related stigma.

  2. Pregabalin versus gabapentin in the management of peripheral neuropathic pain associated with post-herpetic neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy: a cost effectiveness analysis for the Greek healthcare setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The anticonvulsants pregabalin and gabapentin are both indicated for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain. The decision on which treatment provides the best alternative, should take into account all aspects of costs and outcomes associated with the two therapeutic options. The objective of this study was to examine the cost – effectiveness of the two agents in the management of patients with painful diabetic neuropathy or post – herpetic neuralgia, under the third party payer perspective in Greece. Methods The analysis was based on a dynamic simulation model which estimated and compared the costs and outcomes of pregabalin and gabapentin in a hypothetical cohort of 1,000 patients suffering from painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) or Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN). In the model, each patient was randomly allocated an average pretreatment pain score, measured using an eleven-point visual analogue scale (0 – 10) and was “run through” the model, simulating their daily pain intensity and allowing for stochastic calculation of outcomes, taking into account medical interventions and the effectiveness of each treatment. Results Pregabalin demonstrated a reduction in days with moderate to severe pain when compared to gabapentin. During the 12 weeks the pregabalin arm demonstrated a 0.1178 (SE 0.0002) QALY gain, which proved to be 0.0063 (SE 0.0003) higher than that in the gabapentin arm. The mean medication cost per patient was higher for the pregabalin arm when compared to the gabapentin arm (i.e. €134.40) over the 12 week treatment period. However, this higher cost was partially offset by the reduced direct medical costs (i.e. the cost of specialist visits, the cost of diagnostic tests and the other applied interventions). Comparing costs with respective outcomes, the ICERs for pregabalin versus gabapentin were €13 (95%CI: 8 – 18) per additional day with no or mild pain and €19,320 (95%CI: 11,743 – 26,755) per QALY gained

  3. Postherpetic neuralgia: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and pain management pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallick-Searle T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Theresa Mallick-Searle,1 Brett Snodgrass,2 Jeannine M Brant,3 1Pain Management Center, Stanford Health Care, Redwood City, CA, 2LifeLinc Pain Centers, Cordova, TN, 3Billings Clinic, Billings, MT, USA Abstract: Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a distinctive clinical condition caused by the reactivation of latent varicella zoster (chickenpox virus following an initial infection. Approximately 1 million cases of herpes zoster occur annually in the US, and one in every three people develops herpes zoster during their lifetime. Postherpetic neuralgia is a neuropathic pain syndrome characterized by pain that persists for months to years after resolution of the herpes zoster rash. It stems from damage to peripheral and central neurons that may be a byproduct of the immune/inflammatory response accompanying varicella zoster virus reactivation. Patients with postherpetic neuralgia report decreased quality of life and interference with activities of daily living. Approaches to management of postherpetic neuralgia include preventing herpes zoster through vaccination and/or antiviral treatment, and administering specific medications to treat pain. Current guidelines recommend treatment of postherpetic neuralgia in a hierarchical manner, with calcium channel α2-δ ligands (gabapentin and pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, nortriptyline, or desipramine, or topical lidocaine patches as first-line drugs. The safety and tolerability of pharmacologic therapies for pain are important issues to consider as postherpetic neuralgia affects primarily an older population. Patients should be educated on appropriate dosing, titration if applicable, the importance of adherence to treatment for optimal effectiveness, and possible side effects. Health-care professionals play a key role in helping to ameliorate the pain caused by postherpetic neuralgia through early recognition and diligent assessment of the problem; recommending evidence

  4. Tolerability of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, following pretreatment with lidocaine 2.5%/prilocaine 2.5% cream in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Lynn R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN is a common type of neuropathic pain that can severely affect quality of life. NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, is a localized treatment that can provide patients with significant pain relief for up to 3 months following a single 60-minute application. The NGX-4010 application can be associated with application-site pain and in previous clinical trials pretreatment with a topical 4% lidocaine anesthetic was used to enhance tolerability. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate tolerability of NGX-4010 after pretreatment with lidocaine 2.5%/prilocaine 2.5% anesthetic cream. Methods Twenty-four patients with PHN were pretreated with lidocaine 2.5%/prilocaine 2.5% cream for 60 minutes before receiving a single 60-minute application of NGX-4010. Tolerability was assessed by measuring patch application duration, the proportion of patients completing over 90% of the intended treatment duration, application site-related pain using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS, and analgesic medication use to relieve such pain. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events (AEs and dermal irritation using dermal assessment scores. Results The mean treatment duration of NGX-4010 was 60.2 minutes and all patients completed over 90% of the intended patch application duration. Pain during application was transient. A maximum mean change in NPRS score of +3.0 was observed at 55 minutes post-patch application; pain scores gradually declined to near pre-anesthetic levels (+0.71 within 85 minutes of patch removal. Half of the patients received analgesic medication on the day of treatment; by Day 7, no patients required medication. The most common AEs were application site-related pain, erythema, edema, and pruritus. All patients experienced mild dermal irritation 5 minutes after patch removal, which subsequently decreased; at Day 7, no irritation was evident. The maximum recorded dermal assessment

  5. HIV related renal disease in Africans | Elangovan | IMTU Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renal disease is becoming an increasingly prevalent entity in human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV)–infected patients, first diagnosed in AIDS patients in 1984. The HIV-related renal disease represents a spectrum of clinical and histological conditions presenting as acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, glomerulopathies, ...

  6. HIV-related symptoms and management in HIV and antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-related symptoms and management in HIV and antiretroviral therapy patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: A longitudinal study. ... Overall, the participants reported medications as the most frequently occurring management strategy, with the second being spiritual, and the third being complementary or traditional ...

  7. Adolescent Adjustment Before and After HIV-Related Parental Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Weiss, Robert; Alber, Susan; Lester, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    The impact of HIV-related parental death on 414 adolescents was examined over a period of 6 years. The adjustment of bereaved adolescents was compared over 4 time periods relative to parental death and was also compared with the adjustment of nonbereaved adolescents. Bereaved adolescents had significantly more emotional distress, negative life…

  8. PALLIATIVE TREATMENT FOR HIV-RELATED KAPOSrS SARCOMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This ongoing study evaluated the effectiveness of palliative treatment in patients with HIV-related KS in the absence of. ART. The HIV situation has changed since antiretroviral therapy. (ARn became available: deaths from AIDS-related illnesses have been reduced by 75%. A projected reduction in new KS cases of 50 - 90% ...

  9. Raising awareness of HIV-related stigma and its associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV Aids will remain a problem for a long time. Many people with HIV/AIDS still live in fear of discovery because of the prevalent stigma and its associated prejudice and discrimination. This article examines how HIV-related stigma and its associated prejudice and discrimination can be addressed in a classroom ± in the field ...

  10. Understanding HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of epidemiological studies have attempted to measure the prevalence of HIV-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic ... Even the lower estimates suggest that PTSD in response to the trauma of being diagnosed and living with HIV is a significant mental health burden.

  11. Research Gaps in Neonatal HIV-Related Care | Davies | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, both in South Africa and across sub-Saharan African, lack of boosted peri-partum prophylaxis for high-risk vertical transmission, loss to followup, and failure to initiate HIV-infected infants on antiretroviral therapy (ART) before disease progression are key remaining gaps in neonatal HIV-related care. In this issue of ...

  12. Escherichia coli phnN, encoding ribose 1,5-bisphosphokinase activity (phosphoribosyl diphosphate forming): dual role in phosphonate degradation and NAD biosynthesis pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Rosenkrantz, Tina J; Haldimann, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    An enzymatic pathway for synthesis of 5-phospho-D-ribosyl alpha-1-diphosphate (PRPP) without the participation of PRPP synthase was analyzed in Escherichia coli. This pathway was revealed by selection for suppression of the NAD requirement of strains with a deletion of the prs gene, the gene...... encoding PRPP synthase (B. Hove-Jensen, J. Bacteriol. 178:714-722, 1996). The new pathway requires three enzymes: phosphopentomutase, ribose 1-phosphokinase, and ribose 1,5-bisphosphokinase. The latter activity is encoded by phnN; the product of this gene is required for phosphonate degradation, but its......-phosphorus (C-P) bond by a C-P lyase. The phnN gene was manipulated in vitro to encode a variant of ribose 1,5-bisphosphokinase with a tail consisting of six histidine residues at the carboxy-terminal end. PhnN was purified almost to homogeneity and characterized. The enzyme accepted ATP but not GTP...

  13. Effects of dorsal root ganglion destruction by adriamycin in patients with postherpetic neuralgia Efeitos da destruição da raiz dorsal ganglionar pela adriamicina em pacientes com neuralgia pós-herpética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chun-jing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of dorsal root ganglion destruction in patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN. METHODS: Seventy-two patients with PHN selected were randomly divided into two groups (n=36. Group A was the control group (treated by injection and group B was the group of dorsal root ganglion destruction by adriamycin. Visual analog scale scores (VAS, SAS, SF-MPQ scores. Clinical effects and therapy safety were evaluated before therapy, one week, three and six months after therapy. Forty-four patients were available for intention-to-treat analysis. RESULTS: The average pain scores on the Likert scale were significantly reduced at each point in group B. Patients in group B reported clinical effectiveness at six months as excellent response, good response, improved but unsatisfactory or unchanged 16, 12 and 8.VAS scores at each time point after the operation were lower than that before operation and in group A, there was significant difference. Patients showed significant improvement in sleep scores in group B. There was significant difference at T2 in group A than T1. There was no significant difference in group A at T3, T4 after the operation than that before operation. Between group comparison: there was significant difference between group A and group B at each time point after the operation. CONCLUSIONS: Dorsal root ganglion destruction by adriamycin under guidance of C-arm perspective, the puncture operation was accurate without any adverse reaction or serious complications, which could effectively relieve pain of patients with postherpetic neuralgia, but the long-term effects needed further study.OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos da destruição da raiz dorsal ganglionar em pacientes com neuralgia pós-herpética. MÉTODOS: Setenta e dois pacientes selecionados com neuralgia pós-herpética foram randomicamente distribuídos em dois grupos (n=36. Grupo A foi o grupo controle (tratado por injeção e o grupo B foi o grupo

  14. Linear accelerator radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hyong Geun [Dongguk University International Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Trigeminal neuralgia is defined as an episodic electrical shock-like sensation in a dermatomal distribution of the trigeminal nerve. When medications fail to control pain, various procedures are used to attempt to control refractory pain. Of available procedures, stereotactic radiosurgery is the least invasive procedure and has been demonstrated to produce significant pain relief with minimal side effects. Recently, linear accelerators were introduced as a tool for radiosurgery of trigeminal neuralgia beneath the already accepted gamma unit. Author have experienced one case with trigeminal neuralgia treated with linear accelerator. The patient was treated with 85 Gy by means of 5 mm collimator directed to trigeminal nerve root entry zone. The patient obtained pain free without medication at 20 days after the procedure and remain pain free at 6 months after the procedure. He didn't experience facial numbness or other side effects.

  15. Supratrochlear Neuralgia: A Prospective Case Series of 15 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; López-Ruiz, Pedro; Mayo, Diego; Villar-Quiles, Rocío-Nur; Cárcamo, Alba; Gutiérrez-Viedma, Álvaro; Lastarria, Carlo P; Romeral, María; Yangüela, Julio; Cuadrado, María-Luz

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe clinical features unique to supratrochlear neuralgia. The supratrochlear nerve supplies the medial aspect of the forehead. Due to the intricate relationship between supraorbital and supratrochlear nerves, neuralgic pain in this region has been traditionally attributed to supraorbital neuralgia. No cases of supratrochlear neuralgia have been reported so far. From 2009 through 2016, we prospectively recruited patients with pain confined to the territory of the supratrochlear nerve. Fifteen patients (13 women, 2 men; mean age 51.4 years, standard deviation 14.9) presented with pain in the lower paramedian forehead, extending to the eyebrow in two patients and to the internal angle of the orbit in another. Pain was unilateral in 11 patients (six on the right, five on the left), and bilateral in four. Six patients had continuous pain and nine described intermittent pain. Palpation of the supratrochlear nerve at the medial third of the supraorbital rim resulted in hypersensitivity in all cases. All but one patient exhibited sensory disturbances within the painful area. Fourteen patients underwent anesthetic blockades of the supratrochlear nerve, with immediate relief in all cases and long-term remission in three. Six of them had received unsuccessful anesthetic blocks of the supraorbital nerve. Five patients were treated successfully with oral drugs and one patient was treated with radiofrequency. Supratrochlear neuralgia is an uncommon disorder causing pain in the medial region of the forehead. It may be differentiated from supraorbital neuralgia and other similar headaches and neuralgias based on the topography of the pain and the response to anesthetic blockade. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  16. Analysis of HIV-related mortality data in a tertiary South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of HIV-related mortality data in a tertiary South African neurology unit, 2006 ... At the Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria, the Neurology Department has seen a steady increase in HIV-related neurology patients. ... Article Metrics.

  17. Research gaps in neonatal HIV-related care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Ann Davies

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African prevention of mother to child transmission programme has made excellentprogress in reducing vertical HIV transmission, and paediatric antiretroviral therapyprogrammes have demonstrated good outcomes with increasing treatment initiation inyounger children and infants. However, both in South Africa and across sub-Saharan African,lack of boosted peri-partum prophylaxis for high-risk vertical transmission, loss to followup,and failure to initiate HIV-infected infants on antiretroviral therapy (ART before diseaseprogression are key remaining gaps in neonatal HIV-related care. In this issue of the Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine, experts provide valuable recommendations for addressingthese gaps. The present article highlights a number of areas where evidence is lacking toinform guidelines and programme development for optimal neonatal HIV-related care.

  18. Research gaps in neonatal HIV-related care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Ann Davies

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The South African prevention of mother to child transmission programme has made excellentprogress in reducing vertical HIV transmission, and paediatric antiretroviral therapyprogrammes have demonstrated good outcomes with increasing treatment initiation inyounger children and infants. However, both in South Africa and across sub-Saharan African,lack of boosted peri-partum prophylaxis for high-risk vertical transmission, loss to followup,and failure to initiate HIV-infected infants on antiretroviral therapy (ART before diseaseprogression are key remaining gaps in neonatal HIV-related care. In this issue of the Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine, experts provide valuable recommendations for addressingthese gaps. The present article highlights a number of areas where evidence is lacking toinform guidelines and programme development for optimal neonatal HIV-related care.

  19. HIV-related ocular microangiopathic syndrome and cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, S A; Perro, C; Klauss, V; Naber, D; Kronawitter, U; Bogner, J R; Goebel, F D; Lund, O E; Hippius, H

    1993-03-01

    Ocular microangiopathic syndrome is found frequently in patients with AIDS or severe HIV infection. Symptoms of this microvascular syndrome can include cotton-wool spots, hemorrhages, and Roth's spots. The clinical and functional significance of HIV-related ocular microangiopathic syndrome has not been clarified as yet. The objective of this study was to evaluate a possible association between HIV-related ocular microangiopathic syndrome and cognitive functioning. Thirty-seven patients infected with HIV (24 with AIDS) underwent ophthalmological and neuropsychological examination. HIV-related ocular microangiopathic syndrome was measured by counting the number of cotton-wool spots in both eyes. Neuropsychological examination included five standardized tests, with the first three primarily measuring function of short-term memory; these tests were as follows: the Auditory-Verbal Learning Test, the Benton Test, the Stroop Colour Word Test, the Trail-Making Part B test, and the Vocabulary for Measuring Premorbid Intelligence test. HIV-related ocular microangiopathic syndrome was found in 15 patients with AIDS (62.5%), and in one patient, staged Walter Reed 5. In 10 patients, one eye was affected (mean count of cotton-wool spots 1.5). In six patients, both eyes were affected (mean count of cotton-wool spots 7.0). Univariate correlations between the number of cotton-wool spots in both eyes and test scores were as follows: Auditory-Verbal Learning Test: 0.56 (p < 0.001); Benton Test: 0.51 (p < 0.001); Stroop Colour and Word: 0.50 (p < 0.001); Trail-Making Part B: 0.15 (not significant); Vocabulary for Measuring Premorbid Intelligence: -0.05 (not significant). Multiple correlation between the test scores and the number of cotton-wool spots was 0.70 (p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Physical Abuse is Associated with HIV-related Drug Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Madhavi K.; Anderson, Bradley J; Liebschutz, Jane; Stein, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Those who have experienced abuse may be prone to engaging in risky sexual behavior and risky drug use. The relationship between sexual abuse and risky behavior has been well established in the literature, but the association between physical abuse and risky drug use has been equivocal. We hypothesize that the experience of PTSD symptoms following physical abuse leads to risky drug use. Therefore, we examined the associations among physical abuse history, PTSD symptoms, and HIV-related drug ri...

  1. An ICR study of ion-molecule reactions of PH(n)+ ions. [of importance to interstellar chemistry, using ion cyclotron resonance techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, L. R.; Anicich, V. G.; Huntress, W. T.

    1983-01-01

    The reactions of PH(n)+ ions (n = 0-3) were examined with a number of neutrals using ion-cyclotron-resonance techniques. The reactions examined have significance for the distribution of phosphorus in interstellar molecules. The results indicate that interstellar molecules containing the P-O bond are likely to be more abundant than those containing the P-H bond.

  2. Neurological deficit following stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemp, S.; Allan, R. S.; Patanjali, N.; Barnett, M. H.; Jonker, B. P.

    2016-01-01

    We report a unique case of neurological deficit from late onset multiple sclerosis (MS), in a 65-year-old woman, after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). At 3.5months post-SRS for TN, the patient developed ataxia and left leg paraesthesiae and brain MRI showed altered

  3. Update on the challenges of treating trigeminal neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obermann M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mark Obermann Department of Neurology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany Abstract: Despite the multitude of treatment options currently available for trigeminal neuralgia, its management remains challenging in a considerable number of patients. The response to any particular treatment can be quite variable interindividually, and personalized treatment options are both resource-consuming and time-consuming. Anticonvulsant drugs, muscle relaxants, and neuroleptic agents are the preferred medical treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. Large placebo-controlled clinical trials are scarce, and no specific established substance has been developed for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Promising new treatment options currently in clinical evaluation are botulinum neurotoxin type A injections and CNV1014802, a novel sodium channel blocker that selectively blocks the Nav1.7 sodium channel. Patients who do not respond to medical therapy may be eligible for more invasive treatment options, such as percutaneous Gasserian ganglion techniques, gamma knife surgery, and microvascular decompression. Keywords: trigeminal neuralgia, treatment, current, future, options, orphan drugs 

  4. Sciatic neuralgia associated with a perineural (Tarlov) cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emary, Peter C; Taylor, John A

    2016-09-01

    Perineural (Tarlov) cysts are rare and are usually asymptomatic and an incidental finding on routine spinal imaging. Presented here is a case of sciatic neuralgia in a 56-year-old patient whose clinical symptoms correlated with a lower lumbar perineural cyst.

  5. Sciatic neuralgia associated with a perineural (Tarlov) cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Emary, Peter C.; Taylor, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Perineural (Tarlov) cysts are rare and are usually asymptomatic and an incidental finding on routine spinal imaging. Presented here is a case of sciatic neuralgia in a 56-year-old patient whose clinical symptoms correlated with a lower lumbar perineural cyst.

  6. Comparative efficacy of phenytoin, steroid and carbamazepine in herpes zoster and post herpetic neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal S

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred patients of different ages were sequentially assigned three therapy groups (100 in each group viz. phenytoin, steroid (prednisolone and carbamazepine. Effect of these drugs on herpes zoster neuralgia and in prevention of post herpetic neuralgia was studied. Phenytoin was found to be superior to both steroid and carbamazepine in relieving the pain of herpes zoster and in reducing the incidence of post herpetic neuralgia. Only 16.1% of the patients in phenytoin treated group developed post herpetic neuralgia lasting for 2-4 weeks while 22.7% and 29.6% of the steroid and carbamazepine treated patients respectively developed post herpetic neuralgia and that too lasting for longer duration. No patient under 40 years developed post herpetic neuralgia.

  7. Diabetes mellitus in classical trigeminal neuralgia: A predisposing factor for its development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenq; Zhang, Ping; Long, Li; He, Huiy; Zhang, Jianch; Sun, Shup

    2016-12-01

    A higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus in classical trigeminal neuralgia patients was observed in few pilot surveys. The study was aimed to investigate whether diabetes mellitus is a predisposing factor for developing trigeminal neuralgia. Patients with classical trigeminal neuralgia were enrolled in the case study group. The control group consisted of the same number of age- and gender-matched, randomly sampled subjects without trigeminal neuralgia. Characteristics of classical trigeminal neuralgia cases were analyzed. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the cases and controls was calculated using the Chi-square test. The onset age ranged from 31 to 93 in 256 patients affected classical trigeminal neuralgia (162 females; 94 males) with a peak age between the fifth and seventh decade; right-side involvement and mandibular branch affliction occurred at a greater frequency. 21.9% patients in the study group was affected by diabetes mellitus compared to 12.9% of controls. The increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the trigeminal neuralgia group was statistically significant (P=0.01). Diabetes is a risk factor to the development of classical trigeminal neuralgia, and nerve damage duing to hyperglycemia might be the linkage to the two diseases. More works should be done to consolidate the correlation and to clarify the underlying mechanism for the positive association which would provide new insight into the pathogenesis of trigeminal neuralgia and may open new therapeutic perspectives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. Vessel-nerve antagonism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, J D

    2002-01-01

    In the last 30 years, the concept of microvascular compression has achieved widespread acceptance. Still, some remain unconvinced. A review of our 182 operations, 104 trigeminal neuralgia and 78 hemifacial spasms, shows that microvascular decompression of the trigeminal and facial nerves is effective in alleviating trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm, because it removes the actual cause of the disorder rather than simply causing local injury to the nerve. Our neurophysiological investigations, the so-called abnormal muscle response, performed intraoperatively in twenty patients with hemifacial spasm, confirm that compression of the facial nerve at the root exit zone, by a blood vessel, causes pathological and clinical responses. Microvascular decompression is an extremely safe and effective treatment, even for the older patients without severe disabilities.

  9. Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J Bennett

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The history behind the current understanding of the varicella-zoster virus and its relationship to the pain conditions caused by shingles and postherpetic neuralgia are reviewed. The framework for the current conceptualization is Hope-Simpson’s latency hypothesis. Data from recent work in virology, neuroanatomy and epidemiology are reviewed, as is work using varicella-zoster virus-infected animals. The recent data largely confirm Hope-Simpson’s hypothesis and extend it significantly.

  10. Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: Past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Gary J.; Watson, C Peter N

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The history behind the current understanding of the varicella-zoster virus and its relationship to the pain conditions caused by shingles and postherpetic neuralgia are reviewed. The framework for the current conceptualization is Hope-Simpson’s latency hypothesis. Data from recent work in virology, neuroanatomy and epidemiology are reviewed, as is work using varicella-zoster virus-infected animals. The recent data largely confirm Hope-Simpson’s hypothesis and extend it significant...

  11. Some experience of trigeminal neuralgia treatment by glycerol rhizolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Семенов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study was to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of trigeminal neuralgia treatment by Hakanson S. glycerol rhizolysis method. Methods. The results of glycerol rhizolysis treatment were retrospectively evaluated in 96 patients with trigeminal neuralgia, who had been operated at Neurosurgical Department of Irkutsk City Hospital over a period from 2009 to 2016. To study the prospective follow-up, 53 patients operated during 2009 – 2014 were surveyed over the phone. The comparison of our long-term results and the results of other authors from literature sources was then performed.Results. The median of follow-up period was 43 months. The pain recurrence (III-V rate of Barrow Neurological Institute score for trigeminal neuralgia was observed in 30.2 % of patients, with the mean rate of the visual analogue scale amounting to 1.96. Complications included aseptic meningitis in 3.1 % cases, intracerebral hematoma – 1.04 %, hyperesthesia in appropriate trigeminal region – 3.8%, labial herpes – 40.7 %, temporary anesthesia in appropriate trigeminal region – 30.2%, temporary decrease of corneal reflex sensitivity – 41.5 %. There was no postoperative mortality.Conclusion. Glycerol rhizolysis is an effective method of trigeminal neuralgia treatment and its results are comparable with those of other surgical methods. Strict adherence to all surgical steps and contrast cistenography is the key to success of intervention. The method is minimally invasive, applicable for anesthesia and particularly promising for patients over 70 years old.Received 25 May 2016. Accepted 14 September 2016.Funding: The study had no sponsorship. Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  12. Giant Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Presenting as Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonet, Cristina; Arrese, Ignacio; Sarabia, Rosario

    2016-09-01

    We report an extremely rare case of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) caused by a giant posterior communicating artery aneurysm. We describe the case of a 73-year-old man who suffered disabling TN, which was deeply exacerbated when he laid down. Computed tomography angiography and digital angiography revealed an unruptured giant posterior left communicating artery aneurysm projecting to the posterior fossa and contacting the trigeminal root. The size and projection of the aneurysm seemed responsible for both the neuralgia itself and its peculiar clinical characteristic of exacerbation when the patient laid down. The aneurysm was surgically clipped, then opened and emptied to decompress the trigeminal root. The patient reported an immediate complete remission of the neuralgia. The finding of TN secondary to aneurysms is rare but even more in the case of a posterior communicating aneurysm. The clinical clue that should alert physicians about the presence of an aneurysm as the cause of TN is exacerbation of pain by adopting a supine position. Due to the high risk of rupture associated with giant and symptomatic aneurysms, we believe that treatment should be aggressive in this case, not only to solve the symptomatic TN but also to avoid the risk of aneurysm rupture in the future. The treatment selection between surgical clipping or endovascular coiling with or without stenting, depends on patient's clinical condition and the size and shape of the aneurysm. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Presidential Elections and HIV-Related National Policies and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgrave, David R; Bonacci, Robert A; Valdiserri, Ronald O

    2017-03-01

    The November 2016 general election and subsequent voting of the Electoral College resulted in the selection of Donald Trump as President of the United States. The incoming Administration ran a campaign that indicated a desire for substantial change in health policy, including the repeal of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). President Trump has said very little directly about HIV programs and policies, but some campaign positions (such as the repeal of the ACA) would clearly and substantially impact the lives of persons living with HIV. In this editorial, we highlight important HIV-related goals to which we must recommit ourselves, and we underscore several key points about evidence-based advocacy that are important to revisit at any time (but most especially when there is a change in Administration).

  14. Understanding HIV-related stigma among Indonesian nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluyo, Agung; Culbert, Gabriel J.; Levy, Judith; Norr, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Evidence indicates widespread stigmatization of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in Indonesia. Such attitudes among health care workers could impede the country’s policies for effective diagnosis and medical treatment of PLWH. Nonetheless, research to guide interventions to reduce stigma in health care settings is lacking. Also, the contributions of workplace, religion, and HIV knowledge to nurses’ HIV-related stigma are poorly understood. Our cross-sectional study aimed to describe factors associated with nurses’ stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWH. Four hundred nurses recruited from 4 hospitals in Jakarta, Indonesia, were surveyed using the Nurse AIDS Attitude Scale (NAAS) to measure stigma. Stigmatizing attitudes were significantly predicted by education, HIV training, perceived workplace stigma, religiosity, Islamic religious identification, and affiliation with the Islamic hospital. HIV knowledge was not a significant predictor of stigmatizing attitudes. Organization changes fostering workplace diversity are likely to substantially reduce stigmatizing attitudes in nurses. PMID:24759060

  15. Reactivation of trigeminal neuralgia following distraction osteogenesis in an 8-year-old child: Report of a unique case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Trigeminal neuralgia is extremely rare in children. No concrete treatment protocols seem to be available for management of this condition in the pediatric population. Although trigeminal neuralgia may achieve remission, the possibility of reactivation of a hitherto quiescent condition cannot be ruled out. We present a case of pediatric trigeminal neuralgia following distraction osteogenesis of the mandible.

  16. Reactivation of trigeminal neuralgia following distraction osteogenesis in an 8-year-old child: report of a unique case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, M; Parameshwaran, Anantanarayanan A; Jayakumar, N; Raghaviah, A M

    2007-03-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is extremely rare in children. No concrete treatment protocols seem to be available for management of this condition in the pediatric population. Although trigeminal neuralgia may achieve remission, the possibility of reactivation of a hitherto quiescent condition cannot be ruled out. We present a case of pediatric trigeminal neuralgia following distraction osteogenesis of the mandible.

  17. Nervus Intermedius Neuralgia Treated with Microvascular Decompression: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takuro; Shima, Ayako; Hirai, Hisao; Suzuki, Fumio; Matsuda, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Nervus intermedius neuralgia is one of the craniofacial neuralgias, which is extremely rare compared with trigeminal or glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Despite its unique symptom, the aetiology remains unclear. We present a case of a surgically treated 36-year-old woman who suffered from paroxysmal stabbing deep-ear pain for over 10 years. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a vascular loop compressing the root entry zone of the vestibulocochlear nerve between the seventh and eighth cranial nerves, suggesting nervus intermedius neuralgia as a cause of her pain. Surgical exploration revealed that the nervus intermedius was displaced upward by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Transposition of the artery from the brainstem relieved the patient’s neurological symptom immediately after the surgery, supporting the hypothesis that nervus intermedius neuralgia could be caused by neurovascular compression. PMID:28840083

  18. Understanding HIV-Related Stigma and Discrimination in a "Blameless" Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaobin; Sullivan, Sheena G.; Xu, Jie; Wu, Zunyou

    2006-01-01

    HIV-related stigma and discrimination are major barriers to the successful control of HIV. Stigma is associated with the disease as well as the behaviors that lead to infection. A qualitative study was conducted to identify the reasons, sources, and types of HIV-related stigma prevalent in rural China. Eighty in-depth interviews were conducted…

  19. Screening for HIV-related PTSD: Sensitivity and specificity of the 17 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    number of HIV infections in the world.1 The overall prevalence of HIV in South Africa is estimated at 10.8%,. Screening for HIV-related PTSD: Sensitivity and specificity of the. 17-item Posttraumatic Stress. Diagnostic Scale (PDS) in identifying HIV-related PTSD among a South African sample. L Martin, D Fincham, A Kagee.

  20. Neuroimmune-Glia Interactions in the Sensory Ganglia Account for the Development of Acute Herpetic Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline R; Lopes, Alexandre H; Talbot, Jhimmy; Cecilio, Nerry T; Rossato, Mateus F; Silva, Rangel L; Souza, Guilherme R; Silva, Cassia R; Lucas, Guilherme; Fonseca, Benedito A; Arruda, Eurico; Alves-Filho, Jose C; Cunha, Fernando Q; Cunha, Thiago M

    2017-07-05

    Herpetic neuralgia is the most important symptom of herpes zoster disease, which is caused by Varicella zoster Nevertheless, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in herpetic neuralgia are not totally elucidated. Here, we examined the neuroimmune interactions at the sensory ganglia that account for the genesis of herpetic neuralgia using a murine model of Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 (HSV-1) infection. The cutaneous HSV-1 infection of mice results in the development of a zosteriform-like skin lesion followed by a time-dependent increase in pain-like responses (mechanical allodynia). Leukocytes composed mainly of macrophages and neutrophils infiltrate infected DRGs and account for the development of herpetic neuralgia. Infiltrating leukocytes are responsible for driving the production of TNF, which in turn mediates the development of herpetic neuralgia through downregulation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 in satellite glial cells. These results revealed that neuroimmune-glia interactions at the sensory ganglia play a critical role in the genesis of herpetic neuralgia. In conclusion, the present study elucidates novel mechanisms involved in the genesis of acute herpetic pain and open new avenues for its control.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Acute herpetic neuralgia is the most important symptom of herpes zoster disease and it is very difficult to treat. Using a model of peripheral infection of mice with HSV-1, we have characterized for the first time the neuroimmune-glia interactions in the sensory ganglia that account for the development of acute herpetic neuralgia. Among these mechanisms, leukocytes composed mainly of macrophages and neutrophils infiltrate infected sensory ganglia and are responsible for driving the production of TNF. TNF, via TNFR1, mediates herpetic neuralgia development through downregulation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 in satellite glial cells. This study elucidates novel mechanisms involved in the genesis of acute

  1. HIV-related travel restrictions: trends and country characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Chang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasingly, HIV-seropositive individuals cross international borders. HIV-related restrictions on entry, stay, and residence imposed by countries have important consequences for this mobile population. Our aim was to describe the geographical distribution of countries with travel restrictions and to examine the trends and characteristics of countries with such restrictions. Methods: In 2011, data presented to UNAIDS were used to establish a list of countries with and without HIV restrictions on entry, stay, and residence and to describe their geographical distribution. The following indicators were investigated to describe the country characteristics: population at mid-year, international migrants as a percentage of the population, Human Development Index, estimated HIV prevalence (age: 15–49, presence of a policy prohibiting HIV screening for general employment purposes, government and civil society responses to having non-discrimination laws/regulations which specify migrants/mobile populations, government and civil society responses to having laws/regulations/policies that present obstacles to effective HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support for migrants/mobile populations, Corruption Perception Index, and gross national income per capita. Results: HIV-related restrictions exist in 45 out of 193 WHO countries (23% in all regions of the world. We found that the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific Regions have the highest proportions of countries with these restrictions. Our analyses showed that countries that have opted for restrictions have the following characteristics: smaller populations, higher proportions of migrants in the population, lower HIV prevalence rates, and lack of legislation protecting people living with HIV from screening for employment purposes, compared with countries without restrictions. Conclusion: Countries with a high proportion of international migrants tend to have travel restrictions

  2. HIV-related travel restrictions: trends and country characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Felicia; Prytherch, Helen; Nesbitt, Robin C; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2013-06-03

    Increasingly, HIV-seropositive individuals cross international borders. HIV-related restrictions on entry, stay, and residence imposed by countries have important consequences for this mobile population. Our aim was to describe the geographical distribution of countries with travel restrictions and to examine the trends and characteristics of countries with such restrictions. In 2011, data presented to UNAIDS were used to establish a list of countries with and without HIV restrictions on entry, stay, and residence and to describe their geographical distribution. The following indicators were investigated to describe the country characteristics: population at mid-year, international migrants as a percentage of the population, Human Development Index, estimated HIV prevalence (age: 15-49), presence of a policy prohibiting HIV screening for general employment purposes, government and civil society responses to having non-discrimination laws/regulations which specify migrants/mobile populations, government and civil society responses to having laws/regulations/policies that present obstacles to effective HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support for migrants/mobile populations, Corruption Perception Index, and gross national income per capita. HIV-related restrictions exist in 45 out of 193 WHO countries (23%) in all regions of the world. We found that the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific Regions have the highest proportions of countries with these restrictions. Our analyses showed that countries that have opted for restrictions have the following characteristics: smaller populations, higher proportions of migrants in the population, lower HIV prevalence rates, and lack of legislation protecting people living with HIV from screening for employment purposes, compared with countries without restrictions. Countries with a high proportion of international migrants tend to have travel restrictions - a finding that is relevant to migrant populations and travel

  3. Neuralgia do trigêmeo bilateral: relato de caso Neuralgia del trigémino bilateral: relato de caso Bilateral trigeminal neuralgia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Marcio Barros de Oliveira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A neuralgia do nervo trigêmeo é uma condição intensamente dolorosa, caracterizada por surtos de dor lancinante e súbita, tipo choque, com duração de poucos segundos a dois minutos e geralmente unilateral. Sua incidência anual é de cerca de 4,3 em 100.000 na população geral, tendo manifestação bilateral em apenas 3% desses casos. O objetivo deste artigo foi descrever um caso raro de neuralgia do trigêmeo primário bilateral. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente de 61 anos, maranhense, casada, do lar, com antecedente de hipertensão arterial e há seis anos com queixa de dor intensa em V2-V3 à esquerda, com duração de 5 a 10 segundos, em região lateral do nariz e mandibular, com piora ao falar, mastigar e com diminuição da temperatura. Já havia utilizado clorpromazina (3 mg a cada oito horas e carbamazepina (200 mg a cada oito horas durante seis meses sem alívio da dor. Ao exame físico apresentava alodinia térmica e mecânica em regiões de V2-V3. Estava em uso de gabapentina (1.200 mg ao dia com alívio parcial da dor. Foi então aumentada a gabapentina para 1500 mg ao dia e introduzida amitriptilina 12,5 mg à noite. Evoluiu com dor leve e esporádica com diminuição da intensidade da dor ao longo de 10 meses de tratamento, sendo reduzida progressivamente a gabapentina para 600 mg ao dia e mantida a amitriptilina 12,5 mg ao dia. Após um ano, começou a apresentar dor de característica semelhante em região mandibular à direita, tendo melhorado com aumento de gabapentina para 900 mg ao dia. Não apresentava exames alterados de tomografia ou ressonância magnética de encéfalo. CONCLUSÕES: A carbamazepina é o fármaco de primeira escolha para tratamento de neuralgia trigeminal, porém a gabapentina tem sido cada vez mais utilizada como primeira medida farmacológica ou em casos refratários à terapia convencional.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La neuralgia del nervio trigémino es una condici

  4. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Type 1 versus Type 2 Trigeminal Neuralgias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Jen; Paisan, Gabriella; Buell, Thomas J; Knapp, Kristen; Ding, Dale; Xu, Zhiyuan; Raper, Daniel M; Taylor, Davis G; Dallapiazza, Robert F; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Sheehan, Jason P

    2017-12-01

    It remains unclear whether stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) offers the same benefit for patients with type 2 trigeminal neuralgia (TN2) as for those with type 1 trigeminal neuralgia (TN1). The objective of this study is to compare the outcomes of patients with TN1 and TN2 after SRS. SRS outcomes of patients with trigeminal neuralgia treated at a single center from 1994 to 2016 were analyzed. Patients with TN1 were matched to those with TN2 in a 1:1 ratio based on sex, age, pretreatment Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain score, previous treatment, previous facial numbness, and maximum dose. The primary outcome was defined as a BNI pain score of ≤3. The matched TN1 and TN2 cohorts each comprised 56 patients. There were no differences in BNI pain scores at last follow-up, new/worse facial numbness, or pain recurrence, or time to recurrence. Time to initial pain relief after SRS was longer for patients with TN2 (5.4 vs. 4.4 months; P = 0.0016). Actuarial initial pain relief rates were 75%, 90%, and 90% for TN1 and 47%, 77%, and 87% for TN2 at 5, 10, and 15 months, respectively. Actuarial pain relief maintenance rates were 72%, 67%, and 52% for TN1 and 53%, 32%, and 32% for TN2 at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. SRS offers similar rates of initial pain relief, pain score distribution, pain recurrence, and time to pain recurrence between patients with TN1 and TN2. The time to initial pain relief was longer for patients with TN2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevention strategies for herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Myron J.; Gershon, Anne A.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Brisson, Marc; Stanberry, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Impairment of varicella zoster virus (VZV)-specific cell-mediated immunity, including impairment due to immunosenescence, is associated with an increased risk of developing herpes zoster (HZ), whereas levels of anti-VZV antibodies do not correlate with HZ risk. This crucial role of VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity suggests that boosting these responses by vaccination will be an effective strategy for reducing the burden of HZ. Other strategies focus on preventing the major complication of HZ – post-herpetic neuralgia. These strategies include pre-emptive treatment with drugs such as tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants and analgesics. PMID:20510262

  6. Combined hyperactive dysfunction syndrome of the cranial nerves: trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia: 11-year experience and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobata, H; Kondo, A; Iwasaki, K; Nishioka, T

    1998-12-01

    A pathological condition caused by vascular compression at the root entry/exit zone of the cranial nerves is designated hyperactive dysfunction syndrome (HDS) of the cranial nerves. Patients with HDS who exhibited a combination of trigeminal neuralgia (TN), hemifacial spasm (HFS), and/or glossopharyngeal neuralgia were retrospectively reviewed, to study the incidence, etiological factors, and demographic characteristics for this combined HDS group. Medical and surgical records were analyzed for 41 patients with combined HDS, of 1472 consecutive patients with HDS who were treated between 1984 and 1994. The combined HDS group accounted for 2.8% of all patients with HDS; 19 patients (1.3%) exhibited bilateral symptoms, i.e., 14 cases of TN, 3 of combined TN and HFS, and 2 of HFS. Twenty-two patients (1.5%) exhibited ipsilateral symptoms, i.e., 19 cases of TN and HFS and 3 of TN and glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Excluding three patients whose symptoms were associated with brain tumors or arteriovenous malformations, this patient group was older (63.2 versus 55.3 yr, P = 0.0009) and exhibited an increased percentage of associated hypertension (47.4 versus 17.5%, P = 0.000008), with a female predominance (86.8 versus 71.3%, P = 0.07), compared with the single HDS group. Thirty-six of these patients underwent a total of 61 microvascular decompression procedures, with favorable outcomes. The offending vessels were similar to those in single HDS, which were usually conventional and multiple. The associated etiological factors for vascular compression syndromes were more evident in the combined HDS group than in the single HDS group. Progressive arteriosclerotic vasculoarchitectural changes of the vertebrobasilar system, accelerated by aging and hypertension, bring about the development of combined HDS, with a remarkable female predominance.

  7. Brain Abscess after Percutaneous Therapy for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Acqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of brain abscess following the percutaneous treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. This procedure envisages the access with a needle into the middle cranial fossa through the oral cavity. Thus, in this case, the bacterial infection can be more likely ascribed to the possible contamination of the needle inside the oral cavity rather than to other frequent and more controllable causes of infection like an imperfect sterilization of surgical instruments or an inadequate antiseptic preparation of both operator’s hands and patient’s skin. The subsequent brain abscess was treated with antibiotic therapy (Vancomycin 2 gr a day and Meropenem 8 g a day for 22 days before the surgical procedure and 30 days after, until complete normalization of laboratory parameters, clinical parameters, and neurological symptoms and surgical drainage, although the culture of the abscess capsule and the purulent material resulted sterile. In conclusion, the percutaneous therapy for trigeminal neuralgia can be objectively related to risks, even if performed by expert hands. Therefore, it is important that the patient should be advised regarding risks/benefits and/or septic complications of such procedures, even if they occur very seldom. An association of surgery and antibiotic therapy results as effective treatment for this pathologic condition.

  8. Treatment of recurrent trigeminal neuralgia due to Teflon granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelle, Hans-Holger; Brandis, Almuth; Tschan, Christoph A; Krauss, Joachim K

    2010-08-01

    Recurrent trigeminal neuralgia after microvascular decompression (MVD) may be due to insufficient decompression, dislocation of the implant to pad the neurovascular contact, or the development of granuloma. Here, we report on our experience with Teflon granuloma including its treatment and histopathological examination. In a series of 200 patients with trigeminal neuralgia MVD was performed with Teflon felt according to Jannetta's technique. In three patients with recurrent facial pain Teflon granuloma was found to be the cause for recurrence. In each instance, the granuloma was removed for histopathological examination. Mean age at the first procedure was 62.3 years and at the second procedure 66.3 years. Recurrence of pain occurred between 1 and 8.5 years after the first procedure. MRI scans demonstrated local gadolineum enhancement in the cerebellopontine angle, and CT scans showed local calcification. Intraoperatively dense fibrous tissue was found at the site of the Teflon granuloma. Histopathological examination revealed foreign body granuloma with multinuclear giant cells, collagen-rich hyalinized scar tissue, focal hemosiderin depositions, and microcalcifications. The Teflon granuloma was completely removed, and a new Teflon felt was used for re-decompression. Patients were free of pain after the second procedure at a mean of 40.3 months of follow-up. Teflon granuloma is a rare cause for recurrent facial pain after MVD. Small bleeding into the Teflon felt at surgery might trigger its development. A feasible treatment option is surgical re-exploration, nerve preserving removal of the granuloma, and repeat MVD.

  9. Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: role of radiofrequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessy R Emril

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dessy R Emril1 Kok-Yuen Ho21Neurology Department, Syiah Kuala University/Dr Zainoel Abidin Hospital, Banda Aceh, Indonesia; 2Pain Management Centre, Raffles Hospital, SingaporeAbstract: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN is a neuropathic pain condition affecting the face. It has a significant impact on the quality of life and physical function of patients. Evidence suggests that the likely etiology is vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve leading to focal demyelination and aberrant neural discharge. Secondary causes such as multiple sclerosis or brain tumors can also produce symptomatic TN. Treatment must be individualized to each patient. Carbamazepine remains the drug of choice in the first-line treatment of TN. Minimally invasive interventional pain therapies and surgery are possible options when drug therapy fails. Younger patients may benefit from microvascular decompression. Elderly patients with poor surgical risk may be more suitable for percutaneous trigeminal nerve rhizolysis. The technique of radiofrequency rhizolysis of the trigeminal nerve is described in detail in this review.Keywords: interventional treatment, minimally invasive, pain management, radiofrequency rhizolysis, trigeminal neuralgia 

  10. Genitofemoral neuralgia: adding to the burden of chronic vulvar pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verstraelen H

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hans Verstraelen,1 Eline De Zutter,1 Martine De Muynck2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vulvovaginal Disease Clinic, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium Abstract: The vulva is a particularly common locus of chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics that occurs in women of any age, though most women with neuropathic type chronic vulvar pain will remain undiagnosed even following multiple physician visits. Here, we report on an exemplary case of a middle-aged woman who was referred to the Vulvovaginal Disease Clinic with debilitating vulvar burning and itching over the right labium majus that had been persisting for 2 years and was considered intractable. Careful history taking and clinical examination, followed by electrophysiological assessment through somatosensory evoked potentials was consistent with genitofemoral neuralgia, for which no obvious cause could be identified. Adequate pain relief was obtained with a serotonin–noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor and topical gabapentin cream. We briefly discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of genitofemoral neuralgia and provide a series of clues to guide clinicians in obtaining a presumptive diagnosis of specific neuropathic pain syndromes that may underlie chronic vulvar pain. We further aim to draw attention to the tremendous burden of chronic, unrecognized vulvar pain. Keywords: vulvar pain, genitofemoral nerve, neuropathic pain, vulvodynia, vulvar disease

  11. An Intersectional Perspective on Access to HIV-Related Healthcare for Transgender Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Transgender women experience decreased access to HIV-related healthcare relative to cisgender people, in part due to pervasive transphobia in healthcare. This perspective describes intersectionality as a salient theoretical approach to understanding this disparity, moving beyond transphobia to explore how intersecting systems of oppression, including cisnormativity, sexism/transmisogyny, classism, racism, and HIV-related, gender nonconformity, substance use, and sex work stigma influence HIV-related healthcare access for transgender women living with HIV. This perspective concludes with a discussion of how intersectionality-informed studies can be enhanced through studying underexplored intersections and bringing attention to women's resiliency and empowerment.

  12. Contralateral trigeminal neuralgia in a rapidly growing vestibular schwannoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngbeom; Kim, Dong Gyu

    2018-01-01

    We present a rare case of vestibular schwannoma (VS) with contralateral trigeminal neuralgia. A 59 year-old woman presented with right-sided trigeminal neuralgia and a small VS in the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA) that was found via magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was administered medication; however, her symptoms gradually aggravated, and the size of the tumor increased. Two years after the initial diagnosis, the patient underwent surgical resection. After surgical resection, the patient's facial pain was improved. The trigeminal neuralgia appeared to be related to brainstem displacement caused by the contralateral VS. For VS with contralateral trigeminal neuralgia, surgical resection of the tumor should be considered as a possible treatment strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Trigeminal neuralgia and neuropathy in large sporadic vestibular schwannomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Brian A; Carlson, Matthew L; O'Byrne, Megan M; Van Gompel, Jamie J; Driscoll, Colin L W; Link, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, presentation, and treatment outcomes of trigeminal nerve-mediated symptoms secondary to large vestibular schwannomas (VSs) with trigeminal nerve contact. Specifically, the symptomatic results of pain, paresthesias, and numbness after microsurgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) were examined. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective review of a database for concomitant diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) or trigeminal neuropathy and VS between 1994 and 2014 at a tertiary academic center. All patients with VS with TN or neuropathy were included, with the exception of those patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 and patients who elected observation. Patient demographic data, symptom evolution, and treatment outcomes were collected. Population data were summarized, and outcome comparisons between microsurgery and SRS were analyzed at last follow-up. RESULTS Sixty (2.2%) of 2771 total patients who had large VSs and either TN or neuropathy symptoms met inclusion criteria. The average age of trigeminal symptom onset was 53.6 years (range 24-79 years), the average age at VS diagnosis was 54.4 years (range 25-79 years), and the average follow-up for the microsurgery and SRS groups was 30 and 59 months, respectively (range 3-132 months). Of these patients, 50 (83%) had facial numbness, 16 (27%) had TN pain, and 13 (22%) had paresthesias (i.e., burning or tingling). Subsequently, 50 (83%) patients underwent resection and 10 (17%) patients received SRS. Treatment of VS with SRS did not improve trigeminal symptoms in any patient. This included 2 subjects with unimproved facial numbness and 4 patients with worsened numbness. Similarly, SRS worsened TN pain and paresthesias in 5 patients and failed to improve pain in 2 additional patients. The Barrow Neurological Institute neuralgia and hypesthesia scale scores were significantly worse for patients undergoing SRS compared with microsurgery

  14. Stimulating high impact HIV-related cardiovascular research: recommendations from a multidisciplinary NHLBI Working Group on HIV-related heart, lung, and blood disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Monica R; Cook, Nakela; Wong, Renee; Hsue, Priscilla; Ridker, Paul; Currier, Judith; Shurin, Susan

    2015-02-24

    The clinical challenges confronting patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have shifted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses to chronic diseases, such as coronary artery disease, chronic lung disease, and chronic anemia. With the growing burden of HIV-related heart, lung, and blood (HLB) disease, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recognizes it must stimulate and support HIV-related HLB research. Because HIV offers a natural, accelerated model of common pathological processes, such as inflammation, HIV-related HLB research may yield important breakthroughs for all patients with HLB disease. This paper summarizes the cardiovascular recommendations of an NHLBI Working Group, Advancing HIV/AIDS Research in Heart, Lung, and Blood Diseases, charged with identifying scientific priorities in HIV-related HLB disease and developing recommendations to promote multidisciplinary collaboration among HIV and HLB investigators. The working group included multidisciplinary sessions, as well as HLB breakout sessions for discussion of disease-specific issues, with common themes about scientific priorities and strategies to stimulate HLB research emerging in all 3 groups. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Duration of remission phase of 36 Korean patients with glossopharyngeal neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myong-Soo; Kim, Sung-Min; Kim, Chan; Kim, Young-Ki

    2013-01-01

    Background Glossopharyngeal neuralgia has the characteristic of a long remission phase between the pain attack phases. Although the concept of remission is very important for the treatment of patients with glossopharyngeal neuralgia, due to the rarity of the disease, clear statistical studies on the remission phase for glossopharyngeal neuralgia are almost non-existent. Methods Previous chart reviews and phone interviews were conducted on a total of 38 patients. Among these study subjects, two patients were excluded because of their known secondary glossopharyngeal neuralgia from their brain tumors. Hence, the average duration of remission was investigated on 36 patients with idiopathic glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Results For the 27 patients who experienced their first remission, the average duration of the remission was 3.1 years. Among them, the average duration of the second remission of the 17 patients was 2.5 years, and for 4 patients who experienced a third remission, the average duration of the remission phase was 1.9 years. Conclusions The difference in the mean duration of the remission phase of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd are not statistically significant, and the occurrence rate of the left or right side and of the gender, male or female, are also statistically insignificant. However, it is possible to infer that a patient might face a pain attack phase when his or her remission phase has lapsed for about three years. This prediction may be applied when developing treatment plans for patients with glossopharyngeal neuralgia. PMID:23646244

  16. Are internet sites providing evidence-based information for patients suffering with Trigeminal Neuralgia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriades, Andreas K; Alg, Varinder Singh; Hardwidge, Carl

    2014-05-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia has a variety of treatments with variable efficacy. Sufferers present to a spectrum of disciplines. While traditional delivery of medical information has been by oral/printed communication, up to 50-80% patients access the internet for information. Confusion, therefore, may arise when seeking treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. We evaluated the quality of information on the internet for trigeminal neuralgia using the DISCERN© instrument. Only 54% websites had clear objectives; 42% delivered on these. A total of 71% provided relevant information on trigeminal neuralgia, 54% being biased/unbalanced; 71% not providing clear sources of information. No website detailed the side-effect profile of treatments; 79% did not inform patients of the consequences/natural history if no treatment was undertaken; it was unclear if patients could anticipate symptoms settling or when treatment would be indicated. Internet information on trigeminal neuralgia is of variable quality; 83% of sites assessed were of low-to-moderate quality, 29% having 'serious shortcomings.' Only two sites scored highly, only one being in the top 10 search results. Websites on trigeminal neuralgia need to appreciate areas highlighted in the DISCERN© instrument, in order to provide balanced, reliable, evidence-based information. To advise patients who may be misguided from such sources, neurosurgeons should be aware of the quality of information on the internet.

  17. Magnetic resonance neurography for the identification of pudendal neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia P. Cejas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pudendal nerve entrapment is an entity understudied by diagnosis imaging. Various causes are recognized in relation to difficult labors, rectal, perineal, urological and gynecological surgery, pelvic trauma fracture, bones tumors and compression by tumors or pelvic pseudotumors. Pudendal neuropathy should be clinically suspected, and confirmed by different methods such as electrofisiological testing: evoked potentials, terminal motor latency test and electromyogram, neuronal block and magnetic resonance imaging. The radiologist should be acquainted with the complex anatomy of the pelvic floor, particularly on the path of pudendal nerve studied by magnetic resonance imaging. High resolution magnetic resonance neurography should be used as a complementary diagnostic study along with clinical and electrophysiological examinations in patients with suspected pudendal nerve neuralgia.

  18. Trigeminal neuralgia due to Dandy-Walker syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhao; Chen, Minjie; Zhang, Weijie

    2013-07-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a common pain in the orofacial region. Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a congenital malformation of the cerebellar and the fourth ventricle foramina atresia. Dandy-Walker syndrome is rarely found in patients with TN. This article presents a 36-year-old man with the symptoms of typical TN. His physical examination was entirely normal. An enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was taken. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the bilateral lateral ventricle, the fourth and third ventricle significantly enlarged with severe obstructive hydrocephalus, a huge posterior fossa cyst connected with the fourth ventricle, and hypoplastic vermis. The pain was controlled by Tegretol. The reported case suggests that DWS is an unusual cause of TN.

  19. Trigeminal neuralgia – a coherent cross-specialty management program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Tone; Maarbjerg, Stine; Rochat, Per Bjørnstad

    2015-01-01

    of TN. METHODS: Based on collaboration between neurologists, neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons a standardized program for TN was implemented in May 2012 at the Danish Headache Center (DHC). First out-patient visit and subsequent 3.0 Tesla MRI scan was booked in an accelerated manner. The MRI scan......BACKGROUND: Optimal management of patients with classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) requires specific treatment programs and close collaboration between medical, radiological and surgical specialties. Organization of such treatment programs has never been described before. With this paper we aim...... to describe the implementation and feasibility of an accelerated cross-speciality management program, to describe the collaboration between the involved specialties and to report the patient flow during the first 2 years after implementation. Finally, we aim to stimulate discussions about optimal management...

  20. Knowledge of HIV-related disabilities and challenges in accessing care: Qualitative research from Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Morgon Banks

    Full Text Available While the rapid expansion in antiretroviral therapy access in low and middle income countries has resulted in dramatic declines in mortality rates, many people living with HIV face new or worsening experiences of disability. As nearly 1 in 20 adults are living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa-many of whom are likely to develop disabling sequelae from long-term infection, co-morbidities and side effects of their treatment-understanding the availability and accessibility of services to address HIV-related disabilities is of vital importance. The aim of this study thus is to explore knowledge of HIV-related disabilities amongst stakeholders working in the fields of HIV and disability and factors impacting uptake and provision of interventions for preventing, treating or managing HIV-related disabilities.In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten stakeholders based in Harare, Zimbabwe, who were working in the fields of either disability or HIV. Stakeholders were identified through a priori stakeholder analysis. Thematic Analysis, complemented by constant comparison as described in Grounded Theory, was used to analyse findings.All key informants reported some level of knowledge of HIV-related disability, mostly from observations made in their line of work. However, they reported no interventions or policies were in place specifically to address HIV-related disability. While referrals between HIV and rehabilitation providers were not uncommon, no formal mechanisms had been established for collaborating on prevention, identification and management. Additional barriers to accessing and providing services to address HIV-related disabilities included: the availability of resources, including trained professionals, supplies and equipment in both the HIV and rehabilitation sectors; lack of disability-inclusive adaptations, particularly in HIV services; heavy centralization of available services in urban areas, without accessible, affordable

  1. HIV-Related Stigma and Discriminatory Attitudes among a Semi-Urban Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugova, Halyna; Mon, Aye Aye; Daher, Aqil Mohammad; Suleiman, Adlina

    2015-09-01

    Stigma and discriminatory attitudes (SDAs) have a negative impact on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, testing, and treatment as well as on family and social networks. There is a lack of understanding about HIV-related SDAs among people living outside large cities. This study is aimed to determine the level of HIV-related SDAs among a semi-urban population in Malaysia and to compare the SDA results among people with different sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 106 respondents was generated by convenience sampling during the screening campaign in Alor Gajah, Malaysia. Data collection was carried out based on a pre-tested questionnaire via face-to-face interviews. More than half of the respondents (62.3%) thought that an HIV-positive teacher should not be allowed to continue teaching at school; 81.1% were unsure or were unwilling to care for their family member with AIDS at home; 81.2% thought children with HIV/AIDS should not continue to be raised in families; and 77.3% thought they would not reveal if a family member had HIV/AIDS. Priority should be given to evidence-based interventions to reduce HIV-related SDAs. This study did not reveal any significant relationship between sociodemographic profiles and HIV-related SDAs. Therefore, further research with a larger sample size is needed to investigate the underlying causes of HIV-related SDAs.

  2. Gendered aspects of perceived and internalized HIV-related stigma in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Ji, Guoping

    2017-10-01

    Although studies have demonstrated that females experience more HIV-related stigma than males do, questions remain regarding the different dimensions of the stigma (i.e., perceived versus internalized) in China. The present study investigated gender differences in perceived and internalized HIV-related stigma, taking into account the potential influence of education. The study was conducted between October 2011 and March 2013. A total of 522 people living with HIV (PLH) were recruited from Anhui Province, China. The PLH participated in a survey using the Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) method. The gender differences in perceived and internalized HIV-related stigma were calculated with and without stratifying by education level. Female participants had significantly less education than the male participants. No significant difference was observed between females and males with respect to perceived stigma. However, females reported significantly higher internalized stigma than males did (p stigma remained significant among educated participants (p = .038). The findings suggested that gender differences in HIV-related stigma were primarily found for internalized stigma. Heightened intervention efforts are encouraged to reduce internalized HIV-related stigma, particularly among female PLH in China and other regions with similar gender dynamics.

  3. HIV-Related Stigma, Social Support, and Psychological Distress Among Individuals Initiating ART in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcesepe, Angela; Tymejczyk, Olga; Remien, Robert; Gadisa, Tsigereda; Kulkarni, Sarah Gorrell; Hoffman, Susie; Melaku, Zenebe; Elul, Batya; Nash, Denis

    2018-02-16

    Recent World Health Organization HIV treatment guideline expansion may facilitate timely antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. However, large-scale success of universal treatment strategies requires a more comprehensive understanding of known barriers to early ART initiation. This work aims to advance a more comprehensive understanding of interrelationships among three known barriers to ART initiation: psychological distress, HIV-related stigma, and low social support. We analyzed cross-sectional interview data on 1175 adults initiating ART at six HIV treatment clinics in Ethiopia. Experience of each form of HIV-related stigma assessed (e.g., anticipatory, internalized, and enacted) was associated with increased odds of psychological distress. However, among those who reported enacted HIV-related stigma, there was no significant association between social support and psychological distress. Interventions to improve mental health among people living with HIV should consider incorporating components to address stigma, focusing on strategies to prevent or reduce the internalization of stigma, given the magnitude of the relationship between high internalized stigma and psychological distress. Interventions to increase social support may be insufficient to improve the mental health of people living with HIV who experienced enacted HIV-related stigma. Future research should examine alternative strategies to manage the mental health consequences of enacted HIV-related stigma, including coping skills training.

  4. Modeling and commissioner of a set of cones brain lab for trigeminal neuralgia; Modelado y comisionado de un sistema de conos brainlab para la neuralgia de trigemino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Radiosurgery is an effective treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. The use of LINAC with cone system is an alternative front other procedures. As the fields to measure are very small we prefer not to use camera type pinpoint due to lack of lateral balance and the use of diodes implies fixes to correct the over-estimation of his reading. (Author)

  5. Complete nucleotide sequence of pHN7A8, an F33:A-:B- type epidemic plasmid carrying blaCTX-M-65, fosA3 and rmtB from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liangying; Partridge, Sally R; Yang, Xiaoyun; Hou, Jianxia; Deng, Yuting; Yao, Qiongfen; Zeng, Zhenling; Chen, Zhangliu; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2013-01-01

    To characterize a representative self-transmissible multidrug resistance plasmid pHN7A8 isolated from an Escherichia coli from a dog in China, classified as F33:A-:B- by replicon sequence typing and carrying the bla(TEM-1b), bla(CTX-M-65), fosA3 and rmtB genes conferring resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, fosfomycin and aminoglycosides, respectively. pHN7A8 was sequenced using a whole-genome shotgun approach and the sequence analysed by comparison with reference plasmids. pHN7A8 is a circular molecule of 76 878 bp. bla(CTX-M-65), fosA3 and rmtB are found in known contexts, interspersed with different mobile elements including ISEcp1, IS1, Tn2, IS1294, IS903 and four copies of IS26. This multiresistance region has only a single nucleotide difference from that of pXZ, an F2:A-:B- plasmid isolated from poultry in China. The pHN7A8 backbone carries genes encoding addiction and partitioning systems that promote plasmid maintenance and has a similar organization to pXZ, as well as IncFII plasmids such as R100, pC15-1a/pEK516 and pHK23, isolated in Japan, Canada/the UK and China, respectively, but with varying levels of identity, suggesting recombination. pHN7A8 is a chimera that may have resulted from the acquisition, by recombination in the plasmid backbone, of the multiresistance region found in pXZ. This region appears to have evolved from the resistance determinant R100 through the stepwise integration of multiple antimicrobial resistance determinants from different sources by the actions of mobile elements and recombination. The successful dissemination of this multidrug resistance plasmid presents further challenges for the prevention and treatment of Enterobacteriaceae infections.

  6. Gender and ethnicity differences in HIV-related stigma experienced by people living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, Mona R; Logie, Carmen H; Zhang, Yimeng; Blitz, Sandra L; Margolese, Shari L; Tharao, Wangari E; Rourke, Sean B; Rueda, Sergio; Raboud, Janet M

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to understand gender and ethnicity differences in HIV-related stigma experienced by 1026 HIV-positive individuals living in Ontario, Canada that were enrolled in the OHTN Cohort Study. Total and subscale HIV-related stigma scores were measured using the revised HIV-related Stigma Scale. Correlates of total stigma scores were assessed in univariate and multivariate linear regression. Women had significantly higher total and subscale stigma scores than men (total, median = 56.0 vs. 48.0, pgender-ethnicity interaction term was significant in multivariate analysis: Black women and Asian/Latin-American/Unspecified men reported the highest HIV-related stigma scores. Gender and ethnicity differences in HIV-related stigma were identified in our cohort. Findings suggest differing approaches may be required to address HIV-related stigma based on gender and ethnicity; and such strategies should challenge racist and sexist stereotypes.

  7. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of trigeminal neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montano N

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Montano,1 Giulio Conforti,1 Rina Di Bonaventura,1 Mario Meglio,2 Eduardo Fernandez,1 Fabio Papacci1 1Institute of Neurosurgery, Catholic University, Rome, 2Institute of Neurosurgery, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata, Verona, Italy Abstract: Various drugs and surgical procedures have been utilized for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN. Despite numerous available approaches, the results are not completely satisfying. The need for more contemporaneous drugs to control the pain attacks is a common experience. Moreover, a number of patients become drug resistant, needing a surgical procedure to treat the neuralgia. Nonetheless, pain recurrence after one or more surgical operations is also frequently seen. These facts reflect the lack of the precise understanding of the TN pathogenesis. Classically, it has been related to a neurovascular compression at the trigeminal nerve root entry-zone in the prepontine cistern. However, it has been evidenced that in the pain onset and recurrence, various neurophysiological mechanisms other than the neurovascular conflict are involved. Recently, the introduction of new magnetic resonance techniques, such as voxel-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging, three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography, and fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences, has provided new insight about the TN pathogenesis. Some of these new sequences have also been used to better preoperatively evidence the neurovascular conflict in the surgical planning of microvascular decompression. Moreover, the endoscopy (during microvascular decompression and the intraoperative computed tomography with integrated neuronavigation (during percutaneous procedures have been recently introduced in the challenging cases. In the last few years, efforts have been made in order to better define the optimal target when performing the gamma knife radiosurgery. Moreover, some authors have also evidenced that

  8. Psychological reactance and HIV-related stigma among women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Serovich, Julianne M; Kimberly, Judy A; Hu, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Psychological reactance is defined as the drive to re-establish autonomy after it has been threatened or constrained. People living with HIV may have high levels of psychological reactance due to the restrictions that they may perceive as a result of living with HIV. People living with HIV may also exhibit levels of HIV-related stigma. The relationship between psychological reactance and HIV-related stigma is complex yet understudied. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to examine the association between psychological reactance and HIV-related stigma among women living with HIV. Data were obtained from one time-point (a cross-sectional assessment) of a longitudinal HIV disclosure study. Psychological reactance was measured using the 18-item Questionnaire for the Measurement of Psychological Reactance. HIV-related stigma was measured using the HIV Stigma Scale, which has four domains: personalized, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concerns with public attitudes. Principal component analysis was used to derive components of psychological reactance. Linear regression models were used to determine the association between overall psychological reactance and its components, and stigma and its four domains, and depressive and anxiety symptoms. The associations between stigma and mental health were also examined. Three components of psychological reactance were derived: Opposition, Irritability, and Independence. Overall psychological reactance and irritability were associated with all forms of stigma. Opposition was linked to overall and negative self-image stigma. Overall psychological reactance, opposition, and irritability were positively associated with anxiety symptoms while opposition was also associated with Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression depressive symptoms. There were also positive associations between all forms of stigma, and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Health-care providers and counselors for women living with HIV

  9. Phenytoin and carbamazepine in trigeminal neuralgia: marketing-based versus evidence-based treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keppel Hesselink JM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Jan M Keppel Hesselink,1 Michael E Schatman2,31Institute for Neuropathic Pain, Bosch en Duin, the Netherlands; 2Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 3Boston Pain Care, Waltham, MA, USAIntroductionMost review articles support carbamazepine as a first-line pharmacotherapy for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia.1–3 However, the empirical support for this recommendation is somewhat suspect. Phenytoin, as the prototype for all anticonvulsants, was already positioned as an analgesic compound 70 years ago. Since these initial findings, the data that have been gathered have supported the use of anticonvulsants as painkillers – from phenytoin up to and including more recent anticonvulsants such as gabapentin and pregabalin. Since 1942, a number of papers supported phenytoin’s therapeutic effects in trigeminal neuralgia (Table 1. The introduction of carbamazepine in 1962 by Geigy shifted the interest of neurologists from phenytoin as a treatment for trigeminal neuralgia to carbamazepine, without sound scientific evidence. To date, no convincing randomized controlled trials (RCTs have been published supporting the role of carbamazepine in trigeminal neuralgia, and we could not identify a single study comparing the effects of phenytoin with those of carbamazepine. Accordingly, phenytoin should probably be considered more often as a viable therapy for (treatmentresistant trigeminal neuralgia.

  10. HIV-related stigma in pregnancy and early postpartum of mothers living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Allyson; Wagner, Anne C; Greene, Saara; Loutfy, Mona R

    2017-02-01

    HIV-related stigma is associated with many psychological challenges; however, minimal research has explored how perceived HIV-related stigma intersects with psychosocial issues that mothers living with HIV may experience including depression, perceived stress and social isolation. The present study aims to describe the correlates and predictors of HIV-related stigma in a cohort of women living with HIV (WLWH) from across Ontario, Canada during pregnancy and early postpartum. From March 2011 to December 2012, WLWH ≥ 18 years (n = 77) completed a study instrument measuring independent variables including sociodemographic characteristics, perceived stress, depression symptoms, social isolation, social support and perceived racism in the third trimester and 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. Multivariable linear regression was employed to explore the relationship between HIV-related stigma and multiple independent variables. HIV-related stigma generally increased from pregnancy to postpartum; however, there were no significant differences in HIV-related stigma across all study time points. In multivariable regression, depression symptoms and perceived racism were significant predictors of overall HIV-related stigma from pregnancy to postpartum. The present analysis contributes to our understanding of HIV-related stigma throughout the pregnancy-motherhood trajectory for WLWH including the interactional relationship between HIV-related stigma and other psychosocial variables, most notably, depression and racism.

  11. Unseen risks: HIV-related risk behaviors among ethnically diverse sexual minority adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Brian C; Huebner, David M; Rullo, Jordan E

    2013-12-01

    High rates of HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among lesbian and bisexual female adolescents have been documented. However, previous research has not adequately described racial/ethnic subgroup differences in risk behaviors within this population. We examined HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among an ethnically diverse sample of sexual minority girls (N = 244). Compared to their White peers, girls who identified their race/ethnicity as mixed had more than four times the odds of reporting both unprotected vaginal sex with a male and multiple male sex partners. All subgroups exhibited risk behaviors, indicating that sexual minority girls must be included in HIV-prevention efforts targeting adolescent females.

  12. HIV-related restrictions on entry, residence and stay in the WHO European Region: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Curth, Nadja; Weait, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Back in 1987, the World Health Organization (WHO) concluded that the screening of international travellers was an ineffective way to prevent the spread of HIV. However, some countries still restrict the entrance and/or residency of foreigners with an HIV infection. HIV-related travel restrictions...... have serious implications for individual and public health, and violate internationally recognized human rights. In this study, we reviewed the current situation regarding HIV-related travel restrictions in the 53 countries of the WHO European Region....

  13. Esmail Jorjani (1042-1137) and his descriptions of trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, and bell's palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Khalili, Majid; Khodadoost, Kazem; Loukas, Marios; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2010-08-01

    Esmail Jorjani was a prominent Persian physician of the 11th and 12th centuries. We present Jorjani's descriptions of probable trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, and Bell's palsy. Additionally, on the basis of our translations of his original text, we believe that Jorjani may have been the first to implicate an artery-nerve conflict as an etiology of trigeminal neuralgia. This theory, documented in Jorjani's Treasure of the Khawarazm Shah and elaborated on by Dandy and Jannetta, constitutes the basis of a modern surgical approach to trigeminal neuralgia. The authors also describe the life and works of Esmail Jorjani and review his Treasure for its descriptions related to the aforementioned cranial nerve pathologies.

  14. Percutaneous high-frequency selective rhizotomy in the trigeminal neuralgia therapy in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Tyurnikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trigeminal neuralgia is a rare symptom of multiple sclerosis affecting the disability. Multiple sclerosis related trigeminal neuralgia has been attributed to a demyelinating lesion in the pons. When the adequate pain drug-relieve therapy is not possible or when the patient becomes refractory to the treatment or can not continue pharmacological treatment because of the side effects, surgical intervention, including percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy is being discussed. Literature review and the data upon the efficiency and safety of this neurosurgical treatment in 16 patients with multiple sclerosis have been analyzed. Percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy has been proved to be a safe, reproducible and effective method of the symptomatic surgical treatment of trigeminal neuralgia in patients with multiple sclerosis in cases of the intolerance/inefficiency of the pharmacological therapy.

  15. HIV-related stigma and NGO-isation in India: a historico-empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Devaki

    2012-06-01

    In response to World Bank critiques in 2007, the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare declared that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related stigma was a barrier to the participation of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the implementation of HIV prevention targeted interventions. Taking a deeper view of HIV-related stigma as a historically inflected process of devaluation, this article details the history and transformation of NGO involvement in the HIV epidemic from 1986 through economic liberalisation in the 1990s up to the Second National AIDS Control Programme (NACP II 1999-2006). It additionally examines findings from interviews and participant observation of NGO workers (N = 24) from four targeted intervention NGOs in Delhi funded under NACP II. Analysis reveals that a second wave of HIV-related NGO involvement has mushroomed in the past two decades, affording NGO workers multiple pathways to credibility in the Indian response to the epidemic. Contradictions embedded in the overlap of these pathways produce stigma, reflecting 'adverse incorporation' of the NGO workers. Drawing upon noteworthy exceptions to this trend from the first wave of Indian HIV-related NGOs, the article calls for NGO participation as an explicitly political project of addressing the social inequalities that shape stigma as well as vulnerability to illness writ large. © 2011 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Positive coping strategies and HIV-related stigma in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Rao, Deepa; Murray, Katherine R; Manhart, Lisa E

    2015-03-01

    Whether perceived or enacted, HIV-related stigma is widespread in India, and has had a crippling effect on People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Research has shown that a positive attitude towards the illness sets a proactive framework for the individual to cope with his or her infection; therefore, healthy coping mechanisms are essential to combat HIV-related stigma. This qualitative study involving in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with PLHA affiliated with HIV support groups in South India explored positive coping strategies employed by PLHA to deal with HIV-related stigma. Interviews and focus group discussions were translated, transcribed, and analyzed for consistent themes. Taboos surrounding modes of transmission, perceiving sex workers as responsible for the spread of HIV, and avoiding associating with PLHA provided the context of HIV-related stigma. Despite these challenges, PLHA used several positive strategies, classified as Clear Knowledge and Understanding of HIV, Social Support and Family Well-Being, Selective Disclosure, Employment Building Confidence, and Participation in Positive Networks. Poor understanding of HIV and fears of being labeled immoral undermined healthy coping behavior, while improved understanding, affiliation with support groups, family support, presence of children, and financial independence enhanced PLHA confidence. Such positive coping behaviours could inform culturally relevant interventions.

  17. Associations between HIV-related stigma, self-esteem, social support, and depressive symptoms in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalomo, Eveline Ndii

    2017-10-11

    The current study sought to investigate the association between HIV-related stigma, self-esteem, social support, and depression of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) in Namibia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit a total of 124 men and women living with HIV/AIDS in the Katima Mulilo region of northern Namibia. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect information on demographics, self-esteem, social support, HIV-related stigma, and depression. Correlation analysis revealed that HIV-related stigma, self-esteem, and social support were all significantly correlated with depression. Further, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression analysis indicated that HIV-related stigma was the largest risk factor and self-esteem was the largest protective factor with respect to depressive symptoms. Findings indicated the necessity of appropriate assessment and intervention for psychosocial distress among PLWHA. Helping professionals should design evidence-based interventions that address individual and societal challenges that impact people living with HIV and AIDS.

  18. Barriers to men who have sex with men attending HIV related health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-22

    Apr 22, 2014 ... discrimination affect MSM attendance to HIV related health services; (ii) determine how health care worker's (HCW's) practices and .... Level of education. No formal education. 2. Primary. 15. Vocational training. 1. Secondary. 32. Employment. Unemployed. 19. Self-employed. 23. Employed. 8. Sexual.

  19. First report of HIV-related oral manifestations in Mali | Tamí-Maury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-related oral manifestations (OM) during the first month of ART therapy in a Malian health facility. Methods: Medical records of adult patients who initiated ART regimens at the Gabriel Touré Hospital, Mali (2001 to 2008) were randomly identified. Multiple ...

  20. HIV-related disabilities: an extra burden to HIV and AIDS healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues also arose from disability and stigma that were perceived as affecting adherence to antiretroviral treatment. In addition, healthcare workers encounter challenges in dealing with the increased needs of care and support for those people living with HIV who experience HIV-related disabilities. They indicated a limited ...

  1. Barriers to men who have sex with men attending HIV related health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The HIV/ AIDS disease burden is disproportionately high among men who have sex with men (MSM) worldwide. If this group will continue to be ignored they will continue to be the focus of HIV infection to the general population. This study explored barriers impeding MSM utilizing the HIV related health services currently ...

  2. Attachment relationships of preschool aged children of mothers with HIV and HIV-related psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spies, R.; Sterkenburg, P.S.; Schuengel, C.; van Rensburg, E

    2016-01-01

    Children from mothers with HIV-related psychosis are frequently raised in challenging contexts, yet the extent to which these children grow up in insecure or disordered attachment relationships is unknown. Using the Strange Situation Procedure the distribution of attachment relationships of children

  3. First report of HIV-related oral manifestations in Mali | Tamí-Maury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: In 2004, the sudden availability of free antiretroviral therapy (ART in Mali, within the context of an already overburdened health care system created gaps in individual patient quality of care. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-related oral manifestations (OM) during the first month ...

  4. A Survey Of HIV-Related Knowledge And Attitude Among Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess HIV-related knowledge and attitude among dental nursing students in South Western Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey of the entire 97 final year dental nursing students from 4 colleges of health technology located in South Western Nigeria was conducted in University of Benin ...

  5. HIV-related tuberculosis: how well are we doing with current control efforts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maher, D.; Borgdorff, M.; Boerma, T.

    2005-01-01

    The top 25 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence countries. To review the current status of implementation of interventions to control HIV-related tuberculosis (TB). Using data on national TB and HIV programme activities from the most recent national survey results published by international

  6. HIV-related disabilities: an extra burden to HIV and AIDS healthcare workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egeraat, Leonie; Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Myezwa, Hellen

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare workers have been at the forefront of dealing with the impact of HIV and AIDS at all stages of the pandemic. This brings new challenges to include disability into HIV care. However, the implications for healthcare workers in an already fragile health system along with HIV-related disabilities in persons living with HIV are little understood. This study examined the healthcare workers' perspective on disability in HIV care. This article describes a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 10 healthcare workers in a semi-urban hospital setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study aimed to understand healthcare workers' experiences with disability in the context of HIV. The International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) was used as a guiding framework to understand disability. Healthcare workers described HIV-related disabilities on all three levels of disability, namely impairments/ body function, activity limitations and participation restrictions, as affecting the livelihood of their patients and household members. Issues also arose from disability and stigma that were perceived as affecting adherence to antiretroviral treatment. In addition, healthcare workers encounter challenges in dealing with the increased needs of care and support for those people living with HIV who experience HIV-related disabilities. They indicated a limited ability to cope and respond to these needs. Primarily they arrange additional referrals to manage complex or episodic disabilities. Participants also identified issues such as excessive work load, lack of resources and training and emotional challenges in dealing with disability. Healthcare workers need support to respond to the increased needs of people living with HIV who have HIV-related disabilities. Responses need to reflect: 1) increase in rehabilitative staff including in community outreach programmes; 2) skills training in HIV-related disability; and 3) psychosocial support for

  7. HIV-related stigma among African, Caribbean, and Black youth in Windsor, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihan, Robert; Kerr, Jelani; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    HIV-related stigma has been shown to undermine prevention, care, treatment, and the well-being of people living with HIV. A disproportion burden of HIV infection, as well as elevated levels of HIV-related stigma, is evidenced in sub-Saharan African (SSA) and African-diasporic populations. This study explores factors that influence HIV-related stigma among 16- to 25-year-old youth residing in a Canadian city who identify as African, Caribbean, or Black. Stigma, as rooted in cultural norms and beliefs and related social institutions, combined with insights from research on stigma in SSA and African-diasporic populations, guided the development of a path analytic structural equation model predicting levels of HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes. The model was tested using survey responses of 510 youth to estimate the direct and indirect influences of ethno-religious identity, religious service attendance, time in Canada, HIV/AIDS knowledge, HIV-testing history, sexual health service contact, and gender on HIV-related stigma. Statistically significant negative associations were found between levels of stigma and knowledge and HIV-testing history. Ethno-religious identity and gender had both direct and indirect effects on stigma. African-Muslim participants had higher levels of stigma, lower knowledge, and were less likely to have been tested for HIV infection than other ethno-religious groups. Male participants had higher levels of stigma and lower knowledge than women. Time in Canada had only indirect effects on stigma, with participants in Canada for longer periods having higher knowledge and less likely to have been tested than more recent arrivals. While the strength of the effect of knowledge on stigmatizing attitudes in this research is consistent with other research on stigma and evaluations of stigma-reduction programs, the path analytic results provide additional information about how knowledge and HIV-testing function as mediators of non

  8. HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean communities in the Netherlands: manifestations, consequences and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stutterheim, S.E.; Bos, A.E.R.; Shiripinda, I.; de Bruin, M.; Pryor, J.B.; Schaalma, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean diaspora communities in the Netherlands was investigated. Interviews with HIV-positive and HIV-negative community members demonstrated that HIV-related stigma manifests as social distance, physical distance, words and silence. The psychological

  9. HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean communities in the Netherlands: Manifestations, consequences and coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stutterheim, S.E.; Bos, A.E.R.; Shiripinda, I.; Bruin, M. de; Pryor, J.B.; Schaalma, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean diaspora communities in the Netherlands was investigated. Interviews with HIV-positive and HIV-negative community members demonstrated that HIV-related stigma manifests as social distance, physical distance, words and silence. The psychological

  10. Effectiveness of peripheral neurectomy in refractory cases of trigeminal neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sharma Lamichhane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN is a commonly diagnosed neurosensory disease of orofacial region involving the fifth cranial nerve. Patient refractory to pharmacotherapy or with clinical and/or laboratory side effects sufficient to demand drug cessation is subjected to surgical technique. Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of peripheral neurectomy in the management of refractory TN. Settings and Design: This retrospective study on forty patients refractory to carbamazepine was conducted in the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery in the Northeast part of China from September 2011 to September 2014. Patients and Methods: Patients treated with neurectomy were followed up at regular intervals to assess the duration of pain-free period, and the pain was assessed using visual analog scale and the success of the surgery was defined accordingly. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out using IBM SPSS-20. Results: The mean age of the patients was 67.92 years (46–86 years, with higher incidence in females (F:M = 1.6:1. The 3rd division of trigeminal nerve was most commonly affected by the disease. The right side was more common than the left side. Duration of postsurgical pain-free period varied from 12 to 36 months with mean pain-free duration of 23.25 months. Recurrent cases were treated with low dose of carbamazepine, and majority of them were relieved of symptoms. Conclusions: Peripheral neurectomy is a minimal invasive surgery; safe and effective for elderly patients, especially in rural areas where advanced neurosurgical facilities are not available and for those who are reluctant to major neurosurgical procedures.

  11. Long-Term Follow-Up of Microvascular Decompression for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oesman, Chenur; Mooij, Jan Jakob A.

    We conducted a study to evaluate the follow-up characteristics of patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and to evaluate the factors affecting long-term outcome of microvascular decompression (MVD) in TN. Between 1983 and 2003, 156 patients with TN treated with MVD by 4 neurosurgeons at University

  12. Eslicarbazepine acetate for neuropathic pain, headache, and cranial neuralgia: Evidence and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara Montero, A; Sánchez Carnerero, C I

    2017-02-16

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), together with carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, belongs to the dibenzazepine family. According to the latest clinical practice guidelines, tricyclic antidepressants, dual antidepressants (venlafaxine, duloxetine), and some antiepileptics (gabapentin, pregabalin) are first-line drugs for neuropathic pain; tramadol, lidocaine 5% patches, and capsaicin 8% patches are considered second-line drugs; and strong opioids constitute a third line of treatment. Such other antiepileptics as lamotrigine and lacosamide are not authorised as treatments for neuropathic pain by the regulatory agencies, but are nonetheless prescribed off-label in routine clinical practice. Carbamazepine, on the other hand, is indicated for trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia. We conducted a literature search to gather evidence on the use of ESL for neuropathic pain, headache, and cranial neuralgia. Evidence is insufficient to recommend ESL for neuropathic pain, headache, and cranial neuralgia. Most of the available evidence comes from open and observational studies with small sample sizes and no control group; however, their favourable results call for further studies on the usefulness of ESL for neuropathic pain, headache, and cranial neuralgia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurolytic blockade of the obturator nerve in the treatment of idiopatic obturator neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćulafić Slobodan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Idiopathic obturator neuralgia is a rare chronic pain condition. It consists of pain radiating from the obturator nerve territory to the inner thigh. However, the symptomatic obturator neuralgia is commonly caused by the obturator canal bowel hernia that causes painful compressive neuropathy in more than 85% of the cases. Case report. A 61-year-old female who underwent right femoral amputation due to the occlusion of the aortofemoral vascular graft, complained of the pain characterized by its localization in the inguinal region and anterointernal side of the right inner thigh. Computer tomography and MRI findings excluded obturator canal herniation or lumbar plexopathy. A diagnosis of the obturator neuralgia was confirmed by an analgesic block of the obturator nerve. Thereafter, the neurolitic blockade of the right obturator nerve was done. The complete pain relief was achieved. Pain relief was complete in three-month follow-up period. Conclusion. Neurolitic blockade is an efficacious method in treating chronic pain caused by the idiopathic obturator neuralgia.

  14. Surgical resolution of trigeminal neuralgia due to intra-axial compression by pontine cavernous angioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenzato, Marco; Stefini, Roberto; Ambrosi, Claudia; Latronico, Nicola; Milani, Davide

    2010-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is usually caused by microvascular conflict with the fifth cranial nerve in the pontocerebellar angle. Rarely is it secondary to other extra-axial or intra-axial lesions. Few cases of trigeminal neuralgia due to cavernous angiomas have been reported in the literature. This is the first report of surgical decompression of the intra-axial trigeminal nerve tract from a deep pontine cavernous angioma. A 45-year-old man came to our attention for frequent and intense left facial pain episodes compatible with trigeminal neuralgia in the V1 and V2 branches, poorly responsive to carbamazepine treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left posterolateral pontine cavernous angioma. No neurovascular conflict was found. The cavernous angioma was surgically excised. No new neurological deficit arose and the pain episodes completely disappeared. Trigeminal neuralgia can occur occasionally secondary to the compressive effect of a pontine cavernous angioma. In this patient surgical removal of the cavernous angioma can be considered a successful and relatively safe treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Frameless image-guided radiosurgery for initial treatment of typical trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joseph C T; Rahimian, Javad; Rahimian, Rombod; Arellano, Alonso; Miller, Michael J; Girvigian, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    To review retrospectively initial experience at a single institution using frameless image-guided radiosurgery (IGRS) for trigeminal neuralgia employing the Novalis linear accelerator (LINAC) with ExacTrac robotic patient positioning device. Over an 18-month period, 44 patients (27 women and 17 men; median age 65 years) were treated with frameless IGRS for typical trigeminal neuralgia (14 cases involved left-sided pain and 30 cases involved right-sided pain), responsive to anticonvulsant medications, with Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Scale (BNI-PS) scores of 4 or 5. All cases were initial radiosurgery treatments with an isocenter dose of 90 Gy delivered via a 4-mm circular collimator forming a spheroid dose envelope. Intrafraction positioning data were collected for all patients. The median follow-up was 15 months. Overall intrafraction positioning error was 0.49 mm ± 0.44. After treatment, 40 patients achieved a BNI-PS score of IIIb or better; 19 patients achieved a BNI-PS score of I. The median time to pain relief was 4 weeks. Overall, new hypoesthesia was seen in five patients. No other complications were seen. Use of frameless IGRS methods for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia showed results similar to the authors' prior experience with frame-based treatment methods. IGRS using frameless methods is a suitable treatment method for patients with trigeminal neuralgia and may be applicable to other functional indications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Should Associations between HIV-Related Risk Perceptions and Behaviors or Intentions Be Positive or Negative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Hiyi; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Xiang, Weina; Gu, Jing; Wang, Zixin

    2012-01-01

    Risk perceptions are important in HIV research and interventions; mixed results were found between HIV-related perceptions and behaviors. We interviewed 377 sexually active injecting drug users in China, finding mixed associations between HIV-related risk perception assessed by two general measures and two previous risk behaviors (syringe sharing: p.05) – partially supporting the ‘reflective hypothesis’ that reflection on previous behaviors increases risk perceptions. When we use specific measures for risk perceptions (HIV transmission via unprotected sex with specific types of sex partner and via syringe sharing) and use behavioral intention to adopt protective risk behaviors (condom use and avoid syringe sharing totally) as dependent variables, positive significant associations were observed – supporting the motivational hypothesis that risk perceptions motivate one to adopt protective behaviors. The direction and significance of the associations of concern depends on types of measures used. It has important implications on research design, data interpretation and services. PMID:23284896

  17. Trigeminal neuralgia--a coherent cross-specialty management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinskou, Tone; Maarbjerg, Stine; Rochat, Per; Wolfram, Frauke; Jensen, Rigmor Højland; Bendtsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Optimal management of patients with classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) requires specific treatment programs and close collaboration between medical, radiological and surgical specialties. Organization of such treatment programs has never been described before. With this paper we aim to describe the implementation and feasibility of an accelerated cross-speciality management program, to describe the collaboration between the involved specialties and to report the patient flow during the first 2 years after implementation. Finally, we aim to stimulate discussions about optimal management of TN. Based on collaboration between neurologists, neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons a standardized program for TN was implemented in May 2012 at the Danish Headache Center (DHC). First out-patient visit and subsequent 3.0 Tesla MRI scan was booked in an accelerated manner. The MRI scan was performed according to a special TN protocol developed for this program. Patients initially referred to neurosurgery were re-directed to DHC for pre-surgical evaluation of diagnosis and optimization of medical treatment. Follow-up was 2 years with fixed visits where medical treatment and indication for neurosurgery was continuously evaluated. Scientific data was collected in a structured and prospective manner. From May 2012 to April 2014, 130 patients entered the accelerated program. Waiting time for the first out-patient visit was 42 days. Ninety-four percent of the patients had a MRI performed according to the special protocol after a mean of 37 days. Within 2 years follow-up 35% of the patients were referred to neurosurgery after a median time of 65 days. Five scientific papers describing demographics, clinical characteristics and neuroanatomical abnormalities were published. The described cross-speciality management program proved to be feasible and to have acceptable waiting times for referral and highly specialized work-up of TN patients in a public tertiary referral centre for headache

  18. Workplace and HIV-related sexual behaviours and perceptions among female migrant workers

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, H.; Li, X.; Stanton, B; Fang, X; Lin, D.; Mao, R; LIU, H.; Chen, X.; SEVERSON, R.

    2005-01-01

    Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment esta...

  19. Cutis Verticis Gyrata in Men Affected by HIV-Related Lipodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshav Khanijow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the occurrence of cutis verticis gyrata (CVG, a disfiguring dermatological condition, in four patients with HIV-related lipodystrophy (HIVLD. These four patients had abnormal metabolic and hormonal lab values which we compare with metabolic and hormonal perturbations cited in previous HIVLD cohorts. In addition, we describe the sole use of poly-L-lactic acid as a potential treatment for decreasing the appearance of CVG-associated ridges.

  20. Social cohesion, social participation, and HIV related risk among female sex workers in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonner, Virginia A; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36-4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13-3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland.

  1. Social Cohesion, Social Participation, and HIV Related Risk among Female Sex Workers in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonner, Virginia A.; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]  = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36–4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13–3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33–0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland. PMID:24498125

  2. The changing epidemiology of HIV-related chronic kidney disease in the era of antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallipattu, Sandeep K; Salem, Fadi; Wyatt, Christina M

    2014-08-01

    The epidemiology of kidney disease in HIV-infected individuals has changed significantly since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the mid 1990s. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), an aggressive form of collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) caused by direct HIV infection of the kidney in a genetically susceptible host, emerged early in the HIV epidemic as a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. With the widespread use of cART, HIVAN is increasingly rare in populations with access to care, and the spectrum of HIV-related chronic kidney disease now reflects the growing burden of comorbid disease in the aging HIV population. Nonetheless, available data suggest that both HIV infection and cART nephrotoxicity continue to contribute to the increased risk of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected individuals in the United States and Europe. Despite the genetic susceptibility to HIVAN in individuals of West African descent, limited data are available to define the prevalence and spectrum of HIV-related kidney disease in sub-Saharan Africa, which is home to two-thirds of the world's HIV population. In this mini-review, we characterize the changing epidemiology of HIV-related chronic kidney disease in Western nations and in sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. [Retrospective research on proportion of HIV related death causes in nine counties in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xing; Wang, Ning; Wang, Lu; Qin, Qian-qian; Wang, Li-yan; Li, Dong-min; Wang, Lan; Wang, Yan-he; Ding, Guo-wei; Ding, Zheng-wei

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the proportion of HIV related death cause, and its years of potential life lost (YPLL) and work years of potential life lose (WYPLL) in project counties. According to the protocol of the third national death causes surveillance and HIV related death causes surveillance, retrospective study was implemented including baseline investigation of deaths' name list, demography information, door-to-door interview and death causes deduction in Gejiu, Ruili and Longchuan county in Yunnan province, Yangdong county in Guangdong province, Luzhai county in Guangxi zhuang Autonomous Region, Weishi and Zhecheng county in Henan province, Xishui county in Hubei province and Gu'an county in Hebei province. The study was conducted among nine counties located in seven provinces. A total of 118 719 cases were included, raw mortality was 5.83 per thousand, 2002 death cases were related to HIV, which contributed 1.67% of total deaths. The average age of HIV death was 38.03 yearsow, which was earlier than the non-HIV-related life-span (63.10 years). The YPLL and WYPLL of HIV death was 33.80 years and 20.50 years, respectively, which had contributed the second highest average YPLL. HIV has an important proportion among all death causes, and has contributed severe average YPLL and WYPLL.

  4. Factors associated with pregnant women's anticipations and experiences of HIV-related stigma in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Yvette P; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Turan, Janet M

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women who fear or experience HIV-related stigma may not get care for their own health or medications to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV. This study examined factors associated with anticipating and experiencing HIV-related stigma among 1777 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in rural Kenya. Women were interviewed at baseline, offered HIV testing and care, and a sub-set was re-interviewed at 4-8 weeks postpartum. Women who were older, had less education, whose husbands had other wives, and who perceived community discrimination against people with HIV had significantly greater adjusted odds of anticipating HIV stigma. Over half of the HIV-positive women interviewed postpartum reported having experienced stigma, much of which was self-stigma. Women experiencing minor depression, and those whose family knew of their HIV status had significantly greater adjusted odds of experiencing stigma. Lack of women's empowerment, as well as depression, may be important risk factors for HIV-related stigma and discrimination.

  5. Hyponatremia, acute kidney injury, and mortality in HIV-related toxoplasmic encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre B. Libório

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are no reports on hyponatremia and acute kidney injury (AKI involved in the course of HIV-related toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE. The main objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of hyponatremia and its relationship with AKI and mortality in HIV-related toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study on patients with HIV-related TE. AKI was considered only when the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage criterion was met, after the patient was admitted. RESULTS: A total of 92 patients were included, with a mean age of 36 ± 9 years. Hyponatremia at admission was observed in 43 patients (46.7%, with AKI developing in 25 (27.1% patients during their hospitalization. Sulfadiazine was the treatment of choice in 81% of the cases. Death occurred in 13 cases (14.1%. Low serum sodium level correlated directly with AKI and mortality. Male gender (OR 7.89, 95% CI 1.22-50.90, p = 0.03 and hyponatremia at admission (OR 4.73, 95% CI 1.22-18.30, p = 0.02 were predictors for AKI. Independent risk factors for death were AKI (OR 8.3, 95% CI 1.4-48.2, p < 0.0001 and hyponatremia (or 9.9, 95% ci 1.2-96.3, p < 0.0001. CONCLUSION: AKI and hyponatremia are frequent in TE. Hyponatremia on admission is highly associated with AKI and mortality.

  6. Hyponatremia, acute kidney injury, and mortality in HIV-related toxoplasmic encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre B. Libório

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are no reports on hyponatremia and acute kidney injury (AKI involved in the course of HIV-related toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE. The main objective of this study was to describe the occurrence of hyponatremia and its relationship with AKI and mortality in HIV-related toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study on patients with HIV-related TE. AKI was considered only when the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage criterion was met, after the patient was admitted. RESULTS: A total of 92 patients were included, with a mean age of 36 ± 9 years. Hyponatremia at admission was observed in 43 patients (46.7%, with AKI developing in 25 (27.1% patients during their hospitalization. Sulfadiazine was the treatment of choice in 81% of the cases. Death occurred in 13 cases (14.1%. Low serum sodium level correlated directly with AKI and mortality. Male gender (OR 7.89, 95% CI 1.22-50.90, p = 0.03 and hyponatremia at admission (OR 4.73, 95% CI 1.22-18.30, p = 0.02 were predictors for AKI. Independent risk factors for death were AKI (OR 8.3, 95% CI 1.4-48.2, p < 0.0001 and hyponatremia (or 9.9, 95% ci 1.2-96.3, p < 0.0001. CONCLUSION: AKI and hyponatremia are frequent in TE. Hyponatremia on admission is highly associated with AKI and mortality.

  7. HIV-related Burkitt lymphoma with florid granulomatous reaction: an unusual case with good outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Nan; Gao, Li-Min; Wang, Wei-Ya; Chen, Min; Li, Gan-Di; Liu, Wei-Ping; Zhang, Wen-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Lymphoma related granulomatous reaction rarely occurs in sporadic BL. Herein, we describe the first case of HIV related Burkitt lymphoma with florid granulomatous reaction. A 41-year-old HIV-positive Chinese male presented lymphadenopathy in the right cervical region for 3 months. The enlarged lymph node biopsies revealed the presence of prominent granulomas of varying size with Langhans giant cells, leading to the misdiagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis in other hospital. Subsequently, the case was sent to us for consultation. The morphology, immunophenotype, special staining, interphase FISH analysis and blood tests confirmed a diagnosis of HIV related Burkitt lymphoma with granulomatous reaction. Without radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the patient was alive and well with no evidence of lymphoma during the observation period of 24 months. The case suggested that lymphoma with florid granulomatous reaction can easily be misdiagnosed as benign lesions since the large number of epithelioid granulomas could obscure the primary lesion. Moreover, the granulomatous reaction may be an indicator for favorable prognosis in HIV related Burkitt lymphoma. PMID:25400794

  8. Assessment of HIV-related stigma in a US faith-based HIV education and testing intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannette Y Berkley-Patton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The African American church is a highly influential institution with the potential to greatly increase the reach of HIV prevention interventions and address HIV-related stigma in US African American communities. However, there are few studies on HIV-related stigma and African American church populations. This study explored HIV-related stigma among church and community members participating in an HIV education and testing intervention pilot study in African American churches, named Taking It to the Pews. Methods: Four African American churches located in Kansas City, MO and KS, were randomized to either intervention or comparison groups. Churches assigned to the intervention group received religiously tailored HIV education, testing and compassion messages/activities (e.g. sermons, brochures/church bulletins, testimonials via the Taking It to the Pews HIV Tool Kit. Comparison churches received non-religiously tailored HIV information. HIV-related stigma was assessed with 543 church members and with community members served through church outreach services (e.g. food/clothing pantries, social services in the four churches. Participants completed surveys at baseline, 6 months and 12 months to assess their HIV-related stigma beliefs, exposure to intervention components and satisfaction with the study. Results: At baseline, HIV-related stigma beliefs were similar across experimental groups and were quite low. Mean HIV-related stigma scores were not significantly different between experimental groups at 6 months (p=0.92 or at 12 months (p=0.70. However, mean HIV-related stigma scores within both groups showed decreasing trends at six months, which approached significance. Analysis of previously studied HIV-related stigma factors (e.g. age, gender, income, HIV knowledge, religiosity did not yield changes in the null findings. Intervention group participants were highly exposed to several intervention components (sermons, HIV resource

  9. Impact of HIV-related stigma on treatment adherence: systematic review and meta-synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ingrid T; Ryu, Annemarie E; Onuegbu, Afiachukwu G; Psaros, Christina; Weiser, Sheri D; Bangsberg, David R; Tsai, Alexander C

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a critical determinant of HIV-1 RNA viral suppression and health outcomes. It is generally accepted that HIV-related stigma is correlated with factors that may undermine ART adherence, but its relationship with ART adherence itself is not well established. We therefore undertook this review to systematically assess the relationship between HIV-related stigma and ART adherence. Methods We searched nine electronic databases for published and unpublished literature, with no language restrictions. First we screened the titles and abstracts for studies that potentially contained data on ART adherence. Then we reviewed the full text of these studies to identify articles that reported data on the relationship between ART adherence and either HIV-related stigma or serostatus disclosure. We used the method of meta-synthesis to summarize the findings from the qualitative studies. Results Our search protocol yielded 14,854 initial records. After eliminating duplicates and screening the titles and abstracts, we retrieved the full text of 960 journal articles, dissertations and unpublished conference abstracts for review. We included 75 studies conducted among 26,715 HIV-positive persons living in 32 countries worldwide, with less representation of work from Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Among the 34 qualitative studies, our meta-synthesis identified five distinct third-order labels through an inductive process that we categorized as themes and organized in a conceptual model spanning intrapersonal, interpersonal and structural levels. HIV-related stigma undermined ART adherence by compromising general psychological processes, such as adaptive coping and social support. We also identified psychological processes specific to HIV-positive persons driven by predominant stigmatizing attitudes and which undermined adherence, such as internalized stigma and concealment. Adaptive coping and social support were critical

  10. Reação cutânea grave induzida por carbamazepina no tratamento da neuralgia pós-herpética: relato de caso Reacción cutánea grave inducida por la carbamazepina en el tratamiento de la neuralgia postherpética: relato de caso Severe carbamazepine-induced cutaneous reaction in the treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Santos Garcia

    2010-08-01

    . CONCLUSIONES: La SSJ/NET es una reacción cutánea grave con potencial para la morbilidade y mortalidad elevadas y que exige una intervención rápida y un manejo adecuado. También alertamos sobre el uso de la carbamazepina, que debe siempre ser inspeccionado, especialmente en los ancianos.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN is the main complication of herpes zoster. Carbamazepine (CBZ, a well-tolerated anticonvulsant, but frequently associated with severe cutaneous reactions, such as the Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is used in the treatment of this complication. The objective of this article was to report a case of SJS/TEN secondary to CBZ in a patient with PHN. CASE REPORT: This is a female patient with continuous severe, burning, chock-like pain in the thoracic region and dorsum associated with reduced strength in the ipsilateral upper limb and diaphoresis. She had crusty and erythematous lesions in the dorsal region of the thorax with allodynia and dysesthesia in the affected dermatome. She was treated with CBZ 300 mg.day-1, amitriptyline (AMT 12.5 mg at bedtime, and infiltration with local anesthetic in the affected region. After 15 days, she developed malaise, fever, muscle pain, and arthralgia with a mild non-specific cutaneous rash. Carbamazepine was discontinued immediately. One week later, she was hospitalized with urticaria, generalized exanthema, erythematous cutaneous eruptions, bullae, and purpuric maculae all over her body. The impression was of carbamazepine-induced SJS/TEN. She evolved with progressive worsening of her symptoms, with increase in the number and size of cutaneous lesions, besides generalized erythematous macular rash, areas of necrosis, and erosions with symmetrical loosening of the epidermis in face, neck, thorax, dorsum, and limbs, affecting more that 50% of her body surface, besides involvement of buccal, conjunctival, and genital mucosa with vesicular erosions. She had progressive

  11. The role of Nav1.9 channel in the development of neuropathic orofacial pain associated with trigeminal neuralgia

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz, Ana Paula; Kopach, Olga; Santana-Varela, Sonia; Wood, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trigeminal neuralgia is accompanied by severe mechanical, thermal and chemical hypersensitivity of the orofacial area innervated by neurons of trigeminal ganglion (TG). We examined the role of the voltage-gated sodium channel subtype Nav1.9 in the development of trigeminal neuralgia. Results We found that Nav1.9 is required for the development of both thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity induced by constriction of the infraorbital nerve (CION). The CION model does not induce cha...

  12. Refining Current Scientific Priorities and Identifying New Scientific Gaps in HIV-Related Heart, Lung, Blood, and Sleep Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Homer L; Crystal, Ronald; Currier, Judith; Ridker, Paul; Berliner, Nancy; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Rutherford, George; Zou, Shimian; Glynn, Simone; Wong, Renee; Peprah, Emmanuel; Engelgau, Michael; Creazzo, Tony; Colombini-Hatch, Sandra; Caler, Elisabet

    2017-09-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) AIDS Program's goal is to provide direction and support for research and training programs in areas of HIV-related heart, lung, blood, and sleep (HLBS) diseases. To better define NHLBI current HIV-related scientific priorities and with the goal of identifying new scientific priorities and gaps in HIV-related HLBS research, a wide group of investigators gathered for a scientific NHLBI HIV Working Group on December 14-15, 2015, in Bethesda, MD. The core objectives of the Working Group included discussions on: (1) HIV-related HLBS comorbidities in the antiretroviral era; (2) HIV cure; (3) HIV prevention; and (4) mechanisms to implement new scientific discoveries in an efficient and timely manner so as to have the most impact on people living with HIV. The 2015 Working Group represented an opportunity for the NHLBI to obtain expert advice on HIV/AIDS scientific priorities and approaches over the next decade.

  13. HIV-Related Sexual Risk among African American Men Preceding Incarceration: Associations with Support from Significant Others, Family, and Friends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coatsworth, Ashley M; Scheidell, Joy D; Wohl, David A; Whitehead, Nicole E; Golin, Carol E; Judon-Monk, Selena; Khan, Maria R

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the association between social support received from significant others, family, and friends and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among African American men involved in the criminal justice system...

  14. HIV-related shame and health-related quality of life among older, HIV-positive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Wilson; Fang, Xindi; Calabrese, Sarah K; Heckman, Timothy G; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated how HIV-related shame is associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older people living with HIV (PLHIV). Structural equation modeling tested whether HIV-related shame was associated with three dimensions of HRQoL (physical, emotional, and social well-being) and whether there were significant indirect associations of HIV-related shame with the three HRQoL dimensions via depression and loneliness in a sample of 299 PLHIV ≥50 years old. Results showed that depression and loneliness were key mechanisms, with depression at least partially accounting for the association between HIV-related shame and both emotional and physical well-being, respectively, and loneliness accounting for the association between HIV-related shame and social well-being. HIV-related shame appears to be an important correlate of HRQoL in older PLHIV and may provide a promising leveraging point by which to improve HRQoL in older PLHIV.

  15. HIV-Related Stigma, Shame, and Avoidant Coping: Risk Factors for Internalizing Symptoms Among Youth Living with HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David S; Hersh, Jill; Herres, Joanna; Foster, Jill

    2016-08-01

    Youth living with HIV (YLH) are at elevated risk of internalizing symptoms, although there is substantial individual variability in adjustment. We examined perceived HIV-related stigma, shame-proneness, and avoidant coping as risk factors of internalizing symptoms among YLH. Participants (N = 88; ages 12-24) completed self-report measures of these potential risk factors and three domains of internalizing symptoms (depressive, anxiety, and PTSD) during a regularly scheduled HIV clinic visit. Hierarchical regressions were conducted for each internalizing symptoms domain, examining the effects of age, gender, and maternal education (step 1), HIV-related stigma (step 2), shame- and guilt-proneness (step 3), and avoidant coping (step 4). HIV-related stigma, shame-proneness, and avoidant coping were each correlated with greater depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms. Specificity was observed in that shame-proneness, but not guilt-proneness, was associated with greater internalizing symptoms. In multivariable analyses, HIV-related stigma and shame-proneness were each related to greater depressive and PTSD symptoms. Controlling for the effects of HIV-related stigma and shame-proneness, avoidant coping was associated with PTSD symptoms. The current findings highlight the potential importance of HIV-related stigma, shame, and avoidant coping on the adjustment of YLH, as interventions addressing these risk factors could lead to decreased internalizing symptoms among YLH.

  16. [Selective percutaneous thermocoagulation of the glossopharyngeal nerve in intractable glossopharyngeal neuralgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, T; Tanahashi, T; Iida, H; Ota, S; Yamamoto, M

    1990-02-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation of glossopharyngeal nerve at the jugular foramen was employed for the treatment of intractable glossopharyngeal neuralgia in three cases, one with essential and two with symptomatic pain from malignant tumor of the oropharyngeal area. Under radiological control, the thermocoagulation electrode was inserted through the lateral cervical route, and the electrode reached the jugular foramen with the tip toward the pars nervosa. The correct position of the electrode was confirmed by radiography and by electrophysiological stimulation test. Once the electrode was properly positioned, lesion was made with temperature of 60 degrees C to 70 degrees C for 1 approximately 2 minutes. Surgical results were satisfactory and no neurological and cardiovascular complications were noted. Percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation of glossopharyngeal nerve is thought to be very useful for the treatment of intractable glossopharyngeal neuralgia.

  17. Improvement in clinical outcomes after dry needling in a patient with occipital neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Bryan M.; Kinslow, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this case report is to outline the diagnosis, intervention and clinical outcome of a patient presenting with occipital neuralgia. Upon initial presentation, the patient described a four-year history of stabbing neck pain and headaches. After providing informed consent, the patient underwent a total of four dry needling (DN) sessions over a two-week duration. During each of the treatment sessions, needles were inserted into the trapezii and suboccipital muscles. Post-intervention, the patient reported a 32-point change in her neck disability index score along with a 28-point change in her headache disability index score. Thus, it appears that subsequent four sessions of DN over two weeks, our patient experienced meaningful improvement in her neck pain and headaches. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing DN to successfully improve clinical outcomes in a patient diagnosed with occipital neuralgia. PMID:26136602

  18. Angular Relationship Between the Foramen Ovale and the Trigeminal Impression: Percutaneous Cannulation Trajectories for Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdilla, Matthew J; Hatfield, Scott A; Mangus, Kelsey R

    2016-11-01

    The debilitating pain of trigeminal neuralgia often necessitates neurosurgical intervention via percutaneous transovale cannulation. While most percutaneous treatments of trigeminal neuralgia are successful, severe adverse events resulting from failure to properly cannulate the foramen ovale (FO) have been reported. With regard to specific targeting of particular trigeminal divisions (ie, V1, V2, V3, and combinations thereof), operative techniques have been described; however, these descriptions have not included specific angulation data. This anatomic study analyzed the angular relationship between the centroid and anteromedial- and posterolateral-most aspects of the FO and the boundaries of the trigeminal impression. The study is the first to detail the angular relationship between the FO boundaries and the boundaries of the trigeminal impression in dry human skulls relative to the coronal plane. The information may be used to prevent miscannulation and also target specific branches of the trigeminal nerve for optimal operative results.

  19. Improvement in clinical outcomes after dry needling in a patient with occipital neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Bryan M; Kinslow, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    The primary purpose of this case report is to outline the diagnosis, intervention and clinical outcome of a patient presenting with occipital neuralgia. Upon initial presentation, the patient described a four-year history of stabbing neck pain and headaches. After providing informed consent, the patient underwent a total of four dry needling (DN) sessions over a two-week duration. During each of the treatment sessions, needles were inserted into the trapezii and suboccipital muscles. Post-intervention, the patient reported a 32-point change in her neck disability index score along with a 28-point change in her headache disability index score. Thus, it appears that subsequent four sessions of DN over two weeks, our patient experienced meaningful improvement in her neck pain and headaches. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing DN to successfully improve clinical outcomes in a patient diagnosed with occipital neuralgia.

  20. Influence of sexual abuse on HIV-related attitudes and behaviors in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L K; Kessel, S M; Lourie, K J; Ford, H H; Lipsitt, L P

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the associations between sexual abuse and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related attitudes and behaviors of adolescents with a psychiatric disorder. HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were examined by self-report assessment of adolescents admitted to a psychiatric hospital (N = 100). A subsample (n = 30) completed a role-playing exercise regarding HIV-preventive behavior that was scored for the degree of effective communication by raters blind to the subjects' abuse history. HIV-related risk behaviors were prevalent, including unprotected sexual intercourse (67%) and multiple partners (27%) among the sexually active (71% of the total). Also frequent were alcohol and drug use (25%) and sharing cutting instruments (22%) among those engaged in self-cutting behavior (62%). The 38% of the sample identified as having a history of sexual abuse indicated significantly poorer self-efficacy concerning condom use than their peers. Abused females scored significantly lower on the self-efficacy of condom use scale and reported significantly more frequent alcohol use than nonabused females (p = .003). A hierarchical multiple regression that controlled for consistency of condom use and tolerance of people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome found that abuse history uniquely accounted for 16% of the variance in condom use self-efficacy. Analysis of the videotaped role-play found that abused adolescents were significantly less competent and had more difficulty in effective communication than their peers (p = .003). A history of sexual abuse is associated with impaired safe sexual decision-making and HIV-preventive communication skills, even in this already at-risk group. This study also underscores the importance of actively addressing these issues in the context of clinical care.

  1. HIV-Related Stigma Among African Immigrants Living with HIV/AIDS in USA

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel F. Koku

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the fight against HIV have increased the life expectancy of those infected. Despite these, a number of barriers such as stigma continue to affect HIV prevention and treatment. Although the body of work on HIV stigma is growing, there is a paucity of literature on the experiences of specific sub-groups such as African immigrants living with HIV. Drawing on in-depth interviews with a sample of these immigrants in the US, this study examines their experiences of HIV-related st...

  2. Gender differences in HIV-related self-reported knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekin, B

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 265 college students was conducted to determine HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and perceived self-efficacy with regard to engaging in HIV-protective behaviors. A self-administered 52-item survey was completed by 265 college students (60% response rate). Resident advisors in college dormitories distributed the survey, returned anonymously. Data were analyzed using SPSS to identify differential responses by gender. Although HIV knowledge was high, perceived self-efficacy differed significantly by gender, with men describing themselves as less able to insist upon condom use (P planning; teenage pregnancy.

  3. SU-E-T-669: Radiosurgery Failure for Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Study of Radiographic Spatial Fidelity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, J [Associates In Medical Physics, Louisville, KY (United States); Spalding, A [Norton Cancer Institute, Louisville, Kentucky (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Management of Trigeminal Neuralgia with radiosurgery is well established, but often met with limited success. Recent advancements in imaging afford improvements in target localization for radiosurgery. Methods: A Trigeminal Neuralgia radiosurgery specific protocol was established for MR enhancement of the trigeminal nerve using a CISS scan with slice spacing of 0.7mm. Computed Tomography simulation was performed using axial slices on a 40 slice CT with slice spacing of 0.6mm. These datasets were registered using a mutual information algorithm and localized in a stereotactic coordinate system. Image registration between the MR and CT was evaluated for each patient by a Medical Physicist to ensure accuracy. The dorsal root entry zone target was defined on the CISS MR by a Neurosurgeon and dose calculations performed on the localized CT. Treatment plans were reviewed and approved by a Radiation Oncologist and Neurosurgeon. Image guided radiosurgery was delivered using positioning tolerance of 0.5mm and 1°. Eight patients with Trigeminal Neuralgia were treated with this protocol. Results: Seven patients reported a favorable response to treatment with average Barrow Neurological Index pain score of four before treatment and one following treatment. Only one patient had a BNI>1 following treatment and review of the treatment plan revealed that the CISS MR was registered to the CT via a low resolution (5mm slice spacing) T2 MR. All other patients had CISS MR registered directly with the localized CT. This patient was retreated 6 months later using direct registration between CISS MR and localized CT and subsequently responded to treatment with a BNI of one. Conclusion: Frameless radiosurgery offers an effective solution to Trigeminal Neuralgia management provided appropriate technology and imaging protocols (utilizing submillimeter imaging) are established and maintained.

  4. Role of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation in the management of trigeminal neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanju Singla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trigeminal neuralgia typically involves nerves supplying teeth, jaws and face of older females. Though the etiology is usually obscure, different treatment modalities have been tried for it viz. medicinal treatment, injection alcohol, peripheral neurectomy, rhizotomy, and microvascular decompression etc. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS is an emerging and promising option for management of such patients. Aims and Design: The present study was designed with an aim to study the efficacy of TENS in management of trigeminal neuralgia. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 patients of trigeminal neuralgia confirmed by diagnostic nerve block. They were given bursts of TENS for 20-40 days over the path of the affected nerve and subsequently evaluated at 1 month and 3 month intervals by visual analogue scale (VAS, verbal pain scale (VPS, a functional outcome scales for main daily activities like sleep, chewing, talking, or washing face. Results: The results showed that, on VAS, the score decreased from 8.9 (Pre TENS to 3.1 at 1 month and 1.3 at 3 months, and on VPS, the score decreased from 3.5 (Pre TENS to 1.2 at 1 month and 0.3 at 3 months. Similarly, a considerable decrease in scores was seen on functional outcome scale for different activities. No side effects like irritation or redness of skin were seen in any of the patients. Conclusions: Thus, TENS was found to be a safe, easily acceptable, and non-invasive outdoor patient department procedure for management of trigeminal neuralgia.

  5. [Experience with retrogasserian glycerol rhizotomy in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadokas, V; Ahyai, A; Bockermann, V; Markakis, E

    1994-12-01

    From August 1981 to May 1993 a total of 1263 percutaneous retrogasserian glycerol rhizotomies after Hakanson were performed. The intervention was performed with X-ray monitoring under local anaesthesia and rarely lasted longer than 20 min. It achieved good results in the treatment of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia due to multiple sclerosis (TNMS). Some 97% of the TN patients were completely free of pain after the intervention. The recurrence rate within 5 years was 12.8%. Some 94.7% of the TNMS patients were immediately free of pain, but within 2-5 years they experienced a high recurrence rate of 40.2%. The results in the patients with atypical facial pain were more disappointing: only 66.6% were pain-free immediately after the intervention, and the recurrence rate was 31%. With respect to the side effects immediately postoperatively, herpetic eruptions were found in 43.2% of cases. They occurred on the 3rd postoperative day and persisted for 2-3 weeks before being relieved by local virostatic therapy. Hypaesthesia and hypalgesia were present in the early postoperative follow-up in half of our patients. Both these reductions of sensitivity have a tendency to regress. Later, after 2 years, there was reduction in sensitivity of this type in only 20% of cases. In the follow-up 17.5% of our patients complained of dysaesthesia and in 21.4% corneal sensitivity was reduced or lost. We believe that glycerol rhizotomy, owing to its effectiveness, easy applicability, slight distress for the patients and low side effects, should be recommended as a first measure for non-conservative treatment of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia as well as trigeminal neuralgia in multiple sclerosis.

  6. Using verbal autopsy to track epidemic dynamics: the case of HIV-related mortality in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee Paul

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA has often been used for point estimates of cause-specific mortality, but seldom to characterize long-term changes in epidemic patterns. Monitoring emerging causes of death involves practitioners' developing perceptions of diseases and demands consistent methods and practices. Here we retrospectively analyze HIV-related mortality in South Africa, using physician and modeled interpretation. Methods Between 1992 and 2005, 94% of 6,153 deaths which occurred in the Agincourt subdistrict had VAs completed, and coded by two physicians and the InterVA model. The physician causes of death were consolidated into a single consensus underlying cause per case, with an additional physician arbitrating where different diagnoses persisted. HIV-related mortality rates and proportions of deaths coded as HIV-related by individual physicians, physician consensus, and the InterVA model were compared over time. Results Approximately 20% of deaths were HIV-related, ranging from early low levels to tenfold-higher later population rates (2.5 per 1,000 person-years. Rates were higher among children under 5 years and adults 20 to 64 years. Adult mortality shifted to older ages as the epidemic progressed, with a noticeable number of HIV-related deaths in the over-65 year age group latterly. Early InterVA results suggested slightly higher initial HIV-related mortality than physician consensus found. Overall, physician consensus and InterVA results characterized the epidemic very similarly. Individual physicians showed marked interobserver variation, with consensus findings generally reflecting slightly lower proportions of HIV-related deaths. Aggregated findings for first versus second physician did not differ appreciably. Conclusions VA effectively detected a very significant epidemic of HIV-related mortality. Using either physicians or InterVA gave closely comparable findings regarding the epidemic. The consistency between two

  7. Using verbal autopsy to track epidemic dynamics: the case of HIV-related mortality in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byass, Peter; Kahn, Kathleen; Fottrell, Edward; Mee, Paul; Collinson, Mark A; Tollman, Stephen M

    2011-08-05

    Verbal autopsy (VA) has often been used for point estimates of cause-specific mortality, but seldom to characterize long-term changes in epidemic patterns. Monitoring emerging causes of death involves practitioners' developing perceptions of diseases and demands consistent methods and practices. Here we retrospectively analyze HIV-related mortality in South Africa, using physician and modeled interpretation. Between 1992 and 2005, 94% of 6,153 deaths which occurred in the Agincourt subdistrict had VAs completed, and coded by two physicians and the InterVA model. The physician causes of death were consolidated into a single consensus underlying cause per case, with an additional physician arbitrating where different diagnoses persisted. HIV-related mortality rates and proportions of deaths coded as HIV-related by individual physicians, physician consensus, and the InterVA model were compared over time. Approximately 20% of deaths were HIV-related, ranging from early low levels to tenfold-higher later population rates (2.5 per 1,000 person-years). Rates were higher among children under 5 years and adults 20 to 64 years. Adult mortality shifted to older ages as the epidemic progressed, with a noticeable number of HIV-related deaths in the over-65 year age group latterly. Early InterVA results suggested slightly higher initial HIV-related mortality than physician consensus found. Overall, physician consensus and InterVA results characterized the epidemic very similarly. Individual physicians showed marked interobserver variation, with consensus findings generally reflecting slightly lower proportions of HIV-related deaths. Aggregated findings for first versus second physician did not differ appreciably. VA effectively detected a very significant epidemic of HIV-related mortality. Using either physicians or InterVA gave closely comparable findings regarding the epidemic. The consistency between two physician coders per case (from a pool of 14) suggests that double

  8. Ondine's curse with accompanying trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia secondary to medullary telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapnadak, Siddhartha G; Mikolaenko, Ivan; Enfield, Kyle; Gress, Daryl R; Nathan, Barnett R

    2010-06-01

    Central hypoventilation syndrome ("Ondine's Curse") is an infrequent disorder that can lead to serious acute or chronic health consequences. This syndrome, especially in adults, is rare, and even less frequent in the absence of clear pathogenic lesions on MRI. In addition, we are not aware of any previously reported cases with associated cranial nerve neuralgias. We describe a patient with baseline trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia, admitted with episodes of severe hypoventilatory failure of central origin, consistent with "Ondine's Curse". After evaluation, she was found to have a medullary capillary telangiectasia, thought to be the causative lesion, and which could explain her complete neurologic and hypoventilatory syndrome. The patient was treated with placement of a diaphragmatic pacing system, which has been effective thus far. This case illustrates the need for investigation of centrally mediated apnea, especially when co-occurring cranial nerve neuralgia is present and cardiopulmonary evaluation is negative. It provides an example of capillary telangiectasia as the causative lesion, one that to our knowledge has not been reported before. Placement of a diaphragmatic pacing system was warranted and became lifesaving as the patient was deemed to be severely incapacitated by chronic ventilatory insufficiency.

  9. The Effect of Low-level Laser Therapy on Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Falaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of low intensity laser radiation in the treatment of acute and chronic pain is now established in many studies. Trigeminal neuralgia is a pain passes through nerve’s branches and its trigger is located in skin or mucosa that could lead to pain with a trigger stimulus. The pain involved branches of trigeminal nerve that sometimes has patients to seek the treatment for several years. Nowadays different treatments are used for relief of pain that most of them cause tolerance and various side effects. This paper reviews and summarizes scientific papers available in English literature published in PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Inter science, and Iran Medex from 1986 until July 2011 about the effect of these types of lasers on trigeminal neuralgia which is one of the most painful afflictions known. In different studies, the effect of laser therapy has been compared with placebo irradiation or medicinal and surgical treatment modalities. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT is a treatment strategy which uses a single wavelength light source. Laser radiation and monochromatic light may alter cell and tissue function. However, in most studies laser therapy was associated with significant reduction in the intensity and frequency of pain compared with other treatment strategies, a few studies revealed that between laser and placebo group there was not any significant difference according to the analgesic effect. Low-level laser therapy could be considered in treatment of trigeminal neuralgia without any side effects.

  10. Clinical observation on thoracic paravertebral nerve block with ozone treatment in patients with postherpetic neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Xiang-fei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the clinical efficacy of thoracic paravertebral nerve block with ozone in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Methods Eighty-five patients suffered postherpetic neuralgia were divided into 4 groups: Group A (oral drugs + intramuscular injection of vitamin B12 + local nerve block of lesion area, Group B (oral drugs + intramuscular injection of compound trivitamin B + local nerve block of lesion area, Group C (oral drugs + intramuscular injection of compound trivitamin B + thoracic paravertebral nerve block + local nerve block of lesion area, Group D (oral drugs + intramuscular injection of compound trivitamin B + thoracic paravertebral nerve block with ozone + local nerve block of lesion area. Treatment outcomes were evaluated by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Quality of Sleep (QS, Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS and C-reactive protein (CRP before treatment and 4 weeks after treatment. Results After treatment, VAS, QS and SDS scores of 4 groups were lower than that before treatment, and the differences were statistically significant (P 0.05, for all, while a significant change in CRP was observed in patients of group D between before and after treatment (P < 0.05. The improvement of VAS, QS and SDS scores of group D was significantly better than other 3 groups (P < 0.05, for all. Conclusion Thoracic paravertebral nerve block combined with ozone is a quick and effective method for postherpetic neuralgia patients.

  11. HIV-related risk perception among female sex workers in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankomah, Augustine; Omoregie, Godpower; Akinyemi, Zacch; Anyanti, Jennifer; Ladipo, Olaronke; Adebayo, Samson

    2011-01-01

    Over one-third of sex workers in Nigeria are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet there is a lack of understanding of sex workers' own perception of sexual risk-taking. Applying the theory of cognitive dissonance, this paper examined the personal HIV risk perception of brothel-based sex workers. The study is based on 24 focus group discussions held among brothel-based sex workers in four geographically and culturally dispersed cities in Nigeria. It was found that sex workers underestimated their risk of infection and rationalized, defended, or justified their behaviors, a typical psychological response to worry, threat, and anxiety arising from the apparent discrepancies between beliefs and behaviors. To reduce dissonance, many sex workers had a strong belief in fatalism, predestination, and faith-based invulnerability to HIV infection. Many believed that one will not die of acquired immune deficiency syndrome if it is not ordained by God. The sex workers also had a high level of HIV-related stigma. From these findings, most sex workers considered risk reduction and in particular condom use as far beyond their control or even unnecessary, as a result of their strong beliefs in fatalism and predestination. Therefore, one critical area of intervention is the need to assist sex workers to develop accurate means of assessing their personal vulnerability and self-appraisal of HIV-related risk.

  12. Re-thinking HIV-Related Stigma in Health Care Settings: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marilou

    2015-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) continue to endure stigma and discrimination in the context of health care. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study designed to (a) describe stigmatizing and discriminatory practices in health care settings, and (b) explore both symbolic and structural stigma from the perspectives of PLWH. For the purpose of this qualitative study, 21 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted in the province of Quebec, Canada. The data were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. During analysis, three themes were identified, and relations between these themes were delineated to reflect the experiences of participants. The findings suggest that HIV-related stigma in health care settings is episodic in nature. The findings also suggest that HIV-related stigma is experienced through interactions with health care providers (symbolic stigma) and, finally, that it is applied systematically to manage risk in the context of health care (structural stigma). Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A multivariate pattern analysis study of the HIV-related white matter anatomical structural connections alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenchao; Liu, Zhenyu; Li, Ruili; Cui, Xinwei; Li, Hongjun; Dong, Enqing; Tian, Jie

    2017-03-01

    It's widely known that HIV infection would cause white matter integrity impairments. Nevertheless, it is still unclear that how the white matter anatomical structural connections are affected by HIV infection. In the current study, we employed a multivariate pattern analysis to explore the HIV-related white matter connections alterations. Forty antiretroviraltherapy- naïve HIV patients and thirty healthy controls were enrolled. Firstly, an Automatic Anatomical Label (AAL) atlas based white matter structural network, a 90 × 90 FA-weighted matrix, was constructed for each subject. Then, the white matter connections deprived from the structural network were entered into a lasso-logistic regression model to perform HIV-control group classification. Using leave one out cross validation, a classification accuracy (ACC) of 90% (P=0.002) and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.96 was obtained by the classification model. This result indicated that the white matter anatomical structural connections contributed greatly to HIV-control group classification, providing solid evidence that the white matter connections were affected by HIV infection. Specially, 11 white matter connections were selected in the classification model, mainly crossing the regions of frontal lobe, Cingulum, Hippocampus, and Thalamus, which were reported to be damaged in previous HIV studies. This might suggest that the white matter connections adjacent to the HIV-related impaired regions were prone to be damaged.

  14. Self-care behaviors and activities for managing HIV-related anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Wantland, Dean; Voss, Joachim; Nicholas, Patrice; Kirksey, Kenn M; Corless, Inge B; Willard, Suzanne; Holzemer, William L; Robinson, Linda; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Huang, Emily; Arudo, John; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie; Cuca, Yvette; Lindgren, Terri; Portillo, Carmen J; Maryland, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the baseline prevalence and effectiveness of anxiety self-management strategies in a convenience sample of persons living with HIV (PLWH; n = 343) in the United States, Puerto Rico, Kenya, and South Africa who reported HIV-related anxiety symptoms. Relationships between demographics and anxiety characteristics were determined, as was the effectiveness of self-care activities/behaviors to reduce anxiety. We found that the use of anxiety self-management strategies varied by gender and that ratings of effectiveness varied by country. Highest anxiety intensity scores were found in participants who were taking antiretroviral medications and who had undetectable viral loads. Forty-five percent of the persons with a diagnosis of AIDS reported anxiety symptoms. As HIV increases in areas of the world where self-care is the primary approach to managing HIV, additional research will be needed to address the effectiveness of cross-cultural differences in strategies for self-managing HIV-related anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transgender women and HIV-related health disparities: falling off the HIV treatment cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C; Hernandez, Dominica; Finneran, Stephanie; Price, Devon; Driver, Redd

    2017-10-01

    Background Transgender women living with HIV infection experience poorer health outcomes across the HIV continuum of care. While disparities are well established, their underlying mechanisms are not well understood. This study examined the HIV continuum of care (also known as the HIV treatment cascade), including linkage and engagement in care and health status among transgender women and cisgender women and cisgender men living with HIV. Case-control matching was applied to a cohort of 1101 people living with HIV; 70 transgender women living with HIV were matched on years since testing HIV positive with cisgender women and cisgender men. Participants provided measures indicative of the HIV treatment cascade that included linkage and engagement in care, receiving and adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and HIV viral suppression. Common correlates of HIV-related health status: depression symptoms, HIV-related stress, alcohol and drug use, healthcare conspiracy beliefs, medical mistrust, emotional social support and tangible social support, were also assessed. Transgender women were significantly less likely to receive ART, were less adherent to ART and had poorer HIV viral suppression than cisgender persons. Multivariable models demonstrated that health disparities were predicted by transgender women having poorer tangible social support over and above the other correlates of health outcomes. Tangible support is amenable by interventions such as building and strengthening supportive networks and paraprofessional services. Socially supportive interventions should be considered critical in efforts to decrease HIV health disparities among transgender women.

  16. Social Networking Technology Use and Engagement in HIV Related Risk and Protective Behaviors among Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric; Bender, Kimberly; Lengnick-Hall, Rebecca; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Rhoades, Harmony

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary studies with homeless youth find surprisingly pervasive social media use and suggest youths’ online interactions may be associated with their HIV-related risk and protective behaviors. As homeless youth are transient and difficult to engage in place-based services, social media may represent a novel venue for intervention. A critical first step in intervention development is gaining greater understanding of how homeless youth use social media especially as it relates to whom they connect to and around what topics. Given the salience of Social Networking Sites in the lives of these otherwise difficult to reach adolescents, and their potential to disseminate prevention interventions, this study assessed associations between online social networking technology use and HIV risk behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Homeless youth ages 13 through 24 (N=1046) were recruited through three drop-in centers and surveyed about their social media use and self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Results suggest that social media use is widely prevalent among this population, and the content of these online interactions is associated with whether or not they engage in risk or protective behaviors. Implications for interventions and further research are discussed. PMID:27337044

  17. [HIV-related symptoms in patients with HIV infection enrolled in an HIV case management program in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Ling; Liu, Hsiao-Ying; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lee, Hsin-Chun; Ko, Nai-Ying

    2009-02-01

    Patients with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) experience multiple signs and symptoms that accompany the progress of HIV-related diseases. HIV-related symptoms are associated with side effects and HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) complications. The purposes of this study were to estimate the frequency and intensity of HIV-related signs and symptoms in patients with HIV infection and to explore relationships between HIV-related symptoms and the HAART regimen. Data on a total of 172 HIV-positive patients enrolled in an HIV case management program were analyzed for this study. Participants experienced an average of 9.73+/-7.27 symptoms, with fatigue, dry mouth and weakness the most frequently reported. Average mean symptom intensity among participants was 13.24+/-11.48. Insomnia, depression and disorientation were the most severe symptoms. No differences were recorded between HIV-related symptoms and disease progression. Fatigue intensity showed significant differences between NRTI (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), +NNRTI (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors) and NRTI+PI (protease inhibitors) based regimens (p=.03). In addition, cluster symptoms of confusion/distress among participants without HAART had a significantly higher mean intensity than those with HAART (t=2.0, df=1, p=.04). Our study indicated that symptom management for fatigue and early detection of psychological distress is needed to improve quality of life for people living with HIV/AIDS.

  18. Treatment of great auricular neuralgia with real-time ultrasound-guided great auricular nerve block: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Younghoon; Kim, Saeyoung

    2017-03-01

    The great auricular nerve can be damaged by the neck surgery, tumor, and long-time pressure on the neck. But, great auricular neuralgia is very rare condition. It was managed by several medication and landmark-based great auricular nerve block with poor prognosis. A 25-year-old man presented with a pain in the left lateral neck and auricle. He was diagnosed with great auricular neuralgia. His pain was not reduced by medication. Therefore, the great auricular nerve block with local anesthetics and steroid was performed under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound guided great auricular nerve block alleviated great auricular neuralgia. This medication-resistant great auricular neuralgia was treated by the ultrasound guided great auricular nerve block with local anesthetic agent and steroid. Therefore, great auricular nerve block can be a good treatment option of medication resistant great auricular neuralgia.

  19. Development and validation of a brief computer-administered HIV-Related Health Literacy Scale (HIV-HL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownby, Raymond L; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Hardigan, Patrick; Caballero, Joshua; Jacobs, Robin; Acevedo, Amarilis

    2013-02-01

    Health literacy is related to a number of health status variables and has been associated with medication adherence in persons treated for HIV infection. Currently-available measures of health literacy require lengthy administration or have content or format limitations. In this paper we report the preliminary development and validation of a brief computer-administered health literacy test that includes content focused on medication adherence as well as questions based on a video simulation of an HIV-related clinical encounter. The measure shows significant relations with other measures of health literacy, HIV-related knowledge, and electronically-measured medication adherence. We also present receiver operating characteristic analyses that provide estimates of various scores' sensitivities and specificities so that the HIV-Related Health Literacy Scale can be used as a screening measure.

  20. Lesión con radiofrecuencia percutánea en el manejo de la neuralgia trigeminal idiopática multitratada Injury with percutaneous radiofrenquency for the management of multitreated idiopa-thic trigeminal neuralgia

    OpenAIRE

    G. I. Picos; J. R. Hernández-Santos; S. Tenopala; J. C. Torres; M. Ramírez-Pérez

    2004-01-01

    Objetivo: Demostrar la eficacia de la radiofrecuencia percutánea en el manejo de la neuralgia trigeminal idiopática multitratada, así como un menor número de complicaciones con esta técnica. Material y métodos: Se incluyeron 10 pacientes con neuralgia trigeminal idiopática, con mala respuesta al tratamiento farmacológico convencional e intervencionista. Todos los procedimientos se realizaron bajo control fluoroscópico. Se realizó una lesión con radiofrecuencia a un rango de impedancia de entr...

  1. HIV-related risk perception among female sex workers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankomah A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Augustine Ankomah1, Godpower Omoregie1, Zacch Akinyemi2, Jennifer Anyanti1, Olaronke Ladipo1, Samson Adebayo11Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Population Services International, Kigali, RwandaBackground: Over one-third of sex workers in Nigeria are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, yet there is a lack of understanding of sex workers’ own perception of sexual risk-taking. Applying the theory of cognitive dissonance, this paper examined the personal HIV risk perception of brothel-based sex workers.Methods: The study is based on 24 focus group discussions held among brothel-based sex workers in four geographically and culturally dispersed cities in Nigeria.Results: It was found that sex workers underestimated their risk of infection and rationalized, defended, or justified their behaviors, a typical psychological response to worry, threat, and anxiety arising from the apparent discrepancies between beliefs and behaviors. To reduce dissonance, many sex workers had a strong belief in fatalism, predestination, and faith-based invulnerability to HIV infection. Many believed that one will not die of acquired immune deficiency syndrome if it is not ordained by God. The sex workers also had a high level of HIV-related stigma.Conclusion: From these findings, most sex workers considered risk reduction and in particular condom use as far beyond their control or even unnecessary, as a result of their strong beliefs in fatalism and predestination. Therefore, one critical area of intervention is the need to assist sex workers to develop accurate means of assessing their personal vulnerability and self-appraisal of HIV-related risk.Keywords: female sex workers, cognitive dissonance, risk perception, risky behavior, focus group discussions, Nigeria

  2. HIV-related sexual risk behavior among African American adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J

    2014-05-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a useful statistical tool that can be used to enhance understanding of how various patterns of combined sexual behavior risk factors may confer differential levels of HIV infection risk and to identify subtypes among African American adolescent girls. Data for this analysis is derived from baseline assessments completed prior to randomization in an HIV prevention trial. Participants were African American girls (n=701) aged 14-20 years presenting to sexual health clinics. Girls completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview, which assessed a range of variables regarding sexual history and current and past sexual behavior. Two latent classes were identified with the probability statistics for the two groups in this model being 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. In the final multivariate model, class 1 (the "higher risk" group; n=331) was distinguished by a higher likelihood of >5 lifetime sexual partners, having sex while high on alcohol/drugs, less frequent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), when compared with class 2 (the "lower risk" group; n=370). The derived model correctly classified 85.3% of participants into the two groups and accounted for 71% of the variance in the latent HIV-related sexual behavior risk variable. The higher risk class also had worse scores on all hypothesized correlates (e.g., self-esteem, history of sexual assault or physical abuse) relative to the lower risk class. Sexual health clinics represent a unique point of access for HIV-related sexual risk behavior intervention delivery by capitalizing on contact with adolescent girls when they present for services. Four empirically supported risk factors differentiated higher versus lower HIV risk. Replication of these findings is warranted and may offer an empirical basis for parsimonious screening recommendations for girls presenting for sexual healthcare services.

  3. HIV-Related Risk Behaviors Among Labor Migrants, Their Wives and the General Population in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Subash; Thapa, Deependra Kaji; Buve, Anne; Hannes, Karin; Nepal, Chiranjibi; Mathei, Catharina

    2017-04-01

    Nepalese labor migrants and their wives are considered as at-risk populations for HIV infection. There may be a risk of HIV transmission from the labor migrant and their wives to the general population due to HIV-related risk behaviors, but so far empirical evidence to support this hypothesis is scarce. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare HIV-related risk behaviors between labor migrants, their wives, and males and females from the general population in the far-western region of Nepal. This was a cross-sectional study, in which structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 261 male labor migrants, 262 wives of labor migrants, 123 males and 122 females from the general population. We found that the proportion of the labor migrants and their wives reporting having had extramarital sex in the previous year did not differ significantly with the males (11.9 vs. 13.4 %, p value 0.752) and females (2.0 vs. 1.7 %, p value 0.127) from the general population. However, the labor migrants compared with the males from the general population were 1.51 times and the wives of labor migrants compared with the females from the general population were 2.37 times more likely to have been tested for HIV. Both the males from the general population and the labor migrants are equally engaged in unprotected extramarital sex. Therefore, it is recommended that the prevention programs, including access to condoms and HIV testing, should be scaled up targeting a broader range of individuals in the far-western region of Nepal.

  4. Persisting stigma reduces the utilisation of HIV-related care and support services in Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Duong Cong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seeking and utilisation of HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support services for people living with HIV is often hampered by HIV-related stigma. The study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences regarding treatment, care, and support amongst people living with HIV in Viet Nam, where the HIV epidemic is concentrated among injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted during September 2007 in 6 districts in Hai Phong with a very high HIV prevalence among injecting drug users. The information obtained was analysed and merged within topic areas. Illustrative quotes were selected. Results Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV in the community and healthcare settings was commonly reported, and substantially hampered the seeking and the utilisation of HIV-related services. The informants related the high level of stigma to the way the national HIV preventive campaigns played on fear, by employing a “scare tactic” mainly focusing on drug users and sex workers, who were defined as “social evils” in the anti-drug and anti-prostitution policy. There was a strong exclusion effect caused by the stigma, with serious implications, such as loss of job opportunities and isolation. The support and care provided by family members was experienced as vital for the spirit and hope for the future among people living with HIV. Conclusions A comprehensive care and support programme is needed. The very high levels of stigma experienced seem largely to have been created by an HIV preventive scare tactic closely linked to the “social evil“ approach in the national policy on drug and prostitution. In order to reduce the stigma and create more effective interventions, this tactic will have to be replaced with approaches that create better legal and policy environments for drug users and sex workers.

  5. Postherpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, and trigeminal neuralgia – Chronic peripheral neuropathic pain in 58,480 rural Italian primary care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Buono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic peripheral neuropathic pain (CPNP is a condition due to peripheral nervous system diseases or injury, but its prevalence is unknown in Italian primary care. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of CPNP in a rural primary care area in Northern Italy. Materials and Methods: A multicenter audit study was carried out in a rural area in Northern Italy with 113 participating general practitioners (GPs seeing 58,480 patients> 18 years during 3 months. Patients who for any reason attended GPs' surgeries and had symptoms suggestive of neuropathic pain (NP were given the NP diagnostic questionnaire “Douleur Neuropathique en 4 Questions” (DN4 and recorded their pain level on a visual analog scale (VAS. Results: Chronic NP was established by a DN4 score of ≥4 and a VAS pain score of ≥40 mm for> 6 months together with a clinical diagnosis in 448 (254 women and 194 men out of 58,480 patients giving a prevalence of 0.77%. 179 patients (0.31% had diabetes neuropathy, 142 (0.24% had postherpetic pain, 41 (0.07% had trigeminal neuralgia, 27 (0.05% had NP postinjury, 27 (0.05% had NP caused by nerve entrapments, 11 (0.02% had NP triggered by systemic diseases, and 21 (0.04% had NP of unknown etiology. Conclusions: The prevalence of CPNP in this population of primary care attenders in a rural area in Northern Italy was 0.77%. Diabetes neuropathy (0.31% and postherpetic pain (0.24% were the two most common subgroups of NP, followed by trigeminal neuralgia (0.07%.

  6. Decision-making in classic trigeminal neuralgia concurrent with a pontine cavernous malformation: Causal or coincidental association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Maud; Acioly, Marcus André; Vincent, Maurice; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is classically associated with neurovascular compression of the trigeminal nerve, at the root entry zone (REZ). However, patients are occasionally affected by intra-axial involvement of trigeminal sensory fibers caused by demyelinating diseases, strokes and, rarely, pontine cavernous malformations. We discuss the management strategies and decision-making process in a 55-year-old patient, affected by trigeminal neuralgia with 2 potential causative mechanisms: a neurovascular conflict at the trigeminal REZ and an ipsilateral cavernous malformation at the pontine nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. CT-guided percutaneous infiltration for the treatment of Alcock's neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippiadis, Dimitrios K; Velonakis, George; Mazioti, Argyro; Alexopoulou, Efthimia; Malagari, Aikaterini; Brountzos, Elias; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Kelekis, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    The pudendal nerve may be strained either between the sacrospinous and sacrotuberous ligaments at the ischial spine level or within Alcock's canal. Alcock's neuralgia is a rare, painful condition caused by compression of the pudendal nerve within Alcock's canal (pudendal canal) which is an aponeurotic tunnel that cannot be stretched. Patients usually present with intense, unilateral pain involving anatomic areas along the pudendal nerve's root, genital, anal, and pelvic regions causing mobility impairment. A computed tomography (CT)--guided percutaneous infiltration of the pudendal nerve with a mixture of a local anesthetic and a long-acting corticosteroid is a safe and efficient method that reduces the pain caused by the neuralgia. Corticosteroids and local anesthetics interfere with the neurons, the encoding, and the processing of noxious stimuli; interrupt the pain-spasm cycle; and reduce inflammation. The injected glucocorticosteroid may take 3-5 days to reach its anti-inflammatory effect; therefore, the initial pain relief from the local anesthetic is followed by a baseline pain return and then secondary pain relief at 3-5 days. The procedure is performed under minimal or no anesthesia. In general, at discharge, a responsible person must accompany the patient and ensure a safe return home. Clinical evaluation is performed after 7-10 days. There are 2 types of potential complications that are associated with percutaneous steroid infiltrations: intra-operative (associated with needle placement) and post-operative (infection, bleeding and those associated with the injectate administration). In all cases that steroids were administered within therapeutic doses, no complications were noted. In conclusion, CT-guided percutaneous infiltration with a mixture of long-acting corticosteroid and local anesthetic seems to be a safe and efficient method for the treatment of Alcock's neuralgia.

  8. Influence of anatomic location of lidocaine patch 5% on effectiveness and tolerability for postherpetic neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalamachu S

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Srinivas Nalamachu,1 Matthew Wieman,2 Leah Bednarek,2 Surya Chitra21International Clinical Research Institute, Overland Park, KS, 2Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc, Malvern, PA, USAPurpose: Lidocaine patch 5% is recommended as a first-line therapy for postherpetic neuralgia pain in neuropathic pain guidelines. Postherpetic neuralgia can occur anywhere on the body but often follows acute herpes zoster occurring in trigeminal and brachial plexus dermatomes. An analysis was conducted to determine whether the anatomic location of lidocaine patch 5% is associated with variations in effectiveness or tolerability in patients with postherpetic neuralgia.Methods: This was a post hoc analysis by anatomic site of patch placement (head [including neck], trunk [chest, abdomen, back, hips], and extremities [arm, leg] of a 4-week, multicenter, open-label study that enrolled patients with persistent pain following herpes zoster infection. Effectiveness was measured by Brief Pain Inventory (BPI average pain intensity (0 [no pain] to 10 [worst imaginable pain] and the BPI subscale for pain relief (0% [no relief] to 100% [complete relief]. Tolerability was assessed on the basis of patient-reported adverse events.Results: Of 332 enrolled patients (59.6% women [n = 198]; 92.5% white [n = 307]; mean [standard deviation] age, 71.2 [13.9] years, those (n = 203 who applied lidocaine patch 5% to a single anatomic site only and had baseline and postbaseline pain score data were analyzed (trunk, n = 130; head, n = 41; extremities, n = 32. The frequency of adverse events differed significantly by anatomic location, with significantly more adverse events reported with patch placement on the head versus the extremities (P = 0.006 or trunk (P = 0.02. BPI average pain improved significantly from baseline in each of the three anatomic areas (mean score decrease, 1.50–2.04; P ≤ 0.002, with no significant difference in effectiveness by patch location.Conclusion: Lidocaine 5% patch was

  9. Beliefs Contributing to HIV-related Stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean Communities in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stutterheim, S.E.; Bos, A.E.R.; Kesteren, N.M.C. van; Shiripinda, I.; Pryor, J.B.; Bruin, M. de; Schaalma, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the first diagnosis, people living with HIV (PLWH) around the world continue to report stigmatizing experiences. In this study, beliefs contributing to HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean diaspora communities and their cultural context were explored through

  10. HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean communities in the Netherlands: manifestations, consequences and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R; Shiripinda, Iris; de Bruin, Marijn; Pryor, John B; Schaalma, Herman P

    2012-01-01

    HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean diaspora communities in the Netherlands was investigated. Interviews with HIV-positive and HIV-negative community members demonstrated that HIV-related stigma manifests as social distance, physical distance, words and silence. The psychological consequences of HIV-related stigma among those diagnosed with HIV reported were emotional pain, sadness, loneliness, anger, frustration and internalised stigma. The social consequences included decreased social network size, limited social support and social isolation, and resulted from not only enacted stigma but also self-imposed social withdrawal. Also, poor treatment adherence was a health-related consequence. People living with HIV employed both problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies to mitigate the negative consequences of stigma. Problem-focused coping strategies included selective disclosure, disengagement, affiliating with similar others, seeking social support and, to a lesser extent, activism. Emotion-focused strategies included distraction, positive reappraisal, religious coping, external attributions, disidentification and acceptance. HIV-related stigma clearly permeates African and Afro-Caribbean communities in the Netherlands, and should be targeted for intervention.

  11. Adapting the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model: Predicting HIV-Related Sexual Risk among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Young sexual minority males are among those at highest risk for HIV infection, yet we know relatively little about the impact of sexual identity development on HIV risk. This study used cross-sectional data to investigate factors associated with HIV-related sexual risk among a sample of sexual minority males (n = 156), ages 14 to 21 years, using…

  12. HIV-related stigma among an urban sample of persons living with HIV at risk for dropping out of HIV-oriented primary medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relf, Michael V; Rollins, Kate V

    2015-01-01

    HIV-related stigma is one of the greatest barriers to preventing and ending the HIV epidemic. The purpose of our study was to examine HIV-related stigma among urban adults voluntarily seeking HIV-oriented primary medical care and at risk for dropping out after enrolling. The baseline cross-sectional analysis of perceived HIV-related stigma upon enrolling in care examined the level of HIV-related stigma and its sub-domains: personalized, disclosure, negative self-image, and public attitudes. Our study also identified precursors of HIV-related stigma and associated outcomes. HIV-related stigma continues to be a significant problem for persons living with HIV; those perceiving higher levels of HIV-related stigma reported a poorer quality of life, both physically and mentally. The relationship between HIV-related stigma and mental health was closely connected in our sample. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Microvascular decompression for glossopharyngeal neuralgia using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring: Technical case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Takatani, Tsunenori; Park, Hun-Soo; Kotani, Yukiko; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Gurung, Pritam; Park, Young-Soo; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GN) is a rare functional disorder representing around 1% of cases of trigeminal neuralgia. Lancinating throat and ear pain while swallowing are the typical manifestations, and are initially treated using anticonvulsants such as carbamazepine. Medically refractory GN is treated surgically. Microvascular decompression (MVD) is reportedly effective against GN, superseding rhizotomy and tractotomy. Methods: We encountered three patients with medically refractory GN who underwent MVD using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). The offending vessels were the posterior inferior cerebellar arteries, which were confirmed intraoperatively via a transcondylar fossa approach to be affecting the root exit zones of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. As IONM, facial motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and brainstem auditory-evoked potentials were monitored during microsurgery in all three patients. Pharyngeal and vagal MEPs were added for two patients to avoid postoperative dysphagia. Results: GN disappeared immediately after surgery with complete preservation of hearing acuity and facial nerve function. Transient mild swallowing disturbance was observed in 1 patient without pharyngeal or vagal MEPs, whereas the remaining two patients with pharyngeal and vagal MEPs demonstrated no postoperative dysphagia. Conclusion: Although control of severe pain is expected in surgical intervention for GN, lower cranial nerves are easily damaged because of their fragility, even in MVD. IONM including pharyngeal and vagal MEPs appears very useful for avoiding postoperative sequelae during MVD for GN. PMID:26862458

  14. [Modern algorithm for treating pudendal neuralgia: 212 cases and 104 decompressions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautrant, E; de Bisschop, E; Vaini-Elies, V; Massonnat, J; Aleman, I; Buntinx, J; de Vlieger, J; Di Constanzo, M; Habib, L; Patroni, G; Siboni, S; Céas, B; Schiby, V; Uglione-Céas, M

    2003-12-01

    Clinical signs and symptoms of the pudendal neuralgia are very rich, with a great individual variability. The clinical diagnosis is difficult. It is confirmed or invalidated by the electrophysiologicals tests. Since October 1998 patient selection has been possible using a diagnosis score. Over a four-year period, the diagnosis of pudendal neuralgia was confirmed by electrophysiological investigations in 212 subjects. We rejected 12 patients because of a radiculo-medullary organic etiology. We only describe here cases of women with a peripheral pudendal nerve injury (200 patients). Thirty-eight neuropathies free of canal symptoms (obstetrical, post-traumatic...) were treated by infiltration therapy. The study of a total of 162 canal syndromes showed prevalent injury at the sacro-spino-tuberal ligamental grip which was observed in 68% of the cases, compared to the Alcock canal which was present in only 20% of the cases. One hundred four of these patients underwent surgical decompression via a trans-ischio-rectal approach after negative results of the infiltration therapy. We report here the surgical methodology, the post-op follow-up and the results, which appear quite successful: after one year 86% of the subjects are symptom-free or with a significant reduction of pain.

  15. Differential Diagnostics of Pain in the Course of Trigeminal Neuralgia and Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihut, M.; Szuta, M.; Ferendiuk, E.; Zeńczak-Więckiewicz, D.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic oral and facial pain syndromes are an indication for intervention of physicians of numerous medical specialties, while the complex nature of these complaints warrants interdisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approach. Oftentimes, lack of proper differentiation of pain associated with pathological changes of the surrounding tissues, neurogenic pain, vascular pain, or radiating pain from idiopathic facial pain leads to improper treatment. The objective of the paper is to provide detailed characterization of pain developing in the natural history of trigeminal neuralgia and temporomandibular joint dysfunction, with particular focus on similarities accounting for the difficulties in diagnosis and treatment as well as on differences between both types of pain. It might seem that trigeminal neuralgia can be easily differentiated from temporomandibular joint dysfunction due to the acute, piercing, and stabbing nature of neuralgic pain occurring at a single facial location to spread along the course of the nerve on one side, sometimes a dozen or so times a day, without forewarning periods. Both forms differ significantly in the character and intensity of pain. The exact analysis of the nature, intensity, and duration of pain may be crucial for the differential diagnostics of the disorders of our interest. PMID:24995309

  16. [Clinical observation of post-herpetic neuralgia treated with TCM herbal cupping therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi; Hu, Hui; Guo, Liang; Wang, Hui

    2013-02-01

    To compare the difference in the efficacy on post-herpetic neuralgia among TCM herbal cupping therapy, Chinese medicine thermal compressing therapy and mecobalamine. Fifty-seven cases were randomized into a TCM herbal cupping group, a thermal compressing group and a western medicine group, 19 cases in each one. The oral administration of ibuprofen was applied in every group. In the herbal cupping group, the bamboo cups soaked in the boiled Chinese herbal decoction were sucked on the most significant painful area. In the thermal compressing group, the towel soaked in the boiled Chinese herbal decoction was compressed on the most significant painful area. In the medication group, the muscular injection of mecobalamine was adopted. The treatment was given once a day, for 2 weeks totally in each group. SF-MPQ score and clinical efficacy before and after treatment were observed in each group. The remarkable effective rates were 78.9% (15/19), 36.8% (7/19) and 5.3% (1/19) in the TCM herbal cupping group, thermal compressing group and western medicine group separately. The efficacy in the TCM herbal cupping group was significantly superior to the thermal compressing group and western medicine group (all P cupping group was reduced more significantly as compared with the thermal compressing group and western medicine group (all P cupping therapy achieves the superior efficacy for post-herpetic neuralgia and relieves pain effectively of the patients, which is more advantageous than CM herbal thermal compressing therapy and Mecobalamine.

  17. Surgical treatment for combined hemifacial spasm and atypical trigeminal neuralgia caused by a tortuous basilar artery. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressot, L V; Hassaneen, W; Fox, B D; Mitchell, B D; Tatsui, C E; Ehni, B L; Omeis, I

    2012-06-01

    Simultaneous hemifacial spasm (HFS) and trigeminal neuralgia caused by cranial nerve (CN) compression from a tortuous basilar artery (BA) is very rare. We report a case of a 66-year-old man who presented with both HFS and "atypical" trigeminal neuralgia. The patient had a tortuous BA compressing both CN V and VII. The patient underwent microvascular decompression after failing conservative medical management. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of both HFS and "atypical" trigeminal neuralgia that were both successfully treated by surgical intervention. We report the management of this rare combination and review the literature.

  18. Workplace and HIV-related sexual behaviours and perceptions among female migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Li, X; Stanton, B; Fang, X; Lin, D; Mao, R; Liu, H; Chen, X; Severson, R

    2005-10-01

    Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment establishments (e.g. restaurants, stalls, domestic service, factories, etc.). About 10% of women in the entertainment establishments reported having sold sex, 30% having multiple sexual partners and 40% having sex with men with multiple sexual partners. The rate of consistent condom use was less than 15%. They also tended to have a higher level of perceptions of both peer risk involvement and positive expectancy of risk behaviours, and lower perceptions of severity of STDs and HIV. For women who were not sexually experienced, those working in 'stalls' or 'domestic service' tended to perceive higher peer risk involvement, less severity of HIV infection, and less effectiveness of protective behaviour. The occupational pattern of sexual risk behaviours and perceptions observed in the current study indicates employment conditions are associated with HIV risk. Intervention strategies should be tailored to address occupational-related factors.

  19. Loneliness and HIV-related stigma explain depression among older HIV-positive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Brennan, Mark; Karpiak, Stephen E

    2010-05-01

    Advances in the treatment of HIV have resulted in a large growing population of older adults with HIV. These aging adults face added social, psychological, and physical challenges associated with the aging process. Correlations between depression, loneliness, health, and HIV/AIDS-related stigma have been studied, but there is little evaluation of these associations among HIV-positive adults over the age of 50. Data for these analyses were taken from the Research on Older Adults with HIV study of 914 New York City-based HIV-positive men and women over the age of 50. In total, 39.1% of participants exhibited symptoms of major depression (CES-D > 23). Multivariate modeling successfully explained 42% of the variance in depression which was significantly related to increased HIV-associated stigma, increased loneliness, decreased cognitive functioning, reduced levels of energy, and being younger. These data underscore the need for service providers and researchers to assert more aggressive and innovative efforts to resolve both psychosocial and physical health issues that characterize the graying of the AIDS epidemic in the USA. Data suggest that focusing efforts to reduce HIV-related stigma and loneliness may have lasting effects in reducing major depressive symptoms and improving perceived health.

  20. Qualitative study of HIV related stigma and discrimination: What women say in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskouie, Fatemeh; Kashefi, Farzaneh; Rafii, Forough; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-07-01

    HIV-related stigma is a major social problem of people living with HIV. Stigma against these people, especially women, interferes with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of HIV. This study examined the experiences of HIV infected women who were stigmatized, as well as the strategies used to tackle the issue. Twenty-five women living with HIV were examined using in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The data obtained was analyzed using content analysis method in MAXQDA10. The finding of this study was classified into four themes: fear, shame, rejection by family or friends and feelings of frustration. The participant strategies adopted to the perceived stigma and discrimination included isolation, nondisclosure, and loss of follow-up. HIV in women has different social interposition. It is necessary to intervene, so as to alleviate the effect of stigma on HIV infected women, in order that they gain the ability to accomplish wellness, increase life span and improve quality of life. Nurses, midwives and other professionals need to be involved to ensure public policy in providing supportive environments, and decrease stigma.

  1. HIV-related discrimination reported by people living with HIV in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elford, Jonathan; Ibrahim, Fowzia; Bukutu, Cecilia; Anderson, Jane

    2008-03-01

    The objective was to examine the extent to which people living with HIV in London reported being discriminated against because of their infection. In 2004-2005, people living with HIV attending NHS outpatient HIV clinics in north east London were asked: "Have you ever been treated unfairly or differently because of your HIV status-in other words discriminated against?". Of the 1,687 people who returned a questionnaire (73% response rate), data from 1,385 respondents were included in this analysis; 448 heterosexual women and 210 heterosexual men of black African origin, 727 gay/bisexual men (621 white, 106 ethnic minority). Overall, nearly one-third of respondents (29.9%, 414/1,385) said they had been discriminated against because of their HIV infection. Of those who reported experiencing HIV-related discrimination, almost a half (49.6%, 200/403) said this had involved a health care worker including their dentist (n = 102, 25.3%) or primary care physician (n = 70, 17.4%).

  2. Women of Color Reflect on HIV-Related Stigma through PhotoVoice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtyan, Mariam; Farmer, Shu; Brown, Brandon; Sami, Mojgan; Frederick, Toni

    2016-01-01

    HIV-related stigma affects people living with HIV (PLWH), especially in communities of color. In our study, African American and Latina/Hispanic women living with HIV (WLWH) described experiences of stigma through PhotoVoice, a community-based participatory method of documentary photography. Ten WLWH from Los Angeles documented stigma experiences through photographs for up to 5 weeks and discussed their images during a focus group or semi-structured individual interview. Qualitative interpretive phenomenological analysis of participant narratives and photographs revealed lack of education and cultural myths as the main triggers of the stigma our participants faced. Stigma was experienced in health care settings, and participants identified depression, fear of intimate relationships, and nondisclosure of HIV status as its consequences. Social support and faith were noted as key coping mechanisms. WLWH recommended involving PLWH and public health officials in stigma reduction campaigns and youth education. PhotoVoice was perceived as a useful tool for education and self-improvement. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. HIV-Related Healthcare Needs and Access Barriers for Brazilian Transgender and Gender Diverse People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Catelan, Ramiro Figueiredo; Schwarz, Karine; Stucky, Juliana Ledur; da Rosa Filho, Heitor Tome; Pase, Paola Fagundes; Gagliotti, Daniel Augusto Mori; Saadeh, Alexandre; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues; Nardi, Henrique Caetano; Koller, Silvia Helena

    2018-01-03

    The aim of this study is to investigate HIV-related healthcare needs and access barriers for Brazilian transgender and gender diverse people. Data were collected from gender identity clinics and the questionnaire was also made available on the Internet. Out of the 543 participants-62.1% (n = 337) transgender women, 28.7 (n = 156) transgender men and 9.2% (n = 50) gender diverse people, 63.7% had been tested at least once in their lives. The prevalence of self-reported HIV-positive status among transgender women was 16.5%, of which 92.0% reported having a physician with whom they regularly consulted about HIV, whereas none of the transgender men or gender diverse people reported HIV-positive status. In addition, 8.2% of transgender men and 12.5% of gender diverse people did not know their serological status. Finally, 71.0% of the participants were unfamiliar with post-exposure prophylaxis. The study discusses the need for adequate behavior-oriented HIV health policies and training of healthcare professionals regarding the needs of Brazilian transgender and gender diverse people.

  4. HIV-related knowledge and perceptions by academic major: Implications for university interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lee Smith

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most universities offer human sexuality courses, although they are not required for graduation. While students in health-related majors may receive sexuality education in formal settings, majority of college students never receive formal sexual health or HIV/AIDS-related education, which may lead to elevated engagement in high-risk sexual behaviors. This study examines perceived knowledge about HIV/AIDS, perceived risk, and perceived consequences among college students by two distinct classifications of academic majors. Data were collected from 510 college students. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were performed to compare HIV-related covariates by academic major category. Limited differences were observed by Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM categorization. Relative to health and kinesiology (HK majors, those who self-reported being completely knowledgeable about HIV were less likely to be physical sciences, math, engineering, business (PMEB [OR=0.41, P=0.047] or education, humanities, and social sciences (EHS majors [OR=0.25, P=0.004]. PMEB majors were less likely to report behavioral factors as a risk for contracting HIV [OR=0.86, P=0.004] and perceived acquiring HIV would be more detrimental to their quality of life [OR=2.14, P=0.012], but less detrimental to their mental wellbeing [OR=0.58, P=0.042]. Findings can inform college-wide campaigns and interventions to raise HIV/AIDS awareness and improve college health.

  5. Toward Automating HIV Identification: Machine Learning for Rapid Identification of HIV-Related Social Media Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Yu, Wenchao; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    "Social big data" from technologies such as social media, wearable devices, and online searches continue to grow and can be used as tools for HIV research. Although researchers can uncover patterns and insights associated with HIV trends and transmission, the review process is time consuming and resource intensive. Machine learning methods derived from computer science might be used to assist HIV domain experts by learning how to rapidly and accurately identify patterns associated with HIV from a large set of social data. Using an existing social media data set that was associated with HIV and coded by an HIV domain expert, we tested whether 4 commonly used machine learning methods could learn the patterns associated with HIV risk behavior. We used the 10-fold cross-validation method to examine the speed and accuracy of these models in applying that knowledge to detect HIV content in social media data. Logistic regression and random forest resulted in the highest accuracy in detecting HIV-related social data (85.3%), whereas the Ridge Regression Classifier resulted in the lowest accuracy. Logistic regression yielded the fastest processing time (16.98 seconds). Machine learning can enable social big data to become a new and important tool in HIV research, helping to create a new field of "digital HIV epidemiology." If a domain expert can identify patterns in social data associated with HIV risk or HIV transmission, machine learning models could quickly and accurately learn those associations and identify potential HIV patterns in large social data sets.

  6. Genetic divergence of hepatitis C virus: the role of HIV-related immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netski, Dale M; Mao, Qing; Ray, Stuart C; Klein, Robert S

    2008-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that HIV-related immunosuppression alters the host-hepatitis C virus (HCV) interaction, resulting in fewer amino acid-changing substitutions in HCV viral variants. Higher HCV RNA levels in persons coinfected with HIV compared with HCV infection alone suggest increased viral replication. If this increase is dependent on decreased immune selective pressure, then a reduced rate of nucleotide changes resulting in amino acid replacements (nonsynonymous changes, dN) would be expected. We investigated HCV envelope sequences over time in 79 persons with chronic HCV infection who were HIV negative (group 1) or HIV positive with (group 3) or without (group 2) severe immunodeficiency. We amplified a 1026-nt region of the HCV genome, which encodes a portion of the envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2, including hypervariable region-1 for direct sequence analysis. The overall divergence between paired sequences, dS, dN, and dN/dS, all showed no significant differences among the 3 groups. By measuring nucleotide substitutions in HCV sequences over time, we found no significant differences in the genetic divergence between HCV-monoinfected control subjects and HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects with various levels of immunodeficiency as measured by CD4+ T-cell counts.

  7. Female sex workers' empowerment strategies amid HIV-related socioeconomic vulnerabilities in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cange, Charles W; LeBreton, Matthew; Saylors, Karen; Billong, Serge; Tamoufe, Ubald; Fokam, Pamella; Baral, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated that female sex workers use a variety of empowerment strategies to protect one another and their families. This study examines the strategies Cameroonian sex workers employ to do so. In-depth interviews and focus-group discussions were conducted with 100 sex workers. Coded texts were analysed for recurring themes. Sex workers reported being concerned with physical violence and sexual assault and demands from authorities for bribes to avoid fines and/or imprisonment. Women described strategies such as 'looking out for' each other when faced with security threats. Many reported staying in sex work to provide for their children through education and other circumstances to allow them to lead a better life. Sex worker mothers reported not using condoms when clients offered higher pay, or with intimate partners, even when they understood the risk of HIV transmission to themselves. Concern for their children's quality of life took precedence over HIV-related risks, even when sex workers were the children's primary carers. A sex worker empowerment programme with a focus on family-oriented services could offer an effective and novel approach to increasing coverage of HIV prevention, treatment and care in Cameroon.

  8. Fear of Foreigners: HIV-related restrictions on entry, stay, and residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Joseph J; Todrys, Katherine Wiltenburg

    2008-12-16

    Among the earliest and the most enduring responses to the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been the imposition by governments of entry, stay, and residence restrictions for non-nationals living with HIV and AIDS. Sixty-six of the 186 countries in the world for which data are available currently have some form of restriction in place. Although international human rights law allows for discrimination in the face of public health considerations, such discrimination must be the least intrusive measure required to effectively address the public health concern. HIV-related travel restrictions, by contrast, not only do not protect public health, but result in deleterious effects both at the societal level - negatively impacting HIV prevention and treatment efforts - and at the individual level, affecting, in particular, labor migrants, refugee candidates, students, and short-term travelers. Governments should repeal these laws and policies, and instead devote legislative attention and national resources to comprehensive HIV prevention, care, and treatment programmes serving citizens and non-citizens alike.

  9. Global Reduction in HIV-related Maternal Mortality: ART as a Key Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamisu M. Salihu, MD, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Holtz and colleagues present a synthesis of evidence from published studies over the previous decade on the collective impact of HIV-targeted interventions on maternal mortality. Amongst an assortment of interventions [that include antiretroviral therapy (ART, micronutrients (multivitamins, vitamin A and selenium, and antibiotics], only ART reduced maternal mortality among HIV-infected pregnant and post-partum mothers. These findings have fundamental and global strategic implications. They are also timely since they provide the evidence that ART reduces HIV-related maternal mortality, and by further enhancing access to ART in HIV-challenged and poor regions of the world, significant improvement in maternal morbidity and mortality indices could be attained. The paper bears good tidings and sound scientific proof that the financial investment made globally by government and non-governmental organizations and agencies to reduce the global burden of HIV/AIDS primarily by making ART more accessible to regions of the world most affected by the epidemic is beginning to show beneficial effects not only in terms of numerical reductions in the rates of new cases of HIV/AIDS among women, but also in maternal mortality levels.

  10. Alveolar macrophages as a cell source of cytokine hyperproduction in HIV-related interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, C; Sancetta, R; Cerutti, A; Semenzato, G

    1995-11-01

    Pulmonary macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). They are known to be discrete target cells for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and compelling evidence is accumulating that alveolar macrophages (AMs) from HIV-infected patients behave as versatile secretory cells that, acting as antigen-presenting cells, release a great variety of cytokines. The secretory products of AMs, pivotal to their immune effects, may contribute to localized immune dysregulation as well as to primary lung damage and clinical disease. Pulmonary macrophages are also thought to facilitate retroviral spread by their direct infection, by presenting HIV antigens to uninfected T cells, and by secreting cytokines that transactivate HIV expression. This review briefly considers the events underlying the role of AMs in the pulmonary defense mechanisms against HIV and AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Following a brief overview of immune mechanisms taking place in the lungs of HIV-infected subjects, we describe the specific role of AMs in the immune mechanisms devoted to recognizing and removing HIV-infected cells and controlling the local growth of opportunists. The pathogenetic role envisaged for macrophages in lung damage are also reviewed in the context of the known biology of these cells. Finally, this review examines the relevance of the retroviral infection of AMs in terms of pathogenesis of the HIV-related interstitial lung disease.

  11. HIV-related risk behaviors among male inmates of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the frequencies and types of HIV-related risk behavior among inmates of Tehran, Iran. Methods: We used active case finding to assess the prevalence of HIV high risk behaviors. The research was conducted on male prisoners in the Great Tehran Prison from October 2013 to May 2014. Results: Two thousand and fifty (19.5% from 10 492 prisoners who were admitted to “quarantine” of the prison participated in HIV testing and counseling. Of 2 050 inmates, our results showed that sexual encounters were the most prevalent risky behavior (89.6% reported by the prisoners, followed by tattooing (34.7% and injection drug use (24.2%. Conclusions: Although the previous studies reported that the main leading cause of acquiring HIV infection in Iranian prisons was injecting drug use, the prevalence of injecting drug use was less than the prevalence of unsafe sexual relationships and tattooing in the present research among the inmates of Tehran.

  12. Gabapentin for once-daily treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beal B

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin Beal,1 Tobias Moeller-Bertram,1,2 Jan M Schilling,1 Mark S Wallace11Division of Pain Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, 2VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USAAbstract: Post-herpetic neuralgia is a neuropathic pain syndrome resulting from an insult to the peripheral and central nervous systems caused by the varicella zoster virus. Spontaneous pain may result in the persistent sensation of burning, tingling, or aching and may be associated with thermally or mechanically provoked pain, resulting in hyperalgesia or allodynia. The majority of cases occur in patients over the age of 50 years. Gabapentin is a structural analog of gamma aminobutyric acid that binds to the α2-δ site of voltage-dependent calcium channels and modulates the influx of calcium, with a resulting reduction in excitatory neurotransmitter release. Gabapentin is effective in reducing neuropathic pain due to post-herpetic neuralgia when given at least three times per day, due to its short half-life, resulting in demonstrable fluctuations in plasma levels. Gabapentin has dose-limiting side effects that prevent some patients from achieving therapeutic plasma levels, such as somnolence (27.4%, dizziness (23.9%, and ataxia (7.1%. Gralise™ is a once-daily extended-release formulation of gabapentin that has been developed using AcuForm™ technology. AcuForm is a polymer-based drug delivery system that retains the tablet in the stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract for a sustained period of time. Once-daily dosing has been shown to provide comparable drug exposure with an identical daily dose of the immediate-release formulation when administered three times daily. Participants given Gralise 1800 mg daily had a statistically significant reduction in average daily pain intensity scores compared with placebo, reduced sleep interference due to pain, and a greater percent of participants reporting being much or very much improved on

  13. HIV Among Indigenous peoples: A Review of the Literature on HIV-Related Behaviour Since the Beginning of the Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negin, Joel; Aspin, Clive; Gadsden, Thomas; Reading, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    From the early days of the HIV epidemic, Indigenous peoples were identified as a population group that experiences social and economic determinants-including colonialism and racism-that increase exposure to HIV. There are now substantial disparities in HIV rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in some countries. We conducted a comprehensive literature review to assess the evidence on HIV-related behaviors and determinants in four countries-Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States-in which Indigenous peoples share important features of colonization and marginalization. We identified 107 articles over more than 20 years. The review highlights the determinants of HIV-related behaviors including domestic violence, stigma and discrimination, and injecting drug use. Many of the factors associated with HIV risk also contribute to mistrust of health services, which in turn contributes to poor HIV and health outcomes among Indigenous peoples.

  14. HIV-Related Stigma and Overlapping Stigmas Towards People Living With HIV Among Health Care Trainees in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anne C; Girard, Todd; McShane, Kelly E; Margolese, Shari; Hart, Trevor A

    2017-08-01

    HIV continues to be a stigmatized disease, despite significant advances in care and concerted effort to reduce discrimination, stereotypes, and prejudice. Living with HIV is often associated with a multitude of overlapping and intersecting experiences which can, in and of themselves, also be stigmatized, and which may exacerbate HIV-related stigma. The consequences of these stigmatizing experiences are particularly impactful when the stigmatizing individual is a health care provider, as this can influence access to and quality of care. The current study empirically investigates a model of overlapping stigmas (homophobia, racism, sexism, stigma against injection drug use and stigma against sex work) potentially held by health care provider trainees in Canada to determine how these constructs overlap and intersect, and to assess whether HIV-related stigma may have unique attributes. Understanding overlapping stigmas can help inform targeted, stigma-informed training for health care trainees in order to provide effective, compassionate care for people living with HIV.

  15. Dealing with HIV-related stigma: a qualitative study of women outpatients from the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekganyane, Robert; du Plessis, Gretchen

    2012-01-01

    HIV-related stigma is widely regarded as a key impediment to effective prevention and care. The purpose of this study was to explore HIV-infected women outpatients' experiences of stigma and the coping strategies that they devised to deal with it. Six HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral treatment from the Nthabiseng Clinic of the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital participated in this qualitative study. HIV-related stigma was experienced by all the participants and was narrated as a sense of loss that gave rise to feelings of fear and shame. To cope with this, the women isolated themselves, became secretive about their health, disclosed strategically, and enlisted support. The elements of stigma and the coping strategies employed as uncovered in this study suggest a basis from which interventions aimed at assisting HIV-infected people to deal with stigma can be planned. Copyright © 2012 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex inequalities in HIV-related practices in the Brazilian population aged 15 to 64 years old, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Roberta Pati Pascom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze gender differences in HIV-related practices in the Brazilian population. A national survey was carried out in 2008 with a sample size of 8,000 individuals aged 15-64 years old. The sampling was stratified by macro geographical region and urban/rural areas. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the main predictors of consistent condom use. The results showed that women have less sexy, start sexual life later than men, have fewer casual sexual partners, but use condom less frequently than men. On the other hand, the coverage of HIV testing is significantly greater among women. Significant differences by gender were seen in all HIV-related risky practices. The greater vulnerability was always associated with women, with exception of HIV testing. The low proportion of condom use in infidelity situations was a problem for box sexes and deserves special consideration when developing prevention strategies.

  17. Predictors of postherpetic neuralgia in patients with herpes zoster: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies from North and Latin America and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Kawai

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: In addition to older age and severe acute pain, this study suggests that impaired physical and social functioning from acute zoster pain may play a role in the development of PHN in this prospective cohort study of HZ patients from North and Latin America and Asia.

  18. Nonvolitional sex and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among MSM in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Oraka, Emeka; Chavez, Pollyanna R; Valverde, Eduardo; Dinenno, Elizabeth

    2015-08-24

    We estimated the prevalence of lifetime nonvolitional sex (NVS) among MSM by demographic characteristics, and characterized its association with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among MSM in the United States. The National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the United States. NSFG data from recent cycles 2002, and 2006-2010 were weighted and analysed for men aged 18-44 years who reported ever having anal or oral intercourse with another male. Associations of lifetime NVS (forced sex by men or women) and age of first NVS experience (sexual risk behaviour outcomes in the past 12 months (i.e. sex with two or more male sex partners; exchanged sex for money or drugs; sex with IDU; sex with HIV-positive person; sex with two or more female sex partners) were assessed using adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR). An estimated 3 226 872 or 5.8% of men aged 18-44 years were identified as MSM with 24.6% of them reporting ever experiencing NVS. MSM reporting NVS at age 18 years or older were more likely to have had sex with an IDU [aPR = 4.40; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.78-10.88] and exchanged sex for money or drugs (aPR = 2.52; 95% CI 1.17-5.43) in the past 12 months compared with those not reporting NVS. NVS for MSM less than 18 years of age was associated with exchanging sex for money or drugs. Effective interventions to raise awareness of NVS among MSM and to offer support for MSM who have experienced NVS are needed.

  19. HIV-related discrimination among grade six students in nine Southern African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Spaull, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    HIV-related stigmatisation and discrimination by young children towards their peers have important consequences at the individual level and for our response to the epidemic, yet research on this area is limited. We used nationally representative data to examine discrimination of HIV-positive children by grade six students (n = 39,664) across nine countries in Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Descriptive statistics are used to compare discrimination by country, gender, geographic location and socioeconomic status. Multivariate logistic regression is employed to assess potential determinants of discrimination. The levels and determinants of discrimination varied significantly between the nine countries. While one in ten students in Botswana, Malawi, South Africa and Swaziland would "avoid or shun" an HIV positive friend, the proportions in Lesotho, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe were twice as high (approximately 20%). A large proportion of students believed that HIV positive children should not be allowed to continue to attend school, particularly in Zambia (33%), Lesotho (37%) and Zimbabwe (42%). The corresponding figures for Malawi and Swaziland were significantly lower at 13% and 12% respectively. Small differences were found by gender. Children from rural areas and poorer schools were much more likely to discriminate than those from urban areas and wealthier schools. Importantly, we identified factors consistently associated with discrimination across the region: students with greater exposure to HIV information, better general HIV knowledge and fewer misconceptions about transmission of HIV via casual contact were less likely to report discrimination. Our study points toward the need for early interventions (grade six or before) to reduce stigma and discrimination among children, especially in schools situated in rural areas and poorer communities. In particular, interventions

  20. Factors Associated with Pregnant Women’s Anticipations and Experiences of HIV-related Stigma in Rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Yvette P.; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Turan, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women who fear or experience HIV-related stigma may not get care for their own health or medications to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV. This study examined factors associated with anticipating and experiencing HIV-related stigma among 1,777 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in rural Kenya. Women were interviewed at baseline, offered HIV testing and care, and a sub-set was re-interviewed at 4–8 weeks postpartum. Women who were older, had less education, whose husbands had other wives, and who perceived community discrimination against people with HIV had significantly greater adjusted odds of anticipating HIV stigma. Over half of the HIV-positive women interviewed postpartum reported having experienced stigma, much of which was self-stigma. Women experiencing minor depression, and those whose family knew of their HIV status had significantly greater adjusted odds of experiencing stigma. Lack of women’s empowerment, as well as depression, may be important risk factors for HIV-related stigma and discrimination. PMID:22799618

  1. Associations between health literacy, HIV-related knowledge, and information behavior among persons living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonbraker, Samantha; Smaldone, Arlene; Luft, Heidi; Cushman, Linda F; Lerebours Nadal, Leonel; Halpern, Mina; Larson, Elaine

    2017-12-29

    To determine the health literacy levels of persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) at a health clinic in the Dominican Republic (DR) and assess associations between health literacy, HIV-related knowledge, and health information behavior (how patients need, seek, receive, and use information). Cross-sectional, descriptive. Participants were 107 PLWH attending the Clinic. A theoretically based, 64-item survey assessing information behavior and HIV-related knowledge was administered in Spanish through individual interviews. Health literacy was assessed using the Short Assessment of Health Literacy-Spanish and English. On average, participants were 40.8 years old and had lived with HIV for 7.7 years. The majority (69.2%) had low health literacy. HIV-related knowledge and information behavior varied by health literacy level and uncertainty regarding a main indicator of disease progression, viral load, was demonstrated regardless of health literacy level. Participants with low health literacy were less likely to answer questions or answer questions correctly and many participants (39.2%) indicated viral transmission can occur through supernatural means. Findings demonstrate unmet information need and that information received may not always be understood. Methods to improve health education are needed to ensure patients receive health information in an understandable way. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Frameless Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis-Related Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Alfredo; Pontoriero, Antonio; Iatì, Giuseppe; Esposito, Felice; Siniscalchi, Enrico Nastro; Crimi, Salvatore; Vinci, Sergio; Brogna, Anna; De Ponte, Francesco; Germanò, Antonino; Pergolizzi, Stefano; Tomasello, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) affects 7% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In such patients, TN is difficult to manage either pharmacologically and surgically. Radiosurgical rhizotomy is an effective treatment option. The nonisocentric geometry of radiation beams of CyberKnife introduces new concepts in the treatment of TN. Its efficacy for MS-related TN has not yet been demonstrated. Twenty-seven patients with refractory TN and MS were treated. A nonisocentric beams distribution was chosen; the maximal target dose was 72.5 Gy. The maximal dose to the brainstem was radiosurgery can be effectively used to perform retrogasserian rhizotomy. Pain relief was satisfactory and, with our dose/volume constraints, no sensory complications were recorded. Nonetheless, long-term pain control was possible in less than half of the patients. This is a limitation that CyberKnife radiosurgery shares with other techniques in MS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Field-testing of the ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria for classical trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine; Sørensen, Morten Togo; Gozalov, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    of false-negative diagnoses in TN patients were due to sensory abnormalities at clinical examination. With a proposed modified version of ICHD-3 beta it was possible to increase sensitivity to 96.1% (p beta) while maintaining specificity at 83.8% (p = 0.074 compared to ICHD-3......INTRODUCTION: We aimed to field-test the beta version of the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta) diagnostic criteria for classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN). The proposed beta draft of the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases...... (ICD-11 beta) is almost exclusively based on the ICHD-3 beta classification structure although slightly abbreviated. We compared sensitivity and specificity to ICHD-2 criteria, and evaluated the needs for revision. METHODS: Clinical characteristics were systematically and prospectively collected from...

  4. Hemifacial spasm and trigeminal neuralgia in Chiari's I malformation with hydrocephalus: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Yuan, Yue; Zang, Li; Fang, Ying; Liu, Hongjun; Yu, Yanbing

    2014-07-01

    Chiari's I malformation with hydrocephalus is commonly seen in clinical experience. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) are most commonly related to vascular compression of the root entry/enter zone (REZ). Until now, TN and HFS associated with hydrocephalus caused by Chiari's malformation have not been reported. The patient was a 24-year old male with left HFS and ipsilateral TN. Arnold-Chiari's I malformation with hydrocephalus and platybasia were found in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain. We underwent a programmable ventriculoperitoneal shunt with complete resolution of all symptoms. This is the first report of one case only presenting as coexistent ipsilateral TN and HFS secondary to Chiari's I malformation with hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gamma knife radiosurgery to the trigeminal ganglion for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia secondary to vertebrobasilar ectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaza, Salvador; Hurtado, Wendy; Montilla, Eglee; Ghaleb, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Background: We report the result obtained using Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery on the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in a patient with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) secondary to vertebrobasilar ectasia (VBE). Case Description: Retrospective review of medical records corresponding to one patient with VBE-related trigeminal pain treated with radiosurgery. Because of the impossibility of visualization of the entry zone or the path of trigeminal nerve through the pontine cistern, we proceeded with stereotactic radiosurgery directed to the TG. The maximum radiation dose was 86 Gy with a 8-mm and a 4-mm collimator. The follow-up period was 24 months. The pain disappeared in 15 days, passing from Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) grade V to BNI grade IIIa in 4 months and then to grade I. The patient did not experience noticeable subjective facial numbness. Conclusions: This experience showed that Gamma knife radiosurgery was effective in the management of VBE-related trigeminal pain, using the TG as radiosurgical target. PMID:25593782

  6. Radiological Imaging Findings of a Case with Vertebral Osteoid Osteoma Leading to Brachial Neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Gokce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoid osteoma is a small, benign osteoblastic tumor consisting of a highly vascularized nidus of connective tissue surrounded by sclerotic bone. Three-quarters of osteoid osteomas are located in the long bones, and only 7-12% in the vertebral column. The classical clinical presentation of spinal osteoid osteoma is that of painful scoliosis. Other clinical features include nerve root irritation and night pain. Osteoid osteoma has characteristic computed tomography (CT findings. Because magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of the osteoid osteomas causing intense perinidal edema can be confusing, these patients should be evaluated with clinical findings and other imaging techniques. In this study, we present X-ray, CT, and MRI findings of a case with osteoid osteoma located in thoracic 1 vertebra left lamina and transverse process junction leading to brachial neuralgia symptoms.

  7. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous ozone injection of the Gasserian ganglion for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An JX

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jian-Xiong An,1,2 Hui Liu,1 Ruo-Wen Chen,1,2 Yong Wang,1 Wen-Xing Zhao,1 Derek Eastwood,3 John P Williams4 1Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine & Critical Care Medicine, Aviation General Hospital of China Medical University & Beijing Institute of Translational Medicine, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Weifang Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pain Services, Wirral University Teaching Hospital, Wirral, Merseyside, UK; 4Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of computed tomography (CT-guided percutaneous ozone injection for refractory trigeminal neuralgia. Design: A retrospective evaluation was performed in the study. Setting: The study was conducted at a university hospital pain center. Patients and methods: A total of 29 patients with a clinical diagnosis of refractory trigeminal neuralgia were enrolled. All patients were treated with a percutaneous ozone injection and one patient was excluded. There were 21 patients with classical trigeminal neuralgia (group A and seven patients with painful trigeminal neuropathy caused by post-herpetic neuralgia (group B. The percutaneous injection was an oxygen–ozone mixture at an ozone concentration of 30 mg/­mL into the Gasserian ganglion performed under CT guidance. The number of ­procedures performed varied from one to as many as 16. Outcomes were evaluated using visual analog scale (VAS pain scores. Results: The combined VAS scores were 7.11 ± 1.23 pretreatment, 2.86 ± 1.69 posttreatment (P < 0.05 and 3.25 ± 2.01 after 6-month follow-up (P < 0.05. In group A, the VAS scores were 7.10 ± 1.04 pretreatment and 2.90 ± 1.84 posttreatment (P < 0.05. In group B, the VAS scores were 7.14 ± 1.77 pretreatment and 2.71 ± 1.25 posttreatment (P < 0.05. After 6-months follow-up, the VAS score was 3.38

  8. La Neuralgia del Trigémino, Diagnóstico y Tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jaramillo Carling

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Presentacion de Casos.

    Objetivos: presentar 20 pacientes con Neuralgia del Trigémino tratados quirúrgicamente con craneotomía suboccipital y descompresión vascular microquirúrgica en la fosa posterior. Igualmente se realiza revisión de la literatura médica publicada hasta diciembre del 2000, actualizando los conceptos de neuroanatomía del trigémino; y de la neuralgia del trigémino su diagnóstico, incidencia, etiopatogenia, cuadro clínico, diagnósticos diferenciales y tratamientos tanto médicos, como quirúrgicos haciendo énfasis en la descompresión microquirúrgica.

    Métodos: se operaron 20 pacientes que habían sido tratados farmacológicamente y no toleraron la medicación o no mejoraron con ella, e igualmente a algunos de ellos les habían realizado bloqueos ganglionares y presentaban recidiva de la sintomatología dolorosa. Todos fueron operados con la misma técnica quirúrgica entre 1985 y 1996; se realizó seguimiento postoperatorio por más de 5 años.

    Resultados: en todos los pacientes se encontró distorsión del nervio por compresión de un asa arterial o venosa aberrante en su localización. Igualmente todos los pacientes mejoraron totalmente con el tratamiento quirúrgico. Solo 2 presentaron recidivas y estos se analizan individualmente. Los resultados son similares a las grandes series quirúrgicas públicas...

     

     


  9. Amitriptyline Versus Pregabalin in Post Herpetic Neuralgia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Achar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Post herpetic neuralgia is a most common complication of herpes zoster which is difficult to treat. Significant beneficial effects found when treated with antiviral, tricyclic antidepressant, anticonvulsive like gabapentine and pregabalin, opioid and non opioid analgesic etc. Primary prevention can also be done with vaccine. The aim of this randomized comparative study was to establish clinical efficacy with amitriptyline and pregabalin. Methods: An open ended randomized clinical trial was conducted to compared clinical efficacy of amitriptyline (n=25 and pregabalin (n=25. Amitriptyline was given 25 mg once daily and pregabalin 75 mg twice daily. Total period of treatment were 6 month and patients were reviewed at the end of 2months, 4months and 6months to evaluate the degree of improvement in pain perception and any adverse reaction. Results: Four types of patients were included in this study and among them thoracic type was the commonest (54%. It was followed by cervical (24%, trigeminal (16% and lumbosacral types (6%. According to VAS score, satisfactory significant improvements in pain perception was observed at the end of 2 months (36%vs 8%, p<0.05 and 4 months (61.9%vs 27.8%, p<0.05 in pregabalin group than amitriptyline group. The chances of improvement more than 6 times and 4 times higher in patients with pregabalin group than those in amitriptyline group. There is no significant improvement difference was noticed at the end of 6months between groups. However, improvement was 89%(OR=1.89, 95%CI: 0.53-6.68 higher in pregabalin group than amitriptyline group. More importantly dizziness was the commonest side effect in pregabalin group while dryness of mouth was the commonest side affect in amitriptyline group. Conclusion: In conclusion, therapy with pregabalin is better compare to amitriptyline in post herpetic neuralgia. However a similar study with larger augmentation is required to establish the findings.

  10. PERCUTANEOUS BALLOON COMPRESSION OF GASSERIAN GANGLION FOR THE TREATMENT OF TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA: AN EXPERIENCE FROM INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anurag; Dhama, Vipin; Manik, Yogesh K; Upadhyaya, M K; Singh, C S; Rastogi, V

    2015-02-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by unilateral, lancinating, paroxysmal pain in the dermatomal distribution area of trigeminal nerve. Percutaneous balloon compression (PBC) of Gasserian ganglion is an effective, comparatively cheaper and simple therapeutic modality for treatment of TN. Compression secondary to PBC selectively injures the large myelinated A-alfa (afferent) fibers that mediate light touch and does not affect A-delta and C-fibres, which carry pain sensation. Balloon compression reduces the sensory neuronal input, thus turning off the trigger to the neuropathic trigeminal pain. In this current case series, we are sharing our experience with PBC of Gasserian Ganglion for the treatment of idiopathic TN in our patients at an academic university-based medical institution in India. During the period of August 2012 to October 2013, a total of twelve PBCs of Gasserian Ganglion were performed in eleven patients suffering from idiopathic TN. There were nine female patients and two male patients with the age range of 35-70 years (median age: 54 years). In all patients cannulation of foramen ovale was done successfully in the first attempt. In eight out of eleven (72.7%) patients ideal 'Pear-shaped' balloon visualization could be achieved. In the remaining three patients (27.3%), inflated balloon was 'Bullet-shaped'. In one patient final placement of Fogarty balloon was not satisfactory and it ruptured during inflation. This case was deferred for one week when it was completed successfully with 'Pear-shaped' balloon inflation. During the follow up period of 1-13 months, there have been no recurrences of TN. Eight out of eleven patients (72.7%) are completely off medicines (carbamazepine and baclofen) and other two patients are stable on very low doses of carbamazepine. All patients have reported marked improvement in quality of life. This case series shows that percutaneous balloon compression is a useful minimally invasive intervention for the

  11. Occipital Neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skeletal Syndrome (COFS) Information Page Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Information Page Chorea Information Page Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) Information Page Coffin Lowry Syndrome Information ...

  12. Trigeminal neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people, the pain becomes constant and severe. Possible Complications Complications may include: Side effects of medicines used ... Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  13. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people who do not benefit from medicines. Possible Complications Complications of GPN may include: Slow pulse and ... Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  14. Prevalence of HIV-related thrombocytopenia among clients at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Mbarara, southwestern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taremwa IM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ivan M Taremwa,1 Winnie R Muyindike,2 Enoch Muwanguzi,1 Yap Boum II,1,3 Bernard Natukunda1 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, 2Immune Suppression Syndrome Clinic, Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, 3Epicentre Mbarara Research Centre, Mbarara, Uganda Aims/objectives: We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of thrombocytopenia among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS and to assess occurrence of antiplatelet antibodies, among thrombocytopenic HIV clients at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, southwestern Uganda.Materials and methods: This was a retrospective review of hematologic results at enrollment to HIV care from 2005 to 2013. The prevalence and correlates of thrombocytopenia were estimated based on the Immune Suppressed Syndrome (ISS Clinic electronic database. A cross-sectional study determined the occurrence of antiplatelet antibodies, using the monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA technique.Results: We reviewed 15,030 client records. The median age was 35.0 (range 18–78; interquartile range [IQR] 28–42 years, and there were 63.2% (n=9,500 females. The overall prevalence of thrombocytopenia was 17.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.8%–18.0%. The prevalence of thrombocytopenia was 17.8% (95% CI: 17.1%–18.4% among antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve clients (n=2,675 and was 13.0% (95% CI: 0.3%–21.9% for clients who were on ART (n=6. The study found a significant association between thrombocytopenia and other cytopenias, CD4 counts, ART, and deteriorating HIV stage (P<0.05. Two of the 40 participants (5.0% had antiplatelet antibodies.Conclusion: This study has showed a high prevalence of HIV-related thrombocytopenia. Antiplatelet antibodies were found in 5.0% of HIV-infected thrombocytopenic participants. Our study shows a significant association of

  15. The Role of Nav1.9 Channel in the Development of Neuropathic Orofacial Pain Associated with Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulz, Ana Paula; Kopach, Olga; Santana-Varela, Sonia; Wood, John N

    2015-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is accompanied by severe mechanical, thermal and chemical hypersensitivity of the orofacial area innervated by neurons of trigeminal ganglion (TG). We examined the role of the voltage-gated sodium channel subtype Nav1.9 in the development of trigeminal neuralgia. We found that Nav1.9 is required for the development of both thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity induced by constriction of the infraorbital nerve (CION). The CION model does not induce change on Nav1.9 mRNA expression in the ipsilateral TG neurons when evaluated 9 days after surgery. These results demonstrate that Nav1.9 channels play a critical role in the development of orofacial neuropathic pain. New routes for the treatment of orofacial neuropathic pain focussing on regulation of the voltage-gated Nav1.9 sodium channel activity should be investigated. © 2015 Luiz et al.

  16. HIV-Related Stigma and HIV Prevention Uptake Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Newman, Peter A; Weaver, James; Roungkraphon, Surachet; Tepjan, Suchon

    2016-02-01

    HIV-related stigma is a pervasive structural driver of HIV. With an HIV epidemic among young men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TG) in Thailand characterized as explosive, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among MSM and TG aged 18-30 years. From April-August 2013, participants recruited using venue-based sampling from gay entertainment sites and community-based organizations completed a tablet-assisted survey interview in Thai language. We conducted multiple logistic regression to assess correlations between HIV-related stigma (felt-normative, vicarious domains) and socio-demographic variables, HIV vulnerabilities (gay entertainment employment, sex work, forced sex history), and HIV prevention uptake (condom use, HIV testing, rectal microbicide acceptability). Among participants (n = 408), 54% identified as gay, 25% transgender, and 21% heterosexual. Two-thirds (65.7%) were employed at gay entertainment venues, 67.0% had more than three male partners (past month), 55.6% had been paid for sex, and 4.5% were HIV-positive. One-fifth (21.3%) reported forced sex. Most participants reported experiencing felt-normative and vicarious HIV-related stigma. Adjusting for socio-demographics, participants with higher total HIV-related stigma scores had significantly lower odds of HIV testing and rectal microbicide acceptability, and higher odds of having experienced forced sex. Both vicarious and felt-normative dimensions of HIV-related stigma were inversely associated with HIV testing and rectal microbicide acceptability. Our findings suggest that HIV-related stigma harms the health of HIV-negative MSM and TG at high risk for HIV infection. HIV-related interventions and research among young MSM and TG in Thailand should address multiple dimensions of HIV-related stigma as a correlate of risk and a barrier to accessing prevention.

  17. Spinal cord stimulation of the conus medullaris for refractory pudendal neuralgia: a prospective study of 27 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffenoir, Kevin; Rioult, Bruno; Hamel, Olivier; Labat, Jean-Jacques; Riant, Thibault; Robert, Roger

    2015-02-01

    Thirty percent of patients with pudendal neuralgia due to pudendal nerve entrapment obtain little or no relief from nerve decompression surgery. The objective was to describe the efficacy of spinal cord stimulation of the conus medullaris in patients with refractory pudendal neuralgia. This prospective study, conducted by two centers in the same university city, described the results obtained on perineal pain and functional disability in all patients with an implanted conus medullaris stimulation electrode for the treatment of refractory pudendal neuralgia. Twenty-seven consecutive patients were included by a multidisciplinary pelvis and perineal pain clinic between May 2011 and July 2012. Mean follow-up was 15 months. The intervention was an insertion of a stimulation electrode was followed by a test period (lasting an average of 13 days) before deciding on permanent electrode implantation. Maximum and average perineal pain scores and the pain-free sitting time were initially compared during the test and in the long-term (paired t-test). The estimated percent improvement (EPI) was evaluated in the long-term. Twenty of the 27 patients were considered to be responders to spinal cord stimulation and 100% of implanted patients remained long-term responders (mean tripling of sitting time, and mean EPI of 55.5%). Spinal cord stimulation of the conus medullaris is a safe and effective technique for long-term treatment of refractory pudendal neuralgia. Routine use of this technique, which has never been previously reported in the literature in this type of patient, must now be validated by a larger scale study. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Teflon granuloma after microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve root in a patient with recurrent trigeminal neuralgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzaev, D A; Kulikova, E V; Moysak, G I; Voronina, E I; Ageeva, T A

    2016-01-01

    The use of a Teflon implant for Jannetta surgery in patients with trigeminal neuralgia is complicated in rare cases by the development of a Teflon granuloma and can cause recurrent facial pain. The article presents a clinical case of a Teflon granuloma developed after microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve root, describes the surgical findings and histological picture, and analyzes the literature, causes of granuloma development, and recommendations for treatment of these patients.

  19. Evaluation of the effectiveness of CT-guided infiltration in the treatment of Arnold's neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubry, Sebastien [CHU Sherbrooke, Departement de Radiologie, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); Universite de Franche-Comte, Laboratoire Intervention, Imagerie, Ingenierie et Innovation en Sante, Besancon (France); Kastler, Bruno [Universite de Franche-Comte, Laboratoire Intervention, Imagerie, Ingenierie et Innovation en Sante, Besancon (France); CHU Jean Minjoz, Service de Radiologie A, Besancon (France); Bier, Vincent; Hussein, Hussein Haj [CHU Jean Minjoz, Service de Radiologie A, Besancon (France); Hadjidekov, Vassil [Alexandrovska Hospital, Radiology Department, Sofia (Bulgaria); Fergane, Bernard [CHU Jean Minjoz, Centre d' Evaluation et de Traitement de la Douleur, Besancon (France)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of computed tomography (CT)-guided infiltration in the treatment of Arnold's neuralgia. A retrospective study included 31 patients suffering from Arnold's neuralgia and having undergone a total of 45 CT-guided infiltrations of the greater occipital nerve (GON), in a proximal site (emergence of the GON, technique 1, n = 24) or in two proximal sites (emergence of the GON and at the site of the first bend of the GON drawn by the GON, technique 2, n = 21). Infiltration was considered to be effective when pain relief was equal to or greater than 50% for at least 1 month. There was no significant difference between the two techniques regarding immediate pain relief effect (53.3% for technique 1 vs. 60.5% for technique 2, p = 0.5), but technique 2 yielded better persistence of pain relief effect (p = 0.01), leading to a significantly higher percentage of effective infiltrations with technique 2 (p = 0.03). Infiltrations carried out in a single site yield results that are comparable to those previously published. Infiltrations in two sites provide significantly better results and should now be preferred to other single-site techniques in order to reduce the rate of failure or recurrence of Arnold's neuralgia. (orig.)

  20. Keyhole craniotomy through retrosigmoid approach followed by microvascular decompression for primary trigeminal neuralgia:a report of 23 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang-ge CHENG

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the surgical technique,effects,and complications of keyhole craniotomy through retrosigmoid approach followed by microvascular decompression for primary trigeminal neuralgia.Methods The craniotomy with a keyhole incision above postauricular hairline followed by microvascular decompression was performed in 23 patients with primary trigeminal neuralgia.Dissection of intracranial part of trigeminal nerve under microscope was done to search for the offending vessels,which were thereby freed and between which and the root entry zone(REZ of trigeminal nerve the Teflon grafts were placed.Effects and complications were observed in follow-up,ranging from 1 month to 2 years.Results Out of 23 patients who were all found compression in REZ of trigeminal nerves by the offending vessels in operation,disappearance of symptoms post-surgery was found in 22 cases,face numbness on the surgical side in 3 cases and no effects in 1 case.Recurrence of pain was not observed in patients who had initially benefited from the surgery at the follow-up.Conclusion The keyhole craniotomy through retrosigmoid approach followed by microvascular decompression is safe and effective for primary trigeminal neuralgia,in which accurate technique during operation plays a vital role in the decrease of complications and the outcome post-surgery.

  1. HIV-related stigma and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in HIV-infected individuals: does social support play a mediating or moderating role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breet, Elsie; Kagee, Ashraf; Seedat, Soraya

    2014-01-01

    HIV stigma plays a major role in the etiology of psychological distress among persons living with HIV, but may be ameliorated by social support. This cross-sectional study examined whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between HIV stigma and psychological symptoms. We recruited a convenience sample of 210 individuals living with HIV in three peri-urban communities in the Western Cape, South Africa. People living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) completed self-report questionnaires that assessed HIV-related stigma, social support, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Product-term regression analyses showed that social support played a mediating role in the relationship between HIV-related stigma and symptoms of PTSD (not depression). Social support did not, however, moderate the relationship between HIV-related stigma and PTSD or depression. The results indicate that perceived HIV-related stigma may decrease PLWHA's perceived level of social support, which in turn may increase PTSD symptoms. Moreover, these findings suggest that despite the protective role of social support, there are other factors that affect the relationship between HIV-related stigma and mental health that hinder the buffering role of social support in this relationship. These findings may have implications for designing and implementing interventions that increase perceived social support and decrease perceived HIV-related stigma, which in turn may decrease symptoms of PTSD among PLWHA.

  2. Burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Japanese adults 60 years of age or older: Results from an observational, prospective, physician practice-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiko; Adachi, Koichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Asano, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Akihiro; Adachi, Riri; Kiuchi, Mariko; Kobayashi, Keiju; Matsuki, Taizo; Kaise, Toshihiko; Gopala, Kusuma; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2017-04-01

    Approximately one in three persons will develop herpes zoster during their lifetime, and it can lead to serious complications such as postherpetic neuralgia. However, evidence on burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Japan is limited. This prospective, observational, multicenter, physician practice-based cohort study was conducted in Kushiro, Hokkaido, Japan (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01873365) to assess the incidence and hospitalization rates of herpes zoster, and the proportion, clinical burden and risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia in adults aged 60 years or more. Within the study area, 800 subjects developed herpes zoster and 412 were eligible for the study. Herpes zoster incidence was 10.2/1000 person-years and higher among women and older subjects. Subjects with herpes zoster required on average 5.7 outpatient consultations. Herpes zoster-associated hospitalization rate was 3.4% (27/800). The proportion of postherpetic neuralgia and other complications was 9.2% (38/412) and 26.5% (109/412), respectively. Statistically significant association with the development of postherpetic neuralgia was male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-5.38), age of 70-74 years (OR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.09-11.3), immunosuppressive therapy (OR, 6.44; 95% CI, 1.26-32.9), severe herpes zoster pain at first consultation (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.10-8.62) and rash on upper arms (vs no rash on upper arms; OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.10-10.9). Considerable herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia burden exists among elderly in Japan, and there may be predictive factors at the first visit which could be indicative of the risk of developing postherpetic neuralgia. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  3. Tratamento famacológico da neuralgia do trigêmeo: revisão sistemática e metanálise Tratamiento famacológico de la neuralgia del trigémino: revisión sistemática y metanálisis Pharmacological treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: systematic review and metanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio César Azevedo Alves

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A neuralgia do trigêmeo é uma síndrome de dor crônica, caracterizada por paroxismos de dor excruciante que afeta de maneira dramática a qualidade de vida dos pacientes acometidos. A terapia medicamentosa sistêmica é considerada o tratamento de primeira linha para esta doença. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia, a segurança e a tolerabilidade dos diversos tratamentos farmacológicos oferecidos aos pacientes com neuralgia do trigêmeo, visando fornecer evidências para as recomendações da prática clínica e identificar as necessidades de pesquisas adicionais. MÉTODO: Foram analisados ensaios clínicos aleatórios e controlados, publicados até julho de 2003, sobre o efeito analgésico das drogas prescritas no tratamento da neuralgia do trigêmeo. A análise estatística foi realizada com o auxilio do programa Review Manager 4.2.2 (Colaboração Cochrane, 2003. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da metanálise sugerem que a carbamazepina é mais eficaz que o placebo. Em três estudos controlados comparando a lamotrigina, o topiramato e o cloridrato de proparacaína ao placebo, somente a lamotrigina mostrou-se superior a ele. O dextrometafano foi comparado ao lorazepam em baixas doses, havendo aumento da dor com o uso daquele fármaco. Três estudos compararam a carbamazepina com a tizanidina, a tocainida e a pimozida, mostrando-se apenas a pimozida superior à carbamazepina. CONCLUSÕES: A carbamazepina continua como droga de escolha para o tratamento da neuralgia do trigêmeo, estando a lamotrigina e a pimozida indicadas em casos refratários à terapia convencional. Além disso, estudos adicionais são necessários para o estabelecimento de futuras opções terapêuticas.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La neuralgia del trigémino es una síndrome de dolor crónico, caracterizada por paroxismos de dolor excruciante que afecta de manera dramática la calidad de vida de los pacientes acometidos. La terapia

  4. HIV-related stigma and psychological distress: the harmful effects of specific stigma manifestations in various social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutterheim, Sarah E; Pryor, John B; Bos, Arjan E R; Hoogendijk, Robert; Muris, Peter; Schaalma, Herman P

    2009-11-13

    Recent research has shown that experiences of stigmatization have an adverse impact on the psychological well being of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Most studies investigating this relationship employ an aggregate measure of stigma. Although this approach provides useful information about the psychological implications of HIV-related stigma in general, it neglects to acknowledge the possibility that some manifestations in specific settings may be psychologically more detrimental than others. The present study examines which specific stigma experiences are most strongly related to psychological distress across a number of social settings. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 667 PLWHA in the Netherlands. We examined participants' experiences of 11 manifestations of HIV-related stigma in six social settings. Linear regression analyses were conducted to determine which setting-specific manifestations best predict psychological distress after controlling for marital status, education and health status. Three manifestations in family settings, namely receiving advice to conceal one's status, being avoided and being treated with exaggerated kindness, and one manifestation in healthcare settings, namely awkward social interaction, best predicted psychological distress in PLWHA. Manifestations of HIV-related stigma vary according to setting. Certain manifestations in specific social settings impact the psychological well being of PLWHA more than others. In this study, certain experiences of stigmatization with PLWHA's families and in healthcare settings were more strongly related to psychological distress than experiences occurring in other social settings. These findings suggest that stigma reduction interventions focusing on these influential settings may benefit the psychological well being of PLWHA.

  5. Effect of education of primary health care workers on HIV-related oral lesions in Nairobi East district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucina N. Koyio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. An estimated 90% of HIV-infected people are likely to develop oral lesions in the course of HIV infection. Oro-pharyngeal candidiasis (OPC, an early marker for HIV-infection, can be diagnosed during an oral examination (OE. Primary healthcare (PHC providers in Kenya are neither trained nor sufficiently equipped to perform this simple, cheap and non-invasive examination. The PHC system in Kenya offers an opportunity to integrate early recognition and management of oral lesions into general health care. This study aims to estimate the effect of a multifaceted intervention for PHC providers in training them to perform an OE. Specifically, our primary objective is to establish whether the intervention is effective in increasing: i the frequency of early detection of HIV-related oral lesions; and ii referral rates for HIV-testing. Design and methods. The study has been designed in two parts: a retrospective clinical data record study and a prospective cohort study with pre-post control group design, carried out in 2 administrative divisions in Nairobi East district. The intervention group will receive one day of training on recognition of HIV-related oral lesions and other common oral conditions. Reminder sessions will be held at individual health facilities. Routine tally sheets will be used to record all patients with HIV-related oral lesions, dental caries and periodontal disease. A convenience sample of all the PHC in a division will be used. It will not be possible to blind investigators or assessors. Expected impact of the study for Public Health. Early recognition and treatment of HIV infection influences long-term survival rates and will reduce healthcare expenditure.

  6. Differences in HIV-related behaviors at Lugufu refugee camp and surrounding host villages, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbaruku Godfrey

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An HIV behavioral surveillance survey was undertaken in November 2005 at Lugufu refugee camp and surrounding host villages, located near western Tanzania's border with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. Methods The sample size was 1,743 persons based on cluster survey methodology. All members of selected households between 15–49 years old were eligible respondents. Questions included HIV-related behaviors, population displacement, mobility, networking and forced sex. Data was analyzed using Stata to measure differences in proportions (chi-square and differences in means (t-test between gender, age groups, and settlement location for variables of interest. Results Study results reflect the complexity of factors that may promote or inhibit HIV transmission in conflict-affected and displaced populations. Within this setting, factors that may increase the risk of HIV infections among refugees compared to the population in surrounding villages include young age of sexual initiation among males (15.9 years vs. 19.8 years, p = .000, high-risk sex partners in the 15–24 year age group (40% vs. 21%, χ2 33.83, p = .000, limited access to income (16% vs. 51% χ2 222.94, p = .000, and the vulnerability of refugee women, especially widowed, divorced and never-married women, to transactional sex (married vs. never married, divorced, widowed: for 15–24 age group, 4% and 18% respectively, χ2 8.07, p = .004; for 25–49 age group, 4% and 23% respectively, χ2 21.46, p = .000. A majority of both refugee and host village respondents who experienced forced sex in the past 12 months identified their partner as perpetrator (64% camp and 87% in villages. Although restrictions on movements in and out of the camp exist, there was regular interaction between communities. Condom use was found to be below 50%, and expanded population networks may also increase opportunities for HIV transmission. Availability of refugee health services may be

  7. Validation of an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor Ethiopian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyissa GT

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Garumma Tolu Feyissa1, Lakew Abebe1, Eshetu Girma1, Mirkuzie Woldie21Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Health Services Management, Jimma University, Jimma, EthiopiaBackground: Stigma and discrimination (SAD against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are barriers affecting effective responses to HIV. Understanding the causes and extent of SAD requires the use of a psychometrically reliable and valid scale. The objective of this study was to validate an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor setting.Methods: A cross-sectional validation study was conducted in 18 health care institutions in southwest Ethiopia, from March 14, 2011 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 health care providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support (PIS and HIV-related SAD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA with principal component extraction and varimax with Kaiser normalization rotation were employed to develop scales for SAD. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were used as a criterion of extraction. Items with item-factor loadings less than 0.4 and items loading onto more than one factor were dropped. The convergent validity of the scales was tested by assessing the association with HIV knowledge, PIS, training on topics related to SAD, educational status, HIV case load, presence of an antiretroviral therapy (ART service in the health care facility, and perceived religiosity.Results: Seven factors emerged from the four dimensions of SAD during the EFA. The factor loadings of the items ranged from 0.58 to 0.93. Cronbach's alphas of the scales ranged from 0.80 to 0.95. An in-depth knowledge of HIV, perceptions of institutional support, attendance of training on topics related to SAD, degree or higher education levels, high HIV case loads, the availability of ART in the health care facility and claiming oneself as

  8. Pharmacological versus microvascular decompression approaches for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: clinical outcomes and direct costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Laurinda Lemos1,2, Carlos Alegria3, Joana Oliveira3, Ana Machado2, Pedro Oliveira4, Armando Almeida11Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS, School of Health Sciences, Campus de Gualtar, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal; 2Hospital Center of Alto Ave, Unit of Fafe, Fafe, Portugal; 3Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital São Marcos; 4Products and Systems Engineering, Campus de Azurém, University of Minho, Guimarães, PortugalAbstract: In idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN the neuroimaging evaluation is usually normal, but in some cases a vascular compression of trigeminal nerve root is present. Although the latter condition may be referred to surgery, drug therapy is usually the first approach to control pain. This study compared the clinical outcome and direct costs of (1 a traditional treatment (carbamazepine [CBZ] in monotherapy [CBZ protocol], (2 the association of gabapentin (GBP and analgesic block of trigger-points with ropivacaine (ROP (GBP+ROP protocol, and (3 a common TN surgery, microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve (MVD protocol. Sixty-two TN patients were randomly treated during 4 weeks (CBZ [n = 23] and GBP+ROP [n = 17] protocols from cases of idiopathic TN, or selected for MVD surgery (n = 22 due to intractable pain. Direct medical cost estimates were determined by the price of drugs in 2008 and the hospital costs. Pain was evaluated using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS and number of pain crises; the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Sickness Impact Profile, and satisfaction with treatment and hospital team were evaluated. Assessments were performed at day 0 and 6 months after the beginning of treatment. All protocols showed a clinical improvement of pain control at month 6. The GBP+ROP protocol was the least expensive treatment, whereas surgery was the most expensive. With time, however, GBP+ROP tended to be the most and MVD the least expensive. No sequelae resulted in any patient after drug

  9. Associations between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and depression among HIV-positive African, Caribbean, and Black women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona

    2013-02-01

    Abstract African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) women are greatly overrepresented in new HIV infections in comparison with Canada's general population. Social and structural factors such as HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination converge to increase vulnerability to HIV infection among ACB women by reducing access to HIV prevention services. Stigma and discrimination also present barriers to treatment, care, and support and may contribute to mental health problems. We administered a cross-sectional survey to HIV-positive ACB women (n=173) across Ontario in order to examine the relationships between HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination, and depression. One-third of participants reported moderate/severe depression scores using the Beck Depression Inventory Fast-Screen guidelines. Hierarchical block regression, moderation, and mediation analyses were conducted to measure associations between independent (HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination), moderator/mediator (social support, resilient coping), and dependent (depression) variables. Findings included: (1) HIV-related stigma was associated with increased depression; (2) resilient coping was associated with reduced depression but did not moderate the influence of HIV-related stigma on depression; and (3) the effects of HIV-related stigma on depression were partially mediated through resilient coping. HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination were significantly correlated with one another and with depression, highlighting the salience of examining multiple intersecting forms of stigma. Generalizability of findings may be limited due to nonrandom sampling. Findings emphasize the importance of multi-component interventions, including building resilient coping skills, mental health promotion and assessment, and stigma reduction programs.

  10. Dimensions of sexual orientation and HIV-related risk among adolescent females: evidence from a statewide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenow, Carol; Szalacha, Laura A; Robin, Leah E; Westheimer, Kim

    2008-06-01

    We examined the relationship of 2 dimensions of sexual orientation--sexual identity and sex of partners--with self-reported behaviors and experiences to identify factors that may place adolescent females at risk of HIV/AIDS. We gathered data on sexually experienced female high school students from 4 waves of a population-based survey. We used logistic regression analyses to investigate the association between their sexual identity (3666 heterosexual; 184 lesbian, gay, or bisexual; 113 not sure) and sex of partners (3714 male only, 79 female only, and 180 both males and females) with HIV-related risk behaviors. Self-defined sexual identity was often inconsistent with sex of sexual partners. Sexual identities other than heterosexual and having same-sex partners (either exclusively or in addition to male partners) were associated with high rates of several HIV-related risk behaviors. Coerced sexual contact was significantly associated with every risk outcome. AIDS education in school predicted lower HIV risk on 4 of 6 indicators. Programs to prevent HIV infection among adolescent females should take into account the complexity of sexual orientation and should address the needs and behaviors of sexual-minority youths.

  11. Association Between Enacted Stigma and HIV-Related Risk Behavior Among MSM, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B; Bowles, Kristina E; Hess, Kristen L; Smith, Justin C; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    MSM bear a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. Enacted stigma (overt negative actions) against sexual minorities may play an important role in increasing HIV risk among this population. Using data from the 2011 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system, MSM cycle, we examined the independent associations between three measures of enacted stigma (verbal harassment, discrimination, physical assault) and engagement in each of four HIV-related risk behaviors as outcomes: condomless anal intercourse (CAI) at last sex with a male partner of HIV discordant or unknown status and, in the past 12 months, CAI with a male partner, ≥4 male sex partners, and exchange sex. Of 9819 MSM, 32% experienced verbal harassment in the past 12 months, 23% experienced discrimination, and 8% experienced physical assault. Discordant CAI at last sex with a male partner was associated with previous discrimination and physical assault. Past 12 month CAI with a male partner, ≥4 male sex partners, and exchange sex were each associated with verbal harassment, discrimination, and physical assault. These findings indicate that a sizable proportion of MSM report occurrences of past 12 month enacted stigma and suggest that these experiences may be associated with HIV-related risk behavior. Addressing stigma towards sexual minorities must involve an integrated, multi-faceted approach, including interventions at the individual, community, and societal level.

  12. Social Networking Technology Use and Engagement in HIV-Related Risk and Protective Behaviors Among Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric; Bender, Kimberly; Lengnick-Hall, Rebecca; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Rhoades, Harmony

    2016-07-01

    Preliminary studies with homeless youth have found surprisingly pervasive social media use and suggest that youth's online interactions may be associated with their HIV-related risk and protective behaviors. As homeless youth are transient and difficult to engage in place-based services, social media may represent a novel venue for intervention. A critical 1st step in intervention development is gaining greater understanding of how homeless youth use social media, especially as it relates to who they connect to and around what topics. Given the salience of social networking sites in the lives of these otherwise difficult-to-reach adolescents, and their potential to disseminate prevention interventions, this study assessed associations between online social networking technology use and HIV risk behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Homeless youth ages 13 through 24 (N = 1,046) were recruited through 3 drop-in centers and surveyed about their social media use and self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Results suggest that social media use is widely prevalent among this population, and the content of these online interactions is associated with whether youth engage in risk or protective behaviors. Implications for interventions and further research are discussed.

  13. Dose Verification of Stereotactic Radiosurgery Treatment for Trigeminal Neuralgia with Presage 3D Dosimetry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Thomas, A.; Newton, J.; Ibbott, G.; Deasy, J.; Oldham, M.

    2010-11-01

    Achieving adequate verification and quality-assurance (QA) for radiosurgery treatment of trigeminal-neuralgia (TGN) is particularly challenging because of the combination of very small fields, very high doses, and complex irradiation geometries (multiple gantry and couch combinations). TGN treatments have extreme requirements for dosimetry tools and QA techniques, to ensure adequate verification. In this work we evaluate the potential of Presage/Optical-CT dosimetry system as a tool for the verification of TGN distributions in high-resolution and in 3D. A TGN treatment was planned and delivered to a Presage 3D dosimeter positioned inside the Radiological-Physics-Center (RPC) head and neck IMRT credentialing phantom. A 6-arc treatment plan was created using the iPlan system, and a maximum dose of 80Gy was delivered with a Varian Trilogy machine. The delivered dose to Presage was determined by optical-CT scanning using the Duke Large field-of-view Optical-CT Scanner (DLOS) in 3D, with isotropic resolution of 0.7mm3. DLOS scanning and reconstruction took about 20minutes. 3D dose comparisons were made with the planning system. Good agreement was observed between the planned and measured 3D dose distributions, and this work provides strong support for the viability of Presage/Optical-CT as a highly useful new approach for verification of this complex technique.

  14. Assessment of efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Larsen, A; Sopelana-Garay, D; Diaz-Maroto, I; Perona-Moratalla, A B; Gracia-Gil, J; García-Muñozguren, S; Palazón-García, E; Segura, T

    2018-01-25

    Antiepileptic drugs are the first line treatment for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine are the most studied with well-known efficacy. Eslicarbazepine acetate is a third-generation antiepileptic drug that has not previously been evaluated for the treatment of TN. We aim to assess the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of eslicarbazepine for TN. Retrospective, open-label, multicentric, intention-to-treat study. We included patients older than 18 years who met the ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria for TN. We evaluated the variation of intensity and frequency of pain paroxysms before and after treatment with eslicarbazepine. Secondary objectives assessed were tolerability and safety of eslicarbazepine. Eighteen patients were included, 15 women, mean age 65.2 years-old, mean follow-up 21.1 months. The mean number of drugs tested before eslicarbazepine was 2; ten patients used eslicarbazepine as monotherapy. After the treatment with ESL, the median of pain intensity improved from 9.5 to 2.5 (p eslicarbazepine for this reason. Despite this, 16 patients (88.9%) noticed a good subjective tolerance to eslicarbazepine. The retention rate at 6 months was 77.8% and at 12 months 61.1%. Our study supports the hypothesis that eslicarbazepine acetate is an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment for the treatment of TN. Further studies are warranted to corroborate these results. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia Caused by a Developmental Venous Anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gillian; Lunsford, L Dade; Monaco Iii, Edward A

    2015-02-18

    Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is mostly caused by vascular compression of the nerve's root entry zone due to an ectatic artery. Rarer causes include compression from tumors, vascular malformations or multiple sclerosis plaques. Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are benign, aberrantly appearing venous structures that drain normal cerebral tissue. DVAs are a rare etiology of TN. The management of TN caused by a DVA is controversial as disruption of the DVA can be catastrophic. Methods: We report a case of a young man with severe medically refractory TN related to a brachium pontis DVA who was successfully treated by gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSR) to the trigeminal nerve. Results: Within 2 weeks of GKSR, the patient reported experiencing 60% pain relief; 5 years postoperatively, he remains completely pain free with some mild sensory loss in the V2 and V3 areas. Conclusions: GKSR has an established role in the management of TN. This is the first reported case of using GKSR to treat TN caused by a DVA. In the setting of a DVA, GKSR should be an initial consideration for TN therapy after medical failure because of the high surgical risk related to disrupting the DVA. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Immediate analgesic effect of 8% lidocaine applied to the oral mucosa in patients with trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Yuriko; Kanai, Akifumi; Hoshi, Keika; Okamoto, Hirotsugu

    2014-05-01

    Trigeminal nerve block is widely used for trigeminal neuralgia (TN), though with much painful procedure and potential serious complications. The pain of TN occurs most frequently in the second and the third divisions of the trigeminal nerve, which are distributed in intraoral mucous membrane as well as face skin. Here, we examined the response to intraoral application of 8% lidocaine (LDC) in patients with oral TN pain in a double-blind, placebo (PBO)-controlled crossover study. Twenty-four outpatients with oral TN pain were randomized to receive intraoral application of either 8% LDC or saline PBO to the painful area. Following 7-days period, patients were crossed over to receive the alternative treatment. The pain was assessed with a numerical rating scale (NRS) before and 15 minutes after treatment. Patients used a descriptive scale to grade pain outcome and were asked to note any recurrence and the latency for recurrence after therapy. Intraoral LDC, but not PBO, significantly decreased the NRS from 5 (4, 8) (median [25, 75 percentiles]) to 1 (0, 4) (P = 0.001). Of the 24 patients, 19 described marked or moderate relief of pain after LDC but only three described the same after PBO application. The effect of LDC and PBO persisted for 2.8 (0.3, 3.0) and 0 (0, 0) hours, respectively. Intraoral application of 8% LDC produced prompt analgesia without serious side effects in patients with TN who presented with severe intraoral pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Trigeminal neuralgia post-styloidectomy in Eagle syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackett John

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Eagle syndrome is a condition characterized by an elongated (>3cm styloid process with associated symptoms of recurrent facial or throat pain. In this report we present a case of Eagle syndrome exhibiting the typical findings of glossopharyngeal nerve involvement, as well as unusual involvement of the trigeminal nerve. Notably, this patient developed a classical trigeminal neuralgia post-styloidectomy. Case presentation A 68-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 25-year history of dull pain along the right side of her throat, lateral neck, and jaw. Her symptoms were poorly controlled with medication until 15 years ago when she was diagnosed with Eagle syndrome, and underwent a manual fracture of her styloid process. This provided symptomatic relief until 5 years ago when the pain recurred and progressed. She underwent a styloidectomy via a lateral neck approach, which resolved the pain once again. However, 6 months ago a new onset of triggerable, electric shock-like facial pain began within the right V1 and V2 distributions. Conclusions Eagle syndrome is distressing to patients and often difficult to diagnose due to its wide variability in symptoms. It is easily confused with dental pain or temporomandibular joint disorder, leading to missed diagnoses and unnecessary procedures. Pain along the jaw and temple is an unusual but possible consequence of Eagle syndrome. An elongated styloid process should be considered a possible etiology of dull facial pain in the trigeminal distributions, in particular V3.

  18. Successful treatment of pudendal neuralgia with tricolumn spinal cord stimulation: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoard, Philippe; Delmotte, Alexandre; Moles, Alexis; Hervochon, Rémi; Vrignaud, Thomas; Misbert, Lorraine; Lafay, Nicolas; Dʼhoutaud, Samuel; Frasca, Denis; Guenot, Claude; Giot, Jean-Philippe; Diallo, Bakari; Bataille, Benoit

    2012-09-01

    There is large variation in the success of decompressive surgery for pudendal neuralgia (PN), the most chronic, disabling form of perineal pain. We attempt to determine whether spinal cord stimulation using new-generation multicolumn leads could form part of the treatment algorithm for refractory PN. A man with PN that was unresponsive to conventional treatment demonstrated a neuropathic component and had a negative response to nerve infiltrations (so he was not indicated for decompressive surgery) and a positive response to perianal transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and was implanted with a 16-contact surgical lead at the level of conus medullaris, allowing multicolumn stimulation. Using transverse combinations, it was possible to obtain 100% paresthesia over the perineal area without unwanted dorsal root stimulation. Perineal and radicular pain was successfully relieved for up to 12 months (80% and 60% reduction in the visual analogue scale scores, respectively), with an improvement in all quality of life domains and a reduction in drug consumption. Spinal cord stimulation using a 16-contact lead may be a viable therapeutic option for patients with refractory PN for whom decompressive surgery is contraindicated.

  19. Stereotactic Radiosurgery as Initial Surgical Management for Elderly Patients with Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan; Mousavi, Seyed H; Faraji, Amir H; Akpinar, Berkcan; Monaco, Edward A; Flickinger, John C; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L Dade

    2017-01-01

    Management of older patients with medically refractory trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is yet a matter of debate. We sought to determine the benefit of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as the sole surgical management in older patients (≥70 years). One hundred and twenty-seven patients (≥70 years) with typical TN underwent SRS as initial surgical management. The median maximum dose for the first procedure was 80 Gy. Repeat SRS was performed in 46 patients who developed recurrent pain. After the first SRS, the initial pain control was achieved in 91% of patients. Complete pain relief (Barrow Neurological Institute [BNI] score I) developed in 75 patients (59%) and was maintained in 59, 39, and 22% of patients at 1, 3, and 5 years. Following repeat SRS, the rate of complete pain relief was 79, 55, and 41% at 1, 3, and 5 years. The chance of BNI I preservation was greater after repeat SRS compared to initial SRS (hazards ratio: 2.02, p < 0.0001). The incidence of trigeminal sensory loss was 17% after initial SRS but increased to 39% after repeat SRS. SRS alone was used effectively in older TN patients to achieve pain control. Recurrent pain responded to retreatment but was associated with an increased risk of sensory dysfunction. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Three-dimensionally printed personalized guide plate for percutaneous radiofrequency thermal coagulation in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, M; Cai, H; Fang, W; Long, X

    2018-03-01

    Radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFT) is used widely for the treatment of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Precise puncture and placement of the electrode needle tip are crucial for successful RFT. This technical note introduces a novel method for performing RFT using a customized, three-dimensionally (3D)-printed guide plate. Eleven patients with idiopathic TN were treated using this method between February and July 2016. Three had V2 branch TN and eight had V3 branch TN. Punctures in eight patients were successful at the first attempt; slight adjustments were required subsequently in the other three patients. The puncture time in all cases was less than 1min. The patients reported pain relief immediately after RFT, and no complications were observed in any patient. Thus, the customized 3D-printed guide plate offers the advantages of precise placement of the puncture needle and minimal complications. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural magnetic resonance imaging can identify trigeminal system abnormalities in classical trigeminal neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle DeSouza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN is a chronic pain disorder that has been described as one ofthe most severe pains one can suffer. The most prevalent theory of TN etiology is that the trigeminal nerve is compressed at the root entry zone (REZ by blood vessels. However, there is significant evidence showing a lack of neurovascular compression (NVC for many cases of classical TN. Furthermore, a considerable number of patients who are asymptomatic have MR evidence of NVC. Since there is no validated animal model that reproduces the clinical features of TN, our understanding of TN pathology mainly comes from biopsy studies that have limitations. Sophisticated structural MRI techniques including diffusion tensor imaging provide new opportunities to assess the trigeminal nerves and CNS to provide insight into TN etiology and pathogenesis. Specifically, studies have used high-resolution structural MRI methods to visualize patterns of trigeminal nerve-vessel relationships and to detect subtle pathological features at the trigeminal REZ. Structural MRI has also identified CNS abnormalities in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter and demonstrated that effective neurosurgical treatment for TN is associated with a reversal of specific nerve and brain abnormalities. In conclusion, this review highlights the advanced structural neuroimaging methods that are valuable tools to assess the trigeminal system in TN and may inform our current understanding of TN pathology. These methods may in the future have clinical utility for the development of neuroimaging-based biomarkers of TN.

  2. Report of cases in patients with acute herpetic neuralgia using a Mangifera indica extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Garrido-Suárez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been accepted that neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and glial activation are involved in the central sensitization underlying neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Vimang® is the brand name of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae, traditionally used in Cuba for its antioxidant, antiinflammatory, analgesic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we determined the possible effects of Vimang formulations in acute herpes zoster (n=12 patients, that received a daily dose of 1800 mg of extract (two coated Vimang tablets, 300 mg each, three times daily before meals associated to low doses of amitriptyline (10-25 mg/d. In addition to the tablets, they utilized compresses containing Vimang dissolution at 2% on skin lesions for thirty days. The average daily pain score using a Likert scale and variations in concomitant drug daily dosage were determined. The analgesic effect was observed from week 1 (p<0.001 with respect to baseline data and none showed post-herpetic neuralgia. Significant reduction of antidepressant medication (p<0.01 and analgesic rescue dosages (p=0.0035 with respect to the initial daily dosage were showed. No adverse events were reported. The results obtained in this report of cases suggest that Vimang supplementation might be beneficial to prevent and treat neuropathic pain.

  3. Pain outside the body: defensive peripersonal space deformation in trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufacchi, R J; Sambo, C F; Di Stefano, G; Cruccu, G; Iannetti, G D

    2017-10-02

    Perception of space has been guiding effective therapeutic interventions in a number of unilateral chronic pain conditions. However little is known about how trigeminal neuralgia (TN), a condition in which trigeminal stimulation triggers paroxysmal facial pain, affects defensive peripersonal space (DPPS), the portion of space surrounding the body within which defensive responses are enhanced. Given that TN is unilateral, in TN patients the DPPS of the face might not be horizontally symmetric as in pain-free individuals, but instead larger around the affected side. We tested this a priori hypothesis by measuring the proximity-dependent modulation of the hand-blink reflex. Stimuli delivered to the hand ipsilateral to TN elicited a stronger blink, particularly when it was measured from the eye ipsilateral to TN and the hand was closer to the face. Geometric modelling revealed (1) that DPPS was larger on the side of space ipsilateral to TN, and (2) this asymmetry was consequent to an increased estimated potential of sensory events to cause harm when they occur ipsilaterally to TN. These observations demonstrate that neural mechanisms underlying body protection in TN are adjusted to reduce the likelihood that external events evoke the painful paroxysm typical of this condition.

  4. Lamotrigine (lamictal) in refractory trigeminal neuralgia: results from a double-blind placebo controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, J M; Chaudhry, Z; Nurmikko, T J; Patton, D W; Mullens, E L

    1997-11-01

    Lamotrigine is a chemically novel antiepileptic drug which has not been adequately assessed for its antineuralgic properties. It was used in a double-blind placebo controlled crossover trial in 14 patients with refractory trigeminal neuralgia. Patients continued to take a steady dose of carbamazepine or phenytoin throughout the trial over a 31-day period. Each arm of the trial lasted 2 weeks with an intervening 3-day washout period. The maintenance dose of lamotrigine was 400 mg. Lamotrigine was superior to placebo (P = 0.011) based on analysis of a composite efficacy index which compared the numbers of patients assigned greater efficacy on lamotrigine with those assigned greater efficacy on placebo. Efficacy for one treatment over another was determined according to a hierarchy of: (i) use of escape medication; (ii) total pain scores; or (iii) global evaluations. Eleven of the 13 patients eligible for inclusion in the composite efficacy index showed better efficacy on lamotrigine compared with placebo. Global evaluations further suggested that patients did better on lamotrigine than placebo (P = 0.025). The adverse reactions with both lamotrigine and placebo were predominantly dose-dependent effects on the central nervous system. A 14th patient withdrew from the study due to severe pain during the placebo arm of the trial. It would appear that lamotrigine has antineuralgic properties.

  5. Neuralgia del Trigémino: Revisión del tratamiento médico y quirúrgico Trigeminal neuralgia: A Review of the medical a surgical management

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Robaina Padrón

    2008-01-01

    La neuralgia del trigémino se caracteriza según la IASP por ser un cuadro de dolor recurrente "dolor paroxístico, unilateral, severo, penetrante, de corta duración, localizado en la distribución de una o varias de las ramas del V par craneal". Puede ser esencial o sintomática, secundaria a esclerosis múltiple o a lesiones tumorales en el ángulo pontocerebeloso. Se trata de un cuadro de dolor neuropático en muchas debido a compresiones vasculares en el tronco cerebral S. Su prevalencia es rela...

  6. Epidemiologic assessment of trigeminal neuralgia in patients referred to the Imam clinic of Hamedan city during 2013-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Ghiasian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trigeminal neuralgia is the most common disease of the fifth cranial nerve. This study aimed at evaluating the epidemiology of patients with the trigeminal neuralgia referred to Imam Clinic in Hamedan City, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 40 patients with trigeminal neuralgia symptoms were studied. Diagnosis of patients was made based on the history, physical examination and paraclinical tests. Results: This study was conducted on 27 (67.5% females and 13 (32.5% males with the mean ages of 43.3±16.9 and 51.7±21.5 years, respectively (P=0.526.The incidence of this disease was higher among young women than others. The right side involvement was detected in 47.5%, left side involvement in 40% and bilateral involvement in 12.5% of the cases. Regarding the engaged nerve branch, simultaneous engagement of maxillary and mandibular nerves was seen in 47.5%, mandibular in 27.5%, maxillary in 20%, and ophthalmic in 5% of the individuals. The primary causes were seen in 42.5% and secondary causes in 57.5% of the cases. Among the secondary causes, face surgery and multiple sclerosis had the highest rate (39.1%, followed by tumors (21.7%. Also, 65% of the patients had normal MRI and 35% had abnormal one. Conclusion: Due to the similar symptoms of the disease such as dental pain, and also maxillofacial surgery in the elderly as one of the most common secondary causes of this disease, facial surgeons and dentists should know more about this disease to avoid unnecessary surgeries.

  7. Population pharmacokinetics of pregabalin in healthy subjects and patients with post-herpetic neuralgia or diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Satoshi; Suzuki, Misaki; Tomono, Yoshiro; Bockbrader, Howard N; Matsui, Shigeyuki

    2011-01-01

    AIM Pregabalin, a chemical analogue of the mammalian neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid, has been approved in many countries for partial-onset seizures, generalized anxiety disorder and various other pain disorders, including neuropathic pain associated with post-herpetic neuralgia and diabetic peripheral neuropathy and fibromyalgia. The aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model and quantify the influence of covariates on the parameters. METHODS This pregabalin population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted on data from 14 clinical trials involving healthy subjects, subjects with impaired renal function and patients with post-herpetic neuralgia or diabetic peripheral neuropathy (n = 616). The data analysis was performed using nonlinear mixed effects modelling methodology as implemented by NONMEM. RESULTS A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination adequately described pregabalin pharmacokinetics. The model indicated that pregabalin apparent clearance (CL/F) was proportional to estimated creatinine clearance (CLcr). The pregabalin systemic exposure in patients with lower renal function who received pregabalin 150 mg twice daily was almost equal to that of patients with normal renal function administered pregabalin 300 mg twice daily. The systemic exposure stratified by lower or normal renal function was similar between patients with post-herpetic neuralgia and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. CONCLUSION The developed model identified CLcr and ideal body weight as clinically influential covariates on CL/F and volume of distribution, respectively. This study indicates that renal function accounts for variability in the apparent clearance of pregabalin which is consistent with what is known about the elimination of this drug. PMID:21306415

  8. [Linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Nine years' experience in a single institution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Rubio, A A; Martinez-Manrique, J J; Revuelta-Gutierrez, R; Gomez-Amador, J L; Martinez-Anda, J J; Ponce-Gomez, J A; Moreno-Jimenez, S

    2014-09-16

    INTRODUCTION. Pharmacological treatment is the first therapeutic step towards controlling pain in trigeminal neuralgia, but 25-50% of patients become medication resistant. There are currently several surgical alternatives for treating these patients. AIM. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of patients with trigeminal neuralgia. PATIENTS AND METHODS. A follow-up study was conducted on 30 patients who underwent radiosurgery using a Novalis linear accelerator. Eighty per cent of the dosage was calculated at the isocentre, the entry zone of the root of the trigeminal nerve. The mean follow-up time was 27.5 months (range: 1-65 months). RESULTS. The mean age was 66 years (range: 36-87 years), with a time to progression of 7.1 years (range: 4-27 years). The distribution of the pain was from the right side (63.3%). Of the 30 patients, 27 experienced an improvement (90%) 1.6 months (range: 1 week-4 months) after the treatment; 10 patients (33.3%) scored grade I, and 17 patients (56.6%) obtained a score of grade II. During the follow-up, four patients (14.2%) suffered a relapse; two underwent re-irradiation. Time without recurrence was 62.7 months (range: 54.6-70.8 months). The rate of side effects was 76.7% and only three patients developed facial anaesthesia with loss of the corneal reflex. CONCLUSIONS. The use of the linear accelerator is an effective therapeutic option in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, since it provides adequate long-term control of the pain, reduces the use of medication and improves the quality of life.

  9. Safety and efficacy of a Nav1.7 selective sodium channel blocker in patients with trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M; Palmer, Joanne; Morisset, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    received open-label, BIIB074 150 mg three times per day, orally, for 21 days. Patients who met at least one response criteria were then randomly assigned (1:1) to BIIB074 or placebo for up to 28 days in a double-blind phase. We used an interactive web response system to assign patients with a computer......, can be administered at therapeutic doses without titration, and has shown good tolerability in healthy individuals in phase 1 studies. We therefore assessed the safety and efficacy of BIIB074 in patients with trigeminal neuralgia in a phase 2a study. METHODS: We did a double-blind, multicentre...

  10. Knotting of a Cervical Epidural Catheter in the Patient with Post-Herpetic Neuralgia: A Rare Complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Taek; Cho, Dong Woo; Lee, Young Bok

    2017-01-01

    Epidural block is achieved either by single injection of local anesthetic through an epidural needle or as a continuous block by infusion pump through an epidural catheter. Complications associated with epidural catheters include breakage, entrapment, and knotting. Knotting of epidural catheters is very rare, but knotting in lumbar epidural catheters has been reported in a number of studies, and most of these cases involved removal difficulty. We report a case in which we inserted a cervical epidural catheter in a patient who was experiencing severe post-herpetic neuralgia and then removed the knotted catheter without complications.

  11. Do Carbamazepine, Gabapentin, or Other Anticonvulsants Exert Sufficient Radioprotective Effects to Alter Responses From Trigeminal Neuralgia Radiosurgery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flickinger, John C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); College of Arts and Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kim, Hyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kano, Hideyuki [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Greenberger, Joel S.; Arai, Yoshio [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Niranjan, Ajay [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lunsford, L. Dade; Kondziolka, Douglas [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Flickinger, John C., E-mail: flickingerjc@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Laboratory studies have documented radioprotective effects with carbamazepine. We sought to determine whether carbamazepine or other anticonvulsant/neuroleptic drugs would show significant radioprotective effects in patients undergoing high-dose small-volume radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of 200 patients undergoing Gamma Knife (Elekta Instrument AB, Stockholm, Sweden) stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia between February 1995 and May 2008. We selected patients treated with a maximum dose of 80 Gy with 4-mm diameter collimators, with no previous microvascular decompression, and follow-up {>=}6 months (median, 24 months; range, 6-153 months). At the time of radiosurgery, 28 patients were taking no anticonvulsants, 62 only carbamazepine, 35 only gabapentin, 21 carbamazepine plus gabapentin, 17 carbamazepine plus other anticonvulsants, and 9 gabapentin plus other anticonvulsants, and 28 were taking other anticonvulsants or combinations. Results: Pain improvement developed post-radiosurgery in 187 of 200 patients (93.5%). Initial complete pain relief developed in 84 of 200 patients (42%). Post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy developed in 27 of 200 patients (13.5%). We could not significantly correlate pain improvement or initial complete pain relief with use of carbamazepine, gabapentin, or use of any anticonvulsants/neuroleptic drugs or other factors in univariate or multivariate analysis. Post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias correlated with the use of gabapentin (1 of 36 patients with gabapentin vs. 7 of 28 without, p = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, decreasing age, purely typical pain, and use of gabapentin correlated (p = 0.008, p = 0.005, and p = 0.021) with lower risks of developing post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy. New post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias developed in 3% (1 of 36), 5% (4 of 81), and 13% (23 of 187) of patients on gabapentin alone, with age

  12. Abordaje fisioterapéutico en la neuralgia occipital. Revisión bibliográfica.

    OpenAIRE

    Albalate Narro, María

    2017-01-01

    Introducción. La neuralgia occipital (ON) corresponde a un dolor unilateral o bilateral a nivel de la parte posterior del cuero cabelludo que sigue el recorrido de los nervios occipitales (mayor, menor y tercero), aunque puede irradiar a otras zonas. Se caracteriza por ser paroxístico o punzante, puede cursar con síntomas asociados y se produce por compresión y/o irritación de los citados nervios por causas muy diversas. La incidencia y la prevalencia de esta patología no han sido estudiadas ...

  13. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    Full Text Available African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health. We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39 of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154 = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance

  14. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Jenkinson, Jesse I R; Earnshaw, Valerie; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health). We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39) of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154) = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance health.

  15. Examining the associations between HIV-related stigma and health outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS: a series of meta-analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sanjana; Chen, Shiyi; Gogolishvili, David; Globerman, Jason; Chambers, Lori; Wilson, Mike; Logie, Carmen H; Shi, Qiyun; Morassaei, Sara; Rourke, Sean B

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review and series of meta-analyses on the association between HIV-related stigma and health among people living with HIV. Data sources A structured search was conducted on 6 electronic databases for journal articles reporting associations between HIV-related stigma and health-related outcomes published between 1996 and 2013. Study eligibility criteria Controlled studies, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies in people living with HIV were considered for inclusion. Outcome measures Mental health (depressive symptoms, emotional and mental distress, anxiety), quality of life, physical health, social support, adherence to antiretroviral therapy, access to and usage of health/social services and risk behaviours. Results 64 studies were included in our meta-analyses. We found significant associations between HIV-related stigma and higher rates of depression, lower social support and lower levels of adherence to antiretroviral medications and access to and usage of health and social services. Weaker relationships were observed between HIV-related stigma and anxiety, quality of life, physical health, emotional and mental distress and sexual risk practices. While risk of bias assessments revealed overall good quality related to how HIV stigma and health outcomes were measured on the included studies, high risk of bias among individual studies was observed in terms of appropriate control for potential confounders. Additional research should focus on elucidating the mechanisms behind the negative relationship between stigma and health to better inform interventions to reduce the impact of stigma on the health and well-being of people with HIV. Conclusions This systematic review and series of meta-analyses support the notion that HIV-related stigma has a detrimental impact on a variety of health-related outcomes in people with HIV. This review can inform the development of multifaceted, intersectoral interventions to

  16. An examination of actor-partner social support effects on HIV-related problems and interpersonal outcomes among a sample of HIV-positive African American dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosack, Katie E; Rafferty, Katherine A; Billig, Ashley K; Wendorf, Angela R; Brouwer, Amanda M; Stevens, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Social support is an important resource that has been associated with better mental and physical health outcomes among HIV-positive people. However, researchers have not adequately explored how social support functions among HIV-positive African Americans. The purpose of the current study was to understand whether HIV-related support resources are associated with relational functioning and HIV-related problems among a sample of HIV-infected African American dyads. Exactly 34 HIV-infected (i.e., seroconcordant) dyads compromised of HIV-positive African American adults and their HIV-positive adult "informal supporters" from 3 Midwestern urban cities completed psychosocial questionnaires and a communication task. Using the actor-partner interdependence model, we analyzed dyadic data to determine whether there were actor and/or partner effects within dyadic relationships on measures of conflict and HIV-related problems, communication about these problems, and health symptoms. We found significant negative relationships between perceived support and HIV-related problems and perceptions of problem inequity within dyads and a positive relationship between perceived support and communication about these problems within dyads. Contrary to our expectations, we found no relationship between social support and HIV symptoms, relational conflict, or perceptions about dyadic partners' HIV-related problems. Although our study precludes drawing causal conclusions, we found evidence of a relationship between the personal experience of HIV-related problems, communication about these problems, and perceptions of social support among a small sample of HIV-infected African American dyads. These findings suggest the need to consider how support-related communication within HIV-infected dyads might influence and be influenced by problem perceptions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H.; Jenkinson, Jesse I. R.; Earnshaw, Valerie; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2016-01-01

    African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health). We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39) of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154) = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance health. PMID

  18. Relationship of race-, sexual orientation-, and HIV-related discrimination with adherence to HIV treatment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boarts, Jessica M; Bogart, Laura M; Tabak, Melanie A; Armelie, Aaron P; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2008-10-01

    Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) must be close to perfect in order to maintain suppression of HIV viral load, and to prevent the development of drug resistant strains of HIV. People living with HIV (PLWH) often report low levels of adherence. One variable that has been linked to poor adherence is perceived discrimination; however, research has generally not considered the possible unique effects of different types of discrimination on adherence. The present pilot study aimed to examine the association of three types of discrimination (due to HIV+ status, race, or sexual orientation) with adherence among 57 PLWH. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to demonstrate the relationships between each type of discrimination and self-reported adherence. Racial discrimination significantly predicted lower adherence levels, whereas sexual orientation- and HIV-related discrimination did not. Results underscore the importance of addressing discrimination issues, specifically racial, when designing interventions to improve adherence to HAART.

  19. A review of the legal and ethical issues for the conduct of HIV-related research in prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarini, Z; Altice, F L

    2000-01-01

    This article sets the stage for future discussions of expanding prisoners' access to clinical trials in an effort to move from commentary and recommendations to changes in practice. It describes barriers to access to clinical trials, the demographics of HIV/AIDS in prisons, the unique situation posed by the potential for HIV-related research in prisons, and examines briefly the history of prisoner research in the U.S. The article considers both ethical and legal responses to clinical trials in prisons, noting the potential for and limitations of legal actions. Finally, it makes recommendations for conditions necessary to conduct ethical research in prisons and calls for more cooperation between prison systems and HIV/AIDS clinical trials researchers to make expanded access to clinical trials a reality.

  20. Dosimetric analysis of trigeminal nerve, brain stem doses in CyberKnife radiosurgery of trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudahar, H; Kurup, P G G; Murali, V; Velmurugan, J

    2012-07-01

    CyberKnife radiosurgery treatment of Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is performed as a non-invasive image guided procedure. The prescription dose for TN is very high. The brainstem is the adjacent critical organ at risk (OAR) which is prone to receive the very high target dose of TN. The present study is to analyze the dose distribution inside the tiny trigeminal nerve target and also to analyze the dose fall off in the brain stem. Seven TN cases treated between November 2010 and January 2012 were taken for this study retrospectively. The treatment plans were analyzed for target dose conformity, homogeneity and dose coverage. In the brainstem the volume doses D(1%), D(2%) were taken for analyzing the higher doses in the brain stem. The dose fall off was analyzed in terms of D(5%) and D(10%). The mean value of maximum dose within the trigeminal nerve target was 73.5±2.1Gy (P=0.0007) and the minimum dose was 50.0±4.1Gy (P=0.1315). The mean conformity index was 2.19 and the probable reason could be the smallest CyberKnife collimator of 5mm used in the treatment plan. The mean D(1%), of the brainstem was 10.5± 2.1Gy (P=0.5316) and the mean value of the maximum point dose within the brainstem was 35.6±3.8Gy. This shows the degree of dose fall off within the brainstem. Though the results of the present study are showing superior sparing of brain stem and reasonable of target coverage, it is necessary to execute the treatment plan with greater accuracy in CyberKnife as the immobilization is noninvasive and frameless.

  1. Classification of neurovascular compression in glossopharyngeal neuralgia: Three-dimensional visualization of the glossopharyngeal nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrikulu, Levent; Hastreiter, Peter; Dörfler, Arnd; Buchfelder, Michael; Naraghi, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Background: We introduce a method of noninvasive topographical analysis of the neurovascular relationships of the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) by three-dimensional (3D) visualization. Patients with glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GN) resulting from neurovascular compression (NVC) were studied. Methods: 15 patients with GN were prospectively examined with 3D visualization using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging with constructive interference in steady state (MR-CISS). The datasets were segmented and visualized with the real, individual neurovascular relationships by direct volume rendering. Segmentation and 3D visualization of the CN IX and corresponding blood vessels were performed. The 3D visualizations were interactively compared with the intraoperative setup during microvascular decompression (MVD) in order to verify the results by the observed surgical-anatomical findings. Results: 15 patients (female/male: 5/10) were examined. All of them underwent MVD (100%). Microvascular details were documented. The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) was the most common causative vessel in 12 of 15 patients (80%), the vertebral artery (VA) alone in one case (6.7%), and the combination of compression by the VA and PICA in 3 patients (13.3%). We identified three distinct types of NVC within the root entry zone of CN IX. Conclusion: 3D visualization by direct volume rendering of MR-CISS data offers the opportunity of noninvasive exploration and anatomical categorization of the CN IX. It proves to be advantageous in supporting to establish the diagnosis and microneurosurgical interventions by representing original, individual patient data in a 3D fashion. It provides an excellent global individual view over the entire neurovascular relationships of the brainstem and corresponding nerves in each case. PMID:26759734

  2. Microvascular decompression for glossopharyngeal neuralgia through a microasterional approach: A case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta-Gutiérrez, Rogelio; Morales-Martínez, Andres Humberto; Mejías-Soto, Carolina; Martínez-Anda, Jaime Jesús; Ortega-Porcayo, Luis Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) is an uncommon craniofacial pain syndrome. It is characterized by a sudden onset lancinating pain usually localized in the sensory distribution of the IX cranial nerve associated with excessive vagal outflow, which leads to bradycardia, hypotension, syncope, or cardiac arrest. This study aims to review our surgical experience performing microvascular decompression (MVD) in patients with GPN. Methods: Over the last 20 years, 14 consecutive cases were diagnosed with GPN. MVD using a microasterional approach was performed in all patients. Demographic data, clinical presentation, surgical findings, clinical outcome, complications, and long-term follow-up were reviewed. Results: The median age of onset was 58.7 years. The mean time from onset of symptoms to treatment was 8.8 years. Glossopharyngeal and vagus nerve compression was from the posterior inferior cerebellar artery in eleven cases (78.5%), vertebral artery in two cases (14.2%), and choroid plexus in one case (7.1%). Postoperative mean follow-up was 26 months (3–180 months). Pain analysis demonstrated long-term pain improvement of 114 ± 27.1 months and pain remission in 13 patients (92.9%) (P = 0.0001) two complications were documented, one patient had a cerebrospinal fluid leak, and another had bacterial meningitis. There was no surgical mortality. Conclusions: GPN is a rare entity, and secondary causes should be discarded. MVD through a retractorless microasterional approach is a safe and effective technique. Our series demonstrated an excellent clinical outcome with pain remission in 92.9%. PMID:27213105

  3. Microvascular decompression and MRI findings in trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. A single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchon, Patrick W; Zanaty, Mario; Moritani, Toshio; Uc, Ergun; Pieper, Connie L; He, Wenzhuan; Noeller, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    For patients with medically unresponsive trigeminal neuralgia (TIC) and hemifacial spasm (HS), surgical microvascular decompression (MVD) is the procedure of choice. The authors of this report sought to review their outcomes with MVD in patients with TIC and HS, and the success of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying the offending vascular compression. Since 2004, there were a total of 51 patients with TIC and 12 with HS with available MRI scans. All patients underwent preoperative MRI to rule out non-surgical etiologies for facial pain and facial spasm, and confirm vascular compression. Follow-up after surgery was 13 ± 22 months for the patients with TIC and 33 ± 27 months for the patients with HS. There were 45 responders to MVD in the TIC cohort (88%), with a Visual Analog Score (VAS) of 1 ± 3. All patients with HS responded to MVD between 25 and 100%, with a mean of 75 ± 22%. Wound complications occurred in 10% of patients with MVD for TIC, and 1 patient reported hearing loss after MVD for HS, documented by audiogram. The congruence rate between the preoperative MRI and operative findings of vascular compression was 84% in TIC and 75% in HS. MVD is an effective and safe modality of treatment for TIC and HS. In addition to ruling out structural lesions, MRI can offer additional information by highlighting vascular loops associated with compressions. On conventional scans as obtained here, the resolution of MRI was congruent with operative findings in 84% in TIC and 75% in HS. This review emphasizes that the decision to undertake MVD in TIC or HS should be based on clinical diagnosis and not visualization of a compressing vessel by MRI. Conversely, the presence of a compressing vessel by MRI demands perseverance by the surgeon until the nerve is decompressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A retrospective study of neurocombing for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia without neurovascular compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X; Dong, X; Zhao, S; Ying, X; Du, Y; Yu, W

    2017-11-01

    Microvascular decompression (MVD) is the most effective and non-ablative treatment for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). However, it is not possible when neurovascular compression (NVC) is absent. Neurocombing is a possible treatment option for TN patients without NVC. To evaluate and describe the clinical outcome of neurocombing for the treatment of TN when NVC was absent. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of the 37 patients of Type 1 TN without NVC who underwent neurocombing in our department between January 2013 and November 2014. The Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) Pain Intensity scale, the numerical rating scale (NRS) and the quality of life scale (QOL) were evaluated in four stages-presurgical, immediate, at 1 and at 3 years. Pain recurrence was statistically evaluated with Kaplan-Meier analysis. All the 37 enrolled patients were proved to have no NVC by imaging or exploration in surgery. The mean follow-up duration was 29.50 months. After the procedure, 35 patients (94.6%) experienced immediate pain relief (BNI I) and 2 patients (5.4%) had occasional pain without any medication (BNI II). At 1 year and 3 years, the rates of successful pain relief (BNI I&II) were 86.5 and 83.3%, respectively. 34 patients (91.9%) suffered from mild facial numbness, while it did not exert a harmful impact on their quality of life. This study demonstrated that neurocombing is an attractive, effective, safe and durable treatment option for TN when NVC is absent. Further study is needed to explain the complicated and exact mechanism of pain relief by neurocombing.

  5. Tractography delineates microstructural changes in the trigeminal nerve after focal radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Hodaie

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Focal radiosurgery is a common treatment modality for trigeminal neuralgia (TN, a neuropathic facial pain condition. Assessment of treatment effectiveness is primarily clinical, given the paucity of investigational tools to assess trigeminal nerve changes. Since diffusion tensor imaging (DTI provides information on white matter microstructure, we explored the feasibility of trigeminal nerve tractography and assessment of DTI parameters to study microstructural changes after treatment. We hypothesized that trigeminal tractography provides more information than 2D-MR imaging, allowing detection of unique, focal changes in the target area after radiosurgery. Changes in specific diffusivities may provide insight into the mechanism of action of radiosurgery on the trigeminal nerve. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Five TN patients (4 females, 1 male, average age 67 years treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery, 80 Gy/100% isodose line underwent 3Tesla MR trigeminal nerve tractography before and sequentially up to fourteen months after treatment. Fractional anisotropy (FA, radial (RD and axial (AD diffusivities were calculated for the radiosurgical target area defined as the region-of-interest. Areas outside target and the contralateral nerve served as controls. RESULTS: Trigeminal tractography accurately detected the radiosurgical target. Radiosurgery resulted in 47% drop in FA values at the target with no significant change in FA outside the target, demonstrating highly focal changes after treatment. RD but not AD changed markedly, suggesting that radiosurgery primarily affects myelin. Tractography was more sensitive than conventional gadolinium-enhanced post-treatment MR, since FA changes were detected regardless of trigeminal nerve enhancement. In subjects with long term follow-up, recovery of FA/RD correlated with pain recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: DTI parameters accurately detect the effects of focal radiosurgery on the trigeminal nerve, serving as an

  6. Thalamic metabolic alterations with cognitive dysfunction in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia: a multivoxel spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuan; Bao, Faxiu; Ma, Shaohui; Guo, Chenguang; Jin, Chenwang; Zhang, Ming [First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Department of Medical Imaging, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Li, Dan [First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)

    2014-08-15

    Although abnormalities in metabolite compositions in the thalamus are well described in patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN), differences in distinct thalamic subregions have not been measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), and whether there are correlations between thalamic metabolites and cognitive function still remain unknown. Multivoxel MRS was recorded to investigate the metabolic alterations in the thalamic subregions of patients with ITN. The regions of interest were localized in the anterior thalamus (A-Th), intralaminar portion of the thalamus (IL-Th), posterior lateral thalamus (PL-Th), posterior medial thalamus (PM-Th), and medial and lateral pulvinar of the thalamus (PuM-Th and PuL-Th). The N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) and choline to creatine (Cho/Cr) ratios were measured in the ITN and control groups. Scores of the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were analyzed to correlate with the neuroradiological findings. The NAA/Cr ratio in the affected side of PM-Th and PL-Th in ITN patients was statistically lower than that in the corresponding regions of the thalamus in controls. The NAA/Cr ratio in the affected PM-Th was negatively associated with VAS and disease duration. Furthermore, decreases of NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr were detected in the affected side of IL-Th, and lower Cho/Cr was positively correlated with MoCA values in the ITN group. Our result of low level of NAA/Cr in the affected PM-Th probably serves as a marker of the pain-rating index, and decreased Cho/Cr in IL-Th may be an indicator of cognitive disorder in patients with ITN. (orig.)

  7. Microstructural abnormalities in the trigeminal nerves of patients with trigeminal neuralgia revealed by multiple diffusion metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yaou [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Beijing Key laboratory of MRI and Brain Informatics, Beijing (China); Li, Jiping [Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Butzkueven, Helmut [Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Duan, Yunyun; Zhang, Mo [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Shu, Ni [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, Yongjie [Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Zhang, Yuqing, E-mail: yuqzhang@sohu.com [Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Li, Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli55@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Objective: To investigate microstructural tissue changes of trigeminal nerve (TGN) in patients with unilateral trigeminal neuralgia (TN) by multiple diffusion metrics, and correlate the diffusion indexes with the clinical variables. Methods: 16 patients with TN and 6 healthy controls (HC) were recruited into our study. All participants were imaged with a 3.0 T system with three-dimension time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) DTI-sequence. We placed regions of interest over the root entry zone of the TGN and measured fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD). The mean values of FA, MD, AD and RD were compared between the affected and unaffected sides in the same patient, and to HC values. The correlation between the side-to-side diffusion metric difference and clinical variables (disease duration and visual analogy scale, VAS) was further explored. Results: Compared with the unaffected side and HC, the affected side showed significantly decreased FA and increased RD; however, no significant changes of AD were found. A trend toward significantly increased MD was identified on the affected side comparing with the unaffected side. We also found the significant correlation between the FA reduction and VAS of pain (r = −0.55, p = 0.03). Conclusion: DTI can quantitatively assess the microstructural abnormalities of the affected TGN in patients with TN. Our results suggest demyelination without significant axonal injury is the essential pathological basis of the affected TGN by multiple diffusion metrics. The correlation between FA reduction and VAS suggests FA as a potential objective MRI biomarker to correlate with clinical severity.

  8. The impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on the clinical features of HIV - related oral lesions in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Zuwaira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to determine the therapeutic effects of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART on the clinical presentations of HIV related oral lesions (HIV-ROLs in an adult Nigerian population. Methods A 5 month prospective study on HAART naïve HIV positive adults recruited into the HAART program of an AIDS referral centre. HIV-ROLs were diagnosed clinically by the EEC Clearinghouse on oral problems related to HIV infection. Baseline clinical features of HIV-ROLs was documented by clinical photographs using SONY® 5.2 M Cybershot digital camera. Post HAART monthly review was conducted using clinical photographs. Results A total of 142 patients were seen. Age range was 19 - 75 years. Mean age was 35.6 ± 10.5 (SD. Eighty (56.3% were females. Prevalence of HIV-ROLs was 43.7%. Oral candidiasis (22.4% was the most prevalent HIV-ROL. 114 (83.2% patients had clinical AIDS at presentation (CDC 1993. 89.4% were placed on Tenofovir/Emtricitabine +`Nevirapine, 9.9% on Tenofovir/Emtricitabine + Efavirenz. There was strong decline in the clinical features of oral candidiasis from a month of commencing HAART. Oral hairy leukoplakia was slow in responding to HAART. Parotid gland enlargement, melanotic hyperpigmentation and Kaposi's sarcoma were more persistent and had slower response to HAART. There was no clinical change noticed in linear gingival erythema. Conclusion HAART has different clinical effects on HIV related oral lesions depending on the size, duration of treatment and etiology of the lesions. HIV-ROLs of fungal origin have the fastest response to HAART. These lesions alongside immunologic parameters can be used as indicators of success or failure of antiretroviral therapy.

  9. Attitudes and beliefs related to HIV/AIDS in urban religious congregations: barriers and opportunities for HIV-related interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Palar, Kartika; Mendel, Peter; Kanouse, David E; Corbin, Dennis E; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2012-05-01

    HIV-related stigmas have been seen as a barrier to greater religious congregation involvement in HIV prevention and care in the United States and elsewhere. We explored congregational and community norms and attitudes regarding HIV, sexuality, and drug use through a qualitative case study of 14 diverse religious congregations in Los Angeles County, California between December 2006 and May 2008. Data collected included semi-structured interviews with 57 clergy and lay leaders across the congregations, structured observations of congregational activities, review of archival documents, and a questionnaire on congregational characteristics. Across and within congregations, we found a wide range of views towards HIV, people with HIV, and populations at risk for HIV, from highly judgmental and exclusionary, to "loving the sinner, not the sin," to accepting and affirming. Attitudes and norms about HIV, homosexuality, and substance abuse appeared to be related to the type and intensity of congregational HIV-related activities. However, even among the higher activity congregations, we found a range of perceptions, including ones that were stigmatizing. Results suggest that affirming norms and attitudes are not a prerequisite for a congregation to initiate HIV activities, a finding relevant for HIV service providers and researchers seeking to engage congregations on this issue. HIV stigma reduction is not a prerequisite for congregational HIV involvement: both may occur simultaneously, or one before the other, and they dynamically affect each other. Strategies that are congruent with congregations' current levels of comfort and openness around HIV can themselves facilitate a process of attitudinal and normative change. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing HIV-related symbolic stigma in six African countries: social representations in young people’s narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskell, Kate; Hill, Elizabeth; Obyerodhyambo, Oby

    2011-01-01

    HIV-related symbolic stigma arises from moralistic value judgements attached to people living with HIV and has negative consequences from both public health and human rights perspectives. Relatively little is known about cross-national variation in symbolic stigma. With the purpose of informing stigma reduction efforts within and across settings, we compared social representations of HIV in six African countries with estimated adult HIV prevalence rates ranging from 1 to 33%. Our study used a unique data source, namely a stratified random sample (n=586, ~5%) from 11,354 creative ideas contributed from six countries to a continent-wide HIV-related scriptwriting contest held between February and April2005. The narratives were written by equal numbers of males and females aged 10–24 in urban and rural areas of Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Senegal. We combined three analytical approaches: descriptive statistics on certain quantifiable characteristics of the narratives, thematic data analysis, and a narrative-based approach. The association of HIV with outsiders (“othering”)and preoccupation with the circumstances of infection are more common in lower prevalence countries but vary substantially in tone depending on the sociocultural context. The highest proportion both of moralising narratives and of narratives with pessimistic outcomes come from South-East Nigeria and, to a lesser extent, from Kenya, countries with prevalence levels of 3.9 and 6.1% respectively, in which evangelical Christian movements, including Pentecostalism, have sizeable followings. The data provide a rare cross-cultural overview of symbolic stigma, identify country-specific needs, and point to strategies for future programming. Social representations from the highest prevalence countries, Swaziland and Namibia, and from lower prevalence Burkina Faso offer potential models for the framing of HIV in ways that serve to increase social proximity and counteract

  11. Intra-Cluster Correlation Estimates for HIV-related Outcomes from Care and Treatment Clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Dale; Hertzmark, Ellen; Liu, Enju; Mungure, Ester; Muya, Aisa N; Sando, David; Chalamilla, Guerino; Ulenga, Nzovu; Bärnighausen, Till; Fawzi, Wafaie; Spiegelman, Donna

    2016-12-15

    Researchers planning cluster-randomized controlled trials (cRCTs) require estimates of the intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) from previous studies for sample size calculations. This paper fills a persistent gap in the literature by providing estimates of ICCs for many key HIV-related clinical outcomes. Data from HIV-positive patients from 47 HIV care and treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were used to calculate ICCs by site of enrollment or site of ART initiation for various clinical outcomes using cross-sectional and longitudinal data. ICCs were estimated using linear mixed models where either clinic of enrollment or clinic of ART initiation served as the random effect. ICCs ranged from 0 to 0.0706 (95% CI: 0.0447, 0.1098). For most outcomes, the ICCs were large enough to meaningfully affect sample size calculations. For binary outcomes, the ICCs for event prevalence at baseline tended to be larger than the ICCs for later cumulative incidences. For continuous outcomes, the ICCs for baseline values tended to be larger than the ICCs for the change in values from baseline. The ICCs for HIV-related outcomes cannot be ignored when calculating sample sizes for future cluster-randomized trials. The differences between ICCs calculated from baseline data alone and ICCs calculated using longitudinal data demonstrate the importance of selecting an ICC that reflects a study's intended design and duration for sample size calculations. While not generalizable to all contexts, these estimates provide guidance for future researchers seeking to design adequately powered cRCTs in Sub-Saharan African HIV treatment and care clinics.

  12. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia with syncope as a sign of neck cancer recurrence Neuralgia glossofaríngea com síncope como um sinal de recidiva de câncer do pescoço

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Teixeira Ribeiro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Glossopharyngeal neuralgia with syncope as a sign of neck cancer is a very rare condition. A review of the literature revealed only 29 cases formerly reported. We present the first Brazilian case of such association. A 68-year-old man presented with paroxysmal excruciating pain over the right side of the neck, sometimes followed by syncope. Given the suspicion of recurrent tumor from a previously treated neck malignancy, a computed tomography scan was performed and a right parapharyngeal tumor was shown. Pain and syncope were successfully controlled with carbamazepine and the patient underwent palliative radiotherapy.Neuralgia glossofaríngea com síncope como um sinal de câncer do pescoço é uma condição muito rara. Uma revisão da literatura revelou apenas 29 casos relatados anteriormente. Apresentamos o primeiro caso brasileiro de tal associação. Um homem de 68 anos se apresentou com dores paroxísticas insuportáveis no lado direito do pescoço, algumas vezes seguidas de síncope. Dada a suspeita de recidiva tumoral derivada de uma malignidade cervical tratada previamente, realizou-se um exame de tomografia computadorizada que evidenciou um tumor parafaríngeo direito. As dores e as síncopes foram controladas satisfatoriamente com carbamazepina e o paciente foi submetido à radioterapia paliativa.

  13. Microvascular decompression for classic trigeminal neuralgia: determination of minimum clinically important difference in pain improvement for patient reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vishruth K; Parker, Scott L; Patrawala, Samit A; Lockney, Dennis T; Su, Pei-Fang; Mericle, Robert A

    2013-05-01

    Outcomes studies use patient-reported outcome (PRO) measurements to assess treatment effectiveness, but can lack direct clinical meaning. Minimum clinically important difference (MCID) calculation provides a point estimate of the critical threshold needed to achieve clinically relevant treatment effectiveness. MCID remains uninvestigated for microvascular decompression (MVD), a common surgical procedure for trigeminal neuralgia. We aimed to determine MCID for the most commonly used PRO measures of pain after MVD: Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Scale (BNI-PS). Sixty consecutive patients with classic trigeminal neuralgia who decided to undergo MVD by a single surgeon were prospectively assessed with VAS and BNI-PS preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively. Three anchors were used to assign each patient's outcome. We then used 3 well-established, anchor-based methods to calculate MCID. Patients experienced significant improvement in both VAS (9.9 vs. 2.0, P MCID. The 3 MCID calculation methods generated a range of MCID values for each of the PROs (VAS: 1.40-8.87, BNI-PS: 0.95-3.26). MVD-specific MCID is highly variable based on calculation technique. Some of these calculations appear to either overestimate or underestimate the patients' preoperative expectations. When the different MCID methods are averaged, the results are clinically appropriate and consistent with preoperative expectations. The average MCID for VAS is 6.25 and for BNI-PS is 2.44.

  14. Harvey Cushing's case series of trigeminal neuralgia at the Johns Hopkins Hospital: a surgeon's quest to advance the treatment of the 'suicide disease'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, H.; Pendleton, C.; Latimer, K.; Cohen-Gadol, A.A.; Carson, B.S.; Quinones-Hinojosa, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A review of Dr. Harvey Cushing's surgical cases at the Johns Hopkins Hospital provided insight into his early work on trigeminal neuralgia (TN). There was perhaps no other affliction that captured his attention in the way that TN did, and he built a remarkable legacy of successful

  15. Lidocaine Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidocaine patches are used to relieve the pain of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN; the burning, stabbing pains, ... for months or years after a shingles infection). Lidocaine is in a class of medications called local ...

  16. Sensation Seeking and Risk-Taking Propensity as Mediators in the Relationship between Childhood Abuse and HIV-Related Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Gwadz, Marya A.; Kahler, Christopher; Aklin, W. M.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Although a wealth of literature suggests that childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse are related to later-life HIV-related risk behaviors, few studies have explored disinhibition (e.g., impulsivity, risk-taking propensity, and sensation-seeking) as a risk factor in this relationship. Method: This cross-sectional study examined…

  17. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D; Poloni, Estella S; van 't Wout, Angélique B; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle; Gras, Luuk A; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Albini, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Jacobson, Lisa P; Li, Xiuhong; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ford, Emily S; Sereti, Irini; Hadigan, Colleen; Martinez, Esteban; Arnedo, Mireia; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Gatell, Jose M; Law, Matthew; Bendall, Courtney; Petoumenos, Kathy; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Kabamba, Kabeya; Delforge, Marc; De Wit, Stephane; Berger, Florian; Mauss, Stefan; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Losso, Marcelo; Belloso, Waldo H; Leyes, Maria; Campins, Antoni; Mondi, Annalisa; De Luca, Andrea; Bernardino, Ignacio; Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Torrecilla-Rodriguez, Ana; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, José R; Fanti, Iuri; Gel, Silvia; Puig, Jordi; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Mar; Domingo, Pere; Fischer, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Macken, Alan; Woo, James; McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Patrick; Mangili, Alexandra; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine A; Reiss, Peter; Weber, Rainer; Bucher, Heiner C; Fellay, Jacques; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the

  18. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R; Junier, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the set...

  19. Contribution of genetic background, traditional risk factors, and HIV-related factors to coronary artery disease events in HIV-positive persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R.; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D.; Poloni, Estella S.; van 't Wout, Angélique B.; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle; Gras, Luuk A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Albini, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Li, Xiuhong; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ford, Emily S.; Sereti, Irini; Hadigan, Colleen; Martinez, Esteban; Arnedo, Mireia; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Gatell, Jose M.; Law, Matthew; Bendall, Courtney; Petoumenos, Kathy; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Kabamba, Kabeya; Delforge, Marc; de Wit, Stephane; Berger, Florian; Mauss, Stefan; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Losso, Marcelo; Belloso, Waldo H.; Leyes, Maria; Campins, Antoni; Mondi, Annalisa; de Luca, Andrea; Bernardino, Ignacio; Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Torrecilla-Rodriguez, Ana; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, José R.; Fanti, Iuri; Gel, Silvia; Puig, Jordi; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Mar; Domingo, Pere; Fischer, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Macken, Alan; Woo, James; McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Patrick; Mangili, Alexandra; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine A.; Reiss, Peter; Weber, Rainer; Bucher, Heiner C.; Fellay, Jacques; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E.; Gras, A. Luuk; van Wout, Angelique B.; Arnedo-Valero, Mireia; Sierra, Mariana de Paz; Rodriguez, Ana Torrecilla; Garcia, Juan Gonzalez; Arribas, Jose R.; Aubert, V.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H. C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Francioli, P.; Furrer, H.; Fux, C. A.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Haerry, D.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H. H.; Hirschel, B.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Kind, C.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez de Tejada, B.; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Prins, Yerly S. J. M.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Scherpbier, H. J.; Boer, K.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Godfried, M. H.; van der Poll, T.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Lange, J. M. A.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J. C.; van der Valk, M.; Schreij, G.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Pronk, M. J. H.; Bravenboer, B.; van der Ende, M. E.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; Schurink, C. A. M.; van der Feltz, M.; Nouwen, J. L.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; van de Ven-de Ruiter, E. D.; Slobbe, L.; Haag, Den; Kauffmann, R. H.; Schippers, E. F.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; Alleman, M. A.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; ten Kate, R. W.; Soetekouw, R.; Kroon, F. P.; van den Broek, P. J.; van Dissel, J. T.; Arend, S. M.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; de Boer, M. J. G.; Jolink, H.; den Hollander, J. G.; Pogany, K.; Bronsveld, W.; Kortmann, W.; van Twillert, G.; van Houte, D. P. F.; Polée, M. B.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; ten Napel, C. H. H.; Kootstra, G. J.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Juttmann, J. R.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Brouwer, A. E.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Smit, P. M.; Weijer, S.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Sprenger, H. G.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E. H.; van Assen, S.; Stek, C. J.; Hoepelman, I. M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Peters, E. J. G.; Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L. J.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Arends, J. E.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; van der Hilst, J. C. H.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J. P.; Gisolf, E. H.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Plankey, Michael; Crain, Barbara; Dobs, Adrian; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Gallant, Joel; Johnson-Hill, Lisette; Sacktor, Ned; Selnes, Ola; Shepard, James; Thio, Chloe; Phair, John P.; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Badri, Sheila; Conover, Craig; O'Gorman, Maurice; Ostrow, David; Palella, Frank; Ragin, Ann; Detels, Roger; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Aronow, Aaron; Bolan, Robert; Breen, Elizabeth; Butch, Anthony; Fahey, John; Jamieson, Beth; Miller, Eric N.; Oishi, John; Vinters, Harry; Visscher, Barbara R.; Wiley, Dorothy; Witt, Mallory; Yang, Otto; Young, Stephen; Zhang, Zuo Feng; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Becker, James T.; Cranston, Ross D.; Martinson, Jeremy J.; Mellors, John W.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Stall, Ronald D.; Muñoz, Alvaro; Abraham, Alison; Althoff, Keri; Cox, Christopher; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Gange, Stephen J.; Golub, Elizabeth; Schollenberger, Janet; Seaberg, Eric C.; Su, Sol; Huebner, Robin E.; Dominguez, Geraldina; Moroni, M.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Carosi, G.; Cauda, R.; Monforte, A. d'Arminio; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Perno, C. F.; Sagnelli, E.; Viale, P. L.; Von Schlosser, F.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Ammassari, A.; Andreoni, M.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; de Luca, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Gervasoni, C.; Girardi, E.; Lichtner, M.; Lo Caputo, S.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Murri, R.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Torti, C.; Fanti, I.; Formenti, T.; Galli, Laura; Lorenzini, Patrizia; Montroni, M.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Riva, A.; Tirelli, U.; Martellotta, F.; Ladisa, N.; Lazzari, G.; Verucchi, G.; Castelli, F.; Scalzini, A.; Minardi, C.; Bertelli, D.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Carnevale, G.; Lorenzotti, S.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Leoncini, F.; Mazzotta, F.; Pozzi, M.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, G.; Viscoli, A.; Piscopo, R.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Caramma, I.; Chiodera, A.; Castelli, P.; Rizzardini, G.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Foschi, A.; Salpietro, S.; Galli, A.; Bigoloni, A.; Spagnuolo, V.; Merli, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Cicconi, P.; Bisio, L.; Gori, A.; Lapadula, G.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; de Marco, M.; Ferrari, C.; Borghi, R.; Baldelli, F.; Belfiori, B.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Narciso, P.; Tozzi, V.; Vullo, V.; d'Avino, A.; Zaccarelli, M.; Gallo, L.; Acinapura, R.; Capozzi, M.; Libertone, R.; Trotta, M. P.; Tebano, G.; Cattelan, A. M.; Mura, M. S.; Caramello, P.; Orofino, G. C.; Sciandra, M.; Raise, N. N.; Ebo, F.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.; Law, M.; Petoumenos, K.; McManus, H.; Wright, S.; Bendall, C.; Moore, R.; Edwards, S.

    2013-01-01

    Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the setting of HIV

  20. Social networks and social support among ball-attending African American men who have sex with men and transgender women are associated with HIV-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Emily A; Sterrett-Hong, Emma; Jonas, Adam; Pollack, Lance M

    2018-02-01

    The House Ball Community (HBC) is an understudied network of African American men who have sex with men and transgender women, who join family-like houses that compete in elaborate balls in cities across the United States. From 2011 to 2012, we surveyed 274 recent attendees of balls in the San Francisco Bay Area, focusing on social networks, social support, and HIV-related behaviours. Participants with a high percentage of alters who were supportive of HIV testing were significantly more likely to have tested in the past six months (p = .02), and less likely to have engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the past three months (p = .003). Multivariate regression analyses of social network characteristics, and social support, revealed that testing in the past six months was significantly associated with social support for safer sex, instrumental social support, and age. Similarly, UAI in the past three months was significantly associated with social support for safer sex, homophily based on sexual identity and HIV status. HIV-related social support provided through the HBC networks was correlated with recent HIV testing and reduced UAI. Approaches utilising networks within alternative kinship systems, may increase HIV-related social support and improve HIV-related outcomes.

  1. Trends in HIV-related behaviors and knowledge in Uganda, 1989-2005: evidence of a shift toward more risk-taking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opio, Alex; Mishra, Vinod; Hong, Rathavuth; Musinguzi, Joshua; Kirungi, Wilford; Cross, Anne; Mermin, Jonathan; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2008-11-01

    To describe recent trends in HIV-related behaviors and knowledge in Uganda between 1989 and 2005. Population-based, cross-sectional national surveys of adult women and men. Trend analysis of selected HIV-related behavior and knowledge indicators, using data from the 2004-2005 Uganda HIV/AIDS Sero-Behavioral Survey and the 2000-2001, 1995, and 1988-1989 Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys. Responses to similar questions across the different surveys were compared to determine trends in indicators. HIV/AIDS knowledge increased to a high level by 2001 and remained stable thereafter. Some self-reported risk behaviors improved, whereas others deteriorated. Among 15- to 24-year-old women and men, primary abstinence increased, from 23% in 1989 to 32% in 2005 and from 32% in 1995 to 42% in 2005, respectively. In men, there were increases in sex with multiple partners and sex with nonspousal partners, although reported condom use during nonspousal sex declined. Of men aged 15-49 years, self-reported multiple sex partnership increased from 24% in 2001 to 29% in 2005 and nonspousal sex increased from 28% in 2001 to 37% in 2005. Between 2001 and 2005, condom use during last nonspousal sex declined from 65% to 55% in men aged 15-24 years. Although substantial improvements in HIV-related risk behaviors and knowledge occurred since 1989, recent increases in some HIV-related risk behaviors were observed, indicating a shift toward more risk-taking behaviors. Prevention efforts should be reinvigorated to address this, otherwise the past success in the HIV fight will be reversed. Monitoring of HIV-related indicators should be continued.

  2. A proposed plan for personalized radiosurgery in patients with trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed H; Niranjan, Ajay; Akpinar, Berkcan; Monaco, Edward A; Cohen, Jonathan; Bhatnagar, Jagdish; Chang, Yue-Fang; Kano, Hideyuki; Huq, Sakibul; Flickinger, John C; Dade Lunsford, L

    2017-02-17

    OBJECTIVE During the last 25 years, more than 100,000 patients worldwide with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) have undergone stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with a standard dose of radiation. However, the radiobiological effect of radiation is determined by the amount of energy delivered to the tissue (integral dose [ID] = mean dose × target volume) and is directly associated with the nerve volume. Although the trigeminal nerve volume varies among patients with TN, the clinical impact of this variation in delivered energy is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of delivered ID on the outcome of TN radiosurgery. METHODS The authors evaluated 155 patients with unilateral TN who had undergone SRS as their initial surgical management over a 13-year period. The authors measured the postganglionic ID within the SRS target and retrospectively stratified patients into 3 groups: low ( 2.7 mJ) ID. Clinical outcomes, which included pain status (scored using the Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Scale) and sensory dysfunction (scored using the Barrow Neurological Institute Numbness Scale), were evaluated at a median follow-up of 71 months. RESULTS Patients who were treated with a medium ID had superior pain relief either with or without medications (p = 0.006). In the medium ID group, the rates of complete pain relief without medications at 1, 3, and 6 years after SRS were 67%, 54%, and 33%, respectively, while the rates in the rest of the cohort were 55%, 36%, and 19%, respectively. Patients given a high ID had a higher rate of post-SRS trigeminal sensory deterioration (p < 0.0001). At 1, 3, and 6 years after SRS, the high ID group had an estimated rate for developing sensory dysfunction of 35%, 45%, and 50%, respectively, while the rates in patients receiving low and medium IDs were 3%, 4%, and 9%, respectively. The optimal clinical outcome (maximum pain relief and minimal trigeminal sensory dysfunction) was obtained in patients who had received a

  3. Predictive value of magnetic resonance for identifying neurovascular compressions in trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Juretschke, F; Guzmán-de-Villoria, J G; García-Leal, R; Sañudo, J R

    2017-05-23

    Microvascular decompression (MVD) is accepted as the only aetiological surgical treatment for refractory classic trigeminal neuralgia (TN). There is therefore increasing interest in establishing the diagnostic and prognostic value of identifying neurovascular compressions (NVC) using preoperative high-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MRI) in patients with classic TN who are candidates for surgery. This observational study includes a series of 74 consecutive patients with classic TN treated with MVD. All patients underwent a preoperative three-dimensional high-resolution MRI with DRIVE sequences to diagnose presence of NVC, as well as the degree, cause, and location of compressions. MRI results were analysed by doctors blinded to surgical findings and subsequently compared to those findings. After a minimum follow-up time of six months, we assessed the surgical outcome and graded it on the Barrow Neurological Institute pain intensity score (BNI score). The prognostic value of the preoperative MRI was estimated using binary logistic regression. Preoperative DRIVE MRI sequences showed a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 87%, with a 98% positive predictive value and a 70% negative predictive value. Moreover, Cohen's kappa (CK) indicated a good level of agreement between radiological and surgical findings regarding presence of NVC (CK 0.75), type of compression (CK 0.74) and the site of compression (CK 0.72), with only moderate agreement as to the degree of compression (CK 0.48). After a mean follow-up of 29 months (range 6-100 months), 81% of the patients reported pain control with or without medication (BNI score i-iiiI). Patients with an excellent surgical outcome, i.e. without pain and off medication (BNI score i), made up 66% of the total at the end of follow-up. Univariate analysis using binary logistic regression showed that a diagnosis of NVC on the preoperative MRI was a favorable prognostic factor that significantly increased the odds of

  4. Stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia utilizing the BrainLAB Novalis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, Hadi; Teh, Bin S; Paulino, Arnold C; Yoshor, Daniel; Trask, Todd; Baskin, David; Butler, E Brian

    2009-12-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is one of the least invasive treatments for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). To date, most reports have been about Cobalt-based treatments (i.e., Gamma Knife) with limited data on image-guided stereotactic linear accelerator treatments. We describe our initial experience of using BrainLAB Novalis stereotactic system for the radiosurgical treatment of TN. A total of 20 patients were treated between July 2004 and February 2007. Each SRS procedure was performed using the BrainLAB Novalis System. Thin cuts MRI images of 1.5 mm thickness were acquired and fused with the simulation CT of each patient. Majority of the patients received a maximum dose of 90 Gy. The median brainstem dose to 1.0 cc and 0.1 cc was 2.3 Gy and 13.5 Gy, respectively. In addition, specially acquired three-dimensional fast imaging sequence employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) MRI was utilized to improve target delineation of the trigeminal proximal nerve root entry zone. Barrow Neurological Index (BNI) pain scale for TN was used for assessing treatment outcome. At a median follow-up time of 14.2 months, 19 patients (95%) reported at least some improvement in pain. Eight (40%) patients were completely pain-free and stopped all medications (BNI Grade I) while another 2 (10%) patients also stopped medications but reported occasional pain (BNI Grade II). Another 2 (10%) patients reported no pain and 7 (35%) patients only occasional pain while continuing medications, BNI Grade IIIA and IIIB, respectively. Median time to pain control was 8.5 days (range: 1-70 days). No patient reported severe pain, worsening pain or any pain not controlled on their previously taken medication. Intermittent or persistent facial numbness following treatments occurred in 35% of patients. No other complications were reported. Stereotactic radiosurgery using the BrainLAB Novalis system is a safe and effective treatment for TN. This information is important as more centers are obtaining image

  5. Neuralgia do trigêmeo bilateral por cisticerco racemoso unilateral no ângulo-ponto cerebelar: relato de caso Unusual cause for bilateral trigeminal neuralgia: unilateral racemous cysticercus of cerebellopontine angle. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO HENRIQUE AGUIAR

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos o caso de uma paciente de 42 anos portadora de cisticerco racemoso na região do ângulo ponto-cerebelar (APC direito com trigeminalgia bilateral mais intensa no lado ipsilateral à localização do parasita. O cisticerco foi totalmente removido por meio de craniotomia suboccipital. No primeiro dia pós-operatório houve desaparecimento bilateral da dor. Duas hipóteses fisiopatológicas foram aventadas para explicar a sintomatologia: lesões que ultrapassam os limites da cisterna do APC poderão através da cisterna pré-pontina alcançar a cisterna do APC atingindo o trigêmeo contralateral; lesões com grande efeito de massa poderão provocar rotação do tronco cerebral e deslocamento e tração de estruturas ipsi e contralaterais, provocando compressão arteriovenosa sobre o trigêmeo contralateral na porção superior da cisterna do APC. Salientamos a necessidade de exames de imagem ante qualquer algia craniofacial e observamos que, em lesões na região do APC, a cisticercose não pode ser esquecida.We report the case of a 42-year-old woman with a racemous cystecercus in the right cerebellopontine angle (CPA, who presented with bilateral trigeminal neuralgia. The parasite was completly removed via a right suboccipital craniotomy. On the first postoperative day, the patient indicated that the pain disappeared. The neuralgia was caused by two probable mechanisms: a distortion of the brain stem and compression of the nerve against an arterial loop at the entry zone or arachnoiditis caused by the parasite in the both CPA cisternae. This case demonstrates the advisability of obtaining imaging studies in all patients with trigeminal neuralgia before starting any management. We must always remind that the cysticercus may be a differential diagnosis of CPA lesions.

  6. Perceptions of HIV-related health services in Zambia for people with disabilities who are HIV-positive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A Nixon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the emerging body of literature on increased vulnerability to HIV among people with disabilities (PWDs, there is a dearth of evidence related to experiences of PWDs who have become HIV-positive. This priority was identified by a disability advocacy organization in Lusaka, Zambia, where the prevalence of HIV and of disability is each approximately 15%. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions and experiences of HIV-related health services for PWDs who are also living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods: This qualitative, interpretive study involved in-depth, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with two groups of participants in Lusaka, Zambia: 21 PWDs who had become HIV-positive, and 11 people working in HIV and/or disability. PWDs had physical, hearing, visual and/or intellectual impairments. Interviews were conducted in English, Nyanja, Bemba or Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted by a multidisciplinary, international research team. Results: Participants described their experiences with HIV-related health services in terms of the challenges they faced. In particular, they encountered three main challenges while seeking care and treatment: (1 disability-related discrimination heightened when seeking HIV services, (2 communication barriers and related concerns with confidentiality, and (3 movement and mobility challenges related to seeking care and collecting antiretroviral therapy. These experiences were further shaped by participants’ profound concerns about poverty and unmet basic needs. Discussion: This study demonstrates how PWDs who are HIV-positive have the same HIV care, treatment and support needs as able-bodied counterparts, but face avoidable barriers to care. Many challenges mirror concerns identified with HIV prevention, suggesting that efforts to promote inclusion and reduce stigma could have widespread benefits. Conclusions: Despite the growing body of

  7. Perceptions of HIV-related health services in Zambia for people with disabilities who are HIV-positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Stephanie A; Cameron, Cathy; Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Simwaba, Phillimon; Solomon, Patricia E; Bond, Virginia A; Menon, Anitha; Richardson, Emma; Stevens, Marianne; Zack, Elisse

    2014-01-01

    Despite the emerging body of literature on increased vulnerability to HIV among people with disabilities (PWDs), there is a dearth of evidence related to experiences of PWDs who have become HIV-positive. This priority was identified by a disability advocacy organization in Lusaka, Zambia, where the prevalence of HIV and of disability is each approximately 15%. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions and experiences of HIV-related health services for PWDs who are also living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia. This qualitative, interpretive study involved in-depth, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with two groups of participants in Lusaka, Zambia: 21 PWDs who had become HIV-positive, and 11 people working in HIV and/or disability. PWDs had physical, hearing, visual and/or intellectual impairments. Interviews were conducted in English, Nyanja, Bemba or Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted by a multidisciplinary, international research team. Participants described their experiences with HIV-related health services in terms of the challenges they faced. In particular, they encountered three main challenges while seeking care and treatment: (1) disability-related discrimination heightened when seeking HIV services, (2) communication barriers and related concerns with confidentiality, and (3) movement and mobility challenges related to seeking care and collecting antiretroviral therapy. These experiences were further shaped by participants' profound concerns about poverty and unmet basic needs. This study demonstrates how PWDs who are HIV-positive have the same HIV care, treatment and support needs as able-bodied counterparts, but face avoidable barriers to care. Many challenges mirror concerns identified with HIV prevention, suggesting that efforts to promote inclusion and reduce stigma could have widespread benefits. Despite the growing body of literature on increased risk of exposure to HIV among HIV-negative PWDs, this is

  8. Postherpetic Nneuralgia: Review of Treatment Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip SL Chan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV is the etiological agent for both varicella (chickenpox and herpes zoster (HZ (shingles. HZ results from the reactivation of VZV acquired during childhood. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN is the most common complication of HZ infection in immunocompetent patients. There is no universally accepted definition of PHN. While the mechanisms producing pain associated with PHN are not fully understood, peripheral and central processes are thought to be important.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination against herpes zoster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter; Wilschut, Jan C.; Postma, Maarten J.

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common disease among elderly, which may develop into a severe pain syndrome labeled postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). A live-attenuated varicella zoster virus vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence and burden of illness of HZ and PHN, providing the

  10. Herpes zoster: klinik, diagnostik og behandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Rønholt, Finn; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is a painful vesicular rash localized to one dermatome. Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is persistent pain three months after the rash started. In recent years several Cochrane reviews and clinical studies on how to treat HZ and PHN have been published. These studies show...

  11. Anal sex and associated HIV-related sexual risk factors among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Rajesh Kumar; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Kovvali, Dolly; Proddutoor, Laxminarayana; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to understand the correlates of anal sex practices among female sex workers (FSWs) and examine the association of anal sex with HIV-related sexual risk factors in Andhra Pradesh, India. A cross-sectional behavioural survey was conducted in 2011 among 795 FSWs aged 18 years or older. Probability-based cluster sampling was used to select respondents from sex work hotspots. One-quarter (23%) of FSWs had practiced anal sex in the last year. The odds of practicing anal sex were higher among FSWs aged 35 years or more than in those aged less than 25 years (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.05, Psex work compared to those having additional sources of income (AOR: 1.54, Pexperienced violence compared to those who had not (AOR: 2.80, Psex were more likely to experience sexually transmissible infection (STI) related symptoms than those practicing only vaginal sex. There was no association between anal sex practice and condom use. Anal sex is associated with STI symptoms, a factor for HIV risk. HIV intervention programmes need to educate FSWs about the risks associated with anal sex.

  12. Increasing HIV-related knowledge, communication, and testing intentions among Latinos: Protege tu Familia: Hazte la Prueba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Ellis, Britt; Espinoza, Lilia; Bird, Mara; Garcia, Melawhy; D'Anna, Laura Hoyt; Bellamy, Laura; Scolari, Rosana

    2010-08-01

    Latinos are less likely to be aware of their HIV seropositivity than African Americans and Whites. 'Protege tu Familia: Hazte la Prueba' is a culturally and linguistically-sensitive HIV/AIDS prevention and testing program targeting Latino families. Using community-based participatory research techniques, Spanish-speaking bicultural community health workers helped develop and then used an educational flip chart and materials to conduct outreach and HIV prevention education in diverse settings. The intervention was created to increase HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, to improve communication regarding sexual risk, and to augment intentions to use condoms and test for HIV. A secondary purpose was to decrease HIV-related stigma by improving knowledge about transmission and reducing homophobia. Participants demonstrated significant increases in HIV knowledge, intention to practice safer sex and communicate sexual risk to partner(s), and intention to test for HIV. Improvements were also found in self-reported comfort levels when interacting with and caring for the HIV positive, thus decreasing HIV/AIDS-related stigma.

  13. The impact of HIV-related stigma on older and younger adults living with HIV disease: does age matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlet, Charles A; Brennan, David J; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Rueda, Sergio; Hart, Trevor A; Rourke, Sean B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the independent influence of age on levels of HIV-related stigma experienced by adults living with HIV/AIDS. To accomplish this, cross-sectional data from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study were used to determine whether older age is associated with overall stigma among HIV-positive adults living in Ontario, Canada (n = 960). The relationship was also tested for enacted, anticipated, and internalized stigma. Covariates included sociodemographic (e.g., gender, sexual orientation, race) and psychosocial variables (e.g., depression). Modifying effects of covariates were also investigated. Those 55 and older have significantly lower overall and internalized stigma than adults under age 40, even when accounting for gender, sexual orientation, income, time since diagnosis, depression, maladaptive coping, and social support. Age does not predict enacted or Anticipated Stigma when accounting for the demographic and psychosocial variables. A significant interaction between depression and age suggests that stigma declines with age among those who are depressed but increases to age 50 and then decreases in older age groups among those who are not depressed. Age matters when it comes to understanding stigma among adults living with HIV/AIDS; however, the relationship between age and stigma is complex, varying according to stigma type and depression level.

  14. Self-esteem and "at risk" women:determinants and relevance to sexual and HIV-related risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, Claire E; Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we describe the relationship between self-esteem and HIV-related risk behaviors, and explore what factors predict self-esteem levels of "at risk" women. Interviews were conducted with 250 (predominantly African American) women living in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area between August 1997 and August 2000. A community identification process was used to identify potential study participants, with further expansion of the sample via targeted and theoretical sampling and ethnographic mapping procedures. Self-esteem was related to the number of times having oral sex, the number of times having sex with paying partners, the frequency of sexual risk-taking (all during the 90 days prior to interview), the number of different HIV risk behaviors practiced during the previous year, and condom use attitudes and self-efficacy. Greater involvement HIV risk behaviors was associated with lower self-esteem. Multivariate analyses revealed five significant predictors of women's self-esteem levels: race, religiosity, childhood experiences with emotional neglect, the number of money-related problems experienced, and the number of drug-related problems experienced. The findings indicate that self-esteem is highly relevant to "at risk" women's HIV risk behavior practices, and this has important implications for HIV intervention programs.

  15. Access to harm reduction and HIV-related treatment services inside Indian prisons: experiences of formerly incarcerated injecting drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Kamei, Ram; Kipgen, Hoineilam; Kh, Jayanta Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The authors aimed to examine the incarceration experiences of injecting drug users in accessing harm reduction, and HIV-related services inside prisons in India. The authors conducted three focus groups with a purposive sample of 23 formerly incarcerated male IDUs and four key informant interviews with a former police official, a drug dealer and service providers. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method. Participants reported availability of alcohol and injectable or oral drugs such as heroin, dextropropoxyphene, and marijuana inside prisons. Inmates obtained drugs and clean syringes (one syringe bought for 2.5-4 USD) through prison staff, and collected used syringes and needles from the dustbins in prison sickrooms. Needles and syringes were reused and shared. Prisons did not have needle and syringe programmes, detoxification, overdose management or opioid substitution treatment. Drug-using prison inmates faced several challenges in accessing antiretroviral treatment and HIV testing. The authors' findings emphasize the need to protect the health of injection drug-using inmates by introducing harm reduction programmes and removing barriers to HIV testing and antiretroviral treatment. This study illustrates, for the first time, the contexts behind high risk injecting drug use behaviours among prison inmates in India. It also highlights the lack of availability of harm reduction services such as needle and syringe programmes, drug detoxification and opioid substitution treatment inside prisons. Further, it demonstrates the difficulties faced by HIV-positive prison inmates in getting timely and uninterrupted antiretroviral treatment.

  16. The Use of Female Sex Workers Among Men in Nepal: Prevalence, STIs/HIV-Related Risk Behaviors, and Gender Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Roman; Karki, Pramila; Copenhaver, Michael

    Heterosexual sex involving female sex workers (FSWs) is widely documented for its role in facilitating the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV. Critical to such studies, and increasingly considered essential to HIV prevention efforts, is the gender constructs and power dynamics within relationships. However, little efforts have been made, which focus on male clients of FSWs, particularly on the relationship between gender ideologies and men's sexual contact with FSWs, within the Nepali context. The present study aims to fill this critical gap by assessing the prevalence of use of FSWs and its association with STIs/HIV-related risk behaviors and gender ideologies among Nepali men. We used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) 2011. For the purpose of analyses, we included a sample of 4,121 men, aged 15-49 years. During data analyses, we used multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for the following variables: age, region, residence, religion, educational level, wealth index, employment status, and cigarette smoking status. Of the total sample, approximately 5% reported the use of FSWs in their lifetime. In regression models, men who had sex with FSWs were more likely to report a history of STIs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 3.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.69-5.43; P gender roles and beliefs.

  17. Access and Quality of HIV-Related Point-of-Care Diagnostic Testing in Global Health Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonjungo, Peter N; Boeras, Debrah I; Zeh, Clement; Alexander, Heather; Parekh, Bharat S; Nkengasong, John N

    2016-02-01

    Access to point-of-care testing (POCT) improves patient care, especially in resource-limited settings where laboratory infrastructure is poor and the bulk of the population lives in rural settings. However, because of challenges in rolling out the technology and weak quality assurance measures, the promise of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related POCT in resource-limited settings has not been fully exploited to improve patient care and impact public health. Because of these challenges, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), in partnership with other organizations, recently launched the Diagnostics Access Initiative. Expanding HIV programs, including the "test and treat" strategies and the newly established UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, will require increased access to reliable and accurate POCT results. In this review, we examine various components that could improve access and uptake of quality-assured POC tests to ensure coverage and public health impact. These components include evaluation, policy, regulation, and innovative approaches to strengthen the quality of POCT. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. [Validation of the Spanish version of the HIV Related Fatigue Scale and application in people with hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sierra, Rosa María; Feijoo-Cid, Maria; Font-Canals, Roser; Varoucha-Azcarate, Ana Cristina; Bernal-Balada, Rosó; López-Parra, Maria; Caballero-Sáez, Iolanda; Pérez-Bernal, Mercè

    2015-01-01

    To validate the American fatigue scale HIV-Related Fatigue Scale (HRFS) and present the Spanish version called Integrated Fatigue Assessment Scale to assess fatigue in HCV and co-infected patients. Psychometric study with cross-sectional design was used. The HRFS was translated into Spanish using the back-translation method-later to be validated. Participants completed the questionnaire adapted to a self-report form, as well as a sociodemographic questionnaire. The reliability and validity of the Spanish version was evaluated. A total of 7 public service hospitals and two prisons in Catalonia participated in the evaluation. The sample consisted of 122 subjects selected by consecutive sampling in the fourth week of treatment of hepatitis C with combination therapy or triple therapy. The Cronbach alpha for the total scale was 0.958. Content Validity Index (I-CVI) varied from 0.5 to 1. Validity Scale Content-level (S-CVI) was 0.85. Pearson correlations between the three dimensions were between 0.49 and 0.68. The process followed for the cultural adaptation and validation shows that the Spanish version of the HRFS) is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used in clinical practice and in the investigation of fatigue in patients with hepatitis C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Examining the associations between HIV-related stigma and health outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS: a series of meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Sergio; Mitra, Sanjana; Chen, Shiyi; Gogolishvili, David; Globerman, Jason; Chambers, Lori; Wilson, Mike; Logie, Carmen H; Shi, Qiyun; Morassaei, Sara; Rourke, Sean B

    2016-07-13

    To conduct a systematic review and series of meta-analyses on the association between HIV-related stigma and health among people living with HIV. A structured search was conducted on 6 electronic databases for journal articles reporting associations between HIV-related stigma and health-related outcomes published between 1996 and 2013. Controlled studies, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies in people living with HIV were considered for inclusion. Mental health (depressive symptoms, emotional and mental distress, anxiety), quality of life, physical health, social support, adherence to antiretroviral therapy, access to and usage of health/social services and risk behaviours. 64 studies were included in our meta-analyses. We found significant associations between HIV-related stigma and higher rates of depression, lower social support and lower levels of adherence to antiretroviral medications and access to and usage of health and social services. Weaker relationships were observed between HIV-related stigma and anxiety, quality of life, physical health, emotional and mental distress and sexual risk practices. While risk of bias assessments revealed overall good quality related to how HIV stigma and health outcomes were measured on the included studies, high risk of bias among individual studies was observed in terms of appropriate control for potential confounders. Additional research should focus on elucidating the mechanisms behind the negative relationship between stigma and health to better inform interventions to reduce the impact of stigma on the health and well-being of people with HIV. This systematic review and series of meta-analyses support the notion that HIV-related stigma has a detrimental impact on a variety of health-related outcomes in people with HIV. This review can inform the development of multifaceted, intersectoral interventions to reduce the impact of HIV-related stigma on the health and well-being of people living

  20. Feasibility of Multiple Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgeries for Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy C. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment options for trigeminal neuralgia (TN must be customized for the individual patient, and physicians must be aware of the medical, surgical, and radiation treatment modalities to prescribe optimal treatment courses for specific patients. The following case illustrates the potential for gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS to be repeated multiple times for the purpose of achieving facial pain control in cases of TN that have been refractory to other medical and surgical options, as well as prior GKRS. The patient described failed to achieve pain control with initial GKRS, as well as medical and surgical treatments, but experienced significant pain relief for a period of time with a second GKRS procedure and later underwent a third procedure. Only a small subset of patients have reportedly undergone more than two GKRS for TN; thus, further research and long-term clinical followup will be valuable in determining its usefulness in specific clinical situations.

  1. Quantitative sensory testing in classical trigeminal neuralgia-a blinded study in patients with and without concomitant persistent pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younis, Samaira; Maarbjerg, Stine; Reimer, Maren

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria of the third International Classification of Headache Disorders state that there should be no neurological deficits in patients with classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) at clinical examination. However, studies demonstrating sensory abnormalities at bedside examination in TN...... patients have questioned this. Our aim was to examine whether TN patients without sensory abnormalities at neurological examination have sensory abnormalities at quantitative sensory testing (QST) and whether there were any QST differences between TN with and without concomitant persistent pain. Thirty...... scores were calculated to process frequency analyses and Z-profiles. We found increased mechanical detection threshold on the symptomatic side (47.2% vs 0%, P = 0.008), asymptomatic side (33.3% vs 0%, P = 0.011), and hand (36% vs 0%, P

  2. The angular relationship between the foramen ovale and the trigeminal impression: percutaneous cannulation trajectories for trigeminal neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdilla, Matthew J.; Hatfield, Scott A.; Mangus, Kelsey R.

    2016-01-01

    The debilitating pain of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) often necessitates neurosurgical intervention via percutaneous transovale cannulation. While most percutaneous treatments of TN are successful, severe adverse events resulting from failure to properly cannulate the foramen ovale (FO) have been reported. With regard to specific targeting of particular trigeminal divisions (i.e. V1, V2, V3, and combinations thereof), operative techniques have been described; however, these descriptions have not included specific angulation data. This anatomical study analyzed the angular relationship between the centroid and anteromedial- and posterolateral-most aspects of the FO and the boundaries of the trigeminal impression. The study is the first to detail the angular relationship between the FO boundaries and the boundaries of the trigeminal impression in dry human skulls relative to the coronal plane. The information may be used to prevent miscannulation and also target specific branches of the trigeminal nerve for optimal operative results. PMID:28005784

  3. High Voltage Pulsed Radiofrequency for the Treatment of Refractory Neuralgia of the Infraorbital Nerve: A Prospective Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fang; Wang, Tao; Shen, Ying; Meng, Lan; Lu, Jingjing; Ji, Nan

    2017-05-01

    A recent study showed that 50% of patients who suffered from refractory neuralgia of the infraorbital nerve obtained satisfactory efficacy after pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment. A pilot study showed that increasing the output voltage of PRF significantly improved the efficacy for trigeminal neuralgia; however, whether increasing the output voltage of PRF can improve the treatment outcomes for neuralgia of the infraorbital nerve is unknown. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of high voltage PRF treatment in comparison with standard voltage PRF for neuralgia of the infraorbital nerve. Prospective, single-center, double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University. A total of 60 patients with refractory neuralgia of the infraorbital nerve were randomly divided into the high voltage PRF group and the standard voltage PRF group to treat their infraorbital nerves. Neither the patients, pain physicians, nor the follow-up evaluators knew the patient group assignments. The primary outcome measure was the one-year response rate. The secondary outcome measures included the time to take effect after PRF, the one-month, 3-month, and 6-month response rates, the relapse rate, and adverse reactions. The intent-to-treat analysis showed that the one-month, 3-month, 6-month, and one-year response rates were all 90% in the high voltage group, which were significantly higher than the rates in the standard voltage group (67% [P voltage group and 13% of the patients in the standard voltage group experienced minor transient (10 - 30 days) numbness in the innervation area after PRF; no other serious adverse reactions were observed in the 2 groups (P > 0.05). We did not investigate the dose-effect relationship between the output voltage and efficacy or the effect of a higher pulse dose on efficacy. This study was a single-center study, and multi-center, randomized, controlled studies are needed to obtain the highest level of empirical

  4. Diagnostic Accuracy of Selective 3-T MR Neurography-guided Retroperitoneal Genitofemoral Nerve Blocks for the Diagnosis of Genitofemoral Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jan; Dellon, A Lee; Williams, Eric H; Rosson, Gedge D; Belzberg, Allan J; Eckhauser, Frederick E

    2017-10-01

    Purpose To determine if 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) neurography-guided retroperitoneal genitofemoral nerve (GFN) blocks are safe and effective for the diagnosis of genitofemoral neuralgia. Materials and Methods Following institutional review board approval and informed consent, 26 subjects (16 men, 10 women; mean age, 42 years [range, 24-78 years]; mean body mass index, 28 kg/m(2) [range, 20-35 kg/m(2)]) with intractable groin pain were included. By using a 3-T MR imaging system, intermediate-weighted turbo spin-echo pulse sequences, and MR-conditional needles, diagnostic MR neurography-guided GFN blocks were performed in the retroperitoneum. Outcome variables included technical success, procedure time, complications, and rates of positive and negative GFN blocks in association with therapeutic outcomes. For the assessment of a learning curve, Mann-Whitney test was used. P values ≤ .05 were considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. Results In 26 subjects, 30 retroperitoneal GFN blocks were performed. Twelve (40%) were performed with an anterior needle path, 12 (40%) with a lateral needle path, and six (20%) with a posterior needle path. GFN blocks were technically successful in 24 of 26 (92%) subjects, achieving appropriate scrotal anesthesia. No complications occurred. The time required for a GFN block was 40 minutes (range, 18-67 minutes). The rate of a successful GFN intervention after a positive GFN block was 88% (14 of 16). The rate of a successful intervention of an alternative target after a negative GFN block was 71% (five of seven). Conclusion Selective retroperitoneally directed MR neurography-guided GFN blocks are safe and effective with high technical success and positive effect on surgical decision making in patients with presumed genitofemoral neuralgia. (©) RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  5. The predictive power of balloon shape and change of sensory functions on outcome of percutaneous balloon compression for trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Pär; Linderoth, Bengt; Bergenheim, A Tommy

    2010-09-01

    Percutaneous balloon compression is a simple and effective treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. However, results between and within different series are varying. To further improve the results in terms of pain relief, the authors believe that a careful study of the surgical procedure is important. The object of this study was to analyze the impact of balloon shape, balloon position, balloon volume, and compression time on duration of the therapeutic effect following percutaneous balloon compression. Furthermore, they analyzed the sensory side effects associated with this treatment, and how these relate to surgical parameters. Medical records and intraoperative radiographs from 87 balloon compressions were reviewed, and different surgical parameters were categorized. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to correlate surgical parameters to pain relief. Sensory testing with a transcutaneous electrical stimulation technique and clinical examination data were reviewed to analyze changes in sensory function. The balloon shape had a significant impact on time to recurrence of pain. A pear-shaped balloon resulted in a far better surgical result than a non-pear-shaped balloon (p pear shape was not significant (p = 0.14). Statistical significance was not reached for any of the other parameters in relation to duration of therapeutic effect. A pear-shaped balloon was also significantly associated with increased thresholds for percutaneous electrical stimulation in the immediate postoperative period, but the perception thresholds were normalized at the late follow-up at 3-9 months. A similar outcome was found for clinical testing with light touch and pinprick. The authors have demonstrated that using a pear-shaped balloon when performing percutaneous balloon compression for trigeminal neuralgia results in longer pain relief than non-pear-shaped balloons. Other surgical parameters seemed less important with respect to pain relief. Balloon compression also, in many

  6. 'Triply cursed': racism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma are barriers to regular HIV testing, treatment adherence and disclosure among young Black gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Emily A; Rebchook, Gregory M; Kegeles, Susan M

    2014-06-01

    In the USA, young Black gay men are disproportionately impacted upon by HIV. In this qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 31 young Black gay men and nine service providers, where we used thematic analysis to guide our interpretations, we found that HIV-related stigma and homophobia, within the larger societal context of racism, were related to sexual risk behaviour, reluctance to obtain HIV testing or care, lower adherence to treatment medication, and non-disclosure of a positive HIV status to sexual partners. Participants experienced homophobia and HIV-related stigma from churches and families within the Black community and from friends within the Black gay community, which otherwise provide support in the face of racism. Vulnerability to HIV was related to strategies that young Black gay men enacted to avoid being stigmatised or as a way of coping with alienation and rejection.

  7. “Triply cursed”: Racism, homophobia, and HIV-related stigma are barriers to regular HIV testing, treatment adherence, and disclosure among young Black gay men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Emily A.; Rebchook, Gregory M.; Kegeles, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    In the USA, young Black gay men are disproportionately impacted by HIV. In this qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 31 young Black gay men and 9 service providers, where we used thematic analysis to guide our interpretations, we found that HIV-related stigma and homophobia, within the larger societal context of racism, were related to sexual risk behaviour, reluctance to obtain HIV testing or care, lower adherence to treatment medication, and disclosure of a positive HIV status to sexual partners. Participants experienced homophobia and HIV-related stigma from churches and families within the Black community, and from friends within the Black gay community, that otherwise provide support in the face of racism. Vulnerability to HIV was related to strategies that young Black gay men enacted to avoid being stigmatised or as a way of coping with their alienation and rejection. PMID:24784224

  8. Predictors of HIV-related risk perception and PrEP acceptability among young adult female family planning patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Danielle B; Alexander, Kamila A; McDonald-Mosley, Reagan; Willie, Tiara C; Decker, Michele R

    2017-06-01

    HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) presents new opportunities for HIV prevention. While women comprise approximately 20% of new HIV infections in the US, significant questions remain about how to most effectively facilitate PrEP uptake for this population. Family planning clinics are a dominant source of health care for young women and support an estimated 4.5 million women annually. We explore characteristics associated with HIV risk perception and PrEP acceptability among young adult women seeking reproductive health services in a high-prevalence setting. A cross-sectional, clinic-based survey was conducted with women ages 18-35 (n = 146) seeking health care at two family planning clinics in the greater Baltimore, Maryland area, from January to April 2014. An estimated 22% of women reported being worried about HIV risk, and 60% reported they would consider taking a pill daily to prevent HIV. In adjusted models, HIV-related worry was associated with having no college education, being single or dating more than one person, practicing consistent condom use during vaginal sex, and having ever traded sex. PrEP acceptability was significantly associated with being Black (71% vs. 49%, AOR 2.23, CI: 1.89-2.64) and having ever traded sex (83% vs. 58%, AOR 4.94, CI: 2.00-12.22). For women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV), PrEP acceptability was significantly lower (57% vs. 62%, AOR .71, CI: .59-.85) relative to their non-abused counterparts. Results suggest that family planning clinics may be a natural setting for PrEP discussion and roll-out. They should be considered in the context of integrating HIV prevention with reproductive health services. Women with a trauma history may need additional support for implementing HIV prevention in the form of PrEP.

  9. CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS, OUTCOMES AND RISK FACTORS FOR DEATH AMONG CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS WITH HIV-RELATED ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Leonardo Duarte Sobreira; Soares, Douglas de Sousa; Junior, Geraldo Bezerra da Silva; Cavalcante, Malena Gadelha; Malveira, Lara Raissa Cavalcante; Meneses, Gdayllon Cavalcante; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco

    2016-07-11

    The aim of this study is to describe clinical characteristics, outcomes and risk factors for death among patients with HIV-related acute kidney injury (AKI) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). A retrospective study was conducted with HIV-infected AKI patients admitted to the ICU of an infectious diseases hospital in Fortaleza, Brazil. All the patients with confirmed diagnosis of HIV and AKI admitted from January 2004 to December 2011 were included. A comparison between survivors and non-survivors was performed. Risk factors for death were investigated. Among 256 AKI patients admitted to the ICU in the study period, 73 were identified as HIV-infected, with a predominance of male patients (83.6%), and the mean age was 41.2 ± 10.4 years. Non-survivor patients presented higher APACHE II scores (61.4 ± 19 vs. 38.6 ± 18, p = 0.004), used more vasoconstrictors (70.9 vs. 37.5%, p = 0.02) and needed more mechanical ventilation - MV (81.1 vs. 35.3%, p = 0.001). There were 55 deaths (75.3%), most of them (53.4%) due to septic shock. Independent risk factors for mortality were septic shock (OR = 14.2, 95% CI = 2.0-96.9, p = 0.007) and respiratory insufficiency with need of MV (OR = 27.6, 95% CI = 5.0-153.0, p HIV-infected patients with AKI admitted to the ICU presented higher severity APACHE II scores, more respiratory damage and hemodynamic impairment than survivors. Septic shock and respiratory insufficiency were independently associated to death.

  10. The role of risk perception and efficacy cognitions in the prediction of HIV-related preventive behavior and condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengel, J; Belz-merk, M; Farin, E

    1996-01-01

    The salience of the Protection Motivation Theory to HIV preventive behavior was investigated in a sample of 468 heterosexual men 20-45 years of age recruited in Germany and at vacation spots in Spain. This theory conceptualizes self-protective behaviors as a function of the severity of the threat, perceived personal vulnerability to this threat, the availability of coping responses, and the effectiveness of these responses. Cognitive variables measured included perceived severity of the threat of AIDS, sexual self-efficacy expectancy, self-efficacy expectations in terms of sexual communication skills, response efficacy, and attitude toward condom use. On a scale of 1 (low) to 6 (high), perceived severity of the AIDS threat averaged 5.3, individual susceptibility ratings averaged 3.5, and susceptibility of peers had a mean of 4.9. Although 33% of respondents had made behavioral changes in response to the AIDS epidemic, only 15% always used condoms while 12% used them occasionally. Self-efficacy expectancy with regard to assertiveness and use of preventive measures emerged as the most significant predictor of HIV-related behaviors. The causal analyses indicated that high communicative self-efficacy expectancy is associated with high-risk sexual behaviors, while self-efficacy expectancy regarding assertiveness and the use of preventive measures promotes risk reduction. These associations were strongest in men over 26 years of age, singles, and tourists. These findings suggest a need for interventions for couples such as assertiveness training and guidance on communicating about sex and AIDS. Also demonstrated was the need for AIDS education programs to identify where participants are in terms of perceiving the threat of and coping with the AIDS epidemic and promote conditions that will help people advance to the next stage.

  11. “Triply cursed”: Racism, homophobia, and HIV-related stigma are barriers to regular HIV testing, treatment adherence, and disclosure among young Black gay men

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Emily A.; Rebchook, Gregory M.; Kegeles, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    In the USA, young Black gay men are disproportionately impacted upon by HIV. In this qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 31 young Black gay men and nine service providers, where we used thematic analysis to guide our interpretations, we found that HIV-related stigma and homophobia, within the larger societal context of racism, were related to sexual risk behaviour, reluctance to obtain HIV testing or care, lower adherence to treatment medication, and non-disclosure of a p...

  12. Details for Manuscript Number SSM-D-07-01631R1 “HIV-Related Stigma: Adapting a Theoretical Framework for Use in India”

    OpenAIRE

    Steward, Wayne T.; Herek, Gregory M; Ramakrishna, Jayashree; Bharat, Shalini; Chandy, Sara; Wrubel, Judith; Ekstrand, Maria L

    2008-01-01

    Stigma complicates the treatment of HIV worldwide. We examined whether a multi-component framework, initially consisting of enacted, felt normative, and internalized forms of individual stigma experiences, could be used to understand HIV-related stigma in Southern India. In Study 1, qualitative interviews with a convenience sample of 16 people living with HIV revealed instances of all three types of stigma. Experiences of discrimination (enacted stigma) were reported relatively infrequently. ...

  13. HIV-related stigma and self-disclosure: the mediating and moderating role of anticipated discrimination among people living with HIV/AIDS in Akure Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olley, B O; Ogunde, M J; Oso, P O; Ishola, A

    2016-01-01

    Although links between HIV-related stigma and self-disclosure of HIV status among people living with HIV have been well established, it is unclear whether levels of perceived discrimination are differentially associated with self-disclosure. The present study using a multi-factorial survey design investigated the role of stigma and other self-related factors (e.g., anticipated discrimination, self-esteem, HIV-related factors [e.g., drug use combination; knowledge of duration of HIV diagnosis] and socio-demographic factors [e.g., multiple spouse; age, gender, educational level] and psychological distress [depression]) in self-disclosure among People living with HIV/AIDs has been added (PLWHA) on follow-up management in State Specialist Hospital Akure, Nigeria. One hundred and thirty nine HIV/AIDS patients (49 males and 90 females) participated in the study. Mean age and mean time in months since diagnosis were 39.56 ± 10.26 and 37.78 ± 48.34, respectively. Four variables: multiple spouse, anticipated discrimination, HIV-related stigma and self-esteem were related to self-disclosure at (p self-esteem (Sobel test: z = 2.09, Aroian = 2.06, p stigma (Sobel test: z = 2.78, Aroaian = 2.75 p stigma t (5, 137) = 1.69, p > .05, self-esteem t (5, 137) = .59, p > .05 and anticipated discrimination were non-significant, suggesting a non-moderation effect of discrimination and disclosure. The results indicate that anticipated discrimination may impact HIV-related stigma to reduce self-disclosure among the PLWHAs in Akure, Nigeria. Interventions should incorporate anticipated discrimination in educational programs of HIV stigma in encouraging self-disclosure among PLWHAs.

  14. Influence of religious affiliation and education on HIV knowledge and HIV-related sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in rural central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noden, Bruce H; Gomes, Aurelio; Ferreira, Aldina

    2010-10-01

    The interactions between religious affiliation, education, HIV knowledge, and HIV-related sexual behaviors among African church youth are poorly understood. In this socio-demographic study, 522 unmarried youth 12-28 years old in rural central Mozambique were surveyed with a structured questionnaire. Using binary logistic regression analysis, we used religious affiliation and education to measure influence on (1) HIV transmission and prevention knowledge and attitudes and (2) HIV-related sexual behaviors among youth. Religiously affiliated males were more likely than non-religious males to know when a condom should be used, respond correctly to HIV transmission questions and respond with less stigma to HIV-related scenarios. Increased levels of education among males corresponded significantly to increased knowledge of condom usage and HIV prevention strategies and less likelihood to respond with stigma. Only education levels influenced young female responses. Religious affiliation and education had minimal effects on sexual activity, condom usage, and multiple partnerships. African Independent Church/Zionist males were 1.6 times more likely to be sexually inexperienced than non-religious males but were also significantly less likely to use condoms (0.23, p=0.024). Non-religious youth were most likely to have visited sex workers and did not use condoms. These results suggest that religious affiliation, possibly as the result of educational opportunities afforded by religious-affiliated schools, is contributing to increased HIV transmission and prevention knowledge among youth in rural Central Mozambique but not influencing HIV-related sexual behavior. The need exists to strengthen the capacity of religious congregations to teach about HIV/AIDS and target non-religious youth with HIV transmission and prevention information.

  15. Corpus callosum thickness on mid-sagittal MRI as a marker of brain volume: a pilot study in children with HIV-related brain disease and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas [University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Ackermann, Christelle [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark [Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children' s Hospital, Children' s Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Tomazos, Nicollette [University of Cape Town, Faculty of Commerce, Department of Management Studies, Cape Town (South Africa); Spottiswoode, Bruce [University of Cape Town, MRC/UCT Medical Imaging Research Unit, Department of Human Biology, Cape Town (South Africa); Mauff, Katya [University of Cape Town, Department of Statistical Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Pettifor, John M. [University of the Witwatersrand, MRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Witwatersrand (South Africa)

    2015-07-15

    Corpus callosum thickness measurement on mid-sagittal MRI may be a surrogate marker of brain volume. This is important for evaluation of diseases causing brain volume gain or loss, such as HIV-related brain disease and HIV encephalopathy. To determine if thickness of the corpus callosum on mid-sagittal MRI is a surrogate marker of brain volume in children with HIV-related brain disease and in controls without HIV. A retrospective MRI analysis in children (<5 years old) with HIV-related brain disease and controls used a custom-developed semi-automated tool, which divided the midline corpus callosum and measured its thickness in multiple locations. Brain volume was determined using volumetric analysis. Overall corpus callosum thickness and thickness of segments of the corpus callosum were correlated with overall and segmented (grey and white matter) brain volume. Forty-four children (33 HIV-infected patients and 11 controls) were included. Significant correlations included overall corpus callosum (mean) and total brain volume (P = 0.05); prefrontal corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02); premotor corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.04) and white matter volume (P = 0.02), premotor corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02) and sensory corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.02). Corpus callosum thickness correlates with brain volume both in HIV-infected patients and controls. (orig.)

  16. Atypical findings of perineural cysts on postmyelographic computed tomography: a case report of intermittent intercostal neuralgia caused by thoracic perineural cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamuro, Hirokazu; Yanagawa, Taro; Takamizawa, Sachiko; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2017-06-13

    Perineural cysts are sometimes found incidentally with magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical symptoms requiring treatment are rare. Perineural cysts typically exhibit delayed filling with contrast medium on myelography, which is one of the criteria used by Tarlov to distinguish perineural cysts from meningeal diverticula. We present a case of multiple thoracolumbar perineural cysts, one of which was considered the cause of intermittent intercostal neuralgia with atypical findings on postmyelographic computed tomography seen as selective filling of contrast medium. A 61-year-old woman presented with intermittent pain on her left chest wall with distribution of the pain corresponding to the T10 dermatome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple thoracolumbar perineural cysts with the largest located at the left T10 nerve root. On postmyelographic computed tomography immediately after contrast medium injection, the largest cyst and another at left T9 showed selective filling of contrast medium, suggesting that inflow of cerebrospinal fluid to the cyst exceeded outflow. Three hours after the injection, the intensity of the cysts was similar to the intensity of the thecal sac, and by the next day, contrast enhancement was undetectable. The patient was treated with an intercostal nerve block at T10, and the pain subsided. However, after 9 months of observation, the neuralgia recurred, and the nerve block was repeated with good effect. There was no recurrence 22 months after the last nerve block. We concluded that intermittent elevation of cerebrospinal fluid pressure in the cyst caused the neuralgia because of an imbalance between cerebrospinal fluid inflow and outflow, and repeated intercostal nerve blocks resolved the neuralgia. Our case demonstrates the mechanism of cyst expansion.

  17. Neuralgia of the Glossopharyngeal Nerve in a Patient with Posttonsillectomy Scarring: Recovery after Local Infiltration of Procaine?Case Report and Pathophysiologic Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, L.; Ludin, S. M.; K. Puente de la Vega; Sturzenegger, M.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a patient with a three-year history of severe progressive left-sided glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) that failed to adequately respond to various drug therapies. The application of lidocaine spray to the posterior pharyngeal wall provided no more than short-term relief. Apart from a large hypertrophic tonsillectomy scar on the left side all clinical and radiologic findings were normal. In terms of therapeutic local anaesthesia, the hypertrophic tonsillectomy scar tissue was compl...

  18. Neuralgia del trigémino: estudio funcional mediante tensor de difusión de alta densidad como herramienta diagnóstica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Alonso

    2015-04-01

    Conclusión: La realización de la difusión anisotrópica de alta densidad y la medición de la FA pueden ser una herramienta en la evaluación de la neuralgia esencial del trigémino, ya que es un método reproducible y seguro que permite estudiar la función del nervio

  19. The role of HIV-related stigma in utilization of skilled childbirth services in rural Kenya: a prospective mixed-methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Turan

    Full Text Available Childbirth with a skilled attendant is crucial for preventing maternal mortality and is an important opportunity for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The Maternity in Migori and AIDS Stigma Study (MAMAS Study is a prospective mixed-methods investigation conducted in a high HIV prevalence area in rural Kenya, in which we examined the role of women's perceptions of HIV-related stigma during pregnancy in their subsequent utilization of maternity services.From 2007-2009, 1,777 pregnant women with unknown HIV status completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire assessing their perceptions of HIV-related stigma before being offered HIV testing during their first antenatal care visit. After the visit, a sub-sample of women was selected for follow-up (all women who tested HIV-positive or were not tested for HIV, and a random sample of HIV-negative women, n = 598; 411 (69% were located and completed another questionnaire postpartum. Additional qualitative in-depth interviews with community health workers, childbearing women, and family members (n = 48 aided our interpretation of the quantitative findings and highlighted ways in which HIV-related stigma may influence birth decisions. Qualitative data revealed that health facility birth is commonly viewed as most appropriate for women with pregnancy complications, such as HIV. Thus, women delivering at health facilities face the risk of being labeled as HIV-positive in the community. Our quantitative data revealed that women with higher perceptions of HIV-related stigma (specifically those who held negative attitudes about persons living with HIV at baseline were subsequently less likely to deliver in a health facility with a skilled attendant, even after adjusting for other known predictors of health facility delivery (adjusted odds ratio = 0.44, 95% CI 0.22-0.88.Our findings point to the urgent need for interventions to reduce HIV-related stigma, not only for improving quality of

  20. Prevalence and predictors of HIV-related stigma among institutional- and community-based caregivers of orphans and vulnerable children living in five less-wealthy countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messer Lynne C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the face of the HIV/AIDS epidemic that has contributed to the dramatic increase in orphans and abandoned children (OAC worldwide, caregiver attitudes about HIV, and HIV-related stigma, are two attributes that may affect caregiving. Little research has considered the relationship between caregiver attributes and caregiver-reported HIV-related stigma. In light of the paucity of this literature, this paper will describe HIV-related stigma among caregivers of OAC in five less wealthy nations. Methods Baseline data were collected between May 2006 through February 2008. The sample included 1,480 community-based and 192 institution-based caregivers. Characteristics of the community-based and institution-based caregivers are described using means and standard deviations for continuous variables or counts and percentages for categorical variables. We fit logistic regression models, both for the full sample and separately for community-based and institution-based caregivers, to explore predictors of acceptance of HIV. Results Approximately 80% of both community-based and institution-based caregivers were female; and 84% of institution-based caregivers, compared to 66% of community-based caregivers, said that they would be willing to care for a relative with HIV. Similar proportions were reported when caregivers were asked if they were willing to let their child play with an HIV-infected child. In a multivariable model predicting willingness to care for an HIV-infected relative, adjusted for site fixed effects, being an institution-based caregiver was associated with greater willingness (less stigma than community-based caregivers. Decreased willingness was reported by older respondents, while willingness increased with greater formal education. In the adjusted models predicting willingness to allow one's child to play with an HIV-infected child, female gender and older age was associated with less willingness. However, willingness

  1. Severe bilateral amyotrophic neuralgia associated with major dysphagia secondary to acute hepatitis E [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/29a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Moisset

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several acute neurological syndromes can be triggered by immune events. Hepatitis E virus (HEV, an emerging infectious disease, can be one of these triggers. Case report: We report the case of a 36-year-old man that presented nausea and a dull abdominal pain for a week and then felt an acute neuralgic pain involving both shoulders that lasted for 8 to 10 hours. Immediately after, the patient presented a severe bilateral muscular weakness of the proximal part of both upper limbs, corresponding to an amyotrophic neuralgia. Two days after the shoulder pain, the patient presented a dysphagia necessitating tube feeding.  A blood sample confirmed hepatitis caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV; genotype 3F. Oral feeding resumed progressively after five months. The patient was fully independent for the activities of daily living but was still unable to work after six months. Conclusion: Amyotrophic neuralgia and hepatitis E are both under-diagnosed. It is noteworthy that HEV can trigger amyotrophic neuralgia. Antiviral drugs, oral steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins can be proposed, but the optimal treatment has  not yet been determined.

  2. Severe bilateral amyotrophic neuralgia associated with major dysphagia secondary to acute hepatitis E [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2q8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Moisset

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several acute neurological syndromes can be triggered by immune events. Hepatitis E virus (HEV, an emerging infectious disease, can be one of these triggers. Case report: We report the case of a 36-year-old man that presented nausea and a dull abdominal pain for a week and then felt an acute neuralgic pain involving both shoulders that lasted for 8 to 10 hours. Immediately after, the patient presented a severe bilateral muscular weakness of the proximal part of both upper limbs, corresponding to an amyotrophic neuralgia. Two days after the shoulder pain, the patient presented a dysphagia necessitating tube feeding.  A blood sample confirmed hepatitis caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV; genotype 3F. Oral feeding resumed progressively after five months. The patient was fully independent for the activities of daily living but was still unable to work after six months. Conclusion: Amyotrophic neuralgia and hepatitis E are both under-diagnosed. It is noteworthy that HEV can trigger amyotrophic neuralgia. Antiviral drugs, oral steroids and intravenous immunoglobulins can be proposed, but the optimal treatment has  not yet been determined.

  3. [Efficacy of intracutaneous methylene blue injection for moderate to severe acute thoracic herpes zoster pain and prevention of postherpetic neuralgia in elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ji-Zheng; Zhang, Jin-Wei; Zhang, Yun; Ma, Zheng-Liang

    2016-10-20

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of intradermal injection of methylene blue for treatment of moderate to severe acute thoracic herpes zoster and prevention of postherpetica neuralgia in elderly patients. Sixty-four elderly patients with herpes zoster were randomized to receive a 10-day course of intradermal injection of methylene blue and lidocaine plus oral valaciclovir (group A, 32 cases) and intradermal injection of lidocaine plus oral valaciclovir (group B).Herpes evaluation index, pain rating index, incidence of postherpetic neuralgia, and comprehensive therapeutic effect were compared between the two groups at 11, 30 and 60 days after the treatment. The baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups (all P>0.05). Compared with that in group B, the time for no new blister formation, blister incrustation and decrustation, and pain relief was significantly shortened in group A (Pmethylene blue can effectively shorten the disease course, reduce the pain intensity and prevent the development of postherpetic neuralgia in elderly patients with herpes zoster.

  4. Economic Burden of Herpes Zoster and Post-Herpetic Neuralgia in Adults 60 Years of Age or Older: Results from a Prospective, Physician Practice-Based Cohort Study in Kushiro, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Mizukami, Akiko; Adachi, Koichi; Matthews, Sean; Holl, Katsiaryna; Asano, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Akihiro; Adachi, Riri; Kiuchi, Mariko; Kobayashi, Keiju; Sato, Keiko; Matsuki, Taizo; Kaise, Toshihiko; Curran, Desmond

    2017-12-01

    Herpes zoster has a high incidence rate among people aged ≥ 60 years and can lead to serious complications such as post-herpetic neuralgia. There are currently no data on the economic burden of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in Japan, and the objective of this study was to address this gap. A total of 412 patients aged ≥ 60 years diagnosed with herpes zoster were recruited. Demographic, clinical, and healthcare resource utilization data on patients with herpes zoster or post-herpetic neuralgia collected via case report forms were used to estimate direct medical cost. Data obtained from a questionnaire survey among patients with herpes zoster/post-herpetic neuralgia were used to estimate transportation cost and productivity loss. The mean number of outpatient visits was 5.7. Prescription medications were the main cost driver accounting for 60% of the direct medical cost. The mean direct medical and total herpes zoster-related costs per patient were ¥43,925 and ¥57,112, respectively, and were higher in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia than in those with herpes zoster without complications. Direct medical cost represented 77%, productivity loss 19%, and transportation cost 4% of the total. This is the first study of the economic burden of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in Japan and it demonstrated substantial direct medical cost as a result of the multiple outpatient visits and prescription medications required. These findings provide baseline data for possible future economic evaluations of new herpes zoster/post-herpetic neuralgia interventions. This cost analysis is part of a prospective, physician practice-based cohort study conducted between June 2013 and February 2015 in Kushiro, Japan (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01873365, registered on 6 June, 2013).

  5. Experiences of HIV-related stigma among HIV-positive older persons in Uganda – a mixed methods analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteesa, Monica O.; Wright, Stuart; Seeley, Janet; Mugisha, Joseph; Kinyanda, Eugene; Kakembo, Frederick; Mwesigwa, Richard; Scholten, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is limited data on stigma among older HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the experiences of stigma and disclosure in a cohort of HIV-positive older people in Uganda. Using data from the Wellbeing of Older Peoples' Study of Kalungu (rural site) and Wakiso district (peri-urban site) residents, we measured self-reported stigma levels for 183 respondents (94 on antiretroviral therapy (ART); 88, not on ART) using a stigma score generated using three questions on stigma perceptions where 0 meant no stigma at all and 100 was maximum stigma. Based on two questions on disclosure, an overall score was computed. High disclosure was assigned to those who often or very often disclosed to the family and were never or seldom afraid to disclose elsewhere. We examined the experiences of HIV stigma of 25 adults (52% females) using semi-structured, open-ended interviews and monthly oral diaries over one year. Mean age of the respondents was 70 years (range 60–80 years) and 80% of all respondents were enrolled in ART. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis. Overall, 55% of respondents had a high disclosure score, meaning they disclosed easily, and 47% had a high stigma score. The stigma scores were similar among those with high and low disclosure scores. In multivariate analyses with disclosure and stigma scores as dependent variables none of the respondents' characteristics had a significant effect at the 5% level. Qualitative data revealed that stigma ranges from: (1) perceptions (relatively passive, but leading to behaviour such as gossip, especially if not intended maliciously); to (2) discriminatory behaviour (active or enacted stigma; from malicious gossip to outright discrimination). Despite the relatively high levels of disclosure, older people suffer from high levels of stigma of various forms apart from HIV-related stigma. Efforts to assess for different forms of stigma at an individual level deserve greater

  6. HIV-Related Medical Admissions to a South African District Hospital Remain Frequent Despite Effective Antiretroviral Therapy Scale-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintjes, Graeme; Kerkhoff, Andrew D.; Burton, Rosie; Schutz, Charlotte; Boulle, Andrew; Van Wyk, Gavin; Blumenthal, Liz; Nicol, Mark P.; Lawn, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The public sector scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa commenced in 2004. We aimed to describe the hospital-level disease burden and factors contributing to morbidity and mortality among hospitalized HIV-positive patients in the era of widespread ART availability. Between June 2012 and October 2013, unselected patients admitted to medical wards at a public sector district hospital in Cape Town were enrolled in this cross-sectional study with prospective follow-up. HIV testing was systematically offered and HIV-infected patients were systematically screened for TB. The spectrum of admission diagnoses among HIV-positive patients was documented, vital status at 90 and 180 days ascertained and factors independently associated with death determined. Among 1018 medical admissions, HIV status was ascertained in 99.5%: 60.1% (n = 609) were HIV-positive and 96.1% (n = 585) were enrolled. Of these, 84.4% were aware of their HIV-positive status before admission. ART status was naive in 35.7%, current in 45.0%, and interrupted in 19.3%. The most frequent primary clinical diagnoses were newly diagnosed TB (n = 196, 33.5%), other bacterial infection (n = 100, 17.1%), and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining illnesses other than TB (n = 64, 10.9%). By 90 days follow-up, 175 (29.9%) required readmission and 78 (13.3%) died. Commonest causes of death were TB (37.2%) and other AIDS-defining illnesses (24.4%). Independent predictors of mortality were AIDS-defining illnesses other than TB, low hemoglobin, and impaired renal function. HIV still accounts for nearly two-thirds of medical admissions in this South African hospital and is associated with high mortality. Strategies to improve linkage to care, ART adherence/retention and TB prevention are key to reducing HIV-related hospitalizations in this setting. PMID:26683950

  7. Differences in Substance Use, Psychosocial Characteristics and HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behavior Between Black Men Who Have Sex with Men Only (BMSMO) and Black Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women (BMSMW) in Six US Cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dyer, Typhanye P; Regan, Rotrease; Wilton, Leo; Harawa, Nina T; Ou, San San; Wang, Lei; Shoptaw, Steve

    2013-01-01

    We assessed associations in substance use, psychosocial characteristics, and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors, comparing characteristics of Black men who only have sex with other men only (BMSMO; n = 839...

  8. Exploring HIV-related stigma among HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Beijing, China: a correlation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Hsieh, Evelyn; Morano, Jamie P; Sheng, Yu

    2016-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related stigma among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) has been associated with adverse health outcomes, including poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy and care, and increased participation in behaviors linked to higher rates of HIV transmission. In China, the incidence of HIV is growing more rapidly among MSM than among other subgroups. This study characterizes and quantifies HIV stigma among HIV-infected MSM in Beijing, China, which arguably may be driving this epidemic. A cross-sectional survey study was performed among 266 HIV-positive MSM in Beijing, China, in 2014. The Berger HIV Stigma Scale was used to measure levels of HIV-related stigma. Participants additionally answered questions regarding socio-demographic characteristics and HIV-associated risk factors; previously validated Mandarin-language scales assessed depression, coping style, and social support networks. Multivariable linear regression models were used to identify variables significantly associated with HIV stigma. The mean overall HIV stigma score among the study population was 112.78 ± 18.11 (score range: 40-160). Higher HIV stigma scores were positively associated with depression (β = 7.99, 95% CI:3.69, 12.29, p coping skills (β = 0.64, 95% CI:0.21,1.08, p stigma. The results of this study can inform the development of culturally sensitive interventions to reduce HIV-related stigma among MSM with HIV in China, with the overarching goal of reducing HIV transmission in this vulnerable population.

  9. Exposure to pornographic videos and its effect on HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidhubhusan Mahapatra

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Research on pornography and its association with HIV-related sexual behaviours is limited in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of viewing pornographic videos and examine its associations with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in India. METHODS: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007-08 across 21 districts in four states of India. Respondents included 11,219 male migrants aged 18 years or older, who had migrated to at least two places in the past two years for work. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the association between viewing pornography and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours. RESULTS: Two-fifths (40% of the migrants had viewed pornographic videos in one month prior to the survey. Migrants aged 25-29 years, literate, unmarried and away from native village for more than five years were more likely to view pornography than their counterparts. Migrants who viewed pornographic videos were more likely to engage in paid (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-4.8 and unpaid sex (AOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 3.7-4.7, report inconsistent condom use in paid sex (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.0 and experience STI-like symptoms (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5-1.8 than their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The findings regarding migrants' exposure to pornography and its linkage with high HIV risk behaviour suggest that the HIV prevention programmes for migrants need to be more innovative to communicate on the negative-effects of viewing pornography. More importantly, programmes need to find alternative ways to engage migrants in infotainment activities during their leisure time in an effort to reduce their exposure to pornographic videos as well as risky sexual behaviours.

  10. Prevalence and pattern of HIV-related malnutrition among women in sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analysis of demographic health surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uthman Olalekan A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The world's highest HIV infection rates are found in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where adult prevalence in most countries exceeds 25%. Food shortages and malnutrition have combined with HIV/AIDS to bring some countries to the brink of crisis. The aim of this study was to describe prevalence of malnutrition among HIV-infected women and variations across socioeconomic status using data from 11 countries in SSA. Methods This study uses meta-analytic procedures to synthesize the results of most recent data sets available from Demographic and Health Surveys of 11 countries in SSA. Pooled prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-and fixed-effects models. Subgroup and leave-one-country-out sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Results Pooling the prevalence estimates of HIV-related malnutrition yielded an overall prevalence of 10.3% (95% CI 7.4% to 14.1% with no statistically significant heterogeneity (I2 = 0.0%, p = .903. The prevalence estimates decreased with increasing wealth index and education attainment. The pooled prevalence of HIV-related malnutrition was higher among women residing in rural areas than among women residing in urban areas; and lower among women that were professionally employed than unemployed or women in agricultural or manual work. Conclusion Prevalence of HIV-related malnutrition among women varies by wealth status, education attainment, occupation, and type of residence (rural/urban. The observed socioeconomic disparities can help provide more information about population subgroups in particular need and high risk groups, which may in turn lead to the development and implementation of more effective intervention programs.

  11. Effects of a performance and quality improvement intervention on the work environment in HIV-related care: a quasi-experimental evaluation in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazant, Eva; Sarkar, Supriya; Banda, Joseph; Kanjipite, Webby; Reinhardt, Stephanie; Shasulwe, Hildah; Mulilo, Joyce Monica Chongo; Kim, Young Mi

    2014-12-20

    Human resource shortages and reforms in HIV-related care make it challenging for frontline health care providers in southern Africa to deliver high-quality services. At health facilities of the Zambian Defence Forces, a performance and quality improvement approach was implemented to improve HIV-related care and was evaluated in 2010/2011. Changes in providers' work environment and perceived quality of HIV-related care were assessed to complement data of provider performance. The intervention involved on-site training, supportive supervision, and action planning focusing on detailed service delivery standards. The quasi-experimental evaluation collected pre- and post-intervention data from eight intervention and comparison facilities matched on defence force branch and baseline client volume. Overall, 101 providers responded to a 24-item questionnaire on the work environment, covering topics of drugs, supplies, and equipment; training, feedback, and supervision; compensation; staffing; safety; fulfilment; and HIV services quality. In bivariate analysis and multivariate analyses, we assessed changes within each study group and between the two groups. In the bivariate analysis, the intervention group providers reported improvements in the work environment on adequacy of equipment, feeling safe from harm, confidence in clinical skills, and reduced isolation, while the comparison group reported worsening of the work environment on supplies, training, safety, and departmental morale.In the multivariate analysis, the intervention group's improvement and the comparison group's decline were significant on perceived adequacy of drugs, supplies, and equipment; constructive feedback received from supervisor and co-workers; and feeling safe from physical harm (all P improvement intervention implemented at Zambian Defence Forces' health facilities was associated with improvements in providers' perceptions of work environment consistent with the intervention's focus on

  12. Perceived HIV stigma among children in a high HIV-prevalence area in central China: beyond the parental HIV-related illness and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Zhang, Liying; Hong, Yan; Zhao, Junfeng; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2010-05-01

    (1) Examine the psychometric properties of two parallel measures of HIV-related stigma (i.e., perceived public stigma and children's personal stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS [PLWHA]) among children affected by HIV/AIDS. (2) Examine whether expressions of stigma measures differ by child's sex, developmental stage, family socioeconomic status (SES), or orphanhood status (i.e., AIDS orphans, vulnerable children, and comparison children). (3) Examine the association between HIV-related stigma and children's psychosocial adjustments among these children. Cross-sectional data were collected from 755 AIDS orphans (children who had lost one or both their parents to AIDS), 466 vulnerable children who lived with HIV infected parents, and 404 comparison children who did not experience HIV-related illness and death in their families. The measures included perceived public stigma, personal stigma, depressive symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, future expectations, hopefulness about the future, and perceived control over the future. Both stigma scales were positively associated with psychopathological symptoms (e.g., depression, loneliness) and negatively associated with psychosocial well-being (e.g., self-esteem, positive future expectation, hopefulness about future, and perceived control over the future). Both stigma measures contribute to children's psychosocial problems independent of their orphanhood status and other key demographic factors. Community-wide stigma reduction and psychological support should be part of the care efforts for children affected by AIDS. Stigma reduction efforts should not only target the stigma against PLWHA but also possible stigma against the entire community (e.g., villages) with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The stigma reduction efforts also needs to be appropriate for children's age, gender, family SES, and AIDS experience in the family. Future research should explore individual and contextual factors such as social support, coping

  13. Inflammation-modulating cytokine profile and lipid interaction in HIV-related risk factors for cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gori E

    2016-11-01

    -α across the three groups. Regarding plasma lipoproteins, HDL-c levels were reduced in HIV ART-naïve (P=0.002 and ART-receiving (P=0.015 subjects compared to HIV-uninfected subjects. Similarly, TC levels were lower in the HIV-infected than in the HIV-uninfected group regardless of whether the patients were undergoing ART or not (P<0.001. IL-10 levels correlated with TC levels in the HIV-uninfected group but not in the HIV-infected groups. Levels of HDL-c were reduced, while IL-10 plasma concentrations were elevated in HIV-infected individuals. A correlation observed in HIV-uninfected individuals between anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and TC was lost in HIV-infected individuals. Clinical significance of these differences needs to be ascertained with respect to HIV-related CVD risk. Keywords: HIV, inflammation, cytokines, antiretroviral therapy, cardiovascular disease risk

  14. Subtemporal transtentorial approach for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia after microvascular decompression via the lateral suboccipital approach: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Toshihiro; Goto, Tetsuya; Kusano, Yoshikazu; Kuroiwa, Masafumi; Kiuchi, Takafumi; Kodama, Kunihiko; Takemae, Toshiki; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2015-06-01

    Microvascular decompression (MVD) via lateral suboccipital craniotomy is the standard surgical intervention for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). For recurrent TN, difficulties are sometimes encountered when performing reoperation via the same approach because of adhesions and prosthetic materials used in the previous surgery. In the present case report the authors describe the efficacy of the subtemporal transtentorial approach for use in recurrent TN after MVD via the lateral suboccipital approach. An 86-year-old woman, in whom an MVD via a lateral suboccipital craniotomy had previously been performed for TN, underwent surgery for recurrent TN via the subtemporal transtentorial approach, which provided excellent visualization of the neurovascular relationships and the trigeminal nerve without adhesions due to the previous surgery. Her TN disappeared after the MVD. The present approach is ideal for visualizing the trigeminal root entry zone, and the neurovascular complex can be easily dissected using a new surgical trajectory. This approach could be another surgical option for reoperation when the previous MVD had been performed via the suboccipital approach.

  15. Trigeminal Neuralgia as the First Clinical Manifestation of Anti-Hu Paraneoplastic Syndrome Induced by a Borderline Ovarian Mucinous Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Kalanie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome (PNS is an uncommon manifestation of cancer that is not caused by the tumor or metastasis. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN is an initial symptom of this disease, but it has rarely been reported in the literature. Here, we report the case of a 76-year-old woman who presented with classic TN, followed by limbic encephalitis due to an underlying ovarian intestinal-type mucinous borderline tumor, with the presence of anti-Hu antibodies. She recovered quickly after removal of the tumor and was essentially free of symptoms 2 weeks after surgery. Because PNS precedes the tumor in approximately 60% of cases, its rapid detection and treatment are crucial. Therefore, we propose that PNS be considered during the management of TN when brain imaging is normal, as it is followed by other central and/or peripheral neurological manifestations as well as the presence of systemic symptoms such as anemia, fatigability, loss of appetite, or weight loss.

  16. Sensory abnormalities and masticatory function after microvascular decompression or balloon compression for trigeminal neuralgia compared with carbamazepine and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichida, Michelle Cristina; de Almeida, Antonio Nogueira; da Nobrega, Jose Claudio Marinho; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; de Siqueira, José Tadeu Tesseroli; de Siqueira, Silvia R D T

    2015-06-01

    Idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (iTN) is a neurological condition treated with pharmacotherapy or neurosurgery. There is a lack of comparative papers regarding the outcomes of neurosurgery in patients with iTN. The objective of this study was to investigate sensory thresholds and masticatory function in 78 patients with iTN who underwent microvascular decompression (MVD) or balloon compression (BC), and compare these treatments with carbamazepine and 30 untreated healthy controls. The authors conducted a case-controlled longitudinal study. Patients were referred to 1 of 3 groups: MVD, BC, or carbamazepine. All patients were evaluated before and after treatment with a systematic protocol composed of a clinical orofacial questionnaire, Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorders, Helkimo indices, and a quantitative sensory-testing protocol (gustative, olfactory, cold, warm, touch, vibration, superficial, and deep pain thresholds). Both MVD and BC were effective at reducing pain intensity (p = 0.012) and carbamazepine doses (p masticatory function according to Helkimo indices was greater after BC than MVD. MVD resulted in more gustative alterations, and both procedures caused impairment in thermal thresholds (warm and cold). However, only BC also affected touch perception. The sensorial and motor deficits after BC need to be included as targets directly associated with the success of the surgery and need to be assessed and relieved as goals in the treatment of iTN.

  17. Understanding the role of peer group membership in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability among female sex workers in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Prakash, Ravi; Pillai, Priya; Isac, Shajy; Haranahalli, Mohan; Blanchard, Andrea; Shahmanesh, Maryam; Blanchard, James; Moses, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In Karnataka state, South India, we analyzed the role of membership in peer groups in reducing HIV-related risk and vulnerability among female sex workers (FSWs). Data from three surveys conducted in Karnataka, a behavioral tracking survey and two rounds of integrated biological and behavioral assessments (IBBAs), were analyzed. Using propensity score matching, we examined the impact of group membership on selected outcomes, including condom use, experience of violence, access to entitlements, and the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection. Focus group discussions were conducted with the FSWs to better understand their perceptions regarding membership in peer groups. Peer group members participating in the IBBAs had a lower prevalence of gonorrhea and/or chlamydia (5.2 vs 9.6%, ppeer group reported significantly less experience of violence in the past six months, were less likely to have bribed police to avoid trouble in the past six months, and were more likely to have obtained at least one formal identification document in the past five years, compared to non-members. In focus group discussions, group members indicated that they had more confidence in dealing with situations of forced sex and violence. Including community mobilization and peer group formation in the context of HIV prevention programing can reduce HIV-related risk and vulnerability among FSWs.

  18. A Prospective Study Assessing Tumour Response, Survival, and Palliative Care Outcomes in Patients with HIV-Related Kaposi's Sarcoma at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Francis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human-Immunodeficiency-Virus- (HIV- related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS has a high prevalence in Africa; however, there is minimal published data on treatment and outcomes in this population. Objective and Design. This was a prospective study of 50 patients, aiming to assess the impact of vincristine therapy on tumour response and survival and to assess palliative care outcomes in patients with HIV-related KS. Methods. 50 consecutive patients were recruited during 2008. Vincristine therapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART were given. Tumour response, survival, and chemotherapy-related toxicities were documented. Palliative care outcomes were assessed using the African Palliative Care Association (APCA Palliative Outcome Scale (POS. Results. The majority of patients were male, and the median age was 33 years. At baseline assessment, the median CD4 T-cell count was 263, and 50% patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy. The overall response rate was 64% at 6 weeks, and median progression-free survival was 30 weeks. Treatment was generally well tolerated, with peripheral neuropathy the main dose-limiting toxicity. Conclusion. The combination of vincristine and HAART is feasible and effective in a low resource setting, although peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting factor. This patient group carries a high mortality and as such adequate access to palliative care is crucial.

  19. A Moderated Mediation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Depression, and Social Support on Health-Related Quality of Life among Incarcerated Malaysian Men with HIV and Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Roman; Copenhaver, Michael; Bazazi, Alexander R; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Krishnan, Archana; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-04-01

    Although it is well established that HIV-related stigma, depression, and lack of social support are negatively associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV (PLH), no studies to date have examined how these psychosocial factors interact with each other and affect HRQoL among incarcerated PLH. We, therefore, incorporated a moderated mediation model (MMM) to explore whether depression mediates the effect of HIV-related stigma on HRQoL as a function of the underlying level of social support. Incarcerated HIV-infected men with opioid dependence (N = 301) were recruited from the HIV units in Kajang prison in Malaysia. Participants completed surveys assessing demographic characteristics, HIV-related stigma, depression, social support, and HRQoL. Results showed that the effect of HIV-related stigma on HRQoL was mediated via depression (a1:β = 0.1463, p stigma and depression was negatively associated with HRQOL (β = -0.0317, p = 0.0133). This indicated that the predicted influence of HIV-related stigma on HRQoL via depression had negative effect on HRQoL for individuals with low social support. The results suggest that social support can buffer the negative impact of depression on HRQoL and highlights the need for future interventions to target these psychosocial factors in order to improve HRQoL among incarcerated PLH.

  20. Presurgical visualization of the neurovascular relationship in trigeminal neuralgia with 3D modeling using free Slicer software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kai-Wei; Zhang, Dan-Feng; Chen, Ji-Gang; Hou, Li-Jun

    2016-11-01

    To explore whether segmentation and 3D modeling are more accurate in the preoperative detection of the neurovascular relationship (NVR) in patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) compared to MRI fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA). Segmentation and 3D modeling using 3D Slicer were conducted for 40 patients undergoing MRI FIESTA and microsurgical vascular decompression (MVD). The NVR, as well as the offending vessel determined by MRI FIESTA and 3D Slicer, was reviewed and compared with intraoperative manifestations using SPSS. The k agreement between the MRI FIESTA and operation in determining the NVR was 0.232 and that between the 3D modeling and operation was 0.6333. There was no significant difference between these two procedures (χ(2) = 8.09, P = 0.088). The k agreement between the MRI FIESTA and operation in determining the offending vessel was 0.373, and that between the 3D modeling and operation was 0.922. There were significant differences between two of them (χ(2) = 82.01, P = 0.000). The sensitivity and specificity for MRI FIESTA in determining the NVR were 87.2 % and 100 %, respectively, and for 3D modeling were both 100 %. The segmentation and 3D modeling were more accurate than MRI FIESTA in preoperative verification of the NVR and offending vessel. This was consistent with surgical manifestations and was more helpful for the preoperative decision and surgical plan.

  1. Trigeminal laser-evoked potentials: a neurophysiological tool to detect post-surgical outcome in trigeminovascular contact neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squintani, G; Turri, M; Donato, F; Tinazzi, M; Masotto, B; Tramontano, V; Talacchi, A; Sala, F; Moretto, G; Valeriani, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the nociceptive system of patients affected by trigeminal neuralgia (TN) secondary to documented vascular contact who underwent microvascular decompression. For that purpose, we used the classical trigeminal reflexes and the trigeminal laser-evoked potentials (tLEPs) before and after surgery, in order to verify any possible change after decompression and determine if there was any correlation between the neurophysiological parameters and the clinical outcome. Eleven patients affected by TN caused by trigeminovascular contact and 10 age-matched controls underwent conventional trigeminal reflexes (bilateral Blink Reflex/BR and Masseter Inhibitory Reflex stimulating infraorbital and mental nerves/MIR V2 and V3) and tLEPs. Patients repeated neurophysiological tests one week after surgery. Short-latency BR and MIR were normal in all patients before surgery and there was no statistical difference before and after surgery. Conversely, in patients before surgery, tLEPs' amplitudes were significantly lower in the affected than in the healthy side (p = 0.017 for V2 and 0.037 for V3 branches). After surgery, on the affected side, tLEP amplitude increased and the pre/post-operative difference was significant (p = 0.017 for V2 and 0.028 for V3 divisions). Nine patients referred satisfactory pain relief and the favourable clinical outcome correlated with the neurophysiological recovery. This study demonstrates that TN caused by trigeminovascular compression may be related to Aδ fibres impairment, and tLEPs are more sensitive than conventional trigeminal reflexes to reveal small fibre dysfunction and to monitor the post-surgical outcome in these patients. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  2. Trigeminal neuralgia due to neurovascular conflicts from venous origin: an anatomical-surgical study (consecutive series of 124 operated cases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumot, Chloé; Sindou, Marc

    2015-03-01

    Veins as the source of trigeminal neuralgias (TN) lead to controversies. Only a few studies have specifically dealt with venous implication in neurovascular conflicts (NVC). The aim of this study was the anatomical-surgical description of the compressive veins found during micro-vascular decompression (MVD). Patients retained were those in whom a vein was considered compressive, alone, or in association with an artery. The study defined the type of vein involved, its situation along, the location around the root, and management. For this study, denomination of veins in relation with the root was revisited. Of the 326 consecutive patients who underwent MVD from 2005 to 2013, 124 (38.0 %) had a venous conflict, alone in 29 (8.9 %), or in association with an artery in 95 (29.1 %). The compressive veins belonged to one of the two venous systems described: the superficial or the deep superior petrosal venous system (sSPVS or dSPVS). A vein from sSPVS was found compressive in 81 cases (59.6 %), for the major part it was the pontine affluent of the superior petrosal vein (48 cases). The conflict was situated at TREZ in 28.4 %, mid-cisternal portion in 50.6 %, and porus in 8.6 %. The dSPVS was found compressive in 55 cases (40.4 %), almost always a transverse vein at porus (51 cases). Decompression was coagulation-division of the conflicting vein in 36.8 % and simple cleavage in the other. The study shows the frequent implication of veins in NVC as the source of TN. NVC are not only at TREZ but also at mid-cisternal portion and porus of Meckel cave.

  3. Changing use of traditional healthcare amongst those dying of HIV related disease and TB in rural South Africa from 2003 - 2011: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Paul; Wagner, Ryan G; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa; Kahn, Kathleen; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Collinson, Mark; Byass, Peter; Tollman, Stephen M

    2014-12-17

    In 2011 there were 5.5 million HIV infected people in South Africa and 71% of those requiring antiretroviral therapy (ART) received it. The effective integration of traditional medical practitioners and biomedical providers in HIV prevention and care has been demonstrated. However concerns remain that the use of traditional treatments for HIV-related disease may lead to pharmacokinetic interactions between herbal remedies and ART drugs and delay ART initiation. Here we analyse the changing prevalence and determinants of traditional healthcare use amongst those dying of HIV-related disease, pulmonary tuberculosis and other causes in a rural South African community between 2003 and 2011. ART was made available in this area in the latter part of this period. Data was collected during household visits and verbal autopsy interviews. InterVA-4 was used to assign causes of death. Spatial analyses of the distribution of traditional healthcare use were performed. Logistic regression models were developed to test associations of determinants with traditional healthcare use. There were 5929 deaths in the study population of which 47.7% were caused by HIV-related disease or pulmonary tuberculosis (HIV/AIDS and TB). Traditional healthcare use declined for all deaths, with higher levels throughout for those dying of HIV/AIDS and TB than for those dying of other causes. In 2003-2005, sole use of biomedical treatment was reported for 18.2% of HIV/AIDS and TB deaths and 27.2% of other deaths, by 2008-2011 the figures were 49.9% and 45.3% respectively. In bivariate analyses, higher traditional healthcare use was associated with Mozambican origin, lower education levels, death in 2003-2005 compared to the later time periods, longer illness duration and moderate increases in prior household mortality. In the multivariate model only country of origin, time period and illness duration remained associated. There were large decreases in reported traditional healthcare use and increases in

  4. High heterogeneity of HIV-related sexual risk among transgender people in Ontario, Canada: a province-wide respondent-driven sampling survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Greta R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of HIV-related risk in trans (transgender, transsexual, or transitioned people have most often involved urban convenience samples of those on the male-to-female (MTF spectrum. Studies have detected high prevalences of HIV-related risk behaviours, self-reported HIV, and HIV seropositivity. Methods The Trans PULSE Project conducted a multi-mode survey using respondent-driven sampling to recruit 433 trans people in Ontario, Canada. Weighted estimates were calculated for HIV-related risk behaviours, HIV testing and self-reported HIV, including subgroup estimates for gender spectrum and ethno-racial groups. Results Trans people in Ontario report a wide range of sexual behaviours with a full range of partner types. High proportions – 25% of female-to-male (FTM and 51% of MTF individuals – had not had a sex partner within the past year. Of MTFs, 19% had a past-year high-risk sexual experience, versus 7% of FTMs. The largest behavioural contributors to HIV risk were sexual behaviours some may assume trans people do not engage in: unprotected receptive genital sex for FTMs and insertive genital sex for MTFs. Overall, 46% had never been tested for HIV; lifetime testing was highest in Aboriginal trans people and lowest among non-Aboriginal racialized people. Approximately 15% of both FTM and MTF participants had engaged in sex work or exchange sex and about 2% currently work in the sex trade. Self-report of HIV prevalence was 10 times the estimated baseline prevalence for Ontario. However, given wide confidence intervals and the high proportion of trans people who had never been tested for HIV, estimating the actual prevalence was not possible. Conclusions Results suggest potentially higher than baseline levels of HIV; however low testing rates were observed and self-reported prevalences likely underestimate seroprevalence. Explicit inclusion of trans people in epidemiological surveillance statistics would provide much

  5. The influence of having children on HIV-related risk behaviors of female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico-US border cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolon, Maria Luisa; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Robertson, Angela M; Rangel, M Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Ulibarri, Monica D; Servin, Argentina; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-06-01

    Among female sex workers who use drugs, the experience of having children and its effect on HIV risk behaviors remains underexplored. We draw from a study of 214 female sex workers and their intimate non-commercial partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, México (n = 428), approximately 30% of whom have children living with them. During qualitative interviews with 41 of these couples, having children emerged as an important topic. Children influenced partners' lives and HIV-related risk behaviors in positive and negative ways. Couples perceived that children strengthened their relationships. Concern for children's well-being motivated couples to contemplate healthier lifestyle changes. However, childrearing costs motivated sex work and structural constraints prevented couples from enacting lifestyle changes. Case studies illustrate these themes and highlight implications for couple- and family-based harm reduction interventions. Specifically, our results suggest a need for economic alternatives to sex work while working with families to develop risk reduction skills.

  6. Identifying Strategies to Cope with HIV-Related Stigma in a Group of Women Living with HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rael, Christine Tagliaferri; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Norton, Rachel; Thorley, Eryka; Giguere, Rebecca; Sheinfil, Alan; Rios, Javier López

    2016-12-20

    Internalized HIV-related stigma negatively impacts the mental and physical health of women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA). Yet, some women can successfully confront stigma. The present work uses qualitative methods to investigate the successful stigma coping strategies displayed by 19 WLWHA who reported the least internalized stigma possible on the Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale out of a larger pool of 233 WLWHA in San Felipe de Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic. Such strategies included, HIV disclosure control; preemptive disclosure of HIV-status; educating oneself/others about HIV; viewing HIV as a manageable condition; and looking to family, friends and partners for support. Our findings add to current knowledge about how WLWHA successfully manage internalized stigma, particularly in the context of the Dominican Republic. Clinicians should work closely with WLWHA to counsel them about the stigma coping strategies that best fit their life context.

  7. "Inside These Fences Is Our Own Little World": Prison-Based HIV Testing and HIV-Related Stigma Among Incarcerated Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muessig, Kathryn E; Rosen, David L; Farel, Claire E; White, Becky L; Filene, Eliza J; Wohl, David A

    2016-04-01

    Correctional facilities offer opportunities to provide comprehensive HIV services including education, testing, treatment, and coordination of post- release care. However, these services may be undermined by unaddressed HIV stigma. As part of a prison-based HIV testing study, we interviewed 76 incarcerated men and women from the North Carolina State prison system. The sample was 72% men, median age 31.5 years (range: 19 to 60). Thematic analysis revealed high levels of HIV-related fear and stigma, homophobia, incomplete HIV transmission knowledge, beliefs that HIV is highly contagious within prisons ("HIV miasma"), and the View of HIV testing as protective. Interviewees described social distancing behaviors and coping mechanisms they perceived to be protective, including knowing their HIV status and avoiding contact with others and shared objects. Interviewees endorsed universal testing, public HIV status disclosure, and segregation of HIV-positive inmates. Intensified education and counseling efforts are needed to ameliorate entrenched HIV-transmission fears and stigmatizing beliefs.

  8. A narrative analysis positioning HIV relative to personal (sexual) relationship challenges in an agony aunt column in the Western Cape, South Africa - Aunty Mona's "love advice".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Lario; Thorne, Marguerite; Thomas, Angelique; Bond, Virginia; Hoddinott, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    HIV prevalence and incidence in South Africa remain high, making HIV a part of everyday life. Community narratives on HIV treatment and prevention are important and influence official and unofficial health messaging and community perceptions and understandings of HIV. We explore how contributors and the columnist of an agony aunt column position HIV relative to choices made about love, partnership, and sex over three years. We analysed all columns of an agony aunt series (Antie Mona) published between December 2012 and November 2015. The column is published in a South African, Afrikaans-language newspaper "Son", prioritising sensationalist news items. Trends were identified through narrative analysis. Data were managed in ATLAS.ti and inductive, iterative coding conducted. It was found that letters to the agony aunt rarely refer to HIV directly (less than 7%). Euphemisms such as diseases of the flesh and the great flu were more commonly used instead of HIV or AIDS. Letters addressed HIV in three ways: direct references to experiences living with HIV; direct questions about HIV prevention; and scenarios where HIV could (from a public health perspective) have been the main concern, but everyday issues took precedence. The majority of letters fell into this latter category where the writers focused on the immediate concerns of good sexual relations, problems related to love and romantic relationships, good moral behaviour of others, and issues of oppressive life conditions rather than on HIV directly. The findings illustrate that informal, public contributions to health information, such as agony aunts, are important narratives that inform popular perspectives on HIV and health. A better appreciation of this context would allow health implementers to ensure that these role players receive updated health messaging to avoid the risk of HIV-related stigma where HIV is used as a moral rod to punish perceived moral transgressions.

  9. Adaptation and Implementation of an Intervention to Reduce HIV-Related Stigma Among Healthcare Workers in the United States: Piloting of the FRESH Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batey, D Scott; Whitfield, Samantha; Mulla, Mazheruddin; Stringer, Kristi L; Durojaiye, Modupeoluwa; McCormick, Lisa; Turan, Bulent; Nyblade, Laura; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Turan, Janet M

    2016-11-01

    HIV-related stigma has been shown to have profound effects on people living with HIV (PLWH). When stigma is experienced in a healthcare setting, negative health outcomes are exacerbated. We sought to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a healthcare setting stigma-reduction intervention, the Finding Respect and Ending Stigma around HIV (FRESH) Workshop, in the United States. This intervention, adapted from a similar strategy implemented in Africa, brought together healthcare workers (HW) and PLWH to address HIV-related stigma. Two pilot workshops were conducted in Alabama and included 17 HW and 19 PLWH. Participants completed questionnaire measures pre- and post-workshop, including open-ended feedback items. Analytical methods included assessment of measures reliability, pre-post-test comparisons using paired t-tests, and qualitative content analysis. Overall satisfaction with the workshop experience was high, with 87% PLWH and 89% HW rating the workshop "excellent" and the majority agreeing that others like themselves would be interested in participating. Content analysis of open-ended items revealed that participants considered the workshop informative, interactive, well-organized, understandable, fun, and inclusive, while addressing real and prevalent issues. Most pre- and post-test measures had good-excellent internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alphas ranging from 0.70 to 0.96) and, although sample sizes were small, positive trends were observed, reaching statistical significance for increased awareness of stigma in the health facility among HW (p = 0.047) and decreased uncertainty about HIV treatment among PLWH (p = 0.017). The FRESH intervention appears to be feasible and highly acceptable to HW and PLWH participants and shows great promise as a healthcare setting stigma-reduction intervention for US contexts.

  10. Cognitive effects of electro-acupuncture and pregabalin in a trigeminal neuralgia rat model induced by cobra venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen RW

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruo-Wen Chen,1,2 Hui Liu,2 Jian-Xiong An,1,2 Xiao-Yan Qian,2 Yi-De Jiang,2 Doris K Cope,3 John P Williams,3 Rui Zhang,1 Li-Na Sun1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang City, Shandong, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine and Critical Care Medicine, Aviation General Hospital of China Medical University and Beijing Institute of Translational Medicine, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; 3Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of electro-acupuncture (EA and pregabalin on cognition impairment induced by chronic trigeminal neuralgia (TN in rats. Design: Controlled animal study. Setting: Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine and Critical Care Medicine, Aviation General Hospital of China Medical University. Subjects: Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups. The TN model was induced by administration of cobra venom to the left infraorbital nerve. On postoperative day 14, either EA or pregabalin was administered, free behavioral activities were observed. Spatial learning and memory abilities were determined in the Morris water maze. The ultrastructural alterations of the Gasserian ganglion, medulla oblongata and hippocampus were examined by electron microscopy. The changes on long-term potentiation were investigated. Results: After treatment, the exploratory behavior increased and the grooming behavior decreased (P<0.05 for the EA group and pregabalin group compared with the cobra venom group; moreover, demyelination of neurons in Gasserian ganglion and medulla oblongata was reversed. The number of platform site crossings, the average percentages of time in the target quadrant and the field excitatory postsynaptic potential slopes increased (P<0.05 in the EA group compared to the cobra venom group. However, the pregabalin group

  11. Trigeminal Neuralgia Treated With Stereotactic Radiosurgery: The Effect of Dose Escalation on Pain Control and Treatment Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotecha, Rupesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Kotecha, Ritesh [MidMichigan Medical Center, Midland, Michigan (United States); Modugula, Sujith [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Murphy, Erin S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Jones, Mark; Kotecha, Rajesh [MidMichigan Medical Center, Midland, Michigan (United States); Reddy, Chandana A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Suh, John H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Barnett, Gene H. [Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Neyman, Gennady [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Machado, Andre; Nagel, Sean [Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Chao, Samuel T., E-mail: chaos@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of dose escalation on treatment outcome in patients undergoing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed of 870 patients who underwent SRS for a diagnosis of TN from 2 institutions. Patients were typically treated using a single 4-mm isocenter placed at the trigeminal nerve dorsal root entry zone. Patients were divided into groups based on treatment doses: ≤82 Gy (352 patients), 83 to 86 Gy (85 patients), and ≥90 Gy (433 patients). Pain response was classified using a categorical scoring system, with fair or poor pain control representing treatment failure. Treatment-related facial numbness was classified using the Barrow Neurological Institute scale. Log-rank tests were performed to test differences in time to pain failure or development of facial numbness for patients treated with different doses. Results: Median age at first pain onset was 63 years, median age at time of SRS was 71 years, and median follow-up was 36.5 months from the time of SRS. A majority of patients (827, 95%) were clinically diagnosed with typical TN. The 4-year rate of excellent to good pain relief was 87% (95% confidence interval 84%-90%). The 4-year rate of pain response was 79%, 82%, and 92% in patients treated to ≤82 Gy, 83 to 86 Gy, and ≥90 Gy, respectively. Patients treated to doses ≤82 Gy had an increased risk of pain failure after SRS, compared with patients treated to ≥90 Gy (hazard ratio 2.0, P=.0007). Rates of treatment-related facial numbness were similar among patients treated to doses ≥83 Gy. Nine patients (1%) were diagnosed with anesthesia dolorosa. Conclusions: Dose escalation for TN to doses >82 Gy is associated with an improvement in response to treatment and duration of pain relief. Patients treated at these doses, however, should be counseled about the increased risk of treatment-related facial numbness.

  12. Evidence for localised HIV related micro–epidemics associated with the decentralised provision of antiretroviral treatment in rural South Africa: a spatio–temporal analysis of changing mortality patterns (2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Mee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analysed the spatial and temporal changes in patterns of mortality over a period when antiretroviral therapy (ART was rolled out in a rural region of north–eastern South Africa. Previous studies have identified localised concentrated HIV related sub–epidemics and recommended that micro–level analyses be carried out in order to direct focused interventions.

  13. SU-F-T-631: Linear Accelerator-Based Frameless Extracranial Radiosurgery for Treatment of Occipital Neuralgia for Non-Surgical Candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, T; Howe, J [Associates In Medical Physics, Louisville, KY (United States); Spalding, A [The Norton Cancer Institute Radiation Center, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Occipital neuralgia is a condition wherein pain is transmitted by the occipital nerves. Non-invasive therapies generally alleviate symptoms; however, persistent or recurring pain may require invasive procedures. Repeated invasive procedures upon failure are considered higher risk and are often contraindicated due to compounding inherent risk. SRS has not been explored as a treatment option largely due to the extracranial nature of the target (as opposed to the similar, more established trigeminal neuralgia), but advances in linear-accelerator frameless-based SRS now present an opportunity to evaluate the novel potential of this modality for this application. Methods: Patient presented with severe occipital pain following decompression and fusion of the cervical vertebrae with prior intervention attempted via radiofrequency ablation yielding temporary pain cessation. A 0.6 mm slice spacing CT was obtained for treatment planning, and a cervical spine oriented 1.0 mm slice spacing CT myelogram was obtained for the purpose of defining the targeted C2 occipital dorsal root ganglion (to receive 80 Gy to the isocenter) and spinal cord. Results: The spinal cord was most proximally 12.0 mm from the isocenter receiving a maximum dose of 3.36 Gy, and doses to 0.35 and 1.2 cc of 1.84 Gy and 0.79 Gy, respectively. The brain maximum dose was 2.29 Gy. The treatment was successfully performed with a NovalisTX (Varian) equipped with ExacTrac stereoscopic x-ray image guidance (BrainLAB). Treatment time was 59 minutes for 18,323 MUs. Imaging was performed prior to each arc delivery resulting in twenty-one imaging sessions (twelve requiring positional corrections with the remaining verified within tolerance). The average deviation magnitude requiring a positional or rotational correction was 0.96±0.25 mm, 0.8±0.41° while the average deviation magnitude deemed within tolerance was 0.41±0.12 mm, 0.57±0.28°. Conclusion: Linear accelerator-based frameless radiosurgery

  14. The impact of SASA!, a community mobilization intervention, on reported HIV-related risk behaviours and relationship dynamics in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyegombe, Nambusi; Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen M; Starmann, Elizabeth; Michau, Lori; Nakuti, Janet; Musuya, Tina; Heise, Lori; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) violates women's human rights, and it is a serious public health concern associated with increased HIV risk. SASA!, a phased community mobilization intervention, engages communities to prevent IPV and promote gender equity. The SASA! study assessed the community-level impact of SASA! on reported HIV-related risk behaviours and relationship dynamics. Data were collected as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial conducted between 2007 and 2012 in eight communities in Kampala. An adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, compares secondary outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. The qualitative evaluation explored participants' subjective experience of SASA!. A total of 82 in-depth interviews were audio recorded at follow-up, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Men in intervention communities were significantly more likely than controls to report a broad range of HIV-protective behaviours, including higher levels of condom use (aRR 2.03, 95% CI 1.22-3.39), HIV testing (aRR 1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.00) and fewer concurrent partners (aRR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37-0.97). They were also more likely to report increased joint decision-making (aRR 1.92, 95% CI 1.27-2.91), greater male participation in household tasks (aRR 1.48, 95% CI 1.09-2.01), more open communication and greater appreciation of their partner's work inside (aRR 1.31, 95% CI 1.04-1.66) and outside (aRR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08-2.06) the home. For women, all outcomes were in the hypothesized direction, but effect sizes were smaller. Only some achieved statistical significance. Women in intervention communities were significantly more likely to report being able to refuse sex with their partners (aRR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.35), joint decision-making (aRR 1.37, 95% CI 1.06-1.78) and more open communication on a number of indicators. Qualitative interviews suggest that shifts operated through broader improvements in relationships, including

  15. A pilot study of cognitive training with and without transcranial direct current stimulation to improve cognition in older persons with HIV-related cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ownby RL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Raymond L Ownby,1 Amarilis Acevedo2 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, 2College of Psychology, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA Background: In spite of treatment advances, HIV infection is associated with cognitive deficits. This is even more important as many persons with HIV infection age and experience age-related cognitive impairments. Both computer-based cognitive training and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS have shown promise as interventions to improve cognitive function. In this study, we investigate the acceptability and efficacy of cognitive training with and without tDCS in older persons with HIV. Patients and methods: In this single-blind randomized study, participants were 14 individuals of whom 11 completed study procedures (mean age =51.5 years; nine men and two women with HIV-related mild neurocognitive disorder. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological and self-report measures and then six 20-minute cognitive training sessions while receiving either active or sham anodal tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. After training, participants completed the same measures. Success of the blind and participant reactions were assessed during a final interview. Assessments were completed by an assessor blind to treatment assignment. Pre- and post-training changes were evaluated via analysis of covariance yielding estimates of effect size. Results: All participants believed that they had been assigned to active treatment; nine of the 11 believed that the intervention had improved their cognitive functioning. Both participants who felt the intervention was ineffective were assigned to the sham condition. None of the planned tested interactions of time with treatment was significant, but 12 of 13 favored tDCS (P=0.08. All participants indicated that they would participate in similar studies in the future. Conclusion: Results show that both cognitive training via

  16. A systematic review of interventions to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination from 2002 to 2013: how far have we come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangl, Anne L; Lloyd, Jennifer K; Brady, Laura M; Holland, Claire E; Baral, Stefan

    2013-11-13

    HIV-related stigma and discrimination continue to hamper efforts to prevent new infections and engage people in HIV treatment, care and support programmes. The identification of effective interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination that can be integrated into national responses is crucial to the success of the global AIDS response. We conducted a systematic review of studies and reports that assessed the effectiveness of interventions to reduce HIV stigma and discrimination between 1 January 2002 and 1 March 2013. Databases searched for peer-reviewed articles included PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO Host -CINAHL Plus, Psycinfo, Ovid, Sociofile and Popline. Reports were obtained from the www.HIVAIDSClearinghouse.eu, USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse, UNESCO HIV and AIDS Education Clearinghouse, Google, WHO and UNAIDS. Ancestry searches for articles included in the systematic review were also conducted. Studies of any design that sought to reduce stigma as a primary or secondary objective and included pre- and post-intervention measures of stigma were included. Of 2368 peer-reviewed articles and reports identified, 48 were included in our review representing 14 different target populations in 28 countries. The majority of interventions utilized two or more strategies to reduce stigma and discrimination, and ten included structural or biomedical components. However, most interventions targeted a single socio-ecological level and a single domain of stigma. Outcome measures lacked uniformity and validity, making both interpretation and comparison of study results difficult. While the majority of studies were effective at reducing the aspects of stigma they measured, none assessed the influence of stigma or discrimination reduction on HIV-related health outcomes. Our review revealed considerable progress in the stigma-reduction field. However, critical challenges and gaps remain which are impeding the identification of effective stigma-reduction strategies that can

  17. Evidence of increased STI/HIV-related risk behavior among male perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Guatemala: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembling, John; Andrinopoulos, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with a demonstrated link to increased sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV-related risk and vulnerability. While IPV is an important issue in Central America, the link to STI/HIV risk has not been explored in this region. In this study, the relationship between emotional and physical/sexual IPV and the STI/HIV-related risk behaviors of sex worker patronage and infidelity is assessed among male IPV perpetrators using data from a national survey conducted in 2009 in Guatemala (n = 4773 married/partnered men). Bivariate associations between background characteristics and emotional and physical IPV perpetration were explored. Logistic regression models were run to test associations between IPV for each sexual risk behavior. Perpetration of emotional and physical/sexual IPV was more common among married/partnered men who were older than 24, had more education, lived in urban areas, or were in common law versus married unions. Reports of past-year emotional IPV perpetration increased as wealth quintile increased. After adjusting for demographics and other characteristics, physical/sexual IPV perpetration was associated with past-year infidelity (AOR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6). Lifetime emotional IPV (AOR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7) and physical/sexual IPV 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.0) were positively associated with a history of sex worker patronage. Endorsement of traditional gender role norms showed a marginally positive association with past-year infidelity in the adjusted model (AOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.8). The study findings from Guatemala reinforce the growing evidence globally that male IPV perpetrators are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including sex worker patronage and main partner infidelity. The concurrency of violence and increased STI/HIV risk may compound the health risks for female victims of IPV who also face injury and psychological trauma. Integration of prevention and screening of

  18. Two Cases of Hemicrania Continua-Trigeminal Neuralgia Syndrome: Expanding the Spectrum of Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgia-Tic (TAC-TIC) Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Sanjay; Rathore, Chaturbhuj

    2017-03-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) has been described in association with various primary headache disorders. So far, no case of TN has been reported in association with hemicrania continua (HC). Here, we report two patients of hemicrania continua associated with TN (HC-tic syndrome). These patients had both headaches concurrently. Both patients responded to a combination of carbamazepine and indomethacin. The skipping or tapering of carbamazepine led to the recurrence of the neuralgic pain of TN. In the same way, the skipping of indomethacin resulted in the relapse of the pain, typical of HC. With these two cases of HC-tic syndrome, we suggest that TN has a special predilection for all types of TACs. Various speculations suggest that such associations are more than a simple coincidence, and both diseases may be causally interrelated. The identification of this association is important as both disorders may need separate drugs. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  19. Evidence of and experience with the use of onabotulinumtoxinA in trigeminal neuralgia and primary headaches other than chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Lasaosa, S; Cuadrado, M L; Gago-Veiga, A B; Guerrero-Peral, A L; Irimia, P; Láinez, J M; Leira, R; Pascual, J; Porta-Etessam, J; Sánchez Del Río, M; Viguera Romero, J; Pozo-Rosich, P

    2017-11-20

    In the field of headaches, onabotulinumtoxinA (onabotA) is well established as a treatment for chronic migraine (CM). In recent years, it has been used increasingly to treat other primary headaches (high-frequency episodic migraine, trigeminal-autonomic cephalalgias, nummular headache) and trigeminal neuralgia. As this treatment will progressively be incorporated in the management of these patients, we consider it necessary to reflect, with a fundamentally practical approach, on the possible indications of onabotA, beyond CM, as well as its administration protocol, which will differ according to the type of headache and/or neuralgia. This consensus document was drafted based on a thorough review and analysis of the existing literature and our own clinical experience. The aim of the document is to serve as guidelines for professionals administering onabotA treatment. The first part will address onabotA's mechanism of action, and reasons for its use in other types of headache, from a physiopathological and clinical perspective. In the second part, we will review the available evidence and studies published in recent years. We will add an "expert recommendation" based on our own clinical experience, showing the best patient profile for this treatment and the most adequate dose and administration protocol. Treatment with onabotA should always be individualised and considered in selected patients who have not responded to conventional therapy. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Qualitative exploration of HIV-related sexual behaviours and multiple partnerships among Chinese men who have sex with men living in a rural area of Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric P F; Gao, Liangmin; Koo, Fung Kuen; Chen, Liang; Fu, Xiaoxing; Jing, Jun; Wilson, David P; Zhang, Lei

    2013-12-01

    The HIV epidemic has been spreading rapidly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. The present study explored the pattern of HIV-related high-risk sexual practices among MSM in a rural Chinese setting. Data were collected by semistructured in-depth interviews conducted among 15 MSM in Yuxi Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. Fifteen respondents were recruited through a local non-governmental organisation via purposive sampling. Thematic analysis was used. Technological changes, risk behaviours, social stigma and high migration rates have played a significant role in the spread of HIV among MSM in rural China. The Internet has become the primary channel for soliciting casual sex partners in the MSM community. Bisexuality and having concurrent and multiple sexual partners were common among rural MSM. A large number of sexual partners and low condom use in all MSM partnership types were noted. Due to Chinese cultural traditions and social stigma, Chinese rural MSM were reluctant to disclose their homosexuality. Rural-to-urban migrant MSM were often engaged in the commercial sex trade. Rural MSM is a distinctive and complex population with multiple identities in China. Concurrent multiple sexual partnerships, high mobility and low disclosure rate are the major challenges for HIV prevention and intervention programs in MSM.

  1. The influence of having children on HIV-related risk behaviors of female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico–US border cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolon, Maria Luisa; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Robertson, Angela M.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Servin, Argentina

    2013-01-01

    Among female sex workers who use drugs, the experience of having children and its effect on HIV risk behaviors remains underexplored. We draw from a study of 214 female sex workers and their intimate non-commercial partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, México (n = 428), approximately 30% of whom have children living with them. During qualitative interviews with 41 of these couples, having children emerged as an important topic. Children influenced partners’ lives and HIV-related risk behaviors in positive and negative ways. Couples perceived that children strengthened their relationships. Concern for children’s well-being motivated couples to contemplate healthier lifestyle changes. However, childrearing costs motivated sex work and structural constraints prevented couples from enacting lifestyle changes. Case studies illustrate these themes and highlight implications for couple- and family-based harm reduction interventions. Specifically, our results suggest a need for economic alternatives to sex work while working with families to develop risk reduction skills. PMID:23418131

  2. HIV-related risk factors among black African migrants and refugees in Christchurch, New Zealand: results from the Mayisha-NZ survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birukila, Gerida; Brunton, Cheryl; Dickson, Nigel

    2013-06-14

    To describe the demographic characteristics of, and HIV-related risk behaviours among, black African migrants and refugees in Christchurch. A cross-sectional survey of black African migrants and refugees in Christchurch was carried out. Ten trained African community researchers recruited study participants in social venues and events frequented by Africans. A short self-completed questionnaire collected data on demographic characteristics, previous HIV testing, HIV risk perception, previous STI diagnosis, utilization of health services and sexual behaviours. Valid questionnaires were obtained from 245 respondents (150 men and 95 women) with a mean age of 28 years (range 16 to 58). Participants came from 13 different African countries. Risk factors for HIV identified in this study included: low condom use, low HIV risk perception, having more than one sexual partner, previous STI diagnosis and lack of voluntary testing for HIV. Our findings justify the need for developing an HIV prevention strategy for black Africans in New Zealand that is informed by local evidence. This strategy should also address sexual health needs of Africans including barriers to condom use, the availability of HIV/STI screening services and targeting sexual behaviours that increase vulnerability to HIV infection.

  3. HIV-related stigma, social norms, and HIV testing in Soweto and Vulindlela, South Africa: National Institutes of Mental Health Project Accept (HPTN 043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Hlavka, Zdenek; Modiba, Precious; Gray, Glenda; Van Rooyen, Heidi; Richter, Linda; Szekeres, Greg; Coates, Thomas

    2010-12-15

    HIV testing is necessary to curb the increasing epidemic. However, HIV-related stigma and perceptions of low likelihood of societal HIV testing may reduce testing rates. This study aimed to explore this association in South Africa, where HIV rates are extraordinarily high. Data were taken from the Soweto and Vulindlela, South African sites of Project Accept, a multinational HIV prevention trial. Self-reported HIV testing, stigma, and social norms items were used to study the relationship between HIV testing, stigma, and perceptions about societal testing rates. The stigma items were broken into 3 factors: negative attitudes, negative perceptions about people living with HIV, and perceptions of fair treatment for people living with HIV (equity). Results from a univariate logistic regression suggest that history of HIV testing was associated with decreased negative attitudes about people living with HIV/AIDS, increased perceptions that people living with HIV/AIDS experience discrimination, and increased perceptions that people with HIV should be treated equitably. Results from a multivariate logistic regression confirm these effects and suggest that these differences vary according to sex and age. Compared with people who had never tested for HIV, those who had previously tested were more likely to believe that the majority of people have tested for HIV. Data suggest that interventions designed to increase HIV testing in South Africa should address stigma and perceptions of societal testing.

  4. “Inside These Fences is Our Own Little World”: Prison-Based HIV Testing and HIV-Related Stigma Among Incarcerated Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muessig, Kathryn E.; Rosen, David L.; Farel, Claire E.; White, Becky L.; Filene, Eliza J.; Wohl, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Correctional facilities offer opportunities to provide comprehensive HIV services including education, testing, treatment, and coordination of post-release care. However, these services may be undermined by unaddressed HIV stigma. As part of a prison-based HIV testing study, we interviewed 76 incarcerated men and women from the North Carolina State prison system. The sample was 72% men, median age 31.5 years (range: 19 to 60). Thematic analysis revealed high levels of HIV-related fear and stigma, homophobia, incomplete HIV transmission knowledge, beliefs that HIV is highly contagious within prisons (“HIV miasma”), and the view of HIV testing as protective. Interviewees described social distancing behaviors and coping mechanisms they perceived to be protective, including knowing their HIV status and avoiding contact with others and shared objects. Interviewees endorsed universal testing, public HIV status disclosure, and segregation of HIV-positive inmates. Intensified education and counseling efforts are needed to ameliorate entrenched HIV-transmission fears and stigmatizing beliefs. PMID:27459162

  5. Fact Sheet: Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... useful in promoting well-being. Other options include acupuncture, upper cervical chiropractic, biofeedback, vitamin therapy, and nutritional ... Information Page NINDS Encephalitis Lethargica Information Page NINDS Epilepsy Information Page NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page ...

  6. Postherpetic neuralgia - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blistering skin rash that is caused by the varicella-zoster virus. This is the same virus that causes chickenpox. ... chap 101. Whitley RJ. Chickenpox and herpes zoster (varicella-zoster virus). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. ...

  7. HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and gender discrimination: Pathways to physical and mental health-related quality of life among a national cohort of women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Wang, Ying; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Wagner, Anne C; Kaida, Angela; Conway, Tracey; Webster, Kath; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona R

    2018-02-01

    Social inequities compromise health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) among women living with HIV (WLWH). Little is known about health impacts of intersecting stigma based on HIV status, race and gender among WLWH or potential mechanisms to promote HR-QoL. We tested pathways from multiple types of stigma (HIV-related, racial, gender) to physical and mental HR-QoL utilizing baseline survey data from a national cohort of WLWH in Canada (2013-2015). Structural equation modeling was conducted using maximum likelihood estimation methods to test the direct effects of HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and gender discrimination on HR-QoL and indirect effects via social support and economic insecurity, adjusting for socio-demographic factors. Among 1425 WLWH (median age: 43years [IQR=35-50]), HIV-related stigma and gender discrimination had significant direct effects on mental HR-QoL. Social support mediated the relationship between HIV-related stigma and mental HR-QoL, accounting for 22.7% of the effect. Social support accounted for 41.4% of the effect of gender discrimination on mental HR-QoL. Economic insecurity accounted for 14.3% of the effect of HIV-related stigma, and 42.4% of the effect of racial discrimination, on physical HR-QoL. Fit indices suggest good model fit (χ 2 [1]=3.319, p=0.069; CFI=0.998; RMSEA=0.042 (90% CI: 0-0.069); SRMR=0.004). Findings reveal complex relationships between intersecting stigma and HR-QoL. Strategies that address intersecting stigma and economic insecurity among WLWH may prevent the harmful impacts of HIV-related stigma and gender discrimination on physical HR-QoL. Increasing social support may mitigate the impacts of stigma on mental health. Findings can inform multi-level interventions to promote health and wellbeing among WLWH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neuropatía sensitiva trigeminal secundaria a granuloma de colesterol de la punta del peñasco del temporal Trigeminal neuralgia secondary to cholesterol granuloma of the petrous bone apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pons García

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La neuropatía aislada de la rama sensitiva del trigémino es una entidad poco habitual. Los pacientes suelen referir hipoestesia y /o disestesia generalmente a nivel de la segunda y tercera rama del trigémino, mientras que la neuralgia es muy infrecuente.¹ Su asociación con enfermedades sistémicas del tejido conectivo es bien conocida.² Se ha descrito asociada a distintas lesiones del SNC sobre todo tumores de fosa posterior o base de cráneo, así como neoplasias mandibulares.3,4 Presentamos una paciente con hipoestesia en el territorio V2-V3 asociada a dolor hemifacial paroxístico secundario a una lesión del peñasco del temporal.Trigeminal Neuralgia is an uncommon entity. The patients report hypoesthesia and/or dysesthesia of the second and third ramus of trigeminal nerve, while neuralgia is very rare.¹ Its association with systemic diseases of connective tissue is well know.² It has been described as being associated with different lesions of the central nervous system, especially with the posterior cavity or cranial base tumors, as well as jaw neoplasias.3,4 We presented a patient with hypoesthesia V2-V3 and hemi facial paroxysmal pain secondary to lesion of petrous apex of temporal bone.

  9. How and when to refer patients diagnosed with primary headache and craniofacial neuralgia in the Emergency department or Primary Care: Recommendations of the Spanish Society of Neurology's Headache Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago-Veiga, A B; García-Azorín, D; Mas-Sala, N; Ordás, C M; Ruiz-Piñero, M; Torres-Ferrús, M; Santos-Lasaosa, S; Viguera Romero, J; Pozo-Rosich, P

    2017-09-01

    When a patient is diagnosed with primary headache or craniofacial neuralgia in the emergency department or in primary care, and is referred to a neurologist due to the complexity of the case, it is useful to know whether additional examination should be sought and the priority (urgent, preferential or normal) with which the patient should be seen. This will avoid unnecessary delays in patients with disabling headache and where organic causes are suspected. In order to issue recommendations on this matter, the Spanish Society of Neurology's Headache Study Group has decided to create a series of agreed recommendations constituting a referral protocol for patients with headache and/or craniofacial neuralgia. Young neurologists with an interest and experience in headache were invited to draft a series of practical guidelines in collaboration with Spanish Society of Neurology's Headache Study Group Executive Committee. For practical reasons, the document was divided into 2 articles: this first article focuses on primary headaches and craniofacial neuralgias and the second on secondary headaches. In order for the recommendations to be helpful for daily practice they follow a practical approach, with tables summarising referral criteria, examinations to be performed, and referral to other specialists. We hope to offer a guide and tools to improve decision-making regarding patients with headache, identifying complementary tests to prioritise and referral pathways to be followed, in order to avoid duplicated consultations and delayed diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  10. The impact of SASA!, a community mobilization intervention, on reported HIV-related risk behaviours and relationship dynamics in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nambusi Kyegombe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV violates women's human rights, and it is a serious public health concern associated with increased HIV risk. SASA!, a phased community mobilization intervention, engages communities to prevent IPV and promote gender equity. The SASA! study assessed the community-level impact of SASA! on reported HIV-related risk behaviours and relationship dynamics. Methods: Data were collected as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial conducted between 2007 and 2012 in eight communities in Kampala. An adjusted cluster-level intention to treat analysis, compares secondary outcomes in intervention and control communities at follow-up. The qualitative evaluation explored participants’ subjective experience of SASA!. A total of 82 in-depth interviews were audio recorded at follow-up, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Men in intervention communities were significantly more likely than controls to report a broad range of HIV-protective behaviours, including higher levels of condom use (aRR 2.03, 95% CI 1.22–3.39, HIV testing (aRR 1.50, 95% CI 1.13–2.00 and fewer concurrent partners (aRR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37–0.97. They were also more likely to report increased joint decision-making (aRR 1.92, 95% CI 1.27–2.91, greater male participation in household tasks (aRR 1.48, 95% CI 1.09–2.01, more open communication and greater appreciation of their partner's work inside (aRR 1.31, 95% CI 1.04–1.66 and outside (aRR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08–2.06 the home. For women, all outcomes were in the hypothesized direction, but effect sizes were smaller. Only some achieved statistical significance. Women in intervention communities were significantly more likely to report being able to refuse sex with their partners (aRR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00–1.35, joint decision-making (aRR 1.37, 95% CI 1.06–1.78 and more open communication on a number of indicators. Qualitative interviews suggest that shifts

  11. Mechanisms for the Negative Effects of Internalized HIV-Related Stigma on Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Women: The Mediating Roles of Social Isolation and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Bulent; Smith, Whitney; Cohen, Mardge H; Wilson, Tracey E; Adimora, Adaora A; Merenstein, Daniel; Adedimeji, Adebola; Wentz, Eryka L; Foster, Antonina G; Metsch, Lisa; Tien, Phyllis C; Weiser, Sheri D; Turan, Janet M

    2016-06-01

    Internalization of HIV-related stigma may inhibit a person's ability to manage HIV disease through adherence to treatment regimens. Studies, mainly with white men, have suggested an association between internalized stigma and suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, there is a scarcity of research with women of different racial/ethnic backgrounds and on mediating mechanisms in the association between internalized stigma and ART adherence. The Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) is a multicenter cohort study. Women living with HIV complete interviewer-administered questionnaires semiannually. Cross-sectional analyses for the current article included 1168 women on ART for whom data on medication adherence were available from their last study visit between April 2013 and March 2014, when the internalized stigma measure was initially introduced. The association between internalized stigma and self-reported suboptimal ART adherence was significant for those in racial/ethnic minority groups (AOR = 0.69, P = 0.009, 95% CI: 0.52 to 0.91), but not for non-Hispanic whites (AOR = 2.15, P = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.69 to 6.73). Depressive symptoms, loneliness, and low perceived social support mediated the association between internalized stigma and suboptimal adherence in the whole sample, as well as in the subsample of minority participants. In serial mediation models, internalized stigma predicted less-perceived social support (or higher loneliness), which in turn predicted more depressive symptoms, which in turn predicted suboptimal medication adherence. Findings suggest that interconnected psychosocial mechanisms affect ART adherence, and that improvements in adherence may require multifaceted interventions addressing both mental health and interpersonal factors, especially for minority women.

  12. Treatment of HIV-related primary central nervous system lymphoma with azt high dose, HAART, interleukin-2 and foscarnet in three patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marretta L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Combined immunomodulatory and antiviral treatment was administered to three patients with newly diagnosed HIV-associated primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL in an attempt to improve outcomes. Patients and methods Three patients from our institution who were recently diagnosed with HIV-associated PCNSL received intravenous azidothymidine (AZT 1.6 gr. bid for two weeks, followed by oral AZT 250 mg bid from day 15. In addition, complementary highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART with a second nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI plus one protease inhibitor (PI and interleukin 2 (IL-2 subcutaneously 2 million units twice daily (bid plus foscarnet 90 mg/kg bid were administered on days 1-14. One patient received anti-EpsteinBarr virus (EBV-maintenance therapy with ganciclovir, followed by cidofovir 1. Results All patients experienced progressive disease while on induction therapy, and switched early to whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT as second linetreatment. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were observed. Two patients died on days 50 and 166 respectively due to progressive disease. The third patient with histologically proven lymphoproliferation and only suspected PCNSL remained alive at 53 months. He was on HAART and remained clinically and neurologically stable. Conclusion Although IL-2, HAART, high-dose AZT and foscarnet are used for other HIV-related conditions, they did not demonstrate benefit in lymphoma remission for 2 HIVassociated PCNSL patients. The third patient went into delayed remission after additional radiotherapy and was in good clinical and neurological health status over 53 months after diagnosis.

  13. Contribution of Genetic Background, Traditional Risk Factors, and HIV-Related Factors to Coronary Artery Disease Events in HIV-Positive Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotger, Margalida; Glass, Tracy R.; Junier, Thomas; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D.; Poloni, Estella S.; van 't Wout, Angélique B.; Lubomirov, Rubin; Colombo, Sara; Martinez, Raquel; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Wentworth, Deborah; van Manen, Danielle; Gras, Luuk A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Albini, Laura; Torti, Carlo; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Li, Xiuhong; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Carli, Federica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Ford, Emily S.; Sereti, Irini; Hadigan, Colleen; Martinez, Esteban; Arnedo, Mireia; Egaña-Gorroño, Lander; Gatell, Jose M.; Law, Matthew; Bendall, Courtney; Petoumenos, Kathy; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Kabamba, Kabeya; Delforge, Marc; De Wit, Stephane; Berger, Florian; Mauss, Stefan; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Losso, Marcelo; Belloso, Waldo H.; Leyes, Maria; Campins, Antoni; Mondi, Annalisa; De Luca, Andrea; Bernardino, Ignacio; Barriuso-Iglesias, Mónica; Torrecilla-Rodriguez, Ana; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan; Arribas, José R.; Fanti, Iuri; Gel, Silvia; Puig, Jordi; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Mar; Domingo, Pere; Fischer, Julia; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Macken, Alan; Woo, James; McGinty, Tara; Mallon, Patrick; Mangili, Alexandra; Skinner, Sally; Wanke, Christine A.; Reiss, Peter; Weber, Rainer; Bucher, Heiner C.; Fellay, Jacques; Telenti, Amalio; Tarr, Philip E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). The relative contribution of genetic background, HIV-related factors, antiretroviral medications, and traditional risk factors to CAD has not been fully evaluated in the setting of HIV infection. Methods In the general population, 23 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were shown to be associated with CAD through genome-wide association analysis. Using the Metabochip, we genotyped 1875 HIV-positive, white individuals enrolled in 24 HIV observational studies, including 571 participants with a first CAD event during the 9-year study period and 1304 controls matched on sex and cohort. Results A genetic risk score built from 23 CAD-associated SNPs contributed significantly to CAD (P = 2.9×10−4). In the final multivariable model, participants with an unfavorable genetic background (top genetic score quartile) had a CAD odds ratio (OR) of 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–2.04). This effect was similar to hypertension (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.06–1.73), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.16–1.96), diabetes (OR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10–2.49), ≥1 year lopinavir exposure (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.06–1.73), and current abacavir treatment (OR = 1.56; 95% CI, 1.17–2.07). The effect of the genetic risk score was additive to the effect of nongenetic CAD risk factors, and did not change after adjustment for family history of CAD. Conclusions In the setting of HIV infection, the effect of an unfavorable genetic background was similar to traditional CAD risk factors and certain adverse antiretroviral exposures. Genetic testing may provide prognostic information complementary to family history of CAD. PMID:23532479

  14. Exchange of Sex for Drugs or Money in Adolescents and Young Adults: An Examination of Sociodemographic Factors, HIV-Related Risk, and Community Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Cherrie B; Greenberg, Lauren; Chutuape, Kate; Walker, Bendu; Monte, Dina; Kirk, Jennifer; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this research was to examine associations among sociodemographic factors, HIV risk, and community context (e.g., economic insecurity, job training, housing instability, crime victimization, and perceived community norms) in adolescents and young adults who ever exchanged sex for drugs or money. Anonymous survey data were collected using ACASIs at community venues where adolescents and young adults congregate in resource-challenged, STI prevalent, urban, US neighborhoods. Conventional descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact tests, and generalized estimating equations approaches were used to examine associations. Participants (1818, 95.5 % of those screened eligible) were, on average, aged 21.0 years; 42.2 % were males, and 4.6 % were transgender. Almost one-third (32.1 %) identified as gay or lesbian, 18.1 % identified as bisexual; 66.2 % were Black and 21.0 % were Hispanic; 1.3 % was 'living on the street'. A sizeable proportion reported HIV-related risk: 16.3 % exchanged sex, 12.6 % had sex with someone they knew to be HIV-infected, 7.8 % had sex with someone who injected drugs, and 1.3 % injected drugs. Multivariate comparisons identified a number of variables (e.g., being male or transgender, homelessness, sex with a partner who has HIV, STI history, unemployment, job training access, housing instability, crime victimization, perceived community norms) that were significantly associated with exchange of sex (p development of effective evidence-based prevention strategies.

  15. A case of pain, motor impairment, and swelling of the arm after acute herpes zoster infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Matti; Umnus, Astrid; Siebrecht, Dieter; Baron, Ralf; Wasner, Gunnar

    2012-12-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) represent neuropathic pain syndromes that may appear with similar clinical signs and symptoms. Medical history and clinical distribution of symptoms and signs (PHN typically at the thorax; CRPS typically at the limbs) is obvious in most cases, helping to discriminate between both disorders. Here, we present a patient suffering from CRPS II following PHN of one upper extremity. This case demonstrates that both etiology and part of the body affected by a neuropathy influence the pain phenotype. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Herpes Zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmader, Kenneth

    2016-08-01

    Herpes zoster causes significant suffering owing to acute and chronic pain or postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Varicella-zoster virus-induced neuronal destruction and inflammation causes the principal problems of pain, interference with activities of daily living, and reduced quality of life in older adults. The optimal treatment of herpes zoster requires early antiviral therapy and careful pain management. For patients who have PHN, evidence-based pharmacotherapy using topical lidocaine patch, gabapentin, pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants, or opiates can reduce pain burden. The live attenuated zoster vaccine is effective in reducing pain burden and preventing herpes zoster and PHN in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A multi-level modeling approach examining PTSD symptom reduction during prolonged exposure therapy: moderating effects of number of trauma types experienced, having an HIV-related index trauma, and years since HIV diagnosis among HIV-positive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junglen, Angela G; Smith, Brian C; Coleman, Jennifer A; Pacella, Maria L; Boarts, Jessica M; Jones, Tracy; Feeny, Norah C; Ciesla, Jeffrey A; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2017-11-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) have extensive interpersonal trauma histories and higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than the general population. Prolonged exposure (PE) therapy is efficacious in reducing PTSD across a variety of trauma samples; however, research has not examined factors that influence how PTSD symptoms change during PE for PLWH. Using multi-level modeling, we examined the potential moderating effect of number of previous trauma types experienced, whether the index trauma was HIV-related or not, and years since HIV diagnosis on PTSD symptom reduction during a 10-session PE protocol in a sample of 51 PLWH. In general, PTSD symptoms decreased linearly throughout the PE sessions. Experiencing more previous types of traumatic events was associated with a slower rate of PTSD symptom change. In addition, LOCF analyses found that participants with a non-HIV-related versus HIV-related index trauma had a slower rate of change for PTSD symptoms over the course of PE. However, analyses of raw data decreased this finding to marginal. Years since HIV diagnosis did not impact PTSD symptom change. These results provide a better understanding of how to tailor PE to individual clients and aid clinicians in approximating the rate of symptom alleviation. Specifically, these findings underscore the importance of accounting for trauma history and index trauma type when implementing a treatment plan for PTSD in PLWH.

  18. HIV-related stigma and universal testing and treatment for HIV prevention and care: design of an implementation science evaluation nested in the HPTN 071 (PopART) cluster-randomized trial in Zambia and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, James R; Stangl, Anne; Bond, Virginia; Hoddinott, Graeme; Krishnaratne, Shari; Mathema, Hlengani; Moyo, Maureen; Viljoen, Lario; Brady, Laura; Sievwright, Kirsty; Horn, Lyn; Sabapathy, Kalpana; Ayles, Helen; Beyers, Nulda; Bock, Peter; Fidler, Sarah; Griffith, Sam; Seeley, Janet; Hayes, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Stigma and discrimination related to HIV and key populations at high risk of HIV have the potential to impede the implementation of effective HIV prevention and treatment programmes at scale. Studies measuring the impact of stigma on these programmes are rare. We are conducting an implementation science study of HIV-related stigma in communities and health settings within a large, pragmatic cluster-randomized trial of a universal testing and treatment intervention for HIV prevention in Zambia and South Africa and will assess how stigma affects, and is affected by, implementation of this intervention. A mixed-method evaluation will be nested within HIV prevention trials network (HPTN) 071/PopART (Clinical Trials registration number NCT01900977), a three-arm trial comparing universal door-to-door delivery of HIV testing and referral to prevention and treatment services, accompanied by either an immediate offer of anti-retroviral treatment to people living with HIV regardless of clinical status, or an offer of treatment in-line with national guidelines, with a standard-of-care control arm. The primary outcome of HPTN 071/PopART is HIV incidence measured among a cohort of 52 500 individuals in 21 study clusters. Our evaluation will include integrated quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis in all trial sites. We will collect quantitative data on indicators of HIV-related stigma over 3 years from large probability samples of community members, health workers and people living with HIV. We will collect qualitative data, including in-depth interviews and observations from members of these same groups sampled purposively. In analysis, we will: (1) compare HIV-related stigma measures between study arms, (2) link data on stigma to measures of the success of implementation of the PopART intervention and (3) explore changes in the dominant drivers and manifestations of stigma in study communities and the health system. HIV-related stigma may impede the

  19. Efficacy of stereotactic gamma knife surgery and microvascular decompression in the treatment of primary trigeminal neuralgia: a retrospective study of 220 cases from a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai ZF

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zi-Feng Dai, Qi-Lin Huang, Hai-Peng Liu, Wei Zhang Department of Neurosurgery, Xinqiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Objectives: A retrospective study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of stereotactic gamma knife surgery (GKS and microvascular decompression (MVD in the treatment of primary trigeminal neuralgia (TN at a single center. The study included the evaluation of clinical outcomes of pain relief and pain recurrence and complications associated with GKS and MVD.Methods: The study included 202 patients with primary TN and was conducted between January 2013 and December 2014; about 115 patients were treated with GKS and 87 patients were treated with MVD. TN pain was evaluated using the Barrow Neurological Institute and the visual analog scale scoring systems. Preoperative magnetic resonance tomographic angiography was performed for all patients. Microscope-assisted MVD used the suboccipital retrosigmoid sinus approach. GKS targeted the trigeminal nerve root entry zone with a margin radiation dose of 59.5 Gy, and brainstem dose <12 Gy. Posttreatment follow-up was for 2 years.Results: Postoperative Barrow Neurological Institute scores for patients treated with GKS and MVD were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.01. Reduction in postoperative pain following MVD (95.4% patients was significantly greater than that following GKS (88.7% patients (P<0.01. Postoperative visual analog scale scores of the MVD group were significantly reduced compared with those of patients treated with GKS at the same postoperative time points (P<0.01. Patients treated with GKS had a significantly increased rate of loss of corneal reflex compared with patients treated with MVD (P=0.002.Conclusion: Both GKS and MVD are safe and effective first-line and adjunctive treatment options for patients with TN. The clinical outcomes of pain relief and reduction of pain recurrence were

  20. Percutaneous stereotactic radiofrequency lesioning for trigeminal neuralgia: determination of minimum clinically important difference in pain improvement for patient-reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vishruth K; Parker, Scott L; Lockney, Dennis T; Patrawala, Samit A; Su, Pei-Fang; Mericle, Robert A

    2014-03-01

    The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and the Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Scale (BNI-PS) are 2 patient-reported outcome (PRO) tools frequently used to rate pain from trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Outcomes studies often use these patient-reported outcomes to assess treatment effectiveness, but it is unknown exactly what degree of change in the numerical scores constitutes the minimum clinically important difference (MCID). MCID remains uninvestigated for percutaneous stereotactic radiofrequency lesioning (RFL), a common surgical procedure for TN. To determine MCID values for the VAS and BNI-PS in patients undergoing RFL. Forty-three consecutive patients with TN who underwent RFL by a single surgeon were prospectively assessed with the VAS and BNI-PS preoperatively and 3 years postoperatively. Three anchors were used to assign each patient's outcome: satisfaction, willingness to have the surgery again, and Health Transition Index. We then used 3 well-established, anchor-based methods to calculate MCID: average change, minimum detectable change, and change difference. Patients experienced substantial improvement in both VAS (9.81 vs 3.35; P MCID calculation methods generated a range of MCID values for each of the PROs (VAS, 4.13-8.20; BNI-PS, 1.03-3.30). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was greater for BNI-PS compared with VAS for all 3 anchors, indicating that BNI-PS is probably better suited for calculating MCID. RFL-specific MCID is variable on the basis of the calculation technique. With the use of the minimum detectable change calculation method with the Health Transition Index anchor, the minimum clinically important difference is 4.49 for VAS and 1.16 for BNI-PS after RFL for TN. AUC, area under the receiver-operating characteristic curveBNI-PS, Barrow Neurological Institute Pain ScaleHTI, Health Transition IndexMCID, minimum clinically important differenceMDC, minimum detectable changePRO, patient-reported outcomeRFL, percutaneous

  1. Trust, confidentiality, and the acceptability of sharing HIV-related patient data: lessons learned from a mixed methods study about Health Information Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorana, Andre; Steward, Wayne T; Koester, Kimberly A; Pearson, Charles; Shade, Starley B; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Myers, Janet J

    2012-04-19

    Concerns about the confidentiality of personal health information have been identified as a potential obstacle to implementation of Health Information Exchanges (HIEs). Considering the stigma and confidentiality issues historically associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, we examine how trust-in technology, processes, and people-influenced the acceptability of data sharing among stakeholders prior to implementation of six HIEs intended to improve HIV care in parts of the United States. Our analyses identify the kinds of concerns expressed by stakeholders about electronic data sharing and focus on the factors that ultimately facilitated acceptability of the new exchanges. We conducted 549 surveys with patients and 66 semi-structured interviews with providers and other stakeholders prior to implementation of the HIEs to assess concerns about confidentiality in the electronic sharing of patient data. The patient quantitative data were analyzed using SAS 9.2 to yield sample descriptive statistics. The analysis of the qualitative interviews with providers and other stakeholders followed an open-coding process, and convergent and divergent perspectives emerging from those data were examined within and across the HIEs. We found widespread acceptability for electronic sharing of HIV-related patient data through HIEs. This acceptability appeared to be driven by growing comfort with information technologies, confidence in the security protocols utilized to protect data, trust in the providers and institutions who use the technologies, belief in the benefits to the patients, and awareness that electronic exchange represents an enhancement of data sharing already taking place by other means. HIE acceptability depended both on preexisting trust among patients, providers, and institutions and on building consensus and trust in the HIEs as part of preparation for implementation. The process of HIE development also resulted in forging shared vision among

  2. A survey on HIV-related health-seeking behaviors among transgender individuals in Jakarta, based on the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabawanti, Ciptasari; Dijkstra, Arie; Riono, Pandu; Hartana, Gagan

    2015-11-16

    Male-to-female transgender (waria) individuals are at high risk for HIV. This study aims at mapping the psychological determinants of four HIV-related health-seeking behaviors. This knowledge can be used to develop effective interventions to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. The study involved 209 waria from five districts in Jakarta, selected with a cluster sampling procedure. Cross-sectional data were gathered through structured interviews. The four examined behaviors are, visiting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) services regularly, adherence to STI treatment, taking an HIV test and picking up the result of HIV test. For all four behaviors, specific measures of the psychological determinants as defined by the Theory of Planned Behavior were developed: attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Logistic regression analyses were conducted with these three psychological measures as independent variables and the behaviors as dependent variables. Of the 209 waria, 20.6 % had never visited STI services in the last 6 months, while 56.5 % had visited the services once or twice, and 23 % had visited the service three or more times. A HIV test had been taken by 90.4 % of the waria, and of those, 64.6 % had picked up the results. About 85 % of the waria who did a HIV test had been tested for HIV one or two times in the last 6 months and 10 % had been tested three to four times. The variance in behaviors that was explained by the concepts defined in the Theory of Planned Behavior ranged from 15 to 70 %; PBC was the most powerful predictor. Furthermore, the results showed that in several cases the relationships of attitudes or subjective norms with the dependent variable were mediated by one or both other independent variables. The results regarding the prominent role of PBC suggest that interventions should increase waria's control over the behavior: Engaging in specific desired behaviors should be made easier for them. Besides, waria

  3. Continuous increase of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and non-HIV related cancers as causes of death in HIV-infected individuals in Brazil: an analysis of nationwide data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Adelzon A; Schechter, Mauro; Tuboi, Suely H; Faulhaber, José Claudio; Luz, Paula M; Veloso, Valdiléa G; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Harrison, Lee H; Pacheco, Antonio G

    2014-01-01

    After antiretroviral therapy (ART) became available, there was a decline in the number of deaths in persons infected with HIV. Thereafter, there was a decrease in the proportion of deaths attributed to opportunistic infections and an increase in the proportion of deaths attributed to chronic comorbidities. Herein we extend previous observations from a nationwide survey on temporal trends in causes of death in HIV-infected patients in Brazil. We describe temporal trends in causes of death among adults who had HIV/AIDS listed in the death certificate to those who did not. All death certificates issued in Brazil from 1999 to 2011 and listed in the national mortality database were included. Generalized linear mixed-effects logistic models were used to study temporal trends in proportions. In the HIV-infected population, there was an annual adjusted average increase of 6.0%, 12.0%, 4.0% and 4.1% for cancer, external causes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM), respectively, compared to 3.0%, 4.0%, 1.0% and 3.9%, in the non-HIV group. For tuberculosis (TB), there was an adjusted average increase of 0.3%/year and a decrease of 3.0%/year in the HIV and the non-HIV groups, respectively. Compared to 1999, the odds ratio (OR) for cancer, external causes, CVD, DM, or TB in the HIV group were, respectively, 2.31, 4.17, 1.76, 2.27 and 1.02, while for the non-HIV group, the corresponding OR were 1.31, 1.63, 1.14, 1.62 and 0.67. Interactions between year as a continuous or categorical variable and HIV were significant (pHIV-related co-morbidities continue to increase more rapidly as causes of death among HIV-infected individuals than in those without HIV infection, highlighting the need for targeting prevention measures and surveillance for chronic diseases among those patients.

  4. Continuous increase of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and non-HIV related cancers as causes of death in HIV-infected individuals in Brazil: an analysis of nationwide data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelzon A Paula

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: After antiretroviral therapy (ART became available, there was a decline in the number of deaths in persons infected with HIV. Thereafter, there was a decrease in the proportion of deaths attributed to opportunistic infections and an increase in the proportion of deaths attributed to chronic comorbidities. Herein we extend previous observations from a nationwide survey on temporal trends in causes of death in HIV-infected patients in Brazil. METHODS: We describe temporal trends in causes of death among adults who had HIV/AIDS listed in the death certificate to those who did not. All death certificates issued in Brazil from 1999 to 2011 and listed in the national mortality database were included. Generalized linear mixed-effects logistic models were used to study temporal trends in proportions. RESULTS: In the HIV-infected population, there was an annual adjusted average increase of 6.0%, 12.0%, 4.0% and 4.1% for cancer, external causes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes mellitus (DM, respectively, compared to 3.0%, 4.0%, 1.0% and 3.9%, in the non-HIV group. For tuberculosis (TB, there was an adjusted average increase of 0.3%/year and a decrease of 3.0%/year in the HIV and the non-HIV groups, respectively. Compared to 1999, the odds ratio (OR for cancer, external causes, CVD, DM, or TB in the HIV group were, respectively, 2.31, 4.17, 1.76, 2.27 and 1.02, while for the non-HIV group, the corresponding OR were 1.31, 1.63, 1.14, 1.62 and 0.67. Interactions between year as a continuous or categorical variable and HIV were significant (p<0.001 for all conditions, except for DM when year was considered as a continuous variable (p = 0.76. CONCLUSIONS: Non HIV-related co-morbidities continue to increase more rapidly as causes of death among HIV-infected individuals than in those without HIV infection, highlighting the need for targeting prevention measures and surveillance for chronic diseases among those patients.

  5. Adapting the minority stress model: associations between gender non-conformity stigma, HIV-related stigma and depression among men who have sex with men in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Newman, Peter A; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Shunmugam, Murali

    2012-04-01

    Marginalization and stigmatization heighten the vulnerability of sexual minorities to inequitable mental health outcomes. There is a dearth of information regarding stigma and mental health among men who have sex with men (MSM) in India. We adapted Meyer's minority stress model to explore associations between stigma and depression among MSM in South India. The study objective was to examine the influence of sexual stigma, gender non-conformity stigma (GNS) and HIV-related stigma (HIV-S) on depression among MSM in South India. A cross-sectional survey was administered to MSM in urban (Chennai) (n=100) and semi-urban (Kumbakonam) (n=100) locations in Tamil Nadu. The majority of participants reported moderate/severe depression scores. Participants in Chennai reported significantly higher levels of GNS, social support and resilient coping, and lower levels of HIV-S and depression, than participants in Kumbakonam. Hierarchical block regression analyses were conducted to measure associations between independent (GNS, HIV-S), moderator (social support, resilient coping) and dependent (depression) variables. Sexual stigma was not included in regression analyses due to multicollinearity with GNS. The first regression analyses assessed associations between depression and stigma subtypes. In Chennai, perceived GNS was associated with depression; in Kumbakonam enacted/perceived GNS and vicarious HIV-S were associated with depression. In the moderation analyses, overall GNS and HIV-S scores (subtypes combined) accounted for a significant amount of variability in depression in both locations, although HIV-S was only a significant predictor in Kumbakonam. Social support and resilient coping were associated with lower depression but did not moderate the influence of HIV-S or GNS on depression. Differences in stigma, coping, social support and depression between locations highlight the salience of considering geographical context in stigma analyses. Associations between HIV-S and

  6. HIV-related risk behaviours and the correlates among rickshaw pullers of Kamrangirchar, Dhaka, Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study using probability sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravari Shahrzad

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National HIV serological and behavioural surveillance of Bangladesh repeatedly demonstrated a very high proportion of rickshaw pullers in Dhaka city, having sex with female sex workers (FSWs and using illicit substances. However, no study has been conducted to identify the correlates of having sex with FSWs among this population. This study aimed to describe behavioural profile of rickshaw pullers in Dhaka city using probability samples and to identify the correlates for having sex with FSWs in order to focus HIV prevention intervention. Methods Six hundred rickshaw pullers were randomly selected from rickshaw garages in the Kamrangirchar area, the single largest slum cluster of Dhaka, Bangladesh, during March–April 2008 using the Proportion Probability to Size method. Participants were interviewed, with a response rate of 99.2% (n = 595, using a structured questionnaire and asked about illicit substance use, sexual behaviour and risk perception for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. Independent predictors of having sex with FSWs were analysed by multivariate analysis. A qualitative study was subsequently conducted with 30 rickshaw pullers to supplement the findings of the initial survey. Results The proportion of survey respondents who had sex with FSWs and those who used illicit substances in the previous 12 months period were 7.9% and 24.9%, respectively, much lower than the results achieved in the 2003–04 behavioural surveillance (72.8% and 89.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed the characteristics of younger age, being never married, living alone with family remaining in other districts and using illicit substances in the previous 12 months were significantly associated with having sex with FSWs. Conclusion HIV-related risk behaviour of our study population of the rickshaw pullers was lower than what has been suggested by the results of behavioural surveillance. While this discrepancy should be

  7. Preoperative assessment of trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm using constructive interference in steady state-three-dimensional fourier transformation magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakami, Iwao; Kobayashi, Eiichi; Hirai, Shinji; Yamaura, Akira [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-11-01

    Results of microvascular decompression (MVD) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) may be improved by accurate preoperative assessment of neurovascular relationships at the root entry/exit zone (REZ). Constructive interference in steady state (CISS)-three-dimensional Fourier transformation (3DFT) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was evaluated for visualizing the neurovascular relationships at the REZ. Fourteen patients with TN and eight patients with HFS underwent MR imaging using CISS-3DFT and 3D fast inflow with steady-state precession (FISP) sequences. Axial images of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) obtained by the two sequences were reviewed to assess the neurovascular relationships at the REZ of the trigeminal and facial nerves. Eleven patients subsequently underwent MVD. Preoperative MR imaging findings were related to surgical observations and results. CISS MR imaging provided excellent contrast between the cranial nerves, small vessels, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the CPA. CISS was significantly better than FISP for delineating anatomic detail in the CPA (trigeminal and facial nerves, petrosal vein) and abnormal neurovascular relationships responsible for TN and HFS (vascular contact and deformity at the REZ). Preoperative CISS MR imaging demonstrated precisely the neurovascular relationships at the REZ and identified the offending artery in all seven patients with TN undergoing MVD. CISS MR imaging has high resolution and excellent contrast between cranial nerves, small vessels, and CSF, so can precisely and accurately delineate normal and abnormal neurovascular relationships at the REZ in the CPA, and is a valuable preoperative examination for MVD. (author)

  8. Microvascular decompression surgery for trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm: naunces of the technique based on experiences with 100 patients and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2011-12-01

    Microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery for trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm offers a relatively low-risk opportunity to treat cranial nerve hyperactivity-compression syndromes, which are associated with severe, disabling facial pain and spasm. Although a number of publications have described the technique in detail, combining the technical nuances from different schools of thought or neurosurgical training in an effort to increase the safety and efficacy of this procedure would be beneficial to the surgeon. The nuances of technique and operative findings from performing this procedure for the last 100 cases have been reviewed and combined. The author has reflected on his experience performing microvascular decompression operation. The specifics of operating room set-up, positioning, craniotomy, and intradural microsurgical methods are provided, including managing postoperative care and complications. In the presence of alternative methods of therapy, microvascular decompression operations should be performed with low risk to the patient. There is a learning curve involved with this operation and the surgeon should remain always critical of his/her performance and aspire for a "perfect" result. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Paroxysmal stabbing headache in the multiple dermatomes of the head and neck: a variant of primary stabbing headache or occipital neuralgia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J H; Song, H K; Lee, J H; Kim, W K; Chu, M K

    2007-10-01

    A paroxysmal stabbing or icepick-like headache in the multiple nerve dermatomes, especially involving both trigeminal and cervical nerves, has not been fully explained or classified by the International Classification of Headache Disorder, 2(nd) Edition (ICHD-II). Of patients with acute-onset paroxysmal stabbing headache who had visited the Hallym University Medical Center during the last four years, 28 subjects with a repeated stabbing headache involving multiple dermatomes at the initial presentation or during the course were prospectively enrolled. All patients were neurologically and otologically symptom free. A coincidental involvement of both trigeminal and cervical nerve dermatomes included seven cases. Six cases involved initially the trigeminal and then cervical nerve dermatomes. Five cases showed an involvement of the cervical and then trigeminal nerve dermatomes. The remaining patients involved multiple cervical nerve branches (the lesser occipital, greater occipital and greater auricular). Pain lasted very shortly and a previous history of headache with the same nature was reported in 13 cases. Preceding symptom of an infection and physical and/or mental stress were manifested in seven and six subjects, respectively. All patients showed a self-limited benign course and completely recovered within a few hours to 30 days. Interestingly, a seasonal gradient in occurrence of a stabbing headache was found in this study. A paroxysmal stabbing headache manifested on multiple dermatomes can be explained by the characteristics of pain referral, and may be considered to be a variant of primary stabbing headache or occipital neuralgia.

  10. Neuralgia of the Glossopharyngeal Nerve in a Patient with Posttonsillectomy Scarring: Recovery after Local Infiltration of Procaine—Case Report and Pathophysiologic Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fischer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with a three-year history of severe progressive left-sided glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN that failed to adequately respond to various drug therapies. The application of lidocaine spray to the posterior pharyngeal wall provided no more than short-term relief. Apart from a large hypertrophic tonsillectomy scar on the left side all clinical and radiologic findings were normal. In terms of therapeutic local anaesthesia, the hypertrophic tonsillectomy scar tissue was completely infiltrated with the local anaesthetic (LA procaine 1%. The patient has been almost completely pain-free ever since, and the lidocaine spray is no longer needed. Six weeks after the first treatment a repeat infiltration of the tonsillectomy scar led to the complete resolution of all symptoms. The patient has become totally symptom-free without the need to take any medication now for two and a half years. This is the first report of a successful therapeutic infiltration of a tonsillectomy scar using an LA in a patient with GPN that has been refractory to medical treatment for several years. A possible explanation may be that the positive feedback loop maintaining neurogenic inflammation is disrupted and “sympathetically maintained pain” resolved by LA infiltration.

  11. Descompresión microvascular en neuralgia del trigémino: Reporte de 36 casos y revisión de la literatura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campero, Alvaro; Ajler, Pablo; Campero, Abraham Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: El propósito del presente trabajo es presentar los resultados de 36 pacientes con diagnóstico de neuralgia del trigémino (NT), en los cuales se realizó una descompresión microvascular (DMV). Material y Método: Desde junio de 2005 a mayo de 2012, 36 pacientes con diagnóstico de NT fueron operados por el primer autor (AC), realizando una DMV. Se evaluó: Edad, sexo, tiempo de sintomatología previo a la cirugía, hallazgos intraoperatorios (a través de los videos quirúrgicos), y resultados postoperatorios. Resultados: De los 36 pacientes operados, 25 fueron mujeres y 11 varones. El promedio de edad fue de 48 años. El seguimiento postoperatorio fue en promedio de 38 meses. De los 36 pacientes, 32 (88%) evolucionaron sin dolor hasta la fecha. De los 4 casos con recurrencia de dolor, en dos pacientes se observó como hallazgo intraoperatorio un conflicto venoso. Conclusión: La DMV como tratamiento de la NT es un procedimiento efectivo y seguro. El hallazgo intraoperatorio de una “compresión” venosa podría indicar una evolución postoperatoria desfavorable. PMID:25379343

  12. Neuralgia of the glossopharyngeal nerve in a patient with posttonsillectomy scarring: recovery after local infiltration of procaine-case report and pathophysiologic discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, L; Ludin, S M; Puente de la Vega, K; Sturzenegger, M

    2015-01-01

    We describe a patient with a three-year history of severe progressive left-sided glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) that failed to adequately respond to various drug therapies. The application of lidocaine spray to the posterior pharyngeal wall provided no more than short-term relief. Apart from a large hypertrophic tonsillectomy scar on the left side all clinical and radiologic findings were normal. In terms of therapeutic local anaesthesia, the hypertrophic tonsillectomy scar tissue was completely infiltrated with the local anaesthetic (LA) procaine 1%. The patient has been almost completely pain-free ever since, and the lidocaine spray is no longer needed. Six weeks after the first treatment a repeat infiltration of the tonsillectomy scar led to the complete resolution of all symptoms. The patient has become totally symptom-free without the need to take any medication now for two and a half years. This is the first report of a successful therapeutic infiltration of a tonsillectomy scar using an LA in a patient with GPN that has been refractory to medical treatment for several years. A possible explanation may be that the positive feedback loop maintaining neurogenic inflammation is disrupted and "sympathetically maintained pain" resolved by LA infiltration.

  13. Neuralgia of the Glossopharyngeal Nerve in a Patient with Posttonsillectomy Scarring: Recovery after Local Infiltration of Procaine—Case Report and Pathophysiologic Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, L.; Ludin, S. M.; Puente de la Vega, K.; Sturzenegger, M.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a patient with a three-year history of severe progressive left-sided glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) that failed to adequately respond to various drug therapies. The application of lidocaine spray to the posterior pharyngeal wall provided no more than short-term relief. Apart from a large hypertrophic tonsillectomy scar on the left side all clinical and radiologic findings were normal. In terms of therapeutic local anaesthesia, the hypertrophic tonsillectomy scar tissue was completely infiltrated with the local anaesthetic (LA) procaine 1%. The patient has been almost completely pain-free ever since, and the lidocaine spray is no longer needed. Six weeks after the first treatment a repeat infiltration of the tonsillectomy scar led to the complete resolution of all symptoms. The patient has become totally symptom-free without the need to take any medication now for two and a half years. This is the first report of a successful therapeutic infiltration of a tonsillectomy scar using an LA in a patient with GPN that has been refractory to medical treatment for several years. A possible explanation may be that the positive feedback loop maintaining neurogenic inflammation is disrupted and “sympathetically maintained pain” resolved by LA infiltration. PMID:25960898

  14. Reducing HIV-related risk and mental health problems through a client-centred psychosocial intervention for vulnerable adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nrupa Jani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents’ vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods: A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants’ increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. Results: For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65 and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81 from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47, knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51 and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97. For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94, knowledge of a place to test

  15. Reducing HIV-related risk and mental health problems through a client-centred psychosocial intervention for vulnerable adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Nrupa; Vu, Lung; Kay, Lynnette; Habtamu, Kassahun; Kalibala, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents' vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants' increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression) was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65)) and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81)) from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51)) and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97)). For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 290% (AOR: 3.9 (1

  16. Significant association between perceived HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV/AIDS care in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailay Abrha Gesesew

    Full Text Available Late presentation for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV care is a major impediment for the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART outcomes. The role that stigma plays as a potential barrier to timely diagnosis and treatment of HIV among people living with HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is ambivalent. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding the association between perceived HIV related stigma and time to present for HIV/AIDS care.Quantitative studies conducted in English language between 2002 and 2016 that evaluated the association between HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV care were sought across four major databases. This review considered studies that included the following outcome: 'late HIV testing', 'late HIV diagnosis' and 'late presentation for HIV care after testing'. Data were extracted using a standardized Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI data extraction tool. Meta- analysis was undertaken using Revman-5 software. I2 and chi-square test were used to assess heterogeneity. Summary statistics were expressed as pooled odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals and corresponding p-value.Ten studies from low- and middle- income countries met the search criteria, including six (6 and four (4 case control studies and cross-sectional studies respectively. The total sample size in the included studies was 3,788 participants. Half (5 of the studies reported a significant association between stigma and late presentation for HIV care. The meta-analytical association showed that people who perceived high HIV related stigma had two times more probability of late presentation for HIV care than who perceived low stigma (pooled odds ratio = 2.4; 95%CI: 1.6-3.6, I2 = 79%.High perceptions of HIV related stigma influenced timely presentation for HIV care. In order to avoid late HIV care presentation due the fear of stigma among patients, health professionals should play a key role in informing and counselling

  17. Significant association between perceived HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV/AIDS care in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Tesfay Gebremedhin, Amanuel; Demissie, Tariku Dejene; Kerie, Mirkuzie Woldie; Sudhakar, Morankar; Mwanri, Lillian

    2017-01-01

    Late presentation for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care is a major impediment for the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes. The role that stigma plays as a potential barrier to timely diagnosis and treatment of HIV among people living with HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is ambivalent. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding the association between perceived HIV related stigma and time to present for HIV/AIDS care. Quantitative studies conducted in English language between 2002 and 2016 that evaluated the association between HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV care were sought across four major databases. This review considered studies that included the following outcome: 'late HIV testing', 'late HIV diagnosis' and 'late presentation for HIV care after testing'. Data were extracted using a standardized Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) data extraction tool. Meta- analysis was undertaken using Revman-5 software. I2 and chi-square test were used to assess heterogeneity. Summary statistics were expressed as pooled odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals and corresponding p-value. Ten studies from low- and middle- income countries met the search criteria, including six (6) and four (4) case control studies and cross-sectional studies respectively. The total sample size in the included studies was 3,788 participants. Half (5) of the studies reported a significant association between stigma and late presentation for HIV care. The meta-analytical association showed that people who perceived high HIV related stigma had two times more probability of late presentation for HIV care than who perceived low stigma (pooled odds ratio = 2.4; 95%CI: 1.6-3.6, I2 = 79%). High perceptions of HIV related stigma influenced timely presentation for HIV care. In order to avoid late HIV care presentation due the fear of stigma among patients, health professionals should play a key role in informing and counselling patients

  18. A double-blind, randomized, comparative study of the use of a combination of uridine triphosphate trisodium, cytidine monophosphate disodium, and hydroxocobalamin, versus isolated treatment with hydroxocobalamin, in patients presenting with compressive neuralgias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Henrique; Mibielli, Marco Antonio; Nunes, Carlos Pereira; Goldberg, Stephanie Wrobel; Buchman, Luiz; Mezitis, Spyros Ge; Rzetelna, Helio; Oliveira, Lisa; Geller, Mauro; Wajnsztajn, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of treatment of compressive neuralgia using a combination of nucleotides (uridine triphosphate trisodium [UTP] and cytidine monophosphate disodium [CMP]) and vitamin B12. To assess the safety and efficacy of the combination of nucleotides (UTP and CMP) and vitamin B12 in patients presenting with neuralgia arising from neural compression associated with degenerative orthopedic alterations and trauma, and to compare these effects with isolated administration of vitamin B12. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, consisting of a 30-day oral treatment period: Group A (n=200) receiving nucleotides + vitamin B12, and Group B (n=200) receiving vitamin B12 alone. The primary study endpoint was the percentage of subjects presenting pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores ≤20 at end of study treatment period. Secondary study endpoints included the percentage of subjects presenting improvement ≥5 points on the patient functionality questionnaire (PFQ); percentage of subjects presenting pain reduction (reduction in VAS scores at study end in relation to pretreatment); and number of subjects presenting adverse events. The results of this study showed a more expressive improvement in efficacy evaluations among subjects treated with the combination of nucleotides + vitamin B12, with a statistically significant superiority of the combination in pain reduction (evidenced by VAS scores). There were adverse events in both treatment groups, but these were transitory and no severe adverse event was recorded during the study period. Safety parameters were maintained throughout the study in bo