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Sample records for neural-vision based approach

  1. Transaction based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunka, Frantisek; Matula, Jiri

    2017-07-01

    Transaction based approach is utilized in some methodologies in business process modeling. Essential parts of these transactions are human beings. The notion of agent or actor role is usually used for them. The paper on a particular example describes possibilities of Design Engineering Methodology for Organizations (DEMO) and Resource-Event-Agent (REA) methodology. Whereas the DEMO methodology can be regarded as a generic methodology having its foundation in the theory of Enterprise Ontology the REA methodology is regarded as the domain specific methodology and has its origin in accountancy systems. The results of these approaches is that the DEMO methodology captures everything that happens in the reality with a good empirical evidence whereas the REA methodology captures only changes connected with economic events. Economic events represent either change of the property rights to economic resource or consumption or production of economic resources. This results from the essence of economic events and their connection to economic resources.

  2. Behavioral based safety approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Michael Raj, I.

    2009-01-01

    Approach towards the establishment of positive safety culture at Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin includes the adoption of several important methodologies focused on human behavior and culminates with achievement of Total Safety Culture where Quality and Productivity are integrated with Safety

  3. Form-based Approaches vs. Task-Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Talebi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating whether task-based approaches bear any superiority to that of more traditional ones evident in presentation-practice- and production phase .to fulfill the purpose of the study, the participants within the age range of 11-19, took part in the study. Following a pretest, treatment, and a posttest, the obtained data was analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA to examine the effects of the variables. The results of the analysis showed that participants in the PPP group did significantly better in the grammar recognition of the posttest than that of the task group. However, their counterparts in the task group gained better scores in the writing section of the test .this research study provided evidence in support of task proponents' claim in the merit of task-based activity in raising learners' implicit knowledge claiming to play the primary role in spontaneous speech.

  4. Materiality in a Practice-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svabo, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Design/methodology/approach: The overview is theoretically generated and is based on the anthology Knowing in Organizations: A Practice-based Approach edited by Nicolini, Gherardi and Yanow. The…

  5. Understanding images using knowledge based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tascini, G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to image understanding focusing on low level image processing and proposes a rule-based approach as part of larger knowledge-based system. The general system has a yerarchical structure that comprises several knowledge-based layers. The main idea is to confine at the lower level the domain independent knowledge and to reserve the higher levels for the domain dependent knowledge, that is for the interpretation

  6. Toxin-Based Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Benhar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein toxins confer a defense against predation/grazing or a superior pathogenic competence upon the producing organism. Such toxins have been perfected through evolution in poisonous animals/plants and pathogenic bacteria. Over the past five decades, a lot of effort has been invested in studying their mechanism of action, the way they contribute to pathogenicity and in the development of antidotes that neutralize their action. In parallel, many research groups turned to explore the pharmaceutical potential of such toxins when they are used to efficiently impair essential cellular processes and/or damage the integrity of their target cells. The following review summarizes major advances in the field of toxin based therapeutics and offers a comprehensive description of the mode of action of each applied toxin.

  7. Toxin-Based Therapeutic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Assaf; Benhar, Itai

    2010-01-01

    Protein toxins confer a defense against predation/grazing or a superior pathogenic competence upon the producing organism. Such toxins have been perfected through evolution in poisonous animals/plants and pathogenic bacteria. Over the past five decades, a lot of effort has been invested in studying their mechanism of action, the way they contribute to pathogenicity and in the development of antidotes that neutralize their action. In parallel, many research groups turned to explore the pharmaceutical potential of such toxins when they are used to efficiently impair essential cellular processes and/or damage the integrity of their target cells. The following review summarizes major advances in the field of toxin based therapeutics and offers a comprehensive description of the mode of action of each applied toxin. PMID:22069564

  8. Service creation: a model-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, Dick; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based approach to support service creation. In this approach, services are assumed to be created from (available) software components. The creation process may involve multiple design steps in which the requested service is repeatedly decomposed into more detailed

  9. A Knowledge Based Approach to VLSI CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Avail-and/or Dist ISpecial L| OI. SEICURITY CLASIIrCATION OP THIS IPA.lErllm S Daene." A KNOwLEDE BASED APPROACH TO VLSI CAD’ Louis L Steinberg and...major issues lies in building up and managing the knowledge base of oesign expertise. We expect that, as with many recent expert systems, in order to

  10. Methodological approaches based on business rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Business rules and business processes are essential artifacts in defining the requirements of a software system. Business processes capture business behavior, while rules connect processes and thus control processes and business behavior. Traditionally, rules are scattered inside application code. This approach makes it very difficult to change rules and shorten the life cycle of the software system. Because rules change more quickly than the application itself, it is desirable to externalize the rules and move them outside the application. This paper analyzes and evaluates three well-known business rules approaches. It also outlines some critical factors that have to be taken into account in the decision to introduce business rules facilities in a software system. Based on the concept of explicit manipulation of business rules in a software system, the need for a general approach based on business rules is discussed.

  11. Ecosystem based approaches to climate adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Jensen, Anne; Termansen, Mette

    This report analyses the prospects and barriers of applying ecosystem based approaches systematically to climate adaptation in urban areas, taking the case of green roofs in Copenhagen Municipality. It looks at planning aspects of green roofs in Copenhagen as well as citizen views and preferences...... regarding green roofs using policy document analysis, interviews with city planners and deliberative valuation methods....

  12. A practice based approach to forest governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, Bas; Behagel, Jelle; Turnhout, Esther; de Koning, Jessica; van Bommel, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    ‘Forest governance’ refers to new modes of regulation in the forest sector, such as decentralized, community-based and market-oriented policy instruments and management approaches. Its main theoretical basis consists of two mainstream models: rational choice and neo-institutionalism. Since these

  13. Advanced Approach of Multiagent Based Buoy Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gricius, Gediminas; Drungilas, Darius; Andziulis, Arunas; Dzemydiene, Dale; Voznak, Miroslav; Kurmis, Mindaugas; Jakovlev, Sergej

    2015-01-01

    Usually, a hydrometeorological information system is faced with great data flows, but the data levels are often excessive, depending on the observed region of the water. The paper presents advanced buoy communication technologies based on multiagent interaction and data exchange between several monitoring system nodes. The proposed management of buoy communication is based on a clustering algorithm, which enables the performance of the hydrometeorological information system to be enhanced. The experiment is based on the design and analysis of the inexpensive but reliable Baltic Sea autonomous monitoring network (buoys), which would be able to continuously monitor and collect temperature, waviness, and other required data. The proposed approach of multiagent based buoy communication enables all the data from the costal-based station to be monitored with limited transition speed by setting different tasks for the agent-based buoy system according to the clustering information.

  14. Advanced Approach of Multiagent Based Buoy Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Gricius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, a hydrometeorological information system is faced with great data flows, but the data levels are often excessive, depending on the observed region of the water. The paper presents advanced buoy communication technologies based on multiagent interaction and data exchange between several monitoring system nodes. The proposed management of buoy communication is based on a clustering algorithm, which enables the performance of the hydrometeorological information system to be enhanced. The experiment is based on the design and analysis of the inexpensive but reliable Baltic Sea autonomous monitoring network (buoys, which would be able to continuously monitor and collect temperature, waviness, and other required data. The proposed approach of multiagent based buoy communication enables all the data from the costal-based station to be monitored with limited transition speed by setting different tasks for the agent-based buoy system according to the clustering information.

  15. Network-based Approaches in Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boezio, Baptiste; Audouze, Karine; Ducrot, Pierre; Taboureau, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    In drug discovery, network-based approaches are expected to spotlight our understanding of drug action across multiple layers of information. On one hand, network pharmacology considers the drug response in the context of a cellular or phenotypic network. On the other hand, a chemical-based network is a promising alternative for characterizing the chemical space. Both can provide complementary support for the development of rational drug design and better knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the multiple actions of drugs. Recent progress in both concepts is discussed here. In addition, a network-based approach using drug-target-therapy data is introduced as an example. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Managing projects a team-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Karen A

    2010-01-01

    Students today are likely to be assigned to project teams or to be project managers almost immediately in their first job. Managing Projects: A Team-Based Approach was written for a wide range of stakeholders, including project managers, project team members, support personnel, functional mangers who provide resources for projects, project customers (and customer representatives), project sponsors, project subcontractors, and anyone who plays a role in the project delivery process. The need for project management is on the rise as product life cycles compress, demand for IT systems increases, and business takes on an increasingly global character. This book adds to the project management knowledge base in a way that fills an unmet need—it shows how teams can apply many of the standard project management tools, as well as several tools that are relatively new to the field. Managing Projects: A Team-Based Approach offers the academic rigor found in most textbooks along with the practical attributes often foun...

  17. Safer childbirth: a rights-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boama, Vincent; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam

    2009-08-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set very high targets for women's reproductive health through reductions in maternal and infant mortality, among other things. Reductions in maternal mortality and morbidity can be achieved through various different approaches, such as the confidential review of maternal deaths, use of evidence-based treatments and interventions, using a health systems approach, use of information technology, global and regional partnerships, and making pregnancy safer through initiatives that increase the focus on human rights. A combination of these and other approaches can have a synergistic impact on reductions in maternal mortality. This paper highlights some of the current global efforts on safer pregnancy with a focus on reproductive rights. We encourage readers to do more in every corner of the world to advocate for women's reproductive rights and, in this way, we may achieve the MDGs by 2015.

  18. Materiality in a practice-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Common terms for materiality are 'artifact' and 'object'. The interaction between social and material realities is grasped as several processes: object......-oriented activity, symbolization, embodiment, performance, alignment and mediation. Material artifacts both stabilize and destabilize organizational action. They may ensure coordination, communication, and control, but they may also create disturbance and conflict....

  19. Fragment-based approaches to TB drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Chiara; Chan, Daniel S H; Coyne, Anthony G; Abell, Chris

    2018-02-01

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The rise of antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) urgently demands the development of new drug leads to tackle resistant strains. Fragment-based methods have recently emerged at the forefront of pharmaceutical development as a means to generate more effective lead structures, via the identification of fragment molecules that form weak but high quality interactions with the target biomolecule and subsequent fragment optimization. This review highlights a number of novel inhibitors of Mtb targets that have been developed through fragment-based approaches in recent years.

  20. Neural network based multiscale image restoration approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Ana Paula A.; da Silva, José D. S.

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes a neural network based multiscale image restoration approach. Multilayer perceptrons are trained with artificial images of degraded gray level circles, in an attempt to make the neural network learn inherent space relations of the degraded pixels. The present approach simulates the degradation by a low pass Gaussian filter blurring operation and the addition of noise to the pixels at pre-established rates. The training process considers the degraded image as input and the non-degraded image as output for the supervised learning process. The neural network thus performs an inverse operation by recovering a quasi non-degraded image in terms of least squared. The main difference of the approach to existing ones relies on the fact that the space relations are taken from different scales, thus providing relational space data to the neural network. The approach is an attempt to come up with a simple method that leads to an optimum solution to the problem. Considering different window sizes around a pixel simulates the multiscale operation. In the generalization phase the neural network is exposed to indoor, outdoor, and satellite degraded images following the same steps use for the artificial circle image.

  1. Heutagogy: An alternative practice based learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoyrub, John; Hurley, John; Neilson, Gavin R; Ramsay, Mike; Smith, Margaret

    2010-11-01

    Education has explored and utilised multiple approaches in attempts to enhance the learning and teaching opportunities available to adult learners. Traditional pedagogy has been both directly and indirectly affected by andragogy and transformational learning, consequently widening our understandings and approaches toward view teaching and learning. Within the context of nurse education, a major challenge has been to effectively apply these educational approaches to the complex, unpredictable and challenging environment of practice based learning. While not offered as a panacea to such challenges, heutagogy is offered in this discussion paper as an emerging and potentially highly congruent educational framework to place around practice based learning. Being an emergent theory its known conceptual underpinnings and possible applications to nurse education need to be explored and theoretically applied. Through placing the adult learner at the foreground of grasping learning opportunities as they unpredictability emerge from a sometimes chaotic environment, heutagogy can be argued as offering the potential to minimise many of the well published difficulties of coordinating practice with faculty teaching and learning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SLS Navigation Model-Based Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, T. Emerson; Anzalone, Evan; Geohagan, Kevin; Bernard, Bill; Park, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The SLS Program chose to implement a Model-based Design and Model-based Requirements approach for managing component design information and system requirements. This approach differs from previous large-scale design efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center where design documentation alone conveyed information required for vehicle design and analysis and where extensive requirements sets were used to scope and constrain the design. The SLS Navigation Team has been responsible for the Program-controlled Design Math Models (DMMs) which describe and represent the performance of the Inertial Navigation System (INS) and the Rate Gyro Assemblies (RGAs) used by Guidance, Navigation, and Controls (GN&C). The SLS Navigation Team is also responsible for the navigation algorithms. The navigation algorithms are delivered for implementation on the flight hardware as a DMM. For the SLS Block 1-B design, the additional GPS Receiver hardware is managed as a DMM at the vehicle design level. This paper provides a discussion of the processes and methods used to engineer, design, and coordinate engineering trades and performance assessments using SLS practices as applied to the GN&C system, with a particular focus on the Navigation components. These include composing system requirements, requirements verification, model development, model verification and validation, and modeling and analysis approaches. The Model-based Design and Requirements approach does not reduce the effort associated with the design process versus previous processes used at Marshall Space Flight Center. Instead, the approach takes advantage of overlap between the requirements development and management process, and the design and analysis process by efficiently combining the control (i.e. the requirement) and the design mechanisms. The design mechanism is the representation of the component behavior and performance in design and analysis tools. The focus in the early design process shifts from the development and

  3. Approach to performance based regulation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spogen, L.R.; Cleland, L.L.

    1977-06-01

    An approach to the development of performance based regulations (PBR's) is described. Initially, a framework is constructed that consists of a function hierarchy and associated measures. The function at the top of the hierarchy is described in terms of societal objectives. Decomposition of this function into subordinate functions and their subsequent decompositions yield the function hierarchy. ''Bottom'' functions describe the roles of system components. When measures are identified for the performance of each function and means of aggregating performances to higher levels are established, the framework may be employed for developing PBR's. Consideration of system flexibility and performance uncertainty guide in determining the hierarchical level at which regulations are formulated. Ease of testing compliance is also a factor. To show the viability of the approach, the framework developed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for evaluation of material control systems at fixed facilities is presented

  4. Modeling thrombin generation: plasma composition based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E; Everse, Stephen J; Mann, Kenneth G; Orfeo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Thrombin has multiple functions in blood coagulation and its regulation is central to maintaining the balance between hemorrhage and thrombosis. Empirical and computational methods that capture thrombin generation can provide advancements to current clinical screening of the hemostatic balance at the level of the individual. In any individual, procoagulant and anticoagulant factor levels together act to generate a unique coagulation phenotype (net balance) that is reflective of the sum of its developmental, environmental, genetic, nutritional and pharmacological influences. Defining such thrombin phenotypes may provide a means to track disease progression pre-crisis. In this review we briefly describe thrombin function, methods for assessing thrombin dynamics as a phenotypic marker, computationally derived thrombin phenotypes versus determined clinical phenotypes, the boundaries of normal range thrombin generation using plasma composition based approaches and the feasibility of these approaches for predicting risk.

  5. Sound Propagation An impedance Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yang-Hann

    2010-01-01

    In Sound Propagation: An Impedance Based Approach , Professor Yang-Hann Kim introduces acoustics and sound fields by using the concept of impedance. Kim starts with vibrations and waves, demonstrating how vibration can be envisaged as a kind of wave, mathematically and physically. One-dimensional waves are used to convey the fundamental concepts. Readers can then understand wave propagation in terms of characteristic and driving point impedance. The essential measures for acoustic waves, such as dB scale, octave scale, acoustic pressure, energy, and intensity, are explained. These measures are

  6. Creative teaching an evidence-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sale, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This book contains an evidence-based pedagogic guide to enable any motivated teaching/training professional to be able to teach effectively and creatively. It firstly summarises the extensive research field on human psychological functioning relating to learning and how this can be fully utilised in the design and facilitation of quality learning experiences. It then demonstrates what creativity actually 'looks like' in terms of teaching practices, modelling the underpinning processes of creative learning design and how to apply these in lesson planning. The book, having established an evidence-based and pedagogically driven approach to creative learning design, extensively focuses on key challenges facing teaching professionals today. These include utilising information technologies in blended learning formats, differentiating instruction, and developing self-directed learners who can think well. The main purpose of the book is to demystify what it means to teach creatively, explicitly demonstrating the pr...

  7. Market-based approaches to tree valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; David T. Butry

    2008-01-01

    A recent four-part series in Arborist News outlined different appraisal processes used to value urban trees. The final article in the series described the three generally accepted approaches to tree valuation: the sales comparison approach, the cost approach, and the income capitalization approach. The author, D. Logan Nelson, noted that the sales comparison approach...

  8. Risk-based remediation: Approach and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frishmuth, R.A.; Benson, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The principle objective of remedial actions is to protect human health and the environment. Risk assessments are the only defensible tools available to demonstrate to the regulatory community and public that this objective can be achieved. Understanding the actual risks posed by site-related contamination is crucial to designing cost-effective remedial strategies. All to often remedial actions are overdesigned, resulting in little to no increase in risk reduction while increasing project cost. Risk-based remedial actions have recently been embraced by federal and state regulators, industry, government, the scientific community, and the public as a mechanism to implement rapid and cost-effective remedial actions. Emphasizing risk reduction, rather than adherence to ambiguous and generic standards, ensures that only remedial actions required to protect human health and the environment at a particular site are implemented. Two sites are presented as case studies on how risk-based approaches are being used to remediate two petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The sites are located at two US Air Force Bases, Wurtsmith Air Force Base (AFB) in Oscoda, Michigan and Malmstrom AFB in Great Falls, Montana

  9. Efficient approach for reliability-based optimization based on weighted importance sampling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Xiukai; Lu, Zhenzhou

    2014-01-01

    An efficient methodology is presented to perform the reliability-based optimization (RBO). It is based on an efficient weighted approach for constructing an approximation of the failure probability as an explicit function of the design variables which is referred to as the ‘failure probability function (FPF)’. It expresses the FPF as a weighted sum of sample values obtained in the simulation-based reliability analysis. The required computational effort for decoupling in each iteration is just single reliability analysis. After the approximation of the FPF is established, the target RBO problem can be decoupled into a deterministic one. Meanwhile, the proposed weighted approach is combined with a decoupling approach and a sequential approximate optimization framework. Engineering examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the presented methodology

  10. Peptide Based Radiopharmaceuticals: Specific Construct Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, P; Rhodes, B A; Sharma, S S

    1997-10-21

    The objective of this project was to develop receptor based peptides for diagnostic imaging and therapy. A series of peptides related to cell adhesion molecules (CAM) and immune regulation were designed for radiolabeling with 99mTc and evaluated in animal models as potential diagnostic imaging agents for various disease conditions such as thrombus (clot), acute kidney failure, and inflection/inflammation imaging. The peptides for this project were designed by the industrial partner, Palatin Technologies, (formerly Rhomed, Inc.) using various peptide design approaches including a newly developed rational computer assisted drug design (CADD) approach termed MIDAS (Metal ion Induced Distinctive Array of Structures). In this approach, the biological function domain and the 99mTc complexing domain are fused together so that structurally these domains are indistinguishable. This approach allows construction of conformationally rigid metallo-peptide molecules (similar to cyclic peptides) that are metabolically stable in-vivo. All the newly designed peptides were screened in various in vitro receptor binding and functional assays to identify a lead compound. The lead compounds were formulated in a one-step 99mTc labeling kit form which were studied by BNL for detailed in-vivo imaging using various animals models of human disease. Two main peptides usingMIDAS approach evolved and were investigated: RGD peptide for acute renal failure and an immunomodulatory peptide derived from tuftsin (RMT-1) for infection/inflammation imaging. Various RGD based metallopeptides were designed, synthesized and assayed for their efficacy in inhibiting ADP-induced human platelet aggregation. Most of these peptides displayed biological activity in the 1-100 µM range. Based on previous work by others, RGD-I and RGD-II were evaluated in animal models of acute renal failure. These earlier studies showed that after acute ischemic injury the renal cortex displays

  11. ECG biometric identification: A compression based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Susana; Pinho, Armando J

    2015-08-01

    Using the electrocardiogram signal (ECG) to identify and/or authenticate persons are problems still lacking satisfactory solutions. Yet, ECG possesses characteristics that are unique or difficult to get from other signals used in biometrics: (1) it requires contact and liveliness for acquisition (2) it changes under stress, rendering it potentially useless if acquired under threatening. Our main objective is to present an innovative and robust solution to the above-mentioned problem. To successfully conduct this goal, we rely on information-theoretic data models for data compression and on similarity metrics related to the approximation of the Kolmogorov complexity. The proposed measure allows the comparison of two (or more) ECG segments, without having to follow traditional approaches that require heartbeat segmentation (described as highly influenced by external or internal interferences). As a first approach, the method was able to cluster the data in three groups: identical record, same participant, different participant, by the stratification of the proposed measure with values near 0 for the same participant and closer to 1 for different participants. A leave-one-out strategy was implemented in order to identify the participant in the database based on his/her ECG. A 1NN classifier was implemented, using as distance measure the method proposed in this work. The classifier was able to identify correctly almost all participants, with an accuracy of 99% in the database used.

  12. Linear systems a measurement based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Mohsenizadeh, D N

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents recent results obtained on the analysis, synthesis and design of systems described by linear equations. It is well known that linear equations arise in most branches of science and engineering as well as social, biological and economic systems. The novelty of this approach is that no models of the system are assumed to be available, nor are they required. Instead, a few measurements made on the system can be processed strategically to directly extract design values that meet specifications without constructing a model of the system, implicitly or explicitly. These new concepts are illustrated by applying them to linear DC and AC circuits, mechanical, civil and hydraulic systems, signal flow block diagrams and control systems. These applications are preliminary and suggest many open problems. The results presented in this brief are the latest effort in this direction and the authors hope these will lead to attractive alternatives to model-based design of engineering and other systems.

  13. Stem cell-based approaches in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TA Mitsiadis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Repair of dental pulp and periodontal lesions remains a major clinical challenge. Classical dental treatments require the use of specialised tissue-adapted materials with still questionable efficacy and durability. Stem cell-based therapeutic approaches could offer an attractive alternative in dentistry since they can promise physiologically improved structural and functional outcomes. These therapies necessitate a sufficient number of specific stem cell populations for implantation. Dental mesenchymal stem cells can be easily isolated and are amenable to in vitro expansion while retaining their stemness. In vivo studies realised in small and large animals have evidenced the potential of dental mesenchymal stem cells to promote pulp and periodontal regeneration, but have also underlined new important challenges. The homogeneity of stem cell populations and their quality control, the delivery method, the quality of the regenerated dental tissues and their integration to the host tissue are some of the key challenges. The use of bioactive scaffolds that can elicit effective tissue repair response, through activation and mobilisation of endogenous stem cell populations, constitutes another emerging therapeutic strategy. Finally, the use of stem cells and induced pluripotent cells for the regeneration of entire teeth represents a novel promising alternative to dental implant treatment after tooth loss. In this mini-review, we present the currently applied techniques in restorative dentistry and the various attempts that are made to bridge gaps in knowledge regarding treatment strategies by translating basic stem cell research into the dental practice.

  14. Surrogate Motherhood: A Trust-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Katharina

    2015-12-01

    Because it is often argued that surrogacy should not be treated as contractual, the question arises in which terms this practice might then be couched. In this article, I argue that a phenomenology of surrogacy centering on the notion of trust provides a description that is illuminating from the moral point of view. My thesis is that surrogacy establishes a complex and extended reproductive unit--the "surrogacy triad" consisting of the surrogate mother, the child, and the intending parents--whose constituents are bound together by mutual trustful commitments. Even though a trust-based approach does not provide an ultimate answer to whether surrogacy should be sanctioned or prohibited, it allows for at least some practical suggestions. In particular, I will argue that, under certain conditions, surrogacy is tenable within familial or other significant relationships, and I will stress the necessity of acknowledging the new relationships and moral commitments that result from this practice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Quality based approach for adaptive face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Ali J.; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2009-05-01

    Recent advances in biometric technology have pushed towards more robust and reliable systems. We aim to build systems that have low recognition errors and are less affected by variation in recording conditions. Recognition errors are often attributed to the usage of low quality biometric samples. Hence, there is a need to develop new intelligent techniques and strategies to automatically measure/quantify the quality of biometric image samples and if necessary restore image quality according to the need of the intended application. In this paper, we present no-reference image quality measures in the spatial domain that have impact on face recognition. The first is called symmetrical adaptive local quality index (SALQI) and the second is called middle halve (MH). Also, an adaptive strategy has been developed to select the best way to restore the image quality, called symmetrical adaptive histogram equalization (SAHE). The main benefits of using quality measures for adaptive strategy are: (1) avoidance of excessive unnecessary enhancement procedures that may cause undesired artifacts, and (2) reduced computational complexity which is essential for real time applications. We test the success of the proposed measures and adaptive approach for a wavelet-based face recognition system that uses the nearest neighborhood classifier. We shall demonstrate noticeable improvements in the performance of adaptive face recognition system over the corresponding non-adaptive scheme.

  16. IPTV inter-destination synchronization: A network-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokking, H.M.; Deventer, M.O. van; Niamut, O.A.; Walraven, F.A.; Mekuria, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel network-based approach to inter-destination media synchronization. The approach meets the need for synchronization in advanced TV concepts like social TV and offers high scalability, unlike conventional end-point based approaches. The solution for interdestination media

  17. Cognition-Based Approaches for High-Precision Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, George John

    2017-01-01

    This research improves the precision of information extraction from free-form text via the use of cognitive-based approaches to natural language processing (NLP). Cognitive-based approaches are an important, and relatively new, area of research in NLP and search, as well as linguistics. Cognitive approaches enable significant improvements in both…

  18. Nanotechnology based approaches in cancer therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Amit Kumer; Islam, Md Reazul; Choudhury, Zahid Sadek; Kadir, Mohammad Fahim; Mostafa, Asif

    2014-01-01

    The current decades are marked not by the development of new molecules for the cure of various diseases but rather the development of new delivery methods for optimum treatment outcome. Nanomedicine is perhaps playing the biggest role in this concern. Nanomedicine offers numerous advantages over conventional drug delivery approaches and is particularly the hot topic in anticancer research. Nanoparticles (NPs) have many unique criteria that enable them to be incorporated in anticancer therapy. This topical review aims to look at the properties and various forms of NPs and their use in anticancer treatment, recent development of the process of identifying new delivery approaches as well as progress in clinical trials with these newer approaches. Although the outcome of cancer therapy can be increased using nanomedicine there are still many disadvantages of using this approach. We aim to discuss all these issues in this review. (review)

  19. A Constructivist Approach to Rule Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sileno, G.; Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Loiseau, S.; Filipe, J.; Duval, B.; van den Herik, J.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a set of algorithms for the conversion of rule bases between priority-based and constraint-based representations. Inspired by research in precedential reasoning in law, such algorithms can be used for the analysis of a rule base, and for the study of the impact of the introduction

  20. Approaches to tobacco control: the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, M Lober; Lowe, J B

    2004-02-01

    Tobacco production, distribution, and use are international issues with significant health and economic implications. This paper provides an overview of the effective approaches to tobacco control including decreasing demand for tobacco products through taxation, consumer education, research, bans on advertising and promotion, warning labels, and restrictions on public smoking. The effectiveness of reducing the supply of tobacco products through prohibition, restrictions on youth access, crop substitution, trade restrictions, and control of smuggling, will also be discussed. Decreasing smoking, particularly among young people, by preventing or delaying initiation, preventing regular use, and increasing cessation through behavioural approaches for all ages is reviewed. Cessation methods including pharmacological approaches, 'quitlines', Internet programmes, and the targeting of specific populations are discussed. Internet availability of tobacco products and sustainability of current efforts are presented as continuing challenges to tobacco control.

  1. Constructing a justice model based on Sen's capability approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yüksel, Sevgi; Yuksel, Sevgi

    2008-01-01

    The thesis provides a possible justice model based on Sen's capability approach. For this goal, we first analyze the general structure of a theory of justice, identifying the main variables and issues. Furthermore, based on Sen (2006) and Kolm (1998), we look at 'transcendental' and 'comparative' approaches to justice and concentrate on the sufficiency condition for the comparative approach. Then, taking Rawls' theory of justice as a starting point, we present how Sen's capability approach em...

  2. Predicting Liaison: an Example-Based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greefhorst, A.P.M.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Predicting liaison in French is a non-trivial problem to model. We compare a memory-based machine-learning algorithm with a rule-based baseline. The memory-based learner is trained to predict whether liaison occurs between two words on the basis of lexical, orthographic, morphosyntactic, and

  3. Abstract algebra an inquiry based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Hodge, Jonathan K; Sundstrom, Ted

    2013-01-01

    ""This book arose from the authors' approach to teaching abstract algebra. They place an emphasis on active learning and on developing students' intuition through their investigation of examples. … The text is organized in such a way that it is possible to begin with either rings or groups.""-Florentina Chirtes, Zentralblatt MATH 1295

  4. View based approach to forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; van Rootseler, R.T.A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    Face recognition is a challenging problem for surveillance view images commonly encountered in a forensic face recognition case. One approach to deal with a non-frontal test image is to synthesize the corresponding frontal view image and compare it with frontal view reference images. However, it is

  5. Automated Generation of OCL Constraints: NL based Approach vs Pattern Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMRAN SARWAR BAJWA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach used for automated generations of software constraints. In this model, the SBVR (Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Rules based semi-formal representation is obtained from the syntactic and semantic analysis of a NL (Natural Language (such as English sentence. A SBVR representation is easy to translate to other formal languages as SBVR is based on higher-order logic like other formal languages such as OCL (Object Constraint Language. The proposed model endows with a systematic and powerful system of incorporating NL knowledge on the formal languages. A prototype is constructed in Java (an Eclipse plug-in as a proof of the concept. The performance was tested for a few sample texts taken from existing research thesis reports and books

  6. Dose selection based on physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hannah M; Mayawala, Kapil; Poulin, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are built using differential equations to describe the physiology/anatomy of different biological systems. Readily available in vitro and in vivo preclinical data can be incorporated into these models to not only estimate pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and plasma concentration-time profiles, but also to gain mechanistic insight into compound properties. They provide a mechanistic framework to understand and extrapolate PK and dose across in vitro and in vivo systems and across different species, populations and disease states. Using small molecule and large molecule examples from the literature and our own company, we have shown how PBPK techniques can be utilised for human PK and dose prediction. Such approaches have the potential to increase efficiency, reduce the need for animal studies, replace clinical trials and increase PK understanding. Given the mechanistic nature of these models, the future use of PBPK modelling in drug discovery and development is promising, however some limitations need to be addressed to realise its application and utility more broadly.

  7. Methodological approaches based on business rules

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU; Adina UTA

    2008-01-01

    Business rules and business processes are essential artifacts in defining the requirements of a software system. Business processes capture business behavior, while rules connect processes and thus control processes and business behavior. Traditionally, rules are scattered inside application code. This approach makes it very difficult to change rules and shorten the life cycle of the software system. Because rules change more quickly than the application itself, it is desirable to externalize...

  8. MOBILE COMMERCE APPROACH BASED ON MOBILE AGENT

    OpenAIRE

    Oussama Zerdoumi; Okba Kazar; Saber Benharzallah

    2011-01-01

    Telecommunications technologies are advanced; they introduced new technologies to meet the needs of individuals and organizations to make commercial transactions, where we find the birth of e-commerce after the emergence of the Internet. But this approach has limits like the use of a client / server model, which limit the use of these transactions in anytime and anywhere. Recently and after the emergence of the wireless networking, the commerce increase the range of the E-commerce application...

  9. Problem-Based Learning Approaches in Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Perez, Andrew James

    2013-01-01

    Problem-Based Learning, despite recent controversies about its effectiveness, is used extensively as a teaching method throughout higher education. In meteorology, there has been little attempt to incorporate Problem-Based Learning techniques into the curriculum. Motivated by a desire to enhance the reflective engagement of students within a…

  10. Antirandom Testing: A Distance-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Hui Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Random testing requires each test to be selected randomly regardless of the tests previously applied. This paper introduces the concept of antirandom testing where each test applied is chosen such that its total distance from all previous tests is maximum. This spans the test vector space to the maximum extent possible for a given number of vectors. An algorithm for generating antirandom tests is presented. Compared with traditional pseudorandom testing, antirandom testing is found to be very effective when a high-fault coverage needs to be achieved with a limited number of test vectors. The superiority of the new approach is even more significant for testing bridging faults.

  11. Behavior based safety approach towards fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar, R.

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of the individual who notice fire first is very important because it affect the safety of all occupants of the area. Human behavior on fire depends on variables of the buildings in which fire occurs and by the appearance of the fire when it is detected. Altruistic behavior of human being will help to handle the critical conditions due to fire emergencies. NPCIL have developed a culture of systematic approach to safeguard men and materials from fire by training and awareness. In our Nuclear Power Plants, we have an effective plan and system to test the plans. In each emergency exercises, the behavior of individuals will be monitored and recorded

  12. A systematic approach for component-based software development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guareis de farias, Cléver; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    2000-01-01

    Component-based software development enables the construction of software artefacts by assembling prefabricated, configurable and independently evolving building blocks, called software components. This paper presents an approach for the development of component-based software artefacts. This

  13. A Combined Approach for Component-based Software Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guareis de farias, Cléver; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Quartel, Dick; Baldoni, R.

    2001-01-01

    Component-based software development enables the construction of software artefacts by assembling binary units of production, distribution and deployment, the so-called software components. Several approaches addressing component-based development have been proposed recently. Most of these

  14. Sensitivity based reduced approaches for structural reliability analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    captured by a safety-factor based approach due to the intricate nonlinear ... give the accounts of extensive research works which have been done over ... (ii) simulation based methods, for example, importance sampling (Bucher 1988; Mahade-.

  15. Supplier selection an MCDA-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Krishnendu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present a comprehensive review of the latest research and development trends at the international level for modeling and optimization of the supplier selection process for different industrial sectors. It is targeted to serve two audiences: the MBA and PhD student interested in procurement, and the practitioner who wishes to gain a deeper understanding of procurement analysis with multi-criteria based decision tools to avoid upstream risks to get better supply chain visibility. The book is expected to serve as a ready reference for supplier selection criteria and various multi-criteria based supplier’s evaluation methods for forward, reverse and mass customized supply chain. This book encompasses several criteria, methods for supplier selection in a systematic way based on extensive literature review from 1998 to 2012. It provides several case studies and some useful links which can serve as a starting point for interested researchers. In the appendix several computer code wri...

  16. Advantages of condition-based maintenance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareiss, J.; Roos, E.; Jovanovic, A.; Perunicic, M.; Balos, D.

    2004-01-01

    Pilot applications in EnBW steam boiler components and high-pressure pipe systems in the context of the European research project RIMAP (''Risk Based Inspection and Maintenance Procedures for European Industry'') showed that application of a risk-based maintenance strategy (e.g. RIMAP) will make the decision process more transparent and enable better condition-oriented maintenance. With regard to life management of the systems (availability, product quality), this appears to be more important than than the aspect of cost reduction in the maintenance sector, although the latter may not be unwelcome. (orig.) [de

  17. Knowledge-Based Approaches: Two cases of applicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Basic issues of the term: A knowledge-based approach (KBA) are discussed. Two cases of applicable to KBA are presented, and its concluded that KBA is more than just IT.......Basic issues of the term: A knowledge-based approach (KBA) are discussed. Two cases of applicable to KBA are presented, and its concluded that KBA is more than just IT....

  18. A Task-Based Approach to Materials Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a task-based approach to materials development. In the first part of the chapter, I sketch out the evolution of task based language teaching, drawing on a distinction between synthetic and analytical approaches to syllabus design first articulated by Wilkins (1976).

  19. Investigative Primary Science: A Problem-Based Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherington, Matthew B.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the success of using a problem-based learning approach (PBL) as a pedagogical mode of learning open inquiry science within a traditional four-year undergraduate elementary teacher education program. In 2010, a problem-based learning approach to teaching primary science replaced the traditional content driven syllabus. During…

  20. SLAM - Based Approach to Dynamic Ship Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wrobel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamically positioned vessels, used by offshore industry, use not only satellite navigation but also different positioning systems, often referred to as reference' systems. Most of them use multiple technical devices located outside the vessel which creates some problems with their accessibility and performance. In this paper, a basic concept of reference system independent from any external device is presented, basing on hydroacoustics and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM method. Theoretical analysis of its operability is also performed.

  1. Nanotechnology-Based Approach in Tuberculosis Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nasiruddin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis, commonly known as TB, is the second most fatal infectious disease after AIDS, caused by bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Prolonged treatment, high pill burden, low compliance, and stiff administration schedules are factors that are responsible for emergence of MDR and XDR cases of tuberculosis. Till date, only BCG vaccine is available which is ineffective against adult pulmonary TB, which is the most common form of disease. Various unique antibodies have been developed to overcome drug resistance, reduce the treatment regimen, and elevate the compliance to treatment. Therefore, we need an effective and robust system to subdue technological drawbacks and improve the effectiveness of therapeutic drugs which still remains a major challenge for pharmaceutical technology. Nanoparticle-based ideology has shown convincing treatment and promising outcomes for chronic infectious diseases. Different types of nanocarriers have been evaluated as promising drug delivery systems for various administration routes. Controlled and sustained release of drugs is one of the advantages of nanoparticle-based antituberculosis drugs over free drug. It also reduces the dosage frequency and resolves the difficulty of low poor compliance. This paper reviews various nanotechnology-based therapies which can be used for the treatment of TB.

  2. Media approach to gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author grounds her research and the latter analysis on continually conducted daily press-clipping of seven main printed daily newspapers and two main electronic media in Serbia, within the three years period (2009 - 2011. An analysis of media reports on gender based violence, with particular focus on the most frequent domestic violence cases within the two years period, 2010 to 2011 is presented. As the best of media reports on gender based violence, the author stressed out its „whistle blower“ role - media are the main source of information on cases, dimensions and forms of gender based violence. Also the worse moments of media reporting in the mentioned period are presented - when the violence was justified or when reality is deformed by presenting these cases as romantic love stories. For example, in 2010 the worst was reporting on the „Pajčin/Kapisoda“ case, while in 2011 it was the „Ponjiger“ case. In the end, the author also warned on the worrysome fact of sudden dissapearance of media reports on partners’ murdering their wives after the last such report published in mid-october 2011, which could mean that now we have a new problem of diminished freedom of media.

  3. Alternative approaches to risk-based technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atefi, B.; Gallagher, D.W.; Liner, R.T.; Lofgren, E.V.

    1987-01-01

    Four alternative risk-based approaches to Technical Specifications are identified. These are: a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) oriented approach; a reliability goal-oriented approach; an approach based on configuration control; a data-oriented approach. Based on preliminary results, the PRA-oriented approach, which has been developed further than the other approaches, seems to offer a logical, quantitative basis for setting Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) and Surveillance Test Intervals (STIs) for some plant components and systems. The most attractive feature of this approach is that it directly links the AOTs and STIs with the risk associated with the operation of the plant. This would focus the plant operator's and the regulatory agency's attention on the most risk-significant components of the plant. A series of practical issues related to the level of detail and content of the plant PRAs, requirements for the review of these PRAs, and monitoring cf the plant's performance by the regulatory agency must be resolved before the approach could be implemented. Future efforts will examine the other three approaches and their practicality before firm conclusions are drawn regarding the viability of any of these approaches

  4. A hybrid agent-based approach for modeling microbiological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zaiyi; Sloot, Peter M A; Tay, Joc Cing

    2008-11-21

    Models for systems biology commonly adopt Differential Equations or Agent-Based modeling approaches for simulating the processes as a whole. Models based on differential equations presuppose phenomenological intracellular behavioral mechanisms, while models based on Multi-Agent approach often use directly translated, and quantitatively less precise if-then logical rule constructs. We propose an extendible systems model based on a hybrid agent-based approach where biological cells are modeled as individuals (agents) while molecules are represented by quantities. This hybridization in entity representation entails a combined modeling strategy with agent-based behavioral rules and differential equations, thereby balancing the requirements of extendible model granularity with computational tractability. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach with models of chemotaxis involving an assay of 10(3) cells and 1.2x10(6) molecules. The model produces cell migration patterns that are comparable to laboratory observations.

  5. INDIVIDUAL BASED MODELLING APPROACH TO THERMAL ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diadromous fish populations in the Pacific Northwest face challenges along their migratory routes from declining habitat quality, harvest, and barriers to longitudinal connectivity. Changes in river temperature regimes are producing an additional challenge for upstream migrating adult salmon and steelhead, species that are sensitive to absolute and cumulative thermal exposure. Adult salmon populations have been shown to utilize cold water patches along migration routes when mainstem river temperatures exceed thermal optimums. We are employing an individual based model (IBM) to explore the costs and benefits of spatially-distributed cold water refugia for adult migrating salmon. Our model, developed in the HexSim platform, is built around a mechanistic behavioral decision tree that drives individual interactions with their spatially explicit simulated environment. Population-scale responses to dynamic thermal regimes, coupled with other stressors such as disease and harvest, become emergent properties of the spatial IBM. Other model outputs include arrival times, species-specific survival rates, body energetic content, and reproductive fitness levels. Here, we discuss the challenges associated with parameterizing an individual based model of salmon and steelhead in a section of the Columbia River. Many rivers and streams in the Pacific Northwest are currently listed as impaired under the Clean Water Act as a result of high summer water temperatures. Adverse effec

  6. Algebraic Verification Method for SEREs Properties via Groebner Bases Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an efficient solution using computer algebra system to perform linear temporal properties verification for synchronous digital systems. The method is essentially based on both Groebner bases approaches and symbolic simulation. A mechanism for constructing canonical polynomial set based symbolic representations for both circuit descriptions and assertions is studied. We then present a complete checking algorithm framework based on these algebraic representations by using Groebner bases. The computational experience result in this work shows that the algebraic approach is a quite competitive checking method and will be a useful supplement to the existent verification methods based on simulation.

  7. Foundry based approach for InP based PIC development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Europe is making significant investments in development of generic photonic foundry platform infrastructures for InP-based and Silicon Photonic ICs. Here we present the present status for the InP-based JePPIX platform.

  8. Assessing Acid-Base Status: Physiologic Versus Physicochemical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrogué, Horacio J; Madias, Nicolaos E

    2016-11-01

    The physiologic approach has long been used in assessing acid-base status. This approach considers acids as hydrogen ion donors and bases as hydrogen ion acceptors and the acid-base status of the organism as reflecting the interaction of net hydrogen ion balance with body buffers. In the physiologic approach, the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer pair is used for assessing acid-base status and blood pH is determined by carbonic acid (ie, Paco 2 ) and serum bicarbonate levels. More recently, the physicochemical approach was introduced, which has gained popularity, particularly among intensivists and anesthesiologists. This approach posits that the acid-base status of body fluids is determined by changes in the dissociation of water that are driven by the interplay of 3 independent variables: the sum of strong (fully dissociated) cation concentrations minus the sum of strong anion concentrations (strong ion difference); the total concentration of weak acids; and Paco 2 . These 3 independent variables mechanistically determine both hydrogen ion concentration and bicarbonate concentration of body fluids, which are considered as dependent variables. Our experience indicates that the average practitioner is familiar with only one of these approaches and knows very little, if any, about the other approach. In the present Acid-Base and Electrolyte Teaching Case, we attempt to bridge this knowledge gap by contrasting the physiologic and physicochemical approaches to assessing acid-base status. We first outline the essential features, advantages, and limitations of each of the 2 approaches and then apply each approach to the same patient presentation. We conclude with our view about the optimal approach. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Research-based approaches to nuclear education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donev, J.M.K.C., E-mail: jason.donev@ucalgary.ca [Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Carpenter, Y., E-mail: ycarpenter@gmail.com [Univ.ty of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Teaching nuclear power requires an expert to communicate a significant number of abstract concepts from diverse disciplines, and assemble these into a larger intellectual framework for the students. Scholarly education research, particularly in individual science disciplines, has provided significant advances in teaching core subject material by breaking away from traditional lecturing. Thus far, however,little work has applied these results to introductory nuclear power classes. This paper explores a method of engaging introductory nuclear students deeply by using a combination of Socratic and mastery methods of teaching. Students develop conceptual understanding of the material through the group work and the use of diverse resources, including textbooks, online references, and computer models that encourage free exploration of these concepts. Marks have improved considerably, and students engage with the material at a significantly deeper level than in previous lecture-based iterations of this course. (author)

  10. Staffing in Radiotherapy: An Activity Based Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy requires competent professional staff to ensure safe and effective patient treatment and management. There is a need to provide guidelines that recommend appropriate staffing levels to support the initiation of new services as well as the expansion or upgrade of existing services as even simple upgrades or replacement of existing equipment may have a significant impact on staffing needs. Similarly, the introduction of education and training programmes will require staffing adjustments. A calculation algorithm was developed to predict staffing levels based on the inputs that are known or can be easily estimated. This publication complements other IAEA publications used to support the initiation of basic radiation medicine services including Setting up a Radiotherapy Programme: Clinical, Medical Physics, Radiation Protection and Safety Aspects, published in 2008

  11. Research-based approaches to nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donev, J.M.K.C.; Carpenter, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching nuclear power requires an expert to communicate a significant number of abstract concepts from diverse disciplines, and assemble these into a larger intellectual framework for the students. Scholarly education research, particularly in individual science disciplines, has provided significant advances in teaching core subject material by breaking away from traditional lecturing. Thus far, however,little work has applied these results to introductory nuclear power classes. This paper explores a method of engaging introductory nuclear students deeply by using a combination of Socratic and mastery methods of teaching. Students develop conceptual understanding of the material through the group work and the use of diverse resources, including textbooks, online references, and computer models that encourage free exploration of these concepts. Marks have improved considerably, and students engage with the material at a significantly deeper level than in previous lecture-based iterations of this course. (author)

  12. Arts-based and creative approaches to dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Jessica

    2016-02-01

    This article presents a review of arts-based and creative approaches to dementia care as an alternative to antipsychotic medications. While use of antipsychotics may be appropriate for some people, the literature highlights the success of creative approaches and the benefits of their lack of negative side effects associated with antipsychotics. The focus is the use of biographical approaches, music, dance and movement to improve wellbeing, enhance social networks, support inclusive practice and enable participation. Staff must be trained to use these approaches. A case study is presented to demonstrate how creative approaches can be implemented in practice and the outcomes that can be expected when used appropriately.

  13. Information theory based approaches to cellular signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltermann, Christian; Klipp, Edda

    2011-10-01

    Cells interact with their environment and they have to react adequately to internal and external changes such changes in nutrient composition, physical properties like temperature or osmolarity and other stresses. More specifically, they must be able to evaluate whether the external change is significant or just in the range of noise. Based on multiple external parameters they have to compute an optimal response. Cellular signaling pathways are considered as the major means of information perception and transmission in cells. Here, we review different attempts to quantify information processing on the level of individual cells. We refer to Shannon entropy, mutual information, and informal measures of signaling pathway cross-talk and specificity. Information theory in systems biology has been successfully applied to identification of optimal pathway structures, mutual information and entropy as system response in sensitivity analysis, and quantification of input and output information. While the study of information transmission within the framework of information theory in technical systems is an advanced field with high impact in engineering and telecommunication, its application to biological objects and processes is still restricted to specific fields such as neuroscience, structural and molecular biology. However, in systems biology dealing with a holistic understanding of biochemical systems and cellular signaling only recently a number of examples for the application of information theory have emerged. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Systems Biology of Microorganisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethics education for health professionals: a values based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbold, Rosemary; Lees, Amanda

    2013-11-01

    It is now widely accepted that ethics is an essential part of educating health professionals. Despite a clear mandate to educators, there are differing approaches, in particular, how and where ethics is positioned in training programmes, underpinning philosophies and optimal modes of assessment. This paper explores varying practices and argues for a values based approach to ethics education. It then explores the possibility of using a web-based technology, the Values Exchange, to facilitate a values based approach. It uses the findings of a small scale study to signal the potential of the Values Exchange for engaging, meaningful and applied ethics education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interteaching: An Evidence-Based Approach to Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas Wade; Killingsworth, Kenneth; Alavosius, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes "interteaching" as an evidence-based method of instruction. Instructors often rely on more traditional approaches, such as lectures, as means to deliver instruction. Despite high usage, these methods are ineffective at achieving desirable academic outcomes. We discuss an innovative approach to delivering instruction…

  16. [Evidence-based medicine: an approach without any weakness?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, A F

    2000-04-06

    Evidence-based medicine is a methodological approach giving access to the best information derived from clinical research for an individual patient. It requires the formulation of a question, a strategy to search for the best information, the selection of the latter, its critical appraisal and its application to the patient. The qualities, but also the limitations of this approach are discussed.

  17. Leisure market segmentation : an integrated preferences/constraints-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemerding, M.P.; Oppewal, H.; Beckers, T.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional segmentation schemes are often based on a grouping of consumers with similar preference functions. The research steps, ultimately leading to such segmentation schemes, are typically independent. In the present article, a new integrated approach to segmentation is introduced, which

  18. Agile Service Development: A Rule-Based Method Engineering Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Zoet; Stijn Hoppenbrouwers; Inge van de Weerd; Johan Versendaal

    2011-01-01

    Agile software development has evolved into an increasingly mature software development approach and has been applied successfully in many software vendors’ development departments. In this position paper, we address the broader agile service development. Based on method engineering principles we

  19. An improved Hough transform-based fingerprint alignment approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mlambo, CS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An improved Hough Transform based fingerprint alignment approach is presented, which improves computing time and memory usage with accurate alignment parameter (rotation and translation) results. This is achieved by studying the strengths...

  20. A sampling-based approach to probabilistic pursuit evasion

    KAUST Repository

    Mahadevan, Aditya; Amato, Nancy M.

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic roadmaps (PRMs) are a sampling-based approach to motion-planning that encodes feasible paths through the environment using a graph created from a subset of valid positions. Prior research has shown that PRMs can be augmented

  1. Poverty reduction Approaches in Kenya: Assessing the Usefulness of the Right Based Approach in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wambua Leonard Munyao, Ph.D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available While billions of dollars have been spent in development projects in least developed countries, poverty continues to increase. This study proposes human-rights based approach to poverty eradication. To this end, the study seeks to assess the key determinants of use of rights- based approaches to poverty reduction and it’s usefulness in Kenya with special reference to NGOs in Kibera. The study further high lights some of the basic skills of implementing the rights based approach to poverty reduction. The attempts to establish the proportion of NGOs applying rights based approach to poverty reduction in Kibera Division as well. The review of relevant literature has been undertaken and a field study done. The study is informed by a qualitative human rights framework.

  2. User-based and Cognitive Approaches to Knowledge Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2013-01-01

    ’s PageRank are not based on the empirical studies of users. In knowledge organization, the Book House System is one example of a system based on user studies. In cognitive science the important WordNet database is claimed to be based on psychological research. This article considers such examples......In the 1970s and 1980s, forms of user-based and cognitive approaches to knowledge organization came to the forefront as part of the overall development in library and information science and in the broader society. The specific nature of userbased approaches is their basis in the empirical studies...

  3. A model-data based systems approach to process intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    . Their developments, however, are largely due to experiment based trial and error approaches and while they do not require validation, they can be time consuming and resource intensive. Also, one may ask, can a truly new intensified unit operation be obtained in this way? An alternative two-stage approach is to apply...... a model-based synthesis method to systematically generate and evaluate alternatives in the first stage and an experiment-model based validation in the second stage. In this way, the search for alternatives is done very quickly, reliably and systematically over a wide range, while resources are preserved...... for focused validation of only the promising candidates in the second-stage. This approach, however, would be limited to intensification based on “known” unit operations, unless the PI process synthesis/design is considered at a lower level of aggregation, namely the phenomena level. That is, the model-based...

  4. A new approach to hand-based authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amayeh, G.; Bebis, G.; Erol, A.; Nicolescu, M.

    2007-04-01

    Hand-based authentication is a key biometric technology with a wide range of potential applications both in industry and government. Traditionally, hand-based authentication is performed by extracting information from the whole hand. To account for hand and finger motion, guidance pegs are employed to fix the position and orientation of the hand. In this paper, we consider a component-based approach to hand-based verification. Our objective is to investigate the discrimination power of different parts of the hand in order to develop a simpler, faster, and possibly more accurate and robust verification system. Specifically, we propose a new approach which decomposes the hand in different regions, corresponding to the fingers and the back of the palm, and performs verification using information from certain parts of the hand only. Our approach operates on 2D images acquired by placing the hand on a flat lighting table. Using a part-based representation of the hand allows the system to compensate for hand and finger motion without using any guidance pegs. To decompose the hand in different regions, we use a robust methodology based on morphological operators which does not require detecting any landmark points on the hand. To capture the geometry of the back of the palm and the fingers in suffcient detail, we employ high-order Zernike moments which are computed using an effcient methodology. The proposed approach has been evaluated on a database of 100 subjects with 10 images per subject, illustrating promising performance. Comparisons with related approaches using the whole hand for verification illustrate the superiority of the proposed approach. Moreover, qualitative comparisons with state-of-the-art approaches indicate that the proposed approach has comparable or better performance.

  5. Knowledge-based biomedical word sense disambiguation: comparison of approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aronson Alan R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Word sense disambiguation (WSD algorithms attempt to select the proper sense of ambiguous terms in text. Resources like the UMLS provide a reference thesaurus to be used to annotate the biomedical literature. Statistical learning approaches have produced good results, but the size of the UMLS makes the production of training data infeasible to cover all the domain. Methods We present research on existing WSD approaches based on knowledge bases, which complement the studies performed on statistical learning. We compare four approaches which rely on the UMLS Metathesaurus as the source of knowledge. The first approach compares the overlap of the context of the ambiguous word to the candidate senses based on a representation built out of the definitions, synonyms and related terms. The second approach collects training data for each of the candidate senses to perform WSD based on queries built using monosemous synonyms and related terms. These queries are used to retrieve MEDLINE citations. Then, a machine learning approach is trained on this corpus. The third approach is a graph-based method which exploits the structure of the Metathesaurus network of relations to perform unsupervised WSD. This approach ranks nodes in the graph according to their relative structural importance. The last approach uses the semantic types assigned to the concepts in the Metathesaurus to perform WSD. The context of the ambiguous word and semantic types of the candidate concepts are mapped to Journal Descriptors. These mappings are compared to decide among the candidate concepts. Results are provided estimating accuracy of the different methods on the WSD test collection available from the NLM. Conclusions We have found that the last approach achieves better results compared to the other methods. The graph-based approach, using the structure of the Metathesaurus network to estimate the relevance of the Metathesaurus concepts, does not perform well

  6. Component-Based Approach in Learning Management System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Larisa; Bule, Jekaterina; Makarov, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes component-based approach (CBA) for learning management system development. Learning object as components of e-learning courses and their metadata is considered. The architecture of learning management system based on CBA being developed in Riga Technical University, namely its architecture, elements and possibilities are…

  7. Rights-Based Approach: The Hub of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choondassery, Yesudas

    2017-01-01

    A rights-based approach to the environmental issues has been gaining momentum since the United Nations' Environmental Agency proposed a new rights-based agenda for sustainable development in the document, "Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development" (UN, 2015). Our moral responsibility toward the environment is…

  8. A scenario based approach for flexible resource loading under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wullink, Gerhard; Gademann, Noud; Hans, Elias W.; van Harten, Aart

    2003-01-01

    Order acceptance decisions in manufacture-to-order environments are often made based on incomplete or uncertain information. To promise reliable due dates and to manage resource capacity adequately, resource capacity loading is an indispensable supporting tool. We propose a scenario based approach

  9. Zero base approach to fiscal management of the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, D A; Majonos, J S

    1985-08-01

    Lab administrators who face the challenge of providing quality care while cutting costs need a way to periodically re-evaluate all lab functions and services. The guidelines presented here, based on the Zero Base Budget approach, formulate a management strategy for the lab that could lead to better fiscal planning.

  10. A GIS based hydrogeomorphic approach for identification of site ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a Geographical Information System (GIS) based hydrogeomorphic approach in the Bhatsa and. Kalu river basins of Thane district, in western DVP. The criteria adopted for the GIS analysis were based .... segments of the rivers. The majority of the lineaments correspond to either dyke ridges or stream channels which are of ...

  11. Approaches in anomaly-based network intrusion detection systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.; Etalle, S.; Di Pietro, R.; Mancini, L.V.

    2008-01-01

    Anomaly-based network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs) can take into consideration packet headers, the payload, or a combination of both. We argue that payload-based approaches are becoming the most effective methods to detect attacks. Nowadays, attacks aim mainly to exploit vulnerabilities at

  12. Approaches in Anomaly-based Network Intrusion Detection Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.; Etalle, Sandro

    Anomaly-based network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs) can take into consideration packet headers, the payload, or a combination of both. We argue that payload-based approaches are becoming the most effective methods to detect attacks. Nowadays, attacks aim mainly to exploit vulnerabilities at

  13. A Database Approach to Content-based XML retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a rst prototype system for content-based retrieval from XML data. The system's design supports both XPath queries and complex information retrieval queries based on a language modelling approach to information retrieval. Evaluation using the INEX benchmark shows that it is

  14. Implementing Project Based Learning Approach to Graphic Design Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanti, Menul Teguh; Erwin, Tuti Nuriah; Suriani, S. H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a learning model based Commercial Graphic Design Drafting project-based learning approach, was chosen as a strategy in the learning product development research. University students as the target audience of this model are the students of the fifth semester Visual Communications Design Studies Program…

  15. A knowledge-based approach for recognition of handwritten Pitman ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper describes a knowledge-based approach for the recognition of PSL strokes. Information about location and the direction of the starting point and final point of strokes are considered the knowledge base for recognition of strokes. The work comprises preprocessing, determination of starting and final points, ...

  16. A Brief Introduction of Task-based Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹

    2012-01-01

    The task-based language teaching approach is one of the syllabus models that have been proposed in the last twenty years or so. Task-based syllabus represent a particular realization of communicative language teaching. Task-based teaching/learning helps develop students’ communicative competence, enabling them to communicate effectively in real communicating world and engage in interaction. The most active element in the process of the task-based teaching is the learner’ creativity. By exploiting this kind of creativity, learning can be made significantly more efficient and more interesting. It is well-known that the task-based teaching/learning have a rich potential for promoting successful second language learning than the traditional teaching/learning. Task-based approach is reflected not only in China but also in some other countries, such as America, Canada, Singapore, Hong Kong and son on.

  17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROCESS-BASED APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urij V. Lyandau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the timeline of the approaches to management of the industrial processes and organizations in general.The Adam Smith’s idea of specialization, the Henry Ford’s conveyor and Frederick Taylor’s scientific approach created functional corporations, in which specialized departments consisted of specialized workers. Such organizational chart was optimized for every department’s tasks, which are necessary to perform.During the life cycle evolution of industrial and then informational ages external conditions of production has changed. In consequence, there was born the necessity to change key factors of the management paradigm. These changes are the transfer from the functional management to the process-based approach. The functional management was the basic type of management in many organizations during the 20th century. Only in the end of 1990 companies started to integrate the process-based approach. This conversion was born cause of special conditions that the informational age created.

  18. Computer based approach to fatigue analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comstock, T.R.; Bernard, T.; Nieb, J.

    1979-01-01

    An approach is presented which uses a mini-computer based system for data acquisition, analysis and graphic displays relative to fatigue life estimation and design. Procedures are developed for identifying an eliminating damaging events due to overall duty cycle, forced vibration and structural dynamic characteristics. Two case histories, weld failures in heavy vehicles and low cycle fan blade failures, are discussed to illustrate the overall approach. (orig.) 891 RW/orig. 892 RKD [de

  19. A New Classification Approach Based on Multiple Classification Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongmei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    A good classifier can correctly predict new data for which the class label is unknown, so it is important to construct a high accuracy classifier. Hence, classification techniques are much useful in ubiquitous computing. Associative classification achieves higher classification accuracy than some traditional rule-based classification approaches. However, the approach also has two major deficiencies. First, it generates a very large number of association classification rules, especially when t...

  20. Case-based approaches for knowledge application and organisational learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Johansen, John; Luxhøj, James T.

    2005-01-01

    In dealing with the strategic issues within a manufacturing system, it is necessary to facilitate formulating the composing elements of a set of strategic manufacturing practices and activity patterns that will support an enterprise to reinforce and increase its competitive advantage....... These practices and activity patterns are based on learning and applying the knowledge internal and external to an organisation. To ensure their smooth formulation process, there are two important techniques designed – an expert adaptation approach and an expert evaluation approach. These two approaches provide...

  1. Lessons learned about art-based approaches for disseminating knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Anne; Makaroff, Kara L Schick; Sheilds, Laurene; Beuthin, Rosanne; Molzahn, Anita; Shermak, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    To present a case example of using an arts-based approach and the development of an art exhibit to disseminate research findings from a narrative research study. Once a study has been completed, the final step of dissemination of findings is crucial. In this paper, we explore the benefits of bringing nursing research into public spaces using an arts-based approach. Findings from a qualitative narrative study exploring experiences of living with life-threatening illnesses. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 32 participants living with cancer, chronic renal disease, or HIV/AIDS. Participants were invited to share a symbol representing their experience of living with life-threatening illness and the meaning it held for them. The exhibit conveyed experiences of how people story and re-story their lives when living with chronic kidney disease, cancer or HIV. Photographic images of symbolic representations of study participants' experiences and poetic narratives from their stories were exhibited in a public art gallery. The theoretical underpinning of arts-based approaches and the lessons learned in creating an art exhibit from research findings are explored. Creative art forms for research and disseminating knowledge offer new ways of understanding and knowing that are under-used in nursing. Arts-based approaches make visible patients' experiences that are often left unarticulated or hidden. Creative dissemination approaches such as art exhibits can promote insight and new ways of knowing that communicate nursing research to both public and professional audiences.

  2. A Market-Based Approach to Multi-factory Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vytelingum, Perukrishnen; Rogers, Alex; MacBeth, Douglas K.; Dutta, Partha; Stranjak, Armin; Jennings, Nicholas R.

    In this paper, we report on the design of a novel market-based approach for decentralised scheduling across multiple factories. Specifically, because of the limitations of scheduling in a centralised manner - which requires a center to have complete and perfect information for optimality and the truthful revelation of potentially commercially private preferences to that center - we advocate an informationally decentralised approach that is both agile and dynamic. In particular, this work adopts a market-based approach for decentralised scheduling by considering the different stakeholders representing different factories as self-interested, profit-motivated economic agents that trade resources for the scheduling of jobs. The overall schedule of these jobs is then an emergent behaviour of the strategic interaction of these trading agents bidding for resources in a market based on limited information and their own preferences. Using a simple (zero-intelligence) bidding strategy, we empirically demonstrate that our market-based approach achieves a lower bound efficiency of 84%. This represents a trade-off between a reasonable level of efficiency (compared to a centralised approach) and the desirable benefits of a decentralised solution.

  3. Grid-based electronic structure calculations: The tensor decomposition approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhuba, M.V., E-mail: rakhuba.m@gmail.com [Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Novaya St. 100, 143025 Skolkovo, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Oseledets, I.V., E-mail: i.oseledets@skoltech.ru [Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Novaya St. 100, 143025 Skolkovo, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gubkina St. 8, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-01

    We present a fully grid-based approach for solving Hartree–Fock and all-electron Kohn–Sham equations based on low-rank approximation of three-dimensional electron orbitals. Due to the low-rank structure the total complexity of the algorithm depends linearly with respect to the one-dimensional grid size. Linear complexity allows for the usage of fine grids, e.g. 8192{sup 3} and, thus, cheap extrapolation procedure. We test the proposed approach on closed-shell atoms up to the argon, several molecules and clusters of hydrogen atoms. All tests show systematical convergence with the required accuracy.

  4. The anterior interhemispheric approach: a safe and effective approach to anterior skull base lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Dorothee; Mayfrank, Lothar; Psychogios, Marios Nikos; Rohde, Veit

    2014-04-01

    Many approaches to the anterior skull base have been reported. Frequently used are the pterional, the unilateral or bilateral frontobasal, the supraorbital and the frontolateral approach. Recently, endoscopic transnasal approaches have become more popular. The benefits of each approach has to be weighted against its complications and limitations. The aim of this study was to investigate if the anterior interhemispheric approach (AIA) could be a safe and effective alternative approach to tumorous and non-tumorous lesions of the anterior skull base. We screened the operative records of all patients with an anterior skull base lesion undergoing transcranial surgery. We have used the AIA in 61 patients. These were exclusively patients with either olfactory groove meningioma (OGM) (n = 43), ethmoidal dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) ( n = 6) or frontobasal fractures of the anterior midline with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage ( n = 12). Patient records were evaluated concerning accessibility of the lesion, realization of surgical aims (complete tumor removal, dAVF obliteration, closure of the dural tear), and approach related complications. The use of the AIA exclusively in OGMs, ethmoidal dAVFs and midline frontobasal fractures indicated that we considered lateralized frontobasal lesions not suitable to be treated successfully. If restricted to these three pathologies, the AIA is highly effective and safe. The surgical aim (complete tumor removal, complete dAVF occlusion, no rhinorrhea) was achieved in all patients. The complication rate was 11.5 % (wound infection (n = 2; 3.2 %), contusion of the genu of the corpus callosum, subdural hygroma, epileptic seizure, anosmia and asymptomatic bleed into the tumor cavity (n = 1 each). Only the contusion of the corpus callosum was directly related to the approach (1.6 %). Olfaction, if present before surgery, was preserved in all patients, except one (1.6 %). The AIA is an effective and a safe approach

  5. A multiparameter chaos control method based on OGY approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza de Paula, Aline; Amorim Savi, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Chaos control is based on the richness of responses of chaotic behavior and may be understood as the use of tiny perturbations for the stabilization of a UPO embedded in a chaotic attractor. Since one of these UPO can provide better performance than others in a particular situation the use of chaos control can make this kind of behavior to be desirable in a variety of applications. The OGY method is a discrete technique that considers small perturbations promoted in the neighborhood of the desired orbit when the trajectory crosses a specific surface, such as a Poincare section. This contribution proposes a multiparameter semi-continuous method based on OGY approach in order to control chaotic behavior. Two different approaches are possible with this method: coupled approach, where all control parameters influences system dynamics although they are not active; and uncoupled approach that is a particular case where control parameters return to the reference value when they become passive parameters. As an application of the general formulation, it is investigated a two-parameter actuation of a nonlinear pendulum control employing coupled and uncoupled approaches. Analyses are carried out considering signals that are generated by numerical integration of the mathematical model using experimentally identified parameters. Results show that the procedure can be a good alternative for chaos control since it provides a more effective UPO stabilization than the classical single-parameter approach.

  6. Human rights-based approach to unintentional injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, J Morag; Ryan, Mark Andrew

    2018-06-01

    Unintentional injury remains an important global public health issue, and efforts to address it are often hampered by a lack of visibility, leadership, funding, infrastructure, capacity and evidence of effective solutions. The growing support for a socioecological model and a systems approach to prevention-along with the acknowledgement that injury prevention can be a byproduct of salutogenic design and activities-has increased opportunities to integrate unintentional injury prevention into other health promotion and disease prevention agendas. It has also helped to integrate it into the broader human development agenda through the Sustainable Development Goals. This growing support provides new opportunities to use a human rights-based approach to address the issue. The human rights-based approach is based on the idea that all members of society have social, economic and cultural rights and that governments are responsible and accountable for upholding those rights. It incorporates a systems approach, addresses inequity and places an emphasis on the most vulnerable corners of humanity. It also leverages legal statutes and provides organisations with the opportunity to build existing international goals and benchmarks into their monitoring efforts. This paper describes the approach and highlights how it can leverage attention and investment to address current challenges for unintentional injury. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning A Modeling-Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Naser, Arab

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning: A Modeling-Based Approach provides a new paradigm for evacuation planning strategies and techniques. Recently, evacuation planning and modeling have increasingly attracted interest among researchers as well as government officials. This interest stems from the recent catastrophic hurricanes and weather-related events that occurred in the southeastern United States (Hurricane Katrina and Rita). The evacuation methods that were in place before and during the hurricanes did not work well and resulted in thousands of deaths. This book offers insights into the methods and techniques that allow for implementing mathematical-based, simulation-based, and integrated optimization and simulation-based engineering approaches for evacuation planning. This book also: Comprehensively discusses the application of mathematical models for evacuation and intelligent transportation modeling Covers advanced methodologies in evacuation modeling and planning Discusses principles a...

  8. An innovative approach to capability-based emergency operations planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the innovative use information technology for assisting disaster planners with an easily-accessible method for writing and improving evidence-based emergency operations plans. This process is used to identify all key objectives of the emergency response according to capabilities of the institution, community or society. The approach then uses a standardized, objective-based format, along with a consensus-based method for drafting capability-based operational-level plans. This information is then integrated within a relational database to allow for ease of access and enhanced functionality to search, sort and filter and emergency operations plan according to user need and technological capacity. This integrated approach is offered as an effective option for integrating best practices of planning with the efficiency, scalability and flexibility of modern information and communication technology.

  9. A Learning Object Approach To Evidence based learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zabin Visram; Bruce Elson; Patricia Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the philosophy, development and framework of the body of elements formulated to provide an approach to evidence-based learning sustained by Learning Objects and web based technology Due to the demands for continuous improvement in the delivery of healthcare and in the continuous endeavour to improve the quality of life, there is a continuous need for practitioner's to update their knowledge by accomplishing accredited courses. The rapid advances in medical science has mea...

  10. A rights-based approach to accessing health determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Fran

    2009-03-01

    This commentary summarizes the experience and learnings from a site visit in May 2008 to a drop-in centre for vulnerable women in downtown Cairo run by El-Shehab Institution for Comprehensive Development, which provides street outreach for the prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI). The Centre successfully provides services and support for women, many of who are displaced or refugees and are from the most marginalized areas in Cairo. Through a rights-based approach to the work, the Centre helps people living in the slums fight and win the right to access clean water, sewerage and electrical power in their communities. An individual-based approach to human rights is also used. In the last year El-Shehab have helped 67 women go to court and win their marriage rights from husbands who have abandoned them. Their approach is an example of a successful way to achieve access to basic health determinants.

  11. A Multi-Faceted Approach to Inquiry-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudzinski, M. R.; Sikorski, J.

    2009-12-01

    In order to fully attain the benefits of inquiry-based learning, instructors who typically employ the traditional lecture format need to make several adjustments to their approach. This change in styles can be intimidating and logistically difficult to overcome. A stepwise approach to this transformation is likely to be more manageable for individual faculty or departments. In this session, we will describe several features that we are implementing in our introductory geology course with the ultimate goal of converting to an entirely inquiry-based approach. Our project is part of the Miami University initiative in the top 25 enrolled courses to move towards the “student as scholar” model for engaged learning. Some of the features we developed for our course include: student learning outcomes, student development outcomes, out-of-class content quizzes, in-class conceptests, pre-/post-course assessment, reflective knowledge surveys, and daily group activities.

  12. Non-frontal Model Based Approach to Forensic Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a non-frontal model based approach which ensures that a face recognition system always gets to compare images having similar view (or pose). This requires a virtual suspect reference set that consists of non-frontal suspect images having pose similar to the surveillance

  13. What does an enquiry-based approach offer undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Physiotherapy students in their final year at Stellenbosch University (SU) complete a module that follows an enquiry-based learning (EBL) approach. This module exposes them to higher-order problem solving and was developed to facilitate independent self-directed learning and improved higher-order ...

  14. PETRA - an Activity-based Approach to Travel Demand Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    This paper concerns the PETRA model developed by COWI in a project funded by the Danish Ministry of Transport, the Danish Transport Council and the Danish Energy Research Program. The model provides an alternative approach to activity based travel demand analysis that excludes the time dimension...

  15. Saccharide-based Approach to Green Metallic Nanostructure Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian; Sørensen, Karsten Holm; Jensen, Palle Skovhus

    A green approach to solution synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has been developed using harmless and bioapplicable chemicals as well as moderate temperatures. Metal precursors are reduced by glucose/buffers and sterically stabilized by starch. The saccharide based procedure is highly diverse pr...... producing specifically a wide range of spherical, anisotropic, metallic, semi - conductor and core-shell nanostructures....

  16. Evaluation of a Blog Based Parent Involvement Approach by Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcinar, Zehra; Ekizoglu, Nihat

    2013-01-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of parent involvement in children's education, research clearly shows that it is difficult to effectively involve parents. This study aims to capture parents' views of a Blog Based Parent Involvement Approach (BPIA) designed to secure parent involvement in education by strengthening school-parent communication. Data…

  17. The Task-Based Approach in Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Aquilino

    2004-01-01

    The Task-Based Approach (TBA) has gained popularity in the field of language teaching since the last decade of the 20th Century and significant scholars have joined the discussion and increased the amount of analytical studies on the issue. Nevertheless experimental research is poor, and the tendency of some of the scholars is nowadays shifting…

  18. A Project-based Learning approach for teaching Robotics to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research we used a project-based learning approach to teach robotics basics to undergraduate business computing students. The course coverage includes basic electronics, robot construction and programming using arduino. Students developed and tested a robot prototype. The project was evaluated using a ...

  19. Effect of the inquiry-based teaching approach on students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental group was treated with a teaching approach that integrated inquiry-based teaching into classroom discourse. Tests (pre- and post-), for assessing students' understanding of circle theorems and a questionnaire for measuring the students' perception of motivation to learn were given to the two groups ...

  20. Predicting footbridge vibrations using a probability-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Vibrations in footbridges may be problematic as excessive vibrations may occur as a result of actions of pedestrians. Design-stage predictions of levels of footbridge vibration to the action of a pedestrian are useful and have been employed for many years based on a deterministic approach to mode...

  1. Intelligent assembly time analysis, using a digital knowledge based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Y.; Curran, R.; Butterfield, J.; Burke, R.; Welch, B.

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of effective time analysis methods fast and accurately in the era of digital manufacturing has become a significant challenge for aerospace manufacturers hoping to build and maintain a competitive advantage. This paper proposes a structure oriented, knowledge-based approach for

  2. Binaural speech enhancement using a codebook based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavalekalam, Mathew Shaji; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Boldt, Jesper B.

    2016-01-01

    term predictor (STP) parameters using a codebook based approach, when we have access to binaural noisy signals. The estimated STP parameters are subsequently used for enhancement in a dual channel scenario. Objective measures indicate, that the proposed method is able to improve the speech...

  3. From Equation to Inequality Using a Function-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verikios, Petros; Farmaki, Vassiliki

    2010-01-01

    This article presents features of a qualitative research study concerning the teaching and learning of school algebra using a function-based approach in a grade 8 class, of 23 students, in 26 lessons, in a state school of Athens, in the school year 2003-2004. In this article, we are interested in the inequality concept and our aim is to…

  4. A sampling-based approach to probabilistic pursuit evasion

    KAUST Repository

    Mahadevan, Aditya

    2012-05-01

    Probabilistic roadmaps (PRMs) are a sampling-based approach to motion-planning that encodes feasible paths through the environment using a graph created from a subset of valid positions. Prior research has shown that PRMs can be augmented with useful information to model interesting scenarios related to multi-agent interaction and coordination. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Effect of the inquiry-based teaching approach on students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofi.mereku

    mathematics as a vital tool for the understanding and application of science and .... In view of senior high school students' poor performance in circle theorems and their ..... taught using the inquiry-based approach on the other hand perceive their .... visualization and spatial reasoning to middle school mathematics students.

  6. Tennis: Applied Examples of a Game-Based Teaching Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Miguel; Reid, Machar M.; Miley, Dave

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors reveal that tennis has been increasingly taught with a tactical model or game-based approach, which emphasizes learning through practice in match-like drills and actual play, rather than in practicing strokes for exact technical execution. Its goal is to facilitate the player's understanding of the tactical, physical…

  7. An Approach to Quality Estimation in Model-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Jens Peter; Koch, Peter; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2004-01-01

    We present an approach to estimation of parameters for design space exploration in Model-Based Development, where synthesis of a system is done in two stages. Component qualities like space, execution time or power consumption are defined in a repository by platform dependent values. Connectors...

  8. Development of Scientific Approach Based on Discovery Learning Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellizar, E.; Hardeli, H.; Beltris, S.; Suharni, R.

    2018-04-01

    Scientific Approach is a learning process, designed to make the students actively construct their own knowledge through stages of scientific method. The scientific approach in learning process can be done by using learning modules. One of the learning model is discovery based learning. Discovery learning is a learning model for the valuable things in learning through various activities, such as observation, experience, and reasoning. In fact, the students’ activity to construct their own knowledge were not optimal. It’s because the available learning modules were not in line with the scientific approach. The purpose of this study was to develop a scientific approach discovery based learning module on Acid Based, also on electrolyte and non-electrolyte solution. The developing process of this chemistry modules use the Plomp Model with three main stages. The stages are preliminary research, prototyping stage, and the assessment stage. The subject of this research was the 10th and 11th Grade of Senior High School students (SMAN 2 Padang). Validation were tested by the experts of Chemistry lecturers and teachers. Practicality of these modules had been tested through questionnaire. The effectiveness had been tested through experimental procedure by comparing student achievement between experiment and control groups. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that the developed scientific approach discovery based learning module significantly improve the students’ learning in Acid-based and Electrolyte solution. The result of the data analysis indicated that the chemistry module was valid in content, construct, and presentation. Chemistry module also has a good practicality level and also accordance with the available time. This chemistry module was also effective, because it can help the students to understand the content of the learning material. That’s proved by the result of learning student. Based on the result can conclude that chemistry module based on

  9. Adjoint current-based approaches to prostate brachytherapy optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J. A.; Henderson, D. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper builds on previous work done at the Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison to employ the adjoint concept of nuclear reactor physics in the so-called greedy heuristic of brachytherapy optimization. Whereas that previous work focused on the adjoint flux, i.e. the importance, this work has included use of the adjoint current to increase the amount of information available in optimizing. Two current-based approaches were developed for 2-D problems, and each was compared to the most recent form of the flux-based methodology. The first method aimed to take a treatment plan from the flux-based greedy heuristic and adjust via application of the current-displacement, or a vector displacement based on a combination of tissue (adjoint) and seed (forward) currents acting as forces on a seed. This method showed promise in improving key urethral and rectal dosimetric quantities. The second method uses the normed current-displacement as the greedy criterion such that seeds are placed in regions of least force. This method, coupled with the dose-update scheme, generated treatment plans with better target irradiation and sparing of the urethra and normal tissues than the flux-based approach. Tables of these parameters are given for both approaches. In summary, these preliminary results indicate adjoint current methods are useful in optimization and further work in 3-D should be performed. (authors)

  10. EVALUATING HUMAN CAPITAL IN A KNOWLEDGE – BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoil MUSCALU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The widespread enthusiasm for a knowledge-based approach to understanding the nature of a business and the possible basis for sustained competitive advantage have renewed interest in human capital evaluation or measurement. While many attempts have been made to develop methods for measuring intellectual capital, none have been widely adopted in the business world. In the knowledge-based organizations, and generally, in the information society, human capital is recognized as the fundamental factor of overall progress, and experts agree that long-term investment in human capital has strong drive-propagation effects at the individual, organizational, national and global level. In this paper, we consider that a knowledge-based approach can offer new possibilities and answers to illustrate the importance of evaluation the human capital and knowledge assets by consistently generating added value in the business world.

  11. Surrogate based approaches to parameter inference in ocean models

    KAUST Repository

    Knio, Omar

    2016-01-06

    This talk discusses the inference of physical parameters using model surrogates. Attention is focused on the use of sampling schemes to build suitable representations of the dependence of the model response on uncertain input data. Non-intrusive spectral projections and regularized regressions are used for this purpose. A Bayesian inference formalism is then applied to update the uncertain inputs based on available measurements or observations. To perform the update, we consider two alternative approaches, based on the application of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods or of adjoint-based optimization techniques. We outline the implementation of these techniques to infer dependence of wind drag, bottom drag, and internal mixing coefficients.

  12. Surrogate based approaches to parameter inference in ocean models

    KAUST Repository

    Knio, Omar

    2016-01-01

    This talk discusses the inference of physical parameters using model surrogates. Attention is focused on the use of sampling schemes to build suitable representations of the dependence of the model response on uncertain input data. Non-intrusive spectral projections and regularized regressions are used for this purpose. A Bayesian inference formalism is then applied to update the uncertain inputs based on available measurements or observations. To perform the update, we consider two alternative approaches, based on the application of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods or of adjoint-based optimization techniques. We outline the implementation of these techniques to infer dependence of wind drag, bottom drag, and internal mixing coefficients.

  13. Problems and Projects Based Approach For Analog Electronic Circuits' Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahé Nerguizian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available New educational methods and approaches are recently introduced and implemented at several North American and European universities using Problems and Projects Based Approach (PPBA. The PPBA employs a teaching technique based mostly on competences/skills rather than only on knowledge. This method has been implemented and proven by several pedagogical instructors and authors at several educational institutions. This approach is used at different disciplines such as medicine, biology, engineering and many others. It has the advantage to improve the student's skills and the knowledge retention rate, and reflects the 21st century industrial/company needs and demands. Before implementing this approach to a course, a good resources preparation and planning is needed upfront by the responsible or instructor of the course to achieve the course and students related objectives. This paper presents the preparation, the generated documentation and the implementation of a pilot project utilizing PPBA education for a second year undergraduate electronic course over a complete semester, and for two different class groups (morning and evening groups. The outcome of this project (achieved goals, observed difficulties and lessons learned is presented based on different tools such as students 'in class' communication and feedback, different course evaluation forms and the professor/instructor feedback. Resources, challenges, difficulties and recommendations are also assessed and presented. The impact, the effect and the results (during and at the end of the academic fall session of the PPBA on students and instructor are discussed, validated, managed and communicated to help other instructor in taking appropriate approach decisions with respect to this new educational approach compared to the classical one.

  14. Estimating Soil Hydraulic Parameters using Gradient Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, P. K.; Tripathi, S.

    2017-12-01

    The conventional way of estimating parameters of a differential equation is to minimize the error between the observations and their estimates. The estimates are produced from forward solution (numerical or analytical) of differential equation assuming a set of parameters. Parameter estimation using the conventional approach requires high computational cost, setting-up of initial and boundary conditions, and formation of difference equations in case the forward solution is obtained numerically. Gaussian process based approaches like Gaussian Process Ordinary Differential Equation (GPODE) and Adaptive Gradient Matching (AGM) have been developed to estimate the parameters of Ordinary Differential Equations without explicitly solving them. Claims have been made that these approaches can straightforwardly be extended to Partial Differential Equations; however, it has been never demonstrated. This study extends AGM approach to PDEs and applies it for estimating parameters of Richards equation. Unlike the conventional approach, the AGM approach does not require setting-up of initial and boundary conditions explicitly, which is often difficult in real world application of Richards equation. The developed methodology was applied to synthetic soil moisture data. It was seen that the proposed methodology can estimate the soil hydraulic parameters correctly and can be a potential alternative to the conventional method.

  15. Practice-Based Interdisciplinary Approach and Environmental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar Datta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary researchers and educators, as community members, creators of knowledge, and environmental activists and practitioners, have a responsibility to build a bridge between community practice, academic scholarship, and professional contributions aimed at establishing environmental sustainability. In this paper, I focus on an undervalued area of environmental politics, practices, and often unarticulated assumptions which underlie human–environmental relations. This article challenges interdisciplinary studies that are not connected with practice by reconfiguring the meaning of a community-based, interdisciplinary approach. Drawing from works by Foucault, Latour, and Haraway, this paper first shows how to reconfigure the meaning of an interdisciplinary approach. Second, using Bourdieu and Brightman’s ethnographic studies as a framework, the paper situates practice as central to our efforts to deconstruct and replace current interdisciplinary initiatives with a practice-based approach. Through a practice-based interdisciplinary approach (PIA, environmental educators and researchers gain an awareness of and learn to make an investment in sustainable communities. As teams of environmental researchers practising in the local community, they are meaningfully involved with the community, with each other, and with the environment.

  16. Fragment approaches in structure-based drug discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, Roderick E.

    2008-01-01

    Fragment-based methods are successfully generating novel and selective drug-like inhibitors of protein targets, with a number of groups reporting compounds entering clinical trials. This paper summarizes the key features of the approach as one of the tools in structure-guided drug discovery. There has been considerable interest recently in what is known as 'fragment-based lead discovery'. The novel feature of the approach is to begin with small low-affinity compounds. The main advantage is that a larger potential chemical diversity can be sampled with fewer compounds, which is particularly important for new target classes. The approach relies on careful design of the fragment library, a method that can detect binding of the fragment to the protein target, determination of the structure of the fragment bound to the target, and the conventional use of structural information to guide compound optimization. In this article the methods are reviewed, and experiences in fragment-based discovery of lead series of compounds against kinases such as PDK1 and ATPases such as Hsp90 are discussed. The examples illustrate some of the key benefits and issues of the approach and also provide anecdotal examples of the patterns seen in selectivity and the binding mode of fragments across different protein targets

  17. A New Acoustic Emission Sensor Based Gear Fault Detection Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junda Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce wind energy costs, prognostics and health management (PHM of wind turbine is needed to ensure the reliability and availability of wind turbines. A gearbox is an important component of a wind turbine. Therefore, developing effective gearbox fault detection tools is important to the PHM of wind turbine. In this paper, a new acoustic emission (AE sensor based gear fault detection approach is presented. This approach combines a heterodyne based frequency reduction technique with time synchronous average (TSA and spectrum kurtosis (SK to process AE sensor signals and extract features as condition indictors for gear fault detection. Heterodyne technique commonly used in communication is first employed to preprocess the AE signals before sampling. By heterodyning, the AE signal frequency is down shifted from several hundred kHz to below 50 kHz. This reduced AE signal sampling rate is comparable to that of vibration signals. The presented approach is validated using seeded gear tooth crack fault tests on a notational split torque gearbox. The approach presented in this paper is physics based and the validation results have showed that it could effectively detect the gear faults.

  18. An Approach for Composing Services Based on Environment Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Cai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Service-oriented computing is revolutionizing the modern computing paradigms with its aim to boost software reuse and enable business agility. Under this paradigm, new services are fabricated by composing available services. The problem arises as how to effectively and efficiently compose heterogeneous services facing the high complexity of service composition. Based on environment ontology, this paper introduces a requirement-driven service composition approach. We propose the algorithms to decompose the requirement, the rules to deduct the relation between services, and the algorithm for composing service. The empirical results and the comparison with other services’ composition methodologies show that this approach is feasible and efficient.

  19. Phishing Detection: Analysis of Visual Similarity Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar Jain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phishing is one of the major problems faced by cyber-world and leads to financial losses for both industries and individuals. Detection of phishing attack with high accuracy has always been a challenging issue. At present, visual similarities based techniques are very useful for detecting phishing websites efficiently. Phishing website looks very similar in appearance to its corresponding legitimate website to deceive users into believing that they are browsing the correct website. Visual similarity based phishing detection techniques utilise the feature set like text content, text format, HTML tags, Cascading Style Sheet (CSS, image, and so forth, to make the decision. These approaches compare the suspicious website with the corresponding legitimate website by using various features and if the similarity is greater than the predefined threshold value then it is declared phishing. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of phishing attacks, their exploitation, some of the recent visual similarity based approaches for phishing detection, and its comparative study. Our survey provides a better understanding of the problem, current solution space, and scope of future research to deal with phishing attacks efficiently using visual similarity based approaches.

  20. Collaborative design of Open Educational Practices: An Assets based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Helen Miller

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a collaborative approach to the design of open educational resources (OER with community stakeholders so they can be shared with other community practitioners openly, online and repurposed for other contexts. We view curriculum not as something that educationalists provide but rather something that emerges as learners engage with an educational context. We draw on a Project consisting of a partnership between five European Institutions of Higher Education and a range of community stakeholder groups. The partnership will develop a suite of OER for community workers who are implementing assets based approaches in different contexts. We argue that these approaches are negotiated in that one cannot decide how they might operate in a given context without engaging in deliberative discussion. The challenge for us as open education practitioners is how to turn those deliberations into OER and to highlight the important pedagogical aspect of the design process.

  1. A fuzzy behaviorist approach to sensor-based robot control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, F.G.

    1996-05-01

    Sensor-based operation of autonomous robots in unstructured and/or outdoor environments has revealed to be an extremely challenging problem, mainly because of the difficulties encountered when attempting to represent the many uncertainties which are always present in the real world. These uncertainties are primarily due to sensor imprecisions and unpredictability of the environment, i.e., lack of full knowledge of the environment characteristics and dynamics. An approach. which we have named the {open_quotes}Fuzzy Behaviorist Approach{close_quotes} (FBA) is proposed in an attempt to remedy some of these difficulties. This approach is based on the representation of the system`s uncertainties using Fuzzy Set Theory-based approximations and on the representation of the reasoning and control schemes as sets of elemental behaviors. Using the FBA, a formalism for rule base development and an automated generator of fuzzy rules have been developed. This automated system can automatically construct the set of membership functions corresponding to fuzzy behaviors. Once these have been expressed in qualitative terms by the user. The system also checks for completeness of the rule base and for non-redundancy of the rules (which has traditionally been a major hurdle in rule base development). Two major conceptual features, the suppression and inhibition mechanisms which allow to express a dominance between behaviors are discussed in detail. Some experimental results obtained with the automated fuzzy, rule generator applied to the domain of sensor-based navigation in aprion unknown environments. using one of our autonomous test-bed robots as well as a real car in outdoor environments, are then reviewed and discussed to illustrate the feasibility of large-scale automatic fuzzy rule generation using the {open_quotes}Fuzzy Behaviorist{close_quotes} concepts.

  2. An Iterative Load Disaggregation Approach Based on Appliance Consumption Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM, monitoring single-appliance consumption level by decomposing the aggregated energy consumption, is a novel and economic technology that is beneficial to energy utilities and energy demand management strategies development. Hardware costs of high-frequency sampling and algorithm’s computational complexity hampered NILM large-scale application. However, low sampling data shows poor performance in event detection when multiple appliances are simultaneously turned on. In this paper, we contribute an iterative disaggregation approach that is based on appliance consumption pattern (ILDACP. Our approach combined Fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm, which provide an initial appliance operating status, and sub-sequence searching Dynamic Time Warping, which retrieves single energy consumption based on the typical power consumption pattern. Results show that the proposed approach is effective to accurately disaggregate power consumption, and is suitable for the situation where different appliances are simultaneously operated. Also, the approach has lower computational complexity than Hidden Markov Model method and it is easy to implement in the household without installing special equipment.

  3. A Semantics-Based Approach to Retrieving Biomedical Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Zambach, Sine

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to representing, organising, and accessing conceptual content of biomedical texts using a formal ontology. The ontology is based on UMLS resources supplemented with domain ontologies developed in the project. The approach introduces the notion of ‘generative ontol...... of data mining of texts identifying paraphrases and concept relations and measuring distances between key concepts in texts. Thus, the project is distinct in its attempt to provide a formal underpinning of conceptual similarity or relatedness of meaning.......This paper describes an approach to representing, organising, and accessing conceptual content of biomedical texts using a formal ontology. The ontology is based on UMLS resources supplemented with domain ontologies developed in the project. The approach introduces the notion of ‘generative...... ontologies’, i.e., ontologies providing increasingly specialised concepts reflecting the phrase structure of natural language. Furthermore, we propose a novel so called ontological semantics which maps noun phrases from texts and queries into nodes in the generative ontology. This enables an advanced form...

  4. Assessment of Constraint Effects based on Local Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Rin; Chang, Yoon Suk; Choi, Jae Boong; Seok, Chang Sung; Kim, Young Jin

    2005-01-01

    Traditional fracture mechanics has been used to ensure a structural integrity, in which the geometry independence is assumed in crack tip deformation and fracture toughness. However, the assumption is applicable only within limited conditions. To address fracture covering a broad range of loading and crack geometries, two-parameter global approach and local approach have been proposed. The two-parameter global approach can quantify the load and crack geometry effects by adopting T-stress or Q-parameter but time-consuming and expensive since lots of experiments and finite element (FE) analyses are necessary. On the other hand, the local approach evaluates the load and crack geometry effects based on damage model. Once material specific fitting constants are determined from a few experiments and FE analyses, the fracture resistance characteristics can be obtained by numerical simulation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate constraint effects for compact tension (CT) specimens with different in-plane or out-of-plane size using local approach. Both modified GTN model and Rousselier model are adopted to examine the ductile fracture behavior of SA515 Gr.60 carbon steel at high temperature. The fracture resistance (J-R) curves are estimated through numerical analysis, compared with corresponding experimental results and, then, crack length, thickness and side-groove effects are evaluated

  5. An SQL-based approach to physics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limper, Dr Maaike

    2014-01-01

    As part of the CERN openlab collaboration a study was made into the possibility of performing analysis of the data collected by the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through SQL-queries on data stored in a relational database. Currently LHC physics analysis is done using data stored in centrally produced 'ROOT-ntuple' files that are distributed through the LHC computing grid. The SQL-based approach to LHC physics analysis presented in this paper allows calculations in the analysis to be done at the database and can make use of the database's in-built parallelism features. Using this approach it was possible to reproduce results for several physics analysis benchmarks. The study shows the capability of the database to handle complex analysis tasks but also illustrates the limits of using row-based storage for storing physics analysis data, as performance was limited by the I/O read speed of the system.

  6. English to Sanskrit Machine Translation Using Transfer Based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ganesh R.; Godse, Sachin P.

    2010-11-01

    Translation is one of the needs of global society for communicating thoughts and ideas of one country with other country. Translation is the process of interpretation of text meaning and subsequent production of equivalent text, also called as communicating same meaning (message) in another language. In this paper we gave detail information on how to convert source language text in to target language text using Transfer Based Approach for machine translation. Here we implemented English to Sanskrit machine translator using transfer based approach. English is global language used for business and communication but large amount of population in India is not using and understand the English. Sanskrit is ancient language of India most of the languages in India are derived from Sanskrit. Sanskrit can be act as an intermediate language for multilingual translation.

  7. Deep-Learning-Based Approach for Prediction of Algal Blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Algal blooms have recently become a critical global environmental concern which might put economic development and sustainability at risk. However, the accurate prediction of algal blooms remains a challenging scientific problem. In this study, a novel prediction approach for algal blooms based on deep learning is presented—a powerful tool to represent and predict highly dynamic and complex phenomena. The proposed approach constructs a five-layered model to extract detailed relationships between the density of phytoplankton cells and various environmental parameters. The algal blooms can be predicted by the phytoplankton density obtained from the output layer. A case study is conducted in coastal waters of East China using both our model and a traditional back-propagation neural network for comparison. The results show that the deep-learning-based model yields better generalization and greater accuracy in predicting algal blooms than a traditional shallow neural network does.

  8. Earthquake insurance pricing: a risk-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jeng-Hsiang

    2018-04-01

    Flat earthquake premiums are 'uniformly' set for a variety of buildings in many countries, neglecting the fact that the risk of damage to buildings by earthquakes is based on a wide range of factors. How these factors influence the insurance premiums is worth being studied further. Proposed herein is a risk-based approach to estimate the earthquake insurance rates of buildings. Examples of application of the approach to buildings located in Taipei city of Taiwan were examined. Then, the earthquake insurance rates for the buildings investigated were calculated and tabulated. To fulfil insurance rating, the buildings were classified into 15 model building types according to their construction materials and building height. Seismic design levels were also considered in insurance rating in response to the effect of seismic zone and construction years of buildings. This paper may be of interest to insurers, actuaries, and private and public sectors of insurance. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  9. Triangulation based inclusion probabilities: a design-unbiased sampling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fehrmann, Lutz; Gregoire, Timothy; Kleinn, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    A probabilistic sampling approach for design-unbiased estimation of area-related quantitative characteristics of spatially dispersed population units is proposed. The developed field protocol includes a fixed number of 3 units per sampling location and is based on partial triangulations over their natural neighbors to derive the individual inclusion probabilities. The performance of the proposed design is tested in comparison to fixed area sample plots in a simulation with two forest stands. ...

  10. Flow-based approach for holistic factory engineering and design

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinescu, C.; Westkämper, E.

    2010-01-01

    The engineering of future factories requires digital tools along life cycle phases from investment planning to ramp-up. Manufacturers need scientific-based integrated highly dynamic data management systems for the participative and integrated factory planning. The paper presents a new approach for the continuously integrated product design, factory and process planning, through a service-oriented architecture for the implementation of digital factory tools. A first prototype of the digital fa...

  11. A corpus-based approach to generalising a chatbot system

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Shawar, Bayan; Atwell, Eric

    2003-01-01

    International research in NLP is dominated by work on English. NLP techniques and systems can be ported to other natural languages, but this is generally a labour-intensive task, requiring scarce computational and linguistic expertise; hence minority languages are poorly represented in NLP technology. We present an automated approach to porting an NLP technology, the AIML-based chatbot, to new languages, by using a corpus in the target language to retrain the chatbot. We have s...

  12. An ontology-based approach for modelling architectural styles

    OpenAIRE

    Pahl, Claus; Giesecke, Simon; Hasselbring, Wilhelm

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed The conceptual modelling of software architectures is of central importance for the quality of a software system. A rich modelling language is required to integrate the different aspects of architecture modelling, such as architectural styles, structural and behavioural modelling, into a coherent framework.We propose an ontological approach for architectural style modelling based on description logic as an abstract, meta-level modelling instrument. Architect...

  13. A structural informatics approach to mine kinase knowledge bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooijmans, Natasja; Mobilio, Dominick; Walker, Gary; Nilakantan, Ramaswamy; Denny, Rajiah A; Feyfant, Eric; Diller, David; Bikker, Jack; Humblet, Christine

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we describe a combination of structural informatics approaches developed to mine data extracted from existing structure knowledge bases (Protein Data Bank and the GVK database) with a focus on kinase ATP-binding site data. In contrast to existing systems that retrieve and analyze protein structures, our techniques are centered on a database of ligand-bound geometries in relation to residues lining the binding site and transparent access to ligand-based SAR data. We illustrate the systems in the context of the Abelson kinase and related inhibitor structures. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ray-based approach to integrated 3D visual communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naemura, Takeshi; Harashima, Hiroshi

    2001-02-01

    For a high sense of reality in the next-generation communications, it is very important to realize three-dimensional (3D) spatial media, instead of existing 2D image media. In order to comprehensively deal with a variety of 3D visual data formats, the authors first introduce the concept of "Integrated 3D Visual Communication," which reflects the necessity of developing a neutral representation method independent of input/output systems. Then, the following discussions are concentrated on the ray-based approach to this concept, in which any visual sensation is considered to be derived from a set of light rays. This approach is a simple and straightforward to the problem of how to represent 3D space, which is an issue shared by various fields including 3D image communications, computer graphics, and virtual reality. This paper mainly presents the several developments in this approach, including some efficient methods of representing ray data, a real-time video-based rendering system, an interactive rendering system based on the integral photography, a concept of virtual object surface for the compression of tremendous amount of data, and a light ray capturing system using a telecentric lens. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  15. Knowledge-based approach to video content classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wong, Edward K.

    2001-01-01

    A framework for video content classification using a knowledge-based approach is herein proposed. This approach is motivated by the fact that videos are rich in semantic contents, which can best be interpreted and analyzed by human experts. We demonstrate the concept by implementing a prototype video classification system using the rule-based programming language CLIPS 6.05. Knowledge for video classification is encoded as a set of rules in the rule base. The left-hand-sides of rules contain high level and low level features, while the right-hand-sides of rules contain intermediate results or conclusions. Our current implementation includes features computed from motion, color, and text extracted from video frames. Our current rule set allows us to classify input video into one of five classes: news, weather, reporting, commercial, basketball and football. We use MYCIN's inexact reasoning method for combining evidences, and to handle the uncertainties in the features and in the classification results. We obtained good results in a preliminary experiment, and it demonstrated the validity of the proposed approach.

  16. Toward a Mechanism-Based Approach to Pain Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardeh, Daniel; Mannion, Richard J; Woolf, Clifford J

    2016-09-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a huge leap forward in our understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings of pain, in normal states where it helps protect from injury, and also in pathological states where pain evolves from a symptom reflecting tissue injury to become the disease itself. However, despite these scientific advances, chronic pain remains extremely challenging to manage clinically. Although the number of potential treatment targets has grown substantially and a strong case has been made for a mechanism-based and individualized approach to pain therapy, arguably clinicians are not much more advanced now than 20 years ago, in their capacity to either diagnose or effectively treat their patients. The gulf between pain research and pain management is as wide as ever. We are still currently unable to apply an evidence-based approach to chronic pain management that reflects mechanistic understanding, and instead, clinical practice remains an empirical and often unsatisfactory journey for patients, whose individual response to treatment cannot be predicted. In this article we take a common and difficult to treat pain condition, chronic low back pain, and use its presentation in clinical practice as a framework to highlight what is known about pathophysiological pain mechanisms and how we could potentially detect these to drive rational treatment choice. We discuss how present methods of assessment and management still fall well short, however, of any mechanism-based or precision medicine approach. Nevertheless, substantial improvements in chronic pain management could be possible if a more strategic and coordinated approach were to evolve, one designed to identify the specific mechanisms driving the presenting pain phenotype. We present an analysis of such an approach, highlighting the major problems in identifying mechanisms in patients, and develop a framework for a pain diagnostic ladder that may prove useful in the future, consisting of successive

  17. Influencing factors for condition-based maintenance in railway tracks using knowledge-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidi, A.; Hajizadeh, S.; Naeimi, M.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Li, Z.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a condition-based maintenance decision method using
    knowledge-based approach for rail surface defects. A railway track may contain a considerable number of surface defects which influence track maintenance decisions. The proposed method is based on two sets of

  18. Conceptual design of jewellery: a space-based aesthetics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzintzi Vaia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual design is a field that offers various aesthetic approaches to generation of nature-based product design concepts. Essentially, Conceptual Product Design (CPD uses similarities based on the geometrical forms and functionalities. Furthermore, the CAD-based freehand sketch is a primary conceptual tool in the early stages of the design process. The proposed Conceptual Product Design concept is dealing with jewelleries that are inspired from space. Specifically, a number of galaxy features, such as galaxy shapes, wormholes and graphical representation of planet magnetic field are used as inspirations. Those space-based design ideas at a conceptual level can lead to further opportunities for research and economic success of the jewellery industry. A number of illustrative case studies are presented and new opportunities can be derived for economic success.

  19. Mapping site-based construction workers’ motivation: Expectancy theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Ghoddousi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to apply a recently proposed model of motivation based on expectancy theory to site-based workers in the construction context and confirm the validity of this model for the construction industry. The study drew upon data from 194 site-based construction workers in Iran to test the proposed model of motivation. To this end, the structural equation modelling (SEM approach based on the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA technique was deployed. The study reveals that the proposed model of expectancy theory incorporating five indicators (i.e. intrinsic instrumentality, extrinsic instrumentality, intrinsic valence, extrinsic valence and expectancy is able to map the process of construction workers’ motivation. Nonetheless, the findings posit that intrinsic indicators could be more effective than extrinsic ones. This proffers the necessity of construction managers placing further focus on intrinsic motivators to motivate workers. 

  20. Mapping site-based construction workers’ motivation: Expectancy theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Ghoddousi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to apply a recently proposed model of motivation based on expectancy theory to site-based workers in the construction context and confirm the validity of this model for the construction industry. The study drew upon data from 194 site-based construction workers in Iran to test the proposed model of motivation. To this end, the structural equation modelling (SEM approach based on the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA technique was deployed. The study reveals that the proposed model of expectancy theory incorporating five indicators (i.e. intrinsic instrumentality, extrinsic instrumentality, intrinsic valence, extrinsic valence and expectancy is able to map the process of construction workers’ motivation. Nonetheless, the findings posit that intrinsic indicators could be more effective than extrinsic ones. This proffers the necessity of construction managers placing further focus on intrinsic motivators to motivate workers.

  1. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - vision, approach, and overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB; Carmack, Jon [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R & D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.

  2. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - vision, approach, and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, Cetin; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal; Carmack, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R and D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.

  3. Towards a mechanism-based approach to pain diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardeh, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The last few decades have witnessed a huge leap forward in our understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings of pain, both in normal states where it helps protect from injury, and in pathological states where pain evolves from a symptom reflecting tissue injury to become the disease itself. However, despite these scientific advances, chronic pain remains extremely challenging to manage clinically. While the number of potential treatment targets has grown substantially and a strong case has been made for a mechanism-based and individualized approach to pain therapy, arguably clinicians are not much more advanced now than 20 years ago, in their capacity to either diagnose or effectively treat their patients. The gulf between pain research and pain management is as wide as ever. We are still currently unable to apply an evidence-based approach to chronic pain management that reflects mechanistic understanding, and instead, clinical practice remains an empirical and often unsatisfactory journey for patients, whose individual response to treatment cannot be predicted. Here we take a common and difficult to treat pain condition, chronic low back pain, and use its presentation in clinical practice as a framework to highlight what is known about pathophysiological pain mechanisms and how we could potentially detect these to drive rational treatment choice. We discuss how present methods of assessment and management still fall well short, however, of any mechanism-based or precision-medicine approach. Nevertheless, substantial improvements in chronic pain management could be possible if a more strategic and coordinated approach were to evolve, one designed to identify the specific mechanisms driving the presenting pain phenotype. We present an analysis of such an approach, highlighting the major problems in identifying mechanisms in patients, and develop a framework for a pain diagnostic ladder that may prove useful in the future, consisting of successive identification of

  4. Frame-Based and Subpicture-Based Parallelization Approaches of the HEVC Video Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Migallón

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The most recent video coding standard, High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC, is able to significantly improve the compression performance at the expense of a huge computational complexity increase with respect to its predecessor, H.264/AVC. Parallel versions of the HEVC encoder may help to reduce the overall encoding time in order to make it more suitable for practical applications. In this work, we study two parallelization strategies. One of them follows a coarse-grain approach, where parallelization is based on frames, and the other one follows a fine-grain approach, where parallelization is performed at subpicture level. Two different frame-based approaches have been developed. The first one only uses MPI and the second one is a hybrid MPI/OpenMP algorithm. An exhaustive experimental test was carried out to study the performance of both approaches in order to find out the best setup in terms of parallel efficiency and coding performance. Both frame-based and subpicture-based approaches are compared under the same hardware platform. Although subpicture-based schemes provide an excellent performance with high-resolution video sequences, scalability is limited by resolution, and the coding performance worsens by increasing the number of processes. Conversely, the proposed frame-based approaches provide the best results with respect to both parallel performance (increasing scalability and coding performance (not degrading the rate/distortion behavior.

  5. A probabilistic approach to the drag-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoletano, Gianluca; Forte, Roberta; Moro, Dario Del; Pietropaolo, Ermanno; Giovannelli, Luca; Berrilli, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    The forecast of the time of arrival (ToA) of a coronal mass ejection (CME) to Earth is of critical importance for our high-technology society and for any future manned exploration of the Solar System. As critical as the forecast accuracy is the knowledge of its precision, i.e. the error associated to the estimate. We propose a statistical approach for the computation of the ToA using the drag-based model by introducing the probability distributions, rather than exact values, as input parameters, thus allowing the evaluation of the uncertainty on the forecast. We test this approach using a set of CMEs whose transit times are known, and obtain extremely promising results: the average value of the absolute differences between measure and forecast is 9.1h, and half of these residuals are within the estimated errors. These results suggest that this approach deserves further investigation. We are working to realize a real-time implementation which ingests the outputs of automated CME tracking algorithms as inputs to create a database of events useful for a further validation of the approach.

  6. Bifurcation-based approach reveals synergism and optimal combinatorial perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanwei; Li, Shanshan; Liu, Zengrong; Wang, Ruiqi

    2016-06-01

    Cells accomplish the process of fate decisions and form terminal lineages through a series of binary choices in which cells switch stable states from one branch to another as the interacting strengths of regulatory factors continuously vary. Various combinatorial effects may occur because almost all regulatory processes are managed in a combinatorial fashion. Combinatorial regulation is crucial for cell fate decisions because it may effectively integrate many different signaling pathways to meet the higher regulation demand during cell development. However, whether the contribution of combinatorial regulation to the state transition is better than that of a single one and if so, what the optimal combination strategy is, seem to be significant issue from the point of view of both biology and mathematics. Using the approaches of combinatorial perturbations and bifurcation analysis, we provide a general framework for the quantitative analysis of synergism in molecular networks. Different from the known methods, the bifurcation-based approach depends only on stable state responses to stimuli because the state transition induced by combinatorial perturbations occurs between stable states. More importantly, an optimal combinatorial perturbation strategy can be determined by investigating the relationship between the bifurcation curve of a synergistic perturbation pair and the level set of a specific objective function. The approach is applied to two models, i.e., a theoretical multistable decision model and a biologically realistic CREB model, to show its validity, although the approach holds for a general class of biological systems.

  7. Feedback structure based entropy approach for multiple-model estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen-tu Han; Xue Anke; Guo Yunfei

    2013-01-01

    The variable-structure multiple-model (VSMM) approach, one of the multiple-model (MM) methods, is a popular and effective approach in handling problems with mode uncertainties. The model sequence set adaptation (MSA) is the key to design a better VSMM. However, MSA methods in the literature have big room to improve both theoretically and practically. To this end, we propose a feedback structure based entropy approach that could find the model sequence sets with the smallest size under certain conditions. The filtered data are fed back in real time and can be used by the minimum entropy (ME) based VSMM algorithms, i.e., MEVSMM. Firstly, the full Markov chains are used to achieve optimal solutions. Secondly, the myopic method together with particle filter (PF) and the challenge match algorithm are also used to achieve sub-optimal solutions, a trade-off between practicability and optimality. The numerical results show that the proposed algorithm provides not only refined model sets but also a good robustness margin and very high accuracy.

  8. Contingent approach to Internet-based supply network integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jessica; Boughton, Nick; Kehoe, Dennis; Michaelides, Zenon

    2001-10-01

    The Internet is playing an increasingly important role in enhancing the operations of supply networks as many organizations begin to recognize the benefits of Internet- enabled supply arrangements. However, the developments and applications to-date do not extend significantly beyond the dyadic model, whereas the real advantages are to be made with the external and network models to support a coordinated and collaborative based approach. The DOMAIN research group at the University of Liverpool is currently defining new Internet- enabled approaches to enable greater collaboration across supply chains. Different e-business models and tools are focusing on different applications. Using inappropriate e- business models, tools or techniques will bring negative results instead of benefits to all the tiers in the supply network. Thus there are a number of issues to be considered before addressing Internet based supply network integration, in particular an understanding of supply chain management, the emergent business models and evaluating the effects of deploying e-business to the supply network or a particular tier. It is important to utilize a contingent approach to selecting the right e-business model to meet the specific supply chain requirements. This paper addresses the issues and provides a case study on the indirect materials supply networks.

  9. An approach for fixed coefficient RNS-based FIR filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Reddy, Kotha; Sahoo, Subhendu Kumar

    2017-08-01

    In this work, an efficient new modular multiplication method for {2k-1, 2k, 2k+1-1} moduli set is proposed to implement a residue number system (RNS)-based fixed coefficient finite impulse response filter. The new multiplication approach reduces the number of partial products by using pre-loaded product block. The reduction in partial products with the proposed modular multiplication improves the clock frequency and reduces the area and power as compared with the conventional modular multiplication. Further, the present approach eliminates a binary number to residue number converter circuit, which is usually needed at the front end of RNS-based system. In this work, two fixed coefficient filter architectures with the new modular multiplication approach are proposed. The filters are implemented using Verilog hardware description language. The United Microelectronics Corporation 90 nm technology library has been used for synthesis and the results area, power and delay are obtained with the help of Cadence register transfer level compiler. The power delay product (PDP) is also considered for performance comparison among the proposed filters. One of the proposed architecture is found to improve PDP gain by 60.83% as compared with the filter implemented with conventional modular multiplier. The filters functionality is validated with the help of Altera DSP Builder.

  10. Pedestrian detection from thermal images: A sparse representation based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; John, Vijay; Liu, Zheng; Mita, Seiichi

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian detection, a key technology in computer vision, plays a paramount role in the applications of advanced driver assistant systems (ADASs) and autonomous vehicles. The objective of pedestrian detection is to identify and locate people in a dynamic environment so that accidents can be avoided. With significant variations introduced by illumination, occlusion, articulated pose, and complex background, pedestrian detection is a challenging task for visual perception. Different from visible images, thermal images are captured and presented with intensity maps based objects' emissivity, and thus have an enhanced spectral range to make human beings perceptible from the cool background. In this study, a sparse representation based approach is proposed for pedestrian detection from thermal images. We first adopted the histogram of sparse code to represent image features and then detect pedestrian with the extracted features in an unimodal and a multimodal framework respectively. In the unimodal framework, two types of dictionaries, i.e. joint dictionary and individual dictionary, are built by learning from prepared training samples. In the multimodal framework, a weighted fusion scheme is proposed to further highlight the contributions from features with higher separability. To validate the proposed approach, experiments were conducted to compare with three widely used features: Haar wavelets (HWs), histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and histogram of phase congruency (HPC) as well as two classification methods, i.e. AdaBoost and support vector machine (SVM). Experimental results on a publicly available data set demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach.

  11. Rights-Based Approaches to Ensure Sustainable Nutrition Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sweta

    2016-01-01

    In India, a rights-based approach has been used to address large-scale malnutrition, including both micro- and macro-level nutrition deficiencies. Stunting, which is an intergenerational chronic consequence of malnutrition, is especially widespread in India (38% among children under 5 years old). To tackle this problem, the government of India has designed interventions for the first 1,000 days, a critical period of the life cycle, through a number of community-based programs to fulfill the rights to food and life. However, the entitlements providing these rights have not yet produced the necessary changes in the malnutrition status of people, especially women and children. The government of India has already implemented laws and drafted a constitution that covers the needs of its citizens, but corruption, bureaucracy, lack of awareness of rights and entitlements and social discrimination limit people's access to basic rights and services. To address this crisis, Welthungerhilfe India, working in remote villages of the most backward states in India, has shifted from a welfare-based approach to a rights-based approach. The Fight Hunger First Initiative, started by Welthungerhilfe in 2011, is designed on the premise that in the long term, poor people can only leave poverty behind if adequate welfare systems are in place and if basic rights are fulfilled; these rights include access to proper education, sufficient access to adequate food and income, suitable health services and equal rights. Only then can the next generation of disadvantaged populations look forward to a new and better future and can growth benefit the entire society. The project, co-funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, is a long-term multi-sectoral program that involves institution-building and empowerment. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Improving information extraction using a probability-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.; Ahmed, Saeema; Wallace, K.

    2007-01-01

    Information plays a crucial role during the entire life-cycle of a product. It has been shown that engineers frequently consult colleagues to obtain the information they require to solve problems. However, the industrial world is now more transient and key personnel move to other companies...... or retire. It is becoming essential to retrieve vital information from archived product documents, if it is available. There is, therefore, great interest in ways of extracting relevant and sharable information from documents. A keyword-based search is commonly used, but studies have shown...... the recall, while maintaining the high precision, a learning approach that makes identification decisions based on a probability model, rather than simply looking up the presence of the pre-defined variations, looks promising. This paper presents the results of developing such a probability-based entity...

  13. APPROACH ON INTELLIGENT OPTIMIZATION DESIGN BASED ON COMPOUND KNOWLEDGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Jianchu; Zhou Ji; Yu Jun

    2003-01-01

    A concept of an intelligent optimal design approach is proposed, which is organized by a kind of compound knowledge model. The compound knowledge consists of modularized quantitative knowledge, inclusive experience knowledge and case-based sample knowledge. By using this compound knowledge model, the abundant quantity information of mathematical programming and the symbolic knowledge of artificial intelligence can be united together in this model. The intelligent optimal design model based on such a compound knowledge and the automatically generated decomposition principles based on it are also presented. Practically, it is applied to the production planning, process schedule and optimization of production process of a refining & chemical work and a great profit is achieved. Specially, the methods and principles are adaptable not only to continuous process industry, but also to discrete manufacturing one.

  14. New approaches to addiction treatment based on learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Falk; Dinter, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that physiological learning processes are similar to changes observed in addicts at the molecular, neuronal, and structural levels. Based on the importance of classical and instrumental conditioning in the development and maintenance of addictive disorders, many have suggested cue-exposure-based extinction training of conditioned, drug-related responses as a potential new treatment of addiction. It may also be possible to facilitate this extinction training with pharmacological compounds that strengthen memory consolidation during cue exposure. Another potential therapeutic intervention would be based on the so-called reconsolidation theory. According to this hypothesis, already-consolidated memories return to a labile state when reactivated, allowing them to undergo another phase of consolidation-reconsolidation, which can be pharmacologically manipulated. These approaches suggest that the extinction of drug-related memories may represent a viable treatment strategy in the future treatment of addiction.

  15. Bridging Ayurveda with evidence-based scientific approaches in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews contemporary approaches for bridging Ayurveda with evidence-based medicine. In doing so, the author presents a pragmatic assessment of quality, methodology and extent of scientific research in Ayurvedic medicine. The article discusses the meaning of evidence and indicates the need to adopt epistemologically sensitive methods and rigorous experimentation using modern science. The author critically analyzes the status of Ayurvedic medicine based on personal observations, peer interactions and published research. This review article concludes that traditional knowledge systems like Ayurveda and modern scientific evidence-based medicine should be integrated. The author advocates that Ayurvedic researchers should develop strategic collaborations with innovative initiatives like 'Horizon 2020' involving predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM).

  16. Intelligent Flowcharting Developmental Approach to Legal Knowledge Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Balaji Bilgi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of this research, described in this paper is to develop a hybrid legal expert system/ knowledge based system, with specific reference to the transfer of property act, within the Indian legal system which is often in demand. In this paper the authors discuss an traditional approach to combining two types of reasoning methodologies, Rule Based Reasoning (RBR and Case Based Reasoning (CBR. In RBR module we have interpreted and implemented rules that occur in legal statutes of the Transfer of property act. In the CBR module we have an implementation to find the related cases. The VisiRule software made available by Logic Programming Associates is used in the development of RBR part this expert system. The authors have used java Net Beans for development of CBR. VisiRule is a decision charting tool, in which the rules are defined by a combination of graphical shapes and pieces of text, and produces rules.

  17. A New Design Approach to game or play based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    to ground the students sense of meaning. This paper proposes another approach: using visualization in immersive 3D-worlds as documentation of learning progress while at the same time constituting a reward system which motivate further learning. The overall design idea is to build a game based learning......Abstract: The present paper proposes a new design perspective for game based learning. The general idea is to abandon the long and sought after dream of designing a closed learning system, where students from elementary school to high school without teachers’ interference could learn whatever...... game based learning system, but also confront aspects of modern learning theory especially the notion of reference between content of an assignment and the reality with which it should or could be connected (situated learning). The second idea promotes a way to tackle the common experience...

  18. An Asset-Based Approach to Tribal Community Energy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Rachael A. [Pratt Inst., Brooklyn, NY (United States). City and Regional Planning; Martino, Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials, Devices, and Energy Technologies; Begay, Sandra K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials, Devices, and Energy Technologies

    2016-08-01

    Community energy planning is a vital component of successful energy resource development and project implementation. Planning can help tribes develop a shared vision and strategies to accomplish their energy goals. This paper explores the benefits of an asset-based approach to tribal community energy planning. While a framework for community energy planning and federal funding already exists, some areas of difficulty in the planning cycle have been identified. This paper focuses on developing a planning framework that offsets those challenges. The asset-based framework described here takes inventory of a tribe’s capital assets, such as: land capital, human capital, financial capital, and political capital. Such an analysis evaluates how being rich in a specific type of capital can offer a tribe unique advantages in implementing their energy vision. Finally, a tribal case study demonstrates the practical application of an asset-based framework.

  19. Scattered Data Processing Approach Based on Optical Facial Motion Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, animation reconstruction of facial expressions has become a popular research field in computer science and motion capture-based facial expression reconstruction is now emerging in this field. Based on the facial motion data obtained using a passive optical motion capture system, we propose a scattered data processing approach, which aims to solve the common problems of missing data and noise. To recover missing data, given the nonlinear relationships among neighbors with the current missing marker, we propose an improved version of a previous method, where we use the motion of three muscles rather than one to recover the missing data. To reduce the noise, we initially apply preprocessing to eliminate impulsive noise, before our proposed three-order quasi-uniform B-spline-based fitting method is used to reduce the remaining noise. Our experiments showed that the principles that underlie this method are simple and straightforward, and it delivered acceptable precision during reconstruction.

  20. Alcoholism and its Effects: an Approach Based on Health Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de las Mercedes Pretel Olite

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a complex biopsychosocial disorder that requires a specialised and multidisciplinary approach focusing on both the patient and the family. Alcohol consumption is the most important addiction worldwide due to its prevalence and impact. Therefore, the main objective of a primary care physician should be to facilitate the referral of patients and their families to a structured treatment, support and guidance program during the whole detoxification process. In every health area in Cienfuegos, there are community mental health centers with a staff trained to deal with these disorders in addicts and their family. A literature review was conducted to establish the relationship between alcohol consumption and its harmful effects on health, family and society, using an approach based on Health Psychology.

  1. Applying a Problem Based Learning Approach to Land Management Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    Land management covers a wide range activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to fulfil political objectives and achieve sustainable development. This paper presents an overall understanding of the land management paradigm and the benefits of good...... land governance to society. A land administration system provides a country with the infrastructure to implement land-related policies and land management strategies. By applying this land management profile to surveying education, this paper suggests that there is a need to move away from an exclusive...... engineering focus toward adopting an interdisciplinary and problem-based approach to ensure that academic programmes can cope with the wide range of land administration functions and challenges. An interdisciplinary approach to surveying education calls for the need to address issues and problems in a real...

  2. Quantum Ensemble Classification: A Sampling-Based Learning Control Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunlin; Dong, Daoyi; Qi, Bo; Petersen, Ian R; Rabitz, Herschel

    2017-06-01

    Quantum ensemble classification (QEC) has significant applications in discrimination of atoms (or molecules), separation of isotopes, and quantum information extraction. However, quantum mechanics forbids deterministic discrimination among nonorthogonal states. The classification of inhomogeneous quantum ensembles is very challenging, since there exist variations in the parameters characterizing the members within different classes. In this paper, we recast QEC as a supervised quantum learning problem. A systematic classification methodology is presented by using a sampling-based learning control (SLC) approach for quantum discrimination. The classification task is accomplished via simultaneously steering members belonging to different classes to their corresponding target states (e.g., mutually orthogonal states). First, a new discrimination method is proposed for two similar quantum systems. Then, an SLC method is presented for QEC. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for the binary classification of two-level quantum ensembles and the multiclass classification of multilevel quantum ensembles.

  3. Road traffic management based on self-load-balancing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is one of the most challenging problems for nowadays cities. Several contributions mainly based on V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication have been published, but most of them have never been applied due to their communication related problems and costs. In this article, a novel cost-effective approach is introduced inspired by social life of insects where direct (V2V communication does not exist anymore. Vehicles are equipped with devices that perform simple tasks, but their interactions with the environment through RSUs (Road Side Units allow the creation of an intelligence which notifies drivers about congested road segments to avoid them. We call this emerging behavior self-load balancing. Description of the fundamentals of this approach and its performance are detailed in this work.

  4. A Component Based Approach to Scientific Workflow Management

    CERN Document Server

    Le Goff, Jean-Marie; Baker, Nigel; Brooks, Peter; McClatchey, Richard

    2001-01-01

    CRISTAL is a distributed scientific workflow system used in the manufacturing and production phases of HEP experiment construction at CERN. The CRISTAL project has studied the use of a description driven approach, using meta- modelling techniques, to manage the evolving needs of a large physics community. Interest from such diverse communities as bio-informatics and manufacturing has motivated the CRISTAL team to re-engineer the system to customize functionality according to end user requirements but maximize software reuse in the process. The next generation CRISTAL vision is to build a generic component architecture from which a complete software product line can be generated according to the particular needs of the target enterprise. This paper discusses the issues of adopting a component product line based approach and our experiences of software reuse.

  5. A component based approach to scientific workflow management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, N.; Brooks, P.; McClatchey, R.; Kovacs, Z.; LeGoff, J.-M.

    2001-01-01

    CRISTAL is a distributed scientific workflow system used in the manufacturing and production phases of HEP experiment construction at CERN. The CRISTAL project has studied the use of a description driven approach, using meta-modelling techniques, to manage the evolving needs of a large physics community. Interest from such diverse communities as bio-informatics and manufacturing has motivated the CRISTAL team to re-engineer the system to customize functionality according to end user requirements but maximize software reuse in the process. The next generation CRISTAL vision is to build a generic component architecture from which a complete software product line can be generated according to the particular needs of the target enterprise. This paper discusses the issues of adopting a component product line based approach and our experiences of software reuse

  6. Evolutionary modeling-based approach for model errors correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Q. Wan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The inverse problem of using the information of historical data to estimate model errors is one of the science frontier research topics. In this study, we investigate such a problem using the classic Lorenz (1963 equation as a prediction model and the Lorenz equation with a periodic evolutionary function as an accurate representation of reality to generate "observational data."

    On the basis of the intelligent features of evolutionary modeling (EM, including self-organization, self-adaptive and self-learning, the dynamic information contained in the historical data can be identified and extracted by computer automatically. Thereby, a new approach is proposed to estimate model errors based on EM in the present paper. Numerical tests demonstrate the ability of the new approach to correct model structural errors. In fact, it can actualize the combination of the statistics and dynamics to certain extent.

  7. Nucleic Acid-Based Therapy Approaches for Huntington's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Vagner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is caused by a dominant mutation that results in an unstable expansion of a CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene leading to a toxic gain of function in huntingtin protein which causes massive neurodegeneration mainly in the striatum and clinical symptoms associated with the disease. Since the mutation has multiple effects in the cell and the precise mechanism of the disease remains to be elucidated, gene therapy approaches have been developed that intervene in different aspects of the condition. These approaches include increasing expression of growth factors, decreasing levels of mutant huntingtin, and restoring cell metabolism and transcriptional balance. The aim of this paper is to outline the nucleic acid-based therapeutic strategies that have been tested to date.

  8. An Agent Based approach to design Serious Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gentile

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Serious games are designed to train and educate learners, opening up new learning approaches like exploratory learning and situated cognition.  Despite growing interest in these games, their design is still an artisan process.On the basis of experiences in designing computer simulation, this paper proposes an agent-based approach to guide the design process of a serious game. The proposed methodology allows the designer to strike the right equilibrium between educational effectiveness and entertainment, realism and complexity.The design of the PNPVillage game is used as a case study. The PNPVillage game aims to introduce and foster an entrepreneurial mindset among young students. It was implemented within the framework of the European project “I  can… I cannot… I go!” Rev.2

  9. Microarray-based cancer prediction using soft computing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaosheng; Gotoh, Osamu

    2009-05-26

    One of the difficulties in using gene expression profiles to predict cancer is how to effectively select a few informative genes to construct accurate prediction models from thousands or ten thousands of genes. We screen highly discriminative genes and gene pairs to create simple prediction models involved in single genes or gene pairs on the basis of soft computing approach and rough set theory. Accurate cancerous prediction is obtained when we apply the simple prediction models for four cancerous gene expression datasets: CNS tumor, colon tumor, lung cancer and DLBCL. Some genes closely correlated with the pathogenesis of specific or general cancers are identified. In contrast with other models, our models are simple, effective and robust. Meanwhile, our models are interpretable for they are based on decision rules. Our results demonstrate that very simple models may perform well on cancerous molecular prediction and important gene markers of cancer can be detected if the gene selection approach is chosen reasonably.

  10. A Survey on Trust-Based Web Service Provision Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragoni, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    The basic tenet of Service-Oriented Computing (SOC) is the possibility of building distributed applications on the Web by using Web Services as fundamental building blocks. The proliferation of such services is considered the second wave of evolution in the Internet age, moving the Web from...... a collection of pages to a collections of services. Consensus is growing that this Web Service “revolution” won't eventuate until we resolve trust-related issues. Indeed, the intrinsic openness of the SOC vision makes crucial to locate useful services and recognize them as trustworthy. In this paper we review...... the field of trust-based Web Service selection, providing a structured classification of current approaches and highlighting the main limitations of each class and of the overall field. As a result, we claim that a soft notion of trust lies behind such weaknesses and we advocate the need of a new approach...

  11. Hypercompetitive Environments: An Agent-based model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Manuel; Araújo, Tanya

    Information technology (IT) environments are characterized by complex changes and rapid evolution. Globalization and the spread of technological innovation have increased the need for new strategic information resources, both from individual firms and management environments. Improvements in multidisciplinary methods and, particularly, the availability of powerful computational tools, are giving researchers an increasing opportunity to investigate management environments in their true complex nature. The adoption of a complex systems approach allows for modeling business strategies from a bottom-up perspective — understood as resulting from repeated and local interaction of economic agents — without disregarding the consequences of the business strategies themselves to individual behavior of enterprises, emergence of interaction patterns between firms and management environments. Agent-based models are at the leading approach of this attempt.

  12. New approach for risk based inspection of H2S based Process Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod, Gopika; Sharma, Pavan K.; Santosh, T.V.; Hari Prasad, M.; Vaze, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Study looks into improving the consequence evaluation in risk based inspection. • Ways to revise the quantity factors used in qualitative approach. • New approach based on computational fluid dynamics along with probit mathematics. • Demonstrated this methodology along with a suitable case study for the said issue. - Abstract: Recent trend in risk informed and risk based approaches in life management issues have certainly put the focus on developing estimation methods for real risk. Idea of employing risk as an optimising measure for in-service inspection, termed as risk based inspection, was accepted in principle from late 80s. While applying risk based inspection, consequence of failure from each component needs to be assessed. Consequence evaluation in a Process Plant is a crucial task. It may be noted that, in general, the number of components to be considered for life management is very large and hence the consequence evaluation resulting from their failures (individually) is a laborious task. Screening of critical components is usually carried out using simplified qualitative approach, which primarily uses influence factors for categorisation. This necessitates logical formulation of influence factors and their ranges with a suitable technical basis for acceptance from regulators. This paper describes application of risk based inspection for H 2 S based Process Plant along with the approach devised for handling the influence factor related to the quantity of H 2 S released

  13. Assessment of acid-base balance. Stewart's approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fores-Novales, B; Diez-Fores, P; Aguilera-Celorrio, L J

    2016-04-01

    The study of acid-base equilibrium, its regulation and its interpretation have been a source of debate since the beginning of 20th century. Most accepted and commonly used analyses are based on pH, a notion first introduced by Sorensen in 1909, and on the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation (1916). Since then new concepts have been development in order to complete and make easier the understanding of acid-base disorders. In the early 1980's Peter Stewart brought the traditional interpretation of acid-base disturbances into question and proposed a new method. This innovative approach seems more suitable for studying acid-base abnormalities in critically ill patients. The aim of this paper is to update acid-base concepts, methods, limitations and applications. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Minimal incision surgery in strabismus: Modified fornix-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Flores, I

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the modified fornix-based technique as an approach for minimal incision surgery in strabismus. The medical records of all consecutive patients that underwent strabismus surgery with fornix-based conjunctival incision between 2007 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. As a primary variable, an analysis was made of the wound size depending on the number of stitches. A descriptive study was performed on the variables related to patients and to the type of strabismus and surgery. Out of 153patients identified, 138 with 294 surgeries were included. In 200 (68%) interventions, the incision was sutured with one stitch, in 77 (26.2%) with 2, in 13 (4.4%) with 3, and in 4 (1.4%) with 4, with the mean number of stitches being 1.39±0.64. The mean age of the patients was 39years (2-80), and 36 (26.1%) had previous strabismus surgery, with topical anaesthesia being used in 35 (25.4%) cases. At 3months after surgery deviation was ≤10DP in 114 (82.6%) patients. There were no wound-related complications. The modified fornix-based technique is an effective and safe approach for minimal incision surgery in strabismus, in patients at all ages, with previous history of strabismus surgery and with topical anaesthesia. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. A web-based approach to data imputation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhixu

    2013-10-24

    In this paper, we present WebPut, a prototype system that adopts a novel web-based approach to the data imputation problem. Towards this, Webput utilizes the available information in an incomplete database in conjunction with the data consistency principle. Moreover, WebPut extends effective Information Extraction (IE) methods for the purpose of formulating web search queries that are capable of effectively retrieving missing values with high accuracy. WebPut employs a confidence-based scheme that efficiently leverages our suite of data imputation queries to automatically select the most effective imputation query for each missing value. A greedy iterative algorithm is proposed to schedule the imputation order of the different missing values in a database, and in turn the issuing of their corresponding imputation queries, for improving the accuracy and efficiency of WebPut. Moreover, several optimization techniques are also proposed to reduce the cost of estimating the confidence of imputation queries at both the tuple-level and the database-level. Experiments based on several real-world data collections demonstrate not only the effectiveness of WebPut compared to existing approaches, but also the efficiency of our proposed algorithms and optimization techniques. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  16. A collaborative filtering-based approach to biomedical knowledge discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, Jake; Gakkhar, Sitanshu; Gottlieb, Michael; Rashnavadi, Tahereh; Lin, Santina; Siu, Celia; Smith, Maia; Jones, Martin R; Krzywinski, Martin; Jones, Steven J M; Wren, Jonathan

    2018-02-15

    The increase in publication rates makes it challenging for an individual researcher to stay abreast of all relevant research in order to find novel research hypotheses. Literature-based discovery methods make use of knowledge graphs built using text mining and can infer future associations between biomedical concepts that will likely occur in new publications. These predictions are a valuable resource for researchers to explore a research topic. Current methods for prediction are based on the local structure of the knowledge graph. A method that uses global knowledge from across the knowledge graph needs to be developed in order to make knowledge discovery a frequently used tool by researchers. We propose an approach based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) that is able to combine data from across the knowledge graph through a reduced representation. Using cooccurrence data extracted from published literature, we show that SVD performs better than the leading methods for scoring discoveries. We also show the diminishing predictive power of knowledge discovery as we compare our predictions with real associations that appear further into the future. Finally, we examine the strengths and weaknesses of the SVD approach against another well-performing system using several predicted associations. All code and results files for this analysis can be accessed at https://github.com/jakelever/knowledgediscovery. sjones@bcgsc.ca. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Lessons Learned From Community-Based Approaches to Sodium Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heather; Strazza, Karen; Losby PhD, Jan L.; Lane, Rashon; Mugavero, Kristy; Anater, Andrea S.; Frost, Corey; Margolis, Marjorie; Hersey, James

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This article describes lessons from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiative encompassing sodium reduction interventions in six communities. Design A multiple case study design was used. Setting This evaluation examined data from programs implemented in six communities located in New York (Broome County, Schenectady County, and New York City); California (Los Angeles County and Shasta County); and Kansas (Shawnee County). Subjects Participants (n = 80) included program staff, program directors, state-level staff, and partners. Measures Measures for this evaluation included challenges, facilitators, and lessons learned from implementing sodium reduction strategies. Analysis The project team conducted a document review of program materials and semi structured interviews 12 to 14 months after implementation. The team coded and analyzed data deductively and inductively. Results Five lessons for implementing community-based sodium reduction approaches emerged: (1) build relationships with partners to understand their concerns, (2) involve individuals knowledgeable about specific venues early, (3) incorporate sodium reduction efforts and messaging into broader nutrition efforts, (4) design the program to reduce sodium gradually to take into account consumer preferences and taste transitions, and (5) identify ways to address the cost of lower-sodium products. Conclusion The experiences of the six communities may assist practitioners in planning community-based sodium reduction interventions. Addressing sodium reduction using a community-based approach can foster meaningful change in dietary sodium consumption. PMID:24575726

  18. TOURISM SEGMENTATION BASED ON TOURISTS PREFERENCES: A MULTIVARIATE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Dominique Ferreira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, tourism became one of the most important sectors of the international economy. Specifically in Portugal and Brazil, its contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP and job creation is quite relevant. In this sense, to follow a strong marketing approach on the management of tourism resources of a country comes to be paramount. Such an approach should be based on innovations which help unveil the preferences of tourists with accuracy, turning it into a competitive advantage. In this context, the main objective of the present study is to illustrate the importance and benefits associated with the use of multivariate methodologies for market segmentation. Another objective of this work is to illustrate on the importance of a post hoc segmentation. In this work, the authors applied a Cluster Analysis, with a hierarchical method followed by an  optimization method. The main results of this study allow the identification of five clusters that are distinguished by assigning special importance to certain tourism attributes at the moment of choosing a specific destination. Thus, the authors present the advantages of post hoc segmentation based on tourists’ preferences, in opposition to an a priori segmentation based on socio-demographic characteristics.

  19. Lessons learned from community-based approaches to sodium reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heather; Strazza, Karen; Losby, Jan L; Lane, Rashon; Mugavero, Kristy; Anater, Andrea S; Frost, Corey; Margolis, Marjorie; Hersey, James

    2015-01-01

    This article describes lessons from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiative encompassing sodium reduction interventions in six communities. A multiple case study design was used. This evaluation examined data from programs implemented in six communities located in New York (Broome County, Schenectady County, and New York City); California (Los Angeles County and Shasta County); and Kansas (Shawnee County). Participants (n = 80) included program staff, program directors, state-level staff, and partners. Measures for this evaluation included challenges, facilitators, and lessons learned from implementing sodium reduction strategies. The project team conducted a document review of program materials and semistructured interviews 12 to 14 months after implementation. The team coded and analyzed data deductively and inductively. Five lessons for implementing community-based sodium reduction approaches emerged: (1) build relationships with partners to understand their concerns, (2) involve individuals knowledgeable about specific venues early, (3) incorporate sodium reduction efforts and messaging into broader nutrition efforts, (4) design the program to reduce sodium gradually to take into account consumer preferences and taste transitions, and (5) identify ways to address the cost of lower-sodium products. The experiences of the six communities may assist practitioners in planning community-based sodium reduction interventions. Addressing sodium reduction using a community-based approach can foster meaningful change in dietary sodium consumption.

  20. A risk-based approach to prioritize underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidambariah, V.; Travis, C.C.; Trabalka, J.R.; Thomas, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a risk-based approach for rapid prioritization of low level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks (LLLW USTs) for possible interim corrective measures and/or ultimate closure. The ranking of LLLW USTs is needed to ensure that tanks with the greatest potential for adverse impact on the environment and human health receive top priority for further evaluation and remediation. Wastes from the LLLW USTs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were pumped out at the time the tanks were removed from service. The residual liquids and sludge contain a mixture of radionuclides and chemicals. Contaminants of concern that were identified in the liquid phase of the inactive LLLW USTs include, the radionuclides, 9O Sr, 137 Cs and 233 U and the chemicals, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, methyl ethyl ketone, mercury, lead and chromium. The risk-based approach for prioritization of the LLLW USTs is based upon three major criteria: (1) leaking characteristics of the tank; (2) location of the tanks; and (3) toxic potential of the tank contents

  1. Big data analytics in immunology: a knowledge-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Sun, Jing; Chitkushev, Lou; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  2. Big Data Analytics in Immunology: A Knowledge-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Lan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  3. Renewable resources-based approach to biantennary glycolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabandeh, Mojtaba; Salman, Abbas Abdulameer; Goh, Ean Wai; Heidelberg, Thorsten; Hussen, Rusnah Syahila Duali

    2018-01-31

    A new synthesis approach towards biantennary lipids of Guerbet glycoside type was developed based on oleic acid as sustainable resource. Functionalization of the double bond provided access to primary alcohols with α-branched C 19 -skeleton. Formulation studies with corresponding lactosides indicated formation of vesicles with high assembly stability. A relatively narrow bimodal size distribution of the latter, which turns into a narrow unimodal distribution of small vesicles upon addition of an ionic cosurfactant, suggests potential for a vesicular drug delivery system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dependence-Based Segmentation Approach for Detecting Morpheme Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khorsi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The unsupervised morphology processing in the emerging mutant languages has the advantage over the human/supervised processing of being more agiler. The main drawback is, however, their accuracy. This article describes an unsupervised morphemes identification approach based on an intuitive and formal definition of event dependence. The input is no more than a plain text of the targeted language. Although the original objective of this work was classical Arabic, the test was conducted on an English set as well. Tests on these two languages show a very acceptable precision and recall. A deeper refinement of the output allowed 89% precision and 78% recall on Arabic.

  5. A design approach for systems based on magnetic pulse compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen Kumar, D. Durga; Mitra, S.; Senthil, K.; Sharma, D. K.; Rajan, Rehim N.; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K. V.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2008-01-01

    A design approach giving the optimum number of stages in a magnetic pulse compression circuit and gain per stage is given. The limitation on the maximum gain per stage is discussed. The total system volume minimization is done by considering the energy storage capacitor volume and magnetic core volume at each stage. At the end of this paper, the design of a magnetic pulse compression based linear induction accelerator of 200 kV, 5 kA, and 100 ns with a repetition rate of 100 Hz is discussed with its experimental results

  6. Distributed, price-based control approach to market-based operation of future power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokic, A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Hermans, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present, discuss and illustrate on examples the price-based control paradigm as a suitable approach to solve some of the challenging problems facing future, market-based power systems. It is illustrated how global objectives and constraints are optimally translated into time-varying

  7. One Piece Orbitozygomatic Approach Based on the Sphenoid Ridge Keyhole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiriev, Toma; Poulsgaard, Lars; Fugleholm, Kåre

    2016-01-01

    The one-piece orbitozygomatic (OZ) approach is traditionally based on the McCarty keyhole. Here, we present the use of the sphenoid ridge keyhole and its possible advantages as a keyhole for the one-piece OZ approach. Using transillumination technique the osteology of the sphenoid ridge...... was examined on 20 anatomical dry skull specimens. The results were applied to one-piece OZ approaches performed on freshly frozen cadaver heads. We defined the center of the sphenoid ridge keyhole as a superficial projection on the lateral skull surface of the most anterior and thickest part of the sphenoid...... ridge. It was located 22 mm (standard deviation [SD], 0.22 mm) from the superior temporal line; 10.7 mm (SD, 0.08 mm) posterior and 7.1 mm (SD, 0.22 mm) inferior to the frontozygomatic suture. The sphenoid ridge burr hole provides exposure of frontal, temporal dura as well as periorbita, which...

  8. Pedestrian safety management using the risk-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of a multi-level pedestrian safety management system. Three management levels are distinguished: strategic, tactical and operational. The basis for the proposed approach to pedestrian safety management is a risk-based method. In the approach the elements of behavioural and systemic theories were used, allowing for the development of a formalised and repeatable procedure integrating the phases of risk assessment and response to the hazards of road crashes involving pedestrians. Key to the method are tools supporting pedestrian safety management. According to the risk management approach, the tools can be divided into two groups: tools supporting risk assessment and tools supporting risk response. In the paper attention is paid to selected tools supporting risk assessment, with particular emphasis on the methods for estimating forecasted pedestrian safety measures (at strategic, national and regional level and identification of particularly dangerous locations in terms of pedestrian safety at tactical (regional and local and operational level. The proposed pedestrian safety management methods and tools can support road administration in making rational decisions in terms of road safety, safety of road infrastructure, crash elimination measures or reducing the consequences suffered by road users (particularly pedestrians as a result of road crashes.

  9. Systematic approach for synthesis of palm oil-based biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NG, Rex T. L.; NG, Denny K. S.; LAM, Hon Loong [Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Centre of Excellence for Green Technologies, Univ. of Nottingham, Selangor, (Malaysia); TAY, Douglas H. S.; LIM, Joseph H. E. [2GGS Eco Solutions Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-11-01

    Various types of palm oil biomasses are generated from palm oil mill when crude palm oil (CPO) is produced from fresh fruit bunch (FFB). In the current practice, palm oil biomasses are used as the main source of energy input in the palm oil mill to produce steam and electricity. Moreover, those biomasses are regarded as by-products and can be reclaimed easily. Therefore, there is a continuous increasing interest concerning biomasses generated from the palm oil mill as a source of renewable energy. Although various technologies have been exploited to produce bio-fuel (i.e., briquette, pellet, etc.) as well as heat and power generation, however, no systematic approach which can analyse and optimise the synthesise biorefinery is presented. In this work, a systematic approach for synthesis and optimisation of palm oil-based biorefinery which including palm oil mill and refinery with maximum economic performance is developed. The optimised network configuration with achieves the maximum economic performance can also be determined. To illustrate the proposed approach, a case study is solved in this work.

  10. Fuzzy Axiomatic Design approach based green supplier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannan, Devika; Govindan, Kannan; Rajendran, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    proposes a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach called Fuzzy Axiomatic Design (FAD) to select the best green supplier for Singapore-based plastic manufacturing company. At first, the environmental criteria was developed along with the traditional criteria based on the literature review......Abstract Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) is a developing concept recently utilized by manufacturing firms of all sizes. All industries, small or large, seek improvements in the purchasing of raw materials, manufacturing, allocation, transportation efficiency, in curbing storage time, importing...... responsible in addition to being efficiently managed. A significant way to implement responsible GSCM is to reconsider, in innovative ways, the purchase and supply cycle, and a preliminary step would be to ensure that the supplier of goods successfully incorporates green criteria. Therefore, this paper...

  11. A Model-Based Approach to Constructing Music Similarity Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Kris; Lamere, Paul

    2006-12-01

    Several authors have presented systems that estimate the audio similarity of two pieces of music through the calculation of a distance metric, such as the Euclidean distance, between spectral features calculated from the audio, related to the timbre or pitch of the signal. These features can be augmented with other, temporally or rhythmically based features such as zero-crossing rates, beat histograms, or fluctuation patterns to form a more well-rounded music similarity function. It is our contention that perceptual or cultural labels, such as the genre, style, or emotion of the music, are also very important features in the perception of music. These labels help to define complex regions of similarity within the available feature spaces. We demonstrate a machine-learning-based approach to the construction of a similarity metric, which uses this contextual information to project the calculated features into an intermediate space where a music similarity function that incorporates some of the cultural information may be calculated.

  12. Polynomial fuzzy model-based approach for underactuated surface vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad Hassan; Vafamand, Navid; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to introduce a new polynomial fuzzy model-based structure for a class of marine systems with non-linear and polynomial dynamics. The suggested technique relies on a polynomial Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy modelling, a polynomial dynamic parallel distributed compensation...... surface vessel (USV). Additionally, in order to overcome the USV control challenges, including the USV un-modelled dynamics, complex nonlinear dynamics, external disturbances and parameter uncertainties, the polynomial fuzzy model representation is adopted. Moreover, the USV-based control structure...... and a sum-of-squares (SOS) decomposition. The new proposed approach is a generalisation of the standard T–S fuzzy models and linear matrix inequality which indicated its effectiveness in decreasing the tracking time and increasing the efficiency of the robust tracking control problem for an underactuated...

  13. A New Design Approach to Game-Based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2012-01-01

    to ground the student’s reason to learn. This paper proposes a different approach: using visualisation in immersive 3D worlds as both documentation of learning progress and as a reward system which motivates further learning. The overall design idea is to build a game based learning system from three......This paper puts forward a new design perspective for gamebased learning. The general idea is to abandon the long sought-after dream of designing a closed learning system, where students in both primary and secondary school could learn – without the interference of teachers – whatever subject......-based learning system, but will also confront aspects of modern learning theory, especially the notion of reference between the content of an assignment and the reality with which it should or could be connected (situated learning). The second idea promotes a way of tackling the common experience of the average...

  14. Opportunistic splitting for scheduling using a score-based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Faraan

    2012-06-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling a user in a multi-user wireless environment in a distributed manner. The opportunistic splitting algorithm is applied to find the best group of users without reporting the channel state information to the centralized scheduler. The users find the best among themselves while requiring just a ternary feedback from the common receiver at the end of each mini-slot. The original splitting algorithm is modified to handle users with asymmetric channel conditions. We use a score-based approach with the splitting algorithm to introduce time and throughput fairness while exploiting the multi-user diversity of the network. Analytical and simulation results are given to show that the modified score-based splitting algorithm works well as a fair scheduling scheme with good spectral efficiency and reduced feedback. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Taxonomy-Based Approaches to Quality Assurance of Ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Halper

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ontologies are important components of health information management systems. As such, the quality of their content is of paramount importance. It has been proven to be practical to develop quality assurance (QA methodologies based on automated identification of sets of concepts expected to have higher likelihood of errors. Four kinds of such sets (called QA-sets organized around the themes of complex and uncommonly modeled concepts are introduced. A survey of different methodologies based on these QA-sets and the results of applying them to various ontologies are presented. Overall, following these approaches leads to higher QA yields and better utilization of QA personnel. The formulation of additional QA-set methodologies will further enhance the suite of available ontology QA tools.

  16. Space nuclear reactor system diagnosis: Knowledge-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Y.T.D.

    1990-01-01

    SP-100 space nuclear reactor system development is a joint effort by the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The system is designed to operate in isolation for many years, and is possibly subject to little or no remote maintenance. This dissertation proposes a knowledge based diagnostic system which, in principle, can diagnose the faults which can either cause reactor shutdown or lead to another serious problem. This framework in general can be applied to the fully specified system if detailed design information becomes available. The set of faults considered herein is identified based on heuristic knowledge about the system operation. The suitable approach to diagnostic problem solving is proposed after investigating the most prevalent methodologies in Artificial Intelligence as well as the causal analysis of the system. Deep causal knowledge modeling based on digraph, fault-tree or logic flowgraph methodology would present a need for some knowledge representation to handle the time dependent system behavior. A proposed qualitative temporal knowledge modeling methodology, using rules with specified time delay among the process variables, has been proposed and is used to develop the diagnostic sufficient rule set. The rule set has been modified by using a time zone approach to have a robust system design. The sufficient rule set is transformed to a sufficient and necessary one by searching the whole knowledge base. Qualitative data analysis is proposed in analyzing the measured data if in a real time situation. An expert system shell - Intelligence Compiler is used to develop the prototype system. Frames are used for the process variables. Forward chaining rules are used in monitoring and backward chaining rules are used in diagnosis

  17. A hierarchical fuzzy rule-based approach to aphasia diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh-T, Mohammad-R; Moshtagh-Khorasani, Majid

    2007-10-01

    Aphasia diagnosis is a particularly challenging medical diagnostic task due to the linguistic uncertainty and vagueness, inconsistencies in the definition of aphasic syndromes, large number of measurements with imprecision, natural diversity and subjectivity in test objects as well as in opinions of experts who diagnose the disease. To efficiently address this diagnostic process, a hierarchical fuzzy rule-based structure is proposed here that considers the effect of different features of aphasia by statistical analysis in its construction. This approach can be efficient for diagnosis of aphasia and possibly other medical diagnostic applications due to its fuzzy and hierarchical reasoning construction. Initially, the symptoms of the disease which each consists of different features are analyzed statistically. The measured statistical parameters from the training set are then used to define membership functions and the fuzzy rules. The resulting two-layered fuzzy rule-based system is then compared with a back propagating feed-forward neural network for diagnosis of four Aphasia types: Anomic, Broca, Global and Wernicke. In order to reduce the number of required inputs, the technique is applied and compared on both comprehensive and spontaneous speech tests. Statistical t-test analysis confirms that the proposed approach uses fewer Aphasia features while also presenting a significant improvement in terms of accuracy.

  18. THE TASK-BASED APPROACH IN LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquilino Sánchez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Task-Based Approach (TBA has gained popularity in the field of language teaching since the last decade of the 20th Century and significant scholars have joined the discussion and increased the amount of analytical studies on the issue. Nevertheless experimental research is poor, and the tendency of some of the scholars is nowadays shifting towards a more tempered and moderate stand on their claims. Reasons for that are various: the difficulty in the implementation of the method in the classroom, the difficulty in elaborating materials following the TBA and the scarcity of task-based manuals count as important and perhaps decisive arguments. But there are also theoretical implications in the TBA which do not seem to be fully convincing or may lack sound foundations. In this paper I will attempt to describe the TBA criticaIly, pointing out what I consider positive in this approach, and underlining the inadequacy of some assumptions and conclusions. The design of a new TBA model is not the goal of this study. But the conclusions suggest that tasks may contribute to the production of a more refined and complete foreign language syllabus, helping to motivate the students and focus the attention of teachers and learners on meaning and communicative language use.

  19. Interactive teaching materials based on scientific approach: triangles and quadrilaterals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiastuti Heni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the Indonesian government’s efforts to improve the quality of education is by changing the curriculum. Currently the Curriculum 2013 is being implemented in schools. Implementation of Curriculum 2013 is require teaching materials in accordance with the characteristics of the students, utilizing computer technology facilities, and contains the components of the scientific approach. Therefore, it is necessary to develop teaching materials in accordance with the Curriculum 2013. In this research we developed the Interactive Teaching Materials based on Scientific Approach (ITMSA. The research method is research and development (R&D which consist of ten steps. The product design validation performed by multimedia, mathematics, and mathematics education expert involving lecturers and mathematics teacher. Utility testing of product conducted on junior high school students in Serang City, Banten Province, Indonesia. Based on research known that the ITMSA obtained a total score 85,30% from mathematics expert, 87,80% from mathematics education expert, 83,60% from multimedia expert, and 89,40% from students. In addition, students mathematical concept understanding who learn by using ITMSA better than student who learn without ITMSA. From these results concluded that the ITMSA is considered feasible and can be used in mathematics teaching in schools.

  20. Radar Rainfall Bias Correction based on Deep Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Han, Dawei; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel A.

    2017-04-01

    Radar rainfall measurement errors can be considerably attributed to various sources including intricate synoptic regimes. Temperature, humidity and wind are typically acknowledged as critical meteorological factors in inducing the precipitation discrepancies aloft and on the ground. The conventional practices mainly use the radar-gauge or geostatistical techniques by direct weighted interpolation algorithms as bias correction schemes whereas rarely consider the atmospheric effects. This study aims to comprehensively quantify those meteorological elements' impacts on radar-gauge rainfall bias correction based on a deep learning approach. The deep learning approach employs deep convolutional neural networks to automatically extract three-dimensional meteorological features for target recognition based on high range resolution profiles. The complex nonlinear relationships between input and target variables can be implicitly detected by such a scheme, which is validated on the test dataset. The proposed bias correction scheme is expected to be a promising improvement in systematically minimizing the synthesized atmospheric effects on rainfall discrepancies between radar and rain gauges, which can be useful in many meteorological and hydrological applications (e.g., real-time flood forecasting) especially for regions with complex atmospheric conditions.

  1. Exploring a Problem-Based Learning Approach in Pharmaceutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara McKenzie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The basis of this study was to explore the impact of the initiation of a Problem-Base Learning (PBL approach within a second-year pharmaceutics degree on a Master of Pharmacy programme, introduced as a way of improving deep learning and to foster independent learning. Design. A semi-structured interview was used to seek feedback from the students, and feedback from staff was secured though a focus group. A thematic approach was used for the analysis, once data saturation had been reached. Exam pass-rate statistics were also analysed. Assessment. Five parent themes were identified from the student interviews: Module structure, Promoting lifelong learning, Integration and future practice, Outcomes and Student experience. The third year exam pass rate improved by 12% in the year following the introduction of PBL in second year. Conclusions. Various recommendations were proposed to further improve the module, based on the findings of this study. These include improving feedback and support through tutorials, reducing the volume of directed study, as well as highlighting the relevance of pharmaceutics to the pharmacy degree. A long-term review would be needed to assess the full implications of PBL teaching within this course.

  2. 3-D FEATURE-BASED MATCHING BY RSTG APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-J. Jaw

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available 3-D feature matching is the essential kernel in a fully automated feature-based LiDAR point cloud registration. After feasible procedures of feature acquisition, connecting corresponding features in different data frames is imperative to be solved. The objective addressed in this paper is developing an approach coined RSTG to retrieve corresponding counterparts of unsorted multiple 3-D features extracted from sets of LiDAR point clouds. RSTG stands for the four major processes, "Rotation alignment"; "Scale estimation"; "Translation alignment" and "Geometric check," strategically formulated towards finding out matching solution with high efficiency and leading to accomplishing the 3-D similarity transformation among all sets. The workable types of features to RSTG comprise points, lines, planes and clustered point groups. Each type of features can be employed exclusively or combined with others, if sufficiently supplied, throughout the matching scheme. The paper gives a detailed description of the matching methodology and discusses on the matching effects based on the statistical assessment which revealed that the RSTG approach reached an average matching rate of success up to 93% with around 6.6% of statistical type 1 error. Notably, statistical type 2 error, the critical indicator of matching reliability, was kept 0% throughout all the experiments.

  3. A value-based taxonomy of improvement approaches in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colldén, Christian; Gremyr, Ida; Hellström, Andreas; Sporraeus, Daniella

    2017-06-19

    Purpose The concept of value is becoming increasingly fashionable in healthcare and various improvement approaches (IAs) have been introduced with the aim of increasing value. The purpose of this paper is to construct a taxonomy that supports the management of parallel IAs in healthcare. Design/methodology/approach Based on previous research, this paper proposes a taxonomy that includes the dimensions of view on value and organizational focus; three contemporary IAs - lean, value-based healthcare, and patient-centered care - are related to the taxonomy. An illustrative qualitative case study in the context of psychiatric (psychosis) care is then presented that contains data from 23 interviews and focuses on the value concept, IAs, and the proposed taxonomy. Findings Respondents recognized the dimensions of the proposed taxonomy and indicated its usefulness as support for choosing and combining different IAs into a coherent management model, and for facilitating dialog about IAs. The findings also suggested that the view of value as "health outcomes" is widespread, but healthcare professionals are less likely than managers to also view value as a process. Originality/value The conceptual contribution of this paper is to delineate some important characteristics of IAs in relation to the emerging "value era". It also highlights the coexistence of different IAs in healthcare management practice. A taxonomy is proposed that can help managers choose, adapt, and combine IAs in local management models.

  4. Spatial Data Integration Using Ontology-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, S.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.; Jelokhani-Niaraki, M.

    2015-12-01

    In today's world, the necessity for spatial data for various organizations is becoming so crucial that many of these organizations have begun to produce spatial data for that purpose. In some circumstances, the need to obtain real time integrated data requires sustainable mechanism to process real-time integration. Case in point, the disater management situations that requires obtaining real time data from various sources of information. One of the problematic challenges in the mentioned situation is the high degree of heterogeneity between different organizations data. To solve this issue, we introduce an ontology-based method to provide sharing and integration capabilities for the existing databases. In addition to resolving semantic heterogeneity, better access to information is also provided by our proposed method. Our approach is consisted of three steps, the first step is identification of the object in a relational database, then the semantic relationships between them are modelled and subsequently, the ontology of each database is created. In a second step, the relative ontology will be inserted into the database and the relationship of each class of ontology will be inserted into the new created column in database tables. Last step is consisted of a platform based on service-oriented architecture, which allows integration of data. This is done by using the concept of ontology mapping. The proposed approach, in addition to being fast and low cost, makes the process of data integration easy and the data remains unchanged and thus takes advantage of the legacy application provided.

  5. SPATIAL DATA INTEGRATION USING ONTOLOGY-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hasani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today's world, the necessity for spatial data for various organizations is becoming so crucial that many of these organizations have begun to produce spatial data for that purpose. In some circumstances, the need to obtain real time integrated data requires sustainable mechanism to process real-time integration. Case in point, the disater management situations that requires obtaining real time data from various sources of information. One of the problematic challenges in the mentioned situation is the high degree of heterogeneity between different organizations data. To solve this issue, we introduce an ontology-based method to provide sharing and integration capabilities for the existing databases. In addition to resolving semantic heterogeneity, better access to information is also provided by our proposed method. Our approach is consisted of three steps, the first step is identification of the object in a relational database, then the semantic relationships between them are modelled and subsequently, the ontology of each database is created. In a second step, the relative ontology will be inserted into the database and the relationship of each class of ontology will be inserted into the new created column in database tables. Last step is consisted of a platform based on service-oriented architecture, which allows integration of data. This is done by using the concept of ontology mapping. The proposed approach, in addition to being fast and low cost, makes the process of data integration easy and the data remains unchanged and thus takes advantage of the legacy application provided.

  6. LEADING CHANGES IN ASSESSMENT USING AN EVIDENCE BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Macaulay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectivesIt is has been widely accepted that assessment of learning is a critical component of education and that assessment drives/guides student learning through shaping study habits and student approaches to learning. However, although most academics would agree that assessment is a critical aspect of their roles as teachers it is often an aspect of teaching that is regarded more as an additional task rather than an integral component of the teaching/learning continuum. An additional impediment to high quality assessment is the non-evidence based-approach to the decision making process. The overall aim of this project was to improve the quality of assessment in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology undergraduate education by promoting high quality assessment.Materials and methodsTo do this we developed and trialled an audit tool for mapping assessment practices. The audit tool was designed to gather data on current assessment practices and identify areas of good practice in which assessment aligned with the learning objectives and areas in need of improvement. This evidence base will then be used to drive change in assessment.Results and conclusionsUsing the assessment mapping tool we have mapped the assessment regime in a Biochemistry and Molecular Biology major at Monash University. Criteria used included: assessment type, format, timing, assessors, provision of feedback, level of learning (Bloom’s, approaches taken to planning assessment. We have mapped assessment of content and the systematic development of higher order learning and skills progression throughout the program of study. The data has enabled us to examine the assessment at unit (course level as well as the vertical development across the major. This information is now being used to inform a review of the units and the major.

  7. A Comparison of Routing Protocol for WSNs: Redundancy Based Approach A Comparison of Routing Protocol for WSNs: Redundancy Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Prakash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs with their dynamic applications gained a tremendous attention of researchers. Constant monitoring of critical situations attracted researchers to utilize WSNs at vast platforms. The main focus in WSNs is to enhance network localization as much as one could, for efficient and optimal utilization of resources. Different approaches based upon redundancy are proposed for optimum functionality. Localization is always related with redundancy of sensor nodes deployed at remote areas for constant and fault tolerant monitoring. In this work, we propose a comparison of classic flooding and the gossip protocol for homogenous networks which enhances stability and throughput quiet significantly.  

  8. A Decision Analytic Approach to Exposure-Based Chemical ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manufacture of novel synthetic chemicals has increased in volume and variety, but often the environmental and health risks are not fully understood in terms of toxicity and, in particular, exposure. While efforts to assess risks have generally been effective when sufficient data are available, the hazard and exposure data necessary to assess risks adequately are unavailable for the vast majority of chemicals in commerce. The US Environmental Protection Agency has initiated the ExpoCast Program to develop tools for rapid chemical evaluation based on potential for exposure. In this context, a model is presented in which chemicals are evaluated based on inherent chemical properties and behaviorally-based usage characteristics over the chemical’s life cycle. These criteria are assessed and integrated within a decision analytic framework, facilitating rapid assessment and prioritization for future targeted testing and systems modeling. A case study outlines the prioritization process using 51 chemicals. The results show a preliminary relative ranking of chemicals based on exposure potential. The strength of this approach is the ability to integrate relevant statistical and mechanistic data with expert judgment, allowing for an initial tier assessment that can further inform targeted testing and risk management strategies. The National Exposure Research Laboratory′s (NERL′s) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in suppor

  9. Driving profile modeling and recognition based on soft computing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Abdul; Quek, Chai; Tan, Chin Keong; Takeda, Kazuya

    2009-04-01

    Advancements in biometrics-based authentication have led to its increasing prominence and are being incorporated into everyday tasks. Existing vehicle security systems rely only on alarms or smart card as forms of protection. A biometric driver recognition system utilizing driving behaviors is a highly novel and personalized approach and could be incorporated into existing vehicle security system to form a multimodal identification system and offer a greater degree of multilevel protection. In this paper, detailed studies have been conducted to model individual driving behavior in order to identify features that may be efficiently and effectively used to profile each driver. Feature extraction techniques based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) are proposed and implemented. Features extracted from the accelerator and brake pedal pressure were then used as inputs to a fuzzy neural network (FNN) system to ascertain the identity of the driver. Two fuzzy neural networks, namely, the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFuNN) and the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), are used to demonstrate the viability of the two proposed feature extraction techniques. The performances were compared against an artificial neural network (NN) implementation using the multilayer perceptron (MLP) network and a statistical method based on the GMM. Extensive testing was conducted and the results show great potential in the use of the FNN for real-time driver identification and verification. In addition, the profiling of driver behaviors has numerous other potential applications for use by law enforcement and companies dealing with buses and truck drivers.

  10. Demonstration of risk-based approaches to nuclear plant regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, F.J.; Sursock, J.P.; Darling, S.S.; Oddo, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes generic technical support EPRI is providing to the nuclear power industry relative to its recent initiatives in the area of risk-based regulations (RBR). A risk-based regulatory approach uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), or similar techniques, to allocate safety resources commensurate with the risk posed by nuclear plant operations. This approach will reduce O ampersand M costs, and also improve nuclear plant safety. In order to enhance industry, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and public confidence in RBR, three things need to be shown: (1) manpower/resource savings are significant for both NRC and industry; (2) the process is doable in a reasonable amount of time; and (3) the process, if uniformly applied, results in demonstrably cheaper power and safer plants. In 1992, EPRI performed a qualitative study of the key RBR issues contributing to high O ampersand M costs. The results are given on Table 1. This study is being followed up by an in-depth quantitative cost/benefit study to focus technical work on producing guidelines/procedures for licensing submittals to NRC. The guidelines/procedures necessarily will be developed from successful demonstration projects such as the Fitzpatrick pilot plant study proposed by the New York Power Authority and other generic applications. This paper presents three examples: two motor operated valve projects performed by QUADREX Energy Services Corporation working with utilities in responding to NRC Generic Letter 89-10, and a third project working with Yankee Atomic Electric Company on service water systems at a plant in its service system. These demonstration projects aim to show the following: (1) the relative ease of putting together a technical case based on RBR concepts; (2) clarity in differentiating the various risk trade-offs, and in communicating overall reductions in risk with NRC; and (3) improved prioritization of NRC directives

  11. Simulation and Non-Simulation Based Human Reliability Analysis Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Shirley, Rachel Elizabeth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway develops approaches to estimating and managing safety margins. RISMC simulations pair deterministic plant physics models with probabilistic risk models. As human interactions are an essential element of plant risk, it is necessary to integrate human actions into the RISMC risk model. In this report, we review simulation-based and non-simulation-based human reliability assessment (HRA) methods. Chapter 2 surveys non-simulation-based HRA methods. Conventional HRA methods target static Probabilistic Risk Assessments for Level 1 events. These methods would require significant modification for use in dynamic simulation of Level 2 and Level 3 events. Chapter 3 is a review of human performance models. A variety of methods and models simulate dynamic human performance; however, most of these human performance models were developed outside the risk domain and have not been used for HRA. The exception is the ADS-IDAC model, which can be thought of as a virtual operator program. This model is resource-intensive but provides a detailed model of every operator action in a given scenario, along with models of numerous factors that can influence operator performance. Finally, Chapter 4 reviews the treatment of timing of operator actions in HRA methods. This chapter is an example of one of the critical gaps between existing HRA methods and the needs of dynamic HRA. This report summarizes the foundational information needed to develop a feasible approach to modeling human interactions in the RISMC simulations.

  12. A risk-based approach to scheduling audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönninger, Stephan; Holmes, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    The manufacture and supply of pharmaceutical products can be a very complex operation. Companies may purchase a wide variety of materials, from active pharmaceutical ingredients to packaging materials, from "in company" suppliers or from third parties. They may also purchase or contract a number of services such as analysis, data management, audit, among others. It is very important that these materials and services are of the requisite quality in order that patient safety and company reputation are adequately protected. Such quality requirements are ongoing throughout the product life cycle. In recent years, assurance of quality has been derived via audit of the supplier or service provider and by using periodic audits, for example, annually or at least once every 5 years. In the past, companies may have used an audit only for what they considered to be "key" materials or services and used testing on receipt, for example, as their quality assurance measure for "less important" supplies. Such approaches changed as a result of pressure from both internal sources and regulators to the time-driven audit for all suppliers and service providers. Companies recognised that eventually they would be responsible for the quality of the supplied product or service and audit, although providing only a "snapshot in time" seemed a convenient way of demonstrating that they were meeting their obligations. Problems, however, still occur with the supplied product or service and will usually be more frequent from certain suppliers. Additionally, some third-party suppliers will no longer accept routine audits from individual companies, as the overall audit load can exceed one external audit per working day. Consequently a different model is needed for assessing supplier quality. This paper presents a risk-based approach to creating an audit plan and for scheduling the frequency and depth of such audits. The approach is based on the principles and process of the Quality Risk Management

  13. Business Process Management – A Traditional Approach Versus a Knowledge Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Paiano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The enterprise management represents a heterogeneous aggregate of both resources and assets that need to be coordinated and orchestrated in order to reach the goals related to the business mission. Influences and forces that may influence this process, and also for that they should be considered, are not concentrated in the business environment, but they are related to the entireoperational context of a company. For this reason, business processes must be the most versatile and flexible with respect to the changes that occur within the whole operational context of a company.Considering the supportive role that information systems play in favour of Business Process Management - BPM, it is also essential to implement a constant, continuous and quick mechanism for the information system alignment with respect to the evolution followed by business processes.In particular, such mechanism must intervene on BPM systems in order to keep them aligned and compliant with respect to both the context changes and the regulations. In order to facilitate this alignment mechanism, companies are already referring to the support offered by specific solutions, such as knowledge bases. In this context, a possible solution might be the approach we propose, which is based on a specific framework called Process Management System. Our methodology implements a knowledge base support for business experts, which is not limited to the BPM operating phases, but includes also the engineering and prototyping activities of the corresponding information system. This paper aims to compare and evaluate a traditional BPM approach with respect to theapproach we propose. In effect, such analysis aims to emphasize the lack of traditional methodology especially with respect to the alignment between business processes and information systems, along with their compliance with context domain and regulations.

  14. A Model Based Approach to Increase the Part Accuracy in Robot Based Incremental Sheet Metal Forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Horst; Laurischkat, Roman; Zhu Junhong

    2011-01-01

    One main influence on the dimensional accuracy in robot based incremental sheet metal forming results from the compliance of the involved robot structures. Compared to conventional machine tools the low stiffness of the robot's kinematic results in a significant deviation of the planned tool path and therefore in a shape of insufficient quality. To predict and compensate these deviations offline, a model based approach, consisting of a finite element approach, to simulate the sheet forming, and a multi body system, modeling the compliant robot structure, has been developed. This paper describes the implementation and experimental verification of the multi body system model and its included compensation method.

  15. A Learning Object Approach To Evidence based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabin Visram

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the philosophy, development and framework of the body of elements formulated to provide an approach to evidence-based learning sustained by Learning Objects and web based technology Due to the demands for continuous improvement in the delivery of healthcare and in the continuous endeavour to improve the quality of life, there is a continuous need for practitioner's to update their knowledge by accomplishing accredited courses. The rapid advances in medical science has meant increasingly, there is a desperate need to adopt wireless schemes, whereby bespoke courses can be developed to help practitioners keep up with expanding knowledge base. Evidently, without current best evidence, practice risks becoming rapidly out of date, to the detriment of the patient. There is a need to provide a tactical, operational and effective environment, which allows professional to update their education, and complete specialised training, just-in-time, in their own time and location. Following this demand in the marketplace the information engineering group, in combination with several medical and dental schools, set out to develop and design a conceptual framework which form the basis of pioneering research, which at last, enables practitioner's to adopt a philosophy of life long learning. The body and structure of this framework is subsumed under the term Object oriented approach to Evidence Based learning, Just-in-time, via Internet sustained by Reusable Learning Objects (The OEBJIRLO Progression. The technical pillars which permit this concept of life long learning are pivoted by the foundations of object oriented technology, Learning objects, Just-in-time education, Data Mining, intelligent Agent technology, Flash interconnectivity and remote wireless technology, which allow practitioners to update their professional skills, complete specialised training which leads to accredited qualifications. This paper sets out to develop and

  16. Radiology information system: a workflow-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinyan; Lu, Xudong; Nie, Hongchao; Huang, Zhengxing; Aalst, W.M.P. van der

    2009-01-01

    Introducing workflow management technology in healthcare seems to be prospective in dealing with the problem that the current healthcare Information Systems cannot provide sufficient support for the process management, although several challenges still exist. The purpose of this paper is to study the method of developing workflow-based information system in radiology department as a use case. First, a workflow model of typical radiology process was established. Second, based on the model, the system could be designed and implemented as a group of loosely coupled components. Each component corresponded to one task in the process and could be assembled by the workflow management system. The legacy systems could be taken as special components, which also corresponded to the tasks and were integrated through transferring non-work- flow-aware interfaces to the standard ones. Finally, a workflow dashboard was designed and implemented to provide an integral view of radiology processes. The workflow-based Radiology Information System was deployed in the radiology department of Zhejiang Chinese Medicine Hospital in China. The results showed that it could be adjusted flexibly in response to the needs of changing process, and enhance the process management in the department. It can also provide a more workflow-aware integration method, comparing with other methods such as IHE-based ones. The workflow-based approach is a new method of developing radiology information system with more flexibility, more functionalities of process management and more workflow-aware integration. The work of this paper is an initial endeavor for introducing workflow management technology in healthcare. (orig.)

  17. The catchment based approach using catchment system engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, Jennine; Quinn, Paul; Barber, Nicholas; Wilkinson, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The catchment based approach (CaBa) has been championed as a potential mechanism for delivery of environmental directives such as the Water Framework Directive in the UK. However, since its launch in 2013, there has been only limited progress towards achieving sustainable, holistic management, with only a few of examples of good practice ( e.g. from the Tyne Rivers trust). Common issues with developing catchment plans over a national scale include limited data and resources to identify issues and source of those issues, how to systematically identify suitable locations for measures or suites of measures that will have the biggest downstream impact and how to overcome barriers for implementing solutions. Catchment System Engineering (CSE) is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of hydrological flow pathways throughout the catchment. A significant component of the runoff generation can be managed by targeting hydrological flow pathways at source, such as overland flow, field drain and ditch function, greatly reducing erosive soil losses. Coupled with management of farm nutrients at source, many runoff attenuation features or measures can be co-located to achieve benefits for water quality and biodiversity. A catchment, community-led mitigation measures plan using the CSE approach will be presented from a catchment in Northumberland, Northern England that demonstrate a generic framework for identification of multi-purpose features that slow, store and filter runoff at strategic locations in the landscape. Measures include within-field barriers, edge of field traps and within-ditch measures. Progress on the implementation of measures will be reported alongside potential impacts on the runoff regime at both local and catchment scale and costs.

  18. Fragment-based approaches to the discovery of kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, Paul N; Berdini, Valerio; O'Reilly, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases are one of the most important families of drug targets, and aberrant kinase activity has been linked to a large number of disease areas. Although eminently targetable using small molecules, kinases present a number of challenges as drug targets, not least obtaining selectivity across such a large and relatively closely related target family. Fragment-based drug discovery involves screening simple, low-molecular weight compounds to generate initial hits against a target. These hits are then optimized to more potent compounds via medicinal chemistry, usually facilitated by structural biology. Here, we will present a number of recent examples of fragment-based approaches to the discovery of kinase inhibitors, detailing the construction of fragment-screening libraries, the identification and validation of fragment hits, and their optimization into potent and selective lead compounds. The advantages of fragment-based methodologies will be discussed, along with some of the challenges associated with using this route. Finally, we will present a number of key lessons derived both from our own experience running fragment screens against kinases and from a large number of published studies.

  19. A New Laser Based Approach for Measuring Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Dobler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, we developed a proof-of-concept system for a new open-path laser absorption spectrometer concept for measuring atmospheric CO2. The measurement approach utilizes high-reliability all-fiber-based, continuous-wave laser technology, along with a unique all-digital lock-in amplifier method that, together, enables simultaneous transmission and reception of multiple fixed wavelengths of light. This new technique, which utilizes very little transmitted energy relative to conventional lidar systems, provides high signal-to-noise (SNR measurements, even in the presence of a large background signal. This proof-of-concept system, tested in both a laboratory environment and a limited number of field experiments over path lengths of 680 m and 1,600 m, demonstrated SNR values >1,000 for received signals of ~18 picoWatts averaged over 60 s. A SNR of 1,000 is equivalent to a measurement precision of ±0.001 or ~0.4 ppmv. The measurement method is expected to provide new capability for automated monitoring of greenhouse gas at fixed sites, such as carbon sequestration facilities, volcanoes, the short- and long-term assessment of urban plumes, and other similar applications. In addition, this concept enables active measurements of column amounts from a geosynchronous orbit for a network of ground-based receivers/stations that would complement other current and planned space-based measurement capabilities.

  20. Improving operating room turnover time: a systems based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ankeet S; Carlson, Grant W; Deckers, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    Operating room (OR) turnover time (TT) has a broad and significant impact on hospital administrators, providers, staff and patients. Our objective was to identify current problems in TT management and implement a consistent, reproducible process to reduce average TT and process variability. Initial observations of TT were made to document the existing process at a 511 bed, 24 OR, academic medical center. Three control groups, including one consisting of Orthopedic and Vascular Surgery, were used to limit potential confounders such as case acuity/duration and equipment needs. A redesigned process based on observed issues, focusing on a horizontally structured, systems-based approach has three major interventions: developing consistent criteria for OR readiness, utilizing parallel processing for patient and room readiness, and enhancing perioperative communication. Process redesign was implemented in Orthopedics and Vascular Surgery. Comparisons of mean and standard deviation of TT were made using an independent 2-tailed t-test. Using all surgical specialties as controls (n = 237), mean TT (hh:mm:ss) was reduced by 0:20:48 min (95 % CI, 0:10:46-0:30:50), from 0:44:23 to 0:23:25, a 46.9 % reduction. Standard deviation of TT was reduced by 0:10:32 min, from 0:16:24 to 0:05:52 and frequency of TT≥30 min was reduced from 72.5to 11.7 %. P systems-based focus should drive OR TT design.

  1. DIGITAL ONCOLOGY PATIENT RECORD - HETEROGENEOUS FILE BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Sapundzhiev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oncology patients need extensive follow-up and meticulous documentation. The aim of this study was to introduce a simple, platform independent file based system for documentation of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in oncology patients and test its function.Material and methods: A file-name based system of the type M1M2M3.F2 was introduced, where M1 is a unique identifier for the patient, M2 is the date of the clinical intervention/event, M3 is an identifier for the author of the medical record and F2 is the specific software generated file-name extension.Results: This system is in use at 5 institutions, where a total of 11 persons on 14 different workstations inputted 16591 entries (files for 2370. The merge process was tested on 2 operating systems - when copied together all files sort up as expected by patient, and for each patient in a chronological order, providing a digital cumulative patient record, which contains heterogeneous file formats.Conclusion: The file based approach for storing heterogeneous digital patient related information is an reliable system, which can handle open-source, proprietary, general and custom file formats and seems to be easily scalable. Further development of software for automatic checks of the integrity and searching and indexing of the files is expected to produce a more user-friendly environment

  2. Discovery of Boolean metabolic networks: integer linear programming based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yushan; Jiang, Hao; Ching, Wai-Ki; Cheng, Xiaoqing

    2018-04-11

    Traditional drug discovery methods focused on the efficacy of drugs rather than their toxicity. However, toxicity and/or lack of efficacy are produced when unintended targets are affected in metabolic networks. Thus, identification of biological targets which can be manipulated to produce the desired effect with minimum side-effects has become an important and challenging topic. Efficient computational methods are required to identify the drug targets while incurring minimal side-effects. In this paper, we propose a graph-based computational damage model that summarizes the impact of enzymes on compounds in metabolic networks. An efficient method based on Integer Linear Programming formalism is then developed to identify the optimal enzyme-combination so as to minimize the side-effects. The identified target enzymes for known successful drugs are then verified by comparing the results with those in the existing literature. Side-effects reduction plays a crucial role in the study of drug development. A graph-based computational damage model is proposed and the theoretical analysis states the captured problem is NP-completeness. The proposed approaches can therefore contribute to the discovery of drug targets. Our developed software is available at " http://hkumath.hku.hk/~wkc/APBC2018-metabolic-network.zip ".

  3. Treatment of cyanide containing wastewater using cavitation based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawale, Rajashree H; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2014-07-01

    Industrial wastewater streams containing high concentrations of biorefractory materials like cyanides should ideally be treated at source. In the present work, degradation of potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6) as a model pollutant has been investigated using cavitational reactors with possible intensification studies using different approaches. Effect of different operating parameters such as initial concentration, temperature and pH on the extent of degradation using acoustic cavitation has been investigated. For the case of hydrodynamic cavitation, flow characteristics of cavitating device (venturi) have been established initially followed by the effect of inlet pressure and pH on the extent of degradation. Under the optimized set of operating parameters, the addition of hydrogen peroxide (ratio of K4Fe(CN)6:H2O2 varied from 1:1 to 1:30 mol basis) as process intensifying approach has been investigated. The present work has conclusively established that under the set of optimized operating parameters, cavitation can be effectively used for degradation of potassium ferrocyanide. The comparative study of hydrodynamic cavitation and acoustic cavitation suggested that hydrodynamic cavitation is more energy efficient and gives higher degradation as compared to acoustic cavitation for equivalent power/energy dissipation. The present work is the first one to report comparison of cavitation based treatment schemes for degradation of cyanide containing wastewaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Age groups related glioblastoma study based on radiomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeju; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jinhua; Guo, Yi; Zhang, Qi

    2017-12-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive malignant brain tumor with poor prognosis. Radiomics is a newly emerging and promising technique to reveal the complex relationships between high-throughput medical image features and deep information of disease including pathology, biomarkers and genomics. An approach was developed to investigate the internal relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the age-related origins of glioblastomas based on a quantitative radiomics method. A fully automatic image segmentation method was applied to segment the tumor regions from three dimensional MRI images. 555 features were then extracted from the image data. By analyzing large numbers of quantitative image features, some predictive and prognostic information could be obtained by the radiomics approach. 96 patients diagnosed with glioblastoma pathologically have been divided into two age groups (age groups (T test, p age difference (T test, p= .006). In conclusion, glioblastoma in different age groups present different radiomics-feature patterns with statistical significance, which indicates that glioblastoma in different age groups should have different pathologic, protein, or genic origins.

  5. PARTICLE FILTER BASED VEHICLE TRACKING APPROACH WITH IMPROVED RESAMPLING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Leong Khong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical sensors based vehicle tracking can be widely implemented in traffic surveillance and flow control. The vast development of video surveillance infrastructure in recent years has drawn the current research focus towards vehicle tracking using high-end and low cost optical sensors. However, tracking vehicles via such sensors could be challenging due to the high probability of changing vehicle appearance and illumination, besides the occlusion and overlapping incidents. Particle filter has been proven as an approach which can overcome nonlinear and non-Gaussian situations caused by cluttered background and occlusion incidents. Unfortunately, conventional particle filter approach encounters particle degeneracy especially during and after the occlusion. Particle filter with sampling important resampling (SIR is an important step to overcome the drawback of particle filter, but SIR faced the problem of sample impoverishment when heavy particles are statistically selected many times. In this work, genetic algorithm has been proposed to be implemented in the particle filter resampling stage, where the estimated position can converge faster to hit the real position of target vehicle under various occlusion incidents. The experimental results show that the improved particle filter with genetic algorithm resampling method manages to increase the tracking accuracy and meanwhile reduce the particle sample size in the resampling stage.

  6. Nanotechnology based approaches for anti-diabetic drugs delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesharwani, Prashant; Gorain, Bapi; Low, Siew Yeng; Tan, Siew Ann; Ling, Emily Chai Siaw; Lim, Yin Khai; Chin, Chuan Ming; Lee, Pei Yee; Lee, Chun Mey; Ooi, Chun Haw; Choudhury, Hira; Pandey, Manisha

    2018-02-01

    Nanotechnology science has been diverged its application in several fields with the advantages to operate with nanometric range of objects. Emerging field of nanotechnology has been also being approached and applied in medical biology for improved efficacy and safety. Increased success in therapeutic field has focused several approaches in the treatment of the common metabolic disorder, diabetes. The development of nanocarriers for improved delivery of different oral hypoglycemic agents compared to conventional therapies includes nanoparticles (NPs), liposomes, dendrimer, niosomes and micelles, which produces great control over the increased blood glucose level and thus becoming an eye catching and most promising technology now-a-days. Besides, embellishment of nanocarriers with several ligands makes it more targeted delivery with the protection of entrapped hypoglycaemic agents against degradation, thereby optimizing prolonged blood glucose lowering effect. Thus, nanocarriers of hypoglycemic agents provide the aim towards improved diabetes management with minimized risk of acute and chronic complications. In this review, we provide an overview on distinctive features of each nano-based drug delivery system for diabetic treatment and current NPs applications in diabetes management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Base technology approaches in materials research for future nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Tatsuo

    1992-01-01

    In the development of advanced nuclear systems for future, majority of critical issues in material research and development are more or less related with the effects of neutron irradiation. The approaches to those issues in the past have been mainly concerned with interpretation of the facts and minor modification of existing materials, having been inevitably of passive nature. In combating against predicted complex effects arising from variety of critical parameters, approaches must be reviewed more strategically. Some attempts of shifting research programs to such a direction have been made at JAERI in the Base (Common) Technology Programs either by adding to or restructuring the existing tasks. Major tasks currently in progress after the reorientation are categorized in several disciplines including new tasks for material innovation and concept development for neutron sources. The efforts have been set forth since 1988, and a few of them are now mature to transfer to the tasks in the projects of advanced reactors. The paper reviews the status of some typical activities emphasizing the effects of the reorientation and possible extensions of the outcomes to future applications. (author)

  8. Family-Based Approaches to Cardiovascular Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedanthan, Rajesh; Bansilal, Sameer; Soto, Ana Victoria; Kovacic, Jason C; Latina, Jacqueline; Jaslow, Risa; Santana, Maribel; Gorga, Elio; Kasarskis, Andrew; Hajjar, Roger; Schadt, Eric E; Björkegren, Johan L; Fayad, Zahi A; Fuster, Valentin

    2016-04-12

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the world, and the increasing burden is largely a consequence of modifiable behavioral risk factors that interact with genomics and the environment. Continuous cardiovascular health promotion and disease prevention throughout the lifespan is critical, and the family is a central entity in this process. In this review, we describe the potential rationale and mechanisms that contribute to the importance of family for cardiovascular health promotion, focusing on: 1) mutual interdependence of the family system; 2) shared environment; 3) parenting style; 4) caregiver perceptions; and 5) genomics. We conclude that family-based approaches that target both caregivers and children, encourage communication among the family unit, and address the structural and environmental conditions in which families live and operate are likely to be the most effective approach to promote cardiovascular health. We describe lessons learned, future implications, and applications to ongoing and planned studies. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Competence-Based Approach to Sustainable Innovation Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2007-01-01

    the object of a research exercise, to affect and observe various approaches to the teaching of design. Particular attention will be paid in this case to competencies, both initiated in the teaching and the evaluated in the students’ interpretation of the theoretical contents. The lessons learned from...... through educational curricula and research programmes. This paper presents an initiative from Denmark, showing new interpretations of industrial needs, research insights, educational ideas and identification of core innovative engineering competencies. The new Danish Master of Science engineering...... the first three years of this semester’s application and teaching to approximately 55 students per year are presented and discussed. After introducing the motivation and background for establishing the education programme, the consideration of competence-based education is described, in the context...

  10. An approach for activity-based DEVS model specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alshareef, Abdurrahman; Sarjoughian, Hessam S.; Zarrin, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Creation of DEVS models has been advanced through Model Driven Architecture and its frameworks. The overarching role of the frameworks has been to help develop model specifications in a disciplined fashion. Frameworks can provide intermediary layers between the higher level mathematical models...... and their corresponding software specifications from both structural and behavioral aspects. Unlike structural modeling, developing models to specify behavior of systems is known to be harder and more complex, particularly when operations with non-trivial control schemes are required. In this paper, we propose specifying...... activity-based behavior modeling of parallel DEVS atomic models. We consider UML activities and actions as fundamental units of behavior modeling, especially in the presence of recent advances in the UML 2.5 specifications. We describe in detail how to approach activity modeling with a set of elemental...

  11. Introduction to supercritical fluids a spreadsheet-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Richard; Peters, Cor

    2013-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to supercritical fluids with easy-to-use Excel spreadsheets suitable for both specialized-discipline (chemistry or chemical engineering student) and mixed-discipline (engineering/economic student) classes. Each chapter contains worked examples, tip boxes and end-of-the-chapter problems and projects. Part I covers web-based chemical information resources, applications and simplified theory presented in a way that allows students of all disciplines to delve into the properties of supercritical fluids and to design energy, extraction and materials formation systems for real-world processes that use supercritical water or supercritical carbon dioxide. Part II takes a practical approach and addresses the thermodynamic framework, equations of state, fluid phase equilibria, heat and mass transfer, chemical equilibria and reaction kinetics of supercritical fluids. Spreadsheets are arranged as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions and macros that are completely (source code) ...

  12. Meckel-Gruber Syndrome: Autopsy Based Approach to Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaranti Kar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MGS is a rare lethal congenital malformation affecting 1 in 13,250-140,000 live births. The classical diagnostic triad comprises multicystic dysplastic kidneys, occipital encephalocele, and postaxial polydactyly. It can variably be associated with other malformations such as cleft lip and palate, pulmonary hypoplasia, hepatic fibrosis, and anomalies of central nervous system. A 20 weeks fetus was diagnosed as MGS with classical features along with many other congenital abnormalities such as microcephaly, microphthalmia, hypertelorism, cleft lip and palate, neonatal teeth, and the right side club foot which were detected only after doing autopsy. This case is reported because of its rarity emphasizing the importance of neonatal autopsy in every case of fetal death, especially where the antenatal diagnosis has not been made previously. A systematic approach to accurate diagnosis of MGS based on autopsy will be described here which can allow recurrence risk counseling and proper management in future pregnancies.

  13. Ergonomics and simulation-based approach in improving facility layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Jocelyn D.

    2018-02-01

    The use of the simulation-based technique in facility layout has been a choice in the industry due to its convenience and efficient generation of results. Nevertheless, the solutions generated are not capable of addressing delays due to worker's health and safety which significantly impact overall operational efficiency. It is, therefore, critical to incorporate ergonomics in facility design. In this study, workstation analysis was incorporated into Promodel simulation to improve the facility layout of a garment manufacturing. To test the effectiveness of the method, existing and improved facility designs were measured using comprehensive risk level, efficiency, and productivity. Results indicated that the improved facility layout generated a decrease in comprehensive risk level and rapid upper limb assessment score; an increase of 78% in efficiency and 194% increase in productivity compared to existing design and thus proved that the approach is effective in attaining overall facility design improvement.

  14. Possibility of object recognition using Altera's model based design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tickle, A J; Harvey, P K; Smith, J S; Wu, F

    2009-01-01

    Object recognition is an image processing task of finding a given object in a selected image or video sequence. Object recognition can be divided into two areas: one of these is decision-theoretic and deals with patterns described by quantitative descriptors, for example such as length, area, shape and texture. With this Graphical User Interface Circuitry (GUIC) methodology employed here being relatively new for object recognition systems, the aim of this work is to identify if the developed circuitry can detect certain shapes or strings within the target image. A much smaller reference image feeds the preset data for identification, tests are conducted for both binary and greyscale and the additional mathematical morphology to highlight the area within the target image with the object(s) are located is also presented. This then provides proof that basic recognition methods are valid and would allow the progression to developing decision-theoretical and learning based approaches using GUICs for use in multidisciplinary tasks.

  15. Model-Based Systems Engineering Approach to Managing Mass Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seung H.; Bayer, Todd J.; Cole, Bjorn; Cooke, Brian; Dekens, Frank; Delp, Christopher; Lam, Doris

    2012-01-01

    When designing a flight system from concept through implementation, one of the fundamental systems engineering tasks ismanaging the mass margin and a mass equipment list (MEL) of the flight system. While generating a MEL and computing a mass margin is conceptually a trivial task, maintaining consistent and correct MELs and mass margins can be challenging due to the current practices of maintaining duplicate information in various forms, such as diagrams and tables, and in various media, such as files and emails. We have overcome this challenge through a model-based systems engineering (MBSE) approach within which we allow only a single-source-of-truth. In this paper we describe the modeling patternsused to capture the single-source-of-truth and the views that have been developed for the Europa Habitability Mission (EHM) project, a mission concept study, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

  16. Nuclear engineering education: A competence based approach to curricula development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining nuclear competencies in the nuclear industry is a one of the most critical challenges in the near future. With the development of a number of nuclear engineering educational programmes in several States, this publication provides guidance to decision makers in Member States on a competence based approach to curricula development, presenting the established practices and associated requirements for educational programmes in this field. It is a consolidation of best practices that will ensure sustainable, effective nuclear engineering programmes, contributing to the safe, efficient and economic operation of nuclear power plants. The information presented is drawn from a variety of recognized nuclear engineering programmes around the world and contributes to the main areas that are needed to ensure a viable and robust nuclear industry

  17. Brain based learning with contextual approach to mathematics achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Kartikaningtyas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know the effect of Brain Based Learning (BBL with a contextual approach to mathematics achievement. BBL-contextual is the learning model that designed to develop and optimize the brain ability for getting a new concept and solving the real life problem. This study method was a quasi-experiment. The population was the junior high school students. The sample chosen by using stratified cluster random sampling. The sample was 109 students. The data collected through a mathematics achievement test that was given after the treatment. The data analyzed by using one way ANOVA. The results of the study showed that BBL-contextual is better than direct learning on mathematics achievement. It means BBL-contextual could be an effective and innovative model.

  18. Analysis of Trust-Based Approaches for Web Service Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragoni, Nicola; Miotto, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The basic tenet of Service-Oriented Computing (SOC) is the possibility of building distributed applications on the Web by using Web services as fundamental building blocks. The proliferation of such services is considered the second wave of evolution in the Internet age, moving the Web from...... a collection of pages to a collections of services. Consensus is growing that this Web service revolution wont eventuate until we resolve trust-related issues. Indeed, the intrinsic openness of the SOC vision makes crucial to locate useful services and recognize them as trustworthy. In this paper we review...... the field of trust-based Web service selection, providing a structured classification of current approaches and highlighting the main limitations of each class and of the overall field....

  19. Advances in Piezoelectric Systems: An Application-Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsurzsan, Tiberiu-Gabriel

    with their low manufacturing costs and high robustness has enabled wide-spread usage in applications ranging from simple spark lighters or pressure sensors to much more complicated energy harvesting systems and piezoelectric transformers. One governing property of piezoelectric devices is the existence....... These three distinct behaviors encountered in any piezoelectric device represents the ba- sis of discussion in the thesis. Therefore the present PhD dissertation is an application-based approach to researching all three behaviors individually, while nding solutions to the challenges encountered along the way...... bidirectional operation of a self-oscillating converter. Feasibility of using the converter in an MRI scanner is demonstrated. The third and nal behavior researched is the resistive behavior. This is widely encountered since most piezoelectric motors, ultrasonic baths and some energy harvesting systems operate...

  20. A Web-based approach to blood donor preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; Copley, Diane M; Lewis, Kristin N; Ellis, Gary D; McGlone, Sarah T; Sinclair, Kadian S

    2013-02-01

    Written and video approaches to donor education have been shown to enhance donation attitudes and intentions to give blood, particularly when the information provides specific coping suggestions for donation-related concerns. This study extends this work by comparing Web-based approaches to donor preparation among donors and nondonors. Young adults (62% female; mean [±SD] age, 19.3 [±1.5] years; mean [range] number of prior blood donations, 1.1 [0-26]; 60% nondonors) were randomly assigned to view 1) a study Web site designed to address common blood donor concerns and suggest specific coping strategies (n = 238), 2) a standard blood center Web site (n = 233), or 3) a control Web site where participants viewed videos of their choice (n = 202). Measures of donation attitude, anxiety, confidence, intention, anticipated regret, and moral norm were completed before and after the intervention. Among nondonors, the study Web site produced greater changes in donation attitude, confidence, intention, and anticipated regret relative to both the standard and the control Web sites, but only differed significantly from the control Web site for moral norm and anxiety. Among donors, the study Web site produced greater changes in donation confidence and anticipated regret relative to both the standard and the control Web sites, but only differed significantly from the control Web site for donation attitude, anxiety, intention, and moral norm. Web-based donor preparation materials may provide a cost-effective way to enhance donation intentions and encourage donation behavior. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. From scores to face templates: a model-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Pranab; Sarkar, Sudeep; Kasturi, Rangachar

    2007-12-01

    Regeneration of templates from match scores has security and privacy implications related to any biometric authentication system. We propose a novel paradigm to reconstruct face templates from match scores using a linear approach. It proceeds by first modeling the behavior of the given face recognition algorithm by an affine transformation. The goal of the modeling is to approximate the distances computed by a face recognition algorithm between two faces by distances between points, representing these faces, in an affine space. Given this space, templates from an independent image set (break-in) are matched only once with the enrolled template of the targeted subject and match scores are recorded. These scores are then used to embed the targeted subject in the approximating affine (non-orthogonal) space. Given the coordinates of the targeted subject in the affine space, the original template of the targeted subject is reconstructed using the inverse of the affine transformation. We demonstrate our ideas using three, fundamentally different, face recognition algorithms: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with Mahalanobis cosine distance measure, Bayesian intra-extrapersonal classifier (BIC), and a feature-based commercial algorithm. To demonstrate the independence of the break-in set with the gallery set, we select face templates from two different databases: Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC) and Facial Recognition Technology (FERET) Database (FERET). With an operational point set at 1 percent False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and 99 percent True Acceptance Rate (TAR) for 1,196 enrollments (FERET gallery), we show that at most 600 attempts (score computations) are required to achieve a 73 percent chance of breaking in as a randomly chosen target subject for the commercial face recognition system. With similar operational set up, we achieve a 72 percent and 100 percent chance of breaking in for the Bayesian and PCA based face recognition systems, respectively. With

  2. GEOSS authentication/authorization services: a Broker-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M.; Nativi, S.

    2014-12-01

    The vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is the achievement of societal benefits through voluntary contribution and sharing of resources to better understand the relationships between the society and the environment where we live. The GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) allows users to search, access, and use the resources contributed by the GEOSS members. The GEO DAB (Discovery and Access Broker) is the GCI component in charge of interconnecting the heterogeneous data systems contributing to GEOSS. Client applications (i.e. the portals and apps) can connect to GEO DAB as a unique entry point to discover and access resources available through GCI, with no need to implement the many service protocols and models applied by the GEOSS data providers. The GEO DAB implements the brokering approach (Nativi et al., 2013) to build a flexible and scalable System of Systems. User authentication/authorization functionality is becoming more and more important for GEOSS data providers and users. The Providers ask for information about who accessed their resources and, in some cases, want to limit the data download. The Users ask for a profiled interaction with the system based on their needs and expertise level. Besides, authentication and authorization is necessary for GEOSS to provide moderated social services - e.g. feedback messages, data "fit for use" comments, etc. In keeping with the GEOSS principles of building on existing systems and lowering entry-barriers for users, an objective of the authentication/authorization development was to support existing and well-used users' credentials (e.g. Google, Twitter, etc.). Due to the heterogeneity of technologies used by the different providers and applications, a broker-based approach for the authentication/authorization was introduced as a new functionality of GEO DAB. This new capability will be demonstrated at the next GEO XI Plenary (November 2014). This work will be presented and discussed

  3. Stochastic Turing Patterns: Analysis of Compartment-Based Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yang; Erban, Radek

    2014-01-01

    © 2014, Society for Mathematical Biology. Turing patterns can be observed in reaction-diffusion systems where chemical species have different diffusion constants. In recent years, several studies investigated the effects of noise on Turing patterns and showed that the parameter regimes, for which stochastic Turing patterns are observed, can be larger than the parameter regimes predicted by deterministic models, which are written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) for species concentrations. A common stochastic reaction-diffusion approach is written in terms of compartment-based (lattice-based) models, where the domain of interest is divided into artificial compartments and the number of molecules in each compartment is simulated. In this paper, the dependence of stochastic Turing patterns on the compartment size is investigated. It has previously been shown (for relatively simpler systems) that a modeler should not choose compartment sizes which are too small or too large, and that the optimal compartment size depends on the diffusion constant. Taking these results into account, we propose and study a compartment-based model of Turing patterns where each chemical species is described using a different set of compartments. It is shown that the parameter regions where spatial patterns form are different from the regions obtained by classical deterministic PDE-based models, but they are also different from the results obtained for the stochastic reaction-diffusion models which use a single set of compartments for all chemical species. In particular, it is argued that some previously reported results on the effect of noise on Turing patterns in biological systems need to be reinterpreted.

  4. Risk-based configuration control system: Analysis and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Vesely, W.E.; Lofgren, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the configuration risks associated with the operation of a nuclear power plant and the approaches to control these risks using risk-based configuration control considerations. In that context, the actual and maximum potential configuration risks at a plant are analyzed and the alternative types criteria for a risk-based configuration control systems are described. The risk-based configuration calculations which are studied here focus on the core-melt frequency impacts from given plant configurations. By calculating the core-melt frequency for given configurations, the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases can be identified and controlled. The duration time in which the configuration can exist can then be limited or the core-melt frequency level associated with the configuration can be reduced by various actions. Furthermore, maintenances and tests can be scheduled to avoid the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases. Present technical specifications do not control many of these configurations which can cause large core-melt frequency increases but instead focus on many risk-unimportant allowed outage times. Hence, risk-based configuration management can be effectively used to reduce core-melt frequency associated risks at a plant and at the same time can provide flexibility in plant operation. The alternative strategies for controlling the core-melt frequency and other risk contributions include: (1) controlling the increased risk level which is associated with the configuration; (2) controlling the individual configuration risk which is associated with a given duration of a configuration; (3) controlling the time period configuration risk from configurations which occur in a time period

  5. Stochastic Turing Patterns: Analysis of Compartment-Based Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yang

    2014-11-25

    © 2014, Society for Mathematical Biology. Turing patterns can be observed in reaction-diffusion systems where chemical species have different diffusion constants. In recent years, several studies investigated the effects of noise on Turing patterns and showed that the parameter regimes, for which stochastic Turing patterns are observed, can be larger than the parameter regimes predicted by deterministic models, which are written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) for species concentrations. A common stochastic reaction-diffusion approach is written in terms of compartment-based (lattice-based) models, where the domain of interest is divided into artificial compartments and the number of molecules in each compartment is simulated. In this paper, the dependence of stochastic Turing patterns on the compartment size is investigated. It has previously been shown (for relatively simpler systems) that a modeler should not choose compartment sizes which are too small or too large, and that the optimal compartment size depends on the diffusion constant. Taking these results into account, we propose and study a compartment-based model of Turing patterns where each chemical species is described using a different set of compartments. It is shown that the parameter regions where spatial patterns form are different from the regions obtained by classical deterministic PDE-based models, but they are also different from the results obtained for the stochastic reaction-diffusion models which use a single set of compartments for all chemical species. In particular, it is argued that some previously reported results on the effect of noise on Turing patterns in biological systems need to be reinterpreted.

  6. Distance matrix-based approach to protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Jernigan, Robert L; Wu, Zhijun; Song, Guang; Yang, Lei; Kolinski, Andrzej; Pokarowski, Piotr

    2009-03-01

    Much structural information is encoded in the internal distances; a distance matrix-based approach can be used to predict protein structure and dynamics, and for structural refinement. Our approach is based on the square distance matrix D = [r(ij)(2)] containing all square distances between residues in proteins. This distance matrix contains more information than the contact matrix C, that has elements of either 0 or 1 depending on whether the distance r (ij) is greater or less than a cutoff value r (cutoff). We have performed spectral decomposition of the distance matrices D = sigma lambda(k)V(k)V(kT), in terms of eigenvalues lambda kappa and the corresponding eigenvectors v kappa and found that it contains at most five nonzero terms. A dominant eigenvector is proportional to r (2)--the square distance of points from the center of mass, with the next three being the principal components of the system of points. By predicting r (2) from the sequence we can approximate a distance matrix of a protein with an expected RMSD value of about 7.3 A, and by combining it with the prediction of the first principal component we can improve this approximation to 4.0 A. We can also explain the role of hydrophobic interactions for the protein structure, because r is highly correlated with the hydrophobic profile of the sequence. Moreover, r is highly correlated with several sequence profiles which are useful in protein structure prediction, such as contact number, the residue-wise contact order (RWCO) or mean square fluctuations (i.e. crystallographic temperature factors). We have also shown that the next three components are related to spatial directionality of the secondary structure elements, and they may be also predicted from the sequence, improving overall structure prediction. We have also shown that the large number of available HIV-1 protease structures provides a remarkable sampling of conformations, which can be viewed as direct structural information about the

  7. Problem-Oriented Corporate Knowledge Base Models on the Case-Based Reasoning Approach Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhih, I. N.; Akhmadulin, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    One of the urgent directions of efficiency enhancement of production processes and enterprises activities management is creation and use of corporate knowledge bases. The article suggests a concept of problem-oriented corporate knowledge bases (PO CKB), in which knowledge is arranged around possible problem situations and represents a tool for making and implementing decisions in such situations. For knowledge representation in PO CKB a case-based reasoning approach is encouraged to use. Under this approach, the content of a case as a knowledge base component has been defined; based on the situation tree a PO CKB knowledge model has been developed, in which the knowledge about typical situations as well as specific examples of situations and solutions have been represented. A generalized problem-oriented corporate knowledge base structural chart and possible modes of its operation have been suggested. The obtained models allow creating and using corporate knowledge bases for support of decision making and implementing, training, staff skill upgrading and analysis of the decisions taken. The universal interpretation of terms “situation” and “solution” adopted in the work allows using the suggested models to develop problem-oriented corporate knowledge bases in different subject domains. It has been suggested to use the developed models for making corporate knowledge bases of the enterprises that operate engineer systems and networks at large production facilities.

  8. Risk-based configuration control system: Analysis and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Lofgren, E.V.; Vesely, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of risks associated with component outage configurations during power operation of a nuclear power plant and discusses approaches and strategies for developing a risk-based configuration control system. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component states. The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations using a risk-perspective. The configuration contributions to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability are studied for two plants. Large core-melt frequency can be caused by configurations and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the actual core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. Effective strategies and criteria for controlling configuration risks are presented. Such control strategies take into consideration the risks associated with configurations, the nature and characteristics of the configuration risks, and also the practical considerations such as adequate repair times and/or options to transfer to low risk configurations. Alternative types of criteria are discussed that are not overly restrictive to result in unnecessary plant shutdown, but rather motivates effective test and maintenance practices that control risk-significant configurations to allow continued operation with an adequate margin to meet challenges to safety

  9. A Cooperative Approach to Virtual Machine Based Fault Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naughton III, Thomas J [ORNL; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL; Aderholdt, William Ferrol [ORNL; Scott, Stephen L [Tennessee Technological University (TTU)

    2017-01-01

    Resilience investigations often employ fault injection (FI) tools to study the effects of simulated errors on a target system. It is important to keep the target system under test (SUT) isolated from the controlling environment in order to maintain control of the experiement. Virtual machines (VMs) have been used to aid these investigations due to the strong isolation properties of system-level virtualization. A key challenge in fault injection tools is to gain proper insight and context about the SUT. In VM-based FI tools, this challenge of target con- text is increased due to the separation between host and guest (VM). We discuss an approach to VM-based FI that leverages virtual machine introspection (VMI) methods to gain insight into the target s context running within the VM. The key to this environment is the ability to provide basic information to the FI system that can be used to create a map of the target environment. We describe a proof- of-concept implementation and a demonstration of its use to introduce simulated soft errors into an iterative solver benchmark running in user-space of a guest VM.

  10. Evidence-based approach for continuous improvement of occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoli, Lamberto; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Magnavita, Nicola; Durando, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    It was recognized early on that an Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) approach could be applied to Public Health (PH), including the area of Occupational Health (OH). The aim of Evidence-Based Occupational Health (EBOH) is to ensure safety, health, and well-being in the workplace. Currently, high-quality research is necessary in order to provide arguments and scientific evidence upon which effective, efficient, and sustainable preventive measures and policies are to be developed in the workplace in Western countries. Occupational physicians need to integrate available scientific evidence and existing recommendations with a framework of national employment laws and regulations. This paper addresses the state of the art of scientific evidence available in the field (i.e., efficacy of interventions, usefulness of education and training of workers, and need of a multidisciplinary strategy integrated within the national PH programs) and the main critical issues for their implementation. Promoting good health is a fundamental part of the smart, inclusive growth objectives of Europe 2020 - Europe's growth strategy: keeping people healthy and active for longer has a positive impact on productivity and competitiveness. It appears clear that health quality and safety in the workplace play a key role for smart, sustainable, and inclusive growth in Western countries.

  11. A Model-Based Approach to Constructing Music Similarity Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamere Paul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have presented systems that estimate the audio similarity of two pieces of music through the calculation of a distance metric, such as the Euclidean distance, between spectral features calculated from the audio, related to the timbre or pitch of the signal. These features can be augmented with other, temporally or rhythmically based features such as zero-crossing rates, beat histograms, or fluctuation patterns to form a more well-rounded music similarity function. It is our contention that perceptual or cultural labels, such as the genre, style, or emotion of the music, are also very important features in the perception of music. These labels help to define complex regions of similarity within the available feature spaces. We demonstrate a machine-learning-based approach to the construction of a similarity metric, which uses this contextual information to project the calculated features into an intermediate space where a music similarity function that incorporates some of the cultural information may be calculated.

  12. A Wavelet-Based Approach to Fall Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Palmerini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Falls among older people are a widely documented public health problem. Automatic fall detection has recently gained huge importance because it could allow for the immediate communication of falls to medical assistance. The aim of this work is to present a novel wavelet-based approach to fall detection, focusing on the impact phase and using a dataset of real-world falls. Since recorded falls result in a non-stationary signal, a wavelet transform was chosen to examine fall patterns. The idea is to consider the average fall pattern as the “prototype fall”.In order to detect falls, every acceleration signal can be compared to this prototype through wavelet analysis. The similarity of the recorded signal with the prototype fall is a feature that can be used in order to determine the difference between falls and daily activities. The discriminative ability of this feature is evaluated on real-world data. It outperforms other features that are commonly used in fall detection studies, with an Area Under the Curve of 0.918. This result suggests that the proposed wavelet-based feature is promising and future studies could use this feature (in combination with others considering different fall phases in order to improve the performance of fall detection algorithms.

  13. Improving mobile robot localization: grid-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junchi

    2012-02-01

    Autonomous mobile robots have been widely studied not only as advanced facilities for industrial and daily life automation, but also as a testbed in robotics competitions for extending the frontier of current artificial intelligence. In many of such contests, the robot is supposed to navigate on the ground with a grid layout. Based on this observation, we present a localization error correction method by exploring the geometric feature of the tile patterns. On top of the classical inertia-based positioning, our approach employs three fiber-optic sensors that are assembled under the bottom of the robot, presenting an equilateral triangle layout. The sensor apparatus, together with the proposed supporting algorithm, are designed to detect a line's direction (vertical or horizontal) by monitoring the grid crossing events. As a result, the line coordinate information can be fused to rectify the cumulative localization deviation from inertia positioning. The proposed method is analyzed theoretically in terms of its error bound and also has been implemented and tested on a customary developed two-wheel autonomous mobile robot.

  14. Risk-based configuration control system: Analysis and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.; Kim, I.S.; Lofgren, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of risks associated with component outage configurations during power operation of a nuclear power plant and discusses approaches and strategies for developing a risk-based configuration control system. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component states. The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations using a risk-perspective. The configuration contributions to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability are studied for two plants. Large core-melt frequency can be caused by configurations and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the actual core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. Effective strategies and criteria for controlling configuration risks are presented. Such control strategies take into consideration the risks associated with configurations, the nature and characteristics of the configuration risks, and also the practical considerations such as adequate repair times and/or options to transfer to low risk configurations. Alternative types of criteria are discussed that are not overly restrictive to result in unnecessary plant shutdown, but rather motivates effective tests and maintenance practices that control; risk-significant configurations to allow continued operation with an adequate margin to meet challenges to safety. 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Challenges of Future VANET and Cloud-Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Shrestha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have been studied intensively due to their wide variety of applications and services, such as passenger safety, enhanced traffic efficiency, and infotainment. With the evolution of technology and sudden growth in the number of smart vehicles, traditional VANETs face several technical challenges in deployment and management due to less flexibility, scalability, poor connectivity, and inadequate intelligence. Cloud computing is considered a way to satisfy these requirements in VANETs. However, next-generation VANETs will have special requirements of autonomous vehicles with high mobility, low latency, real-time applications, and connectivity, which may not be resolved by conventional cloud computing. Hence, merging of fog computing with the conventional cloud for VANETs is discussed as a potential solution for several issues in current and future VANETs. In addition, fog computing can be enhanced by integrating Software-Defined Network (SDN, which provides flexibility, programmability, and global knowledge of the network. We present two example scenarios for timely dissemination of safety messages in future VANETs based on fog and a combination of fog and SDN. We also explained the issues that need to be resolved for the deployment of three different cloud-based approaches.

  16. Defining Resilience and Vulnerability Based on Ontology Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, T.; Matsui, T.; Endo, A.

    2014-12-01

    It is necessary to reflect the concepts of resilience and vulnerability into the assessment framework of "Human-Environmental Security", but it is also in difficulty to identify the linkage between both concepts because of the difference of the academic community which has discussed each concept. The authors have been developing the ontology which deals with the sustainability of the social-ecological systems (SESs). Resilience and vulnerability are also the concepts in the target world which this ontology covers. Based on this point, this paper aims at explicating the semantic relationship between the concepts of resilience and vulnerability based on ontology engineering approach. For this purpose, we first examine the definitions of resilience and vulnerability which the existing literatures proposed. Second, we incorporate the definitions in the ontology dealing with sustainability of SESs. Finally, we focus on the "Water-Energy-Food Nexus Index" to assess Human-Environmental Security, and clarify how the concepts of resilience and vulnerability are linked semantically through the concepts included in these index items.

  17. Rash Decisions: An Approach to Dangerous Rashes Based on Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santistevan, Jamie; Long, Brit; Koyfman, Alex

    2017-04-01

    Rash is a common complaint in the emergency department. Many causes of rash are benign; however, some patients may have a life-threatening diagnosis. This review will present an algorithmic approach to rashes, focusing on life-threatening causes of rash in each category. Rash is common, with a wide range of etiologies. The differential is broad, consisting of many conditions that are self-resolving. However, several conditions associated with rash are life threatening. Several keys can be utilized to rapidly diagnose and manage these deadly rashes. Thorough history and physical examination, followed by consideration of red flags, are essential. This review focuses on four broad categories based on visual and tactile characteristic patterns of rashes: petechial/purpuric, erythematous, maculopapular, and vesiculobullous. Rashes in each morphologic group will be further categorized based on clinical features such as the presence or absence of fever and distribution of skin lesions. Rashes can be divided into petechial/purpuric, erythematous, maculopapular, and vesiculobullous. After this differentiation, the presence of fever and systemic signs of illness should be assessed. Through the breakdown of rashes into these classes, emergency providers can ensure deadly conditions are considered. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. A new approach to sperm preservation based on bioenergetic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, D P; Feltmann, A J

    2010-04-01

    To date, attempts to preserve chicken sperm have been based on a trial-and-error experimental approach. The present work outlines the development of an alternative approach based on empiricism and bioenergetic theory. In previous work, we found fowl sperm motility to be dependent on mitochondrial calcium cycling, phospholipase A(2), and long-chain fatty acids as an endogenous energy source. It is noteworthy that fowl sperm reside within the sperm storage tubules (SST) of the oviduct over an interval of days to weeks after insemination. In this regard, a model for in vivo sperm storage was developed and tested in additional previous research. Sperm penetration of the SST, sperm residence within the SST, and sperm egress from the SST can be explained in terms mitochondrial function. Understanding sperm function and longevity in terms of bioenergetics presented the possibility that sperm could be inactivated by disrupting mitochondrial calcium cycling and could thereby be preserved. However, this possibility also posed a problem: maintenance of the inner membrane potential of the mitochondrion within inactivated sperm. This report describes a series of experiments in which fowl sperm were inactivated by treatment with the calcium chelator tetrasodium 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, and then reactivated by treatment with calcium ions. The effect of tetrasodium 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid on mitochondrial calcium cycling was confirmed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. When treated sperm were cooled to 10 degrees C, inactivated sperm could be reactivated throughout a 5-h storage interval. When stored sperm were held for 3 h before reactivation and insemination, fertility was 88% of the control. Storage did not affect hatchability. In summary, short-term storage was realized by manipulating mitochondrial function. We propose that 1) complex V consumes ATP within inactivated sperm and, by doing so, maintains

  19. A Learning-Based Approach for IP Geolocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Brian; Barford, Paul; Sommers, Joel; Nowak, Robert

    The ability to pinpoint the geographic location of IP hosts is compelling for applications such as on-line advertising and network attack diagnosis. While prior methods can accurately identify the location of hosts in some regions of the Internet, they produce erroneous results when the delay or topology measurement on which they are based is limited. The hypothesis of our work is that the accuracy of IP geolocation can be improved through the creation of a flexible analytic framework that accommodates different types of geolocation information. In this paper, we describe a new framework for IP geolocation that reduces to a machine-learning classification problem. Our methodology considers a set of lightweight measurements from a set of known monitors to a target, and then classifies the location of that target based on the most probable geographic region given probability densities learned from a training set. For this study, we employ a Naive Bayes framework that has low computational complexity and enables additional environmental information to be easily added to enhance the classification process. To demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of our approach, we test IP geolocation on over 16,000 routers given ping measurements from 78 monitors with known geographic placement. Our results show that the simple application of our method improves geolocation accuracy for over 96% of the nodes identified in our data set, with on average accuracy 70 miles closer to the true geographic location versus prior constraint-based geolocation. These results highlight the promise of our method and indicate how future expansion of the classifier can lead to further improvements in geolocation accuracy.

  20. UNTANGLING THE FUNGAL NICHE: A TRAIT-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Crowther

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are prominent components of most terrestrial ecosystems, both in terms of biomass and ecosystem functioning, but the hyper-diverse nature of most communities has obscured the search for unifying principles governing community organization. In particular, unlike plants and animals, observational studies provide little evidence for the existence of niche processes in structuring fungal communities at broad spatial scales. This limits our capacity to predict how communities, and their functioning, vary across landscapes. We outline how a shift in focus, from taxonomy towards functional traits, might prove to be valuable in the search for general patterns in fungal ecology. We build on theoretical advances in plant and animal ecology to provide an empirical framework for a trait-based approach in fungal community ecology. Drawing upon specific characteristics of the fungal system, we highlight the significance of drought stress and combat in structuring free-living fungal communities. We propose a conceptual model to formalize how trade-offs between stress-tolerance and combative dominance are likely to organize communities across environmental gradients. Given that the survival of a fungus in a given environment is contingent on its ability to tolerate antagonistic competitors, measuring variation in combat trait expression along environmental gradients provides a means of elucidating realized, from fundamental niche spaces. We conclude that, using a trait-based understanding of how niche processes structure fungal communities across time and space, we can ultimately link communities with ecosystem functioning. Our trait-based framework highlights fundamental uncertainties that require testing in the fungal system, given their potential to uncover general mechanisms in fungal ecology.

  1. A Value-based Approach to Unspelling Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baryshev Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship and the entrepreneur figure are social phenomena subjected to constant mutations. Extant definitions of entrepreneurship are always based on current characteristics of entrepreneur activity and, as a rule, absolutize them as essential. In the article main mystifications of entrepreneurship are analyzed due to the fact that it is attributed general properties of entrepreneurial activity in the way they are understood in a certain historical period. The paper suggests a way out of the succession of mystifications by rejecting the entrepreneurship definition in the frame of a subject-object interpretive scheme and the development of the entrepreneur activity concept as a kind of social activity. The social action theory and the theory of social objects fetishization are the methodological research foundation. The results of the research are the following. First, the interpretation of the entrepreneur and entrepreneurship on the basis of personal traits, functions and ways of the construction of the future are mystifications ascribing the monopoly on arising and developing human action characteristics in different historical periods to entrepreneurship. Second, the cause of mystifications is the transfer of the human action analysis according to the scheme «subject-process-object » to the research of entrepreneurship. Third, attempts to overcome mystifications while preserving the naturalistic approach result in the multiplication of entrepreneurial mystifications as the reflection of new arising general characteristics of human action. Fourth, a general approach to the definition of the entrepreneurial action as a kind of the social action, which has sense in the value production and is capable of everlasting enrichment with new modus of actions and created values, is suggested. Perspectives of further research include the investigation of synchronic and diachronic peculiarities of entrepreneurial action modus and produced values.

  2. Management of diabetic complications: a chemical constituents based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Randhir; Kaur, Navpreet; Kishore, Lalit; Gupta, Girish Kumar

    2013-10-28

    Long term hyperglycemia leads to development of complications associated with diabetes. Diabetic complications are now a global health problem without effective therapeutic approach. Hyperglycemia and oxidative stress are important components for the development of diabetic complications. Over the past few decades, herbal medicines have attracted much attention as potential therapeutic agents in the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications due to their multiple targets and less toxic side effects. This review aims to assess the current available knowledge of medicinal herbs for attenuation and management of diabetic complications and their underlying mechanisms. Bibliographic investigation was carried out by scrutinizing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases (SCOPUS, PUBMED, SCIELO, NISCAIR, Google Scholar) to retrieve available published literature. The inclusion criteria for the selection of plants were based upon all medicinal herbs and their active compounds with attributed potentials in relieving diabetic complications. Moreover, plants which have potential effect in ameliorating oxidative stress in diabetic animals have been included. Overall, 238 articles were reviewed for plant literature and out of the reviewed literature, 127 articles were selected for the study. Various medicinal plants/plant extracts containing flavonoids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, saponins and phytosterol type chemical constituents were found to be effective in the management of diabetic complications. This effect might be attributed to amelioration of persistent hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and modulation of various metabolic pathways involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Screening chemical candidate from herbal medicine might be a promising approach for new drug discovery to treat the diabetic complications. There is still a dire need to explore the mechanism of action of

  3. Global Crop Monitoring: A Satellite-Based Hierarchical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfang Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of multiple new remote sensing data sources, especially from Chinese satellites, the CropWatch system has expanded the scope of its international analyses through the development of new indicators and an upgraded operational methodology. The approach adopts a hierarchical system covering four spatial levels of detail: global, regional, national (thirty-one key countries including China and “sub-countries” (for the nine largest countries. The thirty-one countries encompass more that 80% of both production and exports of maize, rice, soybean and wheat. The methodology resorts to climatic and remote sensing indicators at different scales. The global patterns of crop environmental growing conditions are first analyzed with indicators for rainfall, temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR as well as potential biomass. At the regional scale, the indicators pay more attention to crops and include Vegetation Health Index (VHI, Vegetation Condition Index (VCI, Cropped Arable Land Fraction (CALF as well as Cropping Intensity (CI. Together, they characterize crop situation, farming intensity and stress. CropWatch carries out detailed crop condition analyses at the national scale with a comprehensive array of variables and indicators. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, cropped areas and crop conditions are integrated to derive food production estimates. For the nine largest countries, CropWatch zooms into the sub-national units to acquire detailed information on crop condition and production by including new indicators (e.g., Crop type proportion. Based on trend analysis, CropWatch also issues crop production supply outlooks, covering both long-term variations and short-term dynamic changes in key food exporters and importers. The hierarchical approach adopted by CropWatch is the basis of the analyses of climatic and crop conditions assessments published in the quarterly “CropWatch bulletin” which

  4. Frame-based safety analysis approach for decision-based errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Chin-Feng; Yihb, Swu

    1997-01-01

    A frame-based approach is proposed to analyze decision-based errors made by automatic controllers or human operators due to erroneous reference frames. An integrated framework, Two Frame Model (TFM), is first proposed to model the dynamic interaction between the physical process and the decision-making process. Two important issues, consistency and competing processes, are raised. Consistency between the physical and logic frames makes a TFM-based system work properly. Loss of consistency refers to the failure mode that the logic frame does not accurately reflect the state of the controlled processes. Once such failure occurs, hazards may arise. Among potential hazards, the competing effect between the controller and the controlled process is the most severe one, which may jeopardize a defense-in-depth design. When the logic and physical frames are inconsistent, conventional safety analysis techniques are inadequate. We propose Frame-based Fault Tree; Analysis (FFTA) and Frame-based Event Tree Analysis (FETA) under TFM to deduce the context for decision errors and to separately generate the evolution of the logical frame as opposed to that of the physical frame. This multi-dimensional analysis approach, different from the conventional correctness-centred approach, provides a panoramic view in scenario generation. Case studies using the proposed techniques are also given to demonstrate their usage and feasibility

  5. An Event-driven, Value-based, Pull Systems Engineering Scheduling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    combining a services approach to systems engineering with a kanban -based scheduling system. It provides the basis for validating the approach with...agent-based simulations. Keywords-systems engineering; systems engineering process; lean; kanban ; process simulation I. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND...approaches [8], [9], we are investigating the use of flow-based pull scheduling techniques ( kanban systems) in a rapid response development

  6. Nuclear emergency response planning based on participatory decision analytic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.

    2004-10-01

    This work was undertaken in order to develop methods and techniques for evaluating systematically and comprehensively protective action strategies in the case of a nuclear or radiation emergency. This was done in a way that the concerns and issues of all key players related to decisions on protective actions could be aggregated into decision- making transparently and in an equal manner. An approach called facilitated workshop, based on the theory of Decision Analysis, was tailored and tested in the planning of actions to be taken. The work builds on case studies in which it was assumed that a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore different types of protective actions should be considered. Altogether six workshops were organised in which all key players were represented, i.e., the authorities, expert organisations, industry and agricultural producers. The participants were those responsible for preparing advice or presenting matters for those responsible for the formal decision-making. Many preparatory meetings were held with various experts to prepare information for the workshops. It was considered essential that the set-up strictly follow the decision- making process to which the key players are accustomed. Key players or stakeholders comprise responsible administrators and organisations, politicians as well as representatives of the citizens affected and other persons who will and are likely to take part in decision-making in nuclear emergencies. The realistic nature and the disciplined process of a facilitated workshop and commitment to decision-making yielded up insight in many radiation protection issues. The objectives and attributes which are considered in a decision on protective actions were discussed in many occasions and were defined for different accident scenario to come. In the workshops intervention levels were derived according justification and optimisation

  7. Semantics based approach for analyzing disease-target associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaalia, Rama; Ghosh, Indira

    2016-08-01

    A complex disease is caused by heterogeneous biological interactions between genes and their products along with the influence of environmental factors. There have been many attempts for understanding the cause of these diseases using experimental, statistical and computational methods. In the present work the objective is to address the challenge of representation and integration of information from heterogeneous biomedical aspects of a complex disease using semantics based approach. Semantic web technology is used to design Disease Association Ontology (DAO-db) for representation and integration of disease associated information with diabetes as the case study. The functional associations of disease genes are integrated using RDF graphs of DAO-db. Three semantic web based scoring algorithms (PageRank, HITS (Hyperlink Induced Topic Search) and HITS with semantic weights) are used to score the gene nodes on the basis of their functional interactions in the graph. Disease Association Ontology for Diabetes (DAO-db) provides a standard ontology-driven platform for describing genes, proteins, pathways involved in diabetes and for integrating functional associations from various interaction levels (gene-disease, gene-pathway, gene-function, gene-cellular component and protein-protein interactions). An automatic instance loader module is also developed in present work that helps in adding instances to DAO-db on a large scale. Our ontology provides a framework for querying and analyzing the disease associated information in the form of RDF graphs. The above developed methodology is used to predict novel potential targets involved in diabetes disease from the long list of loose (statistically associated) gene-disease associations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Crack identification for rotating machines based on a nonlinear approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalini, A. A., Jr.; Sanches, L.; Bachschmid, N.; Steffen, V., Jr.

    2016-10-01

    In a previous contribution, a crack identification methodology based on a nonlinear approach was proposed. The technique uses external applied diagnostic forces at certain frequencies attaining combinational resonances, together with a pseudo-random optimization code, known as Differential Evolution, in order to characterize the signatures of the crack in the spectral responses of the flexible rotor. The conditions under which combinational resonances appear were determined by using the method of multiple scales. In real conditions, the breathing phenomenon arises from the stress and strain distribution on the cross-sectional area of the crack. This mechanism behavior follows the static and dynamic loads acting on the rotor. Therefore, the breathing crack can be simulated according to the Mayes' model, in which the crack transition from fully opened to fully closed is described by a cosine function. However, many contributions try to represent the crack behavior by machining a small notch on the shaft instead of the fatigue process. In this paper, the open and breathing crack models are compared regarding their dynamic behavior and the efficiency of the proposed identification technique. The additional flexibility introduced by the crack is calculated by using the linear fracture mechanics theory (LFM). The open crack model is based on LFM and the breathing crack model corresponds to the Mayes' model, which combines LFM with a given breathing mechanism. For illustration purposes, a rotor composed by a horizontal flexible shaft, two rigid discs, and two self-aligning ball bearings is used to compose a finite element model of the system. Then, numerical simulation is performed to determine the dynamic behavior of the rotor. Finally, the results of the inverse problem conveyed show that the methodology is a reliable tool that is able to estimate satisfactorily the location and depth of the crack.

  9. An improved approach for flow-based cloud point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Rocha, Fábio R P

    2014-04-11

    Novel strategies are proposed to circumvent the main drawbacks of flow-based cloud point extraction (CPE). The surfactant-rich phase (SRP) was directly retained into the optical path of the spectrophotometric cell, thus avoiding its dilution previously to the measurement and yielding higher sensitivity. Solenoid micro-pumps were exploited to improve mixing by the pulsed flow and also to modulate the flow-rate for retention and removal of the SRP, thus avoiding the elution step, often carried out with organic solvents. The heat released and the increase of the salt concentration provided by an on-line neutralization reaction were exploited to induce the cloud point without an external heating device. These innovations were demonstrated by the spectrophotometric determination of iron, yielding a linear response from 10 to 200 μg L(-1) with a coefficient of variation of 2.3% (n=7). Detection limit and sampling rate were estimated at 5 μg L(-1) (95% confidence level) and 26 samples per hour, respectively. The enrichment factor was 8.9 and the procedure consumed only 6 μg of TAN and 390 μg of Triton X-114 per determination. At the 95% confidence level, the results obtained for freshwater samples agreed with the reference procedure and those obtained for digests of bovine muscle, rice flour, brown bread and tort lobster agreed with the certified reference values. The proposed procedure thus shows advantages in relation to previously proposed approaches for flow-based CPE, being a fast and environmental friendly alternative for on-line separation and pre-concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reliability Coupled Sensitivity Based Design Approach for Gravity Retaining Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha Ray, A.; Baidya, D. K.

    2012-09-01

    Sensitivity analysis involving different random variables and different potential failure modes of a gravity retaining wall focuses on the fact that high sensitivity of a particular variable on a particular mode of failure does not necessarily imply a remarkable contribution to the overall failure probability. The present paper aims at identifying a probabilistic risk factor ( R f ) for each random variable based on the combined effects of failure probability ( P f ) of each mode of failure of a gravity retaining wall and sensitivity of each of the random variables on these failure modes. P f is calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis of each random variable is carried out by F-test analysis. The structure, redesigned by modifying the original random variables with the risk factors, is safe against all the variations of random variables. It is observed that R f for friction angle of backfill soil ( φ 1 ) increases and cohesion of foundation soil ( c 2 ) decreases with an increase of variation of φ 1 , while R f for unit weights ( γ 1 and γ 2 ) for both soil and friction angle of foundation soil ( φ 2 ) remains almost constant for variation of soil properties. The results compared well with some of the existing deterministic and probabilistic methods and found to be cost-effective. It is seen that if variation of φ 1 remains within 5 %, significant reduction in cross-sectional area can be achieved. But if the variation is more than 7-8 %, the structure needs to be modified. Finally design guidelines for different wall dimensions, based on the present approach, are proposed.

  11. Anion-based approaches to tunable functionality in oxide heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Steven

    2014-03-01

    The ability to control the position and composition of the anion site is emerging as a promising route to tune properties in epitaxial perovskites. This talk will focus on recent and ongoing efforts aimed at developing anion-based approaches to tailor electronic and magnetic properties in oxide films. First, I will discuss how the position of the oxygen anions can be tailored to stabilize non-bulk-like bond angles and lengths, thereby altering electronic bandwidth. Recent work on La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 will be presented in which ultrathin films under the same strain state exhibit dramatically different electronic and magnetic properties when grown on substrates with different symmetries. In the second half of the talk, I will describe efforts focused on altering the composition of the anion site. In La1/3Sr2/3FeO3-δ films, a reversible change in oxygen content leads to dramatic changes in electrical, optical, and structural properties. Finally, the synthesis of oxyfluoride ferrite and nickelate perovskite films via topotactic reactions carried out following thin film deposition will be described. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research (N00014-11-1-0664) and the U. S. Army Research Office (W911NF-12-1-0132).

  12. Test of cold asphalt storability based on alternative approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaffyová, Zora; Komačka, Jozef

    2017-09-01

    Cold asphalt products for potholes repairs should be workable (soft enough) for long time to ensure their applicability. Storability is assessed indirectly using various tests of workability. Therefore, simple test methods (self-compaction and disintegration test) was developed and verified to investigate changes of storability of this group of cold asphalts. Selfcompaction of the tested mixture in the upturned Abram’s cone for the cement concrete slump test and in the mould for the California Bearing Ratio test was assessed in first stage. After that the video record of disintegration test was taken. During this test, the mould was lifted up and the mixture fell off the mould (Abram’s cone) or disintegrate (CBR mould). The drop of surface after 10 min self-compaction and netto time related to falling out or disintegration of the mixture were used to evaluate the mixture from storability point of view. It was found out the self-compaction test has not a potential to reveal and prove changes of mixture properties. Based on the disintegration test results it can be stated this test at 5 °C using the upturned Abram’s cone could be a suitable approach to determine qualitative changes of a cold mixture from storability point of view.

  13. A Rights-based Approach to Information in Humanitarian Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarnecchia, Daniel P; Raymond, Nathaniel A; Greenwood, Faine; Howarth, Caitlin; Poole, Danielle N

    2017-09-20

    Crisis-affected populations and humanitarian aid providers are both becoming increasingly reliant on information and communications technology (ICTs) for finding and provisioning aid. This is exposing critical, unaddressed gaps in the legal and ethical frameworks that traditionally defined and governed the professional conduct of humanitarian action. The most acute of these gaps is a lack of clarity about what human rights people have regarding information in disaster, and the corresponding obligations incumbent upon governments and aid providers.  This need is lent urgency by emerging evidence demonstrating that the use of these technologies in crisis response may be, in some cases, causing harm to the very populations they intend to serve.  Preventing and mitigating these harms, while also working to responsibly ensure access to the benefits of information during crises, requires a rights-based framework to guide humanitarian operations. In this brief report, we provide a commentary that accompanies our report, the Signal Code: A Human Rights Approach to Information During Crisis, where we have identified five rights pertaining to the use of information and data during crisis which are grounded in current international human rights and customary law. It is our belief that the continued relevance of the humanitarian project, as it grows increasingly dependent on the use of data and ICTs, urgently requires a discussion of these rights and corresponding obligations.

  14. Rethinking Physics for Biologists: A design-based research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawtelle, Vashti

    2015-03-01

    Biology majors at the University of Maryland are required to take courses in biology, chemistry, and physics - but they often see these courses as disconnected. Over the past three years the NEXUS/Physics course has been working to develop an interdisciplinary learning environment that bridges the disciplinary domains of biology and physics. Across the three years we have gone from teaching in a small class with one instructor to teaching in a large lecture hall with multiple instructors. We have used a design-based research approach to support critical reflection of the course at multiple-time scales. In this presentation I will detail our process of collecting systematic data, listening to and valuing students' reasoning, and bridging diverse perspectives led. I will demonstrate how this process led to improved curricular design, refined assessment objectives, and new design heuristics. This work is supported by NSF-TUES DUE 11-22818, the HHMI NEXUS grant, and a NSF Graduate Research Fellowship (DGE 0750616).

  15. A Bayesian decision approach to rainfall thresholds based flood warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. V. Martina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational real time flood forecasting systems generally require a hydrological model to run in real time as well as a series of hydro-informatics tools to transform the flood forecast into relatively simple and clear messages to the decision makers involved in flood defense. The scope of this paper is to set forth the possibility of providing flood warnings at given river sections based on the direct comparison of the quantitative precipitation forecast with critical rainfall threshold values, without the need of an on-line real time forecasting system. This approach leads to an extremely simplified alert system to be used by non technical stakeholders and could also be used to supplement the traditional flood forecasting systems in case of system failures. The critical rainfall threshold values, incorporating the soil moisture initial conditions, result from statistical analyses using long hydrological time series combined with a Bayesian utility function minimization. In the paper, results of an application of the proposed methodology to the Sieve river, a tributary of the Arno river in Italy, are given to exemplify its practical applicability.

  16. Genre based Approach to Teach Writing Descriptive Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Ngurah Rusmawan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discuss how teaching and learning activities were carried out by using Genre based Approach in teaching writing descriptive text at junior high school. This study was conducted in the classroom of VII-1. Therefore, the appropriate design was qualitative research design. The subject of the study was the English teacher. To collect data, the researcher used observation and interview. The finding of the study described that the teaching and learning activities that were carried out by the teacher fulfilled the basic competencies. The teacher carried out the opening teaching activities by greeting, asking the students’ preparation during the lesson, checking the student’s attendance list, and informing the learning objective. The teacher carried out the main teaching activities by informing about how to write a descriptive text, giving, and asking opinions, eliciting the students’ understanding, prompting and directing to do exercises. The teacher carried out the closing teaching activities by directing the student to continue at home and eliciting the students’ reflection of what they could learn at that time.

  17. Experimental oligopolies modeling: A dynamic approach based on heterogeneous behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerboni Baiardi, Lorenzo; Naimzada, Ahmad K.

    2018-05-01

    In the rank of behavioral rules, imitation-based heuristics has received special attention in economics (see [14] and [12]). In particular, imitative behavior is considered in order to understand the evidences arising in experimental oligopolies which reveal that the Cournot-Nash equilibrium does not emerge as unique outcome and show that an important component of the production at the competitive level is observed (see e.g.[1,3,9] or [7,10]). By considering the pioneering groundbreaking approach of [2], we build a dynamical model of linear oligopolies where heterogeneous decision mechanisms of players are made explicit. In particular, we consider two different types of quantity setting players characterized by different decision mechanisms that coexist and operate simultaneously: agents that adaptively adjust their choices towards the direction that increases their profit are embedded with imitator agents. The latter ones use a particular form of proportional imitation rule that considers the awareness about the presence of strategic interactions. It is noteworthy that the Cournot-Nash outcome is a stationary state of our models. Our thesis is that the chaotic dynamics arousing from a dynamical model, where heterogeneous players are considered, are capable to qualitatively reproduce the outcomes of experimental oligopolies.

  18. Concept-based query language approach to enterprise information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Timo; Junkkari, Marko; Järvelin, Kalervo

    2014-01-01

    In enterprise information systems (EISs) it is necessary to model, integrate and compute very diverse data. In advanced EISs the stored data often are based both on structured (e.g. relational) and semi-structured (e.g. XML) data models. In addition, the ad hoc information needs of end-users may require the manipulation of data-oriented (structural), behavioural and deductive aspects of data. Contemporary languages capable of treating this kind of diversity suit only persons with good programming skills. In this paper we present a concept-oriented query language approach to manipulate this diversity so that the programming skill requirements are considerably reduced. In our query language, the features which need technical knowledge are hidden in application-specific concepts and structures. Therefore, users need not be aware of the underlying technology. Application-specific concepts and structures are represented by the modelling primitives of the extended RDOOM (relational deductive object-oriented modelling) which contains primitives for all crucial real world relationships (is-a relationship, part-of relationship, association), XML documents and views. Our query language also supports intensional and extensional-intensional queries, in addition to conventional extensional queries. In its query formulation, the end-user combines available application-specific concepts and structures through shared variables.

  19. A mechanistic based approach for enhancing buccal mucoadhesion of chitosan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Muff-Westergaard, Christian; Sander, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems can enhance rapid drug absorption by providing an increased retention time at the site of absorption and a steep concentration gradient. An understanding of the mechanisms behind mucoadhesion of polymers, e.g. chitosan, is necessary for improving the muco......Mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems can enhance rapid drug absorption by providing an increased retention time at the site of absorption and a steep concentration gradient. An understanding of the mechanisms behind mucoadhesion of polymers, e.g. chitosan, is necessary for improving...... the mucoadhesiveness of buccal formulations. The interaction between chitosan of different chain lengths and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) was studied using a complex coacervation model (CCM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a tensile detachment model (TDM). The effect of pH was assessed in all three models...... and the approach to add a buffer to chitosan based drug delivery systems is a means to optimize and enhance buccal drug absorption. The CCM demonstrated optimal interactions between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2. The ITC experiments showed a significantly increase in affinity between chitosan and PGM at pH 5...

  20. ICWorld: An MMOG-Based Approach to Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt Wong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence analysts routinely work with "wicked" problems—critical,time-sensitive problems where analytical errors can lead to catastrophic consequences for the nation's security. In the analyst's world, important decisions are often made quickly, and are made based on consuming, understanding, and piecing together enormous volumes of data. The data is not only voluminous, but often fragmented, subjective, inaccurate and fluid.Why does multi-player on-line gaming (MMOG technology matter to the IC? Fundamentally, there are two reasons. The first is technological: stripping away the gamelike content, MMOGs are dynamic systems that represent a physical world, where users are presented with (virtual life-and-death challenges that can only be overcome through planning, collaboration and communication. The second is cultural: the emerging generation of analysts is part of what is sometimes called the "Digital Natives" (Prensky 2001 and is fluent with interactive media. MMOGs enable faster visualization, data manipulation, collaboration and analysis than traditional text and imagery.ICWorld is an MMOG approach to intelligence analysis that fuses ideasfrom experts in the fields of gaming and data visualization, with knowledge of current and future intelligence analysis processes and tools. The concept has evolved over the last year as a result of evaluations by allsource analysts from around the IC. When fully developed, the Forterra team believes that ICWorld will fundamentally address major shortcomings of intelligence analysis, and dramatically improve the effectiveness of intelligence products.

  1. An approach to accidents modeling based on compounds road environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana; Neves, Jose

    2013-04-01

    The most common approach to study the influence of certain road features on accidents has been the consideration of uniform road segments characterized by a unique feature. However, when an accident is related to the road infrastructure, its cause is usually not a single characteristic but rather a complex combination of several characteristics. The main objective of this paper is to describe a methodology developed in order to consider the road as a complete environment by using compound road environments, overcoming the limitations inherented in considering only uniform road segments. The methodology consists of: dividing a sample of roads into segments; grouping them into quite homogeneous road environments using cluster analysis; and identifying the influence of skid resistance and texture depth on road accidents in each environment by using generalized linear models. The application of this methodology is demonstrated for eight roads. Based on real data from accidents and road characteristics, three compound road environments were established where the pavement surface properties significantly influence the occurrence of accidents. Results have showed clearly that road environments where braking maneuvers are more common or those with small radii of curvature and high speeds require higher skid resistance and texture depth as an important contribution to the accident prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A retrieval-based approach to eliminating hindsight bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boekel, Martin; Varma, Keisha; Varma, Sashank

    2017-03-01

    Individuals exhibit hindsight bias when they are unable to recall their original responses to novel questions after correct answers are provided to them. Prior studies have eliminated hindsight bias by modifying the conditions under which original judgments or correct answers are encoded. Here, we explored whether hindsight bias can be eliminated by manipulating the conditions that hold at retrieval. Our retrieval-based approach predicts that if the conditions at retrieval enable sufficient discrimination of memory representations of original judgments from memory representations of correct answers, then hindsight bias will be reduced or eliminated. Experiment 1 used the standard memory design to replicate the hindsight bias effect in middle-school students. Experiments 2 and 3 modified the retrieval phase of this design, instructing participants beforehand that they would be recalling both their original judgments and the correct answers. As predicted, this enabled participants to form compound retrieval cues that discriminated original judgment traces from correct answer traces, and eliminated hindsight bias. Experiment 4 found that when participants were not instructed beforehand that they would be making both recalls, they did not form discriminating retrieval cues, and hindsight bias returned. These experiments delineate the retrieval conditions that produce-and fail to produce-hindsight bias.

  3. Artistic image analysis using graph-based learning approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Gustavo

    2013-08-01

    We introduce a new methodology for the problem of artistic image analysis, which among other tasks, involves the automatic identification of visual classes present in an art work. In this paper, we advocate the idea that artistic image analysis must explore a graph that captures the network of artistic influences by computing the similarities in terms of appearance and manual annotation. One of the novelties of our methodology is the proposed formulation that is a principled way of combining these two similarities in a single graph. Using this graph, we show that an efficient random walk algorithm based on an inverted label propagation formulation produces more accurate annotation and retrieval results compared with the following baseline algorithms: bag of visual words, label propagation, matrix completion, and structural learning. We also show that the proposed approach leads to a more efficient inference and training procedures. This experiment is run on a database containing 988 artistic images (with 49 visual classification problems divided into a multiclass problem with 27 classes and 48 binary problems), where we show the inference and training running times, and quantitative comparisons with respect to several retrieval and annotation performance measures.

  4. A Google Trends-based approach for monitoring NSSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bragazzi NL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Luigi Bragazzi DINOGMI, Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, Section of Psychiatry, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy Abstract: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is an intentional, direct, and socially unacceptable behavior resulting in the destruction of one's own body tissues with no intention of dying or committing suicide, even though it is associated with a higher risk of attempted, planned, or just considered suicide. In this preliminary report, we introduce the concept of “NSSI 2.0”; that is to say, the study of the Internet usage by subjects with NSSI, and we introduce a Google Trends-based approach for monitoring NSSI, called NSSI infodemiology and infoveillance. Despite some limitations, Google Trends has already proven to be reliable for infectious diseases monitoring, and here we extend its application and potentiality in the field of suicidology. Ad hoc web portals and surveys could be designed in light of the reported results for helping people with NSSI. Keywords: infodemiology, infoveillance, Internet, non-suicidal self-injury

  5. A Fabric-Based Approach for Wearable Haptics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bianchi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wearable haptic systems (WHS have gained increasing attention as a novel and exciting paradigm for human–robot interaction (HRI. These systems can be worn by users, carried around, and integrated in their everyday lives, thus enabling a more natural manner to deliver tactile cues. At the same time, the design of these types of devices presents new issues: the challenge is the correct identification of design guidelines, with the two-fold goal of minimizing system encumbrance and increasing the effectiveness and naturalness of stimulus delivery. Fabrics can represent a viable solution to tackle these issues. They are specifically thought “to be worn”, and could be the key ingredient to develop wearable haptic interfaces conceived for a more natural HRI. In this paper, the author will review some examples of fabric-based WHS that can be applied to different body locations, and elicit different haptic perceptions for different application fields. Perspective and future developments of this approach will be discussed.

  6. Cuff-less PPG based continuous blood pressure monitoring: a smartphone based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaurav, Aman; Maheedhar, Maram; Tiwari, Vijay N; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2016-08-01

    Cuff-less estimation of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure is an efficient approach for non-invasive and continuous monitoring of an individual's vitals. Although pulse transit time (PTT) based approaches have been successful in estimating the systolic and diastolic blood pressures to a reasonable degree of accuracy, there is still scope for improvement in terms of accuracies. Moreover, PTT approach requires data from sensors placed at two different locations along with individual calibration of physiological parameters for deriving correct estimation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) and hence is not suitable for smartphone deployment. Heart Rate Variability is one of the extensively used non-invasive parameters to assess cardiovascular autonomic nervous system and is known to be associated with SBP and DBP indirectly. In this work, we propose a novel method to extract a comprehensive set of features by combining PPG signal based and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) related features using a single PPG sensor. Further, these features are fed into a DBP feedback based combinatorial neural network model to arrive at a common weighted average output of DBP and subsequently SBP. Our results show that using this current approach, an accuracy of ±6.8 mmHg for SBP and ±4.7 mmHg for DBP is achievable on 1,750,000 pulses extracted from a public database (comprising 3000 people). Since most of the smartphones are now equipped with PPG sensor, a mobile based cuff-less BP estimation will enable the user to monitor their BP as a vital parameter on demand. This will open new avenues towards development of pervasive and continuous BP monitoring systems leading to an early detection and prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Security of Heterogeneous Content in Cloud Based Library Information Systems Using an Ontology Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai DOINEA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As in any domain that involves the use of software, the library information systems take advantages of cloud computing. The paper highlights the main aspect of cloud based systems, describing some public solutions provided by the most important players on the market. Topics related to content security in cloud based services are tackled in order to emphasize the requirements that must be met by these types of systems. A cloud based implementation of an Information Library System is presented and some adjacent tools that are used together with it to provide digital content and metadata links are described. In a cloud based Information Library System security is approached by means of ontologies. Aspects such as content security in terms of digital rights are presented and a methodology for security optimization is proposed.

  8. State Synchronization Approaches in Web-based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grocevs Aleksejs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the article is to provide insight into technologies and approaches available to maintain consistent state on both client and server sides. The article describes basic RIA application state persistence difficulties and offers approaches to overcoming such problems using asynchronous data transmission synchronization channels and other user-available browser abilities.

  9. Comparison of effective Hough transform-based fingerprint alignment approaches

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mlambo, CS

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available points set with larger rotation and small number of points. The DRBA approach was found to perform better with minutiae points with large amount of translation, and the computational time was less than that of LMBA approach. However, the memory usage...

  10. Rainfall Prediction of Indian Peninsula: Comparison of Time Series Based Approach and Predictor Based Approach using Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Y.; Mishra, S. K.; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    Prediction of northeast/post monsoon rainfall which occur during October, November and December (OND) over Indian peninsula is a challenging task due to the dynamic nature of uncertain chaotic climate. It is imperative to elucidate this issue by examining performance of different machine leaning (ML) approaches. The prime objective of this research is to compare between a) statistical prediction using historical rainfall observations and global atmosphere-ocean predictors like Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Sea Level Pressure (SLP) and b) empirical prediction based on a time series analysis of past rainfall data without using any other predictors. Initially, ML techniques have been applied on SST and SLP data (1948-2014) obtained from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis monthly mean provided by the NOAA ESRL PSD. Later, this study investigated the applicability of ML methods using OND rainfall time series for 1948-2014 and forecasted up to 2018. The predicted values of aforementioned methods were verified using observed time series data collected from Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology and the result revealed good performance of ML algorithms with minimal error scores. Thus, it is found that both statistical and empirical methods are useful for long range climatic projections.

  11. A novel Antibody based approach to Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Kurosawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of death among the human race. No valid modalities of treatment other than surgical treatment have been established for this disease. We aimed to identify and to characterize cancer using large number of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs which are specific against their surface for new molecular targeted immunotherapy. In order to find proper targets for therapeutic antibodies against cancers we developed a screening strategy. We used a huge phage library of human antibodies. At the first step we comprehensively isolated many monoclonal antibodies (mAbs that specifically bound to surface of cancer cells. Development of ICOS (Isolation of antigen/antibody complexes through organic solvent method allowed us to succeed in isolation of a huge number of mAbs with various characteristics (Y Akahori et al. 2009. At the next step we selected clones that showed tumor-specific staining patterns in immunohistochemical (IHC analysis by using many fresh cancer tissues reseted. Many surgeons took part in this project. Finally the antigens recognized by these clones were identified by immunoprecipitation (IP followed by analysis with mass (MS spectrometry (G Kurosawa et al. 2009. We have succeeded in identification of 29 tumor-associated antigens (TAAs and in isolation of 441 human mAbs that specifically bound to one of the 29 TAAs (G Kurosawa et al. 2008. In these screenings of the library, rounds of the selection process, mixing of cells and phage particles centrifugation growth of phages, were repeated three to four times in each screening. Therefore, numbers of phages of the clones whose antigens were abundantly present on the cell surface increased during the screenings. Recently we developed a new method for isolation of clones whose antigens were less abundantly present on the cell surface. Hence, we would like to talk on these methodology and discuss regarding this “A novel antibody based approach to Cancer

  12. In Interactive, Web-Based Approach to Metadata Authoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Janine; Wharton, Stephen W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) serves a growing number of users by assisting the scientific community in the discovery of and linkage to Earth science data sets and related services. The GCMD holds over 8000 data set descriptions in Directory Interchange Format (DIF) and 200 data service descriptions in Service Entry Resource Format (SERF), encompassing the disciplines of geology, hydrology, oceanography, meteorology, and ecology. Data descriptions also contain geographic coverage information, thus allowing researchers to discover data pertaining to a particular geographic location, as well as subject of interest. The GCMD strives to be the preeminent data locator for world-wide directory level metadata. In this vein, scientists and data providers must have access to intuitive and efficient metadata authoring tools. Existing GCMD tools are not currently attracting. widespread usage. With usage being the prime indicator of utility, it has become apparent that current tools must be improved. As a result, the GCMD has released a new suite of web-based authoring tools that enable a user to create new data and service entries, as well as modify existing data entries. With these tools, a more interactive approach to metadata authoring is taken, as they feature a visual "checklist" of data/service fields that automatically update when a field is completed. In this way, the user can quickly gauge which of the required and optional fields have not been populated. With the release of these tools, the Earth science community will be further assisted in efficiently creating quality data and services metadata. Keywords: metadata, Earth science, metadata authoring tools

  13. A semantic graph-based approach to biomedical summarisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Laura; Díaz, Alberto; Gervás, Pablo

    2011-09-01

    Access to the vast body of research literature that is available in biomedicine and related fields may be improved by automatic summarisation. This paper presents a method for summarising biomedical scientific literature that takes into consideration the characteristics of the domain and the type of documents. To address the problem of identifying salient sentences in biomedical texts, concepts and relations derived from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) are arranged to construct a semantic graph that represents the document. A degree-based clustering algorithm is then used to identify different themes or topics within the text. Different heuristics for sentence selection, intended to generate different types of summaries, are tested. A real document case is drawn up to illustrate how the method works. A large-scale evaluation is performed using the recall-oriented understudy for gisting-evaluation (ROUGE) metrics. The results are compared with those achieved by three well-known summarisers (two research prototypes and a commercial application) and two baselines. Our method significantly outperforms all summarisers and baselines. The best of our heuristics achieves an improvement in performance of almost 7.7 percentage units in the ROUGE-1 score over the LexRank summariser (0.7862 versus 0.7302). A qualitative analysis of the summaries also shows that our method succeeds in identifying sentences that cover the main topic of the document and also considers other secondary or "satellite" information that might be relevant to the user. The method proposed is proved to be an efficient approach to biomedical literature summarisation, which confirms that the use of concepts rather than terms can be very useful in automatic summarisation, especially when dealing with highly specialised domains. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The ethical approach to evidence-based medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research findings as the basis for clinical decisions”.2 The practice ... paper will explore the role of evidence-based medicine in ethical practice of health care professionals. ... based medicine is used for “evidence-based purchasing”, it will.

  15. A Web Based Approach to Integrate Space Culture and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerla, F.

    2002-01-01

    , who can use it to prepare their lessons, retrieve information and organize the didactic material in order to support their lessons. We think it important to use a user centered "psychology" based on UM: we have to know the needs and expectations of the students. Our intent is to use usability tests not just to prove the site effectiveness and clearness, but also to investigate aesthetical preferences of children and young people. Physics, mathematics, chemistry are just some of the difficult learning fields connected with space technologies. Space culture is a potentially never-ending field, and our scope will be to lead students by hand in this universe of knowledge. This paper will present MARS activities in the framework of the above methodologies aimed at implementing a web based approach to integrate space culture and education. The activities are already in progress and some results will be presented in the final paper.

  16. Sparsity-based shrinkage approach for practicability improvement of H-LBP-based edge extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chenyi [School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Qiao, Shuang, E-mail: qiaos810@nenu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Sun, Jianing, E-mail: sunjn118@nenu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Zhao, Ruikun; Wu, Wei [Jilin Cancer Hospital, Changchun 130021 (China)

    2016-07-21

    The local binary pattern with H function (H-LBP) technique enables fast and efficient edge extraction in digital radiography. In this paper, we reformulate the model of H-LBP and propose a novel sparsity-based shrinkage approach, in which the threshold can be adapted to the data sparsity. Using this model, we upgrade fast H-LBP framework and apply it to real digital radiography. The experiments show that the method improved using the new shrinkage approach can avoid elaborately artificial modulation of parameters and possess greater robustness in edge extraction compared with the other current methods without increasing processing time. - Highlights: • An novel sparsity-based shrinkage approach for edge extraction on digital radiography is proposed. • The threshold of SS-LBP can be adaptive to the data sparsity. • SS-LBP is the development of AH-LBP and H-LBP. • Without boosting processing time and losing processing efficiency, SS-LBP can avoid elaborately artificial modulation of parameters provides. • SS-LBP has more robust performance in edge extraction compared with the existing methods.

  17. The role of hazard- and risk-based approaches in ensuring food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, Susan M.; Boobis, Alan R.; Bridges, Jim

    2015-01-01

    action. Risk-based approaches allow consideration of exposure in assessing whether there may be unacceptable risks to health. Scope and approach The advantages and disadvantages of hazard- and risk-based approaches for ensuring the safety of food chemicals, allergens, ingredients and microorganisms were...

  18. A New Spin on Teaching Vocabulary: A Source-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that teachers should try to use a source-based approach to teaching vocabulary. Explains that a source-based approach starts with basic concepts of human languages and then works with lexical and metaphorical extensions of these basic words. Notes that the purpose of this approach is to find groups of words that can be taught as webs and…

  19. "Rights-based approaches": any new thing under the sun?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2000-01-01

    After infra-structure development, community development, integrated rural development, basic needs, structural adjustment, human development and sustainable development -not to speak of "sustainable human development"- a new "approach" is gaining ground: human rights. The Human Development Report

  20. Zero based programming: a viable security budgeting approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Frederick G

    2003-01-01

    To get additional dollars or avoid budget cuts or personnel reductions, healthcare security directors should consider a budget approach that best justifies the needs of the department or organization.

  1. Cauchy problem for Laplace equation: An observer based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Majeed, Muhammad Usman; Zayane-Aissa, Chadia; Laleg-Kirati, Taous Meriem

    2013-01-01

    domain from the observations on outer boundary. Proposed approach adapts one of the space variables as a time variable. The observer developed to solve Cauchy problem for the Laplace's equation is compuationally robust and accurate. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. The Utility of Synthetic-based Approach of Writing among Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Derakhshandeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends to examine the utility of synthetic-based approach versus traditional approaches of writing among Iranian EFL learners. To achieve this end, ninety students at Upper-Intermediate level were randomly chosen from the English population of Kish and Gooyesh English Institutes. The students were divided into three groups. Group1 was asked to do a writing task based on product-based approach. A writing task based on process-oriented approach was administered to Group2; later on, Group 3 was invited to write a composition to assess their performance based on synthetic-based approach. The result of the t test and two-way ANOVA revealed that the students performed better in writing using synthetic approach rather than traditional approaches to writing.

  3. Nonlinear Modeling of the PEMFC Based On NNARX Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shan-Jen Cheng; Te-Jen Chang; Kuang-Hsiung Tan; Shou-Ling Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is such a time-vary nonlinear dynamic system. The traditional linear modeling approach is hard to estimate structure correctly of PEMFC system. From this reason, this paper presents a nonlinear modeling of the PEMFC using Neural Network Auto-regressive model with eXogenous inputs (NNARX) approach. The multilayer perception (MLP) network is applied to evaluate the structure of the NNARX model of PEMFC. The validity and accurac...

  4. A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid Metal Structures and Electronic Equilibrium - 154041

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0027 A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal Structures and...to 16 Dec 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal...Air Force Research Laboratory for accurately predicting compositions of new amorphous alloys specifically based on aluminium with properties superior

  5. An aniso tropic brane world cosmological model with the bulk-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uluyazi, G.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate brane world models there are two approaches; brane-based or bulk based. In the brane-based approach, the brane is chosen to be fixed on a coordinate system, where as in the bulk-based approach it is no longer static as it moves along the extra dimension. At first attempt, it is aimed to solve five dimensional field equations in the bulk, then limitation of Weyl Curvature describing geometrical anisotropy is analyzed.

  6. Surgical experience with skull base approaches for foramen magnum meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin Sanabria, Elio Arnaldo; Ehara, Kazumasa; Tamaki, Norihiko

    2002-11-01

    The surgical treatment of patients with foramen magnum meningioma remains challenging. This study evaluated the outcome of this tumor according to the evolution of surgical approaches during the last 29 years. A retrospective analysis of medical records, operative notes, and neuroimages of 492 meningioma cases from 1972 to 2001 identified seven cases of foramen magnum meningioma (1.4%). All patients showed various neurological symptoms corresponding with foramen magnum syndrome. The tumor locations were anterior in five cases and posterior in two. Surgical removal was performed through a transoral approach in one patient, the suboccipital approach in three, and the transcondylar approach in two. Total removal was achieved in all patients, except for one who refused any surgical treatment. The major complications were tetraparesis and lower cranial nerve paresis for tumors in anterior locations, and minor complications for posterior locations. One patient died of atelectasis and pneumonia after a long hospitalization. The transcondylar approach is recommended for anterior locations, and the standard suboccipital approach for posterior locations.

  7. On a model-based approach to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waligorski, M.P.R.

    2002-01-01

    There is a preoccupation with linearity and absorbed dose as the basic quantifiers of radiation hazard. An alternative is the fluence approach, whereby radiation hazard may be evaluated, at least in principle, via an appropriate action cross section. In order to compare these approaches, it may be useful to discuss them as quantitative descriptors of survival and transformation-like endpoints in cell cultures in vitro - a system thought to be relevant to modelling radiation hazard. If absorbed dose is used to quantify these biological endpoints, then non-linear dose-effect relations have to be described, and, e.g. after doses of densely ionising radiation, dose-correction factors as high as 20 are required. In the fluence approach only exponential effect-fluence relationships can be readily described. Neither approach alone exhausts the scope of experimentally observed dependencies of effect on dose or fluence. Two-component models, incorporating a suitable mixture of the two approaches, are required. An example of such a model is the cellular track structure theory developed by Katz over thirty years ago. The practical consequences of modelling radiation hazard using this mixed two-component approach are discussed. (author)

  8. The slice balance approach (SBA): a characteristic-based, multiple balance SN approach on unstructured polyhedral meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    The Slice Balance Approach (SBA) is an approach for solving geometrically-complex, neutral-particle transport problems within a multi-group discrete ordinates (S N ) framework. The salient feature is an angle-dependent spatial decomposition. We approximate general surfaces with arbitrary polygonal faces and mesh the geometry with arbitrarily-shaped polyhedral cells. A cell-local spatial decomposition divides cells into angle-dependent slices for each S N direction. This subdivision follows from a characteristic-based view of the transport problem. Most balance-based characteristic methods use it implicitly; we use it explicitly and exploit its properties. Our mathematical approach is a multiple balance approach using exact spatial moments balance equations on cells and slices along with auxiliary relations on slices. We call this the slice balance approach; it is a characteristic-based multiple balance approach. The SBA is intentionally general and can extend differencing schemes to arbitrary 2-D and 3-D meshes. This work contributes to development of general-geometry deterministic transport capability to complement Monte Carlo capability for large, geometrically-complex transport problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe the SBA. We describe the spatial decomposition and mathematical framework and highlight a few interesting properties. We sketch the derivation of two solution schemes, a step characteristic scheme and a diamond-difference-like scheme, to illustrate the approach and we present interesting results for a 2-D problem. (author)

  9. A risk-based approach to flammable gas detector spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defriend, Stephen; Dejmek, Mark; Porter, Leisa; Deshotels, Bob; Natvig, Bernt

    2008-11-15

    Flammable gas detectors allow an operating company to address leaks before they become serious, by automatically alarming and by initiating isolation and safe venting. Without effective gas detection, there is very limited defense against a flammable gas leak developing into a fire or explosion that could cause loss of life or escalate to cascading failures of nearby vessels, piping, and equipment. While it is commonly recognized that some gas detectors are needed in a process plant containing flammable gas or volatile liquids, there is usually a question of how many are needed. The areas that need protection can be determined by dispersion modeling from potential leak sites. Within the areas that must be protected, the spacing of detectors (or alternatively, number of detectors) should be based on risk. Detector design can be characterized by spacing criteria, which is convenient for design - or alternatively by number of detectors, which is convenient for cost reporting. The factors that influence the risk are site-specific, including process conditions, chemical composition, number of potential leak sites, piping design standards, arrangement of plant equipment and structures, design of isolation and depressurization systems, and frequency of detector testing. Site-specific factors such as those just mentioned affect the size of flammable gas cloud that must be detected (within a specified probability) by the gas detection system. A probability of detection must be specified that gives a design with a tolerable risk of fires and explosions. To determine the optimum spacing of detectors, it is important to consider the probability that a detector will fail at some time and be inoperative until replaced or repaired. A cost-effective approach is based on the combined risk from a representative selection of leakage scenarios, rather than a worst-case evaluation. This means that probability and severity of leak consequences must be evaluated together. In marine and

  10. Use of traits-based bioassessment approaches in biomonitoring and ecological risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den P.J.; Alexander, A.; Desrosiers, M.; Goedkoop, W.; Goethals, P.L.M.; Liess, M.; Dyer, S.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the application of traits-based bioassessment approaches in retrospective bioassessment as well as in prospective ecological risk assessments in regulatory frameworks. Both approaches address the interaction between species and stressors and their consequences at different levels of

  11. Reliability analysis - systematic approach based on limited data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourne, A.J.

    1975-11-01

    The initial approaches required for reliability analysis are outlined. These approaches highlight the system boundaries, examine the conditions under which the system is required to operate, and define the overall performance requirements. The discussion is illustrated by a simple example of an automatic protective system for a nuclear reactor. It is then shown how the initial approach leads to a method of defining the system, establishing performance parameters of interest and determining the general form of reliability models to be used. The overall system model and the availability of reliability data at the system level are next examined. An iterative process is then described whereby the reliability model and data requirements are systematically refined at progressively lower hierarchic levels of the system. At each stage, the approach is illustrated with examples from the protective system previously described. The main advantages of the approach put forward are the systematic process of analysis, the concentration of assessment effort in the critical areas and the maximum use of limited reliability data. (author)

  12. Reliability-based optimal structural design by the decoupling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royset, J.O.; Der Kiureghian, A.; Polak, E.

    2001-01-01

    A decoupling approach for solving optimal structural design problems involving reliability terms in the objective function, the constraint set or both is discussed and extended. The approach employs a reformulation of each problem, in which reliability terms are replaced by deterministic functions. The reformulated problems can be solved by existing semi-infinite optimization algorithms and computational reliability methods. It is shown that the reformulated problems produce solutions that are identical to those of the original problems when the limit-state functions defining the reliability problem are affine. For nonaffine limit-state functions, approximate solutions are obtained by solving series of reformulated problems. An important advantage of the approach is that the required reliability and optimization calculations are completely decoupled, thus allowing flexibility in the choice of the optimization algorithm and the reliability computation method

  13. Application of probabilistic risk based optimization approaches in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, W.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a general approach to site-specific risk assessments and optimization procedures. In order to account for uncertainties in the assessment of the current situation and future developments, optimization parameters are treated as probabilistic distributions. The assessments are performed within the framework of a cost-benefit analysis. Radiation hazards and conventional risks are treated within an integrated approach. Special consideration is given to consequences of low probability events such as, earthquakes or major floods. Risks and financial costs are combined to an overall figure of detriment allowing one to distinguish between benefits of available reclamation options. The probabilistic analysis uses a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The paper demonstrates the applicability of this approach in aiding the reclamation planning using an example from the German reclamation program for uranium mining and milling sites

  14. An SVM Based Approach for the Analysis Of Mammography Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, X.; Kapsokalivas, L.; Skaliotis, A.; Steinhöfel, K.; Tangaro, S.

    2007-09-01

    Mammography is among the most popular imaging techniques used in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Nevertheless distinguishing between healthy and ill images is hard even for an experienced radiologist, because a single image usually includes several regions of interest (ROIs). The hardness of this classification problem along with the substantial amount of data, gathered from patients' medical history, motivates the use of a machine learning approach as part of a CAD (Computer Aided Detection) tool, aiming to assist radiologists in the characterization of mammography images. Specifically, our approach involves: i) the ROI extraction, ii) the Feature Vector extraction, iii) the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification of ROIs and iv) the characterization of the whole image. We evaluate the performance of our approach in terms of the SVM's training and testing error and in terms of ROI specificity—sensitivity. The results show a relation between the number of features used and the SVM's performance.

  15. An SVM Based Approach for the Analysis Of Mammography Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, X.; Kapsokalivas, L.; Skaliotis, A.; Steinhoefel, K.; Tangaro, S.

    2007-01-01

    Mammography is among the most popular imaging techniques used in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Nevertheless distinguishing between healthy and ill images is hard even for an experienced radiologist, because a single image usually includes several regions of interest (ROIs). The hardness of this classification problem along with the substantial amount of data, gathered from patients' medical history, motivates the use of a machine learning approach as part of a CAD (Computer Aided Detection) tool, aiming to assist radiologists in the characterization of mammography images. Specifically, our approach involves: i) the ROI extraction, ii) the Feature Vector extraction, iii) the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification of ROIs and iv) the characterization of the whole image. We evaluate the performance of our approach in terms of the SVM's training and testing error and in terms of ROI specificity - sensitivity. The results show a relation between the number of features used and the SVM's performance

  16. Evaluating the Patient With Diarrhea: A Case-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Seth

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of the patient with diarrhea can be complex and the treatment challenging. In this article, the definition of diarrhea and the pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to diarrhea are reviewed. A simplified 5-step approach to the patient with diarrhea is provided and applied in a case-oriented manner applicable to everyday clinical practice. On completion of this article, you should be able to (1) define diarrhea, (2) outline various pathophysiologic mechanisms of diarrhea, and (3) describe a simplified 5-step approach to facilitate the evaluation of diarrhea. PMID:22677080

  17. A service and value based approach to estimating environmental flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Louise; Jensen, R.A.; Jønch-Clausen, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    at filling that gap by presenting a new environmental flows assessment approach that explicitly links environmental flows to (socio)-economic values by focusing on ecosystem services. This Service Provision Index (SPI) approach is a novel contribution to the existing field of environmental flows assessment...... of sustaining ecosystems but also a matter of supporting humankind/livelihoods. One reason for the marginalisation of environmental flows is the lack of operational methods to demonstrate the inherently multi-disciplinary link between environmental flows, ecosystem services and economic value. This paper aims...

  18. A probabilistic approach to quantum mechanics based on 'tomograms'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caponigro, M.; Mancini, S.; Man'ko, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    It is usually believed that a picture of Quantum Mechanics in terms of true probabilities cannot be given due to the uncertainty relations. Here we discuss a tomographic approach to quantum states that leads to a probability representation of quantum states. This can be regarded as a classical-like formulation of quantum mechanics which avoids the counterintuitive concepts of wave function and density operator. The relevant concepts of quantum mechanics are then reconsidered and the epistemological implications of such approach discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. An adaptive deep learning approach for PPG-based identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, V; Birjandtalab, J; Pouyan, M Baran; Nourani, M

    2016-08-01

    Wearable biosensors have become increasingly popular in healthcare due to their capabilities for low cost and long term biosignal monitoring. This paper presents a novel two-stage technique to offer biometric identification using these biosensors through Deep Belief Networks and Restricted Boltzman Machines. Our identification approach improves robustness in current monitoring procedures within clinical, e-health and fitness environments using Photoplethysmography (PPG) signals through deep learning classification models. The approach is tested on TROIKA dataset using 10-fold cross validation and achieved an accuracy of 96.1%.

  20. Unity-Based Diversity: System Approach to Defining Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Zhong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available What is information? This is the first question that information science should answer clearly. However, the definitions of information have been so diversified that people are questioning if there is any unity among the diversity, leading to a suspicion on whether it is possible to establish a unified theory of information or not. To answer this question, a system approach to defining information is introduced in this paper. It is proved that the unity of information definitions can be maintained with this approach. As a by-product, an important concept, the information eco-system, was also achieved.

  1. A combined Component-Based Approach for the Design of Distributed Software Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guareis de farias, Cléver; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Quartel, Dick; Yang, H.; Gupta, S.

    2001-01-01

    Component-based software development enables the construction of software artefacts by assembling binary units of production, distribution and deployment, the so-called components. Several approaches to component-based development have been proposed recently. Most of these approaches are based on

  2. A Behavior-Based Approach for Educational Robotics Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cristoforis, P.; Pedre, S.; Nitsche, M.; Fischer, T.; Pessacg, F.; Di Pietro, C.

    2013-01-01

    Educational robotics proposes the use of robots as a teaching resource that enables inexperienced students to approach topics in fields unrelated to robotics. In recent years, these activities have grown substantially in elementary and secondary school classrooms and also in outreach experiences to interest students in science, technology,…

  3. A slicing-based approach for locating type errors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Dinesh; F. Tip (Frank)

    1998-01-01

    htmlabstractThe effectiveness of a type checking tool strongly depends on the accuracy of the positional information that is associated with type errors. We present an approach where the location associated with an error message e is defined as a slice P_e of the program P being type checked. We

  4. A slicing-based approach for locating type errors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Dinesh; F. Tip (Frank)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe effectiveness of a type checking tool strongly depends on the accuracy of the positional information that is associated with type errors. We present an approach where the location associated with an error message e is defined as a slice P_e of the program P being type checked. We

  5. IT Confidentiality Risk Assessment for an Architecture-Based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morali, A.; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro; Overbeek, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Information systems require awareness of risks and a good understanding of vulnerabilities and their exploitations. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for the systematic assessment and analysis of confidentiality risks caused by disclosure of operational and functional information. The

  6. Pronunciation in EFL instruction a research-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Szpyra-Kozłowska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses issues and debates at the centre of English pronunciation teaching. It offers new theoretical ideas and practical solutions to phonodidactic problems that arise in EFL contexts, approaching pronunciation instruction from global and local perspectives and supporting its theoretical claims with extensive empirical evidence.

  7. Developing a Competency-Based Assessment Approach for Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Pamela T.

    2014-01-01

    Higher education accrediting bodies are increasing the emphasis on assessing student learning outcomes as opposed to teaching methodology. The purpose of this article is to describe the process used by Troy University's Master of Public Administration program to change their assessment approach from a course learning objective perspective to a…

  8. Retrieval of criminal trajectories with an FCA-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmans, J.; Elzinga, P.; Dedene, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we briefly discuss the possibilities of Formal Concept Analysis for gaining insight in large amounts of unstructured police reports. We present a generic human centred knowledge discovery approach and showcase promising results obtained during empirical validation. The first case study

  9. Effects-Based Approaches to Operations: Canadian Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Analysis,” Financial Times (30 June 2003), 13; R.W. Apple , “A New Way of Warfare Leaves Behind an Abundance of Loose Ends,” New York Times (20 April 2003...Threats ( SWOT ) analysis briefing and this approach and its tone was unhelpful. It did not, despite the article’s title, address the instruments of

  10. A computerized loop based approach for identification of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified loop-joint approach is proposed in this work as compared to the previ- ..... capability of chain string, two 15 link (M = 4) kinematic chains (Marin et al 2007) .... Huafeng D and Zhen H 2007 A new theory for the topological structure ...

  11. A Dooyeweerd-based approach to regional economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aay, H; Van Langevelde, A

    2005-01-01

    Within regional science there is a need for a general theory of regional economic development, one that evaluates and integrates existing approaches. In this paper, the philosophy of Herman Dooyeweerd is used as a basis for conceptualising the contours of such a theory. Contributions of this

  12. Local energy developments based on spatial and systemic approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manickam, Anu

    Local energy developments from a spatial and systemic approach are highlighted using examples from a Dutch case study. Developments in energy systems included interconnectedness of contextual factors and systems responses. The need to explore both the contextual factors and systemic aspects are

  13. A Novel GMM-Based Behavioral Modeling Approach for Smartwatch-Based Driver Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-Han; Chang, Chin-Chun; Liang, Deron

    2018-03-28

    All drivers have their own distinct driving habits, and usually hold and operate the steering wheel differently in different driving scenarios. In this study, we proposed a novel Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based method that can improve the traditional GMM in modeling driving behavior. This new method can be applied to build a better driver authentication system based on the accelerometer and orientation sensor of a smartwatch. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, we created an experimental system that analyzes driving behavior using the built-in sensors of a smartwatch. The experimental results for driver authentication-an equal error rate (EER) of 4.62% in the simulated environment and an EER of 7.86% in the real-traffic environment-confirm the feasibility of this approach.

  14. INTEGRATING CASE-BASED REASONING, KNOWLEDGE-BASED APPROACH AND TSP ALGORITHM FOR MINIMUM TOUR FINDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Erfani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Imagine you have traveled to an unfamiliar city. Before you start your daily tour around the city, you need to know a good route. In Network Theory (NT, this is the traveling salesman problem (TSP. A dynamic programming algorithm is often used for solving this problem. However, when the road network of the city is very complicated and dense, which is usually the case, it will take too long for the algorithm to find the shortest path. Furthermore, in reality, things are not as simple as those stated in AT. For instance, the cost of travel for the same part of the city at different times may not be the same. In this project, we have integrated TSP algorithm with AI knowledge-based approach and case-based reasoning in solving the problem. With this integration, knowledge about the geographical information and past cases are used to help TSP algorithm in finding a solution. This approach dramatically reduces the computation time required for minimum tour finding.

  15. Recognition of chemical entities: combining dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background The past decade has seen an upsurge in the number of publications in chemistry. The ever-swelling volume of available documents makes it increasingly hard to extract relevant new information from such unstructured texts. The BioCreative CHEMDNER challenge invites the development of systems for the automatic recognition of chemicals in text (CEM task) and for ranking the recognized compounds at the document level (CDI task). We investigated an ensemble approach where dictionary-based named entity recognition is used along with grammar-based recognizers to extract compounds from text. We assessed the performance of ten different commercial and publicly available lexical resources using an open source indexing system (Peregrine), in combination with three different chemical compound recognizers and a set of regular expressions to recognize chemical database identifiers. The effect of different stop-word lists, case-sensitivity matching, and use of chunking information was also investigated. We focused on lexical resources that provide chemical structure information. To rank the different compounds found in a text, we used a term confidence score based on the normalized ratio of the term frequencies in chemical and non-chemical journals. Results The use of stop-word lists greatly improved the performance of the dictionary-based recognition, but there was no additional benefit from using chunking information. A combination of ChEBI and HMDB as lexical resources, the LeadMine tool for grammar-based recognition, and the regular expressions, outperformed any of the individual systems. On the test set, the F-scores were 77.8% (recall 71.2%, precision 85.8%) for the CEM task and 77.6% (recall 71.7%, precision 84.6%) for the CDI task. Missed terms were mainly due to tokenization issues, poor recognition of formulas, and term conjunctions. Conclusions We developed an ensemble system that combines dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches for chemical named

  16. Recognition of chemical entities: combining dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi, Saber A; Hettne, Kristina M; van der Horst, Eelke; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen an upsurge in the number of publications in chemistry. The ever-swelling volume of available documents makes it increasingly hard to extract relevant new information from such unstructured texts. The BioCreative CHEMDNER challenge invites the development of systems for the automatic recognition of chemicals in text (CEM task) and for ranking the recognized compounds at the document level (CDI task). We investigated an ensemble approach where dictionary-based named entity recognition is used along with grammar-based recognizers to extract compounds from text. We assessed the performance of ten different commercial and publicly available lexical resources using an open source indexing system (Peregrine), in combination with three different chemical compound recognizers and a set of regular expressions to recognize chemical database identifiers. The effect of different stop-word lists, case-sensitivity matching, and use of chunking information was also investigated. We focused on lexical resources that provide chemical structure information. To rank the different compounds found in a text, we used a term confidence score based on the normalized ratio of the term frequencies in chemical and non-chemical journals. The use of stop-word lists greatly improved the performance of the dictionary-based recognition, but there was no additional benefit from using chunking information. A combination of ChEBI and HMDB as lexical resources, the LeadMine tool for grammar-based recognition, and the regular expressions, outperformed any of the individual systems. On the test set, the F-scores were 77.8% (recall 71.2%, precision 85.8%) for the CEM task and 77.6% (recall 71.7%, precision 84.6%) for the CDI task. Missed terms were mainly due to tokenization issues, poor recognition of formulas, and term conjunctions. We developed an ensemble system that combines dictionary-based and grammar-based approaches for chemical named entity recognition, outperforming

  17. Accrual based accounting implementation: An approach for modelling major decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Ratno Agriyanto; Abdul Rohman; Dwi Ratmono; Imam Ghozali

    2016-01-01

    Over the last three decades the main issues of implementation of accrual based accounting government institutions in Indonesia. Implementation of accrual based accounting in government institutions amid debate about the usefulness of accounting information for decision-making. Empirical study shows that the accrual based of accounting information on a government institution is not used for decision making. The research objective was to determine the impact of the implementation of the accrual...

  18. An Algebraic Approach to Knowledge Bases Informational Equivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Plotkin, B.; Plotkin, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study the notion of knowledge from the positions of universal algebra and algebraic logic. We consider first order knowledge which is based on first order logic. We define categories of knowledge and knowledge bases. These notions are defined for the fixed subject of knowledge. The key notion of informational equivalence of two knowledge bases is introduced. We use the idea of equivalence of categories in this definition. We prove that for finite models there is a clear way t...

  19. A Trait-Based Approach to Advance Coral Reef Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madin, Joshua S; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Connolly, Sean R; Darling, Emily S; Falster, Daniel S; Huang, Danwei; Keith, Sally A; Mizerek, Toni; Pandolfi, John M; Putnam, Hollie M; Baird, Andrew H

    2016-06-01

    Coral reefs are biologically diverse and ecologically complex ecosystems constructed by stony corals. Despite decades of research, basic coral population biology and community ecology questions remain. Quantifying trait variation among species can help resolve these questions, but progress has been hampered by a paucity of trait data for the many, often rare, species and by a reliance on nonquantitative approaches. Therefore, we propose filling data gaps by prioritizing traits that are easy to measure, estimating key traits for species with missing data, and identifying 'supertraits' that capture a large amount of variation for a range of biological and ecological processes. Such an approach can accelerate our understanding of coral ecology and our ability to protect critically threatened global ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A risk based approach for SSTO/TSTO comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1996-03-01

    An approach has been developed for performing early comparisons of transportation architectures explicitly taking into account quantitative measures of uncertainty and resulting risk. Risk considerations are necessary since the transportation systems are likely to have significantly different levels of risk, both because of differing degrees of freedom in achieving desired performance levels and their different states of development and utilization. The approach considers the uncertainty of achievement of technology goals, effect that the achieved technology level will have on transportation system performance and the relationship between system performance/capability and the ability to accommodate variations in payload mass. The consequences of system performance are developed in terms of nonrecurring, recurring, and the present value of transportation system life cycle costs.

  1. An Agent Based Software Approach towards Building Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latika Kharb

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agent-oriented techniques represent an exciting new means of analyzing, designing and building complex software systems. They have the potential to significantly improve current practice in software engineering and to extend the range of applications that can feasibly be tackled. Yet, to date, there have been few serious attempts to cast agent systems as a software engineering paradigm. This paper seeks to rectify this omission. Specifically, points to be argued include:firstly, the conceptual apparatus of agent-oriented systems is well-suited to building software solutions for complex systems and secondly, agent-oriented approaches represent a genuine advance over the current state of the art for engineering complex systems. Following on from this view, the major issues raised by adopting an agentoriented approach to software engineering are highlighted and discussed in this paper.

  2. Comparison of wavelet based denoising schemes for gear condition monitoring: An Artificial Neural Network based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rounaq; Srinivasa Pai, P.; Sriram, N. S.; Bhat, Vasudeva

    2018-02-01

    Vibration Analysis has been extensively used in recent past for gear fault diagnosis. The vibration signals extracted is usually contaminated with noise and may lead to wrong interpretation of results. The denoising of extracted vibration signals helps the fault diagnosis by giving meaningful results. Wavelet Transform (WT) increases signal to noise ratio (SNR), reduces root mean square error (RMSE) and is effective to denoise the gear vibration signals. The extracted signals have to be denoised by selecting a proper denoising scheme in order to prevent the loss of signal information along with noise. An approach has been made in this work to show the effectiveness of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to denoise gear vibration signal. In this regard three selected wavelet based denoising schemes namely PCA, Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), Neighcoeff Coefficient (NC), has been compared with Adaptive Threshold (AT) an extensively used wavelet based denoising scheme for gear vibration signal. The vibration signals acquired from a customized gear test rig were denoised by above mentioned four denoising schemes. The fault identification capability as well as SNR, Kurtosis and RMSE for the four denoising schemes have been compared. Features extracted from the denoised signals have been used to train and test artificial neural network (ANN) models. The performances of the four denoising schemes have been evaluated based on the performance of the ANN models. The best denoising scheme has been identified, based on the classification accuracy results. PCA is effective in all the regards as a best denoising scheme.

  3. Evaluating the Patient With Diarrhea: A Case-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sweetser, Seth

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of the patient with diarrhea can be complex and the treatment challenging. In this article, the definition of diarrhea and the pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to diarrhea are reviewed. A simplified 5-step approach to the patient with diarrhea is provided and applied in a case-oriented manner applicable to everyday clinical practice. On completion of this article, you should be able to (1) define diarrhea, (2) outline various pathophysiologic mechanisms of diarrhea, and (3...

  4. Mechatronic System Design Based On An Optimisation Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    The envisaged objective of this paper project is to extend the current state of the art regarding the design of complex mechatronic systems utilizing an optimisation approach. We propose to investigate a novel framework for mechatronic system design. The novelty and originality being the use...... of optimisation techniques. The methods used to optimise/design within the classical disciplines will be identified and extended to mechatronic system design....

  5. A service and value based approach to estimating environmental flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Louise; Jensen, R.A.; Jønch-Clausen, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    An important challenge of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is to balance water allocation between different users and uses. While economically and/or politically powerful users have relatively well developed methods for quantifying and justifying their water needs, this is not the case...... methodologies. The SPI approach is a pragmatic and transparent tool for incorporating ecosystems and environmental flows into the evaluation of water allocation scenarios, negotiations of trade-offs and decision-making in IWRM....

  6. Modern approaches to agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Quan; Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Ren, Fenghui; Aydoğan, Reyhan; Hadfi, Rafik

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses several important aspects of complex automated negotiations and introduces a number of modern approaches for facilitating agents to conduct complex negotiations. It demonstrates that autonomous negotiation is one of the most important areas in the field of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems. Further, it presents complex automated negotiation scenarios that involve negotiation encounters that may have, for instance, a large number of agents, a large number of issues with strong interdependencies and/or real-time constraints.

  7. Learning from project experiences using a legacy-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Majchrzak, Ann; Faraj, Samer

    2005-01-01

    As project teams become used more widely, the question of how to capitalize on the knowledge learned in project teams remains an open issue. Using previous research on shared cognition in groups, an approach to promoting post-project learning was developed. This Legacy Review concept was tested on four in tact project teams. The results from those test sessions were used to develop a model of team learning via group cognitive processes. The model and supporting propositions are presented.

  8. A trait-based approach to advance coral reef science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madin, Joshua S.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Connolly, Sean R.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are biologically diverse and ecologically complex ecosystems constructed by stony corals. Despite decades of research, basic coral population biology and community ecology questions remain. Quantifying trait variation among species can help resolve these questions, but progress has been...... a large amount of variation for a range of biological and ecological processes. Such an approach can accelerate our understanding of coral ecology and our ability to protect critically threatened global ecosystems....

  9. An efficient approach to BAC based assembly of complex genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visendi, Paul; Berkman, Paul J; Hayashi, Satomi; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Bayer, Philipp E; Ruperao, Pradeep; Hurgobin, Bhavna; Montenegro, Juan; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Staňková, Helena; Batley, Jacqueline; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Edwards, David

    2016-01-01

    There has been an exponential growth in the number of genome sequencing projects since the introduction of next generation DNA sequencing technologies. Genome projects have increasingly involved assembly of whole genome data which produces inferior assemblies compared to traditional Sanger sequencing of genomic fragments cloned into bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). While whole genome shotgun sequencing using next generation sequencing (NGS) is relatively fast and inexpensive, this method is extremely challenging for highly complex genomes, where polyploidy or high repeat content confounds accurate assembly, or where a highly accurate 'gold' reference is required. Several attempts have been made to improve genome sequencing approaches by incorporating NGS methods, to variable success. We present the application of a novel BAC sequencing approach which combines indexed pools of BACs, Illumina paired read sequencing, a sequence assembler specifically designed for complex BAC assembly, and a custom bioinformatics pipeline. We demonstrate this method by sequencing and assembling BAC cloned fragments from bread wheat and sugarcane genomes. We demonstrate that our assembly approach is accurate, robust, cost effective and scalable, with applications for complete genome sequencing in large and complex genomes.

  10. S-variable approach to LMI-based robust control

    CERN Document Server

    Ebihara, Yoshio; Arzelier, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This book shows how the use of S-variables (SVs) in enhancing the range of problems that can be addressed with the already-versatile linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach to control can, in many cases, be put on a more unified, methodical footing. Beginning with the fundamentals of the SV approach, the text shows how the basic idea can be used for each problem (and when it should not be employed at all). The specific adaptations of the method necessitated by each problem are also detailed. The problems dealt with in the book have the common traits that: analytic closed-form solutions are not available; and LMIs can be applied to produce numerical solutions with a certain amount of conservatism. Typical examples are robustness analysis of linear systems affected by parametric uncertainties and the synthesis of a linear controller satisfying multiple, often  conflicting, design specifications. For problems in which LMI methods produce conservative results, the SV approach is shown to achieve greater accuracy...

  11. A psychology based approach for longitudinal development in cognitive robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eLaw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in robotics is the ability to learn, from novel experiences, new behaviour that is useful for achieving new goals and skills. Autonomous systems must be able to learn solely through the environment, thus ruling out a priori task knowledge, tuning, extensive training, or other forms of pre-programming. Learning must also be cumulative and incremental, as complex skills are built on top of primitive skills. Additionally, it must be driven by intrinsic motivation because formative experience is gained through autonomous activity, even in the absence of extrinsic goals or tasks. This paper presents an approach to these issues through robotic implementations inspired by the learning behaviour of human infants. We describe an approach to developmental learning and present results from a demonstration of longitudinal development on an iCub humanoid robot. The results cover the rapid emergence of staged behaviour, the role of constraints in development, the effect of bootstrapping between stages, and the use of a schema memory of experiential fragments in learning new skills. The context is a longitudinalexperiment in which the robot advanced from uncontrolled motor babbling to skilled hand/eyeintegrated reaching and basic manipulation of objects. This approach offers promise for furtherfast and effective sensory-motor learning techniques for robotic learning.

  12. A new subspace based approach to iterative learning control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, G.; Verhaegen, M.; Doelman, N.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper1 presents an iterative learning control (ILC) procedure based on an inverse model of the plant under control. Our first contribution is that we formulate the inversion procedure as a Kalman smoothing problem: based on a compact state space model of a possibly non-minimum phase system,

  13. Component-Based Approach for Educating Students in Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, D.; Venkatraman, N.; Hansen, C.; Singh, G.

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing need for an effective method of teaching bioinformatics. Increased progress and availability of computer-based tools for educating students have led to the implementation of a computer-based system for teaching bioinformatics as described in this paper. Bioinformatics is a recent, hybrid field of study combining elements of…

  14. Community and evidence-based approaches to healthcare ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... This project developed community connections, shared cross-cultural teaching experiences, and fostered local community partnerships. Participants in the course were encouraged to continue providing evidence-based care throughout their careers. UniLúrio now plans to include the community-based ...

  15. Dashboard auditing of ABC (Activity-Based Costing). Theoretical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Căpuşneanu, Sorinel/I

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to define the dashboard auditing according to the specifics of Activity-Based Costing method (ABC). It describes the main objectives of dashboard auditing, the criteria that a dashboard auditor should meet and the step-by-step stages of the entire dashboard auditing process of an enterprise from steel industry according to the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC).

  16. Predicting animal production on sourveld: a species-based approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The model was based upon measured ingestive and digestive characteristics of different grass species and incorporates an explicit digestive constraint based upon rumen mass and turnover rate. Illustrates with graphs, diagrams and tables. Keywords: ADG; Andropogon appendiculatus; Average daily gain; Cattle; Cynodon ...

  17. Pricing for Higher Education Institutions: A Value-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Amizawati Mohd; Auzair, Sofiah Md; Maelah, Ruhanita; Ahmad, Azlina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose the concept of higher education institutions (HEIs) offering educational services based on value for money. The value is determined based on customers' (i.e. students) expectations of the service and the costs in comparison to the competitors. Understanding the value and creating customer value are…

  18. Systemwide Implementation of Project-Based Learning: The Philadelphia Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalm, Jason; Tylek, Karen Smuck

    2012-01-01

    Citywide implementation of project-based learning highlights the benefits--and the challenges--of promoting exemplary practices across an entire out-of-school time (OST) network. In summer 2009, the City of Philadelphia and its intermediary, the Public Health Management Corporation (PHMC), introduced project-based learning to a network of more…

  19. Frameworks: A Community-Based Approach to Preventing Youth Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Kristine; Bean, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    Few youth suicide prevention programs are theory based and systematically evaluated. This study evaluated the pilot implementation of a community-based youth suicide prevention project guided by an ecological perspective. One hundred fifty-seven adults representing various constituencies from educators to health care providers and 131 ninth-grade…

  20. Rule based systems for big data a machine learning approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Han; Cocea, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    The ideas introduced in this book explore the relationships among rule based systems, machine learning and big data. Rule based systems are seen as a special type of expert systems, which can be built by using expert knowledge or learning from real data. The book focuses on the development and evaluation of rule based systems in terms of accuracy, efficiency and interpretability. In particular, a unified framework for building rule based systems, which consists of the operations of rule generation, rule simplification and rule representation, is presented. Each of these operations is detailed using specific methods or techniques. In addition, this book also presents some ensemble learning frameworks for building ensemble rule based systems.

  1. An introduction to statistical computing a simulation-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Voss, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to sampling-based methods in statistical computing The use of computers in mathematics and statistics has opened up a wide range of techniques for studying otherwise intractable problems.  Sampling-based simulation techniques are now an invaluable tool for exploring statistical models.  This book gives a comprehensive introduction to the exciting area of sampling-based methods. An Introduction to Statistical Computing introduces the classical topics of random number generation and Monte Carlo methods.  It also includes some advanced met

  2. Targeting Fear of Spiders with Control-, Acceptance-, and Information-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Alexandra L.; Zettle, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    The relative impact of control-, acceptance-, and information-based approaches in targeting a midlevel fear of spiders among college students was evaluated. Participants listened to a brief protocol presenting one of the three approaches before completing the Perceived-Threat Behavioral Approach Test (PT-BAT; Cochrane, Barnes-Holmes, &…

  3. Interdisciplinarity in translation teaching: competence-based education, translation task-based approach, context-based text typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelweiss Vitol Gysel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of competence-based teaching, this paper draws upon the model of Translation Competence (TC put forward by the PACTE group (2003 to establish a dialogue between cognitive-constructivist paradigms for translation teaching and the model of the Context-based Text Typology (MATTHIESSEN et al., 2007. In this theoretical environment, it proposes a model for the design of a Teaching Unit (TU for the development of the bilingual competence in would-be-translators.To this end, it explores translation as a cognitive, communicative and textual activity (HURTADO ALBIR, 2011 and considers its teaching from the translation task-based approach (HURTADO ALBIR, 1999. This approach is illustrated through the practical example of the design of a TU elaborated for the subject ‘Introduction to Specialized Translation’,part of the curricular grid of the program ‘Secretariado Executivo’ at Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Aspects such as the establishment of learning objectives and their alignment with the translation tasks composing the TU are addressed for this specific pedagogical situation. We argue for the development of textual competences by means of the acquisition of strategies derived from the Context-based Text Typology to solve problems arising from the translation of different text types and contextual configurations.

  4. IoT interoperability : a hub-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Blackstock, Michael; Lea, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Interoperability in the Internet of Things is critical for emerging services and applications. In this paper we advocate the use of IoT ‘hubs’ to aggregate things using web protocols, and suggest a staged approach to interoperability. In the context of a UK government funded project involving 8 IoT projects to address cross-domain IoT interoperability, we introduce the HyperCat IoT catalogue specification. We then describe the tools and techniques we developed to adapt an existing data portal...

  5. Cauchy problem for Laplace equation: An observer based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Majeed, Muhammad Usman

    2013-10-01

    A method to solve Cauchy Problem for Laplace equation using state observers is proposed. It is known that this problem is ill-posed. The domain under consideration is simple lipschitz in 2 with a hole. The idea is to recover the solution over whole domain from the observations on outer boundary. Proposed approach adapts one of the space variables as a time variable. The observer developed to solve Cauchy problem for the Laplace\\'s equation is compuationally robust and accurate. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Synthesis of biorefinery networks using a superstructure optimization based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertran, Maria-Ona; Anaya-Reza, Omar; Lopez-Arenas, Maria Teresa

    Petroleum is currently the primary raw material for the production of fuels and chemicals. Consequently, our society is highly dependent on fossil non-renewable resources. However, renewable raw materials are recently receiving increasing interest for the production of chemicals and fuels, so a n...... of the proposed approach is shown through a practical case study for the production of valuable products (i.e. lysine and lactic acid) from sugarcane molasses; these alternatives are considered with respect to availability and demands in Mexico [4]....

  7. Improvement of radiology services based on the process management approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Creusa Sayuri Tahara; Rozenfeld, Henrique; Costa, Janaina Mascarenhas Hornos; Magon, Maria de Fatima de Andrade; Mascarenhas, Yvone Maria

    2011-01-01

    The health sector requires continuous investments to ensure the improvement of products and services from a technological standpoint, the use of new materials, equipment and tools, and the application of process management methods. Methods associated with the process management approach, such as the development of reference models of business processes, can provide significant innovations in the health sector and respond to the current market trend for modern management in this sector (Gunderman et al. (2008) ). This article proposes a process model for diagnostic medical X-ray imaging, from which it derives a primary reference model and describes how this information leads to gains in quality and improvements.

  8. Making CVE Work: A Focused Approach Based on Process Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Berger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest barriers to designing a comprehensive Countering Violent Extremism (CVE programme is defining its scope. This paper argues for a narrow approach, focusing on disengagement and the disruption of recruitment. The author develops a simplified model of radicalisation and the concurrent terrorist recruitment process, proposing concrete themes for disruptive intervention and messaging. After analysing case studies of disengagement, the author offers recommendations for specific action to accomplish CVE goals by disrupting recruitment processes and deploying targeted messaging within the framework of the correlated models.

  9. Clustering-based approaches to SAGE data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haiying

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE is one of the most powerful tools for global gene expression profiling. It has led to several biological discoveries and biomedical applications, such as the prediction of new gene functions and the identification of biomarkers in human cancer research. Clustering techniques have become fundamental approaches in these applications. This paper reviews relevant clustering techniques specifically designed for this type of data. It places an emphasis on current limitations and opportunities in this area for supporting biologically-meaningful data mining and visualisation.

  10. Competence-based approach and the future sociohumanitarian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryzgalina Elena Vladimirovna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article traces the relationship between the understanding of the purposes of higher education and assessment of educational outcomes. Inclination of our country to the continental variant of understanding of the educational goals, when the main contracting authority is the state, leads to the existence of standards as an expression of the conventional expectations of society in relation to the formation of a certain level and profile. Borrowing competence model of standards related to the adoption of pragmatic approach to education in Russia as a way to increment of human capital.

  11. A Model-Based Prognostics Approach Applied to Pneumatic Valves

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Within the area of systems health management, the task of prognostics centers on predicting when components will fail. Model-based prognostics exploits domain...

  12. An opinion formation based binary optimization approach for feature selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedmoghadam, Homayoun; Jalili, Mahdi; Yu, Xinghuo

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposed a novel optimization method based on opinion formation in complex network systems. The proposed optimization technique mimics human-human interaction mechanism based on a mathematical model derived from social sciences. Our method encodes a subset of selected features to the opinion of an artificial agent and simulates the opinion formation process among a population of agents to solve the feature selection problem. The agents interact using an underlying interaction network structure and get into consensus in their opinions, while finding better solutions to the problem. A number of mechanisms are employed to avoid getting trapped in local minima. We compare the performance of the proposed method with a number of classical population-based optimization methods and a state-of-the-art opinion formation based method. Our experiments on a number of high dimensional datasets reveal outperformance of the proposed algorithm over others.

  13. A Model-based Prognostics Approach Applied to Pneumatic Valves

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Within the area of systems health management, the task of prognostics centers on predicting when components will fail. Model-based prognostics exploits domain...

  14. A web-based approach to data imputation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhixu; Sharaf, Mohamed Abdel Fattah; Sitbon, Laurianne; Sadiq, Shazia Wasim; Indulska, Marta; Zhou, Xiaofang

    2013-01-01

    principle. Moreover, WebPut extends effective Information Extraction (IE) methods for the purpose of formulating web search queries that are capable of effectively retrieving missing values with high accuracy. WebPut employs a confidence-based scheme

  15. A knowledge-based approach for recognition of handwritten Pitman ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Department of Studies in Computer Science, University of Mysore, ... the successor method based on stochastic regular grammar but makes use of the ... In general, a stroke in PSL represents a character or a word in English at the simplest.

  16. The ethical approach to evidence-based medicine | Kruger | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper will explore the role of evidence-based medicine in ethical practice of health care professionals. It will also address some of its limitations and potential for negative impact on health care.

  17. Arogyasree: An Enhanced Grid-Based Approach to Mobile Telemedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Kailasam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A typical telemedicine system involves a small set of hospitals providing remote healthcare services to a small section of the society using dedicated nodal centers. However, in developing nations like India where majority live in rural areas that lack specialist care, we envision the need for much larger Internet-based telemedicine systems that would enable a large pool of doctors and hospitals to collectively provide healthcare services to entire populations. We propose a scalable, Internet-based P2P architecture for telemedicine integrating multiple hospitals, mobile medical specialists, and rural mobile units. This system, based on the store and forward model, features a distributed context-aware scheduler for providing timely and location-aware telemedicine services. Other features like zone-based overlay structure and persistent object space abstraction make the system efficient and easy to use. Lastly, the system uses the existing internet infrastructure and supports mobility at doctor and patient ends.

  18. Citation Semantic Based Approaches to Identify Article Quality

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sendhilkumar; E. Elakkiya; G.S. Mahalakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing the structure of research articles and th e relationship between the articles has always been important in bibliometrics research area. One of the methods for analyzing articles is by its citation. Normally researchers rank the article based on the citation count. But this quantity based evaluation is not sufficient due to various c itation types like Random citation, Guest citation. Our paper aims in providing a new me...

  19. A model-based approach to estimating forest area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts

    2006-01-01

    A logistic regression model based on forest inventory plot data and transformations of Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite imagery was used to predict the probability of forest for 15 study areas in Indiana, USA, and 15 in Minnesota, USA. Within each study area, model-based estimates of forest area were obtained for circular areas with radii of 5 km, 10 km, and 15 km and...

  20. An Expert System-Based Approach to Hospitality Company Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Balfe, Andrew; O'Connor, Peter; McDonnell, Ciaran

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a prototype Expert System-based Analysis and Diagnostic (ESAD) package for the Hotel and Catering Industry. This computerised tool aids the hospitality manager in methodically scrutinising the hotel unit and environment, combining key information with systematic reasoning. The system searches through its extensive knowledge base, investigating complicated relationships. The number of possibilities considered is increased which will broaden the depth and...

  1. Accrual based accounting implementation: An approach for modelling major decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratno Agriyanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades the main issues of implementation of accrual based accounting government institutions in Indonesia. Implementation of accrual based accounting in government institutions amid debate about the usefulness of accounting information for decision-making. Empirical study shows that the accrual based of accounting information on a government institution is not used for decision making. The research objective was to determine the impact of the implementation of the accrual based accounting to the accrual basis of accounting information use for decision-making basis. We used the survey questionnaires. The data were processed by SEM using statistical software WarpPLS. The results showed that the implementation of the accrual based accounting in City Government Semarang has significantly positively associated with decision-making. Another important finding is the City Government officials of Semarang have personality, low tolerance of ambiguity is a negative effect on the relationship between the implementation of the accrual based accounting for decision making

  2. Behavior-based network management: a unique model-based approach to implementing cyber superiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Jocelyn M.

    2016-05-01

    Behavior-Based Network Management (BBNM) is a technological and strategic approach to mastering the identification and assessment of network behavior, whether human-driven or machine-generated. Recognizing that all five U.S. Air Force (USAF) mission areas rely on the cyber domain to support, enhance and execute their tasks, BBNM is designed to elevate awareness and improve the ability to better understand the degree of reliance placed upon a digital capability and the operational risk.2 Thus, the objective of BBNM is to provide a holistic view of the digital battle space to better assess the effects of security, monitoring, provisioning, utilization management, allocation to support mission sustainment and change control. Leveraging advances in conceptual modeling made possible by a novel advancement in software design and implementation known as Vector Relational Data Modeling (VRDM™), the BBNM approach entails creating a network simulation in which meaning can be inferred and used to manage network behavior according to policy, such as quickly detecting and countering malicious behavior. Initial research configurations have yielded executable BBNM models as combinations of conceptualized behavior within a network management simulation that includes only concepts of threats and definitions of "good" behavior. A proof of concept assessment called "Lab Rat," was designed to demonstrate the simplicity of network modeling and the ability to perform adaptation. The model was tested on real world threat data and demonstrated adaptive and inferential learning behavior. Preliminary results indicate this is a viable approach towards achieving cyber superiority in today's volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous (VUCA) environment.

  3. A novel approach based on preference-based index for interval bilevel linear programming problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Aihong; Wang, Yuping; Xue, Xingsi

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology for solving the interval bilevel linear programming problem in which all coefficients of both objective functions and constraints are considered as interval numbers. In order to keep as much uncertainty of the original constraint region as possible, the original problem is first converted into an interval bilevel programming problem with interval coefficients in both objective functions only through normal variation of interval number and chance-constrained programming. With the consideration of different preferences of different decision makers, the concept of the preference level that the interval objective function is preferred to a target interval is defined based on the preference-based index. Then a preference-based deterministic bilevel programming problem is constructed in terms of the preference level and the order relation [Formula: see text]. Furthermore, the concept of a preference δ -optimal solution is given. Subsequently, the constructed deterministic nonlinear bilevel problem is solved with the help of estimation of distribution algorithm. Finally, several numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. A novel approach based on preference-based index for interval bilevel linear programming problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihong Ren

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes a new methodology for solving the interval bilevel linear programming problem in which all coefficients of both objective functions and constraints are considered as interval numbers. In order to keep as much uncertainty of the original constraint region as possible, the original problem is first converted into an interval bilevel programming problem with interval coefficients in both objective functions only through normal variation of interval number and chance-constrained programming. With the consideration of different preferences of different decision makers, the concept of the preference level that the interval objective function is preferred to a target interval is defined based on the preference-based index. Then a preference-based deterministic bilevel programming problem is constructed in terms of the preference level and the order relation ⪯ m w $\\preceq_{mw}$ . Furthermore, the concept of a preference δ-optimal solution is given. Subsequently, the constructed deterministic nonlinear bilevel problem is solved with the help of estimation of distribution algorithm. Finally, several numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Vision-Based Parking-Slot Detection: A Benchmark and A Learning-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing automatic parking systems in the field of intelligent vehicles. However, how to effectively and efficiently locating parking-slots using a vision-based system is still an unresolved issue. Even more seriously, there is no publicly available labeled benchmark dataset for tuning and testing parking-slot detection algorithms. In this paper, we attempt to fill the above-mentioned research gaps to some extent and our contributions are twofold. Firstly, to facilitate the study of vision-based parking-slot detection, a large-scale parking-slot image database is established. This database comprises 8600 surround-view images collected from typical indoor and outdoor parking sites. For each image in this database, the marking-points and parking-slots are carefully labeled. Such a database can serve as a benchmark to design and validate parking-slot detection algorithms. Secondly, a learning-based parking-slot detection approach, namely P S D L , is proposed. Using P S D L , given a surround-view image, the marking-points will be detected first and then the valid parking-slots can be inferred. The efficacy and efficiency of P S D L have been corroborated on our database. It is expected that P S D L can serve as a baseline when the other researchers develop more sophisticated methods.

  6. A regularized, model-based approach to phase-based conductivity mapping using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropella, Kathleen M; Noll, Douglas C

    2017-11-01

    To develop a novel regularized, model-based approach to phase-based conductivity mapping that uses structural information to improve the accuracy of conductivity maps. The inverse of the three-dimensional Laplacian operator is used to model the relationship between measured phase maps and the object conductivity in a penalized weighted least-squares optimization problem. Spatial masks based on structural information are incorporated into the problem to preserve data near boundaries. The proposed Inverse Laplacian method was compared against a restricted Gaussian filter in simulation, phantom, and human experiments. The Inverse Laplacian method resulted in lower reconstruction bias and error due to noise in simulations than the Gaussian filter. The Inverse Laplacian method also produced conductivity maps closer to the measured values in a phantom and with reduced noise in the human brain, as compared to the Gaussian filter. The Inverse Laplacian method calculates conductivity maps with less noise and more accurate values near boundaries. Improving the accuracy of conductivity maps is integral for advancing the applications of conductivity mapping. Magn Reson Med 78:2011-2021, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. PSA data base, comparison of the German and French approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuser, A.; Tirira, J.

    2001-01-01

    The results of probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) of nuclear power plants strongly depend on the reliability data used. This report describes coarsely the general process to generate reliability data for components and resumes the differences between the German and French approaches. As has been shown in former studies which compared international PSA data, PSA data are closely related to the model definitions of the PSA. Therefore single PSA data cannot be compared directly without regard e.g. to the corresponding fault trees. These findings are confirmed by this study. The comparison of German and French methods shows a lot of differences concerning various details of the data generation process. Some differences between single reliability data should be eliminated when taking into account the complete fault tree analysis. But there are some other differences which have a direct impact on the obtained results of a PSA. In view of the all differences between both approaches concerning the definition of data and the data collection process, it is not possible to compare directly German and French PSA data. However, the database differences give no indication on the influence on the PSA results. Therefore, it is a need to perform a common IPSN/GRS assessment on how the different databases impact the PSA results. (orig.)

  8. Graph-based sequence annotation using a data integration approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesch Robert

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The automated annotation of data from high throughput sequencing and genomics experiments is a significant challenge for bioinformatics. Most current approaches rely on sequential pipelines of gene finding and gene function prediction methods that annotate a gene with information from different reference data sources. Each function prediction method contributes evidence supporting a functional assignment. Such approaches generally ignore the links between the information in the reference datasets. These links, however, are valuable for assessing the plausibility of a function assignment and can be used to evaluate the confidence in a prediction. We are working towards a novel annotation system that uses the network of information supporting the function assignment to enrich the annotation process for use by expert curators and predicting the function of previously unannotated genes. In this paper we describe our success in the first stages of this development. We present the data integration steps that are needed to create the core database of integrated reference databases (UniProt, PFAM, PDB, GO and the pathway database Ara- Cyc which has been established in the ONDEX data integration system. We also present a comparison between different methods for integration of GO terms as part of the function assignment pipeline and discuss the consequences of this analysis for improving the accuracy of gene function annotation.

  9. Graph-based sequence annotation using a data integration approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Robert; Lysenko, Artem; Hindle, Matthew; Hassani-Pak, Keywan; Thiele, Ralf; Rawlings, Christopher; Köhler, Jacob; Taubert, Jan

    2008-08-25

    The automated annotation of data from high throughput sequencing and genomics experiments is a significant challenge for bioinformatics. Most current approaches rely on sequential pipelines of gene finding and gene function prediction methods that annotate a gene with information from different reference data sources. Each function prediction method contributes evidence supporting a functional assignment. Such approaches generally ignore the links between the information in the reference datasets. These links, however, are valuable for assessing the plausibility of a function assignment and can be used to evaluate the confidence in a prediction. We are working towards a novel annotation system that uses the network of information supporting the function assignment to enrich the annotation process for use by expert curators and predicting the function of previously unannotated genes. In this paper we describe our success in the first stages of this development. We present the data integration steps that are needed to create the core database of integrated reference databases (UniProt, PFAM, PDB, GO and the pathway database Ara-Cyc) which has been established in the ONDEX data integration system. We also present a comparison between different methods for integration of GO terms as part of the function assignment pipeline and discuss the consequences of this analysis for improving the accuracy of gene function annotation. The methods and algorithms presented in this publication are an integral part of the ONDEX system which is freely available from http://ondex.sf.net/.

  10. A Novel Synchronization-Based Approach for Functional Connectivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lombardi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex network analysis has become a gold standard to investigate functional connectivity in the human brain. Popular approaches for quantifying functional coupling between fMRI time series are linear zero-lag correlation methods; however, they might reveal only partial aspects of the functional links between brain areas. In this work, we propose a novel approach for assessing functional coupling between fMRI time series and constructing functional brain networks. A phase space framework is used to map couples of signals exploiting their cross recurrence plots (CRPs to compare the trajectories of the interacting systems. A synchronization metric is extracted from the CRP to assess the coupling behavior of the time series. Since the functional communities of a healthy population are expected to be highly consistent for the same task, we defined functional networks of task-related fMRI data of a cohort of healthy subjects and applied a modularity algorithm in order to determine the community structures of the networks. The within-group similarity of communities is evaluated to verify whether such new metric is robust enough against noise. The synchronization metric is also compared with Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the detected communities seem to better reflect the functional brain organization during the specific task.

  11. A Unified Approach to Model-Based Planning and Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Dorais, Gregory A.; Fry, Chuck; Levinson, Richard; Plaunt, Christian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Writing autonomous software is complex, requiring the coordination of functionally and technologically diverse software modules. System and mission engineers must rely on specialists familiar with the different software modules to translate requirements into application software. Also, each module often encodes the same requirement in different forms. The results are high costs and reduced reliability due to the difficulty of tracking discrepancies in these encodings. In this paper we describe a unified approach to planning and execution that we believe provides a unified representational and computational framework for an autonomous agent. We identify the four main components whose interplay provides the basis for the agent's autonomous behavior: the domain model, the plan database, the plan running module, and the planner modules. This representational and problem solving approach can be applied at all levels of the architecture of a complex agent, such as Remote Agent. In the rest of the paper we briefly describe the Remote Agent architecture. The new agent architecture proposed here aims at achieving the full Remote Agent functionality. We then give the fundamental ideas behind the new agent architecture and point out some implication of the structure of the architecture, mainly in the area of reactivity and interaction between reactive and deliberative decision making. We conclude with related work and current status.

  12. Olive pomace based lightweight concrete, an experimental approach and contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Amel Chaabane

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to conventional aggregates resources depletion, material recycling has become an economic and ecologic alternative. In this paper, locally available natural residues such as olive pomace were investigated, when partially incorporated in the concrete formulation, since the mechanical characteristics of lightweight aggregate concrete strongly depend on its properties and proportions. Lightweight aggregates are more deformable than the cement matrix because of their high porosity, and their influence on the concrete strength remains complex. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the aggregates properties on lightweight concrete mechanical behaviour through an experimental approach. In addition, the different substitution sequences and the W/C ratio on lightweight concrete behaviour were evaluated, in order to determine the W/C ratio influence on the improvement of the lightweight concrete mechanical properties while knowing that the mixing water quantity gives the cement paste manoeuvrability and mechanical strength effects. The last part of this paper, therefore, was to provide statistical survey for estimating strength and weight reduction through the different natural aggregate substitutions to improve the lightweight concrete properties. The results achieved in a significant olive-pomace lower adhesion with the matrix after the cement setting, making the lightweight concrete mechanical strength weak. However, this work can open several perspectives: Results modeling and correlation with an experimental approach, the evolution and determination of lightweight concrete characteristics when exposed to high temperatures and thermohydric properties.

  13. Exposure to BPA in Children—Media-Based and Biomonitoring-Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista L.Y. Christensen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is used in numerous industrial and consumer product applications resulting in ubiquitous exposure. Children’s exposure is of particular concern because of evidence of developmental effects. Childhood exposure is estimated for different age groups in two ways. The “forward” approach uses information on BPA concentrations in food and other environmental media (air, water, etc. combined with average contact rates for each medium. The “backward” approach relies on urinary biomonitoring, extrapolating backward to the intake which would have led to the observed biomarker level. The forward analysis shows that BPA intakes are dominated by canned food consumption, and that intakes are higher for younger ages. Mean intake estimates ranged from ~125 ng/kg-day for 1 year-olds to ~73 ng/kg-day among 16–20 years olds. Biomonitoring-based intakes show the same trend of lower intakes for older children, with an estimate of 121 (median to 153 (mean ng/kg-day for 2–6 years, compared with 33 (median to 53–66 (mean ng/kg-day for 16–20 years. Infant intakes were estimated to range from ~46 to 137 ng/kg-day. Recognizing uncertainties and limitations, this analysis suggests that the “forward” and “backward” methods provide comparable results and identify canned foods as a potentially important source of BPA exposure for children.

  14. A voxel-based approach to gray matter asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, E; Gaser, C; Jancke, L; Schlaug, G

    2004-06-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to analyze gray matter (GM) asymmetries in a large sample (n = 60) of male and female professional musicians with and without absolute pitch (AP). We chose to examine these particular groups because previous studies using traditional region-of-interest (ROI) analyses have shown differences in hemispheric asymmetry related to AP and gender. Voxel-based methods may have advantages over traditional ROI-based methods since the analysis can be performed across the whole brain with minimal user bias. After determining that the VBM method was sufficiently sensitive for the detection of differences in GM asymmetries between groups, we found that male AP musicians were more leftward lateralized in the anterior region of the planum temporale (PT) than male non-AP musicians. This confirmed the results of previous studies using ROI-based methods that showed an association between PT asymmetry and the AP phenotype. We further observed that male non-AP musicians revealed an increased leftward GM asymmetry in the postcentral gyrus compared to female non-AP musicians, again corroborating results of a previously published study using ROI-based methods. By analyzing hemispheric GM differences across our entire sample, we were able to partially confirm findings of previous studies using traditional morphometric techniques, as well as more recent, voxel-based analyses. In addition, we found some unusually pronounced GM asymmetries in our musician sample not previously detected in subjects unselected for musical training. Since we were able to validate gender- and AP-related brain asymmetries previously described using traditional ROI-based morphometric techniques, the results of our analyses support the use of VBM for examinations of GM asymmetries.

  15. A Vision-Based Approach to Fire Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gomes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a vision-based method for fire detection from fixed surveillance smart cameras. The method integrates several well-known techniques properly adapted to cope with the challenges related to the actual deployment of the vision system. Concretely, background subtraction is performed with a context-based learning mechanism so as to attain higher accuracy and robustness. The computational cost of a frequency analysis of potential fire regions is reduced by means of focusing its operation with an attentive mechanism. For fast discrimination between fire regions and fire-coloured moving objects, a new colour-based model of fire's appearance and a new wavelet-based model of fire's frequency signature are proposed. To reduce the false alarm rate due to the presence of fire-coloured moving objects, the category and behaviour of each moving object is taken into account in the decision-making. To estimate the expected object's size in the image plane and to generate geo-referenced alarms, the camera-world mapping is approximated with a GPS-based calibration process. Experimental results demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to detect fires with an average success rate of 93.1% at a processing rate of 10 Hz, which is often sufficient for real-life applications.

  16. Internet-Based Approaches to Building Stakeholder Networks for Conservation and Natural Resource Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kreakie, B. J.; Hychka, K. C.; Belaire, J. A.; Minor, E.; Walker, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is based on a conceptual network representation of social interactions and is an invaluable tool for conservation professionals to increase collaboration, improve information flow, and increase efficiency. We present two approaches to constructing internet-based social networks, and use an existing traditional (survey-based) case study to illustrate in a familiar context the deviations in methods and results. Internet-based approaches to SNA offer a means to over...

  17. Feasibility assessment of a risk-based approach to technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atefi, B.; Gallagher, D.W.

    1991-05-01

    To assess the potential use of risk and reliability techniques for improving the effectiveness of the technical specifications to control plant operational risk, the Technical Specifications Branch of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission initiated an effort to identify and evaluate alternative risk-based approaches that could bring greater risk perspective to these requirements. In the first phase four alternative approaches were identified and their characteristics were analyzed. Among these, the risk-based approach to technical specifications is the most promising approach for controlling plant operational risk using technical specifications. The second phase of the study concentrated on detailed characteristics of the real time risk-based approach. It is concluded that a real time risk-based approach to technical specifications has the potential to improve both plant safety and availability. 33 figs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  18. The role of hazard- and risk-based approaches in ensuring food safety

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Susan M.; Boobis, Alan R.; Bridges, Jim; Cockburn, Andrew; Dekant, Wolfgang; Hepburn, Paul; Houben, Geert F.; König, Jürgen; Nauta, Maarten; Schuermans, Jeroen; Bánáti, Diána

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundFood legislation in the European Union and elsewhere includes both hazard- and risk-based approaches for ensuring safety. In hazard-based approaches, simply the presence of a potentially harmful agent at a detectable level in food is used as a basis for legislation and/or risk management action. Risk-based approaches allow consideration of exposure in assessing whether there may be unacceptable risks to health.Scope and approachThe advantages and disadvantages of hazard- and risk-ba...

  19. Knowledge based expert system approach to instrumentation selection (INSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barai

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The selection of appropriate instrumentation for any structural measurement of civil engineering structure is a complex task. Recent developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI can help in an organized use of experiential knowledge available on instrumentation for laboratory and in-situ measurement. Usually, the instrumentation decision is based on the experience and judgment of experimentalists. The heuristic knowledge available for different types of measurement is domain dependent and the information is scattered in varied knowledge sources. The knowledge engineering techniques can help in capturing the experiential knowledge. This paper demonstrates a prototype knowledge based system for INstrument SELection (INSEL assistant where the experiential knowledge for various structural domains can be captured and utilized for making instrumentation decision. In particular, this Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES encodes the heuristics on measurement and demonstrates the instrument selection process with reference to steel bridges. INSEL runs on a microcomputer and uses an INSIGHT 2+ environment.

  20. Method for secure electronic voting system: face recognition based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, M. Affan; Baig, Misbah M.; Mehboob, Shahzain; Naseem, Imran

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework for low cost secure electronic voting system based on face recognition. Essentially Local Binary Pattern (LBP) is used for face feature characterization in texture format followed by chi-square distribution is used for image classification. Two parallel systems are developed based on smart phone and web applications for face learning and verification modules. The proposed system has two tire security levels by using person ID followed by face verification. Essentially class specific threshold is associated for controlling the security level of face verification. Our system is evaluated three standard databases and one real home based database and achieve the satisfactory recognition accuracies. Consequently our propose system provides secure, hassle free voting system and less intrusive compare with other biometrics.

  1. Applying the competence-based approach to management in the aerospace industry

    OpenAIRE

    Arpentieva Mariam; Duvalina Olga; Braitseva Svetlana; Gorelova Irina; Rozhnova Anna

    2018-01-01

    Problems of management in aerospace manufacturing are similar to those we observe in other sectors, the main of which is the flattening of strategic management. The main reason lies in the attitude towards human resource of the organization. In the aerospace industry employs 250 thousand people, who need individual approach. The individual approach can offer competence-based approach to management. The purpose of the study is proof of the benefits of the competency approach to human resource ...

  2. Acid-base equilibrium: The best clinical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizábal-Salazar, Raúl E; Calvo-Torres, L. Felipe; Valencia-Arango, Luis Alfonso; Montoya-Canon, Mauricio; Barbosa-Gantiva, Oscar; Hincapié-Baena, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base balance disorders can be found in a primary or secondary form in patients with a disease process such as Diabetes Mellitus or acute renal failure, among others. The objective of this article is to explain and guide the correlation ship between the clinical findings in the patient and the parameters of arterial blood gases in a simple and precise manner, in order to make the correct acid-base balance diagnosis and adequate therapeutic interventions. A non-systematic review of the sci...

  3. Confidence and the stock market: an agent-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertella, Mario A; Pires, Felipe R; Feng, Ling; Stanley, Harry Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Using a behavioral finance approach we study the impact of behavioral bias. We construct an artificial market consisting of fundamentalists and chartists to model the decision-making process of various agents. The agents differ in their strategies for evaluating stock prices, and exhibit differing memory lengths and confidence levels. When we increase the heterogeneity of the strategies used by the agents, in particular the memory lengths, we observe excess volatility and kurtosis, in agreement with real market fluctuations--indicating that agents in real-world financial markets exhibit widely differing memory lengths. We incorporate the behavioral traits of adaptive confidence and observe a positive correlation between average confidence and return rate, indicating that market sentiment is an important driver in price fluctuations. The introduction of market confidence increases price volatility, reflecting the negative effect of irrationality in market behavior.

  4. E-learning paradigms and applications agent-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2014-01-01

    Teaching and learning paradigms have attracted increased attention especially in the last decade. Immense developments of different ICT technologies and services have paved the way for alternative but effective approaches in educational processes. Many concepts of the agent technology, such as intelligence, autonomy, and cooperation, have had a direct positive impact on many of the requests imposed on modern e-learning systems and educational processes. This book presents the state-of-the-art of e-learning and tutoring systems, and discusses their capabilities and benefits that stem from integrating software agents. We hope that the presented work will be of a great use to our colleagues and researchers interested in the e-learning and agent technology.    

  5. Optimization of decision rules based on dynamic programming approach

    KAUST Repository

    Zielosko, Beata

    2014-01-14

    This chapter is devoted to the study of an extension of dynamic programming approach which allows optimization of approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage. We introduce an uncertainty measure that is the difference between number of rows in a given decision table and the number of rows labeled with the most common decision for this table divided by the number of rows in the decision table. We fix a threshold γ, such that 0 ≤ γ < 1, and study so-called γ-decision rules (approximate decision rules) that localize rows in subtables which uncertainty is at most γ. Presented algorithm constructs a directed acyclic graph Δ γ T which nodes are subtables of the decision table T given by pairs "attribute = value". The algorithm finishes the partitioning of a subtable when its uncertainty is at most γ. The chapter contains also results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  6. Software sensors based on the grey-box modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Harremoës, P.; Strube, Rune

    1996-01-01

    In recent years the grey-box modelling approach has been applied to wastewater transportation and treatment Grey-box models are characterized by the combination of deterministic and stochastic terms to form a model where all the parameters are statistically identifiable from the on......-box model for the specific dynamics is identified. Similarly, an on-line software sensor for detecting the occurrence of backwater phenomena can be developed by comparing the dynamics of a flow measurement with a nearby level measurement. For treatment plants it is found that grey-box models applied to on......-line measurements. With respect to the development of software sensors, the grey-box models possess two important features. Firstly, the on-line measurements can be filtered according to the grey-box model in order to remove noise deriving from the measuring equipment and controlling devices. Secondly, the grey...

  7. Human Metabolic Enzymes Deficiency: A Genetic Mutation Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Chaturvedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the extreme challenges in biology is to ameliorate the understanding of the mechanisms which emphasize metabolic enzyme deficiency (MED and how these pretend to have influence on human health. However, it has been manifested that MED could be either inherited as inborn error of metabolism (IEM or acquired, which carries a high risk of interrupted biochemical reactions. Enzyme deficiency results in accumulation of toxic compounds that may disrupt normal organ functions and cause failure in producing crucial biological compounds and other intermediates. The MED related disorders cover widespread clinical presentations and can involve almost any organ system. To sum up the causal factors of almost all the MED-associated disorders, we decided to embark on a less traveled but nonetheless relevant direction, by focusing our attention on associated gene family products, regulation of their expression, genetic mutation, and mutation types. In addition, the review also outlines the clinical presentations as well as diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  8. Mesh-based weight window approach for Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Gardner, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method has been increasingly used to solve particle transport problems. Statistical fluctuation from random sampling is the major limiting factor of its application. To obtain the desired precision, variance reduction techniques are indispensable for most practical problems. Among various variance reduction techniques, the weight window method proves to be one of the most general, powerful, and robust. The method is implemented in the current MCNP code. An importance map is estimated during a regular Monte Carlo run, and then the map is used in the subsequent run for splitting and Russian roulette games. The major drawback of this weight window method is lack of user-friendliness. It normally requires that users divide the large geometric cells into smaller ones by introducing additional surfaces to ensure an acceptable spatial resolution of the importance map. In this paper, we present a new weight window approach to overcome this drawback

  9. Improvement of radiology services based on the process management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Creusa Sayuri Tahara; Rozenfeld, Henrique; Costa, Janaina Mascarenhas Hornos; Magon, Maria de Fátima de Andrade; Mascarenhas, Yvone Maria

    2011-06-01

    The health sector requires continuous investments to ensure the improvement of products and services from a technological standpoint, the use of new materials, equipment and tools, and the application of process management methods. Methods associated with the process management approach, such as the development of reference models of business processes, can provide significant innovations in the health sector and respond to the current market trend for modern management in this sector (Gunderman et al. (2008) [4]). This article proposes a process model for diagnostic medical X-ray imaging, from which it derives a primary reference model and describes how this information leads to gains in quality and improvements. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Facial Emotion Recognition Using Context Based Multimodal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Metri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotions play a crucial role in person to person interaction. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in improving all aspects of interaction between humans and computers. The ability to understand human emotions is desirable for the computer in several applications especially by observing facial expressions. This paper explores a ways of human-computer interaction that enable the computer to be more aware of the user’s emotional expressions we present a approach for the emotion recognition from a facial expression, hand and body posture. Our model uses multimodal emotion recognition system in which we use two different models for facial expression recognition and for hand and body posture recognition and then combining the result of both classifiers using a third classifier which give the resulting emotion . Multimodal system gives more accurate result than a signal or bimodal system

  11. Stall Recovery Guidance Algorithms Based on Constrained Control Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Kaneshige, John; Acosta, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft loss-of-control, in particular approach to stall or fully developed stall, is a major factor contributing to aircraft safety risks, which emphasizes the need to develop algorithms that are capable of assisting the pilots to identify the problem and providing guidance to recover the aircraft. In this paper we present several stall recovery guidance algorithms, which are implemented in the background without interfering with flight control system and altering the pilot's actions. They are using input and state constrained control methods to generate guidance signals, which are provided to the pilot in the form of visual cues. It is the pilot's decision to follow these signals. The algorithms are validated in the pilot-in-the loop medium fidelity simulation experiment.

  12. A Narrative-Expectation-Based Approach to Temporal Update in Discourse Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dery, Jeruen E.; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns the mechanisms involving temporal update in discourse comprehension, comparing traditional approaches based on "Aktionsart" and Iconicity against an approach based on narrative expectations. Our experiments suggest that readers pay more attention to fine-grained discourse properties (such as salient temporal…

  13. The role of hazard- and risk-based approaches in ensuring food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlow, S.M.; Boobis, A.R.; Bridges, J.; Cockburn, A.; Dekant, W.; Hepburn, P.; Houben, G.F.; König, J.; Nauta, M.J.; Schuermans, J.; Bánáti, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food legislation in the European Union and elsewhere includes both hazard- and risk-based approaches for ensuring safety. In hazard-based approaches, simply the presence of a potentially harmful agent at a detectable level in food is used as a basis for legislation and/or risk management

  14. A Statistical Approach for Gain Bandwidth Prediction of Phoenix-Cell Based Reflect arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Salti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new statistical approach to predict the gain bandwidth of Phoenix-cell based reflectarrays is proposed. It combines the effects of both main factors that limit the bandwidth of reflectarrays: spatial phase delays and intrinsic bandwidth of radiating cells. As an illustration, the proposed approach is successfully applied to two reflectarrays based on new Phoenix cells.

  15. A Personalized Recommendation-Based Mobile Learning Approach to Improving the Reading Performance of EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Kun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a personalized recommendation-based mobile language learning approach is proposed. A mobile learning system has been developed based on the approach by providing a reading material recommendation mechanism for guiding EFL (English as Foreign Language) students to read articles that match their preferences and knowledge levels, and a…

  16. An Inquiry-Based Approach of Traditional "Step-by-Step" Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, L.; Tóth, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This is the start of a road map for the effective introduction of inquiry-based learning in chemistry. Advantages of inquiry-based approaches to the development of scientific literacy are widely discussed in the literature. However, unless chemistry educators take account of teachers' reservations and identified disadvantages such approaches will…

  17. Comparative analysis of neural network and regression based condition monitoring approaches for wind turbine fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlechtingen, Meik; Santos, Ilmar

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the research results of a comparison of three different model based approaches for wind turbine fault detection in online SCADA data, by applying developed models to five real measured faults and anomalies. The regression based model as the simplest approach to build a normal...

  18. Inverse Reliability Task: Artificial Neural Networks and Reliability-Based Optimization Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Lehký , David; Slowik , Ondřej; Novák , Drahomír

    2014-01-01

    Part 7: Genetic Algorithms; International audience; The paper presents two alternative approaches to solve inverse reliability task – to determine the design parameters to achieve desired target reliabilities. The first approach is based on utilization of artificial neural networks and small-sample simulation Latin hypercube sampling. The second approach considers inverse reliability task as reliability-based optimization task using double-loop method and also small-sample simulation. Efficie...

  19. Cross-Platform Mobile Application Development: A Pattern-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cross-Platform Mobile Application Development: A Pattern-Based Approach 5. FUNDING...for public release; distribution is unlimited CROSS-PLATFORM MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT: A PATTERN-BASED APPROACH Christian G. Acord...occurring design problems. We then discuss common approaches to mobile development, including common aspects of mobile application development, including

  20. An Agent-Based Approach to Modeling Online Social Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Vecht, B. van der

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to better understand social influence in online social media. Therefore, we propose a method in which we implement, validate and improve an individual behavior model. The behavior model is based on three fundamental behavioral principles of social influence from the

  1. Intersectionality: An Arts-Based Approach to Student Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to introduce specific activities/lessons to students in an online university gender and communication course. It was also designed to determine how participants made meaning of and felt about learning about intersectionality of gender and cultural identities, using arts-based data collection. Previous research on the…

  2. MVMO-based approach for optimal placement and tuning of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    differential evolution DE algorithm with adaptive crossover operator, .... x are assigned by using a sequential scheme which accounts for mean and ... the representative scenarios from probabilistic model based Monte Carlo ... Comparison of average convergence of MVMO-S with other metaheuristic optimization methods.

  3. Features fusion based approach for handwritten Gujarati character recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Handwritten character recognition is a challenging area of research. Lots of research activities in the area of character recognition are already done for Indian languages such as Hindi, Bangla, Kannada, Tamil and Telugu. Literature review on handwritten character recognition indicates that in comparison with other Indian scripts research activities on Gujarati handwritten character recognition are very less.  This paper aims to bring Gujarati character recognition in attention. Recognition of isolated Gujarati handwritten characters is proposed using three different kinds of features and their fusion. Chain code based, zone based and projection profiles based features are utilized as individual features. One of the significant contribution of proposed work is towards the generation of large and representative dataset of 88,000 handwritten Gujarati characters. Experiments are carried out on this developed dataset. Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and Naive Bayes (NB classifier based methods are implemented for handwritten Gujarati character recognition. Experimental results show substantial enhancement over state-of-the-art and authenticate our proposals.

  4. A Mistake Based Approach Probing Students' Understanding of PV ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There are several concepts in molecular thermodynamics whicheasily befuddle students. PV-type work done, presents onesuch example. Classifying the systematic mistakes made bystudents in response to a concept-based question on workdone in thermodynamics, and sharing them across a publicforum results in a ...

  5. Designing Science Learning with Game-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Rosenblum, Jason A.; Horton, Lucas; Kang, Jina

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing popularity of digital games as a form of entertainment, educators are interested in exploring using digital games as a tool to facilitate learning. In this study, we examine game-based learning by describing a learning environment that combines game elements, play, and authenticity in the real world for the purpose of engaging…

  6. A Wavelet-Based Approach to Pattern Discovery in Melodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velarde, Gissel; Meredith, David; Weyde, Tillman

    2016-01-01

    We present a computational method for pattern discovery based on the application of the wavelet transform to symbolic representations of melodies or monophonic voices. We model the importance of a discovered pattern in terms of the compression ratio that can be achieved by using it to describe...

  7. Scenario-based approach for flexible resource loading under uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wullink, G.; Gademann, A.J.R.M.; Hans, E.W.; Harten, van A.

    2004-01-01

    Order acceptance decisions in manufacture-to-order environments are often made based on incomplete or uncertain information. To quote reliable due dates in order processing, manage resource capacity adequately and take into account uncertainty, the paper presents and analyses models and tools for

  8. Segmentation and Dimension Reduction: Exploratory and Model-Based Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractRepresenting the information in a data set in a concise way is an important part of data analysis. A variety of multivariate statistical techniques have been developed for this purpose, such as k-means clustering and principal components analysis. These techniques are often based on the

  9. Simulation of quantum computation : A deterministic event-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K; De Raedt, K; De Raedt, H

    We demonstrate that locally connected networks of machines that have primitive learning capabilities can be used to perform a deterministic, event-based simulation of quantum computation. We present simulation results for basic quantum operations such as the Hadamard and the controlled-NOT gate, and

  10. Simulation of Quantum Computation : A Deterministic Event-Based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Raedt, K. De; Raedt, H. De

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that locally connected networks of machines that have primitive learning capabilities can be used to perform a deterministic, event-based simulation of quantum computation. We present simulation results for basic quantum operations such as the Hadamard and the controlled-NOT gate, and

  11. Inquiry-Based Approach to Understanding Common Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Monica

    2010-01-01

    In this inquiry-based activity, students catalog external and internal characteristics of four different classes of animals during dissection exercises. On the basis of their accumulated data, students compare and contrast the animals, devise a phylogenetic tree, and provide reasonable characteristics for extinct transitional organisms. (Contains…

  12. Adopting a Models-Based Approach to Teaching Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Ashley; MacPhail, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Background: The popularised notion of models-based practice (MBP) is one that focuses on the delivery of a model, e.g. Cooperative Learning, Sport Education, Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility, Teaching Games for Understanding. Indeed, while an abundance of research studies have examined the delivery of a single model and some have…

  13. An evolutionary approach for colour constancy based on gamut ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Many colour constancy algorithms have been proposed to achieve a good performance in this field. The gamut mapping algorithm is one of the most accurate and promising algorithms based on gamut assumption: illuminant can be estimated by comparing the colours distribution in the current image to acanonical gamut ...

  14. A simulator-based approach to evaluating optical trackers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, F.A.; Liere, van R.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a software framework to evaluate the performance of model-based optical trackers in virtual environments. The framework can be used to evaluate and compare the performance of different trackers under various conditions, to study the effects of varying intrinsic and extrinsic camera

  15. Home/community-based services: a two-tier approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, H J; Zarski, J J; Bixenstine, C; Cibik, P

    1991-07-01

    A two-tier model for work with high-risk families is presented. It combines multiple-family groups in the community with home-based family therapy for individual families. The ecostructural conceptual framework of the model is discussed, and its application is illustrated by a case vignette.

  16. Customer complaints and recovery effectiveness : A customer base approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knox, G.; van Oest, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Although customer complaints are a well-studied aspect of business, no study has measured the impact of actual complaints and recoveries on subsequent customer purchasing. The authors develop a customer base model to investigate the effectiveness of recovery in preventing customer churn. They

  17. The Project-Based Learning Approach in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of project-based learning on students' attitudes toward the environment. In the study that was performed with 39 students who take the "Environmental Education" course, attitude changes toward the environment were investigated in students who developed projects on environmental…

  18. Dirac cones beyond the honeycomb lattice : a symmetry based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miert, G. van; de Morais Smith, Cristiane

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several new materials exhibiting massless Dirac fermions have been proposed. However, many of these do not have the typical graphene honeycomb lattice, which is often associated with Dirac cones. Here, we present a classification of these different two-dimensional Dirac systems based on

  19. A need-based approach to dynamic activity generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, E.W.L.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic congestion is still an everyday reoccurring problem. Models that predict traffic flows have been developed in the past and, in particular, considerable progress has been made in development and application of activity-based travel demand models over the last decade. However, several issues

  20. Proto-ribosome: a theoretical approach based on RNA relics

    OpenAIRE

    Demongeot, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    We describe in this paper, based on already published articles, a contribution to the theory postulating the existence of a proto-ribosome, which could have appeared early at the origin of life and we discuss the interest of this notion in an evolutionary perspective, taking into account the existence of possible RNA relics of this proto-ribosome.

  1. The dynamics of a usage-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspoor, Marjolijn; Daems, Jocelyn; Zenner, Eline; Heylen, Kris; Speelman, Dirk; Cuyckens, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    This contribution seeks to connect usage based linguistics with dynamic systems theory, in particular as applied by Edelman (1989) and Thelen and Smith (1994). Edelman’s dynamic biological system starts off with a few simple sub-systems (perception, action, value), all of which interacting with each

  2. Estimation of net greenhouse gas balance using crop- and soil-based approaches: Two case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jianxiong; Chen, Yuanquan; Sui, Peng; Gao, Wansheng

    2013-01-01

    The net greenhouse gas balance (NGHGB), estimated by combining direct and indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, can reveal whether an agricultural system is a sink or source of GHGs. Currently, two types of methods, referred to here as crop-based and soil-based approaches, are widely used to estimate the NGHGB of agricultural systems on annual and seasonal crop timescales. However, the two approaches may produce contradictory results, and few studies have tested which approach is more reliable. In this study, we examined the two approaches using experimental data from an intercropping trial with straw removal and a tillage trial with straw return. The results of the two approaches provided different views of the two trials. In the intercropping trial, NGHGB estimated by the crop-based approach indicated that monocultured maize (M) was a source of GHGs (− 1315 kg CO 2 −eq ha −1 ), whereas maize–soybean intercropping (MS) was a sink (107 kg CO 2 −eq ha −1 ). When estimated by the soil-based approach, both cropping systems were sources (− 3410 for M and − 2638 kg CO 2 −eq ha −1 for MS). In the tillage trial, mouldboard ploughing (MP) and rotary tillage (RT) mitigated GHG emissions by 22,451 and 21,500 kg CO 2 −eq ha −1 , respectively, as estimated by the crop-based approach. However, by the soil-based approach, both tillage methods were sources of GHGs: − 3533 for MP and − 2241 kg CO 2 −eq ha −1 for RT. The crop-based approach calculates a GHG sink on the basis of the returned crop biomass (and other organic matter input) and estimates considerably more GHG mitigation potential than that calculated from the variations in soil organic carbon storage by the soil-based approach. These results indicate that the crop-based approach estimates higher GHG mitigation benefits compared to the soil-based approach and may overestimate the potential of GHG mitigation in agricultural systems. - Highlights: • Net greenhouse gas balance (NGHGB) of

  3. A Contradiction-Based Approach for Innovative Product Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Yao-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Without creativity in design there is no potential for innovation. This paper investigates the role of contradictions in enhancing creativity in product design. Based on the inventive principles of TRIZ, this paper presents a novel design method by integrating technical and physical contradiction analysis methods into the conceptual design activities of new product development (NPD. Despite the recognized importance of innovative design, there is a lack of the systematic and effective design-thinking process that can covers all conceptual design activities. To address this gap, a sharper and fundamental model of the problem-solving is created for innovative product design based on the contradiction-oriented concept. Eventually, one case study is employed to illustrate the method and the result validates that it can help designers produce more creative outcomes in product design.

  4. Modeling collective emotions: a stochastic approach based on Brownian agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, F.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a agent-based framework to model the emergence of collective emotions, which is applied to online communities. Agents individual emotions are described by their valence and arousal. Using the concept of Brownian agents, these variables change according to a stochastic dynamics, which also considers the feedback from online communication. Agents generate emotional information, which is stored and distributed in a field modeling the online medium. This field affects the emotional states of agents in a non-linear manner. We derive conditions for the emergence of collective emotions, observable in a bimodal valence distribution. Dependent on a saturated or a super linear feedback between the information field and the agent's arousal, we further identify scenarios where collective emotions only appear once or in a repeated manner. The analytical results are illustrated by agent-based computer simulations. Our framework provides testable hypotheses about the emergence of collective emotions, which can be verified by data from online communities. (author)

  5. Aquaporin-Based Biomimetic Polymeric Membranes: Approaches and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Joachim; Hansen, Michael; Kynde, Søren; Larsen, Nanna; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Jensen, Grethe Vestergaard; Bomholt, Julie; Ogbonna, Anayo; Almdal, Kristoffer; Schulz, Alexander; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, aquaporin biomimetic membranes (ABMs) for water separation have gained considerable interest. Although the first ABMs are commercially available, there are still many challenges associated with further ABM development. Here, we discuss the interplay of the main components of ABMs: aquaporin proteins (AQPs), block copolymers for AQP reconstitution, and polymer-based supporting structures. First, we briefly cover challenges and review recent developments in understanding the interplay between AQP and block copolymers. Second, we review some experimental characterization methods for investigating AQP incorporation including freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, stopped-flow light scattering, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Third, we focus on recent efforts in embedding reconstituted AQPs in membrane designs that are based on conventional thin film interfacial polymerization techniques. Finally, we describe some new developments in interfacial polymerization using polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane cages for increasing the physical and chemical durability of thin film composite membranes. PMID:26264033

  6. A Global Online Handwriting Recognition Approach Based on Frequent Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gmati

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the handwriting signals are represented based on geometric and spatio-temporal characteristics to increase the feature vectors relevance of each object. The main goal was to extract features in the form of a numeric vector based on the extraction of frequent patterns. We used two types of frequent motifs (closed frequent patterns and maximal frequent patterns that can represent handwritten characters pertinently. These common features patterns are generated from a raw data transformation method to achieve high relevance. A database of words consisting of two different letters was created. The proposed application gives promising results and highlights the advantages that frequent pattern extraction algorithms can achieve, as well as the central role played by the “minimum threshold” parameter in the overall description of the characters.

  7. Optimization based tuning approach for offset free MPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Haugård; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    We present an optimization based tuning procedure with certain robustness properties for an offset free Model Predictive Controller (MPC). The MPC is designed for multivariate processes that can be represented by an ARX model. The advantage of ARX model representations is that standard system...... identifiation techniques using convex optimization can be used for identification of such models from input-output data. The stochastic model of the ARX model identified from input-output data is modified with an ARMA model designed as part of the MPC-design procedure to ensure offset-free control. The ARMAX...... model description resulting from the extension can be realized as a state space model in innovation form. The MPC is designed and implemented based on this state space model in innovation form. Expressions for the closed-loop dynamics of the unconstrained system is used to derive the sensitivity...

  8. An alternative approach to spectrum base line estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukvic, S.; Spasojevic, Dj.

    2005-01-01

    We present a new form of merit function which measures agreement between a large number of data and the model function with a particular choice of parameters. We demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed merit function on the common problem of finding the base line of a spectrum. When the base line is expected to be a horizontal straight line, the use of minimization algorithms is not necessary, i.e. the solution is achieved in a small number of steps. We discuss the advantages of the proposed merit function in general, when explicit use of a minimization algorithm is necessary. The hardcopy text is accompanied by an electronic archive, stored on the SAE homepage at http://www1.elsevier.com/homepage/saa/sab/content/lower.htm. The archive contains fully functional demo program with tutorial, examples and Visual Basic source code of the key subroutine

  9. Computer aided fixture design - A case based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanji, Shekhar; Raiker, Saiesh; Mathew, Arun Tom

    2017-11-01

    Automated fixture design plays important role in process planning and integration of CAD and CAM. An automated fixture setup design system is developed where when fixturing surfaces and points are described allowing modular fixture components to get automatically select for generating fixture units and placed into position with satisfying assembled conditions. In past, various knowledge based system have been developed to implement CAFD in practice. In this paper, to obtain an acceptable automated machining fixture design, a case-based reasoning method with developed retrieval system is proposed. Visual Basic (VB) programming language is used in integrating with SolidWorks API (Application programming interface) module for better retrieval procedure reducing computational time. These properties are incorporated in numerical simulation to determine the best fit for practical use.

  10. Random Valued Impulse Noise Removal Using Region Based Detection Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Banerjee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Removal of random valued noisy pixel is extremely challenging when the noise density is above 50%. The existing filters are generally not capable of eliminating such noise when density is above 70%. In this paper a region wise density based detection algorithm for random valued impulse noise has been proposed. On the basis of the intensity values, the pixels of a particular window are sorted and then stored into four regions. The higher density based region is considered for stepwise detection of noisy pixels. As a result of this detection scheme a maximum of 75% of noisy pixels can be detected. For this purpose this paper proposes a unique noise removal algorithm. It was experimentally proved that the proposed algorithm not only performs exceptionally when it comes to visual qualitative judgment of standard images but also this filter combination outsmarts the existing algorithm in terms of MSE, PSNR and SSIM comparison even up to 70% noise density level.

  11. An Educational Approach to Problem-based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Chieh Chen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the educational framework of problem-based learning (PBL. As known and used, PBL finds its root in the Structuralism and Pragmatism schools of philosophy. In this paper, the three main requirements of PBL, namely learning by doing, learning in context, and focusing on the student, are discussed within the context of these two schools of thought. Given these attributes, PBL also seems ideally suited for use in learning bioethics.

  12. A PROCESS-BASED APPROACH TO KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačić, Andrej; Bosilj Vukšić, Vesna; Lončar, Anita

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between business process modelling, knowledge management and information systems development projects. The paper’s main objective is to present business rules as the encoded knowledge of corporate business practices. Further, it introduces a rule-based business activity meta-model as a repository in which business knowledge can be captured and traced from their origin in the business environment through to their implementation in information systems. The c...

  13. A Game-Chain-Based Approach for Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    An, Tingyu; Watanabe, tsunami

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, with the rapid development of information society, decision-making problems become more and more complicated especially in large scale systems such as infrastructure, environmental and industrial fields, which are usually accompanied by psychological competition between involved parties in a complicated, uncertain and dynamic situation. From a holistic perspective of system, a specific decision-making method which is described as game-chain-based decision making has been proposed in...

  14. Answering PICO Clinical Questions: a Semantic Graph-Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Znaidi , Eya; Tamine , Lynda; Latiri , Chiraz

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we tackle the issue related to the retrieval of the best evidence that fits with a PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome) question. We propose a new document ranking algorithm that relies on semantic based query expansion bounded by the local search context to better discard irrelevant documents. Experiments using a standard dataset including 423 PICO questions and more than 1,2 million of documents, show that our aproach is promising.

  15. Community Based Approach to Wind Energy Information Dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innis, S.

    2003-09-26

    The purpose of the Department of Energy's grant was to transfer to New Mexico and Utah a national award-winning market-based strategy to aggregate demand for wind energy. Their experiences over the past few years in New Mexico and utah have been quite different. In both states they have developed stronger relationships with utilities and policymakers which will increase the effectiveness of the future advocacy efforts.

  16. An Agent Based Approach for Project Management in Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Sencer, Safiye; Turgay, Tahsin

    2013-01-01

    Project management has an important role in terms of time, cost and flexibility. An agentbased architecture provides additional robustness, scalability, flexibility that is particularly appropriate for problems with a dynamic and distributed nature. Integrated agent based project management covers design and construction planning. It is combined with plan execution, tolerating both the design and plan, which may be changed as necessary. In this reason, the decision making process requires tha...

  17. BENCHMARKING - MANAGEMENT APPROACH FOR PUBLIC SERVICES BASED ON PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Elena TUDOSE (IORGA)

    2013-01-01

    Objective assessment of the efficiency/effectiveness of an organization’s activity, based on realistic, measurable indicators, is a fundamental premise for successful strategic planning. Although traditionally associated with the business sector and the concept of economic productivity, benchmarking has become today an important tool used by public agencies in planning their activities and evaluating processes and outcomes. The public utility services sector is one of the fields that require ...

  18. A Novel Rules Based Approach for Estimating Software Birthmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binti Alias, Norma; Anwar, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Software birthmark is a unique quality of software to detect software theft. Comparing birthmarks of software can tell us whether a program or software is a copy of another. Software theft and piracy are rapidly increasing problems of copying, stealing, and misusing the software without proper permission, as mentioned in the desired license agreement. The estimation of birthmark can play a key role in understanding the effectiveness of a birthmark. In this paper, a new technique is presented to evaluate and estimate software birthmark based on the two most sought-after properties of birthmarks, that is, credibility and resilience. For this purpose, the concept of soft computing such as probabilistic and fuzzy computing has been taken into account and fuzzy logic is used to estimate properties of birthmark. The proposed fuzzy rule based technique is validated through a case study and the results show that the technique is successful in assessing the specified properties of the birthmark, its resilience and credibility. This, in turn, shows how much effort will be required to detect the originality of the software based on its birthmark. PMID:25945363

  19. Deviation-based spam-filtering method via stochastic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daekyung; Lee, Mi Jin; Kim, Beom Jun

    2018-03-01

    In the presence of a huge number of possible purchase choices, ranks or ratings of items by others often play very important roles for a buyer to make a final purchase decision. Perfectly objective rating is an impossible task to achieve, and we often use an average rating built on how previous buyers estimated the quality of the product. The problem of using a simple average rating is that it can easily be polluted by careless users whose evaluation of products cannot be trusted, and by malicious spammers who try to bias the rating result on purpose. In this letter we suggest how trustworthiness of individual users can be systematically and quantitatively reflected to build a more reliable rating system. We compute the suitably defined reliability of each user based on the user's rating pattern for all products she evaluated. We call our proposed method as the deviation-based ranking, since the statistical significance of each user's rating pattern with respect to the average rating pattern is the key ingredient. We find that our deviation-based ranking method outperforms existing methods in filtering out careless random evaluators as well as malicious spammers.

  20. Modelling of robotic work cells using agent based-approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sękala, A.; Banaś, W.; Gwiazda, A.; Monica, Z.; Kost, G.; Hryniewicz, P.

    2016-08-01

    In the case of modern manufacturing systems the requirements, both according the scope and according characteristics of technical procedures are dynamically changing. This results in production system organization inability to keep up with changes in a market demand. Accordingly, there is a need for new design methods, characterized, on the one hand with a high efficiency and on the other with the adequate level of the generated organizational solutions. One of the tools that could be used for this purpose is the concept of agent systems. These systems are the tools of artificial intelligence. They allow assigning to agents the proper domains of procedures and knowledge so that they represent in a self-organizing system of an agent environment, components of a real system. The agent-based system for modelling robotic work cell should be designed taking into consideration many limitations considered with the characteristic of this production unit. It is possible to distinguish some grouped of structural components that constitute such a system. This confirms the structural complexity of a work cell as a specific production system. So it is necessary to develop agents depicting various aspects of the work cell structure. The main groups of agents that are used to model a robotic work cell should at least include next pattern representatives: machine tool agents, auxiliary equipment agents, robots agents, transport equipment agents, organizational agents as well as data and knowledge bases agents. In this way it is possible to create the holarchy of the agent-based system.

  1. Ozone Measurements Monitoring Using Data-Based Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Kadri, Farid; Khadraoui, Sofiane; Sun, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of ozone (O3) formation mechanisms in the troposphere make the fast and accurate modeling of ozone very challenging. In the absence of a process model, principal component analysis (PCA) has been extensively used as a data-based monitoring technique for highly correlated process variables; however conventional PCA-based detection indices often fail to detect small or moderate anomalies. In this work, we propose an innovative method for detecting small anomalies in highly correlated multivariate data. The developed method combine the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) monitoring scheme with PCA modelling in order to enhance anomaly detection performance. Such a choice is mainly motivated by the greater ability of the MEWMA monitoring scheme to detect small changes in the process mean. The proposed PCA-based MEWMA monitoring scheme is successfully applied to ozone measurements data collected from Upper Normandy region, France, via the network of air quality monitoring stations. The detection results of the proposed method are compared to that declared by Air Normand air monitoring association.

  2. Ozone Measurements Monitoring Using Data-Based Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-02-01

    The complexity of ozone (O3) formation mechanisms in the troposphere make the fast and accurate modeling of ozone very challenging. In the absence of a process model, principal component analysis (PCA) has been extensively used as a data-based monitoring technique for highly correlated process variables; however conventional PCA-based detection indices often fail to detect small or moderate anomalies. In this work, we propose an innovative method for detecting small anomalies in highly correlated multivariate data. The developed method combine the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) monitoring scheme with PCA modelling in order to enhance anomaly detection performance. Such a choice is mainly motivated by the greater ability of the MEWMA monitoring scheme to detect small changes in the process mean. The proposed PCA-based MEWMA monitoring scheme is successfully applied to ozone measurements data collected from Upper Normandy region, France, via the network of air quality monitoring stations. The detection results of the proposed method are compared to that declared by Air Normand air monitoring association.

  3. Approaches that Affect Consumer-Based Brand Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Santos de Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Current studies on factors affecting the dimensions of consumer-based brand equity have been dispersed, applicable to specific contexts and not systematized in the literature. So, the purpose of this paper is to identify and categorize factors that create, increase or decrease each of the consumer-based brand equity dimensions: brand associations, brand awareness, perceived quality and brand loyalty. The extensive analysis of literature shows that there are significant differences between factors affecting each of the brand equity dimensions. Factors that positively affect one dimension cannot have the same effect on another. Moreover, it notes that the effect of such factors is variations when analyzed in different sectors and economic contexts. The main contribution of this research lies in the fact that it provides a research panorama already conducted on factors affecting the dimensions of consumer-based brand equity, indicating a potential for development of future studies. This research also enriches the literature categorizing the factors identified in the literature in four sets that allow the future targeting studies.

  4. A design approach for small vision-based autonomous vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Barrett B.; Fife, Wade S.; Archibald, James K.; Lee, Dah-Jye; Wilde, Doran K.

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes the design of a small autonomous vehicle based on the Helios computing platform, a custom FPGA-based board capable of supporting on-board vision. Target applications for the Helios computing platform are those that require lightweight equipment and low power consumption. To demonstrate the capabilities of FPGAs in real-time control of autonomous vehicles, a 16 inch long R/C monster truck was outfitted with a Helios board. The platform provided by such a small vehicle is ideal for testing and development. The proof of concept application for this autonomous vehicle was a timed race through an environment with obstacles. Given the size restrictions of the vehicle and its operating environment, the only feasible on-board sensor is a small CMOS camera. The single video feed is therefore the only source of information from the surrounding environment. The image is then segmented and processed by custom logic in the FPGA that also controls direction and speed of the vehicle based on visual input.

  5. Narrative Based Medicine and Neonatology: an interpretative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Zonza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM has progressively lead doctors to focus their practice on the disease and not on the patient anymore. They consider a sick body or a sick part rather than a sick person. Such an attitude results in a progressive process of alienation or “unauthentic experience”. On the contrary the Medical Humanities represents a strong reaction to this state of things, and for Medicine a chance to embrace again its humanistic “vocation”. Narrative Based Medicine (NBM places at the center of the clinical practice the communicative and relational dimension. This study deepen the application of NBM to the scope of neonatal care. As a result of our work, we have identified in the NBM applied to the neonatal area a fundamental characteristic, the Neonatal Triangle (doctors, patient, parents, and a triple functionality (diagnostic, ethical and educational placed in three different ideal chronological moments (before, during and after. We explore the close connection between these functions and the clinical work and how the NBM model, through these same functions, enhance the opportunity of care and relationship. The main assumption is obviously the Doctors ability to build a shared narrative relation with the Parents of the little Patients, that in the technical terms of the Narrative Based Medicine is called co-construction of the illness history. We can remark that with the NBM we understand (the narrative frame, build (the therapeutic alliance and share (decisions.

  6. Approach for a Pattern-Based Development of Frugal Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Christin Lehner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Emerging markets have become increasingly interesting for companies from industrialized countries, but the requirements in these markets differ dramatically from those in the companies’ traditional markets. New products and services are demanded – so-called frugal innovations. Since the challenges for the development of frugal innovations are often quite similar – for example, low income of the target customer, poor infrastructure, etc. – the hypothesis appears that the solutions will also be similar. In our earlier TIM Review article (Lehner & Gausemeier, 2016, we showed how solution patterns for frugal innovations can be derived. The article at hand summarizes those findings and supplements an innovation process for frugal innovation using the solution patterns. The validation based on the example of telemedical assistant systems shows the benefit of the pattern-based development of frugal innovations. The article addresses managers and engineers who plan to introduce frugal innovations, as well as university-based researchers interested in the development of frugal innovations.

  7. Crime Forecasting System (An exploratory web-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaseen Ahmed Meenai

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous rise in crimes in some big cities of the world like Karachi and the increasing complexity of these crimes, the difficulties the law enforcing agencies are facing in tracking down and taking out culprits have increased manifold. To help cut back the crime rate, a Crime Forecasting System (CFS can be used which uses historical information maintained by the local Police to help them predict crime patterns with the support of a huge and self-updating database. This system operates to prevent crime, helps in apprehending criminals, and to reduce disorder. This system is also vital in helping the law enforcers in forming a proactive approach by helping them in identifying early warning signs, take timely and necessary actions, and eventually help stop crime before it actually happens. It will also be beneficial in maintaining an up to date database of criminal suspects includes information on arrest records, communication with police department, associations with other known suspects, and membership in gangs/activist groups. After exploratory analysis of the online data acquired from the victims of these crimes, a broad picture of the scenario can be analyzed. The degree of vulnerability of an area at some particular moment can be highlighted by different colors aided by Google Maps. Some statistical diagrams have also been incorporated. The future of CFS can be seen as an information engine for the analysis, study and prediction of crimes.

  8. An ancestry-based approach for detecting interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Danny S; Eskin, Itamar; Kang, Eun Yong; Gamazon, Eric R; Eng, Celeste; Gignoux, Christopher R; Galanter, Joshua M; Burchard, Esteban; Ye, Chun J; Aschard, Hugues; Eskin, Eleazar; Halperin, Eran; Zaitlen, Noah

    2018-02-01

    Epistasis and gene-environment interactions are known to contribute significantly to variation of complex phenotypes in model organisms. However, their identification in human association studies remains challenging for myriad reasons. In the case of epistatic interactions, the large number of potential interacting sets of genes presents computational, multiple hypothesis correction, and other statistical power issues. In the case of gene-environment interactions, the lack of consistently measured environmental covariates in most disease studies precludes searching for interactions and creates difficulties for replicating studies. In this work, we develop a new statistical approach to address these issues that leverages genetic ancestry, defined as the proportion of ancestry derived from each ancestral population (e.g., the fraction of European/African ancestry in African Americans), in admixed populations. We applied our method to gene expression and methylation data from African American and Latino admixed individuals, respectively, identifying nine interactions that were significant at Pancestry can be a useful proxy for unknown and unmeasured covariates in the search for interaction effects. These results have important implications for our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  9. A Simulation-Based Approach to Training Operational Cultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Cultural knowledge and skills are critically important for military operations, emergency response, or any job that involves interaction with a culturally diverse population. However, it is not obvious what cultural knowledge and skills need to be trained, and how to integrate that training with the other training that trainees must undergo. Cultural training needs to be broad enough to encompass both regional (culture-specific) and cross-cultural (culture-general) competencies, yet be focused enough to result in targeted improvements in on-the-job performance. This paper describes a comprehensive instructional development methodology and training technology framework that focuses cultural training on operational needs. It supports knowledge acquisition, skill acquisition, and skill transfer. It supports both training and assessment, and integrates with other aspects of operational skills training. Two training systems will be used to illustrate this approach: the Virtual Cultural Awareness Trainer (VCAT) and the Tactical Dari language and culture training system. The paper also discusses new and emerging capabilities that are integrating cultural competence training more strongly with other aspects of training and mission rehearsal.

  10. A risk-based approach to liquid effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, L.C.

    1995-10-01

    DOE Order 5400.1 identifies six objectives of a liquid effluent monitoring program. A strategy is proposed that meets these objective in one of two ways: (1) by showing that effluent concentrations are below concentration limits set by permits or are below concentrations that could cause environmental problems or (2) by showing that concentrations in effluent have not changed from a period when treatment processes were in control and there were no unplanned releases. The intensity of liquid effluent monitoring should be graded to the importance of the source being monitored. This can be accomplished by determining the risk posed by the source. A definition of risk is presented that defines risk in terms of the statistical probability of exceeding a release limit and the time available to recover from an exceedance of a release limit. Three examples are presented that show this approach to grading an effluent monitoring program can be implemented at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and will reduce monitoring requirements.

  11. A stable isotope-based approach to tropical dendroclimatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael N.; Schrag, Daniel P.

    2004-08-01

    We describe a strategy for development of chronological control in tropical trees lacking demonstrably annual ring formation, using high resolution δ 18O measurements in tropical wood. The approach applies existing models of the oxygen isotopic composition of alpha-cellulose (Roden et al., 2000), a rapid method for cellulose extraction from raw wood (Brendel et al., 2000), and continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (Brenna et al., 1998) to develop proxy chronological, rainfall and growth rate estimates from tropical trees lacking visible annual ring structure. Consistent with model predictions, pilot datasets from the temperate US and Costa Rica having independent chronological control suggest that observed cyclic isotopic signatures of several permil (SMOW) represent the annual cycle of local rainfall and relative humidity. Additional data from a plantation tree of known age from ENSO-sensitive northwestern coastal Peru suggests that the 1997-8 ENSO warm phase event was recorded as an 8‰ anomaly in the δ 18O of α-cellulose. The results demonstrate reproducibility of the stable isotopic chronometer over decades, two different climatic zones, and three tropical tree genera, and point to future applications in paleoclimatology.

  12. A Pervasive Approach to EEG-Based Depression Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanshu Cai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, depression is the world’s major health concern and economic burden worldwide. However, due to the limitations of current methods for depression diagnosis, a pervasive and objective approach is essential. In the present study, a psychophysiological database, containing 213 (92 depressed patients and 121 normal controls subjects, was constructed. The electroencephalogram (EEG signals of all participants under resting state and sound stimulation were collected using a pervasive prefrontal-lobe three-electrode EEG system at Fp1, Fp2, and Fpz electrode sites. After denoising using the Finite Impulse Response filter combining the Kalman derivation formula, Discrete Wavelet Transformation, and an Adaptive Predictor Filter, a total of 270 linear and nonlinear features were extracted. Then, the minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance feature selection technique reduced the dimensionality of the feature space. Four classification methods (Support Vector Machine, K-Nearest Neighbor, Classification Trees, and Artificial Neural Network distinguished the depressed participants from normal controls. The classifiers’ performances were evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation. The results showed that K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN had the highest accuracy of 79.27%. The result also suggested that the absolute power of the theta wave might be a valid characteristic for discriminating depression. This study proves the feasibility of a pervasive three-electrode EEG acquisition system for depression diagnosis.

  13. Fault Tolerant Control for Civil Structures Based on LMI Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxu Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control system may lose the performance to suppress the structural vibration due to the faults in sensors or actuators. This paper designs the filter to perform the fault detection and isolation (FDI and then reforms the control strategy to achieve the fault tolerant control (FTC. The dynamic equation of the structure with active mass damper (AMD is first formulated. Then, an estimated system is built to transform the FDI filter design problem to the static gain optimization problem. The gain is designed to minimize the gap between the estimated system and the practical system, which can be calculated by linear matrix inequality (LMI approach. The FDI filter is finally used to isolate the sensor faults and reform the FTC strategy. The efficiency of FDI and FTC is validated by the numerical simulation of a three-story structure with AMD system with the consideration of sensor faults. The results show that the proposed FDI filter can detect the sensor faults and FTC controller can effectively tolerate the faults and suppress the structural vibration.

  14. Evaluating approaches to find exon chains based on long reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuosmanen, Anna; Norri, Tuukka; Mäkinen, Veli

    2018-05-01

    Transcript prediction can be modeled as a graph problem where exons are modeled as nodes and reads spanning two or more exons are modeled as exon chains. Pacific Biosciences third-generation sequencing technology produces significantly longer reads than earlier second-generation sequencing technologies, which gives valuable information about longer exon chains in a graph. However, with the high error rates of third-generation sequencing, aligning long reads correctly around the splice sites is a challenging task. Incorrect alignments lead to spurious nodes and arcs in the graph, which in turn lead to incorrect transcript predictions. We survey several approaches to find the exon chains corresponding to long reads in a splicing graph, and experimentally study the performance of these methods using simulated data to allow for sensitivity/precision analysis. Our experiments show that short reads from second-generation sequencing can be used to significantly improve exon chain correctness either by error-correcting the long reads before splicing graph creation, or by using them to create a splicing graph on which the long-read alignments are then projected. We also study the memory and time consumption of various modules, and show that accurate exon chains lead to significantly increased transcript prediction accuracy. The simulated data and in-house scripts used for this article are available at http://www.cs.helsinki.fi/group/gsa/exon-chains/exon-chains-bib.tar.bz2.

  15. Take a Multidisciplinary, Team-based Approach on Elder Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    While EDs are well positioned to identify incidents of elder abuse, providers often miss the opportunity. Experts say providers find only one in every 24 cases, and that the pendulum must swing toward over-detection. Investigators acknowledge elder abuse is difficult to confirm, given that disease processes can explain some of the signs. Further, older adults are often reluctant to report abuse because they fear they will be removed from their homes or separated from their caregivers. Given the complexity involved with addressing the issue, investigators recommend EDs establish a multidisciplinary approach to the problem. Providing great care to a victim of elder abuse requires time and setting up a circumstance whereby one can actually communicate with the patient reliably and alone. While most states require providers to report suspected cases of elder abuse to Adult Protective Services, there is little evidence this requirement has incentivized more reports in the same way a similar requirement has prompted providers to report cases of suspected child abuse. Investigators advise ED leaders to train and empower every member of their team to identify potential signs of elder abuse.

  16. New approach to radiation monitoring: citizen based radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuca, P.; Helebrant, J.

    2016-01-01

    Both the Fukushima Dai-chi NPP accident in Japan in 2011 and the Chernobyl NPP accident in USSR in 1986 similarly to the first one have shown a necessity to find a way how to improve confidence of the public to official authorities. It is important especially in such a case of severe accidents with significant consequences in large inhabited areas around the damaged NPP. A lack of public confidence to officials was caused mostly by rather poor communication between official authorities and the public, as well by restricted access to the information for the public. It may have extremely negative impacts on the public understanding of actual situation and its possible risks, on public acceptance of necessary protective measures and participation of the public in remediation of the affected areas. One of possible ways to improve the situation can be implementation of citizen radiation monitoring on voluntary basis. Making sure, the official results are compatible with public self-measured ones, the public probably has more confidence in them. In the Czech Republic the implementation of such an approach is tested in the framework of security research founded by the Czech Ministry of the Interior - the research project RAMESIS solved by SURO. (authors)

  17. A trait based approach to defining valued mentoring qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendall, E.

    2012-12-01

    Graduate training in the sciences requires strong personal interactions among faculty, senior lab members and more junior members. Within the lab-group setting we learn to frame problems, to conduct research and to communicate findings. The result is that individual scientists are partly shaped by a few influential mentors. We have all been influenced by special relationships with mentors, and on reflection we may find that certain qualities have been especially influential in our career choices. In this presentation I will discuss favorable mentoring traits as determined from an informal survey of scientists in varying stages of careers and from diverse backgrounds. Respondents addressed questions about traits they value in their mentors in several categories: 1) personal qualities such as approachability, humor and encouragement; background including gender, ethnicity, and family status; 2) scientific qualities including discipline or specialization, perceived stature in discipline, seniority, breadth of perspective, and level of expectations; and 3) community-oriented qualities promoted by mentors, such as encouraging service contributions and peer-mentoring within the lab group. The results will be compared among respondents by gender, ethnicity, stage of career, type of work, and subdiscipline within the broadly defined Biogeoscience community. We hope to contribute to the growing discussion on building a diverse and balanced scientific workforce.

  18. Menopause management: a cardiovascular risk-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, C J; Farrell, E

    2010-08-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) remains the gold standard for the management of menopausal symptoms; however, HRT use has declined due to concerns over possible adverse side-effects. Approaches to menopause management are continually being revised and these extend beyond the control of recognized menopausal symptoms to encompass wider aspects of menopausal women's health. Hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk are particularly important unmet needs in postmenopausal women, especially in the Asia-Pacific region which has a rapidly aging population and bears around half of the global burden of cardiovascular disease, two-thirds of which has been attributed to elevated blood pressure. As first point of contact for women with menopausal symptoms, gynecologists play a gatekeeper role in assessing women's health, providing appropriate lifestyle counseling, and, where appropriate, implementing treatment or referral to relevant specialists. This paper, with contributions by gynecologists and cardiologists from Asia Pacific and beyond, summarizes available evidence and provides a treatment algorithm that employs a flexible blood pressure classification strategy to assist physicians in their decision-making for the individualized management of menopausal symptoms in women with low, moderate and high cardiovascular risk, and also for women with diabetes. Individualized HRT according to cardiovascular risk may yield improvements in cardiovascular health, as well as managing menopausal symptoms.

  19. Detection of Cardiovascular Anomalies: An Observer-Based Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    In this thesis, a methodology for the detection of anomalies in the cardiovascular system is presented. The cardiovascular system is one of the most fascinating and complex physiological systems. Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases constitute one of the most important causes of mortality in the world. For instance, an estimate of 17.3 million people died in 2008 from cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, many studies have been devoted to modeling the cardiovascular system in order to better understand its behavior and find new reliable diagnosis techniques. The lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system proposed in [1] is restructured using a hybrid systems approach in order to include a discrete input vector that represents the influence of the mitral and aortic valves in the different phases of the cardiac cycle. Parting from this model, a Taylor expansion around the nominal values of a vector of parameters is conducted. This expansion serves as the foundation for a component fault detection process to detect changes in the physiological parameters of the cardiovascular system which could be associated with cardiovascular anomalies such as atherosclerosis, aneurysm, high blood pressure, etc. An Extended Kalman Filter is used in order to achieve a joint estimation of the state vector and the changes in the considered parameters. Finally, a bank of filters is, as in [2], used in order to detect the appearance of heart valve diseases, particularly stenosis and regurgitation. The first numerical results obtained are presented.

  20. Biomimetic approach to tacit learning based on compound control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Shingo; Kimura, Hidenori

    2010-02-01

    The remarkable capability of living organisms to adapt to unknown environments is due to learning mechanisms that are totally different from the current artificial machine-learning paradigm. Computational media composed of identical elements that have simple activity rules play a major role in biological control, such as the activities of neurons in brains and the molecular interactions in intracellular control. As a result of integrations of the individual activities of the computational media, new behavioral patterns emerge to adapt to changing environments. We previously implemented this feature of biological controls in a form of machine learning and succeeded to realize bipedal walking without the robot model or trajectory planning. Despite the success of bipedal walking, it was a puzzle as to why the individual activities of the computational media could achieve the global behavior. In this paper, we answer this question by taking a statistical approach that connects the individual activities of computational media to global network behaviors. We show that the individual activities can generate optimized behaviors from a particular global viewpoint, i.e., autonomous rhythm generation and learning of balanced postures, without using global performance indices.