WorldWideScience

Sample records for neural system defects

  1. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vitamin, before and during pregnancy prevents most neural tube defects. Neural tube defects are usually diagnosed before the infant is ... or imaging tests. There is no cure for neural tube defects. The nerve damage and loss of function ...

  2. Neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Marshall

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects refer to any defect in the morphogenesis of the neural tube, the most common types being spina bifida and anencephaly. Spina bifida has been recognised in skeletons found in north-eastern Morocco and estimated to have an age of almost 12 000 years. It was also known to the ancient Greek and Arabian physicians who thought that the bony defect was due to the tumour. The term spina bifida was first used by Professor Nicolai Tulp of Amsterdam in 1652. Many other terms have been used to describe this defect, but spina bifida remains the most useful general term, as it describes the separation of the vertebral elements in the midline.

  3. Surface Casting Defects Inspection Using Vision System and Neural Network Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świłło S.J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a vision based approach and neural network techniques in surface defects inspection and categorization. Depending on part design and processing techniques, castings may develop surface discontinuities such as cracks and pores that greatly influence the material’s properties Since the human visual inspection for the surface is slow and expensive, a computer vision system is an alternative solution for the online inspection. The authors present the developed vision system uses an advanced image processing algorithm based on modified Laplacian of Gaussian edge detection method and advanced lighting system. The defect inspection algorithm consists of several parameters that allow the user to specify the sensitivity level at which he can accept the defects in the casting. In addition to the developed image processing algorithm and vision system apparatus, an advanced learning process has been developed, based on neural network techniques. Finally, as an example three groups of defects were investigated demonstrates automatic selection and categorization of the measured defects, such as blowholes, shrinkage porosity and shrinkage cavity.

  4. CHARGEd with neural crest defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Silke; Bajpai, Ruchi; Borchers, Annette

    2017-10-30

    Neural crest cells are highly migratory pluripotent cells that give rise to diverse derivatives including cartilage, bone, smooth muscle, pigment, and endocrine cells as well as neurons and glia. Abnormalities in neural crest-derived tissues contribute to the etiology of CHARGE syndrome, a complex malformation disorder that encompasses clinical symptoms like coloboma, heart defects, atresia of the choanae, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies, and deafness. Mutations in the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 7 (CHD7) gene are causative of CHARGE syndrome and loss-of-function data in different model systems have firmly established a role of CHD7 in neural crest development. Here, we will summarize our current understanding of the function of CHD7 in neural crest development and discuss possible links of CHARGE syndrome to other developmental disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Epidemiology of neural tube defects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seidahmed, Mohammed Z; Abdelbasit, Omar B; Shaheed, Meeralebbae M; Alhussein, Khalid A; Miqdad, Abeer M; Khalil, Mohamed I; Al-Enazy, Naif M; Salih, Mustafa A

    2014-01-01

    To find the prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs), and compare the findings with local and international data, and highlight the important role of folic acid supplementation and flour fortification with folic acid in preventing NTDs...

  6. Screening for Open Neural Tube Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, David A; Hallahan, Terrence W; Carmichael, Jonathan B

    2016-06-01

    Biochemical prenatal screening was initiated with the use of maternal serum alpha fetoprotein to screen for open neural tube defects. Screening now includes multiple marker and sequential screening protocols involving serum and ultrasound markers to screen for aneuploidy. Recently cell-free DNA screening for aneuploidy has been initiated, but does not screen for neural tube defects. Although ultrasound is highly effective in identifying neural tube defects in high-risk populations, in decentralized health systems maternal serum screening still plays a significant role. Abnormal maternal serum alpha fetoprotein alone or in combination with other markers may indicate adverse pregnancy outcome in the absence of open neural tube defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancies each year in the United States. A baby’s neural tube normally develops into the brain and spinal cord. ... fluid in the brain. This is called hydrocephalus. Babies with this condition are treated with surgery to insert a tube (called a shunt) into the brain. The shunt ...

  8. Vitamins and neural tube defects

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Rodney

    1988-01-01

    The use of vitamin supplements by women around the time of conception was examined and compared in those having babies with neural tube defects, those with still births or some other type of malformation, and in women who had normal babies.

  9. Test system for defect detection in cementitious material with artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saowanee Saechai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a newly developed test system for defect detection, classification of number of defects andidentification of defect materials in cement-based products. With the system, the pattern of ultrasonic waves for each case ofspecimen can be obtained from direct and indirect measurements. The machine learning algorithm called artificial neuralnetwork classifier with back-propagation model is employed for classification and verification of the wave patterns obtainedfrom different specimens. By applying the system, the presence or absence of a defect in mortar can be identified. Moreover,the system is applied to identify the number and materials of defects inside the mortar. The methodology is explained and theclassification results are discussed. The effectiveness of the developed test system is evaluated. Comparison of the classification results between different input features with different number of training sets is demonstrated. The results show that thistechnique based on pattern recognition has a potential for practical inspection of concrete structures.

  10. Radioactive fallout and neural tube defects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nejat Akar

    2015-07-10

    Jul 10, 2015 ... Neural tube defects;. Anencephaly;. Spina bifida. Abstract Possible link between radioactivity and the occurrence of neural tube defects is a long lasting debate ... Neural tube defects, are one of the common congenital mal- formations ... ent cities of Turkey (˙Izmir/Aegean Region; Trabzon/Black Sea region ...

  11. pen Neural Tube Defects at the National Hospital,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neural tube defect is the most common congenital abnormality of the central nervous system. Objectives: To document the clinical patterns and neonatal outcome of babies with open neural tube defects at the National Hospital, .... prevalence of these malformations in the region. This is because there are two ...

  12. Opioid Use and Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Error processing SSI file Key Findings: Opioid Use and Neural Tube Defects Recommend on Facebook ... new study that looked at the use of opioids during pregnancy and their relationship to having a ...

  13. Radioactive fallout and neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejat Akar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible link between radioactivity and the occurrence of neural tube defects is a long lasting debate since the Chernobyl nuclear fallout in 1986. A recent report on the incidence of neural defects in the west coast of USA, following Fukushima disaster, brought another evidence for effect of radioactive fallout on the occurrence of NTD’s. Here a literature review was performed focusing on this special subject.

  14. [Folic acid: Primary prevention of neural tube defects. Literature Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas Centeno, M J; Miguélez Lago, C

    2016-03-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are the most common congenital malformations of the nervous system, they have a multifactorial etiology, are caused by exposure to chemical, physical or biological toxic agents, factors deficiency, diabetes, obesity, hyperthermia, genetic alterations and unknown causes. Some of these factors are associated with malnutrition by interfering with the folic acid metabolic pathway, the vitamin responsible for neural tube closure. Its deficit produce anomalies that can cause abortions, stillbirths or newborn serious injuries that cause disability, impaired quality of life and require expensive treatments to try to alleviate in some way the alterations produced in the embryo. Folic acid deficiency is considered the ultimate cause of the production of neural tube defects, it is clear the reduction in the incidence of Espina Bifida after administration of folic acid before conception, this leads us to want to further study the action of folic acid and its application in the primary prevention of neural tube defects. More than 40 countries have made the fortification of flour with folate, achieving encouraging data of decrease in the prevalence of neural tube defects. This paper attempts to make a literature review, which clarify the current situation and future of the prevention of neural tube defects.

  15. Neural Tube Defects: From a Proteomic Standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania M. Puvirajesinghe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs are congenital birth defects classified according to their resulting morphological characteristics in newborn patients. Current diagnosis of NTDs relies largely on the structural evaluation of fetuses using ultrasound imaging, with biochemical characterization used as secondary screening tools. The multigene etiology of NTDs has been aided by genetic studies, which have discovered panels of genes mutated in these diseases that encode receptors and cytoplasmic signaling molecules with poorly defined functions. Animal models ranging from flies to mice have been used to determine the function of these genes and identify their associated molecular cascades. More emphasis is now being placed on the identification of biochemical markers from clinical samples and model systems based on mass spectrometry, which open novel avenues in the understanding of NTDs at protein, metabolic and molecular levels. This article reviews how the use of proteomics can push forward the identification of novel biomarkers and molecular networks implicated in NTDs, an indispensable step in the improvement of patient management.

  16. Neural tube defects: Risk factors and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Atsuo; Matsuo, Takuya; Morota, Nobuhito; Kondo, Atsuya S; Okai, Ikuyo; Fukuda, Hiromi

    2017-09-01

    For the last 25 years, it has been proven that the occurrence or recurrence of neural tube defects can be prevented with the administration of folic acid before and early pregnancy. At present, over 80 countries in the world, except Japan, have mandated the fortification of wheat flour and/or rice with folic acid, which has resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of neural tube defects. In 2000, the Japanese government recommended folic acid 400 μg daily for young women of childbearing age and women who are planning to conceive. In 2002, the government started to present information about the importance of folic acid in the development of fetuses in the Mother-Child Health Booklet annually. Despite these endeavors, the prevalence of neural tube defects has remained unchanged. We discuss the risk factors of neural tube defects and propose preventive measures to decrease the number of neonates with neural tube defects. We believe that the government should implement the fortification of staple food with folic acid very soon, which will eventually decrease not only the neonatal mortality and morbidity, but also the economic burden on our health care system. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  17. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  18. Genetics and development of neural tube defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Andrew J.; Greene, Nicholas D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital defects of neural tube closure (neural tube defects; NTDs) are among the commonest and most severe disorders of the fetus and newborn. Disturbance of any of the sequential events of embryonic neurulation produce NTDs, with the phenotype (e.g. anencephaly, spina bifida) varying depending on the region of neural tube that remains open. While mutation of more than 200 genes is known to cause NTDs in mice, the pattern of occurrence in humans suggests a multifactorial polygenic or oligogenic aetiology. This emphasises the importance of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in the origin of these defects. A number of cell biological functions are essential for neural tube closure, with defects of the cytoskeleton, cell cycle and molecular regulation of cell viability prominent among the mouse NTD mutants. Many transcriptional regulators and proteins that affect chromatin structure are also required for neural tube closure, although the downstream molecular pathways regulated by these proteins is unknown. Some key signalling pathways for NTDs have been identified: over-activation of sonic hedgehog signalling and loss of function in the planar cell polarity (non-canonical Wnt) pathway are potent causes of NTD, with requirements also for retinoid and inositol signalling. Folic acid supplementation is an effective method for primary prevention of a proportion of NTDs, in both humans and mice, although the embryonic mechanism of folate action remains unclear. Folic acid-resistant cases can be prevented by inositol supplementation in mice, raising the possibility that this could lead to an additional preventive strategy for human NTDs in future. PMID:19918803

  19. Fabric Defect Detection Using Local Homogeneity Analysis and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rebhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the textile manufacturing industry, fabric defect detection becomes a necessary and essential step in quality control. The investment in this field is more than economical when reduction in labor cost and associated benefits are considered. Moreover, the development of a wholly automated inspection system requires efficient and robust algorithms. To overcome this problem, in this paper, we present a new fabric defect detection scheme which uses the local homogeneity and neural network. Its first step consists in computing a new homogeneity image denoted as H-image. The second step is devoted to the application of the discrete cosine transform (DCT to the H-image and the extraction of different representative energy features of each DCT block. These energy features are used by the back-propagation neural network to judge the existence of fabric defect. Simulations on different fabric images and different defect aspects show that the proposed method achieves an average accuracy of 97.35%.

  20. Assessing the prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele in a Kenyan hospital from 2005–2010: implications for a neural tube defects surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githuku, Jane N; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Ao, Trong; Hamner, Heather; Amwayi, Samuel; Gura, Zeinab; Omolo, Jared; Albright, Leland; Guo, Jing; Arvelo, Wences

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Neural tube defects such as anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele are congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. Data on the prevalence of neural tube defects in Kenya are limited. This study characterizes and estimates the prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele reported in a referral hospital in Kenya from 2005-2010. Methods Cases were defined as a diagnosis of spina bifida or encephalocele. Prevalence was calculated as the number of cases by year and province of residence divided by the total number of live-births per province. Results From a total of 6,041 surgical records; 1,184 (93%) had reported diagnosis of spina bifida and 88 (7%) of encephalocele. Estimated prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele from 2005-2010 was 3.3 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.1-3.5] cases per 10,000 live-births. The highest prevalence of cases were reported in 2007 with 4.4 (95% CI: 3.9-5.0) cases per 10,000 live-births. Rift Valley province had the highest prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele at 6.9 (95% CI: 6.3-7.5) cases per 10,000 live-births from 2005-2010. Conclusion Prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele is likely underestimated, as only patients seeking care at the hospital were included. Variations in regional prevalence could be due to referral patterns and healthcare access. Implementation of a neural tube defects surveillance system would provide a more thorough assessment of the burden of neural tube defects in Kenya. PMID:26113894

  1. Assessing the prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele in a Kenyan hospital from 2005-2010: implications for a neural tube defects surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githuku, Jane N; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Ao, Trong; Hamner, Heather; Amwayi, Samuel; Gura, Zeinab; Omolo, Jared; Albright, Leland; Guo, Jing; Arvelo, Wences

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects such as anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele are congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. Data on the prevalence of neural tube defects in Kenya are limited. This study characterizes and estimates the prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele reported in a referral hospital in Kenya from 2005-2010. Cases were defined as a diagnosis of spina bifida or encephalocele. Prevalence was calculated as the number of cases by year and province of residence divided by the total number of live-births per province. From a total of 6,041 surgical records; 1,184 (93%) had reported diagnosis of spina bifida and 88 (7%) of encephalocele. Estimated prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele from 2005-2010 was 3.3 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.1-3.5] cases per 10,000 live-births. The highest prevalence of cases were reported in 2007 with 4.4 (95% CI: 3.9-5.0) cases per 10,000 live-births. Rift Valley province had the highest prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele at 6.9 (95% CI: 6.3-7.5) cases per 10,000 live-births from 2005-2010. Prevalence of spina bifida and encephalocele is likely underestimated, as only patients seeking care at the hospital were included. Variations in regional prevalence could be due to referral patterns and healthcare access. Implementation of a neural tube defects surveillance system would provide a more thorough assessment of the burden of neural tube defects in Kenya.

  2. Neural Tube Defects, Folic Acid and Methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Blom, Henk J.

    2013-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common complex congenital malformations resulting from failure of the neural tube closure during embryogenesis. It is established that folic acid supplementation decreases the prevalence of NTDs, which has led to national public health policies regarding folic acid. To date, animal studies have not provided sufficient information to establish the metabolic and/or genomic mechanism(s) underlying human folic acid responsiveness in NTDs. However, several lines of evidence suggest that not only folates but also choline, B12 and methylation metabolisms are involved in NTDs. Decreased B12 vitamin and increased total choline or homocysteine in maternal blood have been shown to be associated with increased NTDs risk. Several polymorphisms of genes involved in these pathways have also been implicated in risk of development of NTDs. This raises the question whether supplementation with B12 vitamin, betaine or other methylation donors in addition to folic acid periconceptional supplementation will further reduce NTD risk. The objective of this article is to review the role of methylation metabolism in the onset of neural tube defects. PMID:24048206

  3. Neural Tube Defects, Folic Acid and Methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk J. Blom

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs are common complex congenital malformations resulting from failure of the neural tube closure during embryogenesis. It is established that folic acid supplementation decreases the prevalence of NTDs, which has led to national public health policies regarding folic acid. To date, animal studies have not provided sufficient information to establish the metabolic and/or genomic mechanism(s underlying human folic acid responsiveness in NTDs. However, several lines of evidence suggest that not only folates but also choline, B12 and methylation metabolisms are involved in NTDs. Decreased B12 vitamin and increased total choline or homocysteine in maternal blood have been shown to be associated with increased NTDs risk. Several polymorphisms of genes involved in these pathways have also been implicated in risk of development of NTDs. This raises the question whether supplementation with B12 vitamin, betaine or other methylation donors in addition to folic acid periconceptional supplementation will further reduce NTD risk. The objective of this article is to review the role of methylation metabolism in the onset of neural tube defects.

  4. Defect detection on videos using neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizyakin Roman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a method for defects detection in a video sequence, which consists of three main steps; frame compensation, preprocessing by a detector, which is base on the ranking of pixel values, and the classification of all pixels having anomalous values using convolutional neural networks. The effectiveness of the proposed method shown in comparison with the known techniques on several frames of the video sequence with damaged in natural conditions. The analysis of the obtained results indicates the high efficiency of the proposed method. The additional use of machine learning as postprocessing significantly reduce the likelihood of false alarm.

  5. Spinal Neural Tube Defects in Lagos University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The incidence of neural tube defects is known to vary among regions. Very little has been reported about the incidence in Sub-Saharan Africa except for the general impression that the prevalent rates are low. Objective: To determine the profile of patients presenting with neural tube defects in Lagos , Nigeria

  6. Preventing neural tube defects in Europe : A missed opportunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busby, A; Armstrong, B; Dolk, H; Armstrong, N; Haeusler, M; Berghold, A; Gillerot, Y; Baguette, A; Gjerga, R; Barisic, [No Value; Christiansen, M; Goujard, J; Steinbicker, [No Value; Rosch, C; McDonnell, R; Scarano, G; Calzolari, E; Neville, A; Cocchi, G; Bianca, S; Gatt, M; De Walle, H; Braz, P; Latos-Bielenska, A; Gener, B; Portillor, [No Value; Addor, MC; Abramsky, L; Ritvanen, A; Robert-Gnansia, E; Daltveit, AK; Aneren, G; Olars, B; Edwards, G

    2005-01-01

    Each year, more than 4500 pregnancies in the European Union are affected by neural tube defects (NTD). Unambiguous evidence of the effectiveness of peri conceptional folic acid in preventing the majority of neural tube defects has been available since 1991. We report on trends in the total

  7. Spina bifida and other neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, H; Volcik, K A

    2000-01-01

    NTDs, resulting from failure of the neural tube to close during the fourth week of embryogenesis, are the most common severely disabling birth defects in the United States, with a frequency of approximately 1 of every 2000 births. Neural tube malformations involving the spinal cord and vertebral arches are referred to as spina bifida, with severe types of spina bifida involving protrusion of the spinal cord and/or meninges through a defect in the vertebral arch. Depending on the level of the lesion, interruption of the spinal cord at the site of the spina bifida defect causes paralysis of the legs, incontinence of urine and feces, anesthesia of the skin, and abnormalities of the hips, knees, and feet. Two additional abnormalities often seen in children with spina bifida include hydrocephalus and the Arnold-Chiari type II malformation. Despite the physical and particular learning disabilities children with spina bifida must cope with, participation in individualized educational programs can allow these children to develop skills necessary for autonomy in adulthood. Advances in research to uncover the molecular basis of NTDs is enhanced by knowledge of the link between both the environmental and genetic factors involved in the etiology of NTDs. The most recent development in NTD research for disease-causing genes is the discovery of a genetic link to the most well-known environmental cause of neural tube malformation, folate deficiency in pregnant women. Nearly a decade ago, periconceptional folic acid supplementation was proven to decrease both the recurrence and occurrence of NTDs. The study of folate and its association with NTDs is an ongoing endeavor that has led to numerous studies of different genes involved in the folate metabolism pathway, including the most commonly studied thermolabile mutation (C677T) in the MTHFR gene. An additional focus for NTD research involves mouse models that exhibit both naturally occurring NTDs, as well as those created by

  8. Aneuploidy among prenatally detected neural tube defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, R.F. Jr.; Lampinen, J.; Martin, L.S.; Johnson, M.P.; Evans, M.I. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-11

    We have reported previously a 10% aneuploidy detection rate among 39 cases of fetal neural tube defects (NTD). Subsequently we amassed an additional experience of over 17,000 prenatal diagnosis cases over a 5-year period. During this period 106 cases of NTDs were identified; 44 with anencephaly, 62 with open spina bifida. The average maternal age of this population with NTDs was 29 years (15-40); 6 patients declined amniocentesis. Six of 100 cytogenetic studies were aneuploid; on anencephalic fetus had inherited a maternal marker chromosome, and 5 NTD cases had trisomy 18. The average maternal age of the aneuploid cases was 21 (19-40); 3 were 35 years or older. Four of 5 trisomy 18 cases had multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). The overall aneuploidy detection rate in our cohort was 5-6, while aneuploidy occurred in 2% of the isolated NTD cases, and 24% of the MCA cases. Combining the earlier experience, 4/39 aneuploidy (2 trisomy 18, 4p+, del 13q) yields an aneuploidy detection frequency of 10/145 (7%), of which most (7/10) had trisomy 18. These data support fetal karyotyping for accurate diagnosis, prognosis, and recurrence-risk counseling. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Nucleotide precursors prevent folic acid-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kit-Yi; De Castro, Sandra C P; Savery, Dawn; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2013-09-01

    Closure of the neural tube during embryogenesis is a crucial step in development of the central nervous system. Failure of this process results in neural tube defects, including spina bifida and anencephaly, which are among the most common birth defects worldwide. Maternal use of folic acid supplements reduces risk of neural tube defects but a proportion of cases are not preventable. Folic acid is thought to act through folate one-carbon metabolism, which transfers one-carbon units for methylation reactions and nucleotide biosynthesis. Hence suboptimal performance of the intervening reactions could limit the efficacy of folic acid. We hypothesized that direct supplementation with nucleotides, downstream of folate metabolism, has the potential to support neural tube closure. Therefore, in a mouse model that exhibits folic acid-resistant neural tube defects, we tested the effect of specific combinations of pyrimidine and purine nucleotide precursors and observed a significant protective effect. Labelling in whole embryo culture showed that nucleotides are taken up by the neurulating embryo and incorporated into genomic DNA. Furthermore, the mitotic index was elevated in neural folds and hindgut of treated embryos, consistent with a proposed mechanism of neural tube defect prevention through stimulation of cellular proliferation. These findings may provide an impetus for future investigations of supplemental nucleotides as a means to prevent a greater proportion of human neural tube defects than can be achieved by folic acid alone.

  10. Elevated ambient temperatures and risk of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Fraser, William D; Arbour, Laura; Bilodeau-Bertrand, Marianne; Kosatsky, Tom

    2017-05-01

    The association between ambient heat and neural tube defects has received limited attention, despite imminent climate warming this century. We sought to determine the relationship between elevated outdoor temperatures during neurogenesis and risk of neural tube defects. We carried out a retrospective cohort study of 887 710 fetuses between 3 and 4 weeks postconception from the months of April through September for 1988-2012 in Quebec, Canada. The exposure was maximum daily temperature and the outcome presence of neural tube defects at delivery. We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% CIs for the association between maximum temperature and neural tube defects in log-binomial regression models adjusted for maternal characteristics. Relative to 20°C, exposure to temperatures of 30°C was associated with risk of neural tube defects on day 5 (PR 1.56, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.35) and day 6 (PR 1.49, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.21) of the 4th week postconception, during the time of neural tube closure. The trend was apparent for spina bifida and anencephalus/encephalocoele, the main subtypes of neural tube defects. Temperature during the 3rd week postconception was not associated with neural tube defects. Elevated ambient temperatures may be weakly associated with risk of neural tube defects during tube closure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Neural tube defects: recent advances, unsolved questions, and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Andrew J; Stanier, Philip; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2013-08-01

    Neural tube defects are severe congenital malformations affecting around one in every 1000 pregnancies. An innovation in clinical management has come from the finding that closure of open spina bifida lesions in utero can diminish neurological dysfunction in children. Primary prevention with folic acid has been enhanced through introduction of mandatory food fortification in some countries, although not yet in the UK. Genetic predisposition accounts for most of the risk of neural tube defects, and genes that regulate folate one-carbon metabolism and planar cell polarity have been strongly implicated. The sequence of human neural tube closure events remains controversial, but studies of mouse models of neural tube defects show that anencephaly, open spina bifida, and craniorachischisis result from failure of primary neurulation, whereas skin-covered spinal dysraphism results from defective secondary neurulation. Other malformations, such as encephalocele, are likely to be postneurulation disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Topological defects control collective dynamics in neural progenitor cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Sano, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Cultured stem cells have become a standard platform not only for regenerative medicine and developmental biology but also for biophysical studies. Yet, the characterization of cultured stem cells at the level of morphology and of the macroscopic patterns resulting from cell-to-cell interactions remains largely qualitative. Here we report on the collective dynamics of cultured murine neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells in the central nervous system. At low densities, NPCs moved randomly in an amoeba-like fashion. However, NPCs at high density elongated and aligned their shapes with one another, gliding at relatively high velocities. Although the direction of motion of individual cells reversed stochastically along the axes of alignment, the cells were capable of forming an aligned pattern up to length scales similar to that of the migratory stream observed in the adult brain. The two-dimensional order of alignment within the culture showed a liquid-crystalline pattern containing interspersed topological defects with winding numbers of +1/2 and -1/2 (half-integer due to the nematic feature that arises from the head-tail symmetry of cell-to-cell interaction). We identified rapid cell accumulation at +1/2 defects and the formation of three-dimensional mounds. Imaging at the single-cell level around the defects allowed us to quantify the velocity field and the evolving cell density; cells not only concentrate at +1/2 defects, but also escape from -1/2 defects. We propose a generic mechanism for the instability in cell density around the defects that arises from the interplay between the anisotropic friction and the active force field.

  13. Neural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...

  14. Evolvable Neural Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The Evolvable Neural Software System (ENSS) is composed of sets of Neural Basis Functions (NBFs), which can be totally autonomously created and removed according to the changing needs and requirements of the software system. The resulting structure is both hierarchical and self-similar in that a given set of NBFs may have a ruler NBF, which in turn communicates with other sets of NBFs. These sets of NBFs may function as nodes to a ruler node, which are also NBF constructs. In this manner, the synthetic neural system can exhibit the complexity, three-dimensional connectivity, and adaptability of biological neural systems. An added advantage of ENSS over a natural neural system is its ability to modify its core genetic code in response to environmental changes as reflected in needs and requirements. The neural system is fully adaptive and evolvable and is trainable before release. It continues to rewire itself while on the job. The NBF is a unique, bilevel intelligence neural system composed of a higher-level heuristic neural system (HNS) and a lower-level, autonomic neural system (ANS). Taken together, the HNS and the ANS give each NBF the complete capabilities of a biological neural system to match sensory inputs to actions. Another feature of the NBF is the Evolvable Neural Interface (ENI), which links the HNS and ANS. The ENI solves the interface problem between these two systems by actively adapting and evolving from a primitive initial state (a Neural Thread) to a complicated, operational ENI and successfully adapting to a training sequence of sensory input. This simulates the adaptation of a biological neural system in a developmental phase. Within the greater multi-NBF and multi-node ENSS, self-similar ENI s provide the basis for inter-NBF and inter-node connectivity.

  15. A practical clinical classification of spinal neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, J Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Current commonly used terminology to describe neural tube defects (NTD) is inconsistent, overlapping, contradictory and, at times, inaccurate making it difficult to convey the nature of the malformation and what needs to be done to optimally treat patients with these congenital abnormalities.NTD can be broadly divided into those that are open with exposed neural tissue and leaking cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and those that are closed with no exposed neural tissue nor loss of CSF. It appears that the loss of CSF during development is the underlying factor that leads to the entire central nervous system involvement with an open NTD and lack thereof with a closed NTD, wherein only the spinal cord is malformed. There are, however, rare transitional cases that bridge the gap between the two forms.Agreeing on a nomenclature that is used in a standard fashion would be of help in addressing this group of congenital anomalies that have a great deal of variability and, at times, can be quite complex.

  16. Experience In The Management Of Neural Tube Defects At The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between January 1986 and December 1997, 97 cases of neural tube defects were seen at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH) Maiduguri. Male to female (M:F) ratio of 1.4:1 was observed with the commonest location of lesion being at the lumbo-sacral region. Majority of the patients came from rural ...

  17. Implications of zinc on fetal neural tube defects | Vats | Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More investigations on zinc status in mothers during antenatal period, especially in the prenatal development and antenatal zinc status including normal babies and NTD babies are required at population level. Keywords: Neural Tube Defect; Trace Element; Zinc Internet Journal of Medical Update 2012 July;7(2):19-24 ...

  18. Radioactive fallout and neural tube defects | Akar | Egyptian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the west coast of USA, following Fukushima disaster, brought another evidence for effect of radioactive fallout on the occurrence of NTD's. Here a literature review was performed focusing on this special subject. KEYWORDS: Radioactive fallout; Chernobyl; Fukushima; Neural tube defects; Anencephaly; Spina bifida ...

  19. Prevalence of neural tube defect and hydrocephalus in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of neural tube defect and hydrocephalus in the only tertiary hospital in northern Ghana. This was a 4-year retrospective study from January 2010 to December 2014. Data regarding the age, sex, clinical diagnosis, and treatment outcomes were all retrieved from the ...

  20. Deep convolutional neural networks for detection of rail surface defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faghih Roohi, S.; Hajizadeh, S.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Babuska, R.; De Schutter, B.H.K.; Estevez, Pablo A.; Angelov, Plamen P.; Del Moral Hernandez, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a deep convolutional neural network solution to the analysis of image data for the detection of rail surface defects. The images are obtained from many hours of automated video recordings. This huge amount of data makes it impossible to manually inspect the images and

  1. Descriptive study on neural tube defects in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargiotto, Carla; Bidondo, María Paz; Liascovich, Rosa; Barbero, Pablo; Groisman, Boris

    2015-06-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. Prevalence of NTDs varies depending on geographic region and folic acid fortification. The main objectives of this study are to analyze the prevalences of NTDs reported to the National Registry of Congenital Anomalies of Argentina (RENAC) during the period 2009 to 2013, to compare them with data from other selected surveillance systems of the Americas, and to evaluate the impact of folic acid fortification on the prevalence of NTDs in Argentina. We analyzed changes in prevalence between 2009 and 2013 for the RENAC, and differences in prevalence between RENAC and other surveillance systems. We evaluated changes for the pre and postfortification time periods in Argentina. In Argentina, anencephaly and spina bifida showed no statistically significant variation between 2009 and 2013, and encephalocele showed a statistically significant decline. The RENAC showed a statistically significant higher prevalence for all three defects when compared with surveillance systems from Chile, Colombia, and Costa Rica, and a statistically significant lower birth prevalence than Cuba for anencephaly. No differences were observed when comparing it to the Atlanta-USA and Mexico systems. A significant decrease in prevalence was observed for all three anomalies for the postfortification period in Argentina. The characteristics of cases reported to the RENAC are similar to those already reported in the literature. The differences in prevalence between the RENAC and other surveillance systems could be artifactual or real. We confirmed the decrease of prevalence of NTDs after folic acid fortification. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Temperature Sensitivity of Neural Tube Defects in Zoep Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Phyo; Swartz, Morgan R; Kindt, Lexy M; Kangas, Ashley M; Liang, Jennifer Ostrom

    2015-12-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) occur when the flat neural plate epithelium fails to fold into the neural tube, the precursor to the brain and spinal cord. Squint (Sqt/Ndr1), a Nodal ligand, and One-eyed pinhead (Oep), a component of the Nodal receptor, are required for anterior neural tube closure in zebrafish. The NTD in sqt and Zoep mutants are incompletely penetrant. The penetrance of several defects in sqt mutants increases upon heat or cold shock. In this project, undergraduate students tested whether temperature influences the Zoep open neural tube phenotype. Single pairs of adults were spawned at 28.5°C, the normal temperature for zebrafish, and one half of the resulting embryos were moved to 34°C at different developmental time points. Analysis of variance indicated temperature and clutch/genetic background significantly contributed to the penetrance of the open neural tube phenotype. Heat shock affected the embryos only at or before the midblastula stage. Many factors, including temperature changes in the mother, nutrition, and genetic background, contribute to NTD in humans. Thus, sqt and Zoep mutants may serve as valuable models for studying the interactions between genetics and the environment during neurulation.

  3. Global Burden of Neural Tube Defects, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs, serious birth defects of the brain and spine usually resulting in death or paralysis, affect an estimated 300,000 births each year worldwide. Although the majority of NTDs are preventable with adequate folic acid consumption during the preconception period and throughout the first few weeks of gestation, many populations, in particular those in low and middle resource settings, do not have access to fortified foods or vitamin supplements containing folic acid. Further, accurate birth defects surveillance data, which could help inform mandatory fortification and other NTD prevention initiatives, are lacking in many of these settings. The burden of birth defects in South East Asia is among the highest in the world. Expanding global neural tube defects prevention initiatives can support the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce child mortality, a goal which many countries in South East Asia are currently not poised to reach, and the 63rd World Health Assembly Resolution on birth defects. More work is needed to develop and implement mandatory folic acid fortification policies, as well as supplementation programs in countries where the reach of fortification is limited.

  4. Prevention of Neural Tube Defects. ARC Q&A #101-45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize issues related to the prevention of neural tube defects. Questions and answers address the following topics: what neural tube defects are and the most common types (spina bifida and anencephaly); occurrence of neural tube defects during the first month of pregnancy; the frequency of…

  5. SPECTRUM OF NEURAL-TUBE DEFECTS IN 34 INFANTS PRENATALLY EXPOSED TO ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LINDHOUT, D; OMTZIGT, JGC; CORNEL, MC

    We analyzed the spectrum of neural-tube defects associated with maternal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the possible contribution of familial and genetic factors to epilepsy or neural-tube defects. No specific association with maternal family history of neural-tube defects or epilepsy

  6. Neural tube defects – recent advances, unsolved questions and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Andrew J.; Stanier, Philip; Greene, Nicholas D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital malformations affecting around 1 in every 1000 pregnancies. Here we review recent advances and currently unsolved issues in the NTD field. An innovation in clinical management has come from the demonstration that closure of open spina bifida lesions in utero can diminish neurological dysfunction in children. Primary prevention by folic acid has been enhanced through introduction of mandatory food fortification in some countries, although not yet in UK. Genetic predisposition comprises the majority of NTD risk, and genes that regulate folate one-carbon metabolism and planar cell polarity have been strongly implicated. The sequence of human neural tube closure events remains controversial, but study of mouse NTD models shows that anencephaly, open spina bifida and craniorachischisis result from failure of primary neurulation, while skin-covered spinal dysraphism results from defective secondary neurulation. Other ‘NTD’ malformations, such as encephalocele, are likely to be post-neurulation disorders. PMID:23790957

  7. Mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism and neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momb, Jessica; Appling, Dean R

    2014-08-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most common birth defects in humans. Maternal intake of folic acid was linked to prevention of NTDs in the 1970s. This realization led to the establishment of mandatory and/or voluntary food folic acid fortification programs in many countries that have reduced the incidence of NTDs by up to 70% in humans. Despite 40 years of intensive research, the biochemical mechanisms underlying the protective effects of folic acid remain unknown. Recent research reveals a role for mitochondrial folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism in neural tube closure. In this article, we review the evidence linking NTDs to aberrant mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism in humans and mouse models. The potential of formate, a product of mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism, to prevent NTDs is also discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated with Neural Tube Defects (I): Full Aneuploidy

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-01-01

    Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs) carry a risk of chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with other structural abnormalities, and family history of chromosome aberrations. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with NTDs in embryos, fetuses, and newborn patients, and a comprehensive review of numerical chromosomal abnormalities associated with NTDs, such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploi...

  9. Defect mapping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-04-11

    Apparatus for detecting and mapping defects in the surfaces of polycrystalline materials in a manner that distinguishes dislocation pits from grain boundaries includes a laser for illuminating a wide spot on the surface of the material, a light integrating sphere with apertures for capturing light scattered by etched dislocation pits in an intermediate range away from specular reflection while allowing light scattered by etched grain boundaries in a near range from specular reflection to pass through, and optical detection devices for detecting and measuring intensities of the respective intermediate scattered light and near specular scattered light. A center blocking aperture or filter can be used to screen out specular reflected light, which would be reflected by nondefect portions of the polycrystalline material surface. An X-Y translation stage for mounting the polycrystalline material and signal processing and computer equipment accommodate rastor mapping, recording, and displaying of respective dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. A special etch procedure is included, which prepares the polycrystalline material surface to produce distinguishable intermediate and near specular light scattering in patterns that have statistical relevance to the dislocation and grain boundary defect densities. 20 figures.

  10. Spinal neural tube defects in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, O B; Arigbabu, S O; Kanu, O O

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of neural tube defects is known to vary among regions. Very little has been reported about the incidence in Sub-Saharan Africa except for the general impression that the prevalent rates are low. To determine the profile of patients presenting with neural tube defects in Lagos, Nigeria We studied all patients with congenital midline back swellings presenting to one of two neurosurgical services in the state over a 5-year period to establish the incidence of spina bifida and develop demographic data. Data collected included the age at presentation, maternal age, education and parity, presence of co-existing anomalies and the social status of the parents. One hundred and eight patients with congenital midline swellings of the back were studied. Meningomyelocele accounted for 96% of the cases seen. Half the patients presented within the first two weeks of life and although fifty percent of mothers had ultrasound scans done during pregnancy none of the patients were diagnosed prenatally. Seventy-three percent of mothers of affected children were from a low socio-economic class. The commonest co-existing congenital anomaly was lower limb deformity (Talipes equino-varus). Spina bifida is the commonest indication for neurosurgical clinic referral with the exception of trauma in our environment. The prevalence is higher among women in the lower socio-economic groups. Improved perinatal care is required to ensure that children with such birth defects get prompt medical attention and thereby prevent worsening of an already complex problem.

  11. Cats, frogs, and snakes: early concepts of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Disturbed neurulation fascinated scientists of all times. In Egypt, anencephalic infants were venerated as animal-headed gods. Roman law required them to be killed. The medieval world held the mother responsible, either because of assumed imagination or "miswatching," or because of suspected intercourse with animals or devils. Modern embryology and teratology began with the use of the microscope by Malpighi in 1672. Details of neural tube closure were described by Koelliker in 1861 and by His in 1874. From 1822, genetic disease and familial recurrence due to insufficient nutrition were discerned and lower social class identified as a risk factor. It took a century to define the malnutrition as insufficient folate intake. The mandatory supplementation of folate in staple foods successfully reduced the incidence of neural tube defects in the United States, Australia, Canada, and Chile, but it was not adopted by most European countries.

  12. Population red blood cell folate concentrations for prevention of neural tube defects: Bayesian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Krista S; Devine, Owen; Hao, Ling; Dowling, Nicole F; Li, Song; Molloy, Anne M; Li, Zhu; Zhu, Jianghui; Berry, Robert J

    2014-07-29

    To determine an optimal population red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration for the prevention of neural tube birth defects. Bayesian model. Data from two population based studies in China. 247,831 participants in a prospective community intervention project in China (1993-95) to prevent neural tube defects with 400 μg/day folic acid supplementation and 1194 participants in a population based randomized trial (2003-05) to evaluate the effect of folic acid supplementation on blood folate concentration among Chinese women of reproductive age. Folic acid supplementation (400 μg/day). Estimated RBC folate concentration at time of neural tube closure (day 28 of gestation) and risk of neural tube defects. Risk of neural tube defects was high at the lowest estimated RBC folate concentrations (for example, 25.4 (95% uncertainty interval 20.8 to 31.2) neural tube defects per 10,000 births at 500 nmol/L) and decreased as estimated RBC folate concentration increased. Risk of neural tube defects was substantially attenuated at estimated RBC folate concentrations above about 1000 nmol/L (for example, 6 neural tube defects per 10,000 births at 1180 (1050 to 1340) nmol/L). The modeled dose-response relation was consistent with the existing literature. In addition, neural tube defect risk estimates developed using the proposed model and population level RBC information were consistent with the prevalence of neural tube defects in the US population before and after food fortification with folic acid. A threshold for "optimal" population RBC folate concentration for the prevention of neural tube defects could be defined (for example, approximately 1000 nmol/L). Population based RBC folate concentrations, as a biomarker for risk of neural tube defects, can be used to facilitate evaluation of prevention programs as well as to identify subpopulations at elevated risk for a neural tube defect affected pregnancy due to folate insufficiency. © Crider et al 2014.

  13. Changes in the osmolarity of the embryonic microenvironment induce neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi-Mei; Wang, Guang; Zhang, Nuan; Wei, Yi-Fan; Li, Shuai; Chen, You-Peng; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Henry Siu Sum; Hocher, Berthold; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-05-01

    Many maternal disorders that modify the embryonic microenvironment, such as a change in osmolarity, can affect development, but how these changes influence the early embryo remains obscure. Neural tube defects, for example, are common congenital disorders found in fetus and neonates. In this study, we investigated the impact of anisotonic osmolarity (unequal osmotic pressures) on neural tube development in the early chick embryo, finding that neuronal cell differentiation was impaired in the neural tube due to enhanced apoptosis and repressed cell proliferation. Anisotonic osmolarity also affected normal development of the neural crest, which in turn influenced abnormal development of the neural tube. As neural tube development is highly dependent on the proper expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), paired box 7 (PAX7), and sonic hedgehog (SHH) genes in the dorsal and ventral regions along the tube, we investigated the impact of anisotonic osmolarity on their expression. Indeed, small changes in osmolarity could positively and negatively impact the expression of these regulatory genes, which profoundly affected neural tube development. Thus, both the central and peripheral nervous systems were perturbed by anisotonic consitions as a consequence of the abnormal expression of key genes within the developing neural tube. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Topological defect launches 3D mound in the active nematic sheet of neural progenitors

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Sano, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Cultured stem cells have become a standard platform not only for regenerative medicine and developmental biology but also for biophysical studies. Yet, the characterization of cultured stem cells at the level of morphology and macroscopic patterns resulting from cell-to-cell interactions remain largely qualitative, even though they are the simplest features observed in everyday experiments. Here we report that neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells in the central nervous system, rapidly glide and stochastically reverse its velocity while locally aligning with neighboring cells, thus showing features of an active nematic system. Within the two-dimensional nematic pattern, we find interspaced topological defects with +1/2 and -1/2 charges. Remarkably, we identified rapid cell accumulation leading to three-dimensional mounds at the +1/2 topological defects. Single-cell level imaging around the defects allowed quantification of the evolving cell density, clarifyin...

  15. Automatic Detection of Welding Defects using Deep Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wenhui; Wei, Ye; Guo, Jie; Jin, Yi; Zhu, Chang’an

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automatic detection schema including three stages for weld defects in x-ray images. Firstly, the preprocessing procedure for the image is implemented to locate the weld region; Then a classification model which is trained and tested by the patches cropped from x-ray images is constructed based on deep neural network. And this model can learn the intrinsic feature of images without extra calculation; Finally, the sliding-window approach is utilized to detect the whole images based on the trained model. In order to evaluate the performance of the model, we carry out several experiments. The results demonstrate that the classification model we proposed is effective in the detection of welded joints quality.

  16. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated with Neural Tube Defects (I: Full Aneuploidy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs carry a risk of chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with other structural abnormalities, and family history of chromosome aberrations. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with NTDs in embryos, fetuses, and newborn patients, and a comprehensive review of numerical chromosomal abnormalities associated with NTDs, such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 9, trisomy 2, trisomy 21, trisomy 7, trisomy 8, trisomy 14, trisomy 15, trisomy 16, trisomy 5 mosaicism, trisomy 11 mosaicism, trisomy 20 mosaicism, monosomy X, and tetraploidy. NTDs may be associated with aneuploidy. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the possibility of chromosomal abnormalities and prompt a thorough cytogenetic investigation and genetic counseling.

  17. Folate Deficiency and Folic Acid Supplementation: The Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects and Congenital Heart Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Czeizel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diet, particularly vitamin deficiency, is associated with the risk of birth defects. The aim of this review paper is to show the characteristics of common and severe neural-tube defects together with congenital heart defects (CHD as vitamin deficiencies play a role in their origin. The findings of the Hungarian intervention (randomized double-blind and cohort controlled trials indicated that periconceptional folic acid (FA-containing multivitamin supplementation prevented the major proportion (about 90% of neural-tube defects (NTD as well as a certain proportion (about 40% of congenital heart defects. Finally the benefits and drawbacks of three main practical applications of folic acid/multivitamin treatment such as (i dietary intake; (ii periconceptional supplementation; and (iii flour fortification are discussed. The conclusion arrived at is indeed confirmation of Benjamin Franklin’s statement: “An ounce of prevention is better than a pound of care”.

  18. Does arsenic increase the risk of neural tube defects among a highly exposed population? A new case-control study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Maitreyi

    2017-01-30

    Neural tube defects are debilitating birth defects that occur when the developing neural plate fails to close in early gestation. Arsenic induces neural tube defects in animal models, but whether environmental arsenic exposure increases risk of neural tube defects in humans is unknown. We describe a new case-control study in Bangladesh, a country currently experiencing an epidemic of arsenic poisoning through contaminated drinking water. We plan to understand how arsenic influences risk of neural tube defects in humans through mechanisms that include disruption of maternal glucose and folate metabolism, as well as epigenetic effects. We also investigate whether sweat chloride concentration, a potential new biomarker for arsenic toxicity, can be used to identify women at higher risk for having a child affected by neural tube defect. We will collect dural tissue from cases, obtained at the time of surgical closure of the defect, and believe investigation of these samples will provide insight into the epigenetic mechanisms by which prenatal arsenic exposure affects the developing nervous system. These studies explore mechanisms by which arsenic may increase risk of neural tube defects in humans and use a unique population with high arsenic exposure to test hypotheses. If successful, these studies may assist countries with high arsenic exposure such as Bangladesh to identify populations at high risk of neural tube defects, as well as direct development of novel screening strategies for maternal risk.Birth Defects Research 109:92-98, 2017.© 2016 The Authors Birth Defects Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Birth Defects Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Optical system defect propagation in ABCD systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinley, W.G.; Yura, H.T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    1988-01-01

    We describe how optical system defects (tilt/jitter, decenter, and despace) propagate through an arbitrary paraxial optical system that can be described by an ABCD ray transfer matrix. A pedagogical example is given that demonstrates the effect of alignment errors on a typical optical system...

  20. Neural tube defects in Costa Rica, 1987-2012: origins and development of birth defect surveillance and folic acid fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza-Argüello, María de la Paz; Umaña-Solís, Lila M; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Flores, Alina L; Rodríguez-Aguilar, Sara; Alfaro-Calvo, Thelma; Mulinare, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to provide a descriptive overview of how the birth defects surveillance and folic acid fortification programs were implemented in Costa Rica-through the establishment of the Registry Center for Congenital Anomalies (Centro de Registro de Enfermedades Congénitas-CREC), and fortification legislation mandates. We estimated the overall prevalence of neural tube defects (i.e., spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocele) before and after fortification captured by CREC. Prevalence was calculated by dividing the total number of infants born with neural tube defects by the total number of live births in the country (1987-2012).A total of 1,170 newborns with neural tube defects were identified from 1987 to 2012 (1992-1995 data excluded); 628 were identified during the baseline pre-fortification period (1987-1991; 1996-1998); 191 during the fortification period (1999-2002); and 351 during the post-fortification time period (2003-2012). The overall prevalence of neural tube defects decreased from 9.8 per 10,000 live-births (95 % CI 9.1-10.5) for the pre-fortification period to 4.8 per 10,000 live births (95 % CI 4.3-5.3) for the post-fortification period. Results indicate a statistically significant (P Costa Rica. Costa Rica's experience can serve as an example for other countries seeking to develop and strengthen both their birth defects surveillance and fortification programs.

  1. Neural Tube Defects in Costa Rica, 1987–2012: Origins and Development of Birth Defect Surveillance and Folic Acid Fortification

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Paz Barboza-Argüello, María; Umaña-Solís, Lila M.; Azofeifa, Alejandro; Valencia, Diana; Flores, Alina L.; Rodríguez-Aguilar, Sara; Alfaro-Calvo, Thelma; Mulinare, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to provide a descriptive overview of how the birth defects surveillance and folic acid fortification programs were implemented in Costa Rica—through the establishment of the Registry Center for Congenital Anomalies (Centro de Registro de Enfermedades Congénitas—CREC), and fortification legislation mandates. We estimated the overall prevalence of neural tube defects (i.e., spina bifida, anencephaly and encephalocele) before and after fortification captured by CREC. Prevalence was calculated by dividing the total number of infants born with neural tube defects by the total number of live births in the country (1987–2012).A total of 1,170 newborns with neural tube defects were identified from 1987 to 2012 (1992–1995 data excluded); 628 were identified during the baseline pre-fortification period (1987–1991; 1996–1998); 191 during the fortification period (1999–2002); and 351 during the post-fortification time period (2003–2012). The overall prevalence of neural tube defects decreased from 9.8 per 10,000 live-births (95 % CI 9.1–10.5) for the pre-fortification period to 4.8 per 10,000 live births (95 % CI 4.3–5.3) for the post–fortification period. Results indicate a statistically significant (P Costa Rica. Costa Rica’s experience can serve as an example for other countries seeking to develop and strengthen both their birth defects surveillance and fortification programs. PMID:24952876

  2. Air Pollution, Neighbourhood Socioeconomic Factors, and Neural Tube Defects in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Amy M; Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L; Tager, Ira B; Lurmann, Frederick; Hammond, S Katharine; Shaw, Gary M

    2015-11-01

    Environmental pollutants and neighbourhood socioeconomic factors have been associated with neural tube defects, but the potential impact of interaction between ambient air pollution and neighbourhood socioeconomic factors on the risks of neural tube defects is not well understood. We used data from the California Center of the National Birth Defects Study and the Children's Health and Air Pollution Study to investigate whether associations between air pollutant exposure in early gestation and neural tube defects were modified by neighbourhood socioeconomic factors in the San Joaquin Valley of California, 1997-2006. There were 5 pollutant exposures, 3 outcomes, and 9 neighbourhood socioeconomic factors included for a total of 135 investigated associations. Estimates were adjusted for maternal race-ethnicity, education, and multivitamin use. We present below odds ratios (ORs) that exclude 1 and a chi-square test of homogeneity P-value of neural tube defects in California. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Neural Tube Defect in Alive Neonates: Incidence Rate and Predisposing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Haghollahi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neural Tube Defect (NTD characterized by failure of neural tube to close properly be the second most common born defect after congenital heart disease. The most prevalent forms of NTD are Anencephaly and Spinal-bifida. Many factors are involved in this anomaly. New researches suggest environmental factors like radiation, hyperthermia, Vitamin A and acid folic deficiency, anti epileptic drug like Carbamazepine, Phenobarbital, phenytoin, Folic acid antagonist like Sulfasalazine, Triametherine and systemic disease like diabet mellitus, obesity, genetic factors, the most schance 40 to 70 percentages.Methods: In this survey cross sectional study was conducted in five hospitals depend to Tehran university during three years. Study subject identified through review of admission and discharge at major hospital through regular contact with newborn nurseries and birth hospital.Results: In 38473 reported cases, 143 cases have neural tube defect. Among NTD cases, 11.9% of mothers had medical diseases in their previous history such as diabetes mellitus, epilepsy-psychiatric, and disorder-heart diseases. In this study group, 5.6% have preclampsia during pregnancy period. The most common NTD anomaly in this study was anencephaly and meningomyelocele that was different from studies in literature.Conclusion: NTD result from failure of neural tube close threats fetus health up to 28 days after conception. When is often prior to the recognition of pregnancy since many pregnancy are unplanned NTD prevention is best achieve by adequate daily folic acid intake thought of reproductive ages .educational effort to promote daily intake of folic acid supplemental by women of reproductive age and NTD risk factor should be done. Early diagnostic procedure for high risk pregnancy advised.

  4. International retrospective cohort study of neural tube defects in relation to folic acid recommendations : are the recommendations working?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botto, LD; Lisi, A; Robert-Gnansia, E; Erickson, JD; Vollset, SE; Mastroiacovo, P; Botting, B; Cocchi, G; de Vigan, C; de Walle, H; Feijoo, M; Irgens, LM; McDonnell, B; Merlob, P; Ritvanen, A; Scarano, G; Siffel, C; Metneki, J; Stoll, C; Smithells, R; Goujard, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of policies and recommendations on folic acid aimed at reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects. Design Retrospective cohort study of births monitored by birth defect registries. Setting 13 birth defects registries monitoring rates of neural tube defects

  5. Suppressed expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases in hyperthermia induced defective neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianliang; Leng, Zhaoting; Liu, Wenjing; Wang, Xia; Yan, Xue; Yu, Li

    2015-05-06

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common congenital malformations. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway is involved in many physiological processes. HMGB1 has been showed closely associated with neurulation and NTDs induced by hyperthermia and could activate MAPKs pathway. Since hyperthermia caused increased activation of MAPKs in many systems, the present study aims to investigate whether HMGB1 contributes to hyperthermia induced NTDs through MAPKs pathway. The mRNA levels of MAPKs and HMGB1 between embryonic day 8.5 and 10 (E8.5-10) in hyperthermia induced defective neural tube were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). By immunofluorescence and western blotting, the expressions of HMGB1 and phosphorylated MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK and p38) in neural tubes after hyperthermia were studied. The mRNA levels of MAPKs and HMGB1, as well as the expressions of HMGB1 along with phosphorylated JNK, p38 and ERK, were downregulated in NTDs groups induced by hyperthermia compared with control. The findings suggested that HMGB1 may contribute to hyperthermia induced NTDs formation through decreased cell proliferation due to inhibited phosphorylated ERK1/2 MAPK. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD Associated Neural Defects: Complex Mechanisms and Potential Therapeutic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Marrs

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD, caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, can result in craniofacial dysmorphism, cognitive impairment, sensory and motor disabilities among other defects. FASD incidences are as high as 2% to 5 % children born in the US, and prevalence is higher in low socioeconomic populations. Despite various mechanisms being proposed to explain the etiology of FASD, the molecular targets of ethanol toxicity during development are unknown. Proposed mechanisms include cell death, cell signaling defects and gene expression changes. More recently, the involvement of several other molecular pathways was explored, including non-coding RNA, epigenetic changes and specific vitamin deficiencies. These various pathways may interact, producing a wide spectrum of consequences. Detailed understanding of these various pathways and their interactions will facilitate the therapeutic target identification, leading to new clinical intervention, which may reduce the incidence and severity of these highly prevalent preventable birth defects. This review discusses manifestations of alcohol exposure on the developing central nervous system, including the neural crest cells and sensory neural placodes, focusing on molecular neurodevelopmental pathways as possible therapeutic targets for prevention or protection.

  7. Mutations in the Motile Cilia Gene DNAAF1 Are Associated with Neural Tube Defects in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Chunyue; Jiang, Qian; Li, Huili; Zhang, Qin; Bai, Baoling; Bao, Yihua; Zhang, Ting

    2016-10-13

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe malformations of the central nervous system caused by complex genetic and environmental factors. Among genes involved in NTD, cilia-related genes have been well defined and found to be essential for the completion of neural tube closure (NTC). We have carried out next-generation sequencing on target genes in 373 NTDs and 222 healthy controls, and discovered eight disease-specific rare mutations in cilia-related gene DNAAF1 DNAAF1 plays a central role in cytoplasmic preassembly of distinct dynein-arm complexes, and is expressed in some key tissues involved in neural system development, such as neural tube, floor plate, embryonic node, and brain ependyma epithelial cells in zebrafish and mouse. Therefore, we evaluated the expression and functions of mutations in DNAAF1 in transfected cells to analyze the potential correlation of these mutants to NTDs in humans. One rare frameshift mutation (p.Gln341Argfs*10) resulted in significantly diminished DNAAF1 protein expression, compared to the wild type. Another mutation, p.Lys231Gln, disrupted cytoplasmic preassembly of the dynein-arm complexes in cellular assay. Furthermore, results from NanoString assay on mRNA from NTD samples indicated that DNAAF1 mutants altered the expression level of NTC-related genes. Altogether, these findings suggest that the rare mutations in DNAAF1 may contribute to the susceptibility for NTDs in humans. Copyright © 2016 Miao et al.

  8. Mutations in the Motile Cilia Gene DNAAF1 Are Associated with Neural Tube Defects in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyue Miao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs are severe malformations of the central nervous system caused by complex genetic and environmental factors. Among genes involved in NTD, cilia-related genes have been well defined and found to be essential for the completion of neural tube closure (NTC. We have carried out next-generation sequencing on target genes in 373 NTDs and 222 healthy controls, and discovered eight disease-specific rare mutations in cilia-related gene DNAAF1. DNAAF1 plays a central role in cytoplasmic preassembly of distinct dynein-arm complexes, and is expressed in some key tissues involved in neural system development, such as neural tube, floor plate, embryonic node, and brain ependyma epithelial cells in zebrafish and mouse. Therefore, we evaluated the expression and functions of mutations in DNAAF1 in transfected cells to analyze the potential correlation of these mutants to NTDs in humans. One rare frameshift mutation (p.Gln341Argfs*10 resulted in significantly diminished DNAAF1 protein expression, compared to the wild type. Another mutation, p.Lys231Gln, disrupted cytoplasmic preassembly of the dynein-arm complexes in cellular assay. Furthermore, results from NanoString assay on mRNA from NTD samples indicated that DNAAF1 mutants altered the expression level of NTC-related genes. Altogether, these findings suggest that the rare mutations in DNAAF1 may contribute to the susceptibility for NTDs in humans.

  9. Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects with Periconceptional Folic Acid, Methylfolate, or Multivitamins?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Czeizel, Andrew E; Dudás, István; Paput, László; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: To review the main results of intervention trials which showed the efficacy of periconceptional folic acid-containing multivitamin and folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural-tube defects (NTD...

  10. Defective ALK5 signaling in the neural crest leads to increased postmigratory neural crest cell apoptosis and severe outflow tract defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucov Henry M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital cardiovascular diseases are the most common form of birth defects in humans. A substantial portion of these defects has been associated with inappropriate induction, migration, differentiation and patterning of pluripotent cardiac neural crest stem cells. While TGF-β-superfamily signaling has been strongly implicated in neural crest cell development, the detailed molecular signaling mechanisms in vivo are still poorly understood. Results We deleted the TGF-β type I receptor Alk5 specifically in the mouse neural crest cell lineage. Failure in signaling via ALK5 leads to severe cardiovascular and pharyngeal defects, including inappropriate remodeling of pharyngeal arch arteries, abnormal aortic sac development, failure in pharyngeal organ migration and persistent truncus arteriosus. While ALK5 is not required for neural crest cell migration, our results demonstrate that it plays an important role in the survival of post-migratory cardiac neural crest cells. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ALK5-mediated signaling in neural crest cells plays an essential cell-autonomous role in the pharyngeal and cardiac outflow tract development.

  11. Systematic review of birth prevalence of neural tube defects in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, Prajkta; Sagoo, Gurdeep S; Moorthie, Sowmiya; Burton, Hilary; Kar, Anita

    2013-07-01

    Neural tube defects are one of the most prevalent congenital anomalies. Data on the total birth prevalence, live birth and stillbirth prevalence of neural tube defects in India are lacking. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of birth prevalence of neural tube defects in India and compare it with existing estimates. A PubMed search identified 463 articles, of which 19 articles were eligible for inclusion in the review. Meta-analysis was used to estimate the overall birth prevalence of neural tube defects and to investigate the variation among studies identified by this review. The 19 articles reported a total of 308,387 births, among which 1310 cases of neural tube defects were reported, giving an overall birth prevalence of 4.1 per 1000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1-5.4). The live birth and stillbirth prevalence of neural tube defects was 1.3 per 1000 births (95% CI, 0.9-1.8) and 1.7 per 1000 births (95% CI, 0.7-4.0), respectively. Among the neural tube defects, the reported prevalence of anencephaly was highest at 2.1 per 1000 births (95% CI, 1.6-2.8) followed by spina bifida at 1.9 per 1000 births (95% CI, 1.4-2.7). The systematic review suggests that neural tube defects contribute to a significant number of live births and stillbirths in India, suggesting that preconception folic acid supplementation should be an essential element of reproductive health services. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ablation of Arg-tRNA-protein transferases results in defective neural tube development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Kim, Seonmu; Lee, Jung Hoon; Kwon, Yong Tae; Lee, Min Jae

    2016-08-01

    The arginylation branch of the N-end rule pathway is a ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic system in which post-translational conjugation of Arg by ATE1-encoded Arg-tRNA-protein transferase to N-terminal Asp, Glu, or oxidized Cys residues generates essential degradation signals. Here, we characterized the ATE1-/- mice and identified the essential role of N-terminal arginylation in neural tube development. ATE1-null mice showed severe intracerebral hemorrhages and cystic space near the neural tubes. Expression of ATE1 was prominent in the developing brain and spinal cord, and this pattern overlapped with the migration path of neural stem cells. The ATE1-/- brain showed defective G-protein signaling. Finally, we observed reduced mitosis in ATE1-/- neuroepithelium and a significantly higher nitric oxide concentration in the ATE1-/- brain. Our results strongly suggest that the crucial role of ATE1 in neural tube development is directly related to proper turn-over of the RGS4 protein, which participate in the oxygen-sensing mechanism in the cells. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(8): 443-448].

  13. Maternal obesity, folate intake, and neural tube defects in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Daria M; Liu, Jihong; Zhang, Hongmei; Torres, Myriam E; Best, Robert G

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the association between maternal obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30) and the risk of a neural tube defect affected pregnancy (NTD). We also studied relationships between perinatal folate intake from food and the NTD risk by maternal BMI. Data came from a state-wide case-control study conducted between 1992 and 1997 in South Carolina including 179 women with NTD-affected pregnancies and 288 women without NTD-affected births. A majority of case mothers (77%) and controls (86%) were interviewed within 6 months after delivery or pregnancy termination. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between maternal obesity and the NTD risk after adjusting for maternal race, age, education, smoking, alcohol/drug use, chronic conditions, and multivitamin use within six periconceptional months. Stratified analysis by maternal BMI (≥25 vs. obese women (BMI ≥ 30) had twice higher odds of having an NTD-affected pregnancy (odds ratios [OR] = 2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12, 3.81) than normal weight women (BMI: 18.0-24.9). Compared to the lowest quartile of average daily folate intake from food, the upper three quartiles had lower odds of NTDs in offspring. The NTD-protective association was stronger in overweight/obese women (BMI ≥ 25) than in normal/underweight women (BMI obesity as a risk factor for NTDs. Higher intakes of dietary folate were associated with decreased NTD risk that was stronger in overweight and obese women. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Syndromes and Disorders Associated with Omphalocele (III: Single Gene Disorders, Neural Tube Defects, Diaphragmatic Defects and Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Omphalocele can be associated with single gene disorders, neural tube defects, diaphragmatic defects, fetal valproate syndrome, and syndromes of unknown etiology. This article provides a comprehensive review of omphalocele-related disorders: otopalatodigital syndrome type II; Melnick–Needles syndrome; Rieger syndrome; neural tube defects; Meckel syndrome; Shprintzen–Goldberg omphalocele syndrome; lethal omphalocele-cleft palate syndrome; cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome; fetal valproate syndrome; Marshall–Smith syndrome; fibrochondrogenesis; hydrolethalus syndrome; Fryns syndrome; omphalocele, diaphragmatic defects, radial anomalies and various internal malformations; diaphragmatic defects, limb deficiencies and ossification defects of skull; Donnai–Barrow syndrome; CHARGE syndrome; Goltz syndrome; Carpenter syndrome; Toriello–Carey syndrome; familial omphalocele; Cornelia de Lange syndrome; C syndrome; Elejalde syndrome; Malpuech syndrome; cervical ribs, Sprengel anomaly, anal atresia and urethral obstruction; hydrocephalus with associated malformations; Kennerknecht syndrome; lymphedema, atrial septal defect and facial changes; and craniosynostosis- mental retardation syndrome of Lin and Gettig. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert one to the possibility of omphalocele-related disorders and familial inheritance and prompt a thorough genetic counseling for these disorders.

  15. Amniotic fluid paraoxonase-1 activity, thyroid hormone concentration and oxidant status in neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Sibel; Agacayak, Elif; Tunc, Senem Yaman; Icen, Mehmet Sait; Findik, Fatih Mehmet; Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Yalinkaya, Ahmet; Gul, Talip

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between neural tube defects and paraoxonase-1 activity in amniotic fluid. We studied total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, paraoxonase-1 activity and thyroid hormone amniotic fluid concentration in fetuses with neural tube defects. The present study was performed at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and the Department of Clinical Biochemistry of Dicle University between September 2011 and June 2013. The study group included 37 amniotic fluid samples from pregnant women (16-20 weeks of gestation) with fetuses affected by neural tube defects. The control group consisted of 36 pregnant women who were diagnosed with a high-risk pregnancy according to first or second trimester aneuploidy screening and were later confirmed on amniocentesis to have genetically normal fetuses. Amniotic fluid paraoxonase-1 activity and total oxidant status were significantly higher (P = 0.023, P = 0.029, respectively) whereas free T4 was significantly lower (P = 0.022) in fetuses with neural tube defects compared with control subjects. In fetuses with neural tube defects, amniotic fluid paraoxonase-1 activity correlated positively with total oxidant status (r = 0.424**, P = 0.010), and amniotic fluid total antioxidant capacity correlated positively with free t4 (r = 0.381*, P = 0.022). This is the first study in the literature to show an association between paraoxonase-1 activity and thyroid hormone concentration and neural tube defects. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Modeling anterior development in mice: diet as modulator of risk for neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappen, Claudia

    2013-11-01

    Head morphogenesis is a complex process that is controlled by multiple signaling centers. The most common defects of cranial development are craniofacial defects, such as cleft lip and cleft palate, and neural tube defects, such as anencephaly and encephalocoele in humans. More than 400 genes that contribute to proper neural tube closure have been identified in experimental animals, but only very few causative gene mutations have been identified in humans, supporting the notion that environmental influences are critical. The intrauterine environment is influenced by maternal nutrition, and hence, maternal diet can modulate the risk for cranial and neural tube defects. This article reviews recent progress toward a better understanding of nutrients during pregnancy, with particular focus on mouse models for defective neural tube closure. At least four major patterns of nutrient responses are apparent, suggesting that multiple pathways are involved in the response, and likely in the underlying pathogenesis of the defects. Folic acid has been the most widely studied nutrient, and the diverse responses of the mouse models to folic acid supplementation indicate that folic acid is not universally beneficial, but that the effect is dependent on genetic configuration. If this is the case for other nutrients as well, efforts to prevent neural tube defects with nutritional supplementation may need to become more specifically targeted than previously appreciated. Mouse models are indispensable for a better understanding of nutrient-gene interactions in normal pregnancies, as well as in those affected by metabolic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Identifying apple surface defects using principal components analysis and artifical neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial neural networks and principal components were used to detect surface defects on apples in near-infrared images. Neural networks were trained and tested on sets of principal components derived from columns of pixels from images of apples acquired at two wavelengths (740 nm and 950 nm). I...

  18. Neural systems for control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Omidvar, Omid; Elliott, David L

    1997-01-01

    ... is reprinted with permission from A. Barto, "Reinforcement Learning," Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks, M.A. Arbib, ed.. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 804-809, 1995. Chapter 4, Figures 4-5 and 7-9 and Tables 2-5, are reprinted with permission, from S. Cho, "Map Formation in Proprioceptive Cortex," International Jour...

  19. Folate and neural tube defects - Recommendations from a Danish working group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Andersson, G.

    1998-01-01

    A working group was established to evaluate the need for an increased folate intake in Danish women to decrease the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). NTD are birth defects a which include anencephaly, encephalocele and spina bifida. In Denmark the incidence is about 1.4 per 1,000 pregnancies...

  20. The relationship between Sonic hedgehog signalling, cilia and neural tube defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Jennifer N.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The Hedgehog signalling pathway is essential for many aspects of normal embryonic development, including formation and patterning of the neural tube. Absence of Shh ligand is associated with the midline defect holoprosencephaly, while increased Shh signalling is associated with exencephaly and spina bifida. To complicate this apparently simple relationship, mutation of proteins required for function of cilia often leads to impaired Shh signalling and to disruption of neural tube closure. In this manuscript, we review the literature on Shh pathway mutants and discuss the relationship between Shh signalling, cilia and neural tube defects. PMID:20544799

  1. Implications of Zinc on Fetal Neural Tube Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Vats

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is essential for normal growth and differentiation in all mammalian species and it is reported that folic acid supplementation has reduced the incidence of neural tube defects (NTD. It is still considered one of the important congenital malformations having wide implications. Zinc deficiency has been reported to produce NTD in animals. The present study was undertaken to evaluate zinc status of newborn babies with NTD and their mothers. Blood samples were taken from 287 mothers and their babies having NTD and from 110 controls visiting hospitals and health clinics. Zinc level as µg/ml for blood and serum and µg/g for cell mass were determined on GBC 932 atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Australia by fluorometery. The mean maternal blood, serum and cell mass concentration in NTD group (14.56 ± 1.34 µg/ml, 0.6 ± 0.01 µg/ml, 5.64 ± 0.35 µg/gm respectively were significantly lower than those of the control mothers (24.15 ± 2.95 µg/ml, 0.72 ± 0.03 µg/ml, 7.37 ± 0.44 µg/gm respectively. There is a significant decrease in the concentration of Zinc in newborns having NTD (15.65 ± 3.18 µg/ml, 0.56 ± 0.08 µg/ml, 5.11 ± 0.18 µg/gm respectively as compared with normal newborns (28.04 ± 1.1 µg/ml, 0.59 ± 0.08 µg/ml and 6.08 ± 0.29 µg/gm respectively. Maternal nutritional zinc deficiency in newborns and their mothers is thought to be one of the factors responsible for NTD. However, the lowered zinc concentration may be influencing the causation of NTD. More investigations on zinc status in mothers during antenatal period, especially in the prenatal development and antenatal zinc status including normal babies and NTD babies are required at population level.

  2. Novel Mode of Defective Neural Tube Closure in the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbaum, J Michael; Kruger, Claudia; MacGowan, Jacalyn; Herion, Nils J; Burk, David; Kappen, Claudia

    2015-11-23

    Failure to close the neural tube results in birth defects, with severity ranging from spina bifida to lethal anencephaly. Few genetic risk factors for neural tube defects are known in humans, highlighting the critical role of environmental risk factors, such as maternal diabetes. Yet, it is not well understood how altered maternal metabolism interferes with embryonic development, and with neurulation in particular. We present evidence from two independent mouse models of diabetic pregnancy that identifies impaired migration of nascent mesodermal cells in the primitive streak as the morphogenetic basis underlying the pathogenesis of neural tube defects. We conclude that perturbed gastrulation not only explains the neurulation defects, but also provides a unifying etiology for the broad spectrum of congenital malformations in diabetic pregnancies.

  3. Neural tube defects and folate: case far from closed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.J.; Shaw, G.M.; Heijer, M. den; Finnell, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    Neural tube closure takes place during early embryogenesis and requires interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Failure of neural tube closure is a common congenital malformation that results in morbidity and mortality. A major clinical achievement has been the use of

  4. Prevention of neural tube defects by the fortification of flour with folic acid: a population-based retrospective study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Lecca, Roberto Carlos Reyes; Cortez-Escalante, Juan Jose; Sanchez, Mauro Niskier; Rodrigues, Humberto Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    To determine if the fortification of wheat and maize flours with iron and folic acid - which became mandatory in Brazil from June 2004 - is effective in the prevention of neural tube defects. Using data from national information systems on births in central, south-eastern and southern Brazil, we determined the prevalence of neural tube defects among live births and stillbirths in a pre-fortification period - i.e. 2001-2004 - and in a post-fortification period - i.e. 2005-2014. We distinguished between anencephaly, encephalocele, meningocele, myelomeningocele and other forms of spina bifida. There were 8554 neural tube defects for 17,925,729 live births notified between 2001 and 2014. For the same period, 2673 neural tube defects were reported for 194,858 stillbirths. The overall prevalence of neural tube defects fell from 0.79 per 1000 pre-fortification to 0.55 per 1000 post-fortification (prevalence ratio, PR: 1.43; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.38-1.50). For stillbirths, prevalence fell from 17.74 per 1000 stillbirths pre-fortification to 11.70 per 1000 stillbirths post-fortification. The corresponding values among live births were 0.57 and 0.44, respectively. The introduction of the mandatory fortification of flour with iron and folic acid in Brazil was followed by a significant reduction in the prevalence of neural tube defects in our study area.

  5. Degenerate coding in neural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Anthony

    2005-11-01

    When the dimensionality of a neural circuit is substantially larger than the dimensionality of the variable it encodes, many different degenerate network states can produce the same output. In this review I will discuss three different neural systems that are linked by this theme. The pyloric network of the lobster, the song control system of the zebra finch, and the odor encoding system of the locust, while different in design, all contain degeneracies between their internal parameters and the outputs they encode. Indeed, although the dynamics of song generation and odor identification are quite different, computationally, odor recognition can be thought of as running the song generation circuitry backwards. In both of these systems, degeneracy plays a vital role in mapping a sparse neural representation devoid of correlations onto external stimuli (odors or song structure) that are strongly correlated. I argue that degeneracy between input and output states is an inherent feature of many neural systems, which can be exploited as a fault-tolerant method of reliably learning, generating, and discriminating closely related patterns.

  6. Memory Storage and Neural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Daniel L.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates memory storage and molecular nature of associative-memory formation by analyzing Pavlovian conditioning in marine snails and rabbits. Presented is the design of a computer-based memory system (neural networks) using the rules acquired in the investigation. Reports that the artificial network recognized patterns well. (YP)

  7. Prevention of neural tube defects with folic acid: The Chinese experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ai-Guo

    2015-08-08

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of congenital malformations of the central nervous system that are caused by the closure failure of the embryonic neural tube by the 28(th) day of conception. Anencephaly and spina bifida are the two major subtypes. Fetuses with anencephaly are often stillborn or electively aborted due to prenatal diagnosis, or they die shortly after birth. Most infants with spina bifida are live-born and, with proper surgical treatment, can survive into adulthood. However, these children often have life-long physical disabilities. China has one of the highest prevalence of NTDs in the world. Inadequate dietary folate intake is believed to be the main cause of the cluster. Unlike many other countries that use staple fortification with folic acid as the public health strategy to prevent NTDs, the Chinese government provides all women who have a rural household registration and who plan to become pregnant with folic acid supplements, free of charge, through a nation-wide program started in 2009. Two to three years after the initiation of the program, the folic acid supplementation rate increased to 85% in the areas of the highest NTD prevalence. The mean plasma folate level of women during early and mid-pregnancy doubled the level before the program was introduced. However, most women began taking folic acid supplements when they knew that they were pregnant. This is too late for the protection of the embryonic neural tube. In a post-program survey of the women who reported folic acid supplementation, less than a quarter of the women began taking supplements prior to pregnancy, indicating that the remaining three quarters of the fetuses remained unprotected during the time of neural tube formation. Therefore, staple food fortification with folic acid should be considered as a priority in the prevention of NTDs.

  8. Research: Prevalence of neural tube defects Khartoum, Sudan August 2014-July 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Ilham M; Abdullah, Osman M; Mohammed, Inaam N; Abbasher, Lina A

    2016-11-24

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are birth defects that results from failure of the neural tube to develop properly during early pregnancy. We studied the prevalence of neural tube defects in newborns admitted to the NICU in Soba University and Omdurman Maternity hospitals, during the period 1st August 2014 to 31st July 2015. A cross-sectional hospital based study, involved all newborns with any type of neural tube defect admitted to the NICU in the study area during the study period. Data was collected using a questionnaire reviewing the medical, social history and clinical examination. Out of the 36,785 delivered newborns during the study period, the prevalence of NTDs was 2.8:1000. Females were 56 (54.4%) predominated males 47 (45.6%). History of neural tube defects was found in 11 (10.7%) of the affected newborns siblings. Sixty-eight (66%) of the studied mothers received folic acid during pregnancy with the current child, of those who received folic acid 66 (97.1%) started folic acid after conception, 36 (54.5%) in the first trimester and 39 (57.4%) had no regular intake of the folic acid. The types of NTDs include myelomeningocele 49 (47.6%), anencephaly 18 (17.5%), encephalocele 14 (13.6%), myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus 11 (10.7%) and meningocele 8 (7.8%). The prevalence of neural tube defects is 2.8:1000. Myelomeningocele is the commonest encountered NTD. The use of preconception folic acid needs to be advocated.

  9. Fetal DNA hypermethylation in tight junction pathway is associated with neural tube defects: A genome-wide DNA methylation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Lin, Shanshan; Zhang, Ji; Tian, Tian; Jin, Lei; Ren, Aiguo

    2017-02-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a spectrum of severe congenital malformations of fusion failure of the neural tube during early embryogenesis. Evidence on aberrant DNA methylation in NTD development remains scarce, especially when exposure to environmental pollutant is taken into consideration. DNA methylation profiling was quantified using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 array in neural tissues from 10 NTD cases and 8 non-malformed controls (stage 1). Subsequent validation was performed using a Sequenom MassARRAY system in neural tissues from 20 NTD cases and 20 non-malformed controls (stage 2). Correlation analysis of differentially methylated CpG sites in fetal neural tissues and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in fetal neural tissues and maternal serum was conducted. Differentially methylated CpG sites of neural tissues were further validated in fetal mice with NTDs induced by benzo(a)pyrene given to pregnant mice. Differentially hypermethylated CpG sites in neural tissues from 17 genes and 6 pathways were identified in stage 1. Subsequently, differentially hypermethylated CpG sites in neural tissues from 6 genes (BDKRB2, CTNNA1, CYFIP2, MMP7, MYH2, and TIAM2) were confirmed in stage 2. Correlation analysis showed that methylated CpG sites in CTNNA1 and MYH2 from NTD cases were positively correlated to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon level in fetal neural tissues and maternal serum. The correlation was confirmed in NTD-affected fetal mice that were exposed to benzo(a)pyrene in utero. In conclusion, hypermethylation of the CTNNA1 and MYH2 genes in tight junction pathway is associated with the risk for NTDs, and the DNA methylation aberration may be caused by exposure to benzo(a)pyrene.

  10. Neural tube defects in Waardenburg syndrome: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joseph; Miriyala, Kalpana

    2017-09-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition characterized by sensorineural deafness and pigment abnormalities, and is caused by variants in the PAX3 homeodomain. PAX3 variants have been associated with severe neural tube defects in mice and humans, but the frequency and clinical manifestations of this symptom remain largely unexplored in humans. Consequently, the role of PAX3 in human neural tube formation remains a study of interest, for clinical as well as research purposes. Though the association between spina bifida and WS1 is now well-documented, no study has attempted to characterize the range of spina bifida phenotypes seen in WS. Spina bifida encompasses several diagnoses with a wide scope of clinical severity, ranging from spina bifida occulta to myelomeningocele. We present a patient with Waardenburg syndrome type 1 caused by a novel missense variant in PAX3, presenting with myelomeningocele, Arnold-Chiari malformation, and hydrocephalus at birth. Additionally, we review 32 total cases of neural tube defects associated with WS. Including this report, there have been 15 published cases of myelomeningocele, 10 cases of unspecified spina bifida, 3 cases of sacral dimples, 0 cases of meningocele, and 4 cases of miscellaneous other neural tube defects. Though the true frequency of each phenotype cannot be determined from this collection of cases, these results demonstrate that Waardenburg syndrome type 1 carries a notable risk of severe neural tube defects, which has implications in prenatal and genetic counseling. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Folic acid usage and associated factors in the prevention of neural tube defects among pregnant women in Ethiopia: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, Meselech Ambaw; Zeleke, Ejigu Gebeye; Workie, Shimelash Bitew; Berihun, Ayanaw Worku

    2017-09-21

    Neural tube defects are among the most common birth defects, contributing to miscarriage, infant mortality, severe congenital abnormalities and serious disabilities. It is burdensome to patients, caregivers, healthcare systems and society. It could be reduced if women consume a folic acid supplement before and during the early weeks of pregnancy. This study assesses folic acid usage and associated factors for the prevention of neural tube defects among pregnant women in Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted on 417 systematically sampled, consented pregnant women that visited Adama hospital medical college for antenatal care during August to November 2014. Pretested interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, obstetric characteristics and folic acid usage of women. About 48.4% of women took a folic acid supplement at different period of pregnancy; but, only 1.92% of women took the supplement at a protective period against neural tube defects. Age, the early timing of antenatal registration, was a preconception consulted, previous unsuccessful pregnancies and level of folic acid awareness were significantly associated with folic acid usage for prevention of neural tube defects. Folic acid usage during the protective period against neural tube defects among women in Ethiopia is very low, so healthcare plan to improve intake of folic acid is required.

  12. G-protein-coupled receptor signaling and neural tube closure defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Issei S; Mukhopadhyay, Saikat

    2017-01-30

    Disruption of the normal mechanisms that mediate neural tube closure can result in neural tube defects (NTDs) with devastating consequences in affected patients. With the advent of next-generation sequencing, we are increasingly detecting mutations in multiple genes in NTD cases. However, our ability to determine which of these genes contribute to the malformation is limited by our understanding of the pathways controlling neural tube closure. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the largest family of transmembrane receptors in humans and have been historically favored as drug targets. Recent studies implicate several GPCRs and downstream signaling pathways in neural tube development and closure. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of GPCR signaling pathways in pathogenesis of NTDs. Notable examples include the orphan primary cilia-localized GPCR, Gpr161 that regulates the basal suppression machinery of sonic hedgehog pathway by means of activation of cAMP-protein kinase A signaling in the neural tube, and protease-activated receptors that are activated by a local network of membrane-tethered proteases during neural tube closure involving the surface ectoderm. Understanding the role of these GPCR-regulated pathways in neural tube development and closure is essential toward identification of underlying genetic causes to prevent NTDs. Birth Defects Research 109:129-139, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A fast button surface defects detection method based on convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lizhe; Cao, Danhua; Wu, Songlin; Wu, Yubin; Wei, Taoran

    2018-01-01

    Considering the complexity of the button surface texture and the variety of buttons and defects, we propose a fast visual method for button surface defect detection, based on convolutional neural network (CNN). CNN has the ability to extract the essential features by training, avoiding designing complex feature operators adapted to different kinds of buttons, textures and defects. Firstly, we obtain the normalized button region and then use HOG-SVM method to identify the front and back side of the button. Finally, a convolutional neural network is developed to recognize the defects. Aiming at detecting the subtle defects, we propose a network structure with multiple feature channels input. To deal with the defects of different scales, we take a strategy of multi-scale image block detection. The experimental results show that our method is valid for a variety of buttons and able to recognize all kinds of defects that have occurred, including dent, crack, stain, hole, wrong paint and uneven. The detection rate exceeds 96%, which is much better than traditional methods based on SVM and methods based on template match. Our method can reach the speed of 5 fps on DSP based smart camera with 600 MHz frequency.

  14. [ECLAMC: 30-year study of epidemiological surveillance of neural tube defects in Chile and Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazer, J; López-Camelo, J; Castilla, E E

    2001-05-01

    There is an urgent need to assess the impact, on the incidence of neural tube defects, of the recently implanted flour fortification with folic acid in Chile. The Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations in Latin America (ECLAMC) has carried out an uninterrupted register of congenital malformations in the last thirty years. To assess the epidemiology of neural tube defects in Chile and determine the most adequate base period to evaluate the effects of Folic acid fortification. Analysis of ECLAMC database that has registered all births over 500 g from 1967. From 1967 to 1999, there were 434.624 births in 18 hospitals in Chile and 3.586.569 births in 155 hospitals in the rest of Latin America. The rate of neural tube defects in Chile was 17.03 per 10.000, significantly higher than the rest of ECLAMC (14.88 per 10.000). The prevalence of neural tube defects has a statistically significant secular tendency to increase in the study period and is higher among stillbirths, newborns with a birth weight of less than 1500 g, women and offspring of mothers aged less than 19 years old. The period 1982-1999 is considered the best period for reference comparisons of the effects folic acid supplementation.

  15. 21 CFR 101.79 - Health claims: Folate and neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... at risk of recurrence of a neural tube defect pregnancy who consumed a supplement containing 4... status, maternal birth cohort, month of conception, race, nutrition, and maternal health, including... the nutrient, the claim shall use the terms “folate,” “folic acid,” “folacin,” “folate, a B vitamin...

  16. Folic Acid for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects : US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calonge, Ned; Petitti, Diana B.; DeWitt, Thomas G.; Dietrich, Allen J.; Gregory, Kimberly D.; Grossman, David; Isham, George; LeFevre, Michael L.; Leipzig, Rosanne M.; Marion, Lucy N.; Melnyk, Bernadette; Moyer, Virginia A.; Ockene, Judith K.; Sawaya, George F.; Schwartz, J. Sanford; Wilt, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Description: In 1996, the U. S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended that all women planning or capable of pregnancy take a multivitamin supplement containing folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects. This recommendation is an update of the 1996 USPSTF recommendation.

  17. Folic acid supplementation influences the distribution of neural tube defect subtypes : A registry-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, J. E. H.; Otten, E.; Verheij, J. B. G. M.; de Walle, H. E. K.

    Periconceptional folic acid (FA) reduces neural tube defect (NTD) risk, but seems to have a varying effect per NTD subtype. We aimed to study the effect of FA supplementation on NTD subtype distribution using data from EUROCAT Northern Netherlands. We included all birth types with non-syndromal NTDs

  18. Epidemiologic and Genetic Aspects of Spina Bifida and Other Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Kit Sing; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Northrup, Hope

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) ranges from 1.0 to 10.0 per 1,000 births with almost equal frequencies between two major categories: anencephaly and spina bifida (SB). Epidemiological studies have provided valuable insight for (a) researchers to identify nongenetic and genetic factors contributing to etiology, (b) public…

  19. Periconceptional folic acid use and the prevalence of neural tube defects in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pal-de Bruin, Karin M.; van der Heijden, Peter G. M.; Buitendijk, Simone E.; den Ouden, A. Lya

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of increased folic acid intake on the prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD) in The Netherlands. STUDY DESIGN: Using the capture-recapture method, the prevalence of NTD was estimated on the basis of five different registries on births affected by NTD. RESULTS: Total

  20. Long term trends in prevalence of neural tube defects in Europe : population based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshnood, Babak; Loane, Maria; de Walle, Hermien; Arriola, Larraitz; Addor, Marie-Claude; Barisic, Ingeborg; Beres, Judit; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Dias, Carlos; Draper, Elizabeth; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Klungsoyr, Kari; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; Lynch, Catherine; McDonnell, Bob; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J.; O'Mahony, Mary T.; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Rounding, Catherine; Sipek, Antonin; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the long term trends in the total (live births, fetal deaths, and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly) and live birth prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD) in Europe, where many countries have issued recommendations for folic acid supplementation but a policy for

  1. Metamizole Sodium Induces Neural Tube Defects in a Chick Embryo Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Yahya; Billur, Deniz; Aydin, Sevim; Ozeren, Ersin; Demirci, Adnan; Alagoz, Fatih; Dalgic, Ali; Belen, Deniz

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of metamizole sodium on neural tube development in the early stage chick embryo model that complies with the first month of embryonic development in mammals. A total of 40 fertilized chicken eggs were divided into 4 equal groups. The eggs were incubated in the incubator at a temperature of 37.8±2°C with 60±5% humidity. Group A was the control, Group B was administered physiological saline, Group C was administered 30 mg/kg metamizole sodium (based on the therapeutic index range of it used in humans) and Group D was administered 90 mg/kg metamizole sodium. All embryos were removed from the egg at the 48th hour and morphologically and histologically examined. Normal development was seen and the neural tube was closed in 17 embryos in Groups A and B. A neural tube defect was seen in 2 embryos in group A and in 1 embryo in group B. A neural tube closure defect was seen in all embryos in group C and 9 embryos in group D. There was 1 dead embryo in Group D. Metamizole sodium was seen to produce a neural tube defect in the chicken embyro model.

  2. Fetal Pathology of Neural Tube Defects - An Overview of 68 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoner, Katharina; Axt-Fliedner, Roland; Bald, Rainer; Fritz, Barbara; Kohlhase, Juergen; Kohl, Thomas; Rehder, Helga

    2017-05-01

    The prevalence of neural tube defects worldwide is 1 - 2 per 1000 neonates. Neural tube defects result from a disturbance of neurulation in the 3rd or 4th week of development and thus represent the earliest manifestation of organ malformation. Neural tube defects (NTD) are classified into cranial dysraphism leading to anencephaly or meningoencephalocele and spinal dysraphism with or without meningomyelocele. In isolated form they have multifactorial causes, and the empirical risk of recurrence in Central Europe is 2%. As associated malformations they tend to occur sporadically, and in monogenic syndromes they follow Mendelian inheritance patterns with a high risk of recurrence. Autopsies were performed on 68 fetuses following a prenatal diagnosis of NTD and induced abortion. The incidence of NTDs in our autopsied fetuses was 8% and 11% in fetuses with malformations. The percentage of fetuses with anencephaly, encephalocele or spina bifida was 24, 18, and 60%*, respectively. Analysis of the sex distribution showed a female preponderance in cranial dysraphisms but the sex distribution of spina bifida cases was equal. The extent and localization of NTDs varied, with lumbosacral cases clearly predominating. The proportion of isolated, associated and syndromic neural tube defects was 56, 23.5 and 20.6% respectively. In the majority of syndromes, the neural tube defect represented a not previously observed syndromic feature. The high proportion of NTDs with monogenic background underlines the importance of a syndrome oriented fetal pathology. At the very least it requires a thourough photographic and radiographic documentation of the fetal phenotype to enable the genetic counsellor to identify a syndromic disorder. This is necessary to determine the risk of recurrence, arrange confirming mutation analyses and offer targeted prenatal diagnosis in subsequent pregnancies.

  3. Lack of association between folate-receptor autoantibodies and neural-tube defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Molloy, Anne M

    2009-07-09

    BACKGROUND: A previous report described the presence of autoantibodies against folate receptors in 75% of serum samples from women with a history of pregnancy complicated by a neural-tube defect, as compared with 10% of controls. We sought to confirm this finding in an Irish population, which traditionally has had a high prevalence of neural-tube defects. METHODS: We performed two studies. Study 1 consisted of analysis of stored frozen blood samples collected from 1993 through 1994 from 103 mothers with a history of pregnancy complicated by a neural-tube defect (case mothers), 103 mothers with a history of pregnancy but no complication by a neural-tube defect (matched with regard to number of pregnancies and sampling dates), 58 women who had never been pregnant, and 36 men. Study 2, conducted to confirm that the storage of samples did not influence the folate-receptor autoantibodies, included fresh samples from 37 case mothers, 22 control mothers, 10 women who had never been pregnant, and 9 men. All samples were assayed for blocking and binding autoantibodies against folate receptors. RESULTS: In Study 1, blocking autoantibodies were found in 17% of case mothers, as compared with 13% of control mothers (odds ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70 to 3.39), and binding autoantibodies in 29%, as compared with 32%, respectively (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.50). Study 2 showed similar results, indicating that sample degradation was unlikely. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and titer of maternal folate-receptor autoantibodies were not significantly associated with a neural-tube defect-affected pregnancy in this Irish population.

  4. [Study on a back propogation neural network-based predictive model for prevalence of birth defect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wei; Zheng, Ya-jun; Zhou, Bao-sen

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate the value of a back propogation (BP) network on prediction of birth defect and to give clues on its prevention. Data of birth defect in Shenyang from 1995 to 2005 were used as a training set to predict the prevalence rate of birth defect. Neural network tools box of Software MATLAB 6.5 was used to train and simulate BP Artificial Neural Network. When using data of the year 1995-2003 to predict the prevalence rate of birth defect in 2004-2005, the results showed that: the fitting average error of prevalence rate was 1.34%, RNL was 0.9874, and the prediction of average error was 1.78%. Using data of the year 1995-2005 to predict the prevalence rate of birth defect in 2006-2007, the results showed that: the fitting average error was 0.33%, RNL was 0.9954, the prevalence rates of birth defect in 2006-2007 were 11.00% and 11.29%. Compared to the conventional statistics method, BP not only showed better prediction precision, but had no limit to the type or distribution of relevant data, thus providing a powerful method in epidemiological prediction.

  5. Folate-related gene variants in Irish families affected by neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridgely eFisk Green

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Periconceptional folic acid use can often prevent neural tube defects (NTDs. Variants of genes involved in folate metabolism in mothers and children have been associated with occurrence of NTDs. We identified Irish families with individuals affected by neural tube defects. In these families, we observed that neural tube defects and birth defects overall occurred at a higher rate in the maternal lineage compared with the paternal lineage. The goal of this study was to look for evidence for genetic effects that could explain the discrepancy in the occurrence of these birth defects in the maternal vs. paternal lineage. We genotyped blood samples from 322 individuals from NTD-affected Irish families, identified through their membership in spina bifida associations. We looked for differences in distribution in maternal vs. paternal lineages of five genetic polymorphisms: the DHFR 19bp deletion, MTHFD1 1958G>A, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTHFR 677C>T, and SLC19A1 80A>G. In addition to looking at genotypes individually, we determined the number of genotypes associated with decreased folate metabolism in each relative (risk genotypes and compared the distribution of these genotypes in maternal vs. paternal relatives. Overall, maternal relatives had a higher number of genotypes associated with lower folate metabolism than paternal relatives (p=0.017. We expected that relatives would share the same risk genotype as the individuals with NTDs and/or their mothers. However, we observed that maternal relatives had an over-abundance of any risk genotype, rather than one specific genotype. The observed genetic effects suggest an epigenetic mechanism in which decreased folate metabolism results in epigenetic alterations related to the increased rate of NTDs and other birth defects seen in the maternal lineage. Future studies on the etiology of NTDs and other birth defects could benefit from including multigenerational extended families, in order to explore potential

  6. Stretching cell morphogenesis during late neurulation and mild neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzh, Vladimir

    2014-08-01

    Neurulation is defined as a process of neural tube closure. Recent reports suggested that upon completion of this process the major factors of neurulation remain in force at least until the central canal of the neural tube is formed. Hence, an idea has been put forward to define the two periods of neurulation: early neurulation corresponds to the period of neural tube closure and late neurulation corresponds to the period of formation of the central canal. These ideas are discussed in a context of neural tube defects that may affect late neurulation and result in distention of the central canal. © 2014 The Author Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2014 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  7. A novel inspection system for cosmetic defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, S.; Roy, R.; Williams, D.; Aylmore, R.; Hollingdale, D.

    2013-12-01

    The appearance of automotive skin panels creates desirability for a product and differentiates it from the competition. Because of the importance of skin panels, considerable care is taken in minimizing defects such as the 'hollow' defect that occur around door-handle depressions. However, the inspection process is manual, subjective and time-consuming. This paper describes the development of an objective and inspection scheme for the 'hollow' defect. In this inspection process, the geometry of a panel is captured using a structured lighting system. The geometry data is subsequently analyzed by a purpose-built wavelet-based algorithm to identify the location of any defects that may be present and to estimate the perceived severity of the defects without user intervention. This paper describes and critically evaluates the behavior of this physically-based algorithm on an ideal and real geometry and compares its result to an actual audit. The results show that the algorithm is capable of objectively locating and classifying 'hollow' defects in actual panels.

  8. Impact of Periconceptional Use of Nitrosatable Drugs on the Risk of Neural Tube Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedum, Corey M; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Mitchell, Allen A; Werler, Martha M

    2015-10-15

    Nitrosatable drugs (NSDs) can, in the presence of nitrosating agents and highly acidic conditions, form N-nitroso compounds that have been found to be teratogenic in animal models. Using data from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study collected from 1998 to 2012, we compared maternal periconceptional NSD use between 334 neural tube defect cases and 7,619 nonmalformed controls. We categorized NSDs according to their functional group (secondary amine, tertiary amine, and amide). With logistic regression models, we estimated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Neural tube defect risk was associated with maternal periconceptional use of secondary (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 2.4) and tertiary (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.5) amines; an association was observed for amides, but the 95% confidence interval included the null (aOR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.7, 2.5). Within the secondary amine group, elevated adjusted odds ratios were observed for 3 drugs but were null for the remaining medications. Increases in risk were observed for both strata of folic acid intake (neural tube defects and periconceptional exposure to NSDs containing a secondary or tertiary amine or amide. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The green tea polyphenol EGCG alleviates maternal diabetes-induced neural tube defects by inhibiting DNA hypermethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianxiang; Xu, Cheng; Reece, E Albert; Yang, Peixin

    2016-09-01

    Maternal diabetes increases the risk of neural tube defects in offspring. Our previous study demonstrated that the green tea polyphenol, Epigallocatechin gallate, inhibits high glucose-induced neural tube defects in cultured embryos. However, the therapeutic effect of Epigallocatechin gallate on maternal diabetes-induced neural tube defects is still unclear. We aimed to examine whether Epigallocatechin gallate treatment can reduce maternal diabetes-induced DNA methylation and neural tube defects. Nondiabetic and diabetic pregnant mice at embryonic day 5.5 were given drinking water with or without 1 or 10 μM Epigallocatechin gallate. At embryonic day 8.75, embryos were dissected from the visceral yolk sac for the measurement of the levels and activity of DNA methyltransferases, the levels of global DNA methylation, and methylation in the CpG islands of neural tube closure essential gene promoters. embryonic day 10.5 embryos were examined for neural tube defect incidence. Epigallocatechin gallate treatment did not affect embryonic development because embryos from nondiabetic dams treated with Epigallocatechin gallate did not exhibit any neural tube defects. Treatment with 1 μM Epigallocatechin gallate did not reduce maternal diabetes-induced neural tube defects significantly. Embryos from diabetic dams treated with 10 μM Epigallocatechin gallate had a significantly lower neural tube defect incidence compared with that of embryos without Epigallocatechin gallate treatment. Epigallocatechin gallate reduced neural tube defect rates from 29.5% to 2%, an incidence that is comparable with that of embryos from nondiabetic dams. Ten micromoles of Epigallocatechin gallate treatment blocked maternal diabetes-increased DNA methyltransferases 3a and 3b expression and their activities, leading to the suppression of global DNA hypermethylation. Additionally, 10 μM Epigallocatechin gallate abrogated maternal diabetes-increased DNA methylation in the CpG islands of neural tube

  10. Neural tube defects and maternal serum zinc and copper concentrations in mid-pregnancy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, A J; Dreosti, I E; Ryan, P; Robertson, E F

    1994-10-17

    To assess the relationship between mid-pregnancy maternal serum zinc and copper concentrations and neural tube defects. A prospective case-control study during 1978-1988 within a statewide hospital-based neural tube defect screening program measuring maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels at mid-pregnancy. Cases were 69 women with fetuses with confirmed neural tube defects. Controls were 592 women with fetuses without neural tube defects who were individually matched to cases for hospital, calendar date of screening, age and parity; there was a variable control-to-case ratio. For both unmatched and adjusted matched analyses, mean maternal serum zinc concentration was higher in cases than controls (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). There were no case-control differences for serum copper concentrations. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed a (statistically non-significant) 50% increase in risk of neural tube defects in women whose serum zinc concentration was more than two standard deviations above the population mean. Within the normal range of maternal serum zinc and copper concentrations there is no variation in risk of neural tube defects. However, women with very high serum zinc levels may have an increased risk of neural tube defects. This could reflect deficient maternal-to-fetal transfer of zinc in some of those individuals. Any such phenomenon would be manifest in observational, but not experimental, studies.

  11. Unjoined primary and secondary neural tubes: junctional neural tube defect, a new form of spinal dysraphism caused by disturbance of junctional neurulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibach, Sebastian; Moes, Greg; Hou, Yong Jin; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling

    2016-10-29

    Primary and secondary neurulation are the two known processes that form the central neuraxis of vertebrates. Human phenotypes of neural tube defects (NTDs) mostly fall into two corresponding categories consistent with the two types of developmental sequence: primary NTD features an open skin defect, an exposed, unclosed neural plate (hence an open neural tube defect, or ONTD), and an unformed or poorly formed secondary neural tube, and secondary NTD with no skin abnormality (hence a closed NTD) and a malformed conus caudal to a well-developed primary neural tube. We encountered three cases of a previously unrecorded form of spinal dysraphism in which the primary and secondary neural tubes are individually formed but are physically separated far apart and functionally disconnected from each other. One patient was operated on, in whom both the lumbosacral spinal cord from primary neurulation and the conus from secondary neurulation are each anatomically complete and endowed with functioning segmental motor roots tested by intraoperative triggered electromyography and direct spinal cord stimulation. The remarkable feature is that the two neural tubes are unjoined except by a functionally inert, probably non-neural band. The developmental error of this peculiar malformation probably occurs during the critical transition between the end of primary and the beginning of secondary neurulation, in a stage aptly called junctional neurulation. We describe the current knowledge concerning junctional neurulation and speculate on the embryogenesis of this new class of spinal dysraphism, which we call junctional neural tube defect.

  12. The LILARTI neural network system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.D. Jr.; Schell, F.M.; Dodd, C.V.

    1992-10-01

    The material of this Technical Memorandum is intended to provide the reader with conceptual and technical background information on the LILARTI neural network system of detail sufficient to confer an understanding of the LILARTI method as it is presently allied and to facilitate application of the method to problems beyond the scope of this document. Of particular importance in this regard are the descriptive sections and the Appendices which include operating instructions, partial listings of program output and data files, and network construction information.

  13. A study on the possible involvement of the PAX3 gene in human neural tube defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hol, F.A.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Geurds, M.P.A. [University Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are congenital malformations of the central nervous system which are generally attributed to a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Recently, the molecular defect responsible for the phenotype of the Splotch mouse, a monogenic model system for NTD, was determined. A mutation disrupts the homeodomain of the gene for Pax3. In humans, mutations in the cognate gene for PAX3 can cause Waardenburg syndrome (WS), which is associated with NTD. Based on these findings, PAX3 can be regarded as a candidate gene for human NTD. To test this hypothesis we have screened the DNA of 39 familial and 70 sporadic NTD patients for mutations in the coding exons and flanking intron sequences of the PAX3 gene. SSC analysis revealed abnormal bands in exon 2, exon 5, exon 6 and exon 7 in different patients. A missense mutation was identified in exon 6 downstream from the homeodomain in several patients resulting in an amino acid substitution (Thr315Lys) in the protein. However, the same substitution was detected in unaffected controls suggesting no biological significance. Above shifts most likely represent polymorphisms that are irrelevant for NTD. A conspicuous SSC-band shift was observed in exon 5 of one familial patient with spina bifida. Sequencing revealed that the patient was heterozygous for a 5 bp deletion upstream of the homeodomain. The deletion causes a frameshift, which leads to premature termination of translation. Mild characteristics of WS were detected in several members of the family including the index patient. DNA analysis showed co-segregation of the mutation with these symptoms. Although PAX3 mutations can increase the penetrance of NTD in families with WS, our results show that their presence is not sufficient to cause NTD.

  14. A neural network approach to discrimination between defects and calyces in oranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ingrassia

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of automatic discrimination among pictures concerning either defects or calyces in oranges is approached. The method here proposed is based on a statistical analysis of the grey-levels and the shape of calyces in the pictures. Some suitable statistical indices are considered and the discriminant function is designed by means of a neural network on the basis of a suitable vector representation of the images. Numerical experiments give 5 misclassifications in a set of 52 images, where only three defects have been classified as calyces.

  15. Mandibular reconstruction: a new defect classification system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Dental Journal ... This paper presents a new mandibular segmental defect classification system (La-Co-CE) with a view to highlight the complexity and difficulty of the reconstruction with free autogenous bone grafts which the most frequently used method for surgeons practicing in developing countries. We submit ...

  16. The emerging role of epigenetic mechanisms in the etiology of neural tube defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nicholas DE; Stanier, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The molecular requirements for neural tube closure are complex. This is illustrated by the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in many genetic mouse mutants, which implicate a variety of genes, pathways and cellular functions. NTDs are also prevalent birth defects in humans, affecting around 1 per 1,000 pregnancies worldwide. In humans the causation is thought to involve the interplay of fetal genes and the effect of environmental factors. Recent studies on the etiology of human NTDs, as well as analysis of mouse models, have raised the question of the possible involvement of epigenetic factors in determining susceptibility. A consideration of potential causative factors in human NTDs must now include both alterations in the regulation of gene expression, through mutation of promoter or regulatory elements and the additional analysis of epigenetic regulation. Alterations in the epigenetic status can be directly modified by various environmental insults or maternal dietary factors. PMID:21613818

  17. Arc-welding defect detection by means of principal component analysis and artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Allende, P. B.; Mirapeix, J.; Cobo, A.; Conde, O. M.; López-Higuera, J. M.

    2007-04-01

    The introduction of arc and laser welding in the aerospace, automotive and nuclear sectors, among others, has led to a great effort in research concerning quality assurance of these processes. Hence, an on-line, real-time welding monitor system able to detect instabilities affecting the welding quality would be of great interest, as it would allow to reduce the use of off-line inspection techniques, some of them by means of destructive-testing evaluation, improving process productivity. Among several different approaches, plasma optical spectroscopy has proved to be a feasible solution for the on-line detection of weld defects. However, the direct interpretation of the results offered by this technique can be difficult. Therefore, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), due to their ability to handle non-linearity, is a highly suitable solution to identify and detect disturbances along the seam. In this paper plasma spectra captured during welding tests are compressed by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and, then, processed in a back propagation ANN. Experimental tests performed on stainless steel plates show the feasibility of the proposed solution to be implemented as an on-line arc-welding quality monitor system.

  18. Junctional neurulation: a unique developmental program shaping a discrete region of the spinal cord highly susceptible to neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dady, Alwyn; Havis, Emmanuelle; Escriou, Virginie; Catala, Martin; Duband, Jean-Loup

    2014-09-24

    In higher vertebrates, the primordium of the nervous system, the neural tube, is shaped along the rostrocaudal axis through two consecutive, radically different processes referred to as primary and secondary neurulation. Failures in neurulation lead to severe anomalies of the nervous system, called neural tube defects (NTDs), which are among the most common congenital malformations in humans. Mechanisms causing NTDs in humans remain ill-defined. Of particular interest, the thoracolumbar region, which encompasses many NTD cases in the spine, corresponds to the junction between primary and secondary neurulations. Elucidating which developmental processes operate during neurulation in this region is therefore pivotal to unraveling the etiology of NTDs. Here, using the chick embryo as a model, we show that, at the junction, the neural tube is elaborated by a unique developmental program involving concerted movements of elevation and folding combined with local cell ingression and accretion. This process ensures the topological continuity between the primary and secondary neural tubes while supplying all neural progenitors of both the junctional and secondary neural tubes. Because it is distinct from the other neurulation events, we term this phenomenon junctional neurulation. Moreover, the planar-cell-polarity member, Prickle-1, is recruited specifically during junctional neurulation and its misexpression within a limited time period suffices to cause anomalies that phenocopy lower spine NTDs in human. Our study thus provides a molecular and cellular basis for understanding the causality of NTD prevalence in humans and ascribes to Prickle-1 a critical role in lower spinal cord formation. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3413208-14$15.00/0.

  19. Prevalence of neural tube defects and folic acid knowledge and consumption--Puerto Rico, 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-11

    Birth defects are one of the leading causes of infant mortality in both the mainland United States and Puerto Rico. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the spine and brain; two of the most common NTDs are spina bifida and anencephaly. In the United States, NTD prevalence is higher among Hispanic women than among non-Hispanic white or non-Hispanic black women. In Puerto Rico, where most residents are Hispanic, the prevalence of NTDs (8.68 per 10,000 live births) is higher than in the mainland United States (5.59). Consumption of folic acid before and during early pregnancy can prevent NTDs. To assess trends in NTD prevalence and prevalence of knowledge and consumption of folic acid supplements in Puerto Rico, data were analyzed from the Birth Defects Surveillance System (BDSS) for 1996-2005 and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for 1997-2006. This report describes the results of those analyses, which indicated that prevalence of folic acid knowledge and consumption among women of childbearing age increased from 1997 to 2003 but decreased from 2003 to 2006. During similar periods, NTD prevalence declined from 1996 to 2003 but did not change significantly from 2003 to 2005. To resume the decline in prevalence of NTDs, additional measures might be needed to increase folic acid supplement use among Puerto Rican women of childbearing age.

  20. Geminin loss causes neural tube defects through disrupted progenitor specification and neuronal differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ES, Patterson; LE, Waller; KL, Kroll

    2014-01-01

    Geminin is a nucleoprotein that can directly bind chromatin regulatory complexes to modulate gene expression during development. Geminin knockout mouse embryos are preimplantation lethal by the 32-cell stage, precluding in vivo study of Geminin's role in neural development. Therefore, here we used a conditional Geminin allele in combination with several Cre-driver lines to define an essential role for Geminin during mammalian neural tube (NT) formation and patterning. Geminin was required in the NT within a critical developmental time window (embryonic day 8.5–10.5), when NT patterning and closure occurs. Geminin excision at these stages resulted in strongly diminished expression of genes that mark and promote dorsal NT identities and decreased differentiation of ventral motor neurons, resulting in completely penetrant NT defects, while excision after embryonic day 10.5 did not result in NT defects. When Geminin was deleted specifically in the spinal NT, both NT defects and axial skeleton defects were observed, but neither defect occurred when Geminin was excised in paraxial mesenchyme, indicating a tissue autonomous requirement for Geminin in developing neuroectoderm. Despite a potential role for Geminin in cell cycle control, we found no evidence of proliferation defects or altered apoptosis. Comparisons of gene expression in the NT of Geminin mutant versus wild-type siblings at embryonic day 10.5 revealed decreased expression of key regulators of neurogenesis, including neurogenic bHLH transcription factors and dorsal interneuron progenitor markers. Together, these data demonstrate a requirement for Geminin for NT patterning and neuronal differentiation during mammalian neurulation in vivo. PMID:24995796

  1. Cell cycle-related genes p57kip2, Cdk5 and Spin in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjun; Yang, Zhong; Zeng, Yi; Xu, Hong; Li, Hongli; Han, Yangyun; Long, Xiaodong; You, Chao

    2013-07-15

    In the field of developmental neurobiology, accurate and ordered regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis are crucial factors contributing to the normal formation of the neural tube. Preliminary studies identified several genes involved in the development of neural tube defects. In this study, we established a model of developmental neural tube defects by administration of retinoic acid to pregnant rats. Gene chip hybridization analysis showed that genes related to the cell cycle and apoptosis, signal transduction, transcription and translation regulation, energy and metabolism, heat shock, and matrix and cytoskeletal proteins were all involved in the formation of developmental neural tube defects. Among these, cell cycle-related genes were predominant. Retinoic acid ment caused differential expression of three cell cycle-related genes p57kip2, Cdk5 and Spin, the expression levels of which were downregulated by retinoic acid and upregulated during normal neural tube formation. The results of this study indicate that cell cycle-related genes play an important role in the formation of neural tube defects. P57kip2, Cdk5 and Spin may be critical genes in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects.

  2. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilim, R.B.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.

    1998-04-28

    A method and system are disclosed for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process. 33 figs.

  3. Cost-Sensitive Radial Basis Function Neural Network Classifier for Software Defect Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumudha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective prediction of software modules, those that are prone to defects, will enable software developers to achieve efficient allocation of resources and to concentrate on quality assurance activities. The process of software development life cycle basically includes design, analysis, implementation, testing, and release phases. Generally, software testing is a critical task in the software development process wherein it is to save time and budget by detecting defects at the earliest and deliver a product without defects to the customers. This testing phase should be carefully operated in an effective manner to release a defect-free (bug-free software product to the customers. In order to improve the software testing process, fault prediction methods identify the software parts that are more noted to be defect-prone. This paper proposes a prediction approach based on conventional radial basis function neural network (RBFNN and the novel adaptive dimensional biogeography based optimization (ADBBO model. The developed ADBBO based RBFNN model is tested with five publicly available datasets from the NASA data program repository. The computed results prove the effectiveness of the proposed ADBBO-RBFNN classifier approach with respect to the considered metrics in comparison with that of the early predictors available in the literature for the same datasets.

  4. Yarn-dyed fabric defect classification based on convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Junfeng; Dong, Amei; Li, Pengfei; Zhang, Kaibing

    2017-09-01

    Considering that manual inspection of the yarn-dyed fabric can be time consuming and inefficient, we propose a yarn-dyed fabric defect classification method by using a convolutional neural network (CNN) based on a modified AlexNet. CNN shows powerful ability in performing feature extraction and fusion by simulating the learning mechanism of human brain. The local response normalization layers in AlexNet are replaced by the batch normalization layers, which can enhance both the computational efficiency and classification accuracy. In the training process of the network, the characteristics of the defect are extracted step by step and the essential features of the image can be obtained from the fusion of the edge details with several convolution operations. Then the max-pooling layers, the dropout layers, and the fully connected layers are employed in the classification model to reduce the computation cost and extract more precise features of the defective fabric. Finally, the results of the defect classification are predicted by the softmax function. The experimental results show promising performance with an acceptable average classification rate and strong robustness on yarn-dyed fabric defect classification.

  5. Cost-Sensitive Radial Basis Function Neural Network Classifier for Software Defect Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumudha, P; Venkatesan, R

    Effective prediction of software modules, those that are prone to defects, will enable software developers to achieve efficient allocation of resources and to concentrate on quality assurance activities. The process of software development life cycle basically includes design, analysis, implementation, testing, and release phases. Generally, software testing is a critical task in the software development process wherein it is to save time and budget by detecting defects at the earliest and deliver a product without defects to the customers. This testing phase should be carefully operated in an effective manner to release a defect-free (bug-free) software product to the customers. In order to improve the software testing process, fault prediction methods identify the software parts that are more noted to be defect-prone. This paper proposes a prediction approach based on conventional radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and the novel adaptive dimensional biogeography based optimization (ADBBO) model. The developed ADBBO based RBFNN model is tested with five publicly available datasets from the NASA data program repository. The computed results prove the effectiveness of the proposed ADBBO-RBFNN classifier approach with respect to the considered metrics in comparison with that of the early predictors available in the literature for the same datasets.

  6. [Difficulties of the methods for studying environmental exposure and neural tube defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja-Aburto, V H; Bermúdez-Castro, O; Lacasaña-Navarro, M; Kuri, P; Bustamante-Montes, P; Torres-Meza, V

    1999-01-01

    To discuss the attitudes in the assessment of environmental exposures as risk factors associated with neural tube defects, and to present the main risk factors studied to date. Environmental exposures have been suggested to have a roll in the genesis of birth defects. However, studies conducted in human populations have found difficulties in the design and conduction to show such an association for neural tube defects (anencephaly, espina bifida and encephalocele) because of problems raised from: a) the frequency measures used to compare time trends and communities, b) the classification of heterogeneous malformations, c) the inclusion of maternal, paternal and fetal factors as an integrated process and, d) the assessment of environmental exposures. Hypothetically both maternal and paternal environmental exposures can produce damage before and after conception by direct action on the embryo and the fetus-placenta complex. Therefore, in the assessment of environmental exposures we need to take into account: a) both paternal and maternal exposures; b) the critical exposure period, three months before conception for paternal exposures and one month around the conceptional period for maternal exposures; c) quantitatively evaluate environmental exposures when possible, avoiding a dichotomous classification; d) the use of biological markers of exposure is highly recommended as well as markers of genetic susceptibility.

  7. Reconstruction of road defects and road roughness classification using vehicle responses with artificial neural networks simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngwangwa, HM

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a procedure for utilizing measured responses on a vehicle to reconstruct road profiles and their attendant defects. The study seeks to capitalize on the popularization of vehicle information systems, where sensors...

  8. Maternal use of folic acid supplements and infant risk of neural tube defects in Norway 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildestad, Trude; Øyen, Nina; Klungsøyr, Kari; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Vollset, Stein Emil

    2016-08-01

    Like most European countries, Norway has refrained from mandatory food fortification with folic acid to reduce the number of neural tube defects. We explored the role of folic acid and multivitamin supplements in the prevention of neural tube defects among newborn infants. We used data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, 1999-2013. A total of 528,220 women had 880,568 pregnancies resulting in 896,674 live- and stillborn infants, of whom 270 had neural tube defects. Relative risks were estimated with log-binomial regression. From 1999 to 2013, intake of folic acid supplements increased from 4.8% to 27.4%. Vitamin supplement use was more frequent in older, married or cohabiting women and those with lower parity, as well as women who did not smoke during pregnancy. The overall adjusted relative risk of infant neural tube defects associated with maternal vitamin intake before pregnancy relative to no intake was 0.76 (95% confidence interval: 0.53-1.10). When we divided our study period in two (1999-2005 and 2006-2013), we found a significantly reduced risk of neural tube defects overall by vitamin use in the second time period, but not in the first: adjusted relative risk 0.54 (95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.91) and 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 0.63-1.65), respectively. OVER THE FULL STUDY PERIOD, WE FOUND NO STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT ASSOCIATION BETWEEN VITAMIN USE AND NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS OVERALL HOWEVER, VITAMIN USE WAS ASSOCIATED WITH A SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER RISK OF NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE STUDY PERIOD, 2006-2013. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  9. Classification of Atrial Septal Defect and Ventricular Septal Defect with Documented Hemodynamic Parameters via Cardiac Catheterization by Genetic Algorithms and Multi-Layered Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yıldız

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We aimed to develop a classification method to discriminate ventricular septal defect and atrial septal defect by using severalhemodynamic parameters.Patients and Methods: Forty three patients (30 atrial septal defect, 13 ventricular septal defect; 26 female, 17 male with documentedhemodynamic parameters via cardiac catheterization are included to study. Such parameters as blood pressure values of different areas,gender, age and Qp/Qs ratios are used for classification. Parameters, we used in classification are determined by divergence analysismethod. Those parameters are; i pulmonary artery diastolic pressure, ii Qp/Qs ratio, iii right atrium pressure, iv age, v pulmonary arterysystolic pressure, vi left ventricular sistolic pressure, vii aorta mean pressure, viii left ventricular diastolic pressure, ix aorta diastolicpressure, x aorta systolic pressure. Those parameters detected from our study population, are uploaded to multi-layered artificial neuralnetwork and the network was trained by genetic algorithm.Results: Trained cluster consists of 14 factors (7 atrial septal defect and 7 ventricular septal defect. Overall success ratio is 79.2%, andwith a proper instruction of artificial neural network this ratio increases up to 89%.Conclusion: Parameters, belonging to artificial neural network, which are needed to be detected by the investigator in classical methods,can easily be detected with the help of genetic algorithms. During the instruction of artificial neural network by genetic algorithms, boththe topology of network and factors of network can be determined. During the test stage, elements, not included in instruction cluster, areassumed as in test cluster, and as a result of this study, we observed that multi-layered artificial neural network can be instructed properly,and neural network is a successful method for aimed classification.

  10. Access to health care for children with neural tube defects: Experiences of mothers in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah M. Simpamba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Zambia, all children born with neural tube defects requiring surgery need to be referred to a tertiary level hospital in Lusaka, the capital city, where the specialists are based. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mothers accessing health care who had recently given birth to a child with a neural tube defect. Methods and analysis: In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of 20 mothers at the tertiary level hospital. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and translated. Content analysis was used to identify codes, which were later collapsed into categories and themes. Findings: Five themes emerged: access to health care, access to transport, access to information, concerns about family and support needs. Discussion: Barriers to access to health care included geographical barriers and barriers linked to availability. Geographical barriers were related to distance between home and the health centre, and referral between health facilities. Barriers to availability included the lack of specialist health workers at various levels, and insufficient hospital vehicles to transport mothers and children to the tertiary level hospital. The main barrier to affordability was the cost of transport, which was alleviated by either family or government support. Acceptability of the health services was affected by a lack of information, incorrect advice, the attitude of health workers and the beliefs of the family. Conclusion: Access to health care by mothers of children with neural tube defects in Zambia is affected by geographical accessibility, availability, affordability and acceptability. The supply-side barriers and demand-side barriers require different interventions to address them. This suggests that health policy is needed which ensures access to surgery and follow-up care.

  11. Access to health care for children with neural tube defects: Experiences of mothers in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpamba, Micah M; Struthers, Patricia M; Mweshi, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    In Zambia, all children born with neural tube defects requiring surgery need to be referred to a tertiary level hospital in Lusaka, the capital city, where the specialists are based. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mothers accessing health care who had recently given birth to a child with a neural tube defect. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of 20 mothers at the tertiary level hospital. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and translated. Content analysis was used to identify codes, which were later collapsed into categories and themes. Five themes emerged: access to health care, access to transport, access to information, concerns about family and support needs. Barriers to access to health care included geographical barriers and barriers linked to availability. Geographical barriers were related to distance between home and the health centre, and referral between health facilities. Barriers to availability included the lack of specialist health workers at various levels, and insufficient hospital vehicles to transport mothers and children to the tertiary level hospital. The main barrier to affordability was the cost of transport, which was alleviated by either family or government support. Acceptability of the health services was affected by a lack of information, incorrect advice, the attitude of health workers and the beliefs of the family. Access to health care by mothers of children with neural tube defects in Zambia is affected by geographical accessibility, availability, affordability and acceptability. The supply-side barriers and demand-side barriers require different interventions to address them. This suggests that health policy is needed which ensures access to surgery and follow-up care.

  12. Folate and Prevention of Neural Tube Defects: New Insights from a Bayesian Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Alexander; Bohn, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Maternal folate status before and during pregnancy influences a woman's risk of having a pregnancy affected by congenital malformations of the neural tube (neural tube defects, NTD). For NTD prevention, it is recommended that women use periconceptional supplementation of folic acid. However, the recommended dose varies considerably (400 - 800 µg folic acid/day). Insufficient data exists on the relation between folate status and the risk of NTD. A recent study published in the British Medical Journal provides evidence for a generalizable dose-response relation between folate status and risk of NTD. The lowest risk of having a child with NTD was related to red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations of ≥ 1000 nmol/L.

  13. Birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allagh, Komal Preet; Shamanna, B R; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S; Ness, Andy R; Doyle, Pat; Neogi, Sutapa B; Pant, Hira B

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, India has witnessed a substantial decrease in infant mortality attributed to infectious disease and malnutrition. However, the mortality attributed to birth defects remains constant. Studies on the prevalence of birth defects such as neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of observational studies to document the birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts. A comprehensive literature search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using key MeSH terms (neural tube defects OR cleft lip OR cleft palate AND Prevalence AND India). Two reviewers independently reviewed the retrieved studies, and studies satisfying the eligibility were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using selected criteria from STROBE statement. The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect) of neural tube defects in India is 4.5 per 1000 total births (95% CI 4.2 to 4.9). The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect) of orofacial clefts is 1.3 per 1000 total births (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5). Subgroup analyses were performed by region, time period, consanguinity, and gender of newborn. The overall prevalence of neural tube defects from India is high compared to other regions of the world, while that of orofacial clefts is similar to other countries. The majority of studies included in the review were hospital based. The quality of these studies ranged from low to moderate. Further well-designed, high quality community-based observational studies are needed to accurately estimate the burden of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India.

  14. Birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Preet Allagh

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, India has witnessed a substantial decrease in infant mortality attributed to infectious disease and malnutrition. However, the mortality attributed to birth defects remains constant. Studies on the prevalence of birth defects such as neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of observational studies to document the birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts.A comprehensive literature search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using key MeSH terms (neural tube defects OR cleft lip OR cleft palate AND Prevalence AND India. Two reviewers independently reviewed the retrieved studies, and studies satisfying the eligibility were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using selected criteria from STROBE statement.The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect of neural tube defects in India is 4.5 per 1000 total births (95% CI 4.2 to 4.9. The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect of orofacial clefts is 1.3 per 1000 total births (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5. Subgroup analyses were performed by region, time period, consanguinity, and gender of newborn.The overall prevalence of neural tube defects from India is high compared to other regions of the world, while that of orofacial clefts is similar to other countries. The majority of studies included in the review were hospital based. The quality of these studies ranged from low to moderate. Further well-designed, high quality community-based observational studies are needed to accurately estimate the burden of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India.

  15. Birth Prevalence of Neural Tube Defects and Orofacial Clefts in India: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allagh, Komal Preet; Shamanna, B. R.; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V. S.; Ness, Andy R.; Doyle, Pat; Neogi, Sutapa B.; Pant, Hira B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In the last two decades, India has witnessed a substantial decrease in infant mortality attributed to infectious disease and malnutrition. However, the mortality attributed to birth defects remains constant. Studies on the prevalence of birth defects such as neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of observational studies to document the birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts. Methods A comprehensive literature search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using key MeSH terms (neural tube defects OR cleft lip OR cleft palate AND Prevalence AND India). Two reviewers independently reviewed the retrieved studies, and studies satisfying the eligibility were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using selected criteria from STROBE statement. Results The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect) of neural tube defects in India is 4.5 per 1000 total births (95% CI 4.2 to 4.9). The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect) of orofacial clefts is 1.3 per 1000 total births (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5). Subgroup analyses were performed by region, time period, consanguinity, and gender of newborn. Conclusion The overall prevalence of neural tube defects from India is high compared to other regions of the world, while that of orofacial clefts is similar to other countries. The majority of studies included in the review were hospital based. The quality of these studies ranged from low to moderate. Further well-designed, high quality community-based observational studies are needed to accurately estimate the burden of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India. PMID:25768737

  16. Multiple cranial organ defects after conditionally knocking out Fgf10 in the neural crest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathyane H.N. Teshima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fgf10 is necessary for the development of a number of organs that fail to develop or are reduced in size in the null mutant. Here we have knocked out Fgf10 specifically in the neural crest driven by Wnt1cre. The Wnt1creFgf10fl/fl mouse phenocopies many of the null mutant defects, including cleft palate, loss of salivary glands and ocular glands, highlighting the neural crest origin of the Fgf10 expressing mesenchyme surrounding these organs. In contrast tissues such as the limbs and lungs, where Fgf10 is expressed by the surrounding mesoderm, were unaffected, as was the pituitary gland where Fgf10 is expressed by the neuroepithelium. The circumvallate papilla of the tongue formed but was hypoplastic in the conditional and Fgf10 null embryos, suggesting that other sources of FGF can compensate in development of this structure. The tracheal cartilage rings showed normal patterning in the conditional knockout, indicating that the source of Fgf10 for this tissue is mesodermal, which was confirmed using Wnt1cre-dtTom to lineage trace the boundary of the neural crest in this region. The thyroid, thymus and parathyroid glands surrounding the trachea were present but hypoplastic in the conditional mutant, indicating that a neighbouring source of mesodermal Fgf10 might be able to partially compensate for loss of neural crest derived Fgf10.

  17. Dysregulation of the SIRT1/OCT6 Axis Contributes to Environmental Stress-Induced Neural Induction Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses are increasingly acknowledged as core causes of abnormal neural induction leading to neural tube defects (NTDs. However, the mechanism responsible for environmental stress-triggered neural induction defects remains unknown. Here, we report that a spectrum of environmental stresses, including oxidative stress, starvation, and DNA damage, profoundly activate SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent lysine deacetylase. Both mouse embryos and in vitro differentiated embryonic stem cells (ESCs demonstrated a negative correlation between the expression of SIRT1 and that of OCT6, a key neural fate inducer. Activated SIRT1 radically deacetylates OCT6, triggers an OCT6 ubiquitination/degradation cascade, and consequently increases the incidence of NTD-like phenotypes in mice or hinders neural induction in both human and mouse ESCs. Together, our results suggest that early exposure to environmental stresses results in the dysregulation of the SIRT1/OCT6 axis and increases the risk of NTDs.

  18. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Neural Tube Defects (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs maybe associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as Currarino syndrome, sacral defect with anterior meningocele, Jarcho-Levin syndrome (spondylo-costal dysostosis, lateral meningocele syndrome, neurofibromatosis type I, Marfan syndrome, and hyperthermia. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors may be different from those of non-syndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Neural Network Based Pulse-Echo Weld Defect Classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedtabaii, S.

    2012-10-01

    Pulse-echo ultrasonic signal is used to detect weld defects with high probability. However, utilizing echo signal for defects classification is another issue that has attracted attention of many researchers who have devised algorithms and tested them against their own databases. In this paper, a study is conducted to score the performance of various algorithms against a single echo signal database. Algorithms tested the use of Wavelet Transform (WT), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and time domain echo signal features and employed several NN’s architectures such as Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP), Self Organizing Map (SOM) and others known to be good classifiers. The average performance of all can be viewed fair (90%) while some algorithms render success rate of about 94%. It seems that acquiring higher success rates out of a single fixed angle probe pulseecho set up needs new arrangements of data collection, which is under investigation.

  20. Prenatal Diagnosis, Fetal Surgery, Recurrence Risk and Differential Diagnosis of Neural Tube Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal screening with α-fetoprotein (AFP and ultrasonography have allowed the prenatal diagnosis of neural tube defects (NTDs in current obstetric care, and open spina bifida has been considered a potential candidate for in utero treatment in modern pediatric surgery. This article provides an overview of maternal serum AFP screening, amniotic fluid AFP assays, amniotic fluid acetylcholinesterase immunoassays and level II ultrasound for NTDs, prenatal repair of fetal myelomeningocele, recurrence risk of NTDs, and differential diagnosis of NTDs on prenatal ultrasound.

  1. Oxidative stress during diabetic pregnancy disrupts cardiac neural crest migration and causes outflow tract defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sarah C; Relaix, Frédéric; Sandell, Lisa L; Loeken, Mary R

    2008-06-01

    Maternal diabetes increases risk for congenital malformations, particularly cardiac outflow tract defects. Maternal diabetes inhibits expression of Pax3 in neuroepithelium through hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. The neuroepithelium gives rise to the neural crest, and Pax3 expression in cardiac neural crest (CNC) is required for CNC migration to the heart and for outflow tract septation. Here we tested whether maternal diabetes, through hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress, before the onset of CNC delamination, impairs CNC migration and cardiac outflow tract septation. CNC migration was mapped in mouse embryos whose mothers were diabetic, or transiently hyperglycemic, or in which oxidative stress was transiently induced, using reporters linked to Pax3 expression. CNC apoptosis was examined by TUNEL assay. Outflow tract septation was examined histologically and by gross inspection. Few, if any, migrating CNC cells were observed in embryos of diabetic mice, and this was associated with increased apoptosis along the path of CNC migration. Outflow tract defects were significantly increased in fetuses of diabetic mice. Notably, induction of hyperglycemia or oxidative stress on the day prior to the onset of Pax3 expression and CNC migration also impaired CNC migration, increased apoptosis, and caused outflow tract defects. However, antioxidants administered on the day prior to the onset of Pax3 expression and CNC migration prevented these effects of hyperglycemia or oxidative stress. In diabetic pregnancy, oxidative stress, which inhibits expression of genes required for CNC viability, causes subsequent CNC depletion by apoptosis during migration, which leads to outflow tract defects. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Neural systems for tactual memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonda, E; Petrides, M; Evans, A

    1996-04-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the neural systems involved in the memory processing of experiences through touch. 2. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with positron emission tomography by means of the water bolus H2(15)O methodology in human subjects as they performed tasks involving different levels of tactual memory. In one of the experimental tasks, the subjects had to palpate nonsense shapes to match each one to a previously learned set, thus requiring constant reference to long-term memory. The other experimental task involved judgements of the recent recurrence of shapes during the scanning period. A set of three control tasks was used to control for the type of exploratory movements and sensory processing inherent in the two experimental tasks. 3. Comparisons of the distribution of activity between the experimental and the control tasks were carried out by means of the subtraction method. In relation to the control conditions, the two experimental tasks requiring memory resulted in significant changes within the posteroventral insula and the central opercular region. In addition, the task requiring recall from long-term memory yielded changes in the perirhinal cortex. 4. The above findings demonstrated that a ventrally directed parietoinsular pathway, leading to the posteroventral insula and the perirhinal cortex, constitutes a system by which long-lasting representations of tactual experiences are formed. It is proposed that the posteroventral insula is involved in tactual feature analysis, by analogy with the similar role of the inferotemporal cortex in vision, whereas the perirhinal cortex is further involved in the integration of these features into long-lasting representations of somatosensory experiences.

  3. Nutri-epigenomic Studies Related to Neural Tube Defects: Does Folate Affect Neural Tube Closure Via Changes in DNA Methylation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochtus, Anne; Jansen, Katrien; Van Geet, Chris; Freson, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), affecting 1-2 per 1000 pregnancies, are severe congenital malformations that arise from the failure of neurulation during early embryonic development. The methylation hypothesis suggests that folate prevents NTDs by stimulating cellular methylation reactions. Folate is central to the one-carbon metabolism that produces pyrimidines and purines for DNA synthesis and for the generation of the methyldonor S-adenosyl-methionine. This review focuses on the relation between the folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism, DNA methylation and NTDs. Studies will be discussed that investigated global or locus-specific DNA methylation differences in patients with NTDs. Folate deficiency may increase NTD risk by decreasing DNA methylation, but to date, human studies vary widely in study design in terms of analyzing different clinical subtypes of NTDs, using different methylation quantification assays and using DNA isolated from diverse types of tissues. Some studies have focused mainly on global DNA methylation differences while others have quantified specific methylation differences for imprinted genes, transposable elements and DNA repair enzymes. Findings of global DNA hypomethylation and LINE-1 hypomethylation suggest that epigenetic alterations may disrupt neural tube closure. However, current research does not support a linear relation between red blood cell folate concentration and DNA methylation. Further studies are required to better understand the interaction between folate, DNA methylation changes and NTDs.

  4. Maternal dietary uridine causes, and deoxyuridine prevents, neural tube closure defects in a mouse model of folate-responsive neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniova, Lucia; Field, Martha S; Finkelstein, Julia L; Perry, Cheryll A; Stover, Patrick J

    2015-04-01

    Folic acid prevents neural tube closure defects (NTDs), but the causal metabolic pathways have not been established. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (SHMT1) is an essential scaffold protein in folate-dependent de novo thymidylate synthesis in the nucleus. SHMT1-deficient mice provide a model to investigate folic acid-responsive NTDs wherein disruption of de novo thymidylate synthesis impairs neural tube closure. We examined the effects of maternal supplementation with the pyrimidine nucleosides uridine, thymidine, or deoxyuridine with and without folate deficiency on NTD incidence in the Shmt1 mouse model. Shmt1(+/+) and Shmt1(-/-) female mice fed folate-replete or folate-deficient diets and supplemented with uridine, thymidine, or deoxyuridine were bred, and litters (n = 10-23 per group) were examined for the presence of NTDs. Biomarkers of impaired folate status and metabolism were measured, including plasma nucleosides, hepatic uracil content, maternal plasma folate concentrations, and incorporation of nucleoside precursors into DNA. Shmt1(+/-) and Shmt1(-/-) embryos from dams fed the folate-deficient diet were susceptible to NTDs. No NTDs were observed in litters from dams fed the folate-deficient diet supplemented with deoxyuridine. Surprisingly, uridine supplementation increased NTD incidence, independent of embryo genotype and dietary folic acid. These dietary nucleosides did not affect maternal hepatic uracil accumulation in DNA but did affect plasma folate concentrations. Maternal deoxyuridine supplementation prevented NTDs in dams fed the folate-deficient diet, whereas maternal uridine supplementation increased NTD incidence, independent of folate and embryo genotype. These findings provide new insights into the metabolic impairments and mechanisms of folate-responsive NTDs resulting from decreased Shmt1 expression. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Maternal bereavement in the antenathal period and Neural tube defect in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer

    2013-01-01

    was seen (OR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.07; 2.41). Discussion: We only studied live born children but about 2/3 of children with spina bifida survive the birth or longer with corrective surgery. We did not adjust for folic acid, but a sub-analysis of approximately 85,000 mothers showed no difference in intake during...... all children born in Denmark from 1978-2008 and their mothers (n=1,734,190). In the time window of one year before pregnancy or during the first trimester of pregnancy 34,407 mothers were exposed to bereavement. Results: A total of 5,031 cases of neural tube defects were identified: 889 with spina...... bifida and 2,095 with hydrocephalous. For all neural tube defects combined no significant association was seen (OR 1.07, 95% CI: 0.88; 1.31), however stratified on sex a higher risk was seen in girls compared to boys. Moreover, when bereavement was due to death of an older child an increased risk...

  6. Prevention of neural tube defects in Lrp2 mutant mouse embryos by folic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatino, Julia A; Stokes, Bethany A; Zohn, Irene E

    2017-01-20

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common structural birth defects in humans and are caused by the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Periconceptional supplementation with folic acid can prevent NTDs in both mouse models and human populations. A better understanding of how genes and environmental factors interact is critical toward development of rational strategies to prevent NTDs. Low density lipoprotein-related protein 2 (Lrp2) is involved in endocytosis of the folic acid receptor among numerous other nutrients and ligands. We determined the effect of iron and/or folic acid supplementation on the penetrance of NTDs in the Lrp2(null) mouse model. The effects of supplementation on folate and iron status were measured in embryos and dams. Periconceptional dietary supplementation with folic acid did not prevent NTDs in Lrp2 mutant embryos, whereas high levels of folic acid supplementation by intraperitoneal injection reduced incidence of NTDs. Importantly, Lrp2(null/+) dams had reduced blood folate levels that improved with daily intraperitoneal injections of folate but not dietary supplementation. On the contrary, iron supplementation had no effect on the penetrance of NTDs in Lrp2 mutant embryos and negated the preventative effect of folic acid supplementation in Lrp2(null/null) mutants. Lrp2 is required for folate homeostasis in heterozygous dams and high levels of supplementation prevents NTDs. Furthermore, high levels of dietary iron supplementation interfered with folic acid supplementation negating the positive effects of supplementation in this model. Birth Defects Research 109:16-26, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Birth Defects Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Birth Defects Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Alcohol exposure induces chick craniofacial bone defects by negatively affecting cranial neural crest development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Guang; Lin, Zhuangling; Wu, Yushi; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Meng; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Chuai, Manli; Yang, Xuesong

    2017-11-05

    Excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy could lead to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). However, the molecular mechanism leading to craniofacial abnormality, a feature of FAS, is still poorly understood. The cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) contribute to the formation of the craniofacial bones. Therefore, NCCs exposed to ethanol was investigated - using chick embryos and in vitro explant culture as experimental models. We demonstrated that exposure to 2% ethanol induced craniofacial defects, which includes parietal defect, in the developing chick fetus. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that ethanol treatment downregulated Ap-2ɑ, Pax7 and HNK-1 expressions by cranial NCCs. Using double-immunofluorescent stainings for Ap-2ɑ/pHIS3 and Ap-2ɑ/c-Caspase3, we showed that ethanol treatment inhibited cranial NCC proliferation and increased NCC apoptosis, respectively. Moreover, ethanol treatment of the dorsal neuroepithelium increased Laminin, N-Cadherin and Cadherin 6B expressions while Cadherin 7 expression was repressed. In situ hybridization also revealed that ethanol treatment up-regulated Cadherin 6B expression but down-regulated slug, Msx1, FoxD3 and BMP4 expressions. In summary, our experimental results demonstrated that ethanol treatment interferes with the production of cranial NCCs by affecting the proliferation and apoptosis of these cells. In addition, ethanol affected the delamination, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration of cranial NCCs, which may have contributed to the etiology of the craniofacial defects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Development of Cloud Based Casting Defects Categorization System (CDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sata Amit V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Defects affect the properties and behavior of the casting during its service life. Since the defects can occur due to different reasons, they must be correctly identified and categorized, to enable applying the appropriate remedial measures. several different approaches for categorizing casting defects have been proposed in technical literature. They mainly rely on physical description, location, and formation of defects. There is a need for a systematic approach for classifying investment casting defects, considering appropriate attributes such as their size, location, identification stage, inspection method, consistency, appearance of defects. A systematic approach for categorization of investment casting defects considering multiple attributes: detection stage, size, shape, appearance, location, consistency and severity of occurrence. Information about the relevant attributes of major defects encountered in investment casting process has been collected from an industrial foundry. This has been implemented in a cloud-based system to make the system freely and widely accessible.

  9. CHARGE syndrome modeling using patient-iPSCs reveals defective migration of neural crest cells harboring CHD7 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Hironobu; Renault Mihara, Francois; Ohta, Shigeki; Fukuda, Kimiko; Kurosawa, Kenji; Akamatsu, Wado; Sanosaka, Tsukasa; Kohyama, Jun; Hayashi, Kanehiro; Nakajima, Kazunori; Takahashi, Takao; Wysocka, Joanna; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Okano, Hideyuki

    2017-11-28

    CHARGE syndrome is caused by heterozygous mutations in the chromatin remodeler, CHD7, and is characterized by a set of malformations that, on clinical grounds, were historically postulated to arise from defects in neural crest formation during embryogenesis. To better delineate neural crest defects in CHARGE syndrome, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from two patients with typical syndrome manifestations, and characterized neural crest cells differentiated in vitro from these iPSCs (iPSC-NCCs). We found that expression of genes associated with cell migration was altered in CHARGE iPSC-NCCs compared to control iPSC-NCCs. Consistently, CHARGE iPSC-NCCs showed defective delamination, migration and motility in vitro, and their transplantation in ovo revealed overall defective migratory activity in the chick embryo. These results support the historical inference that CHARGE syndrome patients exhibit defects in neural crest migration, and provide the first successful application of patient-derived iPSCs in modeling craniofacial disorders.

  10. Evolutionary Design of a Robotic Material Defect Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Gary; Howsman, Tom; Craft, Mike; ONeil, Daniel; Steincamp, Jim; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the post-flight inspection of SSME engines, several inaccessible regions must be disassembled to inspect for defects such as cracks, scratches, gouges, etc. An improvement to the inspection process would be the design and development of very small robots capable of penetrating these inaccessible regions and detecting the defects. The goal of this research was to utilize an evolutionary design approach for the robotic detection of these types of defects. A simulation and visualization tool was developed prior to receiving the hardware as a development test bed. A small, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) robot was selected from several candidates as the proof of concept robot. The basic approach to detect the defects was to utilize Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) sensors to detect changes in contrast of an illuminated surface. A neural network, optimally designed utilizing a genetic algorithm, was employed to detect the presence of the defects (cracks). By utilization of the COTS robot and US sensors, the research successfully demonstrated that an evolutionarily designed neural network can detect the presence of surface defects.

  11. DNA methylation analysis of Homeobox genes implicates HOXB7 hypomethylation as risk factor for neural tube defects

    OpenAIRE

    Rochtus, Anne; Izzi, Benedetta; Vangeel, Elise; Louwette, Sophie; Wittevrongel, Christine; Lambrechts, Diether; Moreau, Yves; Winand, Raf; Verpoorten, Carla; Jansen, Katrien; van Geet, Chris; Freson, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects of complex etiology. Though family- and population-based studies have confirmed a genetic component, the responsible genes for NTDs are still largely unknown. Based on the hypothesis that folic acid prevents NTDs by stimulating methylation reactions, epigenetic factors, such as DNA methylation, are predicted to be involved in NTDs. Homeobox (HOX) genes play a role in spinal cord development and are tightly regulated in a spatiotempo...

  12. Ambient and Dosed Exposure to Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectants Causes Neural Tube Defects in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubec, Terry C; Melin, Vanessa E; Shea, Caroline S; Ferguson, Elizabeth E; Garofola, Craig; Repine, Claire M; Chapman, Tyler W; Patel, Hiral R; Razvi, Reza M; Sugrue, Jesse E; Potineni, Haritha; Magnin-Bissel, Geraldine; Hunt, Patricia A

    2017-08-15

    Quaternary ammonium compounds are a large class of chemicals used for their antimicrobial and antistatic properties. Two common quaternary ammonium compounds, alkyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), are combined in common cleaners and disinfectants. Introduction of a cleaner containing ADBAC+DDAC in the vivarium caused neural tube defects (NTDs) in mice and rats. To further evaluate this finding, male and female mice were dosed in the feed at 60 or 120 mg/kg/day, or by oral gavage at 7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg ADBAC+DDAC. Mice also received ambient exposure to ADBAC+DDAC from the disinfectant used in the mouse room. Embryos were evaluated on gestational day 10 for NTDs, and fetuses were evaluated on gestational day 18 for gross and skeletal malformations. We found increased NTDs with exposure to ADBAC+DDAC in both rats and mice. The NTDs persisted for two generations after cessation of exposure. Notably, male exposure alone was sufficient to cause NTDs. Equally significant, ambient exposure from disinfectant use in the vivarium, influenced the levels of NTDs to a greater extent than oral dosing. No gross or significant axial skeletal malformations were observed in late gestation fetuses. Placental abnormalities and late gestation fetal deaths were increased at 120 mg/kg/day, which might explain the lack of malformations observed in late gestation fetuses. These results demonstrate that ADBAC+DDAC in combination are teratogenic to rodents. Given the increased use of these disinfectants, further evaluation of their safety in humans and their contribution to health and disease is essential. Birth Defects Research 109:1166-1178, 2017. © 2017 The Authors. Birth Defects Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors. Birth Defects Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dual Analyte immunoassay--a new approach to neural tube defect and Down's syndrome screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macri, J N; Spencer, K; Anderson, R

    1992-07-01

    A microtiter plate based Dual Analyte enzyme-immunoassay method for the simultaneous measurement of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and Free-beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) was evaluated. This rapid assay, which has application in both Neural Tube Defect screening and Down's screening, shows good precision with between assay coefficients of variation between 5 and 7.5% for AFP and 3.7 to 5.8% for Free-beta(hCG). Correlation with single analyte procedures is good, with correlation coefficients being greater than 0.91 in both cases. Clinical discrimination in detecting both types of abnormalities is not compromised by this new simultaneous Dual Analyte assay. We conclude that the Dual Analyte approach, which combines analytes achieving the highest known detection efficiency, will bring about improvements in the efficiency of screening, reduce costs and improve report turnaround, all leading to better quality of patient care.

  14. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Neural Tube Defects (VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, including maternal fumonisin consumption, periconceptional zinc deficiency, parental occupational exposure and residential proximity to pesticides, lower socioeconomic status, fetal alcohol syndrome, mutations in the VANGL1 gene, human athymic Nude/SCID fetus, and single nucleotide polymorphism in the NOS3 gene. NTDs associated with these syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal diagnosis of NTDs should alert doctors to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  15. Inositol for the prevention of neural tube defects: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nicholas D E; Leung, Kit-Yi; Gay, Victoria; Burren, Katie; Mills, Kevin; Chitty, Lyn S; Copp, Andrew J

    2016-03-28

    Although peri-conceptional folic acid (FA) supplementation can prevent a proportion of neural tube defects (NTD), there is increasing evidence that many NTD are FA non-responsive. The vitamin-like molecule inositol may offer a novel approach to preventing FA-non-responsive NTD. Inositol prevented NTD in a genetic mouse model, and was well tolerated by women in a small study of NTD recurrence. In the present study, we report the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects by Inositol (PONTI) pilot study designed to gain further experience of inositol usage in human pregnancy as a preliminary trial to a future large-scale controlled trial to evaluate efficacy of inositol in NTD prevention. Study subjects were UK women with a previous NTD pregnancy who planned to become pregnant again. Of 117 women who made contact, ninety-nine proved eligible and forty-seven agreed to be randomised (double-blind) to peri-conceptional supplementation with inositol plus FA or placebo plus FA. In total, thirty-three randomised pregnancies produced one NTD recurrence in the placebo plus FA group (n 19) and no recurrences in the inositol plus FA group (n 14). Of fifty-two women who declined randomisation, the peri-conceptional supplementation regimen and outcomes of twenty-two further pregnancies were documented. Two NTD recurred, both in women who took only FA in their next pregnancy. No adverse pregnancy events were associated with inositol supplementation. The findings of the PONTI pilot study encourage a large-scale controlled trial of inositol for NTD prevention, but indicate the need for a careful study design in view of the unwillingness of many high-risk women to be randomised.

  16. Experience of a tertiary care center on 100 newborns with neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Canan; Kurucu, Sevgi; Çakmak-Çelik, Fatma; Dağçınar, Adnan; Tanyeri, Bilge; Küçüködük, Şükrü

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the sociodemographic features, postoperative complications, long-term problems, and cost of care of patients followed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with a diagnosis of neural tube defects (NTDs). Babies with NTD followed in the Neonatology Unit of Ondokuz Mayıs University Faculty of Medicine between January 2003 and December 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. One hundred (1.2%) of 8408 babies admitted to the NICU were diagnosed as NTD during the study period. Of the cases with NTD, 74% of mothers were graduates of primary school/illiterate, and none had used folic acid (FA) preconceptionally. Prenatal diagnosis was made in 72%, but parents had chosen not to terminate the pregnancy. The most frequent type and site of NTD was meningomyelocele (82%) of the lumbosacral region (36%). In 80% of the babies, the NTD sac was closed with in the first 72 hours of life. The most frequently observed postoperative complications were wound infection and septicemia. The mortality rate of babies with NTD during the follow-up period was 7%, and all deaths occurred in the first year of life. Sixty-two percent of the patients had neurologic deficits on follow-up. Patients were rehospitalized during the follow-up for an average of 2.9 times. Neural tube defect (NTD) is a disabling problem, with operations, rehospitalizations and other costly treatments. Maternal education regarding preconceptional FA use/fortification of food with FA and appropriate guidance to the family with prenatal diagnosis will decrease the incidence and burden of the disease.

  17. Automated vision system for fabric defect inspection using Gabor filters and PCNN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yundong; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an embedded machine vision system using Gabor filters and Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) is developed to identify defects of warp-knitted fabrics automatically. The system consists of smart cameras and a Human Machine Interface (HMI) controller. A hybrid detection algorithm combing Gabor filters and PCNN is running on the SOC processor of the smart camera. First, Gabor filters are employed to enhance the contrast of images captured by a CMOS sensor. Second, defect areas are segmented by PCNN with adaptive parameter setting. Third, smart cameras will notice the controller to stop the warp-knitting machine once defects are found out. Experimental results demonstrate that the hybrid method is superior to Gabor and wavelet methods on detection accuracy. Actual operations in a textile factory verify the effectiveness of the inspection system.

  18. Maternal Antenatal Bereavement and Neural Tube Defect in Live-Born Offspring: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Glejsted Ingstrup

    Full Text Available Maternal emotional stress during pregnancy has previously been associated with congenital neural malformations, but most studies are based on data collected retrospectively. The objective of our study was to investigate associations between antenatal maternal bereavement due to death of a close relative and neural tube defects (NTDs in the offspring.We performed a register-based cohort study including all live-born children (N = 1,734,190 from 1978-2008. Exposure was bereavement due to loss of a close relative from one year before conception to the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. The outcome was NTDs in the offspring according to the International Classification of Disease. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate prevalence odds ratios (ORs.A total of 2% children were born to mothers who lost a close relative prenatally. During 30 years of follow-up, 1,115 children were diagnosed with any NTDs: spina bifida (n = 889, anencephaly (n = 85 and encephalocele (n = 164. And 23 children were diagnosed with two types of NTDs. Overall, when comparing bereaved mothers to non-bereaved mothers, no significant increased prevalence of NTDs in the offspring was seen (OR = 0.84; 95% confidence interval: 0.52-1.33.Overall maternal bereavement in the antenatal period was not related to NTDs in liveborn offspring.

  19. Use of Family History Information for Neural Tube Defect Prevention: Integration into State-Based Recurrence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ridgely Fisk; Ehrhardt, Joan; Ruttenber, Margaret F.; Olney, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    A family history of neural tube defects (NTDs) can increase the risk of a pregnancy affected by an NTD. Periconceptional folic acid use decreases this risk. Purpose: Our objective was to determine whether second-degree relatives of NTD-affected children showed differences in folic acid use compared with the general population and to provide them…

  20. Prevalentie, klinisch beeld en prognose van neuralebuisdefecten in Nederland [Prevalence, presentation and prognosis of neural tube defects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, A.L. den; Hirasing, R.A.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Jong-van de Berg, L.T.W. de; Walle, H.E.K. de; Cornel, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To determine the live birth prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD) in the Netherlands and describe the clinical picture. Design. Descriptive. Setting. TNO Prevention and Health, Leiden, the Netherlands. Method. Data collected through active surveillance of NTD on a monthly basis by

  1. Neural tube defects – disorders of neurulation and related embryonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Andrew J.; Greene, Nicholas D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital malformations affecting 1 in every 1000 pregnancies. ‘Open’ NTDs result from failure of primary neurulation as seen in anencephaly, myelomeningocele (open spina bifida) and craniorachischisis. Degeneration of the persistently open neural tube in utero leads to loss of neurological function below the lesion level. ‘Closed’ NTDs are skin-covered disorders of spinal cord structure, ranging from asymptomatic spina bifida occulta to severe spinal cord tethering, and usually traceable to disruption of secondary neurulation. ‘Herniation’ NTDs are those in which meninges, with or without brain or spinal cord tissue, become exteriorised through a pathological opening in the skull or vertebral column (e.g. encephalocele and meningocele). NTDs have multifactorial etiology, with genes and environmental factors interacting to determine individual risk of malformation. While over 200 mutant genes cause open NTDs in mice, much less is known about the genetic causation of human NTDs. Recent evidence has implicated genes of the planar cell polarity signalling pathway in a proportion of cases. The embryonic development of NTDs is complex, with diverse cellular and molecular mechanisms operating at different levels of the body axis. Molecular regulatory events include the BMP and Sonic hedgehog pathways which have been implicated in control of neural plate bending. Primary prevention of NTDs has been implemented clinically following the demonstration that folic acid, when taken as a peri-conceptional supplement, can prevent many cases. Not all NTDs respond to folic acid, however, and adjunct therapies are required for prevention of this folic acid-resistant category. PMID:24009034

  2. Prevention of valproic acid-induced neural tube defects by sildenafil citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiboni, Gian Mario; Ponzano, Adalisa

    2015-08-15

    This study was undertaken to test the effects of sildenafil citrate (SC), a type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on valproic acid (VPA)-induced teratogenesis. On gestation day (GD) 8, ICR (CD-1) mice were treated by gastric intubation with SC at 0 (vehicle), 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 or 10mg/kg. One hour later, animals received a teratogenic dose of VPA (600mg/kg) or vehicle. Developmental endpoints were evaluated near the end of gestation. Twenty-eighth percent of fetuses exposed to VPA had neural tube defects (exencephaly). Pretreatment with SC at 2.5, 5.0 or 10mg/kg significantly reduced the rate of VPA-induced exencephaly to 15.9%, 13.7%, and 10.0%, respectively. Axial skeletal defects were observed in 75.8% of VPA-exposed fetuses. Pre-treatment with SC at 10mg/kg, but not at lower doses, significantly decreased the rate of skeletally affected fetuses to 61.6%. These results show that SC, which prolongs nitric oxide (NO) signaling action protects from VPA-induced teratogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Neural Tube Defects (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs may be associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as omphalocele, OEIS (omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects complex, pentalogy of Cantrell, amniotic band sequence, limb-body wall complex, Meckel syndrome, Joubert syndrome, skeletal dysplasia, diabetic embryopathy, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes of glucose metabolism. NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multi facto rial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert the clinician to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal and fetal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling. [Taiwan J Obstet Cynecol 2008;47(2:131-140

  4. Periconceptional maternal fever, folic acid intake, and the risk for neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Stephen M; Parker, Samantha E; Mitchell, Allen A; Tinker, Sarah C; Werler, Martha M

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have shown an association between maternal fever in early pregnancy and neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida. Periconceptional folic acid intake has been shown to reduce the risk of these outcomes. Using data from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study (1998-2015), we examined the impact of folic acid on the relationship between maternal fever in the periconceptional period (28 days before and after the last menstrual period) and NTDs. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Mothers of 375 cases and 8247 nonmalformed controls were included. We observed an elevated risk for NTDs for fever in the periconceptional period (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5-4.0). This association was weaker for mothers who reported consuming the recommended amount of folic acid (≥400 μg per day; OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 0.8-4.0) than mothers with low folic acid intake (<400 μg per day; OR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.2-8.2). Our data support an association between maternal periconceptional fever and an increased risk for NTDs and also provide evidence that this association was attenuated for mothers who reported consuming folic acid at recommended levels in the periconceptional period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Spiking neural P systems with multiple channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong; Yang, Jinyu; Wang, Jun; Wang, Tao; Sun, Zhang; Song, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Xiaohui; Huang, Xiangnian

    2017-11-01

    Spiking neural P systems (SNP systems, in short) are a class of distributed parallel computing systems inspired from the neurophysiological behavior of biological spiking neurons. In this paper, we investigate a new variant of SNP systems in which each neuron has one or more synaptic channels, called spiking neural P systems with multiple channels (SNP-MC systems, in short). The spiking rules with channel label are introduced to handle the firing mechanism of neurons, where the channel labels indicate synaptic channels of transmitting the generated spikes. The computation power of SNP-MC systems is investigated. Specifically, we prove that SNP-MC systems are Turing universal as both number generating and number accepting devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating neural networks and artificial intelligence systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, David S.

    1994-02-01

    Systems have no intrinsic value in and of themselves, but rather derive value from the contributions they make to the missions, decisions, and tasks they are intended to support. The estimation of the cost-effectiveness of systems is a prerequisite for rational planning, budgeting, and investment documents. Neural network and expert system applications, although similar in their incorporation of a significant amount of decision-making capability, differ from each other in ways that affect the manner in which they can be evaluated. Both these types of systems are, by definition, evolutionary systems, which also impacts their evaluation. This paper discusses key aspects of neural network and expert system applications and their impact on the evaluation process. A practical approach or methodology for evaluating a certain class of expert systems that are particularly difficult to measure using traditional evaluation approaches is presented.

  7. Novel Mutation of LRP6 Identified in Chinese Han Population Links Canonical WNT Signaling to Neural Tube Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiwen; Yang, Xueyan; Li, Bin-Bin; Chen, Shuxia; Yang, Luming; Cheng, Liangping; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Hongyan; Zheng, Yufang

    2017-09-29

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), the second most frequent cause of human congenital abnormalities, are debilitating birth defects due to failure of neural tube closure. It has been shown that noncanonical WNT/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling is required for convergent extension (CE), the initiation step of neural tube closure (NTC). But the effect of canonical WNT//β-catenin signaling during NTC is still elusive. LRP6 (low density lipoprotein receptor related proteins 6) was identified as a co-receptor for WNT/β-catenin signaling, but recent studies showed that it also can mediate WNT/PCP signaling. In this study, we screened mutations in the LRP6 gene in 343 NTDs and 215 ethnically matched normal controls of Chinese Han population. Three rare missense mutations (c.1514A>G, p.Y505C); c.2984A>G, p.D995G; and c.4280C>A, p.P1427Q) of the LRP6 gene were identified in Chinese NTD patients. The Y505C mutation is a loss-of-function mutation on both WNT/β-catenin and PCP signaling. The D995G mutation only partially lost inhibition on PCP signaling without affecting WNT/β-catenin signaling. The P1427Q mutation dramatically increased WNT/β-catenin signaling but only mildly loss of inhibition on PCP signaling. All three mutations failed to rescue CE defects caused by lrp6 morpholino oligos knockdown in zebrafish. Of interest, when overexpressed, D995G did not induce any defects, but Y505C and P1427Q caused more severe CE defects in zebrafish. Our results suggested that over-active canonical WNT signaling induced by gain-of-function mutation in LRP6 could also contribute to human NTDs, and a balanced WNT/β-catenin and PCP signaling is probably required for proper neural tube development. Birth Defects Research, 2017.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Neural Plasticity in the Gustatory System

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Sensory systems adapt to changing environmental influences by coordinated alterations in structure and function. These alterations are referred to as plastic changes. The gustatory system displays numerous plastic changes even in receptor cells. This review focuses on the plasticity of gustatory structures through the first synaptic relay in the brain. Unlike other sensory systems, there is a remarkable amount of environmentally induced changes in these peripheral-most neural structures. The ...

  9. System and method for determining stability of a neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed are methods, systems, and computer-readable media for determining stability of a neural system. The method includes tracking a function world line of an N element neural system within at least one behavioral space, determining whether the tracking function world line is approaching a psychological stability surface, and implementing a quantitative solution that corrects instability if the tracked function world line is approaching the psychological stability surface.

  10. Unveiling neural coupling within the sensorimotor system : directionality and nonlinearity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Dewald, J.P.A.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Schouten, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Neural coupling between the central nervous system and the periphery is essential for the neural control of movement. Corticomuscular coherence is a popular linear technique to assess synchronised oscillatory activity in the sensorimotor system. This oscillatory coupling originates from ascending

  11. MR imaging quantitative analysis of fetal Chiari II malformations and associated open neural tube defects: balanced SSFP versus half-Fourier RARE and interobserver reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abele, Travis A; Lee, Stacy L; Twickler, Diane M

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate bSSFP (balanced steady state free precession) and half-Fourier RARE (rapid acceleration with relaxation enhancement) MRI sequences in their ability to demonstrate fetal anatomic landmarks, quantify the degree of cerebellar herniation in Chiari II malformations and level and length of the associated open neural tube defects, as well as evaluate interobserver reliability of these measurements. Two independent observers retrospectively reviewed MRIs of 37 fetuses with Chiari II malformations and associated open neural tube defects (mean gestational age: 27 weeks 2 days). Comparison of bSSFP and RARE included: (i) Ability to confidently identify anatomic landmarks of the posterior fossa and spine; (ii) Measurements of the foramen magnum, cerebellar tonsillar herniation length, intervertebral disc space level of tonsillar herniation, open neural tube defect length, and disc space start and end level of the open neural tube defect; (iii) Observed conspicuity of anatomic landmarks. There was no significant difference in assessment of cerebellar tonsillar herniation or open neural tube defect level between bSSFP and RARE for either observer. Intervertebral discs were more conspicuous on bSSFP while cerebellar tonsils were more conspicuous on RARE (P neural tube defect length (r = 0.97, 0.96). Despite improved conspicuity of the intervertebral discs with bSSFP and cerebellar tonsils with RARE, there is no significant difference in measurement of hindbrain herniation or open neural tube defect level; interobserver reliability is excellent for both sequences. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Multiple neural tube defects: a rare combination of limited dorsal myeloschisis, diplomyelia with dorsal bony spur, sacral meningocoele, syringohydromyelia, and tethered cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashank R, Ramdurg; Shubhi, Dubey; Vishal, Kadeli

    2017-04-01

    Multiple neural tube defects are relatively rare. They account for less than 1% reported neural tube defects. Cases of limited dorsal myeloschisis (LDM) and diplomyelia (two cords in single sac without intervening bony or fibrous septae) with dorsal bony spur are also a rare event. Here, the authors report a rare case of neonate with thoracic LDM, diplomyelia with dorsal bony spur, sacral meningocoele with syringohydromyelia, and low-lying tethered cord. The child also had a ventricular septal defect (VSD) and bilateral rocker bottom feet. Various environmental factors and genetic mutations in transmembrane proteins have been studied in animal models explaining the origin of neural tube defects. To the best of author's knowledge, this is the first case of varied multiple neural tube defects with diplomyelia reported in world literature.

  13. Are concentrations of alkaline earth elements in maternal hair associated with risk of neural tube defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenjiang; Wang, Bin; Huo, Wenhua; Liu, Yingying; Zhu, Yibing; Xie, Jing; Li, Zhiwen; Ren, Aiguo

    2017-12-31

    The relationship between maternal intake of alkaline earth elements (AEEs) during the period of neural tube closure and the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) is still unclear. We propose that AEE deficiency during the early period of pregnancy is associated with an elevated risk of NTDs in the offspring. In this study, we recruited 191 women with NTD-affected pregnancies (cases) and 261 women who delivered healthy infants (controls). The concentrations of four AEEs (Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba) in maternal hair sections that grew during early pregnancy were analyzed. Information on the dietary habits of the mothers was also collected by questionnaire. Higher concentrations of the four AEEs in hair had protective effects against the risk of total NTDs, with odds ratios with 95% confidence interval (comparing groups separated by each median level) of 0.44 (0.28-0.68) for Mg, 0.56 (0.36-0.87) for Ca, 0.45 (0.28-0.70) for Sr, and 0.41 (0.26-0.65) for Ba. Significant negative dose-response trends were identified for the relationships between the four AEE concentrations in maternal hair and the risks of anencephaly and spina bifida, but not for encephalocele. The frequencies of maternal consumption of fresh green vegetables, fresh fruit, and meat or fish were positively correlated with the concentrations of AEEs in hair. We concluded that the maternal intake of AEEs may play an important role in preventing NTD formation in offspring, and that this intake is related to maternal dietary habits of consuming fresh green vegetables, fresh fruit, and fish or meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Autoantibodies against homocysteinylated protein in a mouse model of folate deficiency-induced neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Kerina J; Kelly, Christina F; Kumar, Vinod; Witham, Katey L; Cabrera, Robert M; Finnell, Richard H; Taylor, Stephen M; Jeanes, Angela; Woodruff, Trent M

    2016-03-01

    Periconceptional supplementation with folic acid results in a significant reduction in the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). Nonetheless, NTDs remain a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the mechanism(s) by which folate exerts its protective effects are unknown. Homocysteine is an amino acid that accumulates under conditions of folate-deficiency, and is suggested as a risk factor for NTDs. One proposed mechanism of homocysteine toxicity is its accumulation into proteins in a process termed homocysteinylation. Herein, we used a folate-deficient diet in pregnant mice to demonstrate that there is: (i) a significant inverse correlation between maternal serum folate levels and serum homocysteine; (ii) a significant positive correlation between serum homocysteine levels and titers of autoantibodies against homocysteinylated protein; and (iii) a significant increase in congenital malformations and NTDs in mice deficient in serum folate. Furthermore, in mice administered the folate-deplete diet before conception, supplementation with folic acid during the gestational period completely rescued the embryos from congenital defects, and resulted in homocysteinylated protein titers at term that are comparable to that of mice administered a folate-replete diet throughout both the pre- and postconception period. These results demonstrate that a low-folate diet that induces NTDs also increases protein homocysteinylation and the subsequent generation of autoantibodies against homocysteinylated proteins. These data support the hypotheses that homocysteinylation results in neo-self antigen formation under conditions of maternal folate deficiency, and that this process is reversible with folic acid supplementation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Untargeted metabolite profiling of murine embryos to reveal metabolic perturbations associated with neural tube closure defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansler, Alex; Chen, Qiuying; Gray, Jason D; Ross, M Elizabeth; Finnell, Richard H; Gross, Steven S

    2014-08-01

    Neural tube closure defects (NTDs) are among the most common congenital malformation in human, typically presenting in liveborns as spina bifida. At least 240 gene mutations in mouse are known to increase the risk of NTD. There is a growing appreciation that environmental factors significantly contribute to NTD expression, and that NTDs likely arise from complex gene-environment interactions. Because maternal folic acid supplementation reduces human NTD risk in some populations by 60 to 70%, it is likely that NTD predisposition is often associated with a defect in folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism. A comprehensive, untargeted metabolic survey of NTD-associated changes in embryo metabolism would provide a valuable test of this assumption. We sought to establish a metabolic profiling platform that is capable of broadly assessing metabolic aberrations associated with NTD-promoting gene mutations in early-stage mouse embryos. A liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolite profiling platform was used to broadly identify significant differences in small molecule levels (50-1000 Da) in NTD-affected embryonic day (E) 9.5 mouse embryos (Lrp6(-) (/) (-) ) versus unaffected (Lrp6(+/+) ) control embryos. Results provide proof-of-principal feasibility for the broad survey of the metabolome of individual E9.5 mouse embryos and identification of metabolic changes associated with NTDs and gene mutations. Levels of 30 different metabolites were altered in association with Lrp6 gene deletion. Some metabolites link to folate-dependent one-carbon transfer reactions, as anticipated, while others await structure elucidation and pathway integration. Whole-embryo metabolomics offers the potential to identify metabolic changes in genetically determined NTD-prone embryos. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Poor sleep during the periconceptional period increases risk for neural tube defects in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Le; Jin, Lei; Ye, Rongwei; Raynes-Greenow, Camille; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-09-01

    Poor sleep has been studied in relation to various diseases. Few studies have investigated the effect of poor sleep on birth defects. We examined the association of maternal poor sleep during periconceptional period and the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring based on a large case-control study in northern China. The subjects included 629 NTD cases and 858 normal controls investigated between 2002 and 2007. Maternal sleep status was collected by health workers within first week after delivery. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of NTDs in association with poor sleep. The proportion of mothers with frequent poor sleep (≥4 days/week on average) was markedly higher in NTDs group (5.9%) than in control group (1.2%). In the multivariate analysis, frequent poor sleep was significantly associated with an increased risk of total NTDs (adjusted OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.9-8.8) and spina bifida subtype (adjusted OR, 6.4; 95% CI, 2.8-14.5). Frequent poor sleep showed a significant interaction with body mass index (BMI). Relative to women who reported poor sleep sleep showed a markedly higher increased risk of NTDs among overweight or obese women (adjusted OR, 11.8; 95% CI, 1.4-97.6) than women with BMI sleep during the periconceptional period may increase the risk for all NTDs and spina bifida. The association appears to be independent of some lifestyle factors that are closely associated with sleep quality. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Estimates of global and regional prevalence of neural tube defects for 2015: a systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencowe, Hannah; Kancherla, Vijaya; Moorthie, Sowmiya; Darlison, Matthew W; Modell, Bernadette

    2018-01-24

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are associated with substantial mortality, morbidity, disability, and psychological and economic costs. Many are preventable with folic acid, and access to appropriate services for those affected can improve survival and quality of life. We used a compartmental model to estimate global and regional birth prevalence of NTDs (live births, stillbirths, and elective terminations of pregnancy) and subsequent under-5 mortality. Data were identified through web-based reviews of birth defect registry databases and systematic literature reviews. Meta-analyses were undertaken where appropriate. For 2015, our model estimated 260,100 (uncertainty interval (UI): 213,800-322,000) NTD-affected birth outcomes worldwide (prevalence 18.6 (15.3-23.0)/10,000 live births). Approximately 50% of cases were elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomalies (UI: 59,300 (47,900-74,500)) or stillbirths (57,800 (UI: 35,000-88,600)). Of NTD-affected live births, 117,900 (∼75%) (UI: 105,500-186,600) resulted in under-5 deaths. Our systematic review showed a paucity of high-quality data in the regions of the world with the highest burden. Despite knowledge about prevention, NTDs remain highly prevalent worldwide. Lack of surveillance and incomplete ascertainment of affected pregnancies make NTDs invisible to policy makers. Improved surveillance of all adverse outcomes is needed to improve the robustness of total NTD prevalence estimation, evaluate effectiveness of prevention through folic acid fortification, and improve outcomes through care and rehabilitation. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Punicalagin exerts protective effect against high glucose-induced cellular stress and neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianxiang; Reece, E Albert; Yang, Peixin

    2015-11-13

    Maternal diabetes-induced birth defects remain a significant health problem. Studying the effect of natural compounds with antioxidant properties and minimal toxicities on diabetic embryopathy may lead to the development of new and safe dietary supplements. Punicalagin is a primary polyphenol found in pomegranate juice, which possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic properties, suggesting a protective effect of punicalagin on diabetic embryopathy. Here, we examined whether punicalagin could reduce high glucose-induced neural tube defects (NTDs), and if this rescue occurs through blockage of cellular stress and caspase activation. Embryonic day 8.5 (E8.5) mouse embryos were cultured for 24 or 36 h with normal (5 mM) glucose or high glucose (16.7 mM), in presence or absence of 10 or 20 μM punicalagin. 10 μM punicalagin slightly reduced NTD formation under high glucose conditions; however, 20 μM punicalagin significantly inhibited high glucose-induced NTD formation. Punicalagin suppressed high glucose-induced lipid peroxidation marker 4-hydroxynonenal, nitrotyrosine-modified proteins, and lipid peroxides. Moreover, punicalagin abrogated endoplasmic reticulum stress by inhibiting phosphorylated protein kinase ribonucleic acid (RNA)-like ER kinase (p-PERK), phosphorylated inositol-requiring protein-1α (p-IRE1α), phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α), C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) and x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA splicing. Additionally, punicalagin suppressed high glucose-induced caspase 3 and caspase 8 cleavage. Punicalagin reduces high glucose-induced NTD formation by blocking cellular stress and caspase activation. These observations suggest punicalagin supplements could mitigate the teratogenic effects of hyperglycemia in the developing embryo, and possibly prevent diabetes-induced NTDs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Sensor System for Detection of Hull Surface Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Suardíaz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sensor system for detecting defects in ship hull surfaces. The sensor was developed to enable a robotic system to perform grit blasting operations on ship hulls. To achieve this, the proposed sensor system captures images with the help of a camera and processes them in real time using a new defect detection method based on thresholding techniques. What makes this method different is its efficiency in the automatic detection of defects from images recorded in variable lighting conditions. The sensor system was tested under real conditions at a Spanish shipyard, with excellent results.

  20. Dysregulation of the SIRT1/OCT6 Axis Contributes to Environmental Stress-Induced Neural Induction Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoping; Jiapaer, Zeyidan; Weng, Rong; Hui, Yi; Jia, Wenwen; Xi, Jiajie; Wang, Guiying; Zhu, Songcheng; Zhang, Xin; Feng, Dandan; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Kang, Jiuhong

    2017-05-09

    Environmental stresses are increasingly acknowledged as core causes of abnormal neural induction leading to neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the mechanism responsible for environmental stress-triggered neural induction defects remains unknown. Here, we report that a spectrum of environmental stresses, including oxidative stress, starvation, and DNA damage, profoundly activate SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent lysine deacetylase. Both mouse embryos and in vitro differentiated embryonic stem cells (ESCs) demonstrated a negative correlation between the expression of SIRT1 and that of OCT6, a key neural fate inducer. Activated SIRT1 radically deacetylates OCT6, triggers an OCT6 ubiquitination/degradation cascade, and consequently increases the incidence of NTD-like phenotypes in mice or hinders neural induction in both human and mouse ESCs. Together, our results suggest that early exposure to environmental stresses results in the dysregulation of the SIRT1/OCT6 axis and increases the risk of NTDs. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulating neural systems with Xyce.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Mei, Ting; Warrender, Christina E.; Aimone, James Bradley; Teeter, Corinne; Duda, Alex M.

    2012-12-01

    Sandias parallel circuit simulator, Xyce, can address large scale neuron simulations in a new way extending the range within which one can perform high-fidelity, multi-compartment neuron simulations. This report documents the implementation of neuron devices in Xyce, their use in simulation and analysis of neuron systems.

  2. The use of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects and other congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R Douglas; Davies, Gregory; Désilets, Valérie; Reid, Gregory J; Summers, Anne; Wyatt, Philip; Young, David

    2003-11-01

    To provide information regarding the use of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) and other congenital anomalies, in order that physicians, midwives, nurses, and other health-care workers can assist in the education of women in the preconception phase of their health care. OPTION: Folic acid supplementation is problematic, since 50% of pregnancies are unplanned and the health status of women may not be optimal. Folic acid supplementation has been proven to decrease or minimize specific birth defects. A systematic review of the literature, including review and peer-reviewed articles, government publications, the previous Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) Policy Statement of March 1993, and statements from the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, was used to develop a new clinical practice guideline for the SOGC. Peer-review process within the committee structure. The benefit is reduced lethal and severe morbidity birth defects and the harm is minimal. The personal cost is of vitamin supplementation on a daily basis and eating a healthy diet. 1. Women in the reproductive age group should be advised about the benefits of folic acid supplementation during wellness visits (birth control renewal, Pap testing, yearly examination), especially if pregnancy is contemplated. (III-A) 2. Women should be advised to maintain a healthy nutritional diet, as recommended in Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating (good or excellent sources of folic acid: broccoli, spinach, peas, Brussels sprouts, corn, beans, lentils, oranges). (III-A) 3. Women who could become pregnant should be advised to take a multivitamin containing 0.4 mg to 1.0 mg of folic acid daily. (II-1A) 4. Women taking a multivitamin with folic acid supplement should be advised not to take more than 1 daily dose of vitamin supplement, as indicated on the product label. (II-2A) 5. Women in intermediate- to high-risk categories for NTDs (NTD-affected previous

  3. IMPLEMENTATION OF NEURAL - CRYPTOGRAPHIC SYSTEM USING FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARAM M. Z. OTHMAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern cryptography techniques are virtually unbreakable. As the Internet and other forms of electronic communication become more prevalent, electronic security is becoming increasingly important. Cryptography is used to protect e-mail messages, credit card information, and corporate data. The design of the cryptography system is a conventional cryptography that uses one key for encryption and decryption process. The chosen cryptography algorithm is stream cipher algorithm that encrypt one bit at a time. The central problem in the stream-cipher cryptography is the difficulty of generating a long unpredictable sequence of binary signals from short and random key. Pseudo random number generators (PRNG have been widely used to construct this key sequence. The pseudo random number generator was designed using the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN. The Artificial Neural Networks (ANN providing the required nonlinearity properties that increases the randomness statistical properties of the pseudo random generator. The learning algorithm of this neural network is backpropagation learning algorithm. The learning process was done by software program in Matlab (software implementation to get the efficient weights. Then, the learned neural network was implemented using field programmable gate array (FPGA.

  4. Dietary intake of choline and neural tube defects in Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Amy M; Brender, Jean D; Zhao, Hongwei; Sweeney, Anne; Felkner, Marilyn; Suarez, Lucina; Canfield, Mark A

    2014-06-01

    Low maternal intake of dietary choline and betaine (a choline derivative) has recently been investigated as a possible risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). This case-control study examined the NTD risk associated with choline and betaine in 409 Mexican-American women who gave birth during 1995 to 2000 in the 14-county border region of Texas. Using data from the food frequency questionnaire and the lowest quartiles of intake as the reference categories, a protective association was suggested between higher intakes of choline and betaine and NTD risk although the 95% confidence intervals for all risk estimates included 1.0. For choline intake in the second, third, and fourth quartiles, adjusted odds ratios were 1.2, 0.80, and 0.89, respectively. Betaine appeared more protective with odds ratios of 0.62, 0.73, and 0.61, respectively, for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of intake. Study findings suggest that dietary betaine may help to prevent NTDs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Spirulina (arthrospira) protects against valproic acid-induced neural tube defects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N; Paniagua-Castro, Norma; Pérez-Pastén, Ricardo; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán

    2012-12-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a potent inducer of neural tube defects in human and mouse, its teratogenicity is associated with its potential to generation of free radicals and increase oxidative stress. Furthermore, spirulina (SP) has shown pharmacological properties against teratogenicity, which are attributed to its antioxidant potential. Accordingly, the present study was performed to investigate the influence of SP on the teratogenicity of VPA in imprinting control region mice and the possible mechanisms of action. VPA (sodium valproate) was administered intraperitoneally to mice on gestation day (GD) 8 at a dose of 600 mg/kg. SP was given orally at 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg daily from GD0 through GD18. The most common finding in fetuses with VPA exposure was exencephaly. SP decreased the incidence of this and other malformations and increased levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. In conclusion, these results illustrate the protective action of SP through its antioxidant activity against VPA-induced teratogenicity.

  6. Folic acid supplement use in the prevention of neural tube defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Delany, C

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, planned folic acid fortification for the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) was postponed. Concurrently, the economic recession may have affected dietary folic acid intake, placing increased emphasis on supplement use. This study examined folic acid supplement use in 2009. A cross-sectional survey of 300 ante-natal women was undertaken to assess folic acid knowledge and use. Associations between demographic, obstetric variables and folic acid knowledge and use were examined. A majority, 284\\/297 (96%), had heard of folic acid, and 178\\/297 (60%) knew that it could prevent NTD. Most, 270\\/297 (91%) had taken it during their pregnancy, but only 107\\/297 (36%) had used it periconceptionally. Being older, married, planned pregnancy and better socioeconomic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from economic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from earlier years. Continuous promotion efforts are necessary. Close monitoring of folic acid intake and NTD rates is essential, particularly in the absence of fortification.

  7. Risk factors for neural tube defects in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Mustafa A M; Murshid, Waleed R; Mohamed, Ashry Gad; Ignacio, Lena C; de Jesus, Julie E; Baabbad, Rubana; El Bushra, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Both genetic and non-genetic environmental factors are involved in the etiology of neural tube defects (NTD) which affect 0.5-2/1000 pregnancies worldwide. This study aimed to explore the risk factors for the development of NTD in Saudi population, and highlight identifiable and preventable causes. Similar studies are scarce in similar populations ofthe Arabian Peninsula and North Africa. This is an unmatched concurrent case-control study including NTD cases born at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh during a 4-year period (2002-2006). The case-control study included 25 cases and 125 controls (case: control ratio of 1:5). Years of formal education, employment, household environment (including availability of air conditioning) and rate of parental consanguinity did not differ between mothers of cases and controls. Significantly higher proportion of mothers of cases had history of stillbirth compared to control mothers (16% vs 4.1%, P=0.02). Also family history of hydrocephalus and congenital anomalies were more prevalent in cases than controls (P values=0.0000 and 0.003, respectively). There was significant protective effect of periconceptional folic acid consumption both prior to conception (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.00-0.07) and during the first 6 weeks of conception (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04-0.39). Further research, including a larger cohort, is required to enable ascertainment of gene-nutrient and gene environment interactions associated with NTD in Saudi Arabia.

  8. Chronic sorrow and depression in parents of children with neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobdell, Elizabeth

    2004-04-01

    Chronic sorrow has been described in the caregivers of individuals with myelomeningocele, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, cancer, and premature infants. Most studies have reported small numbers of fathers for comparison with mothers. One unpublished study compared chronic sorrow and depression. The purpose of the current study was to describe parental chronic sorrow following the birth of a child with neural tube defect and to explore the relationship between chronic sorrow and depression. One hundred and thirty-two parents (63 mother/father pairs and 6 single parents) responded to 3 measures of chronic sorrow and 1 measure of depression. Multivariate analysis of variance demonstrated significant differences between mothers and fathers in chronic sorrow. In addition, a relationship between chronic sorrow and depression was demonstrated. Chronic sorrow is a potential barrier to parental understanding of their child's care and diagnosis. Based on these findings, separate assessments of each parent and timely interventions are warranted. Further research should include more than 1 measure of chronic sorrow and delineate the dimensions being measured.

  9. Nutrient pathways and neural tube defects: a semi-Bayesian hierarchical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Suzan L; Witte, John S; Shaw, Gary M

    2009-01-01

    We used conventional and hierarchical logistic regression to examine the association of neural tube defects (NTDs) with intake of 26 nutrients that contribute to the mechanistic pathways of methylation, glycemic control, and oxidative stress, all of which have been implicated in NTD etiology. The hierarchical approach produces more plausible, more stable estimates than the conventional approach, while adjusting for potential confounding by other nutrients. Analyses included 386 cases and 408 nonmalformed controls with complete data on nutrients and potential confounders (race/ethnicity, education, obesity, and intake of vitamin supplements) from a population-based case-control study of deliveries in California from 1989 to 1991. Nutrients were specified as continuous, and their units were standardized to have a mean of zero and standard deviation (SD) of 1 for comparability of units across pathways. ORs reflect a 1-SD increase in the corresponding nutrient. Among women who took vitamin supplements, semi-Bayesian hierarchical modeling results suggested no associations between nutrient intake and NTDs. Among women who did not take supplements, both conventional and hierarchical models (HM) suggested an inverse association between lutein intake and NTD risk (HM odds ratio [OR] = 0.6; 95% confidence interval = 0.5-0.9) and a positive association with sucrose (HM OR 1.4; 1.1-1.8) and glycemic index (HM OR 1.3; 1.0-1.6). Our findings for lutein, glycemic index, and sucrose suggest that further study of NTDs and the glycemic control and oxidative stress pathways is warranted.

  10. Reduction of birth prevalence rates of neural tube defects after folic acid fortification in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Camelo, Jorge S; Orioli, Iêda M; da Graça Dutra, Maria; Nazer-Herrera, Julio; Rivera, Nelson; Ojeda, María Elena; Canessa, Aurora; Wettig, Elisabeth; Fontannaz, Ana María; Mellado, Cecília; Castilla, Eduardo E

    2005-06-01

    To verify whether the decreasing neural tube defects birth prevalence rates in Chile are due to folic acid fortification or to pre-existing decreasing trends, we performed a population survey using a network of Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC, Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations) maternity hospitals in Chile, between the years 1982 and 2002. Within each maternity hospital, birth prevalence rates of spina bifida and anencephaly were calculated from two pre-fortification periods (1982-1989 and 1990-2000), and from one fortified period (2001-2002). There was no historical trend for spina bifida birth prevalence rates before folic acid fortification, and there was a 51% (minimum 27%, maximum 66%) decrease in the birth prevalence rates of this anomaly in the fortified period. The relative risks of spina bifida were homogeneous among hospitals in the two period comparisons. There was no historical trend for the birth prevalence of anencephaly comparing the two pre-fortified periods, but the relative risks were heterogeneous among hospitals in this comparison. There was a 42% (minimum 10%, maximum 63%) decrease in the birth prevalence rate of anencephaly in the fortified period as compared with the immediately pre-fortified period, with homogeneous relative risks among hospitals. Within the methodological constraints of this study we conclude that the birth prevalence rates for both spina bifida and anencephaly decreased as a result of folic acid fortification, without interference of decreasing secular trends. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Nutrition, One-Carbon Metabolism and Neural Tube Defects: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelei Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs are a group of severe congenital malformations, induced by the combined effects of genes and the environment. The most valuable finding so far has been the protective effect of folic acid supplementation against NTDs. However, many women do not take folic acid supplements until they are pregnant, which is too late to prevent NTDs effectively. Long-term intake of folic acid–fortified food is a good choice to solve this problem, and mandatory folic acid fortification should be further promoted, especially in Europe, Asia and Africa. Vitamin B2, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, choline, betaine and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs can also reduce the NTD risk by interacting with the one-carbon metabolism pathway. This suggest that multivitamin B combined with choline, betaine and n-3 PUFAs supplementation may have a better protective effect against NTDs than folic acid alone. Genetic polymorphisms involved in one-carbon metabolism are associated with NTD risk, and gene screening for women of childbearing age prior to pregnancy may help prevent NTDs induced by the risk allele. In addition, the consumption of alcohol, tea and coffee, and low intakes of fruit and vegetable are also associated with the increased risk of NTDs, and should be avoided by women of childbearing age.

  12. Maternal Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Neural Tube Defects in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Xia; Gao, Zhuang-Lei; Wang, Jin-Na; Guo, Qing-Hui

    2016-01-01

    To examine the association between maternal coffee consumption during pregnancy and the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. PubMed, Springer Link and Elsevier databases were searched up to August, 2014. Case-control and cohort studies published on the association between maternal coffee consumption during pregnancy and the occurrence of NTDs in offspring were included. Meta-analysis was applied to calculate the pooled effect estimates and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model. A total of six case-control studies and one cohort study were included. The pooled effect estimate of maternal coffee consumption during pregnancy was 0.86 for total NTDs (95% CI: 0.51- 1.45) and 1.30 (95% CI: 0.67- 2.52) for NTDs subtype of spina bifida. Our findings suggested that maternal coffee consumption during pregnancy was not significantly associated with the occurrence of total NTD or the spina bifida subtype of NTD.

  13. Neural tube defects in the Republic of Ireland in 2009-11.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    2014-03-18

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are associated with deficient maternal folic acid peri-conceptionally. In Ireland, there is no mandatory folic acid food fortification, partly due to declining NTD rates in recent years. The aim of this study was to ascertain the incident rate of NTD during the period 2009-11 and describe epidemiologically NTD in Ireland.METHODSCases were ascertained through multiple sources, including three regional congenital anomaly registers, all maternity hospitals nationally and paediatric hospitals providing care for children with spina bifida in the Republic of Ireland during the period 2009-11.RESULTSFrom 225 998 total births, 236 NTDs were identified, giving an incidence of 1.04\\/1 000 births, increasing from 0.92\\/1 000 in 2009 to 1.17\\/1 000 in 2011. Of all cases, 45% (n = 106) had anencephaly, 49% (n = 115) had spina bifida and 6% (n = 15) had an encephalocoele; 78% (n = 184) were liveborn or stillborn and 22% (n = 52) were terminations abroad. Peri-conceptional folic acid supplement intake was 13.7% among the 52.5% (n = 124) of cases whose folic acid supplement intake was known.CONCLUSIONThe incidence of NTDs in the Republic of Ireland appears to be increasing. Renewed public health interventions, including mandatory folic acid food fortification, must be considered to reduce the incidence of NTD.

  14. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Neural Tube Defects (VII

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    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs may be associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of the syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, including DK phocomelia syndrome (von Voss-Cherstvoy syndrome, Siegel-Bartlet syndrome, fetal warfarin syndrome, craniotelencephalic dysplasia, Czeizel-Losonci syndrome, maternal cocaine abuse, Weissenbacher-Zweymüller syndrome, parietal foramina (cranium bifidum, Apert syndrome, craniomicromelic syndrome, XX-agonadism with multiple dysraphic lesions including omphalocele and NTDs, Fryns microphthalmia syndrome, Gershoni-Baruch syndrome, PHAVER syndrome, periconceptional vitamin B6 deficiency, and autosomal dominant Dandy-Walker malformation with occipital cephalocele. NTDs associated with these syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors are a rare but important cause of NTDs. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors may be different from those of nonsyndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal diagnosis of NTDs should alert doctors to the syndromes, disorders and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  15. The natural history of neural tube defects in the setting of an Irish tertiary referral foetal medicine unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglim, B; Mandiwanza, T; Miletin, J; Turner, M; Kennelly, M M

    2016-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) carry a heavy burden for affected individuals and their family. Physical and neurological outcome measures may help in counselling couples. The aim of this audit was to review all cases of NTDs seen at a tertiary referral foetal medicine unit. Cases were identified from obstetric, neonatal and neurosurgical records. Thirty-six cases of NTDs were identified. Of the 36, 25% (n = 9, one trisomy 18) opted for termination of pregnancy abroad. Of the remaining 27, 19% (n = 5) died in the antepartum period. 81% (n = 22) were liveborn with four neonatal deaths (one trisomy 18). Of 15 cases, 14 had neurosurgical repair within a median time of 3 days and 9 of these also had a ventriculoperitoneal shunt inserted. Antenatal ultrasound accurately diagnosed lesion level in the majority of cases. The survival rate for babies diagnosed with non-lethal neural tubes defects is high when multidisciplinary care is initiated early.

  16. Neural-specific deletion of Htra2 causes cerebellar neurodegeneration and defective processing of mitochondrial OPA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Victoria L; Zullo, Alfred J; Koenig, Claire; Stoessel, Sean; Jo, Hakryul; Liu, Xinran; Han, Jinah; Choi, Murim; DeWan, Andrew T; Thomas, Jean-Leon; Kuan, Chia-Yi; Hoh, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    HTRA2, a serine protease in the intermembrane space, has important functions in mitochondrial stress signaling while its abnormal activity may contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease. Mice with a missense or null mutation of Htra2 fail to thrive, suffer striatal neuronal loss, and a parkinsonian phenotype that leads to death at 30-40 days of age. While informative, these mouse models cannot separate neural contributions from systemic effects due to the complex phenotypes of HTRA2 deficiency. Hence, we developed mice carrying a Htra2-floxed allele to query the consequences of tissue-specific HTRA2 deficiency. We found that mice with neural-specific deletion of Htra2 exhibited atrophy of the thymus and spleen, cessation to gain weight past postnatal (P) day 18, neurological symptoms including ataxia and complete penetrance of premature death by P40. Histologically, increased apoptosis was detected in the cerebellum, and to a lesser degree in the striatum and the entorhinal cortex, from P25. Even earlier at P20, mitochondria in the cerebella already exhibited abnormal morphology, including swelling, vesiculation, and fragmentation of the cristae. Furthermore, the onset of these structural anomalies was accompanied by defective processing of OPA1, a key molecule for mitochondrial fusion and cristae remodeling, leading to depletion of the L-isoform. Together, these findings suggest that HTRA2 is essential for maintenance of the mitochondrial integrity in neurons. Without functional HTRA2, a lifespan as short as 40 days accumulates a large quantity of dysfunctional mitochondria that contributes to the demise of mutant mice.

  17. Neural-specific deletion of Htra2 causes cerebellar neurodegeneration and defective processing of mitochondrial OPA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Patterson

    Full Text Available HTRA2, a serine protease in the intermembrane space, has important functions in mitochondrial stress signaling while its abnormal activity may contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease. Mice with a missense or null mutation of Htra2 fail to thrive, suffer striatal neuronal loss, and a parkinsonian phenotype that leads to death at 30-40 days of age. While informative, these mouse models cannot separate neural contributions from systemic effects due to the complex phenotypes of HTRA2 deficiency. Hence, we developed mice carrying a Htra2-floxed allele to query the consequences of tissue-specific HTRA2 deficiency. We found that mice with neural-specific deletion of Htra2 exhibited atrophy of the thymus and spleen, cessation to gain weight past postnatal (P day 18, neurological symptoms including ataxia and complete penetrance of premature death by P40. Histologically, increased apoptosis was detected in the cerebellum, and to a lesser degree in the striatum and the entorhinal cortex, from P25. Even earlier at P20, mitochondria in the cerebella already exhibited abnormal morphology, including swelling, vesiculation, and fragmentation of the cristae. Furthermore, the onset of these structural anomalies was accompanied by defective processing of OPA1, a key molecule for mitochondrial fusion and cristae remodeling, leading to depletion of the L-isoform. Together, these findings suggest that HTRA2 is essential for maintenance of the mitochondrial integrity in neurons. Without functional HTRA2, a lifespan as short as 40 days accumulates a large quantity of dysfunctional mitochondria that contributes to the demise of mutant mice.

  18. Ultrasonic sensing of GMAW: Laser/EMAT defect detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, N.M.; Johnson, J.A.; Larsen, E.D. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Van Clark, A. Jr.; Schaps, S.R.; Fortunko, C.M. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1992-08-01

    In-process ultrasonic sensing of welding allows detection of weld defects in real time. A noncontacting ultrasonic system is being developed to operate in a production environment. The principal components are a pulsed laser for ultrasound generation and an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) for ultrasound reception. A PC-based data acquisition system determines the quality of the weld on a pass-by-pass basis. The laser/EMAT system interrogates the area in the weld volume where defects are most likely to occur. This area of interest is identified by computer calculations on a pass-by-pass basis using weld planning information provided by the off-line programmer. The absence of a signal above the threshold level in the computer-calculated time interval indicates a disruption of the sound path by a defect. The ultrasonic sensor system then provides an input signal to the weld controller about the defect condition. 8 refs.

  19. [Alpha-foetoprotein assessment in amniotic fluid for the detection of neural tube defects: limited added value beyond week 20 ultrasound; retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooper, A.J.A.; Smits, A.P.T.; Feuth, A.B.; Burgt, I. van der; Zondervan, H.A.; Quartero, R.W.P.; Boekkooi, P.F.; Rijnders, R.J.P.; Creemers, J.W.T.; Thomas, C.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic additional value of routine alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) assessment in amniotic fluid for the detection of neural tube defects (NTDs), compared with week 20 ultrasonographic examination. DESIGN: Retrospective. METHOD: We retrospectively determined AFP concentrations

  20. HOSPITAL BASED BIRTH DEFECTS SURVEILLANCE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS: A STUDY OF ONE YEAR STATISTICS FROM A TERTIARY CARE GOVERNMENT TEACHING HOSPITAL OF NORTH COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manda Venkata

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Birth defects (also called congenital anomalies are defined as abnormalities of both structures or functions that are present at birth and are of prenatal origin. They contribute to a significant proportion of perinatal, neonatal & childhood mortality as well as morbidity. AIM To study at birth, prevalence of selected birth defects among babies delivered at King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, from Jan 2015 to December 2015, appropriate management strategy of the most common neural tube defects. RESULTS Among the total deliveries of 6088 in the above period, the incidences of birth defects were 88 (1.44%, the most common among them were neural tube defects. CONCLUSION Birth defect surveillance and standardisation of the data is essential to understand the public health burden and to design appropriate prenatal prevention programs.

  1. Evaluation of common genetic variants in 82 candidate genes as risk factors for neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangilinan Faith

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural tube defects (NTDs are common birth defects (~1 in 1000 pregnancies in the US and Europe that have complex origins, including environmental and genetic factors. A low level of maternal folate is one well-established risk factor, with maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation reducing the occurrence of NTD pregnancies by 50-70%. Gene variants in the folate metabolic pathway (e.g., MTHFR rs1801133 (677 C > T and MTHFD1 rs2236225 (R653Q have been found to increase NTD risk. We hypothesized that variants in additional folate/B12 pathway genes contribute to NTD risk. Methods A tagSNP approach was used to screen common variation in 82 candidate genes selected from the folate/B12 pathway and NTD mouse models. We initially genotyped polymorphisms in 320 Irish triads (NTD cases and their parents, including 301 cases and 341 Irish controls to perform case–control and family based association tests. Significantly associated polymorphisms were genotyped in a secondary set of 250 families that included 229 cases and 658 controls. The combined results for 1441 SNPs were used in a joint analysis to test for case and maternal effects. Results Nearly 70 SNPs in 30 genes were found to be associated with NTDs at the p MFTC, CDKN2A, ADA, PEMT, CUBN, GART, DNMT3A, MTHFD1 and T (Brachyury and included the known NTD risk factor MTHFD1 R653Q (rs2236225. The single strongest signal was observed in a new candidate, MFTC rs17803441 (OR = 1.61 [1.23-2.08], p = 0.0003 for the minor allele. Though nominally significant, these associations did not remain significant after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. Conclusions To our knowledge, with respect to sample size and scope of evaluation of candidate polymorphisms, this is the largest NTD genetic association study reported to date. The scale of the study and the stringency of correction are likely to have contributed to real associations failing to survive

  2. Detection of copy number variants reveals association of cilia genes with neural tube defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs are one of the most common birth defects caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Currently, little is known about the genetic basis of NTDs although up to 70% of human NTDs were reported to be attributed to genetic factors. Here we performed genome-wide copy number variants (CNVs detection in a cohort of Chinese NTD patients in order to exam the potential role of CNVs in the pathogenesis of NTDs. METHODS: The genomic DNA from eighty-five NTD cases and seventy-five matched normal controls were subjected for whole genome CNVs analysis. Non-DGV (the Database of Genomic Variants CNVs from each group were further analyzed for their associations with NTDs. Gene content in non-DGV CNVs as well as participating pathways were examined. RESULTS: Fifty-five and twenty-six non-DGV CNVs were detected in cases and controls respectively. Among them, forty and nineteen CNVs involve genes (genic CNV. Significantly more non-DGV CNVs and non-DGV genic CNVs were detected in NTD patients than in control (41.2% vs. 25.3%, p<0.05 and 37.6% vs. 20%, p<0.05. Non-DGV genic CNVs are associated with a 2.65-fold increased risk for NTDs (95% CI: 1.24-5.87. Interestingly, there are 41 cilia genes involved in non-DGV CNVs from NTD patients which is significantly enriched in cases compared with that in controls (24.7% vs. 9.3%, p<0.05, corresponding with a 3.19-fold increased risk for NTDs (95% CI: 1.27-8.01. Pathway analyses further suggested that two ciliogenesis pathways, tight junction and protein kinase A signaling, are top canonical pathways implicated in NTD-specific CNVs, and these two novel pathways interact with known NTD pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from the genome-wide CNV study suggests that genic CNVs, particularly ciliogenic CNVs are associated with NTDs and two ciliogenesis pathways, tight junction and protein kinase A signaling, are potential pathways involved in NTD pathogenesis.

  3. Evaluation of common genetic variants in 82 candidate genes as risk factors for neural tube defects

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pangilinan, Faith

    2012-08-02

    AbstractBackgroundNeural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects (~1 in 1000 pregnancies in the US and Europe) that have complex origins, including environmental and genetic factors. A low level of maternal folate is one well-established risk factor, with maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation reducing the occurrence of NTD pregnancies by 50-70%. Gene variants in the folate metabolic pathway (e.g., MTHFR rs1801133 (677 C > T) and MTHFD1 rs2236225 (R653Q)) have been found to increase NTD risk. We hypothesized that variants in additional folate\\/B12 pathway genes contribute to NTD risk.MethodsA tagSNP approach was used to screen common variation in 82 candidate genes selected from the folate\\/B12 pathway and NTD mouse models. We initially genotyped polymorphisms in 320 Irish triads (NTD cases and their parents), including 301 cases and 341 Irish controls to perform case–control and family based association tests. Significantly associated polymorphisms were genotyped in a secondary set of 250 families that included 229 cases and 658 controls. The combined results for 1441 SNPs were used in a joint analysis to test for case and maternal effects.ResultsNearly 70 SNPs in 30 genes were found to be associated with NTDs at the p < 0.01 level. The ten strongest association signals (p-value range: 0.0003–0.0023) were found in nine genes (MFTC, CDKN2A, ADA, PEMT, CUBN, GART, DNMT3A, MTHFD1 and T (Brachyury)) and included the known NTD risk factor MTHFD1 R653Q (rs2236225). The single strongest signal was observed in a new candidate, MFTC rs17803441 (OR = 1.61 [1.23-2.08], p = 0.0003 for the minor allele). Though nominally significant, these associations did not remain significant after correction for multiple hypothesis testing.ConclusionsTo our knowledge, with respect to sample size and scope of evaluation of candidate polymorphisms, this is the largest NTD genetic association study reported to date. The scale of the study and the

  4. Design of Gear Defect Detection System Based on Machine Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wu, Zhiheng; Duan, Xianyun; Tong, Jigang; Li, Ping; Chen, min; Lin, Qinglin

    2018-01-01

    In order to solve such problems as low efficiency, low quality and instability of gear surface defect detection, we designed a detection system based on machine vision, sensor coupling. By multisensory coupling, and then CCD camera image collection of gear products, using VS2010 to cooperate with Halcon library for a series of analysis and processing of images. At last, the results are fed back to the control end, and the rejected device is removed to the collecting box. The system has successfully identified defective gear. The test results show that this system can identify and eliminate the defects gear quickly and efficiently. It has reached the requirement of gear product defect detection line automation and has a certain application value.

  5. Indoor air pollution and neural tube defects: effect modification by maternal genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Li, Zhiwen; Jin, Lei; Li, Kai; Yuan, Yue; Fu, Yunting; Zhang, Yali; Ye, Rongwei; Ren, Aiguo

    2014-09-01

    Gene-environment interactions have been implicated in the development of neural tube defects (NTDs). We conducted a case-control study to investigate (1) the association of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) genetic variants and phase I metabolic enzymes with the risk of NTDs and (2) the interaction of these variants with maternal exposure to indoor air pollution from smoking and coal combustion or with placental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Blood samples were collected from 534 mothers of fetuses or newborns with NTDs and 534 control mothers who had healthy term newborns and were assayed for 12 polymorphisms in the AHR and cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. Information on maternal exposure was collected, and placental levels of PAHs were analyzed. Maternal exposure to indoor air pollution was associated with an increased NTD risk. However, no increased NTD risk was observed for individual genetic variants. For mothers with the CYP1B1 rs2855658 GG variant, exposure to indoor air pollution led to a dose-response relationship for NTD risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 3.0 (95% confidence interval = 1.6-5.7) and 8.1 (3.8-17) for medium and high levels of exposure, respectively. For mothers with GA or AA genotypes, this trend was less apparent. Placental PAHs were associated with an increased risk of NTDs, with an OR of 16 (3.3-75) for high levels compared with low levels of exposure among mothers with the GG genotype; there was no association for mothers with GA or AA genotypes. The CYP1B1 variant modifies the effect of indoor air pollution on NTD risk.

  6. Folic acid supplements to prevent neural tube defects: trends in East of Ireland 1996-2002.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, M

    2004-10-01

    Promotion of folic acid to prevent neural Tube Defects (NTD) has been ongoing for ten years in Ireland, without a concomitant reduction in the total birth prevalence of NTD. The effectiveness of folic acid promotion as the sole means of primary prevention of NTD is therefore questionable. We examined trends in folic acid knowledge and peri-conceptional use from 1996-2002 with the aim of assessing the value of this approach. From 1996-2002, 300 women attending ante-natal clinics in Dublin hospitals annually were surveyed regarding their knowledge and use of folic acid. During the period the proportion who had heard of folic acid rose from 54% to 94% between 1996 and 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Knowledge that folic acid can prevent NTD also rose from 21% to 66% (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Although the proportion who took folic acid during pregnancy increased from 14% to 83% from 1996 to 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001), peri-conceptional intake did not rise above 24% in any year. There is a high awareness of folic acid and its relation to NTD, which is not matched by peri-conceptional uptake. The main barrier to peri-conceptional uptake is the lack of pregnancy planning. To date promotional campaigns appear to have been ineffective in reducing the prevalence of NTD in Ireland. Consequently, fortification of staple foodstuffs is the only practical and reliable means of primary prevention of NTD.

  7. The Artifical Neural Network as means for modeling Nonlinear Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Drábek Oldøich; Taufer Ivan

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with nonlinear system identification based on neural network. The topic of this publication is simulation of training and testing a neural network. A contribution is assigned to technologists which are good at the clasical identification problems but their knowledges about identification based on neural network are only on the stage of theoretical bases.

  8. The Artifical Neural Network as means for modeling Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drábek Oldøich

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with nonlinear system identification based on neural network. The topic of this publication is simulation of training and testing a neural network. A contribution is assigned to technologists which are good at the clasical identification problems but their knowledges about identification based on neural network are only on the stage of theoretical bases.

  9. Effect of exposure to trace elements in the soil on the prevalence of neural tube defects in a high-risk area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Wu, Jilei; Li, Tiejun; Song, Xinming; Zhang, Bingzi; Zhang, Pingwen; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2011-04-01

    Our objective is to build a model that explains the association between the exposure to trace elements in the soil and the risk of neural tube defects. We built a function with different parameters to describe the effects of trace elements on neural tube defects. The association between neural tube defects and trace element levels was transformed into an optimization problem using the maximum likelihood method. Tin, lead, nickel, iron, copper, and aluminum had typical layered effects (dosage effects) on the prevalence of neural tube defects. Arsenic, selenium, zinc, strontium, and vanadium had no effect, and molybdenum had one threshold value that affected the prevalence of birth defects. As an exploratory research work, our model can be used to determine the direction of the effect of the trace element content of cultivated soil on the risk of neural tube defects, which shows the clues by the dosage effect of their toxicological characteristics. Based on our findings, future biogeochemical research should focus on the direct effects of trace elements on human health. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Convergent evolution of neural systems in ctenophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Leonid L

    2015-02-15

    Neurons are defined as polarized secretory cells specializing in directional propagation of electrical signals leading to the release of extracellular messengers - features that enable them to transmit information, primarily chemical in nature, beyond their immediate neighbors without affecting all intervening cells en route. Multiple origins of neurons and synapses from different classes of ancestral secretory cells might have occurred more than once during ~600 million years of animal evolution with independent events of nervous system centralization from a common bilaterian/cnidarian ancestor without the bona fide central nervous system. Ctenophores, or comb jellies, represent an example of extensive parallel evolution in neural systems. First, recent genome analyses place ctenophores as a sister group to other animals. Second, ctenophores have a smaller complement of pan-animal genes controlling canonical neurogenic, synaptic, muscle and immune systems, and developmental pathways than most other metazoans. However, comb jellies are carnivorous marine animals with a complex neuromuscular organization and sophisticated patterns of behavior. To sustain these functions, they have evolved a number of unique molecular innovations supporting the hypothesis of massive homoplasies in the organization of integrative and locomotory systems. Third, many bilaterian/cnidarian neuron-specific genes and 'classical' neurotransmitter pathways are either absent or, if present, not expressed in ctenophore neurons (e.g. the bilaterian/cnidarian neurotransmitter, γ-amino butyric acid or GABA, is localized in muscles and presumed bilaterian neuron-specific RNA-binding protein Elav is found in non-neuronal cells). Finally, metabolomic and pharmacological data failed to detect either the presence or any physiological action of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, octopamine, acetylcholine or histamine - consistent with the hypothesis that ctenophore neural systems evolved

  11. Eddy Current Signature Classification of Steam Generator Tube Defects Using A Learning Vector Quantization Neural Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabe V. Garcia

    2005-01-03

    A major cause of failure in nuclear steam generators is degradation of their tubes. Although seven primary defect categories exist, one of the principal causes of tube failure is intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC). This type of defect usually begins on the secondary side surface of the tubes and propagates both inwards and laterally. In many cases this defect is found at or near the tube support plates.

  12. A unique missense allele of BAF155, a core BAF chromatin remodeling complex protein, causes neural tube closure defects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmacek, Laura; Watkins-Chow, Dawn E; Chen, Jianfu; Jones, Kenneth L; Pavan, William J; Salbaum, J Michael; Niswander, Lee

    2014-05-01

    Failure of embryonic neural tube closure results in the second most common class of birth defects known as neural tube defects (NTDs). While NTDs are likely the result of complex multigenic dysfunction, it is not known whether polymorphisms in epigenetic regulators may be risk factors for NTDs. Here we characterized Baf155(msp3) , a unique ENU-induced allele in mice. Homozygous Baf155(mps3) embryos exhibit highly penetrant exencephaly, allowing us to investigate the roles of an assembled, but malfunctional BAF chromatin remodeling complex in vivo at the time of neural tube closure. Evidence of defects in proliferation and apoptosis were found within the neural tube. RNA-Seq analysis revealed that surprisingly few genes showed altered expression in Baf155 mutant neural tissue, given the broad epigenetic role of the BAF complex, but included genes involved in neural development and cell survival. Moreover, gene expression changes between individual mutants were variable even though the NTD was consistently observed. This suggests that inconsistent gene regulation contributes to failed neural tube closure. These results shed light on the role of the BAF complex in the process of neural tube closure and highlight the importance of studying missense alleles to understand epigenetic regulation during critical phases of development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Exploring the developmental mechanisms underlying Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome: Evidence for defects in neural crest cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Erin L; Lowery, Laura Anne

    2016-12-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome (WHS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mental retardation, craniofacial malformation, and defects in skeletal and heart development. The syndrome is associated with irregularities on the short arm of chromosome 4, including deletions of varying sizes and microduplications. Many of these genotypic aberrations in humans have been correlated with the classic WHS phenotype, and animal models have provided a context for mapping these genetic irregularities to specific phenotypes; however, there remains a significant knowledge gap concerning the cell biological mechanisms underlying these phenotypes. This review summarizes literature that has made recent contributions to this topic, drawing from the vast body of knowledge detailing the genetic particularities of the disorder and the more limited pool of information on its cell biology. Finally, we propose a novel characterization for WHS as a pathophysiology owing in part to defects in neural crest cell motility and migration during development. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. E-cigarette aerosol exposure can cause craniofacial defects in Xenopus laevis embryos and mammalian neural crest cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson E Kennedy

    Full Text Available Since electronic cigarette (ECIG introduction to American markets in 2007, vaping has surged in popularity. Many, including women of reproductive age, also believe that ECIG use is safer than traditional tobacco cigarettes and is not hazardous when pregnant. However, there are few studies investigating the effects of ECIG exposure on the developing embryo and nothing is known about potential effects on craniofacial development. Therefore, we have tested the effects of several aerosolized e-cigarette liquids (e-cigAM in an in vivo craniofacial model, Xenopus laevis, as well as a mammalian neural crest cell line. Results demonstrate that e-cigAM exposure during embryonic development induces a variety of defects, including median facial clefts and midface hypoplasia in two of e-cigAMs tested e-cigAMs. Detailed quantitative analyses of the facial morphology revealed that nicotine is not the main factor in inducing craniofacial defects, but can exacerbate the effects of the other e-liquid components. Additionally, while two different e-cigAMs can have very similar consequences on facial appearances, there are subtle differences that could be due to the differences in e-cigAM components. Further assessment of embryos exposed to these particular e-cigAMs revealed cranial cartilage and muscle defects and a reduction in the blood supply to the face. Finally, the expression of markers for vascular and cartilage differentiation was reduced in a mammalian neural crest cell line corroborating the in vivo effects. Our work is the first to show that ECIG use could pose a potential hazard to the developing embryo and cause craniofacial birth defects. This emphasizes the need for more testing and regulation of this new popular product.

  15. Automatic Defect Detection of Fasteners on the Catenary Support Device Using Deep Convolutional Neural Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Junwen; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, H.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Han, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    The excitation and vibration triggered by the long-term operation of railway vehicles inevitably result in defective states of catenary support devices. With the massive construction of high-speed electrified railways, automatic defect detection of diverse and plentiful fasteners on the catenary

  16. Spacecraft Neural Network Control System Design using FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Hanaa T. El-Madany; Faten H. Fahmy; Ninet M. A. El-Rahman; Hassen T. Dorrah

    2011-01-01

    Designing and implementing intelligent systems has become a crucial factor for the innovation and development of better products of space technologies. A neural network is a parallel system, capable of resolving paradigms that linear computing cannot. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) is a digital device that owns reprogrammable properties and robust flexibility. For the neural network based instrument prototype in real time application, conventional specific VLSI neural chip design suffer...

  17. Lumber Scanning System for Surface Defect Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Y. Jason Hou; Richard W. Conners; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes research aimed at developing a machine vision technology to drive automated processes in the hardwood forest products manufacturing industry. An industrial-scale machine vision system has been designed to scan variable-size hardwood lumber for detecting important features that influence the grade and value of lumber such as knots, holes, wane,...

  18. Genome-wide association mapping in dogs enables identification of the homeobox gene, NKX2-8, as a genetic component of neural tube defects in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Safra

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs is a general term for central nervous system malformations secondary to a failure of closure or development of the neural tube. The resulting pathologies may involve the brain, spinal cord and/or vertebral column, in addition to associated structures such as soft tissue or skin. The condition is reported among the more common birth defects in humans, leading to significant infant morbidity and mortality. The etiology remains poorly understood but genetic, nutritional, environmental factors, or a combination of these, are known to play a role in the development of NTDs. The variable conditions associated with NTDs occur naturally in dogs, and have been previously reported in the Weimaraner breed. Taking advantage of the strong linkage-disequilibrium within dog breeds we performed genome-wide association analysis and mapped a genomic region for spinal dysraphism, a presumed NTD, using 4 affected and 96 unaffected Weimaraners. The associated region on canine chromosome 8 (pgenome  =3.0 × 10(-5, after 100,000 permutations, encodes 18 genes, including NKX2-8, a homeobox gene which is expressed in the developing neural tube. Sequencing NKX2-8 in affected Weimaraners revealed a G to AA frameshift mutation within exon 2 of the gene, resulting in a premature stop codon that is predicted to produce a truncated protein. The exons of NKX2-8 were sequenced in human patients with spina bifida and rare variants (rs61755040 and rs10135525 were found to be significantly over-represented (p=0.036. This is the first documentation of a potential role for NKX2-8 in the etiology of NTDs, made possible by investigating the molecular basis of naturally occurring mutations in dogs.

  19. Artificial Neural Network System for Thyroid Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazin Abdulrasool Hameed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disease is one of major causes of severe medical problems for human beings. Therefore, proper diagnosis of thyroid disease is considered as an important issue to determine treatment for patients. This paper focuses on using Artificial Neural Network (ANN as a significant technique of artificial intelligence to diagnose thyroid diseases. The continuous values of three laboratory blood tests are used as input signals to the proposed system of ANN. All types of thyroid diseases that may occur in patients are taken into account in design of system, as well as the high accuracy of the detection and categorization of thyroid diseases are considered in the system. A multilayer feedforward architecture of ANN is adopted in the proposed design, and the back propagation is selected as learning algorithm to accomplish the training process. The result of this research shows that the proposed ANN system is able to precisely diagnose thyroid disease, and can be exploited in practical uses. The system is simulated via MATLAB software to evaluate its performance

  20. Neural network system for traffic flow management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Elibiary, Khalid J.; Petersson, L. E. Rickard

    1992-09-01

    Atlanta will be the home of several special events during the next five years ranging from the 1996 Olympics to the 1994 Super Bowl. When combined with the existing special events (Braves, Falcons, and Hawks games, concerts, festivals, etc.), the need to effectively manage traffic flow from surface streets to interstate highways is apparent. This paper describes a system for traffic event response and management for intelligent navigation utilizing signals (TERMINUS) developed at Georgia Tech for adaptively managing special event traffic flows in the Atlanta, Georgia area. TERMINUS (the original name given Atlanta, Georgia based upon its role as a rail line terminating center) is an intelligent surface street signal control system designed to manage traffic flow in Metro Atlanta. The system consists of three components. The first is a traffic simulation of the downtown Atlanta area around Fulton County Stadium that models the flow of traffic when a stadium event lets out. Parameters for the surrounding area include modeling for events during various times of day (such as rush hour). The second component is a computer graphics interface with the simulation that shows the traffic flows achieved based upon intelligent control system execution. The final component is the intelligent control system that manages surface street light signals based upon feedback from control sensors that dynamically adapt the intelligent controller's decision making process. The intelligent controller is a neural network model that allows TERMINUS to control the configuration of surface street signals to optimize the flow of traffic away from special events.

  1. Brain tissue aspiration neural tube defect Aspiração de tecido cerebral em casos de defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cesar Peres

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to find out how frequent is brain tissue aspiration and if brain tissue heterotopia could be found in the lung of human neural tube defect cases. Histological sections of each lobe of both lungs of 22 fetuses and newborn with neural tube defect were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. There were 15 (68.2% females and 7 (31.8% males. Age ranged from 18 to 40 weeks of gestation (mean= 31.8. Ten (45.5% were stillborn, the same newborn, and 2 (9.1% were abortuses. Diagnosis were: craniorrhachischisis (9 cases, 40.9%, anencephaly (8 cases, 36,4%, ruptured occipital encephalocele and rachischisis (2 cases, 9.1% each, and early amniotic band disruption sequence (1 case, 4.5%. Only one case (4.5% exhibited GFAP positive cells inside bronchioles and alveoli admixed to epithelial amniotic squames. No heterotopic tissue was observed in the lung interstitium. We concluded that aspiration of brain tissue from the amniotic fluid in neural tube defect cases may happen but it is infrequent and heterotopia was not observed.O objetivo do estudo foi identificar qual a freqüência de aspiração de tecido cerebral e a existência de heterotopia nos pulmões de casos humanos de defeito de fechamento do tubo neural através da reação imuno-histoquímica para proteína fibrilar glial ácida (GFAP em cortes histológicos de todos os lobos de ambos os pulmões de 22 casos de fetos e neonatos com defeito de fechamento do tubo neural. Havia 15 casos femininos (68,2% e 7 masculinos (31,8%, com idade gestacional variando de 18 a 40 semanas (média= 31,8, sendo natimortos e neomortos 10 (45,5% cada e 2 (9,1% abortos. Os diagnósticos foram: Craniorraquisquise (9 casos, 40,9%, anencefalia (8 casos, 36,4%, encefalocele occipital rota e raquisquise (2 casos, 9,1% e 1 (4,5%caso de seqüência de disruptura amniótica precoce. Somente 1 caso (4,5% apresentou células positivas dentro de bronquíolos e alvéolos em meio a células epiteliais

  2. Neural Network for Optimization of Existing Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems.......The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems....

  3. Folates for reduction of risk of neural tube defects: using oral contraceptives as a source of folate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson AL

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Anita L Nelson Obstetrics and Gynecology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA Abstract: The evidence that folates reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs is so compelling that supplementation has been recommended by every relevant authority. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews has determined that folate supplementation should be rated as a Grade 1 recommendation. United States Preventive Health Services Task Force, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC have all produced clear guidelines for such supplementation. Unfortunately, despite food fortification and targeted public health campaigns promoting folic acid supplementation, periconceptional utilization of folic acid supplements has decreased in the US in recent years. Worldwide, over 300,000 newborns are affected with NTDs every year. NTDs account for 10% of all neonatal mortality. This article will review the risk factors for NTDs and the evidence supporting folate supplementation. It will also describe the remaining problems and outline current ideas to solve them. Finally, new evidence of the effectiveness of adding metafolin to drospirenone-containing oral contraceptives in raising serum and red blood cell folate levels, the rationale for making such an addition, and an estimate of the magnitude of the contribution use of such pills might have on reducing NTDs will be discussed. Keywords: neural tube defects, folate, metafolin, oral contraceptives

  4. Prenatal paradox: an integrative review of women's experiences with prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidy and neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Tamra L

    2017-04-01

    As prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidy and neural tube defects evolves technologically and becomes increasingly utilized worldwide, an evaluation of the available evidence on women's experiences with prenatal screening is warranted. To conduct an integrative review to enhance understanding of women's experiences with prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidy and neural tube defects. Systematic literature searches from January 2005 through January 2016, using the CINAHL, PubMed, and PsychInfo electronic databases and ancestry searches of included studies were performed to identify previously published, peer-reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies. The integrative review method as proposed by Whittemore and Knafl was selected. Thirty-nine studies were included in the review. The literature reveals that prenatal screening occurs in a complex social, ethical, and political reality. A theme of paradox emerged indicating the incongruity between reported and perceived risk, the tension between informational utility and moral decisions concerning pregnancy management, and the pervasive influences of authoritative and experiential knowledge. There is a need for future inquiry to critically examine the interrelationships of individual, biomedical, ethical, and sociopolitical factors surrounding prenatal screening.

  5. The Effects of GABAergic Polarity Changes on Episodic Neural Network Activity in Developing Neural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Blanco

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Early in development, neural systems have primarily excitatory coupling, where even GABAergic synapses are excitatory. Many of these systems exhibit spontaneous episodes of activity that have been characterized through both experimental and computational studies. As development progress the neural system goes through many changes, including synaptic remodeling, intrinsic plasticity in the ion channel expression, and a transformation of GABAergic synapses from excitatory to inhibitory. What effect each of these, and other, changes have on the network behavior is hard to know from experimental studies since they all happen in parallel. One advantage of a computational approach is that one has the ability to study developmental changes in isolation. Here, we examine the effects of GABAergic synapse polarity change on the spontaneous activity of both a mean field and a neural network model that has both glutamatergic and GABAergic coupling, representative of a developing neural network. We find some intuitive behavioral changes as the GABAergic neurons go from excitatory to inhibitory, shared by both models, such as a decrease in the duration of episodes. We also find some paradoxical changes in the activity that are only present in the neural network model. In particular, we find that during early development the inter-episode durations become longer on average, while later in development they become shorter. In addressing this unexpected finding, we uncover a priming effect that is particularly important for a small subset of neurons, called the “intermediate neurons.” We characterize these neurons and demonstrate why they are crucial to episode initiation, and why the paradoxical behavioral change result from priming of these neurons. The study illustrates how even arguably the simplest of developmental changes that occurs in neural systems can present non-intuitive behaviors. It also makes predictions about neural network behavioral changes

  6. Neural Network Based Intelligent Sootblowing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Rhode

    2005-04-01

    . Due to the composition of coal, particulate matter is also a by-product of coal combustion. Modern day utility boilers are usually fitted with electrostatic precipitators to aid in the collection of particulate matter. Although extremely efficient, these devices are sensitive to rapid changes in inlet mass concentration as well as total mass loading. Traditionally, utility boilers are equipped with devices known as sootblowers, which use, steam, water or air to dislodge and clean the surfaces within the boiler and are operated based upon established rule or operator's judgment. Poor sootblowing regimes can influence particulate mass loading to the electrostatic precipitators. The project applied a neural network intelligent sootblowing system in conjunction with state-of-the-art controls and instruments to optimize the operation of a utility boiler and systematically control boiler slagging/fouling. This optimization process targeted reduction of NOx of 30%, improved efficiency of 2% and a reduction in opacity of 5%. The neural network system proved to be a non-invasive system which can readily be adapted to virtually any utility boiler. Specific conclusions from this neural network application are listed below. These conclusions should be used in conjunction with the specific details provided in the technical discussions of this report to develop a thorough understanding of the process.

  7. Folato, vitamina B12 e ferritina sérica e defeitos do tubo neural Folate, vitamin B12, serum ferritin and defects of the neural tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizele Thame

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar os níveis de folatos, vitamina B12 e ferritina em pacientes cujos fetos apresentaram defeitos de tubo neural (DTN. O folato sangüíneo e a vitamina B12 atuam como cofatores para as enzimas envolvidas na biossíntese do DNA. A interrupção deste processo pode impedir o fechamento do tubo neural. A suplementação vitamínica contendo folato pode reduzir as taxas de ocorrência de defeitos de tubo neural, embora exista a preocupação de que esta prevenção possa mascarar a deficiência de vitamina B12. Métodos: dosagens de vitamina B12 e ferritina pelo método de enzimaimunoensaio com micropartículas e a dosagens de ácido fólico pelo método de captura iônica (IMx ABBOTT. Resultados: a porcentagem de gestantes com deficiência de vitamina B12 (níveis séricos Purpose: to determine folate, vitamin B12 and ferritin levels in patients whose fetuses presented neural-tube defects (NTD. Blood folate and vitamin B12 act as cofactors of enzymes involved in DNA biosynthesis. Interruption of this process may block neural-tube closing. Vitamin supplementation with folate may reduce occurrence rates and recurrence of NTD, although there is concern about the fact that this prevention may mask vitamin B12 deficiency. Methods: vitamin B12 and ferritin determinations by enzyme immunoassay with microparticles and folic acid determination using the ion capture method (IMx ABBOTT. Results: the percentage of pregnant women with vitamin B12 deficirncy (serum levels < 150 pg/ml was 11.8%. There was no case of folate deficiency (serum levels < 3.0 ng/ml and prevalence of pregnant women with iron store deficiency was 47.1% (serum levels < ng/mg. Conclusions: occording to the results obtained in this study (prevalence of 11.8% of vitamin B12 and 0% of folate deficient pregnant women we suggest that supplementation should be administered after serum vitamin B12 determination.

  8. Analog neural network-based helicopter gearbox health monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, P T; Dzwonczyk, M; Manolakos, E S

    1995-12-01

    The development of a reliable helicopter gearbox health monitoring system (HMS) has been the subject of considerable research over the past 15 years. The deployment of such a system could lead to a significant saving in lives and vehicles as well as dramatically reduce the cost of helicopter maintenance. Recent research results indicate that a neural network-based system could provide a viable solution to the problem. This paper presents two neural network-based realizations of an HMS system. A hybrid (digital/analog) neural system is proposed as an extremely accurate off-line monitoring tool used to reduce helicopter gearbox maintenance costs. In addition, an all analog neural network is proposed as a real-time helicopter gearbox fault monitor that can exploit the ability of an analog neural network to directly compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) as a sum of weighted samples. Hardware performance results are obtained using the Integrated Neural Computing Architecture (INCA/1) analog neural network platform that was designed and developed at The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory. The results indicate that it is possible to achieve a 100% fault detection rate with 0% false alarm rate by performing a DFT directly on the first layer of INCA/1 followed by a small-size two-layer feed-forward neural network and a simple post-processing majority voting stage.

  9. The ctenophore genome and the evolutionary origins of neural systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moroz, Leonid L.; Kocot, Kevin M.; Citarella, Mathew R.; Dosung, Sohn; Norekian, Tigran P.; Povolotskaya, Inna S.; Grigorenko, Anastasia P.; Dailey, Christopher; Berezikov, Eugene; Buckley, Katherine M.; Ptitsyn, Andrey; Reshetov, Denis; Mukherjee, Krishanu; Moroz, Tatiana P.; Bobkova, Yelena; Yu, Fahong; Kapitonov, Vladimir V.; Jurka, Jerzy; Bobkov, Yuri V.; Swore, Joshua J.; Girardo, David O.; Fodor, Alexander; Gusev, Fedor; Sanford, Rachel; Bruders, Rebecca; Kittler, Ellen; Mills, Claudia E.; Rast, Jonathan P.; Derelle, Romain; Solovyev, Victor V.; Kondrashov, Fyodor A.; Swalla, Billie J.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Rogaev, Evgeny I.; Halanych, Kenneth M.; Kohn, Andrea B.

    2014-01-01

    The origins of neural systems remain unresolved. In contrast to other basal metazoans, ctenophores (comb jellies) have both complex nervous and mesoderm-derived muscular systems. These holoplanktonic predators also have sophisticated ciliated locomotion, behaviour and distinct development. Here we

  10. Imaging findings in patients with ventral dural defects and herniation of neural tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, A.; Staebler, A.; Reiser, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Marchioninistrasse 15, D-81 377 Munich (Germany); Psenner, K. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Allgemeines Regionalkrankenhaus Bozen (Italy); Hamburger, C. [Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Marchioninistrasse 15, D-81 377 Munich (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe clinical and imaging findings in three patients with ventral dural defects and herniation of the spinal cord or cauda equina. The literature is reviewed and the clinical, radiological and operative findings are compared. Three patients with ventral dural defects of different etiologies are presented. One patient gave a longstanding history of ankylosing spondylitis, the second patient presents 37 years after spinal trauma, and the third patient presents with spontaneous spinal cord herniation. All patients had typically slowly progressive neurological symptoms with multiple hospitalizations until diagnosis was made. Characteristic findings in postmyelographic CT included a ventral or ventrolateral displacement with deformation of the spinal cord or the cauda equina. Sagittal MRI showed this abrupt and localized anterior deviation of the spinal cord or the cauda equina to the posterior portions of a vertebral body with or without a bony vertebral defect optimally. Additionally, due to the ventral displacement of the spinal cord, the dorsal subarachnoid space was relatively enlarged without evidence of an arachnoid cyst, in all patients. Magnetic resonance imaging and postmyelographic CT can diagnose ventral dural defects with spinal cord herniation or nerve root entrapment. Dural defects must be considered in the presence of neurological symptoms in cases of longstanding ankylosing spondylitis, late sequelae of fractures of vertebral bodies, and without history of spinal trauma or surgery. (orig.). With 3 figs.

  11. Spiking Neural P Systems with Communication on Request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Linqiang; Păun, Gheorghe; Zhang, Gexiang; Neri, Ferrante

    2017-12-01

    Spiking Neural [Formula: see text] Systems are Neural System models characterized by the fact that each neuron mimics a biological cell and the communication between neurons is based on spikes. In the Spiking Neural [Formula: see text] systems investigated so far, the application of evolution rules depends on the contents of a neuron (checked by means of a regular expression). In these [Formula: see text] systems, a specified number of spikes are consumed and a specified number of spikes are produced, and then sent to each of the neurons linked by a synapse to the evolving neuron. [Formula: see text]In the present work, a novel communication strategy among neurons of Spiking Neural [Formula: see text] Systems is proposed. In the resulting models, called Spiking Neural [Formula: see text] Systems with Communication on Request, the spikes are requested from neighboring neurons, depending on the contents of the neuron (still checked by means of a regular expression). Unlike the traditional Spiking Neural [Formula: see text] systems, no spikes are consumed or created: the spikes are only moved along synapses and replicated (when two or more neurons request the contents of the same neuron). [Formula: see text]The Spiking Neural [Formula: see text] Systems with Communication on Request are proved to be computationally universal, that is, equivalent with Turing machines as long as two types of spikes are used. Following this work, further research questions are listed to be open problems.

  12. Neural Systems for Speech and Song in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Grace; Pantazatos, Spiro P.; Schneider, Harry; Hirsch, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Despite language disabilities in autism, music abilities are frequently preserved. Paradoxically, brain regions associated with these functions typically overlap, enabling investigation of neural organization supporting speech and song in autism. Neural systems sensitive to speech and song were compared in low-functioning autistic and age-matched…

  13. Folic acid fortification and prevalences of neural tube defects, orofacial clefts, and gastroschisis in California, 1989 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L; Shaw, Gary M

    2016-12-01

    We examined whether prevalences of neural tube defects (NTDs), orofacial clefts, and gastroschisis changed more rapidly after than before folic acid fortification in California. This population-based study used vital statistics and birth defects registry data. The study population included all live births and stillbirths delivered in central California counties from 1989 to 2010. Cases included deliveries with NTDs, orofacial clefts, and gastroschisis. Weighted least squares regression was used to estimate slopes during prefortification (before 1997) and postfortification (after 1998), respectively. The difference of the two slopes with the 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. For all NTDs combined, slopes indicated that NTD prevalence was decreasing by 8.7 (slope: -8.7; 95% CI, -13.5--3.9) cases per 100,000 deliveries per year before fortification and by 1.7 (slope: -1.7; 95% CI, -3.7-0.3) after fortification; thus the decline had slowed by 7.0 (95% CI, 2.7-11.3) cases per 100,000 deliveries per year. For orofacial clefts, slopes for cleft lip with/without palate as well as for cleft palate alone indicated that the postfortification slope was lower than the prefortification slope suggesting a more accelerated decrease in the postfortification time period. For gastroschisis, the slope after fortification was lower compared with prefortification, indicating a less accelerated prevalence increase in the postfortification time period. Stratification by race/ethnicity did not substantially alter results. We observed a slower decline in prevalence of NTDs, an emergence of a decline in orofacial clefts, and a slower increase in gastroschisis, during the postfortification period in central California, relative to the prefortification period. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:1032-1041, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Maternal occupational exposure to organic solvents during early pregnancy and risks of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Tania A; Lawson, Christina C; Meyer, Robert E; Richardson, David B; Daniels, Julie L; Waters, Martha A; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Langlois, Peter H; Romitti, Paul A; Correa, Adolfo; Olshan, A

    2012-07-01

    Though toxicological experiments demonstrate the teratogenicity of organic solvents in animal models, epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent results. Using data from the population-based National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors examined the relation between maternal occupational exposure to aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents and Stoddard solvent during early pregnancy and neural tube defects (NTDs) and orofacial clefts (OFCs). Cases of NTDs (anencephaly, spina bifida and encephalocoele) and OFCs (cleft lip ± cleft palate and cleft palate alone) delivered between 1997 and 2002 were identified by birth defect surveillance registries in eight states; non-malformed control infants were selected using birth certificates or hospital records. Maternal solvent exposure was estimated by industrial hygienist review of self-reported occupational histories in combination with a literature-derived exposure database. ORs and 95% CIs for the association between solvent class and each birth defect group and component phenotype were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, pre-pregnancy body mass index, folic acid supplement use and smoking. The prevalence of exposure to any solvent among mothers of NTD cases (n = 511), OFC cases (n = 1163) and controls (n = 2977) was 13.1%, 9.6% and 8.2%, respectively. Exposure to chlorinated solvents was associated with increased odds of NTDs (OR = 1.96, CI 1.34 to 2.87), especially spina bifida (OR = 2.26, CI 1.44 to 3.53). No solvent class was strongly associated with OFCs in these data. The findings suggest that maternal occupational exposure to chlorinated solvents during early pregnancy is positively associated with the prevalence of NTDs in offspring.

  15. Dificultades en los métodos de estudio de exposiciones ambientales y defectos del tubo neural Methodological challenges to assess environmental exposures related to neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Borja-Aburto

    1999-11-01

    susceptibilidad genética.Objective. To discuss the attitudes in the assessment of environmental exposures as risk factors associated with neural tube defects, and to present the main risk factors studied to date. Results. Environmental exposures have been suggested to have a roll in the genesis of birth defects. However, studies conducted in human populations have found difficulties in the design and conduction to show such an association for neural tube defects (anencephaly, espina bifida and encefalocele because of problems raised from: a the frequency measures used to compare time trends and communities, b the classification of heterogeneous malformations, c the inclusion of maternal, paternal and fetal factors as an integrated process and, d the assessment of environmental exposures. Conclusions. Hypothetically both maternal and paternal environmental exposures can produce damage before and after conception by direct action on the embryo and the fetus-placenta complex. Therefore, in the assessment of environmental exposures we need to take into account: a both paternal and maternal exposures; b the critical exposure period, three months before conception for paternal exposures and one month around the conceptional period for maternal exposures; c quantitatively evaluate environmental exposures when possible, avoiding a dichotomous classification; d the use of biological markers of exposure is highly recommended as well as markers of genetic susceptibility.

  16. Disostose espôndilo-costal associada a defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural Spondylocostal dysostosis associated with neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano M. Rosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Salientar a relação dos defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural com a disostose espôndilo-costal (DEC por meio da descrição de três pacientes. DESCRIÇÃO DOS CASOS: Paciente 1: menina branca, 22 meses, nascida com mielomeningocele lombar. Na avaliação, apresentava hipotonia, baixa estatura, dolicocefalia, fendas palpebrais oblíquas para cima, pregas epicânticas e tronco curto com tórax assimétrico. A avaliação radiográfica revelou hemivértebras múltiplas, vértebras em borboleta e fusão e ausência de algumas costelas. Paciente 2: menina branca, 22 meses, com moderado atraso do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor, baixa estatura, olhos profundos, pregas epicânticas, pescoço e tronco curtos com assimetria do tórax, abdome protruso, hemangioma plano na altura da transição lombossacra e fosseta sacral profunda no dorso. A avaliação radiográfica identificou hemivértebras, fusão incompleta de vértebras e vértebras em borboleta, malformações de costelas e espinha bífida oculta em L5/S1. Paciente 3: menina branca, 9 dias de vida, com fendas palpebrais oblíquas para cima, ponte nasal alargada, orelhas baixo implantadas e rotadas posteriormente, tronco curto, tórax assimétrico e meningocele tóraco-lombar. A avaliação radiográfica evidenciou hemivértebras, malformação e ausência de algumas costelas e agenesia diafragmática à esquerda. A tomografia computadorizada de encéfalo mostrou estenose de aqueduto. COMENTÁRIOS: Vários defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural, de espinha bífida oculta a grandes mielomeningoceles, são observados em pacientes com DEC, indicando que tais pacientes devem ser cuidadosamente avaliados quanto à possível presença desses defeitos.OBJECTIVE: To highlight the relationship between neural tube defects and spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD through the description of three patients. CASES DESCRIPTION: Patient 1: white girl, 22 months old, born with a lumbar meningomyelocele. At

  17. High glucose-induced oxidative stress represses sirtuin deacetylase expression and increases histone acetylation leading to neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingwen; Wu, Yanqing; Yang, Peixin

    2016-05-01

    Aberrant epigenetic modifications are implicated in maternal diabetes-induced neural tube defects (NTDs). Because cellular stress plays a causal role in diabetic embryopathy, we investigated the possible role of the stress-resistant sirtuin (SIRT) family histone deacetylases. Among the seven sirtuins (SIRT1-7), pre-gestational maternal diabetes in vivo or high glucose in vitro significantly reduced the expression of SIRT 2 and SIRT6 in the embryo or neural stem cells, respectively. The down-regulation of SIRT2 and SIRT6 was reversed by superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) over-expression in the in vivo mouse model of diabetic embryopathy and the SOD mimetic, tempol and cell permeable SOD, PEGSOD in neural stem cell cultures. 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ), a superoxide generating agent, mimicked high glucose-suppressed SIRT2 and SIRT6 expression. The acetylation of histone 3 at lysine residues 56 (H3K56), H3K14, H3K9, and H3K27, putative substrates of SIRT2 and SIRT6, was increased by maternal diabetes in vivo or high glucose in vitro, and these increases were blocked by SOD1 over-expression or tempol treatment. SIRT2 or SIRT6 over-expression abrogated high glucose-suppressed SIRT2 or SIRT6 expression, and prevented the increase in acetylation of their histone substrates. The potent sirtuin activator (SRT1720) blocked high glucose-increased histone acetylation and NTD formation, whereas the combination of a pharmacological SIRT2 inhibitor and a pan SIRT inhibitor mimicked the effect of high glucose on increased histone acetylation and NTD induction. Thus, diabetes in vivo or high glucose in vitro suppresses SIRT2 and SIRT6 expression through oxidative stress, and sirtuin down-regulation-induced histone acetylation may be involved in diabetes-induced NTDs. The mechanism underlying pre-gestational diabetes-induced neural tube defects (NTDs) is still elusive. Our study unravels a new epigenetic mechanism in which maternal diabetes-induced oxidative stress represses

  18. Neural Network Classifiers to Grade Parts Based on Surface Defects with Spatial Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    In many manufacturing situations, production parts must be assigned a qualitative grade, rather than only accepted or rejected. When this is done, spatial relationships between defect areas can be a critical factor in making grade assignments. In the case of grading hardwood lumber, for instance, there exists a highly complex set of grading rules which incorporate...

  19. Log Defect Recognition Using CT-images and Neural Net Classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Pei Li; A. Lynn Abbott

    1995-01-01

    Although several approaches have been introduced to automatically identify internal log defects using computed tomography (CT) imagery, most of these have been feasibility efforts and consequently have had several limitations: (1) reports of classification accuracy are largely subjective, not statistical, (2) there has been no attempt to achieve real-time operation,...

  20. Short-term synaptic plasticity and heterogeneity in neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias, J. F.; Kappen, H. J.; Longtin, A.; Torres, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    We review some recent results on neural dynamics and information processing which arise when considering several biophysical factors of interest, in particular, short-term synaptic plasticity and neural heterogeneity. The inclusion of short-term synaptic plasticity leads to enhanced long-term memory capacities, a higher robustness of memory to noise, and irregularity in the duration of the so-called up cortical states. On the other hand, considering some level of neural heterogeneity in neuron models allows neural systems to optimize information transmission in rate coding and temporal coding, two strategies commonly used by neurons to codify information in many brain areas. In all these studies, analytical approximations can be made to explain the underlying dynamics of these neural systems.

  1. Punicalagin exerts protective effect against high glucose-induced cellular stress and neural tube defects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Jianxiang; Reece, E. Albert; Yang, Peixin

    2015-01-01

    Maternal diabetes-induced birth defects remain a significant health problem. Studying the effect of natural compounds with antioxidant properties and minimal toxicities on diabetic embryopathy may lead to the development of new and safe dietary supplements. Punicalagin is a primary polyphenol found in pomegranate juice, which possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic properties, suggesting a protective effect of punicalagin on diabetic embryopathy. Here, we examined whethe...

  2. Dopamine system: Manager of neural pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eHong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a growing number of roles that midbrain dopamine (DA neurons assume, such as, reward, aversion, alerting and vigor. Here I propose a theory that may be able to explain why the suggested functions of DA came about. It has been suggested that largely parallel cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortico loops exist to control different aspects of behavior. I propose that (1 the midbrain DA system is organized in a similar manner, with different groups of DA neurons corresponding to these parallel neural pathways (NPs. The DA system can be viewed as the manager of these parallel NPs in that it recruits and activates only the task-relevant NPs when they are needed. It is likely that the functions of those NPs that have been consistently activated by the corresponding DA groups are facilitated. I also propose that (2 there are two levels of DA roles: the How and What roles. The How role is encoded in tonic and phasic DA neuron firing patterns and gives a directive to its target NP: how vigorously its function needs to be carried out. The tonic DA firing is to maintain a certain level of DA in the target NPs to support their expected behavioral and mental functions; it is only when a sudden unexpected boost or suppression of activity is required by the relevant target NP that DA neurons in the corresponding NP act in a phasic manner. The What role is the implementational aspect of the role of DA in the target NP, such as binding to D1 receptors to boost working memory. This What aspect of DA explains why DA seems to assume different functions depending on the region of the brain in which it is involved. In terms of the role of the lateral habenula (LHb, the LHb is expected to suppress maladaptive behaviors and mental processes by controlling the DA system. The demand-based smart management by the DA system may have given animals an edge in evolution with adaptive behaviors and a better survival rate in resource-scarce situations.

  3. Differentiation defect in neural crest-derived smooth muscle cells in patients with aortopathy associated with bicuspid aortic valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Jiao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with bicuspid aortic valves (BAV are at a higher risk of developing thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA than patients with trileaflet aortic valves (TAV. The aneurysms associated with BAV most commonly involve the ascending aorta and spare the descending aorta. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs in the ascending and descending aorta arise from neural crest (NC and paraxial mesoderm (PM, respectively. We hypothesized defective differentiation of the neural crest stem cells (NCSCs-derived SMCs but not paraxial mesoderm cells (PMCs-derived SMCs contributes to the aortopathy associated with BAV. When induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from BAV/TAA patients were differentiated into NCSC-derived SMCs, these cells demonstrated significantly decreased expression of marker of SMC differentiation (MYH11 and impaired contraction compared to normal control. In contrast, the PMC-derived SMCs were similar to control cells in these aspects. The NCSC-SMCs from the BAV/TAA also showed decreased TGF-β signaling based on phosphorylation of SMAD2, and increased mTOR signaling. Inhibition of mTOR pathway using rapamycin rescued the aberrant differentiation. Our data demonstrates that decreased differentiation and contraction of patient's NCSC-derived SMCs may contribute to that aortopathy associated with BAV.

  4. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms resulting in suboptimal oocyte maturation: a discussion of folate status, neural tube defects, schizophrenia, and vasculopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloet, P.H.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Heijer, M. den; Roeleveld, N.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Several conditions apparent at birth, e.g., neural tube defects (NTDs) and cardiac anomalies, are associated with polymorphisms in folate-related genes, such as the 677C --> T polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Similar associations have been established

  5. Mortalidad por defectos del tubo neural en México, 1980-1997 Mortality due to neural tube defects in Mexico, 1980-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Ramírez-Espitia

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la mortalidad en México por defectos del tubo neural, durante el periodo 1980-1997. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Las tasas anuales de mortalidad estatales y nacionales, por defectos del tubo neural, se calcularon por 10 000 nacidos vivos. La tendencia temporal fue evaluada por el porcentaje de cambio anual obtenido mediante un modelo de regresión de Poisson. Se calculó la razón de mortalidad, tomando la media nacional como referencia. Las tasas y las razones se representaron gráficamente en mapas. RESULTADOS: Durante el periodo la tasa bruta de mortalidad por defectos del tubo neural fue de 5.8 por 10 000 nacidos vivos. La anencefalia fue el tipo de defecto más frecuente (37.7%, seguida de la espina bífida sin hidrocefalia (31.6%. La tendencia nacional de la mortalidad por defectos del tubo neural fue ascendente entre 1980 y 1990 (porcentaje de cambio anual 7.5 IC 95% 6.5, 8.6 y descendente entre 1990-1997 (porcentaje de cambio anual -2.3 IC 95% -3.6, -0.9. CONCLUSIONES: Las altas tasas de mortalidad por defectos del tubo neural fueron debidas principalmente a la elevada frecuencia de las anencefalias. El incremento observado parece no ser sólo atribuible a cuestiones puramente diagnósticas o de mejora en los registros. La influencia de factores asociados a estos defectos, como determinados polimorfismos genéticos, la deficiencia de ácido fólico, la obesidad materna, la exposición laboral a plaguicidas y la pobreza deberán evaluarse mediante estudios específicos.OBJECTIVE: To describe the mortality due to neural tube defects (NTD in Mexico for the 1980-1997 period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The annual NTD mortality rates per 10000 liveborn infants were calculated by state and for the country. The time trend was evaluated with the annual percent change (APC obtained using a Poisson regression model. The NTD mortality ratio was calculated using the average national rate as reference. NTD mortality rates and ratios were

  6. Influence of the antifolate drug Methotrexate on the development of murine neural tube defects and genomic instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Guan, Tao; Wang, Jianhua; Xiang, Qian; Wang, Mingsheng; Wang, Xiuwei; Guan, Zhen; Xie, Qiu; Niu, Bo; Zhang, Ting

    2013-09-01

    Impaired folate metabolism is considered a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the relationship between folate deficiency and the risk of NTDs remains unclear, because experimentally induced dietary folate deficiency is insufficient to cause NTDs in non-mutant mice. Methotrexate (MTX) is a specific folate antagonist that competitively inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) activity. The objective of this study was to develop a folate dysmetabolism murine model, and study the development of NTDs and its mechanism. Pregnant mice were injected with different doses of MTX [0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 mg kg(-1) body weight (b/w) intraperitoneally (i.p.)] on gestational day 7.5 and sacrificed on gestational day 11.5. DHFR activity in embryonic tissues was detected, and folate concentrations were analyzed using LC/MS/MS. Copy number variations (CNVs) in neural tube tissues were detected using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). A dose of MTX 4.5 mg kg(-1) b/w, resulted in the highest incidence of NTDs (31.4%) compared with the other groups, and DHFR activities, 5-MeTHF and 5-FoTHF concentrations in embryonic tissues decreased significantly after MTX injection. Furthermore, we found three high-confidence CNVs on chromosome X using aCGH, which was confirmed by RT-PCR and MassARRAY. These results indicate that MTX could cause a folate-associated dysmetabolism, which is similar to that of dietary folate deficiency in mice. The presence of CNVs in neural tube tissues was associated with the development of NTDs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Running rescues defective adult neurogenesis by shortening the length of the cell cycle of neural stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Mattera, Andrea; Micheli, Laura; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Leonardi, Luca; Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rouault, Jean-Pierre; Tirone, Felice

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise increases the generation of new neurons in adult neurogenesis. However, only few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of physical exercise in paradigms of impaired neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that running fully reverses the deficient adult neurogenesis within the hippocampus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, observed in mice lacking the antiproliferative gene Btg1. We also evaluated for the first time how running influences the cell cycle kinetics of stem and precursor subpopulations of wild-type and Btg1-null mice, using a new method to determine the cell cycle length. Our data show that in wild-type mice running leads to a cell cycle shortening only of NeuroD1-positive progenitor cells. In contrast, in Btg1-null mice, physical exercise fully reactivates the defective hippocampal neurogenesis, by shortening the S-phase length and the overall cell cycle duration of both neural stem (glial fibrillary acidic protein(+) and Sox2(+)) and progenitor (NeuroD1(+)) cells. These events are sufficient and necessary to reactivate the hyperproliferation observed in Btg1-null early-postnatal mice and to expand the pool of adult neural stem and progenitor cells. Such a sustained increase of cell proliferation in Btg1-null mice after running provides a long-lasting increment of proliferation, differentiation, and production of newborn neurons, which rescues the impaired pattern separation previously identified in Btg1-null mice. This study shows that running positively affects the cell cycle kinetics of specific subpopulations of newly generated neurons and suggests that the plasticity of neural stem cells without cell cycle inhibitory control is reactivated by running, with implications for the long-term modulation of neurogenesis. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  8. Evolution of posterior fossa and brain morphology after in utero repair of open neural tube defects assessed by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethmann, Christin; Scheer, Ianina; Kellenberger, Christian Johannes [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, The Zurich Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, Zurich (Switzerland); Children' s Research Center (CRC), Zurich (Switzerland); Meuli, Martin; Mazzone, Luca; Moehrlen, Ueli [University of Zurich, The Zurich Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, Zurich (Switzerland); Children' s Research Center (CRC), Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-11-15

    To describe characteristics of foetuses undergoing in utero repair of open neural tube defects (ONTD) and assess postoperative evolution of posterior fossa and brain morphology. Analysis of pre- and postoperative foetal as well as neonatal MRI of 27 foetuses who underwent in utero repair of ONTD. Type and level of ONTD, hindbrain configuration, posterior fossa and liquor space dimensions, and detection of associated findings were compared between MRI studies and to age-matched controls. Level of bony spinal defect was defined with exactness of ± one vertebral body. Of surgically confirmed 18 myelomeningoceles (MMC) and 9 myeloschisis (MS), 3 MMC were misdiagnosed as MS due to non-visualisation of a flat membrane on MRI. Hindbrain herniation was more severe in MS than MMC (p < 0.001). After repair, hindbrain herniation resolved in 25/27 cases at 4 weeks and liquor spaces increased. While posterior fossa remained small (p < 0.001), its configuration normalised. Lateral ventricle diameter indexed to cerebral width decreased in 48% and increased in 12% of cases, implying a low rate of progressive obstructive hydrocephalus. Neonatally evident subependymal heterotopias were detected in 33% at preoperative and 50% at postoperative foetal MRI. MRI demonstrates change of Chiari malformation type II (CM-II) features. (orig.)

  9. Developing effective campaign messages to prevent neural tube defects: a qualitative assessment of women's reactions to advertising concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi Lindsey, Lisa L; Silk, Kami J; Von Friederichs-Fitzwater, Marlene M; Hamner, Heather C; Prue, Christine E; Boster, Franklin J

    2009-03-01

    The incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs), serious birth defects of the brain and spine that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies in the United States each year, can be reduced by 50-70% with daily periconceptional consumption of the B vitamin folic acid. Two studies were designed to assess college women's reactions to and perceptions of potential campaign advertising concepts derived from preproduction formative research to increase folic acid consumption through the use of a daily multivitamin. Study one assessed draft advertising concepts in eight focus groups (N = 71) composed of college-enrolled women in four cities geographically dispersed across the United States. Based on study one results, the concepts were revised and reassessed in study two with a different sample (eight focus groups; N = 73) of college women in the same four cities. Results indicated that participants generally responded favorably to concepts in each of the two studies, and provided insight into individual concepts to increase their overall appeal and effectiveness. The specific findings and implications of these results are discussed.

  10. Optical production systems using neural networks and symbolic substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Elizabeth; Casasent, David; Barnard, Etienne

    1988-01-01

    Two optical implementations of production systems are advanced. The production systems operate on a knowledge base where facts and rules are encoded as formulas in propositional calculus. The first implementation is a binary neural network. An analog neural network is used to include reasoning with uncertainties. The second implementation uses a new optical symbolic substitution correlator. This implementation is useful when a set of similar situations has to be handled in parallel on one processor.

  11. Chaotic Extension Neural Network-Based Fault Diagnosis Method for Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Nan Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the solar photovoltaic system is extensively used. However, once a fault occurs, it is inspected manually, which is not economical. In order to remedy the defect of unavailable fault diagnosis at any irradiance and temperature in the literature with chaos synchronization based intelligent fault diagnosis for photovoltaic systems proposed by Hsieh et al., this study proposed a chaotic extension fault diagnosis method combined with error back propagation neural network to overcome this problem. It used the nn toolbox of matlab 2010 for simulation and comparison, measured current irradiance and temperature, and used the maximum power point tracking (MPPT for chaotic extraction of eigenvalue. The range of extension field was determined by neural network. Finally, the voltage eigenvalue obtained from current temperature and irradiance was used for the fault diagnosis. Comparing the diagnostic rates with the results by Hsieh et al., this scheme can obtain better diagnostic rates when the irradiances or the temperatures are changed.

  12. System for Analyzing Microscopic Defects and Defect Propagation Due to Aging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New technology is needed for sensing and characterizing incipient defects, and assessing the effects of aging in aerospace components. Next generation materials,...

  13. Genetic learning in rule-based and neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    The design of neural networks and fuzzy systems can involve complex, nonlinear, and ill-conditioned optimization problems. Often, traditional optimization schemes are inadequate or inapplicable for such tasks. Genetic Algorithms (GA's) are a class of optimization procedures whose mechanics are based on those of natural genetics. Mathematical arguments show how GAs bring substantial computational leverage to search problems, without requiring the mathematical characteristics often necessary for traditional optimization schemes (e.g., modality, continuity, availability of derivative information, etc.). GA's have proven effective in a variety of search tasks that arise in neural networks and fuzzy systems. This presentation begins by introducing the mechanism and theoretical underpinnings of GA's. GA's are then related to a class of rule-based machine learning systems called learning classifier systems (LCS's). An LCS implements a low-level production-system that uses a GA as its primary rule discovery mechanism. This presentation illustrates how, despite its rule-based framework, an LCS can be thought of as a competitive neural network. Neural network simulator code for an LCS is presented. In this context, the GA is doing more than optimizing and objective function. It is searching for an ecology of hidden nodes with limited connectivity. The GA attempts to evolve this ecology such that effective neural network performance results. The GA is particularly well adapted to this task, given its naturally-inspired basis. The LCS/neural network analogy extends itself to other, more traditional neural networks. Conclusions to the presentation discuss the implications of using GA's in ecological search problems that arise in neural and fuzzy systems.

  14. Multiple neural network approaches to clinical expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Derek F.

    1990-08-01

    We briefly review the concept of computer aided medical diagnosis and more extensively review the the existing literature on neural network applications in the field. Neural networks can function as simple expert systems for diagnosis or prognosis. Using a public database we develop a neural network for the diagnosis of a major presenting symptom while discussing the development process and possible approaches. MEDICAL EXPERTS SYSTEMS COMPUTER AIDED DIAGNOSIS Biomedicine is an incredibly diverse and multidisciplinary field and it is not surprising that neural networks with their many applications are finding more and more applications in the highly non-linear field of biomedicine. I want to concentrate on neural networks as medical expert systems for clinical diagnosis or prognosis. Expert Systems started out as a set of computerized " ifthen" rules. Everything was reduced to boolean logic and the promised land of computer experts was said to be in sight. It never came. Why? First the computer code explodes as the number of " ifs" increases. All the " ifs" have to interact. Second experts are not very good at reducing expertise to language. It turns out that experts recognize patterns and have non-verbal left-brain intuition decision processes. Third learning by example rather than learning by rule is the way natural brains works and making computers work by rule-learning is hideously labor intensive. Neural networks can learn from example. They learn the results

  15. System Identification, Prediction, Simulation and Control with Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    1997-01-01

    a Gauss-Newton search direction is applied. 3) Amongst numerous model types, often met in control applications, only the Non-linear ARMAX (NARMAX) model, representing input/output description, is examined. A simulated example confirms that a neural network has the potential to perform excellent System...... Identification, Prediction, Simulation and Control of a dynamic, non-linear and noisy process. Further, the difficulties to control a practical non-linear laboratory process in a satisfactory way by using a traditional controller are overcomed by using a trained neural network to perform non-linear System......The intention of this paper is to make a systematic examination of the possibilities of applying neural networks in those technical areas, which are familiar to a control engineer. In other words, the potential of neural networks in control applications is given higher priority than a detailed...

  16. The Criticality Hypothesis in Neural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimipanah, Yahya

    There is mounting evidence that neural networks of the cerebral cortex exhibit scale invariant dynamics. At the larger scale, fMRI recordings have shown evidence for spatiotemporal long range correlations. On the other hand, at the smaller scales this scale invariance is marked by the power law distribution of the size and duration of spontaneous bursts of activity, which are referred as neuronal avalanches. The existence of such avalanches has been confirmed by several studies in vitro and in vivo, among different species and across multiple scales, from spatial scale of MEG and EEG down to single cell resolution. This prevalent scale free nature of cortical activity suggests the hypothesis that the cortex resides at a critical state between two phases of order (short-lasting activity) and disorder (long-lasting activity). In addition, it has been shown, both theoretically and experimentally, that being at criticality brings about certain functional advantages for information processing. However, despite the plenty of evidence and plausibility of the neural criticality hypothesis, still very little is known on how the brain may leverage such criticality to facilitate neural coding. Moreover, the emergent functions that may arise from critical dynamics is poorly understood. In the first part of this thesis, we review several pieces of evidence for the neural criticality hypothesis at different scales, as well as some of the most popular theories of self-organized criticality (SOC). Thereafter, we will focus on the most prominent evidence from small scales, namely neuronal avalanches. We will explore the effect of adaptation and how it can maintain scale free dynamics even at the presence of external stimuli. Using calcium imaging we also experimentally demonstrate the existence of scale free activity at the cellular resolution in vivo. Moreover, by exploring the subsampling issue in neural data, we will find some fundamental constraints of the conventional methods

  17. Efeito da fortificação alimentar com ácido fólico na prevalência de defeitos do tubo neural Efecto de la fortificación alimentaria con ácido fólico en la prevalencia de defectos del tubo neural Effects of folic acid fortification on the prevalence of neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmya Silva Pacheco

    2009-08-01

    defectos del cierre del tubo neural fueron definidos de acuerdo con el Códigos Internacional de Enfermedades- 10ª Revisión: anencefalia, encefalocele y espina bífida. Se compararon las prevalencias en los períodos anterior (2000 - 2004 y posterior (2005-2006 al período obligatorio de fortificación. Se analizó la tendencia temporal de las prevalencias trimestrales de defectos del cierre del tubo neural por las pruebas de Mann-Kendall y Sen's Slope. RESULTADOS: No se identificó tendencia de reducción en la ocurrencia del hecho (Teste de Mann-Kendall; p= 0,270; Sen's Slope = - 0,008 en el período estudiado. No hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre las prevalencias de defectos de cierre del tubo neural en los períodos anterior y posterior a la fortificación de los alimentos con ácido fólico de acuerdo con las características maternas. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de que no haya sido observada reducción de los defectos de cierre del tubo neural posterior al período obligatorio de fortificación de alimentos con ácido fólico, los resultados encontrados no permiten descartar el beneficio del mismo en la prevención de esta malformación. Son necesarios estudios evaluando mayor período y considerando el nivel de consumo de los productos fortificados por las mujeres en edad fértil.OBJECTIVE:To analyze the effect of folic acid-fortified foods on the prevalence of neural tube defects in live newborns. METHODS: Longitudinal study with newborns from the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2000 and 2006. Data analyzed were obtained from the Sistema Nacional de Informações de Nascidos Vivos (National Information System on Live Births. Neural tube defects were defined in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10: anencephaly, encephalocele, and spina bifida. Prevalences from the periods before (2000-2004 and after (2005-2006 the mandatory fortification period were compared. Time trend of three

  18. Cell-specific deletion of glucosylceramide synthase in brain leads to severe neural defects after birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennemann, Richard; Sandhoff, Roger; Wang, Shijun; Kiss, Eva; Gretz, Norbert; Zuliani, Cecilia; Martin-Villalba, Ana; Jäger, Richard; Schorle, Hubert; Kenzelmann, Marc; Bonrouhi, Mahnaz; Wiegandt, Herbert; Gröne, Hermann-Josef

    2005-01-01

    Sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, i.e., gangliosides, constitute a major component of neuronal cells and are thought to be essential for brain function. UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase (Ugcg) catalyzes the initial step of glycosphingolipid (GSL) biosynthesis. To gain insight into the role of GSLs in brain development and function, a cell-specific disruption of Ugcg was performed as indicated by the absence of virtually all glucosylceramide-based GSLs. Shortly after birth, mice showed dysfunction of cerebellum and peripheral nerves, associated with structural defects. Axon branching of Purkinje cells was significantly reduced. In primary cultures of neurons, dendritic complexity was clearly diminished, and pruning occurred early. Myelin sheaths of peripheral nerves were broadened and focally severely disorganized. GSL deficiency also led to a down-regulation of gene expression sets involved in brain development and homeostasis. Mice died ≈3 weeks after birth. These results imply that GSLs are essential for brain maturation. PMID:16109770

  19. The Effects of Epidermal Neural Crest Stem Cells on Local Inflammation Microenvironment in the Defected Sciatic Nerve of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based therapy is a promising strategy for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs. epidermal neural crest stems cells (EPI-NCSCs are thought to be important donor cells for repairing PNI in different animal models. Following PNI, inflammatory response is important to regulate the repair process. However, the effects of EPI-NCSCs on regulation of local inflammation microenviroment have not been investigated extensively. In the present study, these effects were studied by using 10 mm defected sciatic nerve, which was bridged with 15 mm artificial nerve composed of EPI-NCSCs, extracellular matrix (ECM and poly (lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA. Then the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, polarization of macrophages, regulation of fibroblasts and shwann cells (SCs were assessed by western blot, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence staining at 1, 3, 7 and 21 days after bridging. The structure and the function of the bridged nerve were determined by observation under light microscope and by examination of right lateral foot retraction time (LFRT, sciatic function index (SFI, gastrocnemius wet weight and electrophysiology at 9 weeks. After bridging with EPI-NCSCs, the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13 was increased, but decreased for pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α compared to the control bridging, which was consistent with increase of M2 macrophages and decrease of M1 macrophages at 7 days after transplantation. Likewise, myelin-formed SCs were significantly increased, but decreased for the activated fibroblasts in their number at 21 days. The recovery of structure and function of nerve bridged with EPI-NCSCs was significantly superior to that of DMEM. These results indicated that EPI-NCSCs could be able to regulate and provide more suitable inflammation microenvironment for the repair of defected sciatic nerve.

  20. Frecuencia de los defectos del tubo neural en Asturias: impacto del diagnóstico prenatal Prevalence of neural tube defects in Asturias (Spain: impact of prenatal diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique García López

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Describir la frecuencia de defectos del tubo neural (DTN -anencefalia, espina bífida y encefalocele-en Asturias, su evolución temporal y el impacto del diagnóstico prenatal. Métodos: Se estudiaron los casos de DTN en nacidos y abortos inducidos durante el período 1990-2004, utilizando la base de datos del Registro de Defectos Congénitos de Asturias, de base poblacional. Se calcularon las tasas de prevalencia total y al nacimiento. Resultados: La prevalencia total de DTN fue de 12,2 casos por 10.000 nacidos (5,9 anencefalias, 5,0 espinas bífidas y 1,3 encefaloceles y mostró una tendencia ligeramente descendente, con un descenso significativo de la espina bífida, mientras que las cifras de anencefalia y encefalocele se mantuvieron estables. Finalizaron en aborto inducido tras el diagnóstico prenatal el 88% de los casos (anencefalia 96,7%; espina bífida 80%; encefalocele 84,6%, lo que determinó una prevalencia al nacimiento muy baja (1,4 DTN por 10.000 nacidos. Conclusiones: En Asturias, en los últimos 15 años se ha producido un descenso selectivo en la prevalencia total de espina bífida de causa no aclarada. La prevención secundaria, mediante los programas de diagnóstico prenatal y la consiguiente interrupción del embarazo, fue el motivo del marcado descenso de la frecuencia en los nacidos; la simple recomendación de suplementación periconcepcional con ácido fólico no parece haber logrado el efecto buscado.Objective: To describe the frequency and prevalence trend for neural tube defects (NTD (anencephaly, spina bifida and encephalocele in Asturias (Spain, as well as the impact of prenatal diagnosis programs. Methods: All cases of NTD in births and induced abortions were studied, using data from the Registry of Congenital Defects of Asturias for 1990-2004. Total and birth prevalence rates were calculated. Results: The prevalence of NTD for 1990-2004 was 12.2 per 10,000 births (5.9 anencephaly, 5.0 spina bifida and 1

  1. Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haochen; De Steur, Hans; Chen, Gong; Zhang, Xiaotian; Pei, Lijun; Gellynck, Xavier; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-03-09

    Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages) and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages). NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207-0473, p < 0.001). In terms of DALYs, burden in intervention group was approximately 58.5% lower than in the control group. Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory) folic acid fortification in China.

  2. Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haochen Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages. NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207–0473, p < 0.001. In terms of DALYs, burden in intervention group was approximately 58.5% lower than in the control group. Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory folic acid fortification in China.

  3. Meta-analysis of the association of maternal smoking and passive smoking during pregnancy with neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xin; Sun, Yanxin; Duan, Wenhou; Jia, Chongqi

    2018-01-01

    It is unclear whether the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) is greater with maternal smoking or with passive smoking during pregnancy. To compare the effects of smoking and passive smoking during pregnancy on the risk of NTDs. English and Chinese databases were searched for relevant papers published before March 2017, using search terms including "smoking" and "NTD." Case-control and cohort studies on the aforementioned association were included. Two authors independently extracted the original data. Meta-analyses were performed to assess the risks associated with smoking and passive smoking, followed by a comparison of the two pooled effect estimates. The I 2 statistic was used to examine between-study heterogeneity. The final analysis included 23 articles representing 33 studies. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the risk of NTDs was 1.052 (0.907-1.220) with smoking and 1.898 (1.557-2.313) with passive smoking. Comparison of these ORs indicated that the risk of NTDs was higher with passive smoking than with smoking (OR 1.804, 95% CI 1.409-2.309). Compared with smoking, exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy carries a higher risk of having infants with NTDs. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  4. Awareness and intake of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects among Lebanese women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Hage, Claudine; Jalloul, Maya; Sabbah, Mohamad; Adib, Salim M

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, international recommendations have promoted folic acid supplementation during the periconception period as an effective way of preventing neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the adoption of this recommendation remains insufficient. To assess the awareness and actual intake of folic acid among married Lebanese women aged 18-45 years, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 women selected from all five administrative districts in Lebanon, using a multistage cluster sampling procedure. An anonymous questionnaire was completed which covered measures of knowledge and use of folate supplements, as well as demographic, socioeconomic and obstetrical factors. Sixty percent of surveyed women (60%; n = 360) had heard about folic acid. Doctors were the most frequent source of information (61.1%) but only 24.7% of women have been told of the correct period during which folic acid supplementation was useful. Overall, only 6.2% had taken folic acid tablets during the adequate period. Younger age, higher education level and stability/sufficiency of income appeared to be significant predictors of awareness among Lebanese women. Actual folic acid intake was significantly associated with younger age, higher number of pregnancies, planning the last pregnancy and having had that last one after 1990. In Lebanon, the level of folic acid awareness and adequate intake remain relatively low. Several approaches should be used to promote folic acid intake including awareness campaigns, and routine counseling by primary health care physicians on folic acid during preconception visits.

  5. Noncanonical transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling in cranial neural crest cells causes tongue muscle developmental defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Akiko; Pelikan, Richard C; Ho, Thach-Vu; Chai, Yang

    2013-10-11

    Microglossia is a congenital birth defect in humans and adversely impacts quality of life. In vertebrates, tongue muscle derives from the cranial mesoderm, whereas tendons and connective tissues in the craniofacial region originate from cranial neural crest (CNC) cells. Loss of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) type II receptor in CNC cells in mice (Tgfbr2(fl/fl);Wnt1-Cre) causes microglossia due to a failure of cell-cell communication between cranial mesoderm and CNC cells during tongue development. However, it is still unclear how TGFβ signaling in CNC cells regulates the fate of mesoderm-derived myoblasts during tongue development. Here we show that activation of the cytoplasmic and nuclear tyrosine kinase 1 (ABL1) cascade in Tgfbr2(fl/fl);Wnt1-Cre mice results in a failure of CNC-derived cell differentiation followed by a disruption of TGFβ-mediated induction of growth factors and reduction of myogenic cell proliferation and differentiation activities. Among the affected growth factors, the addition of fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) and neutralizing antibody for follistatin (FST; an antagonist of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)) could most efficiently restore cell proliferation, differentiation, and organization of muscle cells in the tongue of Tgfbr2(fl/fl);Wnt1-Cre mice. Thus, our data indicate that CNC-derived fibroblasts regulate the fate of mesoderm-derived myoblasts through TGFβ-mediated regulation of FGF and BMP signaling during tongue development.

  6. An artificial neural network controller for intelligent transportation systems applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitela, J.E.; Hanebutte, U.R.; Reifman, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Analysis Div.

    1996-04-01

    An Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) has been designed using a feedforward artificial neural network, as an example for utilizing artificial neural networks for nonlinear control problems arising in intelligent transportation systems applications. The AICC is based on a simple nonlinear model of the vehicle dynamics. A Neural Network Controller (NNC) code developed at Argonne National Laboratory to control discrete dynamical systems was used for this purpose. In order to test the NNC, an AICC-simulator containing graphical displays was developed for a system of two vehicles driving in a single lane. Two simulation cases are shown, one involving a lead vehicle with constant velocity and the other a lead vehicle with varying acceleration. More realistic vehicle dynamic models will be considered in future work.

  7. Neural signal sampling via the low power wireless pico system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz; Cheney, David; Gugel, Karl; Sanchez, Justin C; Principe, Jose C

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a powerful new low power wireless system for sampling multiple channels of neural activity based on Texas Instruments MSP430 microprocessors and Nordic Semiconductor's ultra low power high bandwidth RF transmitters and receivers. The system's development process, component selection, features and test methodology are presented.

  8. Role of neural network models for developing speech systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These prosody models are further examined for applications such as text to speech synthesis, speech recognition, speaker recognition and language identification. Neural network models in voice conversion system are explored for capturing the mapping functions between source and target speakers at source, system and ...

  9. NNSYSID - toolbox for system identification with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard, M.; Ravn, Ole; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2002-01-01

    The NNSYSID toolset for System Identification has been developed as an add on to MATLAB(R). The NNSYSID toolbox has been designed to assist identification of nonlinear dynamic systems. It contains a number of nonlinear model structures based on neural networks, effective training algorithms...

  10. Neural expert decision support system for stroke diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupershtein, Leonid M.; Martyniuk, Tatiana B.; Krencin, Myhail D.; Kozhemiako, Andriy V.; Bezsmertnyi, Yurii; Bezsmertna, Halyna; Kolimoldayev, Maksat; Smolarz, Andrzej; Weryńska-Bieniasz, RóŻa; Uvaysova, Svetlana

    2017-08-01

    In the work the hybrid expert system for stroke diagnosis was presented. The base of expert system consists of neural network and production rules. This program can quickly and accurately set to the patient preliminary and final diagnoses, get examination and treatment plans, print data of patient, analyze statistics data and perform parameterized search for patients.

  11. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. I. Prevalence at birth based on multiple sources of case ascertainment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA); Sanders, M.; Monsen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the neural tube defects (NTDs), anencephalus and spina bifida, have for the most part been based on single sources of case ascertainment in past studies. The present investigation attempts total ascertainment of NTD cases in the newborn population of Los Angeles County residents for the period 1966 to 1972. Design of the study, sources of data, and estimates of prevalence rates based on single and multiple sources of case ascertainment are here discussed. Anencephalus cases totaled 448, spina bifida 442, and encephalocele 72, giving prevalence rates of 0.52, 0.51, and 0.08 per 1000 total births, respectively, for these neural tube defects - rates considered to be low. The Los Angeles County prevalence rates are compared with those of other recent North American studies and support is provided for earlier suggestions of low rates on the West Coast.

  12. Reject mechanisms for massively parallel neural network character recognition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garris, Michael D.; Wilson, Charles L.

    1992-12-01

    Two reject mechanisms are compared using a massively parallel character recognition system implemented at NIST. The recognition system was designed to study the feasibility of automatically recognizing hand-printed text in a loosely constrained environment. The first method is a simple scalar threshold on the output activation of the winning neurode from the character classifier network. The second method uses an additional neural network trained on all outputs from the character classifier network to accept or reject assigned classifications. The neural network rejection method was expected to perform with greater accuracy than the scalar threshold method, but this was not supported by the test results presented. The scalar threshold method, even though arbitrary, is shown to be a viable reject mechanism for use with neural network character classifiers. Upon studying the performance of the neural network rejection method, analyses show that the two neural networks, the character classifier network and the rejection network, perform very similarly. This can be explained by the strong non-linear function of the character classifier network which effectively removes most of the correlation between character accuracy and all activations other than the winning activation. This suggests that any effective rejection network must receive information from the system which has not been filtered through the non-linear classifier.

  13. Neural-network-based fuzzy logic decision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Arun D.; Giridhar, G. B.; Coca, Praveen

    1994-10-01

    During the last few years there has been a large and energetic upswing in research efforts aimed at synthesizing fuzzy logic with neural networks. This combination of neural networks and fuzzy logic seems natural because the two approaches generally attack the design of `intelligent' system from quite different angles. Neural networks provide algorithms for learning, classification, and optimization whereas fuzzy logic often deals with issues such as reasoning in a high (semantic or linguistic) level. Consequently the two technologies complement each other. In this paper, we combine neural networks with fuzzy logic techniques. We propose an artificial neural network (ANN) model for a fuzzy logic decision system. The model consists of six layers. The first three layers map the input variables to fuzzy set membership functions. The last three layers implement the decision rules. The model learns the decision rules using a supervised gradient descent procedure. As an illustration we considered two examples. The first example deals with pixel classification in multispectral satellite images. In our second example we used the fuzzy decision system to analyze data from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for tissue classification.

  14. Adaptive Synchronization of Memristor-based Chaotic Neural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Hu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chaotic neural networks consisting of a great number of chaotic neurons are able to reproduce the rich dynamics observed in biological nervous systems. In recent years, the memristor has attracted much interest in the efficient implementation of artificial synapses and neurons. This work addresses adaptive synchronization of a class of memristor-based neural chaotic systems using a novel adaptive backstepping approach. A systematic design procedure is presented. Simulation results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive synchronization method and its potential in practical application of memristive chaotic oscillators in secure communication.

  15. Defect characterization of electronic conducting pseudo-perovskite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H. U.; Nasrallah, M. M.; Sparlin, D. M.; Parris, P. E.

    The goal of the investigation presented in this report is to study the inter-relationship between electrical conductivity, oxidation-reduction kinetics, defect structure, and composition of n- and p- type binary and ternary transition metal oxides. The experimental part of the investigation included specimen preparation, thermogravimetric measurements, x ray diffraction, thermally stimulated current, oxygen diffusion, optical absorption, transmission electron microscopy, electrical conductivity, and Seebeck measurements. The systems studied or being studied are LaMnO3-LaCrO3-LaCoO3, Y(1-x)Ca(x)CrO3, Sr-doped LaMnO3, Y(1-x)Ca(x)MnO3, and Ba2YCu3O(7-x).

  16. Time trends in the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of neural tube defects in Liaoning Province, China, 2006-2015: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tie-Ning; Gong, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yan-Ling; Wu, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Yuan; Jiang, Cheng-Zhi; Li, Jing; Li, Li-Li; Zhou, Chen; Huang, Yan-Hong

    2017-03-07

    To evaluate the time trends in the prevalence of neural tube defects and all their subtypes as well as to identify the epidemiological characteristics of these malformations documented in the Liaoning Province of northeast China from 2006 to 2015. This was a population-based observational study using data from 3,248,954 live births as well as from 6217 cases of neural tube defects, 1,600 cases of anencephaly, 2,029 cases of spina bifida, 404 cases of encephalocele, and 3,008 cases of congenital hydrocephalus from 14 cities in Liaoning Province from 2006 to 2015. All analyses were conducted using SPSS software. During the observational period, the prevalence of neural tube defects, anencephaly, spina bifida, encephalocele, and congenital hydrocephalus was 19.1, 4.9, 6.2, 1.2, and 9.3 per 10,000 live births, respectively. Significantly decreasing trends were observed in the prevalence of all these malformations except for encephalocele. Notably, relatively higher prevalence rates were found in isolated compared with non-isolated malformations, with significant differences in selected characteristics (e.g., prognosis status, gestational age, and birth weight) between isolated and non-isolated cases of these malformations. The prevalence of neural tube defects showed a downward trend in Liaoning Province from 2006 to 2015. However, more attention should be focused on non-isolated cases in the future because of the severe clinical manifestations. Future prevention efforts should be strengthened to reduce the risk of these malformations, especially the non-isolated subtype, in areas with high prevalence.

  17. Reliability Modeling of Microelectromechanical Systems Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera. J. Sebastian

    2000-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are a broad and rapidly expanding field that is currently receiving a great deal of attention because of the potential to significantly improve the ability to sense, analyze, and control a variety of processes, such as heating and ventilation systems, automobiles, medicine, aeronautical flight, military surveillance, weather forecasting, and space exploration. MEMS are very small and are a blend of electrical and mechanical components, with electrical and mechanical systems on one chip. This research establishes reliability estimation and prediction for MEMS devices at the conceptual design phase using neural networks. At the conceptual design phase, before devices are built and tested, traditional methods of quantifying reliability are inadequate because the device is not in existence and cannot be tested to establish the reliability distributions. A novel approach using neural networks is created to predict the overall reliability of a MEMS device based on its components and each component's attributes. The methodology begins with collecting attribute data (fabrication process, physical specifications, operating environment, property characteristics, packaging, etc.) and reliability data for many types of microengines. The data are partitioned into training data (the majority) and validation data (the remainder). A neural network is applied to the training data (both attribute and reliability); the attributes become the system inputs and reliability data (cycles to failure), the system output. After the neural network is trained with sufficient data. the validation data are used to verify the neural networks provided accurate reliability estimates. Now, the reliability of a new proposed MEMS device can be estimated by using the appropriate trained neural networks developed in this work.

  18. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms resulting in suboptimal oocyte maturation: a discussion of folate status, neural tube defects, schizophrenia, and vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloet, Piet Hein; Verbeek, André Lm; den Heijer, Martin; Roeleveld, Nel

    2008-07-10

    Several conditions apparent at birth, e.g., neural tube defects (NTDs) and cardiac anomalies, are associated with polymorphisms in folate-related genes, such as the 677C --> T polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Similar associations have been established for several constitutional chronic diseases in adulthood, such as schizophrenia, cardiovascular diseases, dementia, and even neoplasias in different organ systems. This spectrum of developmental anomalies and constitutional diseases may be linked to high-risk conceptions related to preovulatory overripeness ovopathy (PrOO). Some developmental anomalies, such as NTDs, are to a large extent prevented by supplementation of folic acid before conception, but supplementation does not seem to prevent cardiovascular disease or cognitive decline. These diverging results can be elucidated by introduction of the PrOO concept, as MTHFR polymorphisms and inherent low folate levels induce both non-optimal maturation of the oocyte and unsuccessful DNA methylation and demethylation, i.e. epigenetic mutations. The PrOO concept is testable and predicts in a random population the following: (1) female carriers of specific genetic MTHFR variants exhibit more ovulatory disturbances and inherent subfecundity traits, (2) descendents from a carrier mother, when compared with those from a wild-type mother, are more frequently conceived in PrOO high-risk conditions and, thus, (3) disadvantaged in life expectancy. If so, some MTHFR polymorphisms represent a novel, genetically determined, PrOO high-risk conception category comparable to those which are environmentally and behaviorly influenced. These high-risk conditions may cause developmental anomalies and defective epigenetic reprogramming in progeny. The interaction between genetic and environmental factors is a plausible mechanism of multifactorial inheritance.

  19. Space-time system architecture for the neural optical computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yee-Man V.

    1991-02-01

    The brain can perform the tasks of associative recall detection recognition and optimization. In this paper space-time system field models of the brain are introduced. They are called the space-time maximum likelihood associative memory system (ST-ML-AMS) and the space-time adaptive learning system (ST-ALS). Performance of the system is analyzed using the probability of error in memory recall (PEMR) and the space-time neural capacity (ST-NC). 1.

  20. A dynamical systems view of motor preparation: Implications for neural prosthetic system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Krishna V.; Kaufman, Matthew T.; Sahani, Maneesh; Churchland, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Neural prosthetic systems aim to help disabled patients suffering from a range of neurological injuries and disease by using neural activity from the brain to directly control assistive devices. This approach in effect bypasses the dysfunctional neural circuitry, such as an injured spinal cord. To do so, neural prostheses depend critically on a scientific understanding of the neural activity that drives them. We review here several recent studies aimed at understanding the neural processes in premotor cortex that precede arm movements and lead to the initiation of movement. These studies were motivated by hypotheses and predictions conceived of within a dynamical systems perspective. This perspective concentrates on describing the neural state using as few degrees of freedom as possible and on inferring the rules that govern the motion of that neural state. Although quite general, this perspective has led to a number of specific predictions that have been addressed experimentally. It is hoped that the resulting picture of the dynamical role of preparatory and movement-related neural activity will be particularly helpful to the development of neural prostheses, which can themselves be viewed as dynamical systems under the control of the larger dynamical system to which they are attached. PMID:21763517

  1. A NEURAL NETWORK BASED IRIS RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usham Dias

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents biometric personal identification based on iris recognition using artificial neural networks. Personal identification system consists of localization of the iris region, normalization, enhancement and then iris pattern recognition using neural network. In this paper, through results obtained, we have shown that a person’s left and right eye are unique. In this paper, we also show that the network is sensitive to the initial weights and that over-training gives bad results. We also propose a fast algorithm for the localization of the inner and outer boundaries of the iris region. Results of simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the neural system in personal identification. Finally a hardware iris recognition model is proposed and implementation aspects are discussed.

  2. Comparison of binary mask defect printability analysis using virtual stepper system and aerial image microscope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Khoi A.; Spence, Chris A.; Dakshina-Murthy, S.; Bala, Vidya; Williams, Alvina M.; Strener, Steve; Eandi, Richard D.; Li, Junling; Karklin, Linard

    1999-12-01

    As advanced process technologies in the wafer fabs push the patterning processes toward lower k1 factor for sub-wavelength resolution printing, reticles are required to use optical proximity correction (OPC) and phase-shifted mask (PSM) for resolution enhancement. For OPC/PSM mask technology, defect printability is one of the major concerns. Current reticle inspection tools available on the market sometimes are not capable of consistently differentiating between an OPC feature and a true random defect. Due to the process complexity and high cost associated with the making of OPC/PSM reticles, it is important for both mask shops and lithography engineers to understand the impact of different defect types and sizes to the printability. Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMS) has been used in the mask shops for a number of years for reticle applications such as aerial image simulation and transmission measurement of repaired defects. The Virtual Stepper System (VSS) provides an alternative method to do defect printability simulation and analysis using reticle images captured by an optical inspection or review system. In this paper, pre- programmed defects and repairs from a Defect Sensitivity Monitor (DSM) reticle with 200 nm minimum features (at 1x) will be studied for printability. The simulated resist lines by AIMS and VSS are both compared to SEM images of resist wafers qualitatively and quantitatively using CD verification.Process window comparison between unrepaired and repaired defects for both good and bad repair cases will be shown. The effect of mask repairs to resist pattern images for the binary mask case will be discussed. AIMS simulation was done at the International Sematech, Virtual stepper simulation at Zygo and resist wafers were processed at AMD-Submicron Development Center using a DUV lithographic process for 0.18 micrometer Logic process technology.

  3. Optical neural network system for pose determination of spinning satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew; Casasent, David

    1990-01-01

    An optical neural network architecture and algorithm based on a Hopfield optimization network are presented for multitarget tracking. This tracker utilizes a neuron for every possible target track, and a quadratic energy function of neural activities which is minimized using gradient descent neural evolution. The neural net tracker is demonstrated as part of a system for determining position and orientation (pose) of spinning satellites with respect to a robotic spacecraft. The input to the system is time sequence video from a single camera. Novelty detection and filtering are utilized to locate and segment novel regions from the input images. The neural net multitarget tracker determines the correspondences (or tracks) of the novel regions as a function of time, and hence the paths of object (satellite) parts. The path traced out by a given part or region is approximately elliptical in image space, and the position, shape and orientation of the ellipse are functions of the satellite geometry and its pose. Having a geometric model of the satellite, and the elliptical path of a part in image space, the three-dimensional pose of the satellite is determined. Digital simulation results using this algorithm are presented for various satellite poses and lighting conditions.

  4. Abnormal O-GlcNAcylation of Pax3 Occurring from Hyperglycemia-Induced Neural Tube Defects Is Ameliorated by Carnosine But Not Folic Acid in Chicken Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Rui-Rong; Li, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Huang, Wen-Shan; Tsoi, Bun; Hu, Dan; Wan, Xin; Yang, Xuesong; Wang, Qi; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common of the embryonic abnormalities associated with hyperglycemic gestation. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of embryonic neurogenesis influenced by hyperglycemia was investigated using chicken embryo models. High-concentration glucose was administered into chicken eggs and resulted in increased plasma and brain tissue glucose, and suppressed expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs). The rate of NTD positively correlated with hyperglycemia. Furthermore, abnormally increased O-GlcNAcylation, a nutritionally responsive modification, of the key neural tube marker Pax3 protein led to the loss of this protein. This loss was not observed in a folate-deficiency NTD induced by methotrexate. Carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide, showed significant recovery effects on neural tube development. In contrast, folic acid, a well-known periconceptional agent, surprisingly showed relatively minimal effect. Higher expression levels of the Pax3 protein were found in the carnosine-treated groups, while lower expression levels were found in folic acid groups. Furthermore, the abnormal O-GlcNAcylation of the Pax3 protein was restored by carnosine. These results suggest new insights into using endogenous nutrients for the protection of embryonic neurodevelopment affected by diabetes gestation. The abnormal excessive O-GlcNAcylation of Pax3 may be responsible for the neural tube defects associated with hyperglycemia.

  5. Efeito da fortificação com ácido fólico na redução dos defeitos do tubo neural The effect of folic acid fortification on the reduction of neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Maria Pacheco Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Defeitos do tubo neural são malformações que ocorrem na fase inicial do desenvolvimento fetal, levando à anencefalia e espinha bífida; o ácido fólico é o mais importante fator de risco identificado até hoje. A prevalência relatada de defeitos do tubo neural coloca o Brasil no patamar dos países com as mais altas taxas no mundo. Inquéritos sobre consumo de folato entre gestantes brasileiras mostram ingestão altamente deficiente (Neural tube defects are congenital malformations that occur during initial fetal development, leading to anencephaly and spina bifida; folic acid deficiency is the most important risk factor identified to date. Brazil has one of the world's highest neural tube defect rates. Food consumption surveys among pregnant Brazilian women showed a high rate of inadequate folic acid intake (< 0.6mg/day. In 2004, the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA mandated the fortification of corn meal and wheat flour with folic acid (0.15mg/100g. The National Family Budget Survey estimated the average amount of bread/flour products available in households as 106.1g/day (contributing with 0.16mg folic acid/day. However, while in the South of the country the supply was 144g/day, in the North and Central West it barely reached 70g/day. Folic acid food fortification is mandatory in some 40 countries, but only four have assessed this strategy. The existing studies have all shown a significant impact, ranging from 19 to 78%. Folic acid fortification is an undeniably important intervention for primary prevention, and neural tube defects can now be considered a preventable epidemic.

  6. Epidemiologic aspects of neural tube defects in the United States: changing concepts and their importance for screening and prenatal diagnostic programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E.; Strassburg, M.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report considers several major epidemiologic aspects of neural tube defects (NTDs). After examining briefly the approaches and goals of epidemiology the traditional epidemiologic concepts of NTDs are reviewed and new interpretations of the epidemiology of these defects is suggested. Three major topics are addressed: (1) that much of our knowledge of the epidemiology of the NTDs comes from areas or periods of high rates of occurrence and that generalizations based on these data may not be applicable to low incidence situations; (2) that the etiology of these defects is multifactorial, involving interaction between genetic and nongenetic factors which may differ in their relative importance between populations; and (3) that anencephalus and spina bifida may be more epidemiologically and etiologically distinct than is usually appreciated. A final consideration deals with some recent contributions of epidemiology to screening and prenatal diagnosis programs.

  7. Effects of Korean red ginseng extracts on neural tube defects and impairment of social interaction induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pitna; Park, Jin Hee; Kwon, Kyoung Ja; Kim, Ki Chan; Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Hahn Young; Han, Seol-Heui; Shin, Chan Young

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is one of the most widely used medicinal plants, which belongs to the genus Panax. Compared to uncured white ginseng, red ginseng has been generally regarded to produce superior pharmacological effects with lesser side/adverse effects, which made it popular in a variety of formulation from tea to oriental medicine. Using the prenatal valproic acid (VPA)-injection model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in rats, which produces social impairrment and altered seizure susceptibility as in human ASD patients as well as mild neural tube defects like crooked tail phenotype, we examined whether chronic administration of red ginseng extract may rescue the social impairment and crooked tail phenotype in prenatally VPA-exposed rat offspring. VPA-induced impairment in social interactions tested using sociability and social preference paradigms as well as crooked tail phenotypes were significantly improved by administration of Korean red ginseng (KRG) in a dose dependent manner. Rat offspring prenatally exposed to VPA showed higher sensitivity to electric shock seizure and increased locomotor activity in open-field test. KRG treatment reversed abnormal locomotor activity and sensitivity to electric shock to control level. These results suggest that KRG may modulate neurobehavioral and structural organization of nervous system adversely affected by prenatal exposure to VPA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Using fuzzy logic to integrate neural networks and knowledge-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, John

    1991-01-01

    Outlined here is a novel hybrid architecture that uses fuzzy logic to integrate neural networks and knowledge-based systems. The author's approach offers important synergistic benefits to neural nets, approximate reasoning, and symbolic processing. Fuzzy inference rules extend symbolic systems with approximate reasoning capabilities, which are used for integrating and interpreting the outputs of neural networks. The symbolic system captures meta-level information about neural networks and defines its interaction with neural networks through a set of control tasks. Fuzzy action rules provide a robust mechanism for recognizing the situations in which neural networks require certain control actions. The neural nets, on the other hand, offer flexible classification and adaptive learning capabilities, which are crucial for dynamic and noisy environments. By combining neural nets and symbolic systems at their system levels through the use of fuzzy logic, the author's approach alleviates current difficulties in reconciling differences between low-level data processing mechanisms of neural nets and artificial intelligence systems.

  9. Classical Conditioning with Pulsed Integrated Neural Networks: Circuits and System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we investigate on-chip learning for pulsed, integrated neural networks. We discuss the implementational problems the technology imposes on learning systems and we find that abiologically inspired approach using simple circuit structures is most likely to bring success. We develop a ...... chip to solve simple classical conditioning tasks, thus verifying the design methodologies put forward in the paper....

  10. Dynamic causal models of neural system dynamics: current state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-09-28

    Sep 28, 2006 ... Keywords. Dynamic causal modelling; EEG; effective connectivity; event-related potentials; fMRI; neural system ... In this article, we review the conceptual and mathematical basis of DCM and its implementation for functional magnetic resonance imaging data and event-related potentials. After introducing ...

  11. Neural network based system for script identification in Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    environments. The system developed includes a feature extractor and a modular neural network. The feature extractor consists of two stages. In the first stage ... environments is script/language identification (Muthusamy et al 1994; Hochberg et al 1997). ... In order to take advantage of the learning and generalization abilities ...

  12. A breathing circuit alarm system based on neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, J A; Westenskow, D R

    1994-03-01

    The objectives of our study were (1) to implement intelligent respiratory alarms with a neural network; and (2) to increase alarm specificity and decrease false-alarm rates compared with current alarms. We trained a neural network to recognize 13 faults in an anesthesia breathing circuit. The system extracted 30 breath-to-breath features from the airway CO2, flow, and pressure signals. We created training data for the network by introducing 13 faults repeatedly in 5 dogs (616 total faults). We used the data to train the neural network using the backward error propagation algorithm. In animals, the trained network reported the alarms correctly for 95.0% of the faults when tested during controlled ventilation, and for 86.9% of the faults during spontaneous breathing. When tested in the operating room, the system found and correctly reported 54 of 57 faults that occurred during 43.6 hr of use. The alarm system produced a total of 74 false alarms during 43.6 hr of monitoring. Neural networks may be useful in creating intelligent anesthesia alarm systems.

  13. KCNQ potassium channels in sensory system and neural circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-jing; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    M channels, an important regulator of neural excitability, are composed of four subunits of the Kv7 (KCNQ) K(+) channel family. M channels were named as such because their activity was suppressed by stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. These channels are of particular interest because they are activated at the subthreshold membrane potentials. Furthermore, neural KCNQ channels are drug targets for the treatments of epilepsy and a variety of neurological disorders, including chronic and neuropathic pain, deafness, and mental illness. This review will update readers on the roles of KCNQ channels in the sensory system and neural circuits as well as discuss their respective mechanisms and the implications for physiology and medicine. We will also consider future perspectives and the development of additional pharmacological models, such as seizure, stroke, pain and mental illness, which work in combination with drug-design targeting of KCNQ channels. These models will hopefully deepen our understanding of KCNQ channels and provide general therapeutic prospects of related channelopathies.

  14. Diagnostic value of CA 19-9 in pregnancies complicated by spinal neural tube defects: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timur, Hakan; Tokmak, Aytekin; Yucel, Aykan; Ali Inal, Hasan; Buyukkagnici, Umran; Sirvan, Levent; Danisman, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Various physiological and pathological conditions can induce significant variations in plasma concentrations of tumor markers, such as CA 19-9, which is present in the serum and amniotic fluid of pregnant women. Herein, we aimed to determine the clinical importance of maternal serum CA 19-9 levels in the diagnosis of neural tube defects (NTDs). A total of 100 women were included in this controlled cross-sectional study. Thirty-three patients whose pregnancies were complicated by isolated meningocele or meningomyelocele constituted the study group, whereas 33 normal, healthy pregnant women constituted the control group, and 34 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched non-pregnant women were chosen for the validation group. The mean maternal serum CA 19-9 levels were 17.2 ± 17.0 IU/mL, 7.1 ± 5.9 IU/mL, and 4.7 ± 3.6 IU/mL in the study, control, and validation groups, respectively (p < 0.001). ROC analyses showed that elevated CA 19-9 values may predict NTDs (p < 0.001). The cut-off value for CA 19-9 was found to be 9.6 IU/mL at 70% (51%-84%, 95% CI) sensitivity and 84% (74%-92%, 95% CI) specificity. CA 19-9 may be a promising noninvasive marker for NTDs. Further studies are needed to reveal the clinical applicability and diagnostic potential of maternal serum CA 19-9 levels in the identification of NTDs.

  15. Association between MTHFD1 G1958A polymorphism and neural tube defects susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Jiang

    Full Text Available The methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD1 gene, as one of the key genes involved in the folate pathway, has been reported to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects (NTDs. However, the results of published studies are contradictory and inconclusive. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of the common polymorphism in the MTHFD1 gene, the G1958A (R653Q, dbSNP ID: rs2236225 variant, on the risk of NTDs in all eligible studies.Relevant literature published before January 3, 2014 was retrieved from the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases. Pooled crude odds ratios (ORs and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to evaluate the association between the MTHFD1 G1958A polymorphism and NTDs risk.We performed a meta-analysis of nine studies with a total of 4,302 NTDs patients and 4,238 healthy controls. Our results demonstrated a significant correlation between the MTHFD1 G1958A polymorphism and NTDs in an overall meta-analysis. For family-based studies, the study subjects were classified as NTD cases, mothers with NTDs offspring, and fathers with NTDs offspring. We found no association between any of the fathers' genotypes and NTDs, whereas there was a clear excess of the 1958A allele in the mothers of children with NTDs compared with controls individuals.In summary, our meta-analysis strongly suggests that the MTHFD1 G1958A polymorphism might be associated with maternal risk for NTDs in Caucasian populations. However, the evidence of this association should be interpreted with caution due to the selective nature of publication of genetic association studies.

  16. Fetoscopic Open Neural Tube Defect Repair: Development and Refinement of a Two-Port, Carbon Dioxide Insufflation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfort, Michael A; Whitehead, William E; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A; Bateni, Zhoobin H; Olutoye, Oluyinka O; Olutoye, Olutoyin A; Mann, David G; Espinoza, Jimmy; Williams, Erin; Lee, Timothy C; Keswani, Sundeep G; Ayres, Nancy; Cassady, Christopher I; Mehollin-Ray, Amy R; Sanz Cortes, Magdalena; Carreras, Elena; Peiro, Jose L; Ruano, Rodrigo; Cass, Darrell L

    2017-04-01

    To describe development of a two-port fetoscopic technique for spina bifida repair in the exteriorized, carbon dioxide-filled uterus and report early results of two cohorts of patients: the first 15 treated with an iterative technique and the latter 13 with a standardized technique. This was a retrospective cohort study (2014-2016). All patients met Management of Myelomeningocele Study selection criteria. The intraoperative approach was iterative in the first 15 patients and was then standardized. Obstetric, maternal, fetal, and early neonatal outcomes were compared. Standard parametric and nonparametric tests were used as appropriate. Data for 28 patients (22 endoscopic only, four hybrid, two abandoned) are reported, but only those with a complete fetoscopic repair were analyzed (iterative technique [n=10] compared with standardized technique [n=12]). Maternal demographics and gestational age (median [range]) at fetal surgery (25.4 [22.9-25.9] compared with 24.8 [24-25.6] weeks) were similar, but delivery occurred at 35.9 (26-39) weeks of gestation with the iterative technique compared with 39 (35.9-40) weeks of gestation with the standardized technique (PStudy criteria for hydrocephalus-death at discharge were met in 9 of 12 (75%) and 3 of 10 (30%), respectively, and 7 of 12 (58%) compared with 2 of 10 (20%) have been treated for hydrocephalus to date. These latter differences were not statistically significant. Fetoscopic open neural tube defect repair does not appear to increase maternal-fetal complications as compared with repair by hysterotomy, allows for vaginal delivery, and may reduce long-term maternal risks. ClinicalTrials.gov, https://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02230072.

  17. Dieting to lose weight and occurrence of neural tube defects in offspring of Mexican-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Lucina; Felkner, Marilyn; Brender, Jean D; Canfield, Mark A

    2012-05-01

    Lowered maternal weight gain and reduction in early pregnancy have been associated with risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. We examined the association of self-reported maternal dieting behaviors on the occurrence of NTDs. We conducted a population based case-control study among Mexican-American women who were residents of the 14 Texas counties bordering Mexico. Case women had an NTD-affected pregnancy identified at birth or prenatally and had deliveries during the years 1995-2000. Control women were those who delivered live born infants without an apparent congenital malformation, randomly selected and frequency-matched to cases by year and facility. One hundred eighty-four case women and 225 control women were asked in person about the use of nutritional supplements, dieting to lose weight, and type of weight reduction supplements used during the 3 months before conception. Women who reported being on a diet to lose weight during the 3 months before conception had an NTD odds ratio (OR) of 1.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1, 3.3) compared with those not reporting being on a diet. Neither consuming vitamin drinks (OR = 1.2) nor using diet pills (OR = 1.6) during the 3 months before conception had ORs that were different from the null, when compared to women not reporting those behaviors. The risk effect for dieting did not differ markedly among normal or underweight (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 0.7, 5.6), overweight (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 0.7, 5.0), or obese women (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 0.6, 4.0). No effect was seen among dieting women who were consuming at least 1.0 mg/day of folate (OR = 1.1, CI = 0.3, 4.5). Maternal dieting prior to conception may increase the risk of NTDs in offspring.

  18. Maternal consumption of non-staple food in the first trimester and risk of neural tube defects in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Li-Jie; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Zhong-Tang

    2015-04-24

    To study the associations between maternal consumption of non-staple food in the first trimester and risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. Data collected from a hospital-based case-control study conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Shandong/Shanxi provinces including 459 mothers with NTDs-affected births and 459 mothers without NTDs-affected births. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between maternal consumption of non-staple food in the first trimester and risk of NTDs in offspring. The effects were evaluated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) with SAS9.1.3.software. Maternal consumption of milk, fresh fruits and nuts in the first trimester were protective factors for total NTDs. Compared with consumption frequency of ˂1 meal/week, the ORs for milk consumption frequency of 1-2, 3-6, ≥7 meals/week were 0.50 (95% CI: 0.28-0.88), 0.56 (0.32-0.99), and 0.59 (0.38-0.90), respectively; the ORs for fresh fruits consumption frequency of 1-2, 3-6, ≥7 meals/week were 0.29 (95% CI: 0.12-0.72), 0.22 (0.09-0.53), and 0.32 (0.14-0.71), respectively; the ORs for nuts consumption frequency of 1-2, 3-6, ≥7 meals/week were 0.60 (95% CI: 0.38-0.94), 0.49 (0.31-0.79), and 0.63 (0.36-1.08), respectively. Different effects of above factors on NTDs were found for subtypes of anencephaly and spina bifida. Maternal non-staple food consumption of milk, fresh fruits and nuts in the first trimester was associated with reducing NTDs risk in offspring.

  19. Deciphering defective amelogenesis using in vitro culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinawati, Dian Yosi; Miyoshi, Keiko; Tanimura, Ayako; Horiguchi, Taigo; Hagita, Hiroko; Noma, Takafumi

    2018-01-31

    The conventional two-dimensional (2D) in vitro culture system is frequently used to analyze the gene expression with or without extracellular signals. However, the cells derived from primary culture and cell lines frequently deviate the gene expression profile compared to the corresponding in vivo samples, which sometimes misleads the actual gene regulation in vivo. To overcome this gap, we developed the comparative 2D and 3D in vitro culture systems and applied them to the genetic study of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) as a model. Recently, we found specificity protein 6 (Sp6) mutation in an autosomal-recessive AI rat that was previously named AMI. We constructed 3D structure of ARE-B30 cells (AMI-derived rat dental epithelial cells) or G5 (control wild type cells) combined with RPC-C2A cells (rat pulp cell line) separated by the collagen membrane, while in 2D structure, ARE-B30 or G5 was cultured with or without the collagen membrane. Comparative analysis of amelogenesis-related gene expression in ARE-B30 and G5 using our 2D and 3D in vitro systems revealed distinct expression profiles, showing the causative outcomes. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 and follistatin were reciprocally expressed in G5, but not in ARE-B30 cells. All-or-none expression of amelotin, kallikrein-related peptidase 4, and nerve growth factor receptor was observed in both cell types. In conclusion, our in vitro culture systems detected the phenotypical differences in the expression of the stage-specific amelogenesis-related genes. Parallel analysis with 2D and 3D culture systems may provide a platform to understand the molecular basis for defective amelogenesis caused by Sp6 mutation. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Robust Single Primate Neuroepithelial Cell Clonal Expansion System for Neural Tube Development and Disease Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing a model of primate neural tube (NT development is important to promote many NT disorder studies in model organisms. Here, we report a robust and stable system to allow for clonal expansion of single monkey neuroepithelial stem cells (NESCs to develop into miniature NT-like structures. Single NESCs can produce functional neurons in vitro, survive, and extensively regenerate neuron axons in monkey brain. NT formation and NESC maintenance depend on high metabolism activity and Wnt signaling. NESCs are regionally restricted to a telencephalic fate. Moreover, single NESCs can turn into radial glial progenitors (RGPCs. The transition is accurately regulated by Wnt signaling through regulation of Notch signaling and adhesion molecules. Finally, using the “NESC-TO-NTs” system, we model the functions of folic acid (FA on NT closure and demonstrate that FA can regulate multiple mechanisms to prevent NT defects. Our system is ideal for studying NT development and diseases.

  1. Folic Acid Supplementation for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects: An Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Meera; Treiman, Katherine A; Kish-Doto, Julia; Middleton, Jennifer C; Coker-Schwimmer, Emmanuel J L; Nicholson, Wanda K

    2017-01-10

    Neural tube defects are among the most common congenital anomalies in the United States. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation is a primary care-relevant preventive intervention. To review the evidence on folic acid supplementation for preventing neural tube defects to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force for an updated Recommendation Statement. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and trial registries through January 28, 2016, with ongoing surveillance through November 11, 2016; references; experts. English-language studies of folic acid supplementation in women. Excluded were poor-quality studies; studies of prepubertal girls, men, women without the potential for childbearing, and neural tube defect recurrence; and studies conducted in developing countries. Two investigators independently reviewed abstracts, full-text articles, and risk of bias of included studies. One investigator extracted data and a second checked accuracy. Because of heterogeneity, data were not pooled. Neural tube defects, harms of treatment (twinning, respiratory outcomes). A total of 24 studies (N > 58 860) were included. In 1 randomized clinical trial from Hungary initiated in 1984, incidence of neural tube defects for folic acid supplementation compared with trace element supplementation was 0% vs 0.25% (Peto odds ratio [OR], 0.13 [95% CI, 0.03-0.65]; n = 4862). Odds ratios from cohort studies recruiting participants between 1984 and 1996 demonstrated beneficial associations and ranged from 0.11 to 0.27 (n = 19 982). Three of 4 case-control studies with data from 1976 through 1998 reported ORs ranging from 0.6 to 0.7 (n > 7121). Evidence of benefit led to food fortification in the United States beginning in 1998, after which no new prospective studies have been conducted. More recent case-control studies drawing from data collected after 1998 have not demonstrated a protective association consistently with folic acid supplementation, with ORs ranging from

  2. Frequency-difference-dependent stochastic resonance in neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daqing; Perc, Matjaž; Zhang, Yangsong; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-08-01

    Biological neurons receive multiple noisy oscillatory signals, and their dynamical response to the superposition of these signals is of fundamental importance for information processing in the brain. Here we study the response of neural systems to the weak envelope modulation signal, which is superimposed by two periodic signals with different frequencies. We show that stochastic resonance occurs at the beat frequency in neural systems at the single-neuron as well as the population level. The performance of this frequency-difference-dependent stochastic resonance is influenced by both the beat frequency and the two forcing frequencies. Compared to a single neuron, a population of neurons is more efficient in detecting the information carried by the weak envelope modulation signal at the beat frequency. Furthermore, an appropriate fine-tuning of the excitation-inhibition balance can further optimize the response of a neural ensemble to the superimposed signal. Our results thus introduce and provide insights into the generation and modulation mechanism of the frequency-difference-dependent stochastic resonance in neural systems.

  3. Internal models and neural computation in the vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andrea M; Angelaki, Dora E

    2010-01-01

    The vestibular system is vital for motor control and spatial self-motion perception. Afferents from the otolith organs and the semicircular canals converge with optokinetic, somatosensory and motor-related signals in the vestibular nuclei, which are reciprocally interconnected with the vestibulocerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei. Here, we review the properties of the many cell types in the vestibular nuclei, as well as some fundamental computations implemented within this brainstem-cerebellar circuitry. These include the sensorimotor transformations for reflex generation, the neural computations for inertial motion estimation, the distinction between active and passive head movements, as well as the integration of vestibular and proprioceptive information for body motion estimation. A common theme in the solution to such computational problems is the concept of internal models and their neural implementation. Recent studies have shed new insights into important organizational principles that closely resemble those proposed for other sensorimotor systems, where their neural basis has often been more difficult to identify. As such, the vestibular system provides an excellent model to explore common neural processing strategies relevant both for reflexive and for goal-directed, voluntary movement as well as perception.

  4. Synthesis of recurrent neural networks for dynamical system simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trischler, Adam P; D'Eleuterio, Gabriele M T

    2016-08-01

    We review several of the most widely used techniques for training recurrent neural networks to approximate dynamical systems, then describe a novel algorithm for this task. The algorithm is based on an earlier theoretical result that guarantees the quality of the network approximation. We show that a feedforward neural network can be trained on the vector-field representation of a given dynamical system using backpropagation, then recast it as a recurrent network that replicates the original system's dynamics. After detailing this algorithm and its relation to earlier approaches, we present numerical examples that demonstrate its capabilities. One of the distinguishing features of our approach is that both the original dynamical systems and the recurrent networks that simulate them operate in continuous time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pre-conception Folic Acid and Multivitamin Supplementation for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Neural Tube Defects and Other Folic Acid-Sensitive Congenital Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R Douglas; Wilson, R Douglas; Audibert, François; Brock, Jo-Ann; Carroll, June; Cartier, Lola; Gagnon, Alain; Johnson, Jo-Ann; Langlois, Sylvie; Murphy-Kaulbeck, Lynn; Okun, Nanette; Pastuck, Melanie; Deb-Rinker, Paromita; Dodds, Linda; Leon, Juan Andres; Lowel, Hélène L; Luo, Wei; MacFarlane, Amanda; McMillan, Rachel; Moore, Aideen; Mundle, William; O'Connor, Deborah; Ray, Joel; Van den Hof, Michiel

    2015-06-01

    To provide updated information on the pre- and post-conception use of oral folic acid with or without a multivitamin/micronutrient supplement for the prevention of neural tube defects and other congenital anomalies. This will help physicians, midwives, nurses, and other health care workers to assist in the education of women about the proper use and dosage of folic acid/multivitamin supplementation before and during pregnancy. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library in January 2011 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (e.g., folic acid, prenatal multivitamins, folate sensitive birth defects, congenital anomaly risk reduction, pre-conception counselling). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English from 1985 and June 2014. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to June 2014 Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. Costs, risks, and benefits: The financial costs are those of daily vitamin supplementation and eating a healthy folate-enriched diet. The risks are of a reported association of dietary folic acid supplementation with fetal epigenetic modifications and with an increased likelihood of a twin pregnancy. These associations may require consideration before initiating folic acid supplementation. The benefit of folic acid oral supplementation or dietary folate intake combined with a multivitamin/micronutrient supplement is an associated decrease in neural tube defects and perhaps in other specific birth defects and obstetrical complications. The quality of evidence in the document was rated using the criteria

  6. Frecuencia y algunos factores de riesgo de mortalidad en el estado de Hidalgo, México, por defectos de cierre del tubo neural Mortality due to neural tube defects and risk factors in Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Muñoz-Juárez

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Calcular el riesgo de muerte fetal secundaria a defectos del cierre del tubo neural y estimar factores asociados con este tipo de muertes en el estado de Hidalgo. Material y métodos. La información analizada en el año 2000 fue obtenida de los certificados de muerte fetal del periodo 1990-1995 en el estado de Hidalgo. Se utilizó un diseño de mortalidad proporcional, considerado como una variante del diseño de casos y controles. Los casos fueron aquellas muertes fetales secundarias a defectos del tubo neural y los controles las muertes fetales por otros motivos. Se utilizó ji cuadrada de Pearson para estimar las diferencias entre los casos y controles. Para el riesgo crudo de morir por defectos de cierre del tubo neural se empleó la razón de momios, y para el riesgo ajustado se usó la regresión logística no condicional. Resultados. Se analizaron 3 673 certificados de muerte fetal, identificándose 8.06% de muertes por defectos del tubo neural; el resto lo constituyeron muertes por otras causas. Se encontró como variables asociadas con la muerte fetal por defectos del tubo neural a los fetos que pesaron menos de 2 500 gramos (RM 5.0, IC 95% 3.6, 6.7, a los productos del sexo femenino (RM 1.7, IC 95% 1.3, 2.3 y a las muertes ocurridas en el periodo fetal tardío (RM 5.5 IC 95% 3.8, 8.1. Conclusiones. Los resultados indican que el riesgo de muerte fetal debida a defectos del tubo neural es mayor en productos de bajo peso, en los del sexo femenino y los que ocurren en el periodo fetal tardío.Objective. To calculate the risk of fetal death due to neural tube defects and estimate associated factors in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. Material and Methods. Data were abstracted from death certificates registered during 1990-1995 in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. The design was a proportional mortality study, which is considered as a variant of the case control design. Cases were deaths with any type of neural tube defect, and controls

  7. 49 CFR 215.109 - Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication... Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.109 Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system... impairs proper lubrication of the pad; (d) Has— (1) An exposed center core (except by design); or (2...

  8. Neural - fuzzy approach for system identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tien, B.T.

    1997-01-01

    Most real-world processes have nonlinear and complex dynamics. Conventional methods of constructing nonlinear models from first principles are time consuming and require a level of knowledge about the internal functioning of the system that is often not available. Consequently, in such

  9. Neural Computations in a Dynamical System with Multiple Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yuanyuan; Lin, Xiaohan; Wu, Si

    2016-01-01

    Neural systems display rich short-term dynamics at various levels, e.g., spike-frequency adaptation (SFA) at the single-neuron level, and short-term facilitation (STF) and depression (STD) at the synapse level. These dynamical features typically cover a broad range of time scales and exhibit large diversity in different brain regions. It remains unclear what is the computational benefit for the brain to have such variability in short-term dynamics. In this study, we propose that the brain can exploit such dynamical features to implement multiple seemingly contradictory computations in a single neural circuit. To demonstrate this idea, we use continuous attractor neural network (CANN) as a working model and include STF, SFA and STD with increasing time constants in its dynamics. Three computational tasks are considered, which are persistent activity, adaptation, and anticipative tracking. These tasks require conflicting neural mechanisms, and hence cannot be implemented by a single dynamical feature or any combination with similar time constants. However, with properly coordinated STF, SFA and STD, we show that the network is able to implement the three computational tasks concurrently. We hope this study will shed light on the understanding of how the brain orchestrates its rich dynamics at various levels to realize diverse cognitive functions. PMID:27679569

  10. Evolutionary Computation and Its Applications in Neural and Fuzzy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biaobiao Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural networks and fuzzy systems are two soft-computing paradigms for system modelling. Adapting a neural or fuzzy system requires to solve two optimization problems: structural optimization and parametric optimization. Structural optimization is a discrete optimization problem which is very hard to solve using conventional optimization techniques. Parametric optimization can be solved using conventional optimization techniques, but the solution may be easily trapped at a bad local optimum. Evolutionary computation is a general-purpose stochastic global optimization approach under the universally accepted neo-Darwinian paradigm, which is a combination of the classical Darwinian evolutionary theory, the selectionism of Weismann, and the genetics of Mendel. Evolutionary algorithms are a major approach to adaptation and optimization. In this paper, we first introduce evolutionary algorithms with emphasis on genetic algorithms and evolutionary strategies. Other evolutionary algorithms such as genetic programming, evolutionary programming, particle swarm optimization, immune algorithm, and ant colony optimization are also described. Some topics pertaining to evolutionary algorithms are also discussed, and a comparison between evolutionary algorithms and simulated annealing is made. Finally, the application of EAs to the learning of neural networks as well as to the structural and parametric adaptations of fuzzy systems is also detailed.

  11. Neural Mechanisms and Information Processing in Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamiko Ozaki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nestmate recognition is a hallmark of social insects. It is based on the match/mismatch of an identity signal carried by members of the society with that of the perceiving individual. While the behavioral response, amicable or aggressive, is very clear, the neural systems underlying recognition are not fully understood. Here we contrast two alternative hypotheses for the neural mechanisms that are responsible for the perception and information processing in recognition. We focus on recognition via chemical signals, as the common modality in social insects. The first, classical, hypothesis states that upon perception of recognition cues by the sensory system the information is passed as is to the antennal lobes and to higher brain centers where the information is deciphered and compared to a neural template. Match or mismatch information is then transferred to some behavior-generating centers where the appropriate response is elicited. An alternative hypothesis, that of “pre-filter mechanism”, posits that the decision as to whether to pass on the information to the central nervous system takes place in the peripheral sensory system. We suggest that, through sensory adaptation, only alien signals are passed on to the brain, specifically to an “aggressive-behavior-switching center”, where the response is generated if the signal is above a certain threshold.

  12. A comprehensive evaluation of food fortification with folic acid for the primary prevention of neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Angeline

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periconceptional use of vitamin supplements containing folic acid reduces the risk of a neural tube defect (NTD. In November 1998, food fortification with folic acid was mandated in Canada, as a public health strategy to increase the folic acid intake of all women of childbearing age. We undertook a comprehensive population based study in Newfoundland to assess the benefits and possible adverse effects of this intervention. Methods This study was carried out in women aged 19–44 years and in seniors from November 1997 to March 1998, and from November 2000 to March 2001. The evaluation was comprised of four components: I Determination of rates of NTDs; II Dietary assessment; III Blood analysis; IV Assessment of knowledge and use of folic acid supplements. Results The annual rates of NTDs in Newfoundland varied greatly between 1976 and 1997, with a mean rate of 3.40 per 1,000 births. There was no significant change in the average rates between 1991–93 and 1994–97 (relative risk [RR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76–1.34. The rates of NTDs fell by 78% (95% CI 65%–86% after the implementation of folic acid fortification, from an average of 4.36 per 1,000 births during 1991–1997 to 0.96 per 1,000 births during 1998–2001 (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.14–0.35. The average dietary intake of folic acid due to fortification was 70 μg/day in women aged 19–44 years and 74 μg/day in seniors. There were significant increases in serum and RBC folate levels for women and seniors after mandatory fortification. Among seniors, there were no significant changes in indices typical of vitamin B12 deficiencies, and no evidence of improved folate status masking haematological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency. The proportion of women aged 19–44 years taking a vitamin supplement containing folic acid increased from 17% to 28%. Conclusions Based on these findings, mandatory food fortification in Canada should continue at the

  13. Maternal Consumption of Non-Staple Food in the First Trimester and Risk of Neural Tube Defects in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To study the associations between maternal consumption of non-staple food in the first trimester and risk of neural tube defects (NTDs in offspring. Data collected from a hospital-based case-control study conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Shandong/Shanxi provinces including 459 mothers with NTDs-affected births and 459 mothers without NTDs-affected births. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between maternal consumption of non-staple food in the first trimester and risk of NTDs in offspring. The effects were evaluated by odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs with SAS9.1.3.software. Maternal consumption of milk, fresh fruits and nuts in the first trimester were protective factors for total NTDs. Compared with consumption frequency of ˂1 meal/week, the ORs for milk consumption frequency of 1–2, 3–6, ≥7 meals/week were 0.50 (95% CI: 0.28–0.88, 0.56 (0.32–0.99, and 0.59 (0.38–0.90, respectively; the ORs for fresh fruits consumption frequency of 1–2, 3–6, ≥7 meals/week were 0.29 (95% CI: 0.12–0.72, 0.22 (0.09–0.53, and 0.32 (0.14–0.71, respectively; the ORs for nuts consumption frequency of 1–2, 3–6, ≥7 meals/week were 0.60 (95% CI: 0.38–0.94, 0.49 (0.31–0.79, and 0.63 (0.36–1.08, respectively. Different effects of above factors on NTDs were found for subtypes of anencephaly and spina bifida. Maternal non-staple food consumption of milk, fresh fruits and nuts in the first trimester was associated with reducing NTDs risk in offspring.

  14. Native pattern defect inspection of EUV mask using advanced electron beam inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Takeya; Inazuki, Yuichi; Abe, Tsukasa; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long; Zhao, Yan; Kuan, Chiyan; Xiao, Hong; Jau, Jack

    2010-09-01

    Fabrication of defect free EUV mask is one of the most critical roadblocks for implementing EUV lithography into semiconductor high volume manufacturing for 22nm half-pitch (HP) node and beyond. At the same time, development of quality assurance process for the defect free EUV mask is also another critical challenge we need to address before the mass production. Inspection tools act important role in quality assurance process to ensure the defect free EUV mask. We are currently evaluating two types of inspection system: optical inspection (OPI) system and electron beam inspection (EBI) system [1, 2]. While OPI system is sophisticated technology and has an advantage in throughput, EBI system is superior in sensitivity and extendability to even small pattern. We evaluated sensitivity of EBI system and found it could detect 25 nm defects on 88nm L/S pattern which is as small as target defect size for 23 nm Flash HP pattern in 2013 in 2009 ITRS lithography roadmap [2, 3]. EBI system is effective inspection tool even at this moment to detect such small defects on 88nm HP pattern, though there are still some challenges such as the slow throughput and the reliability. Therefore, EBI system can be used as bridge tool to compensate insufficient sensitivity of current inspection tools and improve EUV mask fabrication process to achieve the defect free EUV mask. In this paper, we will present the results of native pattern defects founded on large field 88nm HP pattern using advance EBI system. We will also classify those defects and propose some ideas to mitigate them and realize the defect free EUV mask, demonstrating the capability of EBI as bridge tool.

  15. Epidemiology of Birth Defects Based on a Birth Defect Surveillance System from 2005 to 2014 in Hunan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Xie

    Full Text Available To describe the epidemiology of birth defects (BDs in perinatal infants in Hunan Province, China, between 2005 and 2014.The BD surveillance data of perinatal infants (for stillbirth, dead fetus or live birth between 28 weeks of gestation and 7 days after birth were collected from 52 registered hospitals of Hunan between 2005 and 2014. The prevalence rates of BDs with 95% confidence interval (CI and crude odds ratio (ORs were calculated to examine the associations of infant gender, maternal age, and region (urban vs rural with BDs.From 2005 to 2014, there were a total of 925413 perinatal infants of which 17753 had BDs, with the average prevalence of 191.84 per 10000 PIs (perinatal infants, showing a significant uptrend. The risks of BDs are higher in urban areas versus rural areas (OR = 1.20, in male infants versus female infants (OR = 1.19, and in mothers above age 35 versus those below age 35 (OR = 1.24. The main five types of BDs are Congenital heart defects (CHD, Other malformation of external ear (OMEE, Polydactyly, Congenital malformation of kidney (CMK, and Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTE. From 2005 to 2014, the prevalence rates (per 10000 PIs of CHD and CMK increased significantly from 22.56 to 74 (OR = 3.29, 95%CI: 2.65-4.11 and from 7.61 to 14.62 (OR = 1.92, 95%CI:1.30-2.84, respectively; the prevalence rates of congenital hydrocephalus and neural tube defects (NTDs decreased significantly from 11.8 to 5.29 (OR = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.31-0.65 and from 7.87 to 1.74 (OR = 0.22, 95%CI: 0.13-0.38, respectively.The prevalence rates of specific BDs in perinatal infants in Hunan have changed in the last decade. Urban pregnant women, male perinatal infants, and mothers above age 35 present different prevalence rates of BDs. Wider use of new diagnosis technology, improving the ability of monitoring, strengthening the publicity and education are important to reduce the prevalence of BDs.

  16. Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James

    2016-07-01

    There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem

  17. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy with/without choroid plexus cauterization for hydrocephalus due to hemorrhage, infection, Dandy-Walker malformation, and neural tube defect: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandian, Anthony; Haffner, Matthew; Johnson, James; Rozzelle, Curtis J; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2014-04-01

    Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is a viable alternative to CSF shunting in hydrocephalic patients and is used with varying degrees of success dependent on age and etiology. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to analyze data on ETV and ETV/CPC (choroid plexus cauterization) outcomes in hopes of providing a clear understanding of their limitations in patients with hydrocephalus due to hemorrhage, infection, Dandy-Walker malformation, or neural tube disorders. An extensive PubMed search dating back 11 years was performed on primary ETV or ETV/CPC procedures for hydrocephalus due to infection, hemorrhage, neural tube defects, and Dandy-Walker malformation. ETV success was defined as no intraoperative or post-operative complications and no need for revision surgery at follow-up. Ten studies were identified for analysis. The data represent 534 patients undergoing primary ETV and 167 patients undergoing primary ETV/CPC. The ETV group reached a 55 % success rate, while the ETV/CPC group reached a 67 % success rate. Success rates of ETV alone for hydrocephalus due to infection, neural tube defects, and intraventricular hemorrhage reached 54, 55, and 57 %, respectively. 84 % success was found in patients older than 2 years of age and 52 % success in patients less than 2 years of age. ETV is a valid treatment for hydrocephalus of any etiology. There exists a small difference in success rates between infection, hemorrhage, and neural tube disorders, though not enough to discount ETV for these etiologies. Initial data utilizing ETV/CPC are promising, and additional studies will need to be done to verify such results.

  18. Neural feedback linearization adaptive control for affine nonlinear systems based on neural network estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahita Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we introduce an adaptive neural network controller for a class of nonlinear systems. The approach uses two Radial Basis Functions, RBF networks. The first RBF network is used to approximate the ideal control law which cannot be implemented since the dynamics of the system are unknown. The second RBF network is used for on-line estimating the control gain which is a nonlinear and unknown function of the states. The updating laws for the combined estimator and controller are derived through Lyapunov analysis. Asymptotic stability is established with the tracking errors converging to a neighborhood of the origin. Finally, the proposed method is applied to control and stabilize the inverted pendulum system.

  19. Prevalência de defeitos de fechamento de tubo neural no Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo Prevalence of neural tube defects in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando C. Nascimento

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural no Vale do Paraíba paulista e identificar possíveis fatores maternos e neonatais associados a tais defeitos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo transversal com dados secundários obtidos na Secretaria Estadual da Saúde referentes aos nascimentos ocorridos em 2004 no Vale do Paraíba paulista, que compreende 35 municípios e conta com população de 2 milhões de habitantes. Anencefalia, encefalocele e espina bífida (mielocele e mielomeningocele foram considerados defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural. As variáveis maternas foram: idade, escolaridade, cor da pele, número de consultas no pré-natal, número de filhos vivos e relato de óbito fetal prévio. As variáveis relativas ao recém-nascido foram: peso, idade gestacional e escore de Apgar. Realizou-se comparação das médias por meio do teste t de Student e obtiveram-se os valores das razões de chance com intervalos de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 33.653 nascidos vivos. Trinta e oito recém-nascidos com o defeito foram encontrados (1,13/1.000 nascidos vivos, sendo 23 casos de espina bífida. Houve associação com baixo peso ao nascimento, prematuridade e menores escores de Apgar de cinco minutos. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência desta anomalia foi inferior à de outros estudos nacionais e sua presença esteve associada ao baixo peso, à prematuridade e à baixa vitalidade ao nascer.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of neural tube defects in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify possible maternal and neonatal variables associated with these defects. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used secondary records of the Health Department of São Paulo State related live births during 2004 in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil. This region has 35 cities and 2 million inhabitants. Anencephaly, encephalocele and spina bifida (myelocele and myelomeningocele were considered as neural tube

  20. Lamin b1 polymorphism influences morphology of the nuclear envelope, cell cycle progression, and risk of neural tube defects in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C P De Castro

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs, including spina bifida and anencephaly, are common birth defects whose complex multigenic causation has hampered efforts to delineate their molecular basis. The effect of putative modifier genes in determining NTD susceptibility may be investigated in mouse models, particularly those that display partial penetrance such as curly tail, a strain in which NTDs result from a hypomorphic allele of the grainyhead-like-3 gene. Through proteomic analysis, we found that the curly tail genetic background harbours a polymorphic variant of lamin B1, lacking one of a series of nine glutamic acid residues. Lamins are intermediate filament proteins of the nuclear lamina with multiple functions that influence nuclear structure, cell cycle properties, and transcriptional regulation. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching showed that the variant lamin B1 exhibited reduced stability in the nuclear lamina. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the variant also affects neural tube closure: the frequency of spina bifida and anencephaly was reduced three-fold when wild-type lamin B1 was bred into the curly tail strain background. Cultured fibroblasts expressing variant lamin B1 show significantly increased nuclear dysmorphology and diminished proliferative capacity, as well as premature senescence, associated with reduced expression of cyclins and Smc2, and increased expression of p16. The cellular basis of spinal NTDs in curly tail embryos involves a proliferation defect localised to the hindgut epithelium, and S-phase progression was diminished in the hindgut of embryos expressing variant lamin B1. These observations indicate a mechanistic link between altered lamin B1 function, exacerbation of the Grhl3-mediated cell proliferation defect, and enhanced susceptibility to NTDs. We conclude that lamin B1 is a modifier gene of major effect for NTDs resulting from loss of Grhl3 function, a role that is likely mediated via the key function of lamin B1

  1. DNA methylation aberrations rather than polymorphisms of FZD3 gene increase the risk of spina bifida in a high-risk region for neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Shaofang; Wang, Li; Chang, Shaoyan; Lu, Xiaoling; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Lihua; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Xiuwei; Guan, Zhen; Bao, Yihua; Zhao, Huizhi; Zou, Jizhen; Niu, Bo; Zhang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of neural tube defects (NTDs) have indicated roles for the Fzd3 gene and the planar cell polarity signaling pathway in convergent extension. We investigated the involvement of FZD3 in genetic and epigenetic mechanisms associated with human NTDs, especially spina bifida. We explored the effects of variants spanning the FZD3 gene in NTDs and examined the role of aberrant methylation of the FZD3 promoter on gene expression in brain tissue in spina bifida. Six FZD3 single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped using a MassARRAY system in tissue from 165 NTD fetuses and 152 controls. DNA methylation aberrations in the FZD3 promoter region were detected using a MassARRAY EpiTYPER (17 CpG units from -500 to -2400 bp from the transcription start site) in brain tissue from 77 spina bifida and 74 control fetuses. None of the six single nucleotide polymorphisms evaluated were significantly associated with spina bifida, but the mean methylation level was significantly higher in spina bifida samples (13.70%) compared with control samples (10.91%) (p = 0.001). In terms of specific sites, DNA methylation levels were significantly higher in the spina bifida samples at 14 of the 17 CpG units, which mostly included in R2 region. FZD3 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with methylation of the FZD3 promoter region, especially the R2 region (R = 0.970; p = 0.001) in HeLa cells. The results of this study suggest that DNA methylation plays an important role in FZD3 gene expression regulation and may be associated with an increased risk of spina bifida. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Predictive and Neural Predictive Control of Uncertain Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, Atul G.

    2000-01-01

    Accomplishments and future work are:(1) Stability analysis: the work completed includes characterization of stability of receding horizon-based MPC in the setting of LQ paradigm. The current work-in-progress includes analyzing local as well as global stability of the closed-loop system under various nonlinearities; for example, actuator nonlinearities; sensor nonlinearities, and other plant nonlinearities. Actuator nonlinearities include three major types of nonlineaxities: saturation, dead-zone, and (0, 00) sector. (2) Robustness analysis: It is shown that receding horizon parameters such as input and output horizon lengths have direct effect on the robustness of the system. (3) Code development: A matlab code has been developed which can simulate various MPC formulations. The current effort is to generalize the code to include ability to handle all plant types and all MPC types. (4) Improved predictor: It is shown that MPC design using better predictors that can minimize prediction errors. It is shown analytically and numerically that Smith predictor can provide closed-loop stability under GPC operation for plants with dead times where standard optimal predictor fails. (5) Neural network predictors: When neural network is used as predictor it can be shown that neural network predicts the plant output within some finite error bound under certain conditions. Our preliminary study shows that with proper choice of update laws and network architectures such bound can be obtained. However, much work needs to be done to obtain a similar result in general case.

  3. Intelligent systems II complete approximation by neural network operators

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    2016-01-01

    This monograph is the continuation and completion of the monograph, “Intelligent Systems: Approximation by Artificial Neural Networks” written by the same author and published 2011 by Springer. The book you hold in hand presents the complete recent and original work of the author in approximation by neural networks. Chapters are written in a self-contained style and can be read independently. Advanced courses and seminars can be taught out of this brief book. All necessary background and motivations are given per chapter. A related list of references is given also per chapter. The book’s results are expected to find applications in many areas of applied mathematics, computer science and engineering. As such this monograph is suitable for researchers, graduate students, and seminars of the above subjects, also for all science and engineering libraries.  .

  4. Prevention of neural tube defects by the fortification of flour with folic acid: a population-based retrospective study in Brazil/Prevention des anomalies du tube neural par l'enrichissement en acide folique des farines: etude retrospective en population au Bresil/La prevencion de los defectos del tubo neural mediante el enriquecimiento de la harina con acido folico: un estudio poblacional retrospectivo en Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Lecca, Roberto Carlos Reyes; Cortez-Escalante, Juan Jose; Sanchez, Mauro Niskier; Rodrigues, Humberto Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine if the fortification of wheat and maize flours with iron and folic acid--which became mandatory in Brazil from June 2004--is effective in the prevention of neural tube defects...

  5. Neural systems for choice and valuation with counterfactual learning signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, M J; Guo, R; Schwarze, U; Boehmer, W; Gläscher, J; Finckh, B; Marschner, A; Büchel, C; Obermayer, K; Sommer, T

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to test a computational model of reinforcement learning with and without fictive prediction error (FPE) signals to investigate how counterfactual consequences contribute to acquired representations of action-specific expected value, and to determine the functional neuroanatomy and neuromodulator systems that are involved. 80 male participants underwent dietary depletion of either tryptophan or tyrosine/phenylalanine to manipulate serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA), respectively. They completed 80 rounds (240 trials) of a strategic sequential investment task that required accepting interim losses in order to access a lucrative state and maximize long-term gains, while being scanned. We extended the standard Q-learning model by incorporating both counterfactual gains and losses into separate error signals. The FPE model explained the participants' data significantly better than a model that did not include counterfactual learning signals. Expected value from the FPE model was significantly correlated with BOLD signal change in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and posterior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), whereas expected value from the standard model did not predict changes in neural activity. The depletion procedure revealed significantly different neural responses to expected value in the vmPFC, caudate, and dopaminergic midbrain in the vicinity of the substantia nigra (SN). Differences in neural activity were not evident in the standard Q-learning computational model. These findings demonstrate that FPE signals are an important component of valuation for decision making, and that the neural representation of expected value incorporates cortical and subcortical structures via interactions among serotonergic and dopaminergic modulator systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [A telemetery system for neural signal acquiring and processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Song, Yongji; Suen, Jiantao; Zhao, Yiliang; Jia, Aibin; Zhu, Jianping

    2011-02-01

    Recording and extracting characteristic brain signals in freely moving animals is the basic and significant requirement in the study of brain-computer interface (BCI). To record animal's behaving and extract characteristic brain signals simultaneously could help understand the complex behavior of neural ensembles. Here, a system was established to record and analyse extracellular discharge in freely moving rats for the study of BCI. It comprised microelectrode and micro-driver assembly, analog front end (AFE), programmer system on chip (PSoC), wireless communication and the LabVIEW used as the platform for the graphic user interface.

  7. A simple mechanical system for studying adaptive oscillatory neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Guillaume; Jouffroy, Jerome

    model, etc.) might be too complex to study. In this paper, we use a comparatively simple mechanical system, the nonholonomic vehicle referred to as the Roller-Racer, as a means towards testing different learning strategies for an Recurrent Neural Network-based (RNN) controller/guidance system. After...... a brief description of the Roller-Racer, we present as a preliminary study an RNN-based feed-forward controller whose parameters are obtained through the well-known teacher forcing learning algorithm, extended to learn signals with a continuous component....

  8. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming, E-mail: heavenlzm@126.com; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing System Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster–Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  9. The prediction of risk of welding defects at the procedure stage using computer knowledge based systems.

    OpenAIRE

    da Costa, S. C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a methodology to evaluate the likelihood of defective welds as a procedure proposal is entered into a computerised database system. The approach developed was assessed for hydrogen induced cold cracking (HICC) since this defect is a major problem in welding technology. An expert system was used to implement the methodology. The information for the expert system knowledge base was partly gathered from previous work in this area. The...

  10. Radial basis function (RBF) neural network control for mechanical systems design, analysis and Matlab simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jinkun

    2013-01-01

    Radial Basis Function (RBF) Neural Network Control for Mechanical Systems is motivated by the need for systematic design approaches to stable adaptive control system design using neural network approximation-based techniques. The main objectives of the book are to introduce the concrete design methods and MATLAB simulation of stable adaptive RBF neural control strategies. In this book, a broad range of implementable neural network control design methods for mechanical systems are presented, such as robot manipulators, inverted pendulums, single link flexible joint robots, motors, etc. Advanced neural network controller design methods and their stability analysis are explored. The book provides readers with the fundamentals of neural network control system design.   This book is intended for the researchers in the fields of neural adaptive control, mechanical systems, Matlab simulation, engineering design, robotics and automation. Jinkun Liu is a professor at Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronauti...

  11. Applied use of advanced inspection systems to measure, reduce, and control defect densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, David R.

    1990-06-01

    Just as the photolithography engineer has tools andmethods for identifying and correcting stepper alignment errors, the defect reduction engineer needs tools and methods for identifying and eliminating process defects. Automated defect inspection systems are becoming increasingly common in semiconductor manufacturing operations. It has become accepted that they provide the quickest, most reliable method of identifying and reducing defect causes. In addition to automated inspection systems, a sound inspection strategy is necessary. Techniques have been presented by this author and others 1,2 describe a process of identifying defect types, isolating sources, performing and verifying corrective action. A variety of inspection systems are available to implement these techniques. This paper examines the application of two automated inspection systems in a semiconductor fabrication line producing two level metal, single layer polycide CMOS ASICS. Statistical methods for interpreting inspection results and verifying defect reduction are also shown. The results presented show the benefits of this approach. Device yield can be greatly improved, and critical information about the variability and density of yield limiting defects in a fabrication process can be provided. Scope This report consists of two individual studies. In the first study, the processes of defect identification, source isolation, corrective action, and verification are investigated on production wafers following the active area etch operation. A patterned wafer laser scanning particle detection system is used to collect the data for these processes. In the second study the initial step of defect identification is investigated on a polycide etch layer. Data from a laser scanning paiticle detection system and a digital image processing system are analyzed.

  12. Topological defect solutions for a system of three scalar fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazian, M. R.; Amani, Ali R.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we studied on the defect structures as topological by non-linear three scalar fields. By using modified Adomian decomposition method (MADM), and Adomian decomposition method (ADM) we have found the solutions of three scalar fields. Then we compared the obtained results each other by numerical solution. Also, we consider the static case and draw ϕ(x), χ(x), and ρ(x) with the choice of different values for parameter r.

  13. Neural Network Based Intrusion Detection System for Critical Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic

    2009-07-01

    Resiliency and security in control systems such as SCADA and Nuclear plant’s in today’s world of hackers and malware are a relevant concern. Computer systems used within critical infrastructures to control physical functions are not immune to the threat of cyber attacks and may be potentially vulnerable. Tailoring an intrusion detection system to the specifics of critical infrastructures can significantly improve the security of such systems. The IDS-NNM – Intrusion Detection System using Neural Network based Modeling, is presented in this paper. The main contributions of this work are: 1) the use and analyses of real network data (data recorded from an existing critical infrastructure); 2) the development of a specific window based feature extraction technique; 3) the construction of training dataset using randomly generated intrusion vectors; 4) the use of a combination of two neural network learning algorithms – the Error-Back Propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt, for normal behavior modeling. The presented algorithm was evaluated on previously unseen network data. The IDS-NNM algorithm proved to be capable of capturing all intrusion attempts presented in the network communication while not generating any false alerts.

  14. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  15. Complete Loss of Netrin-1 Results in Embryonic Lethality and Severe Axon Guidance Defects without Increased Neural Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenea M. Bin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Netrin-1 regulates cell migration and adhesion during the development of the nervous system, vasculature, lung, pancreas, muscle, and mammary gland. It is also proposed to function as a dependence ligand that inhibits apoptosis; however, studies disagree regarding whether netrin-1 loss-of-function mice exhibit increased cell death. Furthermore, previously studied netrin-1 loss-of-function gene-trap mice express a netrin-1-β-galactosidase protein chimera with potential for toxic gain-of-function effects, as well as a small amount of wild-type netrin-1 protein. To unambiguously assess loss of function, we generated netrin-1 floxed and netrin-1 null mouse lines. Netrin-1−/− mice die earlier and exhibit more severe axon guidance defects than netrin-1 gene-trap mice, revealing that complete loss of function is more severe than previously reported. Netrin-1−/− embryos also exhibit increased expression of the netrin receptors DCC and neogenin that are proposed dependence receptors; however, increased apoptosis was not detected, inconsistent with netrin-1 being an essential dependence receptor ligand in the embryonic spinal cord.

  16. Ethanol-induced impairment of polyamine homeostasis – A potential cause of neural tube defect and intrauterine growth restriction in fetal alcohol syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi Poodeh, Saeid, E-mail: saeid.haghighi@oulu.fi [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Alhonen, Leena [Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, Kuopio (Finland); School of Pharmacy, Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku J. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. • Alcohol administration perturbs polyamine levels in the tissues with various patterns. • Total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc is critical for development. • The deficiency is associated with reduction in endothelial cell sprouting in the head. • Retarded migration of neural crest cells may cause development of neural tube defect. - Abstract: Introduction: Polyamines play a fundamental role during embryogenesis by regulating cell growth and proliferation and by interacting with RNA, DNA and protein. The polyamine pools are regulated by metabolism and uptake from exogenous sources. The use of certain inhibitors of polyamine synthesis causes similar defects to those seen in alcohol exposure e.g. retarded embryo growth and endothelial cell sprouting. Methods: CD-1 mice received two intraperitoneal injections of 3 g/kg ethanol at 4 h intervals 8.75 days post coitum (dpc). The fetal head, trunk, yolk sac and placenta were collected at 9.5 and 12.5 dpc and polyamine concentrations were determined. Results: No measurable quantity of polyamines could be detected in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc, 12 h after ethanol exposure. Putrescine was not detectable in the trunk of the embryo at that time, whereas polyamines in yolk sac and placenta were at control level. Polyamine deficiency was associated with slow cell growth, reduction in endothelial cell sprouting, an altered pattern of blood vessel network formation and consequently retarded migration of neural crest cells and growth restriction. Discussion: Our results indicate that the polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. Alcohol administration, at the critical stage, perturbs polyamine levels with various patterns, depending on the tissue and its developmental stage. The total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc may explain why this

  17. System identification of an unmanned quadcopter system using MRAN neural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairan, M. F.; Shamsudin, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    This project presents the performance analysis of the radial basis function neural network (RBF) trained with Minimal Resource Allocating Network (MRAN) algorithm for real-time identification of quadcopter. MRAN’s performance is compared with the RBF with Constant Trace algorithm for 2500 input-output pair data sampling. MRAN utilizes adding and pruning hidden neuron strategy to obtain optimum RBF structure, increase prediction accuracy and reduce training time. The results indicate that MRAN algorithm produces fast training time and more accurate prediction compared with standard RBF. The model proposed in this paper is capable of identifying and modelling a nonlinear representation of the quadcopter flight dynamics.

  18. Neural system modeling and simulation using Hybrid Functional Petri Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yin; Wang, Fei

    2012-02-01

    The Petri net formalism has been proved to be powerful in biological modeling. It not only boasts of a most intuitive graphical presentation but also combines the methods of classical systems biology with the discrete modeling technique. Hybrid Functional Petri Net (HFPN) was proposed specially for biological system modeling. An array of well-constructed biological models using HFPN yielded very interesting results. In this paper, we propose a method to represent neural system behavior, where biochemistry and electrical chemistry are both included using the Petri net formalism. We built a model for the adrenergic system using HFPN and employed quantitative analysis. Our simulation results match the biological data well, showing that the model is very effective. Predictions made on our model further manifest the modeling power of HFPN and improve the understanding of the adrenergic system. The file of our model and more results with their analysis are available in our supplementary material.

  19. Conditional beta1-integrin gene deletion in neural crest cells causes severe developmental alterations of the peripheral nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietri, Thomas; Eder, Olivier; Breau, Marie Anne

    2004-01-01

    Integrins are transmembrane receptors that are known to interact with the extracellular matrix and to be required for migration, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. We have generated mice with a neural crest cell-specific deletion of the beta1-integrin gene to analyse the role of beta1-....... There was an almost complete absence of Schwann cells and sensory axon segregation and defective maturation in neuromuscular synaptogenesis. Thus, beta1-integrins are important for the control of embryonic and postnatal peripheral nervous system development....

  20. Intelligent reservoir operation system based on evolving artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Paulo; Chang, Fi-John

    2008-06-01

    We propose a novel intelligent reservoir operation system based on an evolving artificial neural network (ANN). Evolving means the parameters of the ANN model are identified by the GA evolutionary optimization technique. Accordingly, the ANN model should represent the operational strategies of reservoir operation. The main advantages of the Evolving ANN Intelligent System (ENNIS) are as follows: (i) only a small number of parameters to be optimized even for long optimization horizons, (ii) easy to handle multiple decision variables, and (iii) the straightforward combination of the operation model with other prediction models. The developed intelligent system was applied to the operation of the Shihmen Reservoir in North Taiwan, to investigate its applicability and practicability. The proposed method is first built to a simple formulation for the operation of the Shihmen Reservoir, with single objective and single decision. Its results were compared to those obtained by dynamic programming. The constructed network proved to be a good operational strategy. The method was then built and applied to the reservoir with multiple (five) decision variables. The results demonstrated that the developed evolving neural networks improved the operation performance of the reservoir when compared to its current operational strategy. The system was capable of successfully simultaneously handling various decision variables and provided reasonable and suitable decisions.

  1. The ctenophore genome and the evolutionary origins of neural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Leonid L; Kocot, Kevin M; Citarella, Mathew R; Dosung, Sohn; Norekian, Tigran P; Povolotskaya, Inna S; Grigorenko, Anastasia P; Dailey, Christopher; Berezikov, Eugene; Buckley, Katherine M; Ptitsyn, Andrey; Reshetov, Denis; Mukherjee, Krishanu; Moroz, Tatiana P; Bobkova, Yelena; Yu, Fahong; Kapitonov, Vladimir V; Jurka, Jerzy; Bobkov, Yuri V; Swore, Joshua J; Girardo, David O; Fodor, Alexander; Gusev, Fedor; Sanford, Rachel; Bruders, Rebecca; Kittler, Ellen; Mills, Claudia E; Rast, Jonathan P; Derelle, Romain; Solovyev, Victor V; Kondrashov, Fyodor A; Swalla, Billie J; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Rogaev, Evgeny I; Halanych, Kenneth M; Kohn, Andrea B

    2014-06-05

    The origins of neural systems remain unresolved. In contrast to other basal metazoans, ctenophores (comb jellies) have both complex nervous and mesoderm-derived muscular systems. These holoplanktonic predators also have sophisticated ciliated locomotion, behaviour and distinct development. Here we present the draft genome of Pleurobrachia bachei, Pacific sea gooseberry, together with ten other ctenophore transcriptomes, and show that they are remarkably distinct from other animal genomes in their content of neurogenic, immune and developmental genes. Our integrative analyses place Ctenophora as the earliest lineage within Metazoa. This hypothesis is supported by comparative analysis of multiple gene families, including the apparent absence of HOX genes, canonical microRNA machinery, and reduced immune complement in ctenophores. Although two distinct nervous systems are well recognized in ctenophores, many bilaterian neuron-specific genes and genes of 'classical' neurotransmitter pathways either are absent or, if present, are not expressed in neurons. Our metabolomic and physiological data are consistent with the hypothesis that ctenophore neural systems, and possibly muscle specification, evolved independently from those in other animals.

  2. Fault Tolerant Neural Network for ECG Signal Classification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERAH, M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to apply a new robust hardware Artificial Neural Network (ANN for ECG classification systems. This ANN includes a penalization criterion which makes the performances in terms of robustness. Specifically, in this method, the ANN weights are normalized using the auto-prune method. Simulations performed on the MIT ? BIH ECG signals, have shown that significant robustness improvements are obtained regarding potential hardware artificial neuron failures. Moreover, we show that the proposed design achieves better generalization performances, compared to the standard back-propagation algorithm.

  3. Separate neural systems value immediate and delayed monetary rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Samuel M; Laibson, David I; Loewenstein, George; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2004-10-15

    When humans are offered the choice between rewards available at different points in time, the relative values of the options are discounted according to their expected delays until delivery. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined the neural correlates of time discounting while subjects made a series of choices between monetary reward options that varied by delay to delivery. We demonstrate that two separate systems are involved in such decisions. Parts of the limbic system associated with the midbrain dopamine system, including paralimbic cortex, are preferentially activated by decisions involving immediately available rewards. In contrast, regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex are engaged uniformly by intertemporal choices irrespective of delay. Furthermore, the relative engagement of the two systems is directly associated with subjects' choices, with greater relative fronto-parietal activity when subjects choose longer term options.

  4. Examination of neural systems sub-serving facebook "addiction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-12-01

    Because addictive behaviors typically result from violated homeostasis of the impulsive (amygdala-striatal) and inhibitory (prefrontal cortex) brain systems, this study examined whether these systems sub-serve a specific case of technology-related addiction, namely Facebook "addiction." Using a go/no-go paradigm in functional MRI settings, the study examined how these brain systems in 20 Facebook users (M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 1.3, range = 18-23) who completed a Facebook addiction questionnaire, responded to Facebook and less potent (traffic sign) stimuli. The findings indicated that at least at the examined levels of addiction-like symptoms, technology-related "addictions" share some neural features with substance and gambling addictions, but more importantly they also differ from such addictions in their brain etiology and possibly pathogenesis, as related to abnormal functioning of the inhibitory-control brain system.

  5. Neural systems supporting and affecting economically relevant behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeutigam S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sven BraeutigamOxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomAbstract: For about a hundred years, theorists and traders alike have tried to unravel and understand the mechanisms and hidden rules underlying and perhaps determining economically relevant behavior. This review focuses on recent developments in neuroeconomics, where the emphasis is placed on two directions of research: first, research exploiting common experiences of urban inhabitants in industrialized societies to provide experimental paradigms with a broader real-life content; second, research based on behavioral genetics, which provides an additional dimension for experimental control and manipulation. In addition, possible limitations of state-of-the-art neuroeconomics research are addressed. It is argued that observations of neuronal systems involved in economic behavior converge to some extent across the technologies and paradigms used. Conceptually, the data available as of today raise the possibility that neuroeconomic research might provide evidence at the neuronal level for the existence of multiple systems of thought and for the importance of conflict. Methodologically, Bayesian approaches in particular may play an important role in identifying mechanisms and establishing causality between patterns of neural activity and economic behavior.Keywords: neuroeconomics, behavioral genetics, decision-making, consumer behavior, neural system

  6. Prevalência dos defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural em recém-nascidos do Centro de Atenção à Mulher do Instituto Materno Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira, IMIP: 2000-2004 Neural tube defects prevalence in newborn infants in the Women Care Center of the Instituto Materno Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira, IMIP: 2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmya Silva Pacheco

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer a prevalência de defeito de fechamento do tubo neural (DFTN em crianças nascidas na maternidade do Centro de Atenção à Mulher do Instituto Materno Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP no período de 2000 a 2004. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo, do tipo corte transversal, cujos dados foram coletados de um banco de dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos do qual foram selecionados todos os registros de recém-nascidos com malformação fetal. A partir daí selecionaram-se os recém-nascidos com DFTN ocorridos no período considerado. RESULTADOS: entre os 24.964 nascimentos, foram registrados 709 recém-nascidos apresentando alguma malformação ao nascer. Ao se considerar apenas os recém nascidos com DFTN, observaram-se 124 registros, representando uma prevalência de 0,5% entre nascimentos naquele período. Os recém-nascidos com DFTN apresentaram características semelhantes aos recém-nascidos com malformações, de uma forma geral. A maioria (68,5% desses recém-nascidos era de parto cesariano e 37,7% apresentaram baixo peso ao nascer. CONCLUSÕES: a prevalência de DFTN entre os nascimentos registrados no Centro de Atenção à Mulher do Instituto Materno Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira foi elevada (5/1000 nascimentos e isso, provavelmente é reflexo do fato de a maternidade ser referência para gestações de alto-risco.OBJECTIVES: to determine neural tube closing defects in newborns delivered in the maternity ward of the Women Care Center of the Instituto Materno Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP. METHODS: a descriptive cross-sectional cohort study, with data collected from a Born Alive Information System from which all records of newborns with fetal malformation were selected. From these records the ones pertaining to newborns between 2000 and 2004 with the neural tube closing defect were considered. RESULTS: of 24.964 births, 709 newborns with some type of malformation were registered. When

  7. The association and significance of H3K27me3 and a folate metabolic gene ACat2 in neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Sifan; Zhao, Mingzuo; Zhou, Changcheng; Lu, Fenggang; Zhang, Huankai; Na, Li; Feng, Shanshan; Qiang, Xiaoxin; Du, Yong

    2016-11-03

    To study the association between the expression of H3K27me3 and ACat2 (a folate metabolic protein), in order to elucidate the protective mechanism of folic acid (FA) in neural tube defects (NTDs). Eighteen female SD rats were randomly divided into normal, NTD and FA group. NTD group was induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) at E10d. FA group was fed with FA supplementation since 2 weeks before pregnancy, followed by ATRA induction. At E15d, FA level in the embryonic neural tube was determined by ELISA. Neural stem cells (NSCs) were isolated. Cell proliferation was compared by CCK-8 assay. The differentiation potency was assessed by immunocytochemical staining. H3K27me3 expression was measured by immunofluorescence method and Western blot. ACat2 mRNA expression was detected by qRT-PCR. Cultured NSCs formed numerous Nestin-positive neurospheres. After 5 days, they differentiated into NSE-positive neurons and GFAP-positive astrocytes. When compared with controls, the FA level in NTD group was significantly lower, the ability of cell proliferation and differentiation was significantly reduced, H3K27me3 expression was increased, and ACat2 mRNA expression was decreased (P neural tube. The increased H3K27me3 expression might cause a disorder of folate metabolic pathway by silencing ACat2 expression, leading to reduced proliferation and differentiation of NSCs, and ultimately the occurrence of NTD. FA supplementation may reverse this process.

  8. Using pulse width modulation for wireless transmission of neural signals in multichannel neural recording systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2009-08-01

    We have used a well-known technique in wireless communication, pulse width modulation (PWM) of time division multiplexed (TDM) signals, within the architecture of a novel wireless integrated neural recording (WINeR) system. We have evaluated the performance of the PWM-based architecture and indicated its accuracy and potential sources of error through detailed theoretical analysis, simulations, and measurements on a setup consisting of a 15-channel WINeR prototype as the transmitter and two types of receivers; an Agilent 89600 vector signal analyzer and a custom wideband receiver, with 36 and 75 MHz of maximum bandwidth, respectively. Furthermore, we present simulation results from a realistic MATLAB-Simulink model of the entire WINeR system to observe the system behavior in response to changes in various parameters. We have concluded that the 15-ch WINeR prototype, which is fabricated in a 0.5- mum standard CMOS process and consumes 4.5 mW from +/-1.5 V supplies, can acquire and wirelessly transmit up to 320 k-samples/s to a 75-MHz receiver with 8.4 bits of resolution, which is equivalent to a wireless data rate of approximately 2.56 Mb/s.

  9. A Chinese Named Entity Recognition System with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hui-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Named entity recognition (NER is a typical sequential labeling problem that plays an important role in natural language processing (NLP systems. In this paper, we discussed the details of applying a comprehensive model aggregating neural networks and conditional random field (CRF on Chinese NER tasks, and how to discovery character level features when implement a NER system in word level. We compared the difference between Chinese and English when modeling the character embeddings. We developed a NER system based on our analysis, it works well on the ACE 2004 and SIGHAN bakeoff 2006 MSRA dataset, and doesn’t rely on any gazetteers or handcraft features. We obtained F1 score of 82.3% on MSRA 2006.

  10. A 3D Laser Profiling System for Rail Surface Defect Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhimin; Li, Qingquan; Mao, Qingzhou; Zou, Qin

    2017-08-04

    Rail surface defects such as the abrasion, scratch and peeling often cause damages to the train wheels and rail bearings. An efficient and accurate detection of rail defects is of vital importance for the safety of railway transportation. In the past few decades, automatic rail defect detection has been studied; however, most developed methods use optic-imaging techniques to collect the rail surface data and are still suffering from a high false recognition rate. In this paper, a novel 3D laser profiling system (3D-LPS) is proposed, which integrates a laser scanner, odometer, inertial measurement unit (IMU) and global position system (GPS) to capture the rail surface profile data. For automatic defect detection, first, the deviation between the measured profile and a standard rail model profile is computed for each laser-imaging profile, and the points with large deviations are marked as candidate defect points. Specifically, an adaptive iterative closest point (AICP) algorithm is proposed to register the point sets of the measured profile with the standard rail model profile, and the registration precision is improved to the sub-millimeter level. Second, all of the measured profiles are combined together to form the rail surface through a high-precision positioning process with the IMU, odometer and GPS data. Third, the candidate defect points are merged into candidate defect regions using the K-means clustering. At last, the candidate defect regions are classified by a decision tree classifier. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed laser-profiling system in rail surface defect detection and classification.

  11. Population-based case-control study of the association between weather-related extreme heat events and neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soim, Aida; Lin, Shao; Sheridan, Scott C; Hwang, Syni-An; Hsu, Wan-Hsiang; Luben, Thomas J; Shaw, Gary M; Feldkamp, Marcia L; Romitti, Paul A; Reefhuis, Jennita; Langlois, Peter H; Browne, Marilyn L

    2017-11-01

    Elevated body core temperature has been shown to have teratogenic effects in animal studies. Our study evaluated the association between weather-related extreme heat events (EHEs) in the summer season and neural tube defects (NTDs), and further investigated whether pregnant women with a high pregestational body mass index (BMI) have a greater risk of having a child with NTDs associated with exposure to EHE than women with a normal BMI. We conducted a population-based case-control study among mothers of infants with NTDs and mothers of infants without major birth defects, who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and had at least 1 day of the third or fourth week postconception during summer months. EHEs were defined using the 95th and the 90th percentiles of the daily maximum universal apparent temperature. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression models with Firth's penalized likelihood method while controlling for other known risk factors. Overall, we did not observe a significant association between EHEs and NTDs. At the climate region level, consistently elevated but not statistically significant estimates were observed for at least 2 consecutive days with daily universal apparent maximum temperature above the 95th percentile of the UATmax distribution for the season, year, and weather monitoring station in New York (Northeast), North Carolina and Georgia (Southeast), and Iowa (Upper Midwest). No effect modification by BMI was observed. EHEs occurring during the relevant developmental window of embryogenesis do not appear to appreciably affect the risk of NTDs. Future studies should refine exposure assessment, and more completely account for maternal activities that may modify the effects of weather exposure. Birth Defects Research 109:1482-1493, 2017.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Characterization of internal geometry / covered surface defects with a visible light sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    Previous work has used visible light scanning to detect and characterize defects in 3D printed objects. This paper focuses on assessing the internal structures and external surfaces (that will be later hidden) of complex objects. These features make in-process defect detection far more important than it would be with an object that can be fully assessed with a post-completion scan, as it is required both for in-process correction and end-product quality assurance. This paper presents work on the use of a multi-camera visible light 3D scanning system to identify defects with printed objects' interior and covered / obscured exterior surfaces.

  13. Cardiac arrhythmias and conduction defects in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, Alessandra; Meune, Christophe; Gordon, Jessica; Chung, Lorinda; Proudman, Susanna; Assassi, Shervin; Nikpour, Mandana; Rodriguez-Reyna, Tatiana S; Khanna, Dinesh; Lafyatis, Robert; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Distler, Oliver; Allanore, Yannick

    2014-07-01

    Signs and symptoms of arrhythmias or conduction defects are frequently reported in patients with SSc. These rhythm disorders may have several origins (i.e., related to primary heart involvement, pericardial disease, valvular regurgitation or pulmonary arterial hypertension) and may negatively affect the overall prognosis of these patients. It is therefore important to identify patients at high risk for cardiac arrhythmias with a complete cardiological evaluation and to identify the underlying heart disease, including SSc-related myocardial involvement. In addition, some therapeutic options in SSc patients may differ from those recommended in other populations. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Neural Network Enhanced Structure Determination of Osteoporosis, Immune System, and Radiation Repair Proteins Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation will utilize self learning neural network technology to determine the structure of osteoporosis, immune system disease, and excess radiation...

  15. Hybrid fault diagnosis of nonlinear systems using neural parameter estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani-Tehrani, E; Talebi, H A; Khorasani, K

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a novel integrated hybrid approach for fault diagnosis (FD) of nonlinear systems taking advantage of both the system's mathematical model and the adaptive nonlinear approximation capability of computational intelligence techniques. Unlike most FD techniques, the proposed solution simultaneously accomplishes fault detection, isolation, and identification (FDII) within a unified diagnostic module. At the core of this solution is a bank of adaptive neural parameter estimators (NPEs) associated with a set of single-parameter fault models. The NPEs continuously estimate unknown fault parameters (FPs) that are indicators of faults in the system. Two NPE structures, series-parallel and parallel, are developed with their exclusive set of desirable attributes. The parallel scheme is extremely robust to measurement noise and possesses a simpler, yet more solid, fault isolation logic. In contrast, the series-parallel scheme displays short FD delays and is robust to closed-loop system transients due to changes in control commands. Finally, a fault tolerant observer (FTO) is designed to extend the capability of the two NPEs that originally assumes full state measurements for systems that have only partial state measurements. The proposed FTO is a neural state estimator that can estimate unmeasured states even in the presence of faults. The estimated and the measured states then comprise the inputs to the two proposed FDII schemes. Simulation results for FDII of reaction wheels of a three-axis stabilized satellite in the presence of disturbances and noise demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed FDII solutions under partial state measurements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Low-cost wireless neural recording system and software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Jeffrey A; Borna, Amir; Roy, Sabyasachi; Wang, Xiaoqin; Lewandowski, Brian; Schmidt, Marc; Najafi, Khalil

    2009-01-01

    We describe a flexible wireless neural recording system, which is comprised of a 15-channel analog FM transmitter, digital receiver and custom user interface software for data acquisition. The analog front-end is constructed from commercial off the shelf (COTS) components and weighs 6.3g (including batteries) and is capable of transmitting over 24 hours up to a range over 3m with a 25microV(rms) in-vivo noise floor. The Software Defined Radio (SDR) and the acquisition software provide a data acquisition platform with real time data display and can be customized based on the specifications of various experiments. The described system was characterized with in-vitro and in-vivo experiments and the results are presented.

  17. Stability Analysis of Neural Networks-Based System Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talel Korkobi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper treats some problems related to nonlinear systems identification. A stability analysis neural network model for identifying nonlinear dynamic systems is presented. A constrained adaptive stable backpropagation updating law is presented and used in the proposed identification approach. The proposed backpropagation training algorithm is modified to obtain an adaptive learning rate guarantying convergence stability. The proposed learning rule is the backpropagation algorithm under the condition that the learning rate belongs to a specified range defining the stability domain. Satisfying such condition, unstable phenomena during the learning process are avoided. A Lyapunov analysis leads to the computation of the expression of a convenient adaptive learning rate verifying the convergence stability criteria. Finally, the elaborated training algorithm is applied in several simulations. The results confirm the effectiveness of the CSBP algorithm.

  18. A direct-to-drive neural data acquisition system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin P Kinney

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the increasing channel count of neural probes, there is much effort being directed to creating increasingly scalable electrophysiology data acquisition systems. However, all such systems still rely on personal computers for data storage, and thus are limited by the bandwidth and cost of the computers, especially as the scale of recording increases. Here we present a novel architecture in which a digital processor receives data from an analog-to-digital converter, and writes that data directly to hard drives, without the need for a personal computer to serve as an intermediary in the data acquisition process. This minimalist architecture may support exceptionally high data throughput, without incurring costs to support unnecessary hardware and overhead associated with personal computers, thus facilitating scaling of electrophysiological recording in the future.

  19. Coherent resonance of quantum plasmons in Stone-Wales defected graphene-silver nanowire hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Xu, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Defected graphene has a more important practical significance than graphene. Silver nanoparticles can modify the optical properties of defected graphene. We present herein a detailed theoretical analysis about the coherent resonance of quantum plasmons in the Stone-Wales (SW) defected graphene-silver nanowire hybrid system by using time-dependent density functional theory. The plasmon coherent effect is mainly attributed to the electromagnetic field coupling between the Stone-Wales defected graphene and silver nanowires. As a result, the optical response of the hybrid system exhibits a remarkable enhancement. Plasmon resonance, which depends on polarization and selectable tuning, is enhanced in wide frequency regions. Moreover, it reveals that the resonance frequency of an optical absorption spectrum depends on the space configuration of the SW defected graphene in the hybrid system. This investigation provides a better understanding of the plasmon enhancement effect used in a graphene-based photoelectric device. The study also offers an effective means of detecting the defects existing in graphene.

  20. Fuzzy stochastic neural network model for structural system identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaomo; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Yuan, Yong

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic fuzzy stochastic neural network model for nonparametric system identification using ambient vibration data. The model is developed to handle two types of imprecision in the sensed data: fuzzy information and measurement uncertainties. The dimension of the input vector is determined by using the false nearest neighbor approach. A Bayesian information criterion is applied to obtain the optimum number of stochastic neurons in the model. A fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm is employed as a data mining tool to divide the sensed data into clusters with common features. The fuzzy stochastic model is created by combining the fuzzy clusters of input vectors with the radial basis activation functions in the stochastic neural network. A natural gradient method is developed based on the Kullback-Leibler distance criterion for quick convergence of the model training. The model is validated using a power density pseudospectrum approach and a Bayesian hypothesis testing-based metric. The proposed methodology is investigated with numerically simulated data from a Markov Chain model and a two-story planar frame, and experimentally sensed data from ambient vibration data of a benchmark structure.

  1. Ethanol-induced impairment of polyamine homeostasis--a potential cause of neural tube defect and intrauterine growth restriction in fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi Poodeh, Saeid; Alhonen, Leena; Salonurmi, Tuire; Savolainen, Markku J

    2014-03-28

    Polyamines play a fundamental role during embryogenesis by regulating cell growth and proliferation and by interacting with RNA, DNA and protein. The polyamine pools are regulated by metabolism and uptake from exogenous sources. The use of certain inhibitors of polyamine synthesis causes similar defects to those seen in alcohol exposure e.g. retarded embryo growth and endothelial cell sprouting. CD-1 mice received two intraperitoneal injections of 3 g/kg ethanol at 4 h intervals 8.75 days post coitum (dpc). The fetal head, trunk, yolk sac and placenta were collected at 9.5 and 12.5 dpc and polyamine concentrations were determined. No measurable quantity of polyamines could be detected in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc, 12 h after ethanol exposure. Putrescine was not detectable in the trunk of the embryo at that time, whereas polyamines in yolk sac and placenta were at control level. Polyamine deficiency was associated with slow cell growth, reduction in endothelial cell sprouting, an altered pattern of blood vessel network formation and consequently retarded migration of neural crest cells and growth restriction. Our results indicate that the polyamine pools in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues are developmentally regulated. Alcohol administration, at the critical stage, perturbs polyamine levels with various patterns, depending on the tissue and its developmental stage. The total absence of polyamines in the embryo head at 9.5 dpc may explain why this stage is so vulnerable to the development of neural tube defect, and growth restriction, the findings previously observed in fetal alcohol syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiagent Intrusion Detection Based on Neural Network Detectors and Artificial Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Vaitsekhovich, L.; Golovko, V; Rubanau, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this article the artificial immune system and neural network techniques for intrusion detection have been addressed. The AIS allows detecting unknown samples of computer attacks. The integration of AIS and neural networks as detectors permits to increase performance of the system security. The detector structure is based on the integration of the different neural networks namely RNN and MLP. The KDD-99 dataset was used for experiments performing. The experimental results show that such int...

  3. Identification of the non-linear systems using internal recurrent neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan CODRES

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past years utilization of neural networks took a distinct ampleness because of the following properties: distributed representation of information, capacity of generalization in case of uncontained situation in training data set, tolerance to noise, resistance to partial destruction, parallel processing. Another major advantage of neural networks is that they allow us to obtain the model of the investigated system, systems that is not necessarily to be linear. In fact, the true value of neural networks is seen in the case of identification and control of nonlinear systems. In this paper there are presented some identification techniques using neural networks.

  4. BOOK REVIEW: Theory of Neural Information Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Tobias

    2006-04-01

    It is difficult not to be amazed by the ability of the human brain to process, to structure and to memorize information. Even by the toughest standards the behaviour of this network of about 1011 neurons qualifies as complex, and both the scientific community and the public take great interest in the growing field of neuroscience. The scientific endeavour to learn more about the function of the brain as an information processing system is here a truly interdisciplinary one, with important contributions from biology, computer science, physics, engineering and mathematics as the authors quite rightly point out in the introduction of their book. The role of the theoretical disciplines here is to provide mathematical models of information processing systems and the tools to study them. These models and tools are at the centre of the material covered in the book by Coolen, Kühn and Sollich. The book is divided into five parts, providing basic introductory material on neural network models as well as the details of advanced techniques to study them. A mathematical appendix complements the main text. The range of topics is extremely broad, still the presentation is concise and the book well arranged. To stress the breadth of the book let me just mention a few keywords here: the material ranges from the basics of perceptrons and recurrent network architectures to more advanced aspects such as Bayesian learning and support vector machines; Shannon's theory of information and the definition of entropy are discussed, and a chapter on Amari's information geometry is not missing either. Finally the statistical mechanics chapters cover Gardner theory and the replica analysis of the Hopfield model, not without being preceded by a brief introduction of the basic concepts of equilibrium statistical physics. The book also contains a part on effective theories of the macroscopic dynamics of neural networks. Many dynamical aspects of neural networks are usually hard to find in the

  5. Neural mechanism of facilitation system during physical fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Tanaka

    Full Text Available An enhanced facilitation system caused by motivational input plays an important role in supporting performance during physical fatigue. We tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of the facilitation system during physical fatigue using magnetoencephalography (MEG and a classical conditioning technique. Twelve right-handed volunteers participated in this study. Participants underwent MEG recording during the imagery of maximum grips of the right hand guided by metronome sounds for 10 min. Thereafter, fatigue-inducing maximum handgrip trials were performed for 10 min; the metronome sounds were started 5 min after the beginning of the handgrip trials. The metronome sounds were used as conditioned stimuli and maximum handgrip trials as unconditioned stimuli. The next day, they were randomly assigned to two groups in a single-blinded, two-crossover fashion to undergo two types of MEG recordings, that is, for the control and motivation sessions, during the imagery of maximum grips of the right hand guided by metronome sounds for 10 min. The alpha-band event-related desynchronizations (ERDs of the motivation session relative to the control session within the time windows of 500 to 700 and 800 to 900 ms after the onset of handgrip cue sounds were identified in the sensorimotor areas. In addition, the alpha-band ERD within the time window of 400 to 500 ms was identified in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 46. The ERD level in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was positively associated with that in the sensorimotor areas within the time window of 500 to 700 ms. These results suggest that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in the neural substrates of the facilitation system and activates the sensorimotor areas during physical fatigue.

  6. Optimal Workflow Scheduling in Critical Infrastructure Systems with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vukmirović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Critical infrastructure systems (CISs, such as power grids, transportation systems, communication networks and water systems are the backbone of a country’s national security and industrial prosperity. These CISs execute large numbers of workflows with very high resource requirements that can span through different systems and last for a long time. The proper functioning and synchronization of these workflows is essential since humanity’s well-being is connected to it. Because of this, the challenge of ensuring availability and reliability of these services in the face of a broad range of operating conditions is very complicated. This paper proposes an architecture which dynamically executes a scheduling algorithm using feedback about the current status of CIS nodes. Different artificial neural networks (ANNs were created in order to solve the scheduling problem. Their performances were compared and as the main result of this paper, an optimal ANN architecture for workflow scheduling in CISs is proposed. A case study is shown for a meter data management system with measurements from a power distribution management system in Serbia. Performance tests show that significant improvement of the overall execution time can be achieved by ANNs.

  7. Automated stent defect detection and classification with a high numerical aperture optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Carlos; Laguarta, Ferran; Cadevall, Cristina; Matilla, Aitor; Ibañez, Sergi; Artigas, Roger

    2017-06-01

    Stent quality control is a highly critical process. Cardiovascular stents have to be inspected 100% so as no defective stent is implanted in a human body. However, this visual control is currently performed manually and every stent could need tenths of minutes to be inspected. In this paper, a novel optical inspection system is presented. By the combination of a high numerical aperture (NA) optical system, a rotational stage and a line-scan camera, unrolled sections of the outer and inner surfaces of the stent are obtained and image-processed at high speed. Defects appearing in those surfaces and also in the edges are extremely contrasted due to the shadowing effect of the high NA illumination and acquisition approach. Therefore by means of morphological operations and a sensitivity parameter, defects are detected. Based on a trained defect library, a binary classifier sorts each kind of defect through a set of scoring vectors, providing the quality operator with all the required information to finally take a decision. We expect this new approach to make defect detection completely objective and to dramatically reduce the time and cost of stent quality control stage.

  8. Defect-related internal dissipation in mechanical resonators and the study of coupled mechanical systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Czaplewski, David A.; Sullivan, John Patrick; Modine, Normand Arthur; Wendt, Joel Robert; Aslam, Dean (Michigan State University, Lansing, MI); Sepulveda-Alancastro, Nelson (University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR)

    2007-01-01

    Understanding internal dissipation in resonant mechanical systems at the micro- and nanoscale is of great technological and fundamental interest. Resonant mechanical systems are central to many sensor technologies, and microscale resonators form the basis of a variety of scanning probe microscopies. Furthermore, coupled resonant mechanical systems are of great utility for the study of complex dynamics in systems ranging from biology to electronics to photonics. In this work, we report the detailed experimental study of internal dissipation in micro- and nanomechanical oscillators fabricated from amorphous and crystalline diamond materials, atomistic modeling of dissipation in amorphous, defect-free, and defect-containing crystalline silicon, and experimental work on the properties of one-dimensional and two-dimensional coupled mechanical oscillator arrays. We have identified that internal dissipation in most micro- and nanoscale oscillators is limited by defect relaxation processes, with large differences in the nature of the defects as the local order of the material ranges from amorphous to crystalline. Atomistic simulations also showed a dominant role of defect relaxation processes in controlling internal dissipation. Our studies of one-dimensional and two-dimensional coupled oscillator arrays revealed that it is possible to create mechanical systems that should be ideal for the study of non-linear dynamics and localization.

  9. Development of Geometry Normalized Electromagnetic System (GNES) instrument for metal defect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zakaria; Surbakti, Muhammad Syukri; Syahreza, Saumi; Mat Jafri, Mohd. Zubir; Tan, Kok Chooi

    2017-10-01

    It has been already made, calibrated and tested a geometry normalized electromagnetic system (GNES) for metal defect examination. The GNES has an automatic data acquisition system which supporting the efficiency and accuracy of the measurement. The data will be displayed on the computer monitor as a graphic display then saved automatically in the Microsoft Excel format. The transmitter will transmit the frequency pair (FP) signals i.e. 112.5 Hz and 337.5 Hz; 112.5 Hz and 1012.5 Hz; 112.5 Hz and 3037.5 Hz; 337.5 Hz and 1012.5 Hz; 337.5 Hz and 3037.5 Hz. Simultaneous transmissions of two electromagnetic waves without distortions by the transmitter will induce an eddy current in the metal. This current, in turn, will produce secondary electromagnetic fields which are measured by the receiver together with the primary fields. Measurement of percent change of a vertical component of the fields will give the percent response caused by the metal or the defect. The response examinations were performed by the models with various type of defect for the master curves. The materials of samples as a plate were using Aluminum, Brass, and Copper. The more of the defects is the more reduction of the eddy current response. The defect contrasts were tended to decrease when the more depth of the defect position. The magnitude and phase of the eddy currents will affect the loading on the coil thus its impedance. The defect must interrupt the surface eddy current flow to be detected. Defect lying parallel to the current path will not cause any significant interruption and may not be detected. The main factors which affect the eddy current response are metal conductivity, permeability, frequency, and geometry.

  10. Effects of folic acid supplementation during different pregnancy periods and relationship with the other primary prevention measures to neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Rui; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Meng; Gao, Li-Jie; Zhao, Zhong-Tang

    2016-12-01

    To find out the prevention effects of folic acid supplements during different pregnancy periods on neural tube defects (NTDs) and the relationship of folic acid supplements with the other NTDs' primary preventive measures. A 1:1 case-control study was conducted. Four hundred and fifty-nine women who delivered or gestate infants/fetuses with NTDs in the last two years were randomly selected as cases and were matched with women who delivered babies without obvious birth defects as controls. For anencephaly, folic acid supplementation during the periconceptional period and preconceptional period has a 57-83% reduction in risk of NTDs(ORs ranged from 0.17 to 0.43). For spina bifida, folic acid supplementation during the periconceptional period has a 79% reduction in risk of NTDs (OR = 0.21). For encephalocele, folic acid supplementation during the periconceptional period has a 67% reduction in risk of NTDs (OR = 0.33). The prevention effects on NTDs were significant when these preventive measures combined with folic acid supplements during the periconceptional period, with OR 0.04, 0.07, 0.10 and 0.11. The specific effects of folic acid supplementation during different periods show the reduction in the risk of NTDs, anencephaly, spina bifida, encephalocele. During periconceptional period, folic acid supplements have preventive effects on all NTDs' subtypes.

  11. Stochastic Neural Field Theory and the System-Size Expansion

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a master equation formulation of stochastic neurodynamics for a network of synaptically coupled homogeneous neuronal populations each consisting of N identical neurons. The state of the network is specified by the fraction of active or spiking neurons in each population, and transition rates are chosen so that in the thermodynamic or deterministic limit (N → ∞) we recover standard activity-based or voltage-based rate models. We derive the lowest order corrections to these rate equations for large but finite N using two different approximation schemes, one based on the Van Kampen system-size expansion and the other based on path integral methods. Both methods yield the same series expansion of the moment equations, which at O(1/N) can be truncated to form a closed system of equations for the first-and second-order moments. Taking a continuum limit of the moment equations while keeping the system size N fixed generates a system of integrodifferential equations for the mean and covariance of the corresponding stochastic neural field model. We also show how the path integral approach can be used to study large deviation or rare event statistics underlying escape from the basin of attraction of a stable fixed point of the mean-field dynamics; such an analysis is not possible using the system-size expansion since the latter cannot accurately determine exponentially small transitions. © by SIAM.

  12. Neural systems language: a formal modeling language for the systematic description, unambiguous communication, and automated digital curation of neural connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ramsay A; Swanson, Larry W

    2013-09-01

    Systematic description and the unambiguous communication of findings and models remain among the unresolved fundamental challenges in systems neuroscience. No common descriptive frameworks exist to describe systematically the connective architecture of the nervous system, even at the grossest level of observation. Furthermore, the accelerating volume of novel data generated on neural connectivity outpaces the rate at which this data is curated into neuroinformatics databases to synthesize digitally systems-level insights from disjointed reports and observations. To help address these challenges, we propose the Neural Systems Language (NSyL). NSyL is a modeling language to be used by investigators to encode and communicate systematically reports of neural connectivity from neuroanatomy and brain imaging. NSyL engenders systematic description and communication of connectivity irrespective of the animal taxon described, experimental or observational technique implemented, or nomenclature referenced. As a language, NSyL is internally consistent, concise, and comprehensible to both humans and computers. NSyL is a promising development for systematizing the representation of neural architecture, effectively managing the increasing volume of data on neural connectivity and streamlining systems neuroscience research. Here we present similar precedent systems, how NSyL extends existing frameworks, and the reasoning behind NSyL's development. We explore NSyL's potential for balancing robustness and consistency in representation by encoding previously reported assertions of connectivity from the literature as examples. Finally, we propose and discuss the implications of a framework for how NSyL will be digitally implemented in the future to streamline curation of experimental results and bridge the gaps among anatomists, imagers, and neuroinformatics databases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A neural network architecture for implementation of expert systems for real time monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Since neural networks have the advantages of massive parallelism and simple architecture, they are good tools for implementing real time expert systems. In a rule based expert system, the antecedents of rules are in the conjunctive or disjunctive form. We constructed a multilayer feedforward type network in which neurons represent AND or OR operations of rules. Further, we developed a translator which can automatically map a given rule base into the network. Also, we proposed a new and powerful yet flexible architecture that combines the advantages of both fuzzy expert systems and neural networks. This architecture uses the fuzzy logic concepts to separate input data domains into several smaller and overlapped regions. Rule-based expert systems for time critical applications using neural networks, the automated implementation of rule-based expert systems with neural nets, and fuzzy expert systems vs. neural nets are covered.

  14. Prevalence of neural tube defects in a rural area of north india from 2001 to 2014: A population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Malhotra, Sumit; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Haldar, Partha; Kaur, Ravneet; Misra, Puneet; Gupta, Neerja

    2017-02-15

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the commonest birth defects. There was paucity of community-based data on occurrence of NTDs in India, especially from rural parts of the country. Against this background, the current study was carried out with main objectives to determine the prevalence of NTDs and its specific types (anencephaly, spina bifida and encephalocele) in a rural community setting over the time period 2001 to 2014. This was a community-based cross-sectional study carried out in 28 villages of Ballabgarh Tehsil of Faridabad district in north India (population ∼ 96,000). A household survey was undertaken by trained multi-purpose workers who enquired ever-married women about history of conception with outcome as NTD during the study period. The probable case of NTD was determined using a colored pictorial card with photographs of different types of NTDs. These cases were confirmed by doctors. A total of 26,946 live births occurred during the years 2001 to 2014. A total of 140 confirmed cases of NTDs were identified. The live birth prevalence of NTDs was 24.1 per 10,000 live births (95% confidence interval, 18.8-30.6). The birth prevalence of NTDs for the years 2008 to 2014 was 50.8 (95% confidence interval, 39.9-63.8) per 10,000 live and stillbirths. The most common type of NTD was found to be spina bifida followed by anencephaly and encephalocele. We found high prevalence of NTDs in rural community settings from north India for years 2001 to 2014.Birth Defects Research 109:203-210, 2017.© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. p38 MAPK-Mediated Bmi-1 Down-Regulation and Defective Proliferation in ATM-Deficient Neural Stem Cells Can Be Restored by Akt Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeesun; Hwangbo, Jeon; Wong, Paul K. Y.

    2011-01-01

    A-T (ataxia telangiectasia) is a genetic disease caused by a mutation in the Atm (A-T mutated) gene that leads to neurodegeneration. Despite an increase in the numbers of studies in this area in recent years, the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in human A-T are still poorly understood. Previous studies demonstrated that neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of Atm-/- mouse brains show defective self-renewal and proliferation, which is accompanied by activation of chronic p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and a lower level of the polycomb protein Bmi-1. However, the mechanism underlying Bmi-1 down-regulation and its relevance to defective proliferation in Atm-/- NSCs remained unclear. Here, we show that over-expression of Bmi-1 increases self-renewal and proliferation of Atm-/- NSCs to normal, indicating that defective proliferation in Atm-/- NSCs is a consequence of down-regulation of Bmi-1. We also demonstrate that epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced Akt phosphorylation renders Bmi-1 resistant to the proteasomal degradation, leading to its stabilization and accumulation in the nucleus. However, inhibition of the Akt-dependent Bmi-1 stabilizing process by p38 MAPK signaling reduces the levels of Bmi-1. Treatment of the Atm-/- NSCs with a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 extended Bmi-1 posttranscriptional turnover and H2A ubiquitination in Atm-/- NSCs. Our observations demonstrate the molecular basis underlying the impairment of self-renewal and proliferation in Atm-/- NSCs through the p38 MAPK-Akt-Bmi-1-p21 signaling pathway. PMID:21305053

  16. Platforms for artificial neural networks : neurosimulators and performance prediction of MIMD-parallel systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuurpijl, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    In this thesis, two platforms for simulating artificial neural networks are discussed: MIMD-parallel processor systems as an execution platform and neurosimulators as a research and development platform. Because of the parallelism encountered in neural networks, distributed processor systems seem to

  17. Analysis of the developing neural system using an in vitro model by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kosuke; Kudoh, Suguru N; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2015-04-07

    We developed an in vitro model of early neural cell development. The maturation of a normal neural cell was studied in vitro using Raman spectroscopy for 120 days. The Raman spectra datasets were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate the relationship between maturation stages and molecular composition changes in neural cells. According to the PCA, the Raman spectra datasets can be classified into four larger groups. Previous electrophysiological studies have suggested that a normal neural cell goes through three maturation states. The groups we observed by Raman analysis showed good agreement with the electrophysiological results, except with the addition of a fourth state. The results demonstrated that Raman analysis was powerful to investigate the daily changes in molecular composition of the growing neural cell. This in vitro model system may be useful for future studies of the effects of endocrine disrupters in the developing early neural system.

  18. Genetic defects in the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.J.R.J.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Smeitink, J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system consists of five multiprotein complexes and two mobile electron carriers embedded in the lipid bilayer of the mitochondrial inner membrane. With the exception of complex II and the mobile carriers, the other parts of the OXPHOS system are under dual

  19. NNETS - NEURAL NETWORK ENVIRONMENT ON A TRANSPUTER SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, J.

    1994-01-01

    The primary purpose of NNETS (Neural Network Environment on a Transputer System) is to provide users a high degree of flexibility in creating and manipulating a wide variety of neural network topologies at processing speeds not found in conventional computing environments. To accomplish this purpose, NNETS supports back propagation and back propagation related algorithms. The back propagation algorithm used is an implementation of Rumelhart's Generalized Delta Rule. NNETS was developed on the INMOS Transputer. NNETS predefines a Back Propagation Network, a Jordan Network, and a Reinforcement Network to assist users in learning and defining their own networks. The program also allows users to configure other neural network paradigms from the NNETS basic architecture. The Jordan network is basically a feed forward network that has the outputs connected to a pseudo input layer. The state of the network is dependent on the inputs from the environment plus the state of the network. The Reinforcement network learns via a scalar feedback signal called reinforcement. The network propagates forward randomly. The environment looks at the outputs of the network to produce a reinforcement signal that is fed back to the network. NNETS was written for the INMOS C compiler D711B version 1.3 or later (MS-DOS version). A small portion of the software was written in the OCCAM language to perform the communications routing between processors. NNETS is configured to operate on a 4 X 10 array of Transputers in sequence with a Transputer based graphics processor controlled by a master IBM PC 286 (or better) Transputer. A RGB monitor is required which must be capable of 512 X 512 resolution. It must be able to receive red, green, and blue signals via BNC connectors. NNETS is meant for experienced Transputer users only. The program is distributed on 5.25 inch 1.2Mb MS-DOS format diskettes. NNETS was developed in 1991. Transputer and OCCAM are registered trademarks of Inmos Corporation. MS

  20. Development of a web-based integrated birth defects surveillance system in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Tao, Zhen; Cross, Philip K; Le, Linh H; Steen, Patricia M; Babcock, Gwen D; Druschel, Charlotte M; Hwang, Syni-An

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, the Internet has become a powerful and effective tool for public health surveillance. The objectives of this project were to develop secure Web-based applications for Birth Defects Surveillance and to integrate them into routine surveillance activities of the New York State (NYS) Congenital Malformations Registry (CMR). The Web-based applications were developed on infrastructure of New York State Health Provider Network using JAVA programming language. In addition, SAS/IntrNet software (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC) was also used to leverage the data analysis and processing capabilities of SAS for generating real-time reports and performing statistical and spatial analyses. Congenital Malformations Registry staff have developed and implemented a Web-based integrated birth defect surveillance system, which enables staff to routinely perform surveillance activities including monitoring the quality, timeliness, and completeness of case reporting by hospitals; matching the CMR cases to the vital records; conducting trends analysis on birth defect prevalence and mortality with data query and visualization capabilities; and performing temporal and spatial analysis. The CMR's Web-based integrated birth defects surveillance system empowers authorized users to perform routine surveillance activities using only a PC and a Web browser. This system will help NYS public health professionals and epidemiologists perform trend analyses and identify possible clusters of birth defects in space and time that may be related to environmental toxins.

  1. Adaptive Neural Control for a Class of Outputs Time-Delay Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruliang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an adaptive neural control for a class of outputs time-delay nonlinear systems with perturbed or no. Based on RBF neural networks, the radius basis function (RBF neural networks is employed to estimate the unknown continuous functions. The proposed control guarantees that all closed-loop signals remain bounded. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  2. Defect characterization of electronic conducting pseudo-perovskite systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.U.; Nasrallah, M.; Sparlin, D.M.; Parris, P.E.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of the program has been to study the interrelationships between electrical conductivity, oxidation-reduction kinetics, defect structure, and composition of n- and p-type binary and ternary transition metal oxides. The stimulus for making these studies was the observation that both conducting n and p type oxides displayed a dependence on oxygen activity that was not predicted by the defect chemistry of their majority defects. The project has focused primarily on the understanding of electronic and ionic conduction in the REBO{sub 3} oxides, where RE is a rare earth ion and B is a transition metal ion. This is being done by studying the interrelationships between the electronic and ionic conductivity, the electronic structure of the B site transition metal ion, and the acceptor concentration. The dependence of these characteristics on the oxygen activity, the temperature, and the defect chemistry of the oxide system is being determined. Theoretical mechanisms and models are being developed from the body of experimental results to provide a predictive tool. The effect of dopants and impurities, processing, electrical and thermal stability as a function of oxygen activity and temperature and their relationship to defect chemistry of the perovskite type oxides have been studied extensively by this research team. As a result of the difference in mobility between electronic and ionic defects, the electrical conductivity changes as the concentration of electronic defects changes. Thus, electrodes or resistors consisting of such oxides are susceptible to instabilities in resistance as they are cycled into temperature regimes where thermodynamic equilibrium may be attained. Many of the new energy conversion systems which use such oxides are encountering difficulties as a result of this instability in resistivity.

  3. Nonlinear dynamic modeling of surface defects in rolling element bearing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Abbasion, Saeed; Farshidianfar, Anoushiravan; Moeenfard, Hamid

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an analytical model is proposed to study the nonlinear dynamic behavior of rolling element bearing systems including surface defects. Various surface defects due to local imperfections on raceways and rolling elements are introduced to the proposed model. The contact force of each rolling element described according to nonlinear Hertzian contact deformation and the effect of internal radial clearance has been taken into account. Mathematical expressions were derived for inner race, outer race and rolling element local defects. To overcome the strong nonlinearity of the governing equations of motion, a modified Newmark time integration technique was used to solve the equations of motion numerically. The results were obtained in the form of time series, frequency responses and phase trajectories. The validity of the proposed model verified by comparison of frequency components of the system response with those obtained from experiments. The classical Floquet theory has been applied to the proposed model to investigate the linear stability of the defective bearing rotor systems as the parameters of the system changes. The peak-to-peak frequency response of the system for each case is obtained and the basic routes to periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic motions for different internal radial clearances are determined. The current study provides a powerful tool for design and health monitoring of machine systems.

  4. Defect-related hysteresis in nanotube-based nano-electromechanical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelides Sokrates

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The electronic properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs depend on the positions of their walls with respect to neighboring shells. This fact can enable several applications of MWCNTs as nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS. In this article, we report the findings of a first-principles study on the stability and dynamics of point defects in double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs and their role in the response of the host systems under inter-tube displacement. Key defect-related effects, namely, sudden energy changes and hysteresis, are identified, and their relevance to a host of MWCNT-based NEMS is highlighted. The results also demonstrate the dependence of these effects on defect clustering and chirality of DWCNT shells.

  5. NNSYSID and NNCTRL Tools for system identification and control with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Magnus; Ravn, Ole; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2001-01-01

    a number of nonlinear model structures based on neural networks, effective training algorithms and tools for model validation and model structure selection. The NNCTRL toolkit is an add-on to NNSYSID and provides tools for design and simulation of control systems based on neural networks. The user can......Two toolsets for use with MATLAB have been developed: the neural network based system identification toolbox (NNSYSID) and the neural network based control system design toolkit (NNCTRL). The NNSYSID toolbox has been designed to assist identification of nonlinear dynamic systems. It contains...... choose among several designs such as direct inverse control, internal model control, nonlinear feedforward, feedback linearisation, optimal control, gain scheduling based on instantaneous linearisation of neural network models and nonlinear model predictive control. This article gives an overview...

  6. NNSYSID and NNCTRL Tools for system identification and control with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Magnus; Ravn, Ole; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2001-01-01

    choose among several designs such as direct inverse control, internal model control, nonlinear feedforward, feedback linearisation, optimal control, gain scheduling based on instantaneous linearisation of neural network models and nonlinear model predictive control. This article gives an overview......Two toolsets for use with MATLAB have been developed: the neural network based system identification toolbox (NNSYSID) and the neural network based control system design toolkit (NNCTRL). The NNSYSID toolbox has been designed to assist identification of nonlinear dynamic systems. It contains...... a number of nonlinear model structures based on neural networks, effective training algorithms and tools for model validation and model structure selection. The NNCTRL toolkit is an add-on to NNSYSID and provides tools for design and simulation of control systems based on neural networks. The user can...

  7. A combined fiber optic digital shearography and holography system for defect inspection in Si-wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udupa, Ganesha; Wang, Jun; Ngoi, Bryan K. A.

    2005-04-01

    The present work relates to surface and/or subsurface defects inspection system for semiconductor industries and particularly to an inspection system for a defect such as swirl defects and particles in an unpolished silicon wafer before the wafer fabrication process by a combined fiber optic digital shearography and holography technique. The dual purpose camera described in this paper gives the possibility of using either digital shearography or holography (DSPI) techniques depending on application needs. The sub-surface defects in a wafer normally create strain concentrations subjected to loading (stressing) which are translated into anomalies in the fringe pattern. A real time technique with the use of Lab view Express 7 software is developed to detect defects in Si-wafer with the application of thermal oading as a stressing method. The results obtained by applying a real time fiber optic shearography technique are described in this paper. The method described here relates specifically to semiconductor wafers, but may be generalized to any other samples.

  8. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabio V.; Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Reis, Luisa Fernanda R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, EESC/USP, Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento., Avenida do Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator - CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator - HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  9. On the Computational Power of Spiking Neural P Systems with Self-Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Song, Tao; Gong, Faming; Zheng, Pan

    2016-06-01

    Neural-like computing models are versatile computing mechanisms in the field of artificial intelligence. Spiking neural P systems (SN P systems for short) are one of the recently developed spiking neural network models inspired by the way neurons communicate. The communications among neurons are essentially achieved by spikes, i. e. short electrical pulses. In terms of motivation, SN P systems fall into the third generation of neural network models. In this study, a novel variant of SN P systems, namely SN P systems with self-organization, is introduced, and the computational power of the system is investigated and evaluated. It is proved that SN P systems with self-organization are capable of computing and accept the family of sets of Turing computable natural numbers. Moreover, with 87 neurons the system can compute any Turing computable recursive function, thus achieves Turing universality. These results demonstrate promising initiatives to solve an open problem arisen by Gh Păun.

  10. ANOMALY NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM BASED ON DISTRIBUTED TIME-DELAY NEURAL NETWORK (DTDNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAHEEB MOHAMMAD IBRAHIM

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a hierarchical off-line anomaly network intrusion detection system based on Distributed Time-Delay Artificial Neural Network is introduced. This research aims to solve a hierarchical multi class problem in which the type of attack (DoS, U2R, R2L and Probe attack detected by dynamic neural network. The results indicate that dynamic neural nets (Distributed Time-Delay Artificial Neural Network can achieve a high detection rate, where the overall accuracy classification rate average is equal to 97.24%.

  11. An alternative respiratory sounds classification system utilizing artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami J Oweis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computerized lung sound analysis involves recording lung sound via an electronic device, followed by computer analysis and classification based on specific signal characteristics as non-linearity and nonstationarity caused by air turbulence. An automatic analysis is necessary to avoid dependence on expert skills. Methods: This work revolves around exploiting autocorrelation in the feature extraction stage. All process stages were implemented in MATLAB. The classification process was performed comparatively using both artificial neural networks (ANNs and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS toolboxes. The methods have been applied to 10 different respiratory sounds for classification. Results: The ANN was superior to the ANFIS system and returned superior performance parameters. Its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 98.6%, 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. The obtained parameters showed superiority to many recent approaches. Conclusions: The promising proposed method is an efficient fast tool for the intended purpose as manifested in the performance parameters, specifically, accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, it may be added that utilizing the autocorrelation function in the feature extraction in such applications results in enhanced performance and avoids undesired computation complexities compared to other techniques.

  12. An alternative respiratory sounds classification system utilizing artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oweis, Rami J; Abdulhay, Enas W; Khayal, Amer; Awad, Areen

    2015-01-01

    Computerized lung sound analysis involves recording lung sound via an electronic device, followed by computer analysis and classification based on specific signal characteristics as non-linearity and nonstationarity caused by air turbulence. An automatic analysis is necessary to avoid dependence on expert skills. This work revolves around exploiting autocorrelation in the feature extraction stage. All process stages were implemented in MATLAB. The classification process was performed comparatively using both artificial neural networks (ANNs) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) toolboxes. The methods have been applied to 10 different respiratory sounds for classification. The ANN was superior to the ANFIS system and returned superior performance parameters. Its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 98.6%, 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. The obtained parameters showed superiority to many recent approaches. The promising proposed method is an efficient fast tool for the intended purpose as manifested in the performance parameters, specifically, accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, it may be added that utilizing the autocorrelation function in the feature extraction in such applications results in enhanced performance and avoids undesired computation complexities compared to other techniques.

  13. Neural network based optimal control of HVAC&R systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Min

    Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems have wide applications in providing a desired indoor environment for different types of buildings. It is well acknowledged that 30%-40% of the total energy generated is consumed by buildings and HVAC&R systems alone account for more than 50% of the building energy consumption. Low operational efficiency especially under partial load conditions and poor control are part of reasons for such high energy consumption. To improve energy efficiency, HVAC&R systems should be properly operated to maintain a comfortable and healthy indoor environment under dynamic ambient and indoor conditions with the least energy consumption. This research focuses on the optimal operation of HVAC&R systems. The optimization problem is formulated and solved to find the optimal set points for the chilled water supply temperature, discharge air temperature and AHU (air handling unit) fan static pressure such that the indoor environment is maintained with the least chiller and fan energy consumption. To achieve this objective, a dynamic system model is developed first to simulate the system behavior under different control schemes and operating conditions. The system model is modular in structure, which includes a water-cooled vapor compression chiller model and a two-zone VAV system model. A fuzzy-set based extended transformation approach is then applied to investigate the uncertainties of this model caused by uncertain parameters and the sensitivities of the control inputs with respect to the interested model outputs. A multi-layer feed forward neural network is constructed and trained in unsupervised mode to minimize the cost function which is comprised of overall energy cost and penalty cost when one or more constraints are violated. After training, the network is implemented as a supervisory controller to compute the optimal settings for the system. In order to implement the optimal set points predicted by the

  14. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON FOR INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM USING NEURAL NETWORK WITH KDD DATASET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Devaraju

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection Systems are challenging task for finding the user as normal user or attack user in any organizational information systems or IT Industry. The Intrusion Detection System is an effective method to deal with the kinds of problem in networks. Different classifiers are used to detect the different kinds of attacks in networks. In this paper, the performance of intrusion detection is compared with various neural network classifiers. In the proposed research the four types of classifiers used are Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN, Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN, Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN and Radial Basis Neural Network (RBNN. The performance of the full featured KDD Cup 1999 dataset is compared with that of the reduced featured KDD Cup 1999 dataset. The MATLAB software is used to train and test the dataset and the efficiency and False Alarm Rate is measured. It is proved that the reduced dataset is performing better than the full featured dataset.

  15. Review: the role of neural crest cells in the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Meghan Sara; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The neural crest is a pluripotent population of cells that arises at the junction of the neural tube and the dorsal ectoderm. These highly migratory cells form diverse derivatives including neurons and glia of the sensory, sympathetic, and enteric nervous systems, melanocytes, and the bones, cartilage, and connective tissues of the face. The neural crest has long been associated with the endocrine system, although not always correctly. According to current understanding, neural crest cells give rise to the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, chief cells of the extra-adrenal paraganglia, and thyroid C cells. The endocrine tumors that correspond to these cell types are pheochromocytomas, extra-adrenal paragangliomas, and medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although controversies concerning embryological origin appear to have mostly been resolved, questions persist concerning the pathobiology of each tumor type and its basis in neural crest embryology. Here we present a brief history of the work on neural crest development, both in general and in application to the endocrine system. In particular, we present findings related to the plasticity and pluripotency of neural crest cells as well as a discussion of several different neural crest tumors in the endocrine system.

  16. Neural Control System in Obstacle Avoidance in Mobile Robots Using Ultrasonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Medina-Santiago

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and implementation of neural control systems in mobile robots in obstacle avoidance in real time using ultrasonic sensors with complex strategies of decision-making in development (Matlab and Processing. An Arduino embedded platform is used to implement the neural control for field results.

  17. On-Line Detection of Defects on Fruit by Machinevision Systems Based on Three-Color-Cameras Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xul, Qiaobao; Zou, Xiaobo; Zhao, Jiewen

    How to identify apple stem-ends and calyxes from defects is still a challenging project due to the complexity of the process. It is know that the stem-ends and calyxes could not appear at the same image. Therefore, a contaminated apple distinguishing method is developed in this article. That is, if there are two or more doubtful blobs on an applés image, the apple is contaminated one. There is no complex imaging process and pattern recognition in this method, because it is only need to find how many blobs (including the stem-ends and calyxes) in an applés image. Machine vision systems which based 3 color cameras are presented in this article regarding the online detection of external defects. On this system, the fruits placed on rollers are rotating while moving, and each camera which placed on the line grabs 3 images from an apple. After the apple segmented from the black background by multi-thresholds method, defect's segmentation and counting is performed on the applés images. Good separation between normal and contaminated apples was obtained for threecamera system (94.5%), comparing to one-camera system (63.3%), twocamera system (83.7%). The disadvantage of this method is that it could not distinguish different defects types. Defects of apples, such as bruising, scab, fungal growth, and disease, are treated as the same.

  18. Modeling of the height control system using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Tahavvor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Automation of agricultural and machinery construction has generally been enhanced by intelligent control systems due to utility and efficiency rising, ease of use, profitability and upgrading according to market demand. A broad variety of industrial merchandise are now supplied with computerized control systems of earth moving processes to be performed by construction and agriculture field vehicle such as grader, backhoe, tractor and scraper machines. A height control machine which is used in measuring base thickness is consisted of two mechanical and electronic parts. The mechanical part is consisted of conveyor belt, main body, electrical engine and invertors while the electronic part is consisted of ultrasonic, wave transmitter and receiver sensor, electronic board, control set, and microcontroller. The main job of these controlling devices consists of the topographic surveying, cutting and filling of elevated and spotted low area, and these actions fundamentally dependent onthe machine's ability in elevation and thickness measurement and control. In this study, machine was first tested and then some experiments were conducted for data collection. Study of system modeling in artificial neural networks (ANN was done for measuring, controlling the height for bases by input variable input vectors such as sampling time, probe speed, conveyer speed, sound wave speed and speed sensor are finally the maximum and minimum probe output vector on various conditions. The result reveals the capability of this procedure for experimental recognition of sensors' behavior and improvement of field machine control systems. Inspection, calibration and response, diagnosis of the elevation control system in combination with machine function can also be evaluated by some extra development of this system. Materials and Methods Designing and manufacture of the planned apparatus classified in three dissimilar, mechanical and electronic module, courses of

  19. Topological invariants of Floquet systems: General formulation, special properties, and Floquet topological defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shunyu; Yan, Zhongbo; Wang, Zhong

    2017-11-01

    Periodically driven (Floquet) systems have been under active theoretical and experimental investigations. This paper aims at a systematic study in the following aspects of Floquet systems: (i) a systematic formulation of topological invariants of Floquet systems based on the cooperation of topology and symmetries. Topological invariants are constructed for the ten symmetry classes in all spatial dimensions, for both homogeneous Floquet systems (Floquet topological insulators and superconductors) and Floquet topological defects. Meanwhile, useful representative Dirac Hamiltonians for all the symmetry classes are obtained and studied. (ii) A general theory of Floquet topological defects, based on the proposed topological invariants. (iii) Models and proposals of Floquet topological defects in low dimensions. Among other defect modes, we investigate Floquet Majorana zero modes and Majorana Pi modes in vortices of topologically trivial superconductors under a periodic drive. In addition, we clarified several notable issues about Floquet topological invariants. Among other issues, we prove the equivalence between the effective-Hamiltonian-based band topological invariants and the frequency-domain band topological invariants.

  20. Analyzing Defects in the "Caenorhabditis Elegans" Nervous System Using Organismal and Cell Biological Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guziewicz, Megan; Vitullo, Toni; Simmons, Bethany; Kohn, Rebecca Eustance

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this laboratory exercise is to increase student understanding of the impact of nervous system function at both the organismal and cellular levels. This inquiry-based exercise is designed for an undergraduate course examining principles of cell biology. After observing the movement of "Caenorhabditis elegans" with defects in their…

  1. Development of the cardiac conduction system in atrioventricular septal defect in human trisomy 21

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Nico A.; Ottenkamp, Jaap; Deruiter, Marco C.; Wenink, Arnold C. G.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.

    2005-01-01

    In patients with atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD), the occurrence of nonsurgical AV block has been reported. We have looked for an explanation in the development of the AV conduction system. Human embryos with AVSD and trisomy 21 and normal embryos were examined (age 5-16 wk gestation).

  2. SEM/EBIC investigations of extended defect system in GaN epilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmidt, N.M.; Sitnikova, A.A.; Zolotareva, R.V. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sirotkin, V.V.; Soltanovich, O.A.; Yakimov, E.B. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology, RAS, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    2005-04-01

    The EBIC investigations of extended defect system in GaN epitaxial layers with different electron mobility and dislocation density have been carried out. The recombination strength and defect cylinder radius for threading dislocations have been estimated from their EBIC profiles. Some cellular structure is revealed in the samples with the less-ordered mosaic structure that could be associated with the enhanced recombination activity of domain boundaries in such layers. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Hierarchical neural network model of the visual system determining figure/ground relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masayuki

    2017-07-01

    One of the most important functions of the visual perception in the brain is figure/ground interpretation from input images. Figural region in 2D image corresponding to object in 3D space are distinguished from background region extended behind the object. Previously the author proposed a neural network model of figure/ground separation constructed on the standpoint that local geometric features such as curvatures and outer angles at corners are extracted and propagated along input contour in a single layer network (Kikuchi & Akashi, 2001). However, such a processing principle has the defect that signal propagation requires manyiterations despite the fact that actual visual system determines figure/ground relation within the short period (Zhou et al., 2000). In order to attain speed-up for determining figure/ground, this study incorporates hierarchical architecture into the previous model. This study confirmed the effect of the hierarchization as for the computation time by simulation. As the number of layers increased, the required computation time reduced. However, such speed-up effect was saturatedas the layers increased to some extent. This study attempted to explain this saturation effect by the notion of average distance between vertices in the area of complex network, and succeeded to mimic the saturation effect by computer simulation.

  4. Abstract Computation in Schizophrenia Detection through Artificial Neural Network Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia stands for a long-lasting state of mental uncertainty that may bring to an end the relation among behavior, thought, and emotion; that is, it may lead to unreliable perception, not suitable actions and feelings, and a sense of mental fragmentation. Indeed, its diagnosis is done over a large period of time; continuos signs of the disturbance persist for at least 6 (six months. Once detected, the psychiatrist diagnosis is made through the clinical interview and a series of psychic tests, addressed mainly to avoid the diagnosis of other mental states or diseases. Undeniably, the main problem with identifying schizophrenia is the difficulty to distinguish its symptoms from those associated to different untidiness or roles. Therefore, this work will focus on the development of a diagnostic support system, in terms of its knowledge representation and reasoning procedures, based on a blended of Logic Programming and Artificial Neural Networks approaches to computing, taking advantage of a novel approach to knowledge representation and reasoning, which aims to solve the problems associated in the handling (i.e., to stand for and reason of defective information.

  5. Fault diagnosis in satellite attitude control systems using artificial neural networkk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayodele I., Olanipekun

    The nonlinear behavior exhibited by altitude control system processes and also the presence of external constraints on the operating conditions causes hitch in the dynamics of system processes. This research work proposes a fault detection/tolerant prediction in an altitude control system. This is done through the artificial neural network fault detection by deploying the neural network approach. A fault detection and isolation module is developed in the actuator system of the Altitude Control System, thereby achieving the goal of this thesis. This can be done by two basic classification stages: Neural Residual Generator (Neural Observer)- This stage is responsible for generating residual errors that can reflect the real behavior of the entire process as against its normal conditions. Adaptive Neural Classifier - This stage is responsible for managing the isolation task of the fault detected by evaluating the generated residual errors from the neural estimator which gives detailed information about faults detected e.g., fault location and time. These two stages can be implemented by executing the tasks listed below: 1. Study and develop a generic three axis stabilized altitude control model based on the reaction wheels. This is established with three separate PD controllers designed for each reaction wheel of the satellite axis using the Matlab - SIMULINK. 2. Develop a dynamic neural network residual generator based on Dynamic Multilayer Perceptron Network (DMLP) which is then applied to the reaction wheel model designed commonly called the actuator in the altitude control system of a satellite 3. Develop a neural network adaptive classifier based on the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) model which is used for the isolation concept. The advantages of the proposed dynamic neural network and neural adaptive classifier approach are showcased.

  6. Genetic backgrounds and modifier genes of NTD mouse models: An opportunity for greater understanding of the multifactorial etiology of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Renee Y M; Singh, Parmveer; McDermid, Heather E

    2017-01-30

    Neurulation, the early embryonic process of forming the presumptive brain and spinal cord, is highly complex and involves hundreds of genes in multiple genetic pathways. Mice have long served as a genetic model for studying human neurulation, and the resulting neural tube defects (NTDs) that arise when neurulation is disrupted. Because mice appear to show mostly single gene inheritance for NTDs and humans show multifactorial inheritance, mice sometimes have been characterized as a simpler model for the identification and study of NTD genes. But are they a simple model? When viewed on different genetic backgrounds, many genes show significant variation in the penetrance and expressivity of NTD phenotypes, suggesting the presence of modifier loci that interact with the target gene to affect the phenotypic expression. Looking at mutations on different genetic backgrounds provides us with an opportunity to explore these complex genetic interactions, which are likely to better emulate similar processes in human neurulation. Here, we review NTD genes known to show strain-specific phenotypic variation. We focus particularly on the gene Cecr2, which is studied using both a hypomorphic and a presumptive null mutation on two different backgrounds: one susceptible (BALB/c) and one resistant (FVB/N) to NTDs. This strain difference has led to a search for genetic modifiers within a region on murine chromosome 19. Understanding how genetic variants alter the phenotypic outcome in NTD mouse models will help to direct future studies in humans, particularly now that more genome wide sequencing approaches are being used. Birth Defects Research 109:140-152, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. EIF4A3 deficient human iPSCs and mouse models demonstrate neural crest defects that underlie Richieri-Costa-Pereira syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emily E; Kobayashi, Gerson S; Musso, Camila M; Allen, Miranda; Ishiy, Felipe A A; de Caires, Luiz Carlos; Goulart, Ernesto; Griesi-Oliveira, Karina; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli M; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Bertola, Debora R; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Silver, Debra L

    2017-06-15

    Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in the RNA-binding protein EIF4A3 cause Richieri-Costa-Pereira syndrome (RCPS), an autosomal recessive condition mainly characterized by craniofacial and limb malformations. However, the pathogenic cellular mechanisms responsible for this syndrome are entirely unknown. Here, we used two complementary approaches, patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and conditional Eif4a3 mouse models, to demonstrate that defective neural crest cell (NCC) development explains RCPS craniofacial abnormalities. RCPS iNCCs have decreased migratory capacity, a distinct phenotype relative to other craniofacial disorders. Eif4a3 haploinsufficient embryos presented altered mandibular process fusion and micrognathia, thus recapitulating the most penetrant phenotypes of the syndrome. These defects were evident in either ubiquitous or NCC-specific Eif4a3 haploinsufficient animals, demonstrating an autonomous requirement of Eif4a3 in NCCs. Notably, RCPS NCC-derived mesenchymal stem-like cells (nMSCs) showed premature bone differentiation, a phenotype paralleled by premature clavicle ossification in Eif4a3 haploinsufficient embryos. Likewise, nMSCs presented compromised in vitro chondrogenesis, and Meckel's cartilage was underdeveloped in vivo. These findings indicate novel and essential requirements of EIF4A3 for NCC migration and osteochondrogenic differentiation during craniofacial development. Altogether, complementary use of iPSCs and mouse models pinpoint unique cellular mechanisms by which EIF4A3 mutation causes RCPS, and provide a paradigm to study craniofacial disorders. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Knowledge and periconceptional use of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects in ethnic communities in the United Kingdom: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Jordana N; Copp, Andrew J; Shawe, Jill

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that periconceptional supplementation with folic acid can prevent a significant proportion of neural tube defects (NTDs). The present study evaluated how folic acid knowledge and periconceptional use for NTD prevention varies by ethnicity in the United Kingdom (U.K.). METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify studies that included assessment of folic acid knowledge or use in U.K. women of different ethnicities. Only research and referenced sources published after 1991, the year of the landmark Medical Research Council’s Vitamin Study, were included. A meta-analysis was performed of studies that assessed preconceptional folic acid use in Caucasians and non-Caucasians. RESULTS: Five studies met the inclusion criteria for assessment of knowledge and/or use of folic acid supplements in U.K. women including non-Caucasians. The available evidence indicates that South Asians specifically have less knowledge and lower periconceptional use of folic acid than Caucasians; one study found that West Indian and African women also had lower folic acid uptake. A synthesis of results from three of the studies, in a meta-analysis, shows that Caucasians are almost three times more likely to take folic acid before conception than non-Caucasians. CONCLUSION: From the limited evidence available, U.K. women of non-Caucasian ethnicity appear to have less knowledge and a lower uptake of folic acid supplementation than Caucasians during the periconceptional period. Implementing targeted, innovative education campaigns together with a mandatory fortification policy, including the fortification of ethnic minority foods, will be required for maximum prevention of folic acid–preventable NTDs across different ethnic groups. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 97:444–451, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23873812

  9. Artificial Neural Network-Based System for PET Volume Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhd Saeed Sharif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour detection, classification, and quantification in positron emission tomography (PET imaging at early stage of disease are important issues for clinical diagnosis, assessment of response to treatment, and radiotherapy planning. Many techniques have been proposed for segmenting medical imaging data; however, some of the approaches have poor performance, large inaccuracy, and require substantial computation time for analysing large medical volumes. Artificial intelligence (AI approaches can provide improved accuracy and save decent amount of time. Artificial neural networks (ANNs, as one of the best AI techniques, have the capability to classify and quantify precisely lesions and model the clinical evaluation for a specific problem. This paper presents a novel application of ANNs in the wavelet domain for PET volume segmentation. ANN performance evaluation using different training algorithms in both spatial and wavelet domains with a different number of neurons in the hidden layer is also presented. The best number of neurons in the hidden layer is determined according to the experimental results, which is also stated Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm as the best training approach for the proposed application. The proposed intelligent system results are compared with those obtained using conventional techniques including thresholding and clustering based approaches. Experimental and Monte Carlo simulated PET phantom data sets and clinical PET volumes of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients were utilised to validate the proposed algorithm which has demonstrated promising results.

  10. Honey characterization using computer vision system and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Sahameh; Minaei, Saeid; Moghaddam-Charkari, Nasrollah; Barzegar, Mohsen

    2014-09-15

    This paper reports the development of a computer vision system (CVS) for non-destructive characterization of honey based on colour and its correlated chemical attributes including ash content (AC), antioxidant activity (AA), and total phenolic content (TPC). Artificial neural network (ANN) models were applied to transform RGB values of images to CIE L*a*b* colourimetric measurements and to predict AC, TPC and AA from colour features of images. The developed ANN models were able to convert RGB values to CIE L*a*b* colourimetric parameters with low generalization error of 1.01±0.99. In addition, the developed models for prediction of AC, TPC and AA showed high performance based on colour parameters of honey images, as the R(2) values for prediction were 0.99, 0.98, and 0.87, for AC, AA and TPC, respectively. The experimental results show the effectiveness and possibility of applying CVS for non-destructive honey characterization by the industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Progress Toward Adaptive Integration and Optimization of Automated and Neural Processing Systems: Establishing Neural and Behavioral Benchmarks of Optimized Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    grid, using an Advanced Brain Monitoring (ABM) ×24 system configured with the single-trial event - related potential (ERP) sensor strip and operating...ROC curve BCI brain-computer interface EEG electroencephalogram ERP event - related potential EVUS estimated volume under the surface FOV field of...stations. 15. SUBJECT TERMS rapid serial visual presentation, RSVP, EEG, neural classification, P300 , brain-computer interface 16. SECURITY

  12. Surgical Outcomes of Congenital Atrial Septal Defect Using da VinciTM Surgical Robot System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Eon; Jung, Sung-Ho; Kim, Gwan Sic; Kim, Joon Bum; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2013-04-01

    Minimally invasive cardiac surgery has emerged as an alternative to conventional open surgery. This report reviews our experience with atrial septal defect using the da VinciTM surgical robot system. This retrospective study included 50 consecutive patients who underwent atrial septal defect repair using the da VinciTM surgical robot system between October 2007 and May 2011. Among these, 13 patients (26%) were approached through a totally endoscopic approach and the others by mini-thoracotomy. Nineteen patients had concomitant procedures including tricuspid annuloplasty (n=10), mitral valvuloplasty (n=9), and maze procedure (n=4). The mean follow-up duration was 16.9±10.4 months. No remnant interatrial shunt was detected by intraoperative or postoperative echocardiography. The atrial septal defects were mainly repaired by Gore-Tex patch closure (80%). There was no operative mortality or serious surgical complications. The aortic cross clamping time and cardiopulmonary bypass time were 74.1±32.2 and 157.6±49.7 minutes, respectively. The postoperative hospital stay was 5.5±3.3 days. The atrial septal defect repair with concomitant procedures like mitral valve repair or tricuspid valve repair using the da VinciTM system is a feasible method. In addition, in selected patients, complete port access can be helpful for better cosmetic results and less musculoskeletal injury.

  13. Predictive Control of Hydronic Floor Heating Systems using Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Green, Torben; Østergaard, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the use a neural network and a micro genetic algorithm to optimize future set-points in existing hydronic floor heating systems for improved energy efficiency. The neural network can be trained to predict the impact of changes in set-points on future room temperatures. Additio...... space is not guaranteed. Evaluation of the performance of multiple neural networks is performed, using different levels of information, and optimization results are presented on a detailed house simulation model.......This paper presents the use a neural network and a micro genetic algorithm to optimize future set-points in existing hydronic floor heating systems for improved energy efficiency. The neural network can be trained to predict the impact of changes in set-points on future room temperatures...

  14. Compensating for Channel Fading in DS-CDMA Communication Systems Employing ICA Neural Network Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Overbye

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the impact of channel fading on the bit error rate of a DS-CDMA communication system. The system employs detectors that incorporate neural networks effecting methods of independent component analysis (ICA, subspace estimation of channel noise, and Hopfield type neural networks. The Rayleigh fading channel model is used. When employed in a Rayleigh fading environment, the ICA neural network detectors that give superior performance in a flat fading channel did not retain this superior performance. We then present a new method of compensating for channel fading based on the incorporation of priors in the ICA neural network learning algorithms. When the ICA neural network detectors were compensated using the incorporation of priors, they give significantly better performance than the traditional detectors and the uncompensated ICA detectors. Keywords: CDMA, Multi-user Detection, Rayleigh Fading, Multipath Detection, Independent Component Analysis, Prior Probability Hebbian Learning, Natural Gradient

  15. Artificial Neural Systems Application to the Simulation of Air Combat Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    unit, the CPU , whereas neural networks utilize the effects of many, simple processing elements. Traditional computing is done in a step-by-step, serial...Nielsen Neurocomputers (HNC). The ANZA-Plus coprocessor is part of an 80386 -based computer system which is optimized for training and executing neural...host computer for this program is a Zenith 386/16 system running under the DOS 3.31 operating system. The 80386 microprocessor in this machine operates

  16. Neural Network Expert System in the Application of Tower Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Xia, Zhongwu; Tao, Zhiyong; Zhao, Zhenlian

    For the corresponding fuzzy relationship between the fault symptoms and the fault causes in the process of tower crane operation, this paper puts forward a kind of rapid new method of fast detection and diagnosis for common fault based on neural network expert system. This paper makes full use of expert system and neural network advantages, and briefly introduces the structure, function, algorithm and realization of the adopted system. Results show that the new algorithm is feasible and can achieve rapid faults diagnosis.

  17. Research on architecture of intelligent design platform for artificial neural network expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Honghong

    2017-09-01

    Based on the review of the development and current situation of CAD technology, the necessity of combination of artificial neural network and expert system, and then present an intelligent design system based on artificial neural network. Moreover, it discussed the feasibility of realization of a design-oriented expert system development tools on the basis of above combination. In addition, knowledge representation strategy and method and the solving process are given in this paper.

  18. A case for spiking neural network simulation based on configurable multiple-FPGA systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shufan; Wu, Qiang; Li, Renfa

    2011-09-01

    Recent neuropsychological research has begun to reveal that neurons encode information in the timing of spikes. Spiking neural network simulations are a flexible and powerful method for investigating the behaviour of neuronal systems. Simulation of the spiking neural networks in software is unable to rapidly generate output spikes in large-scale of neural network. An alternative approach, hardware implementation of such system, provides the possibility to generate independent spikes precisely and simultaneously output spike waves in real time, under the premise that spiking neural network can take full advantage of hardware inherent parallelism. We introduce a configurable FPGA-oriented hardware platform for spiking neural network simulation in this work. We aim to use this platform to combine the speed of dedicated hardware with the programmability of software so that it might allow neuroscientists to put together sophisticated computation experiments of their own model. A feed-forward hierarchy network is developed as a case study to describe the operation of biological neural systems (such as orientation selectivity of visual cortex) and computational models of such systems. This model demonstrates how a feed-forward neural network constructs the circuitry required for orientation selectivity and provides platform for reaching a deeper understanding of the primate visual system. In the future, larger scale models based on this framework can be used to replicate the actual architecture in visual cortex, leading to more detailed predictions and insights into visual perception phenomenon.

  19. Influence of defects on the vibrations of rotating systems; Influence de defauts sur le comportement vibratoire des systemes tournants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, A. [CEA Saclay, Dept. Modelisation de Systemes et Structures (DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    For high rotation speeds, the imperfections (cracks, anisotropy...) of rotating machinery of the energy sector lead to a specific vibratory behavior which can damage the machine. The simulation of rotating machinery are usually realized for systems without defect. The aim of this thesis is to understand the influence of defects and to propose an algorithm to predict the dynamical behavior. In a first part the author studies the simplified rotating oscillators to propose a numerical method in order to taking into account the dynamic of these systems. This method is then applied to real rotating machinery with the Cast3m software. The numerical results are validated with experiments. (A.L.B.)

  20. Tissue-Specific Methylation of Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element-1 of Homo Sapiens (L1Hs) During Human Embryogenesis and Roles in Neural Tube Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Chang, S; Guan, J; Shangguan, S; Lu, X; Wang, Z; Wu, L; Zou, J; Zhao, H; Bao, Y; Qiu, Z; Niu, B; Zhang, T

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposition events plays crucial roles during early development. Previously we showed that LINE-1 hypomethylation in neuronal tissues is associated with pathogenesis of neural tube defect (NTD). Herein, we further evaluated LINE-1 Homo sapiens (L1Hs) methylation in tissues derived from three germ layers of stillborn NTD fetuses, to define patterns of tissue specific methylation and site-specific hypomethylation at CpG sites within an L1Hs promoter region. Stable, tissue-specific L1Hs methylation patterns throughout three germ layer lineages of the fetus, placenta, and maternal peripheral blood were observed. Samples from maternal peripheral blood exhibited the highest level of L1Hs methylation (64.95%) and that from placenta showed the lowest (26.82%). Between samples from NTDs and controls, decrease in L1Hs methylation was only significant in NTD-affected brain tissue at 7.35%, especially in females (8.98%). L1Hs hypomethylation in NTDs was also associated with a significant increase in expression level of an L1Hs-encoded transcript in females (r = -0.846, p = 0.004). This could be due to genomic DNA instability and alternation in chromatins accessibility resulted from abnormal L1Hs hypomethylation, as showed in this study with HCT-15 cells treated with methylation inhibitor 5-Aza.

  1. The C677T polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene in Mexican mestizo neural-tube defect parents, control mestizo and native populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávalos, I P; Olivares, N; Castillo, M T; Cantú, J M; Ibarra, B; Sandoval, L; Morán, M C; Gallegos, M P; Chakraborty, R; Rivas, F

    2000-01-01

    The C677T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, associated with the thermolabile form of the enzyme, has reportedly been found to be increased in neural-tube defects (NTD), though this association is still unclear. A group of 107 mestizo parents of NTD children and five control populations: 101 mestizo (M), 50 Huichol (H), 38 Tarahumara (T), 21 Purepecha (P) and 20 Caucasian (C) individuals were typed for the MTHFR C677T variant by the PCR/RFLP (HinfI) method. Genotype frequencies were in agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg expectations in all six populations. Allele frequency (%) of the C677T variant was 45 in NTD, 44 in M, 56 in H, 36 in T, 57 in P, 35 in C. Pairwise inter-population comparisons of allele frequency disclosed a very similar distribution between NTD and M groups (exact test, P=0.92). Among controls, differences between M and individual native groups were NS (0.06Huichol and Purepecha natives, as compared with other groups world wide.

  2. A pilot study on the association between rare earth elements in maternal hair and the risk of neural tube defects in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Wenhua; Zhu, Yibing; Li, Zhenjiang; Pang, Yiming; Wang, Bin; Li, Zhiwen

    2017-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have many applications in industry, agriculture, and medicine, resulting in occupational and environmental exposure and concerns regarding REE-associated health effects. However, few epidemiological studies have examined the adverse effects of REEs on pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between the REE concentrations in maternal hair growing during early pregnancy and the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. We included 191 women with NTD-affected pregnancies (cases) and 261 women delivering healthy infants (controls). The cases were divided into three subtypes: anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele. Four REEs in maternal hair were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry: lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), and neodymium (Nd). A questionnaire was used to collect information about maternal sociodemographic characteristics and dietary habits. The median concentrations of Ce and Pr in the NTD group were higher than those in the control group, whereas there were no significant differences for La and Nd. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the four REE concentrations above the median in the case groups were not significantly > 1. An increasing frequency of the consumption of beans or bean products and fresh fruit was negatively correlated with the four REE concentrations. Our results did not suggest that the concentrations of REEs in maternal hair were associated with the risk of NTDs or any subtype of NTDs in the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Variants in TNIP1, a regulator of the NF-kB pathway, found in two patients with neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesca, La Carpia; Claudia, Rendeli; Molinario, Clelia; Annamaria, Milillo; Chiara, Farroni; Natalia, Cannelli; Emanuele, Ausili; Valentina, Paolucci; Giovanni, Neri; Costantino, Romagnoli; Eugenio, Sangiorgi; Fiorella, Gurrieri

    2016-06-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) occur in 1:1000 births. The etiology is complex, with the influence of environmental and genetic factors. Environmental factors, such as folate deficiency, diabetes, or hypoxia strongly contribute to the occurrence of NTD. Also, there is a strong genetic contribution to NTD, as highlighted by the number of genes so far identified in several different developmental pathways usually altered in NTD. Each gene identified so far accounts for a small percentage of all NTD cases, indicating a very high heterogeneity. Exome sequencing was performed in seven sporadic patients with severe mielomeningocele. Novel coding variants shared by two or more patients were selected for further analysis. We identified in two unrelated patients two different variants in TNIP1, a gene not previously involved in NTD whose main role is downregulation of the NF-kB pathway. One variant, c.1089T>G (p.Phe363Leu), is de novo, whereas the c.1781C>T (p.Pro594Leu) is absent in the mother, but could not be tested in the father, as he was unavailable. The latter variant is a very rare variant in the ExAC database. These findings suggest that TNIP1 is a new potential predisposing gene to spina bifida (SB) and its pathway needs to be investigated in human NTD in order to confirm its role and to plan appropriate counseling to families.

  4. DYRK1A-mediated Cyclin D1 Degradation in Neural Stem Cells Contributes to the Neurogenic Cortical Defects in Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sònia Najas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in cerebral cortex connectivity lead to intellectual disability and in Down syndrome, this is associated with a deficit in cortical neurons that arises during prenatal development. However, the pathogenic mechanisms that cause this deficit have not yet been defined. Here we show that the human DYRK1A kinase on chromosome 21 tightly regulates the nuclear levels of Cyclin D1 in embryonic cortical stem (radial glia cells, and that a modest increase in DYRK1A protein in transgenic embryos lengthens the G1 phase in these progenitors. These alterations promote asymmetric proliferative divisions at the expense of neurogenic divisions, producing a deficit in cortical projection neurons that persists in postnatal stages. Moreover, radial glial progenitors in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome have less Cyclin D1, and Dyrk1a is the triplicated gene that causes both early cortical neurogenic defects and decreased nuclear Cyclin D1 levels in this model. These data provide insights into the mechanisms that couple cell cycle regulation and neuron production in cortical neural stem cells, emphasizing that the deleterious effect of DYRK1A triplication in the formation of the cerebral cortex begins at the onset of neurogenesis, which is relevant to the search for early therapeutic interventions in Down syndrome.

  5. Association of neural tube defects in children of mothers with MTHFR 677TT genotype and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism risk: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas-Benitez, N M; Yanes-Sosa, F; Gonzalez-Meneses, A; Cerrillos, L; Acosta, D; Praena-Fernandez, J M; Neth, O; Gomez de Terreros, I; Ybot-González, P

    2014-03-26

    Abnormalities in maternal folate and carbohydrate metabolism have both been shown to induce neural tube defects (NTD) in humans and animal models. However, the relationship between these two factors in the development of NTDs remains unclear. Data from mothers of children with spina bifida seen at the Unidad de Espina Bífida del Hospital Infantil Virgen del Rocío (case group) were compared to mothers of healthy children with no NTD (control group) who were randomly selected from patients seen at the outpatient ward in the same hospital. There were 25 individuals in the case group and 41 in the control group. Analysis of genotypes for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677CT polymorphism in women with or without risk factors for abnormal carbohydrate metabolism revealed that mothers who were homozygous for the MTHFR 677TT polymorphism and at risk of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism were more likely to have offspring with spina bifida and high levels of homocysteine, compared to the control group. The increased incidence of NTDs in mothers homozygous for the MTHFR 677TT polymorphism and at risk of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism stresses the need for careful metabolic screening in pregnant women, and, if necessary, determination of the MTHFR 677CT genotype in those mothers at risk of developing abnormal carbohydrate metabolism.

  6. Modeling Neural Crest Induction, Melanocyte Specification, and Disease-Related Pigmentation Defects in hESCs and Patient-Specific iPSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Mica

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanocytes are pigment-producing cells of neural crest (NC origin that are responsible for protecting the skin against UV irradiation. Pluripotent stem cell (PSC technology offers a promising approach for studying human melanocyte development and disease. Here, we report that timed exposure to activators of WNT, BMP, and EDN3 signaling triggers the sequential induction of NC and melanocyte precursor fates under dual-SMAD-inhibition conditions. Using a SOX10::GFP human embryonic stem cell (hESC reporter line, we demonstrate that the temporal onset of WNT activation is particularly critical for human NC induction. Subsequent maturation of hESC-derived melanocytes yields pure populations that match the molecular and functional properties of adult melanocytes. Melanocytes from Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome and Chediak-Higashi syndrome patient-specific induced PSCs (iPSCs faithfully reproduce the ultrastructural features of disease-associated pigmentation defects. Our data define a highly specific requirement for WNT signaling during NC induction and enable the generation of pure populations of human iPSC-derived melanocytes for faithful modeling of pigmentation disorders.

  7. Evaluation of the General Practice Research Database congenital heart defects prevalence: comparison to United Kingdom national systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurst, Keele E; Ephross, Sara A; Loehr, James; Clark, Douglas W; Guess, Harry A

    2007-04-01

    As part of an effort to validate the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) for future studies of medication use in pregnancy, this study examined whether the rates of all, and specific types of, congenital heart defects obtained from the GPRD are similar to those obtained from UK national systems. The prevalence rates of heart defects for 2001-2003 were determined from the GPRD and compared with both the National Congenital Anomaly System (NCAS) and the European Concerted Action of Congenital Anomalies and Twins (EUROCAT). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated comparing the prevalence of all congenital heart defects as well as specific types of heart defects in the three data sources. In addition, the effect of the child's age on the frequency of heart defects in the GPRD was determined. The prevalence of heart defects in the GPRD was more than twice as high as in the NCAS and slightly higher than in the EUROCAT. All differences were statistically significant. The prevalence of specific heart defects varied across the GPRD, NCAS, and EUROCAT. The measured prevalence of congenital heart defects in the GPRD was higher if calculated including children up to age 6. The comparisons of the GPRD prevalence rates to national prevalence estimates demonstrate that the GPRD can serve as a more complete source of background prevalence for the most commonly occurring congenital heart defects, which is essential to properly assess possible associations between maternal exposures and congenital heart defects.

  8. The Neural Crest in Cardiac Congenital Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyte, Anna; Hutson, Mary Redmond

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the function of neural crest as they relate to cardiovascular defects. The cardiac neural crest cells are a subpopulation of cranial neural crest discovered nearly 30 years ago by ablation of premigratory neural crest. The cardiac neural crest cells are necessary for normal cardiovascular development. We begin with a description of the crest cells in normal development, including their function in remodeling the pharyngeal arch arteries, outflow tract septation, valvulogenesis, and development of the cardiac conduction system. The cells are also responsible for modulating signaling in the caudal pharynx, including the second heart field. Many of the molecular pathways that are known to influence specification, migration, patterning and final targeting of the cardiac neural crest cells are reviewed. The cardiac neural crest cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various human cardiocraniofacial syndromes such as DiGeorge, Velocardiofacial, CHARGE, Fetal Alcohol, Alagille, LEOPARD, and Noonan syndromes, as well as Retinoic Acid Embryopathy. The loss of neural crest cells or their dysfunction may not always directly cause abnormal cardiovascular development, but are involved secondarily because crest cells represent a major component in the complex tissue interactions in the head, pharynx and outflow tract. Thus many of the human syndromes linking defects in the heart, face and brain can be better understood when considered within the context of a single cardiocraniofacial developmental module with the neural crest being a key cell type that interconnects the regions. PMID:22595346

  9. Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry by means of Bonner spheres system and artificial neural networks applying robust design of artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez B, M.R.; Ortiz R, J.M.; Vega C, H.R. [UAZ, Av. Ramon Lopez Velarde No. 801, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    An Artificial Neural Network has been designed, trained and tested to unfold neutron spectra and simultaneously to calculate equivalent doses. A set of 187 neutron spectra compiled by the International Atomic Energy Agency and 13 equivalent doses were used in the artificial neural network designed, trained and tested. In order to design the neural network was used the robust design of artificial neural networks methodology, which assures that the quality of the neural networks takes into account from the design stage. Unless previous works, here, for first time a group of neural networks were designed and trained to unfold 187 neutron spectra and at the same time to calculate 13 equivalent doses, starting from the count rates coming from the Bonner spheres system by using a systematic and experimental strategy. (Author)

  10. Simulation of Missile Autopilot with Two-Rate Hybrid Neural Network System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASTROV, I.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a two-rate hybrid neural network system, which consists of two artificial neural network subsystems. These neural network subsystems are used as the dynamic subsystems controllers.1 This is because such neuromorphic controllers are especially suitable to control complex systems. An illustrative example - two-rate neural network hybrid control of decomposed stochastic model of a rigid guided missile over different operating conditions - was carried out using the proposed two-rate state-space decomposition technique. This example demonstrates that this research technique results in simplified low-order autonomous control subsystems with various speeds of actuation, and shows the quality of the proposed technique. The obtained results show that the control tasks for the autonomous subsystems can be solved more qualitatively than for the original system. The simulation and animation results with use of software package Simulink demonstrate that this research technique would work for real-time stochastic systems.

  11. Identification of Complex Dynamical Systems with Neural Networks (2/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The identification and analysis of high dimensional nonlinear systems is obviously a challenging task. Neural networks have been proven to be universal approximators but this still leaves the identification task a hard one. To do it efficiently, we have to violate some of the rules of classical regression theory. Furthermore we should focus on the interpretation of the resulting model to overcome its black box character. First, we will discuss function approximation with 3 layer feedforward neural networks up to new developments in deep neural networks and deep learning. These nets are not only of interest in connection with image analysis but are a center point of the current artificial intelligence developments. Second, we will focus on the analysis of complex dynamical system in the form of state space models realized as recurrent neural networks. After the introduction of small open dynamical systems we will study dynamical systems on manifolds. Here manifold and dynamics have to be identified in parall...

  12. Identification of Complex Dynamical Systems with Neural Networks (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The identification and analysis of high dimensional nonlinear systems is obviously a challenging task. Neural networks have been proven to be universal approximators but this still leaves the identification task a hard one. To do it efficiently, we have to violate some of the rules of classical regression theory. Furthermore we should focus on the interpretation of the resulting model to overcome its black box character. First, we will discuss function approximation with 3 layer feedforward neural networks up to new developments in deep neural networks and deep learning. These nets are not only of interest in connection with image analysis but are a center point of the current artificial intelligence developments. Second, we will focus on the analysis of complex dynamical system in the form of state space models realized as recurrent neural networks. After the introduction of small open dynamical systems we will study dynamical systems on manifolds. Here manifold and dynamics have to be identified in parall...

  13. Adaptive Wavelet Neural Network Backstepping Sliding Mode Tracking Control for PMSM Drive System

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Da; Li, Muguo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a wavelet neural network backstepping sliding mode controller (WNNBSSM) for permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) position servo control system. Backstepping sliding mode (BSSM) is utilized to guarantee favorable tracking performance and stability of the whole system, meanwhile, wavelet neural network (WNN) is used for approximating nonlinear uncertainties. The designed controller combined the merits of the backstepping sliding mode control with robust characteristics ...

  14. Real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system based on a spiking neural network model of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Xiao, Na; Zhai, Xiaolong; Kwan Chan, Pak; Tin, Chung

    2018-02-01

    Damage to the brain, as a result of various medical conditions, impacts the everyday life of patients and there is still no complete cure to neurological disorders. Neuroprostheses that can functionally replace the damaged neural circuit have recently emerged as a possible solution to these problems. Here we describe the development of a real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system to substitute neural function in cerebellar circuitry for learning delay eyeblink conditioning (DEC). The system was empowered by a biologically realistic spiking neural network (SNN) model of the cerebellar neural circuit, which considers the neuronal population and anatomical connectivity of the network. The model simulated synaptic plasticity critical for learning DEC. This SNN model was carefully implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform for real-time simulation. This hardware system was interfaced in in vivo experiments with anesthetized rats and it used neural spikes recorded online from the animal to learn and trigger conditioned eyeblink in the animal during training. This rat-FPGA hybrid system was able to process neuronal spikes in real-time with an embedded cerebellum model of ~10 000 neurons and reproduce learning of DEC with different inter-stimulus intervals. Our results validated that the system performance is physiologically relevant at both the neural (firing pattern) and behavioral (eyeblink pattern) levels. This integrated system provides the sufficient computation power for mimicking the cerebellar circuit in real-time. The system interacts with the biological system naturally at the spike level and can be generalized for including other neural components (neuron types and plasticity) and neural functions for potential neuroprosthetic applications.

  15. Real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system based on a spiking neural network model of motor learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Xiao, Na; Zhai, Xiaolong; Chan, Pak Kwan; Tin, Chung

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Damage to the brain, as a result of various medical conditions, impacts the everyday life of patients and there is still no complete cure to neurological disorders. Neuroprostheses that can functionally replace the damaged neural circuit have recently emerged as a possible solution to these problems. Here we describe the development of a real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system to substitute neural function in cerebellar circuitry for learning delay eyeblink conditioning (DEC). Approach. The system was empowered by a biologically realistic spiking neural network (SNN) model of the cerebellar neural circuit, which considers the neuronal population and anatomical connectivity of the network. The model simulated synaptic plasticity critical for learning DEC. This SNN model was carefully implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform for real-time simulation. This hardware system was interfaced in in vivo experiments with anesthetized rats and it used neural spikes recorded online from the animal to learn and trigger conditioned eyeblink in the animal during training. Main results. This rat-FPGA hybrid system was able to process neuronal spikes in real-time with an embedded cerebellum model of ~10 000 neurons and reproduce learning of DEC with different inter-stimulus intervals. Our results validated that the system performance is physiologically relevant at both the neural (firing pattern) and behavioral (eyeblink pattern) levels. Significance. This integrated system provides the sufficient computation power for mimicking the cerebellar circuit in real-time. The system interacts with the biological system naturally at the spike level and can be generalized for including other neural components (neuron types and plasticity) and neural functions for potential neuroprosthetic applications.

  16. Transient stability analysis of electric energy systems via a fuzzy ART-ARTMAP neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Wagner Peron; Silveira, Maria do Carmo G.; Lotufo, AnnaDiva P.; Minussi, Carlos. R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), P.O. Box 31, 15385-000, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil)

    2006-04-15

    This work presents a methodology to analyze transient stability (first oscillation) of electric energy systems, using a neural network based on ART architecture (adaptive resonance theory), named fuzzy ART-ARTMAP neural network for real time applications. The security margin is used as a stability analysis criterion, considering three-phase short circuit faults with a transmission line outage. The neural network operation consists of two fundamental phases: the training and the analysis. The training phase needs a great quantity of processing for the realization, while the analysis phase is effectuated almost without computation effort. This is, therefore the principal purpose to use neural networks for solving complex problems that need fast solutions, as the applications in real time. The ART neural networks have as primordial characteristics the plasticity and the stability, which are essential qualities to the training execution and to an efficient analysis. The fuzzy ART-ARTMAP neural network is proposed seeking a superior performance, in terms of precision and speed, when compared to conventional ARTMAP, and much more when compared to the neural networks that use the training by backpropagation algorithm, which is a benchmark in neural network area. (author)

  17. NMTPY: A Flexible Toolkit for Advanced Neural Machine Translation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caglayan Ozan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present nmtpy, a flexible Python toolkit based on Theano for training Neural Machine Translation and other neural sequence-to-sequence architectures. nmtpy decouples the specification of a network from the training and inference utilities to simplify the addition of a new architecture and reduce the amount of boilerplate code to be written. nmtpy has been used for LIUM’s top-ranked submissions to WMT Multimodal Machine Translation and News Translation tasks in 2016 and 2017.

  18. Postablative reconstruction of vulvar defects with local fasciocutaneous flaps and superficial fascial system repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Benna, Sammy; Tzakas, Elias

    2012-08-01

    Postablative reconstruction of vulvar defects is a difficult challenge because of the functional, locational and cosmetic importance of this region. Local flaps carry a high incidence of delayed wound healing as local flaps may redistribute but not eliminate local wound tension. Repair of the superficial fascial system may avert local complications by minimising tension to the skin and increasing the initial biomechanical strength of wound. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical outcome of local fasciocutaneous flaps used for postablative reconstruction of vulvar defects in which the superficial fascial system was repaired. A retrospective analysis was conducted of patients with vulvar carcinoma in situ or vulvar carcinoma, who underwent ablation and immediate reconstruction with local fasciocutaneous flaps and superficial fascial system repair. Postoperative complications were recorded and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Twelve of the 13 flaps healed primarily. Complications included 2 superficial wound infections, both of which were treated successfully with antibiotic therapy. One flap was complicated by minor wound dehiscence, which healed with conservative treatment. Local fasciocutaneous flaps with superficial fascial system repair provide excellent design flexibility and can be designed and tailored to reconstruct postablative vulvar defects with good outcomes and minimal morbidity.

  19. Fundamentals of computational intelligence neural networks, fuzzy systems, and evolutionary computation

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, James M; Fogel, David B

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the three fundamental topics that form the basis of computational intelligence: neural networks, fuzzy systems, and evolutionary computation. The text focuses on inspiration, design, theory, and practical aspects of implementing procedures to solve real-world problems. While other books in the three fields that comprise computational intelligence are written by specialists in one discipline, this book is co-written by current former Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, a former Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, and the founding Editor-in-Chief of IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation. The coverage across the three topics is both uniform and consistent in style and notation. Discusses single-layer and multilayer neural networks, radial-basi function networks, and recurrent neural networks Covers fuzzy set theory, fuzzy relations, fuzzy logic interference, fuzzy clustering and classification, fuzzy measures and fuzz...

  20. Adaptive Output-Feedback Neural Control of Switched Uncertain Nonlinear Systems With Average Dwell Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lijun; Zhao, Jun

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates the problem of adaptive neural tracking control via output-feedback for a class of switched uncertain nonlinear systems without the measurements of the system states. The unknown control signals are approximated directly by neural networks. A novel adaptive neural control technique for the problem studied is set up by exploiting the average dwell time method and backstepping. A switched filter and different update laws are designed to reduce the conservativeness caused by adoption of a common observer and a common update law for all subsystems. The proposed controllers of subsystems guarantee that all closed-loop signals remain bounded under a class of switching signals with average dwell time, while the output tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. As an application of the proposed design method, adaptive output feedback neural tracking controllers for a mass-spring-damper system are constructed.

  1. Radial Basis Function Neural Network-based PID model for functional electrical stimulation system control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Longlong; Zhang, Guangju; Wan, Baikun; Hao, Linlin; Qi, Hongzhi; Ming, Dong

    2009-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been widely used in the area of neural engineering. It utilizes electrical current to activate nerves innervating extremities affected by paralysis. An effective combination of a traditional PID controller and a neural network, being capable of nonlinear expression and adaptive learning property, supply a more reliable approach to construct FES controller that help the paraplegia complete the action they want. A FES system tuned by Radial Basis Function (RBF) Neural Network-based Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) model was designed to control the knee joint according to the desired trajectory through stimulation of lower limbs muscles in this paper. Experiment result shows that the FES system with RBF Neural Network-based PID model get a better performance when tracking the preset trajectory of knee angle comparing with the system adjusted by Ziegler- Nichols tuning PID model.

  2. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to increasing maternal folate status by supplemental folate intake and reduced risk of neural tube defects pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to increasing maternal folate status by supplemental folate intake and reduced risk of neural tube defects. The Panel considers that the food constituent, supplemental folate, which is the subject of the claim, is sufficiently...... characterised. Increasing maternal folate status by supplemental folate intake is a beneficial physiological effect in the context of reducing the risk of neural tube defects. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that the association between low maternal folate intakes and an increased risk...... of neural tube defects is well established, and that a recent systematic review showed an effect of maternal folic acid intakes on the risk of neural tube defects. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between increasing maternal folate status by supplemental folate...

  3. Software implementation of artificial neural networks in automated intelligent systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.П. Харченко

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available  Application of neural networks technologies effectively decides the task of synthesis of origin of accident risk and gives out the vector of managing signals of network on incomplete and distorted information about the phenomena, events and processes which influence on safety flights.

  4. Credit Risk Evaluation System: An Artificial Neural Network Approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we proposed an architecture which uses the theory of artificial neural networks and business rules to correctly determine whether a customer is good or bad. In the first step, by using clustering algorithm, clients are segmented into groups with similar features. In the second step, decision trees are built based ...

  5. Integrating resource defence theory with a neural nonapeptide pathway to explain territory-based mating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Ronald G; Harris, Rayna M; Hofmann, Hans A

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate-level factors that drive the evolution of mating systems have been well studied, but an evolutionarily conserved neural mechanism involved in shaping behaviour and social organization across species has remained elusive. Here, we review studies that have investigated the role of neural arginine vasopressin (AVP), vasotocin (AVT), and their receptor V1a in mediating variation in territorial behaviour. First, we discuss how aggression and territoriality are a function of population density in an inverted-U relationship according to resource defence theory, and how territoriality influences some mating systems. Next, we find that neural AVP, AVT, and V1a expression, especially in one particular neural circuit involving the lateral septum of the forebrain, are associated with territorial behaviour in males of diverse species, most likely due to their role in enhancing social cognition. Then we review studies that examined multiple species and find that neural AVP, AVT, and V1a expression is associated with territory size in mammals and fishes. Because territoriality plays an important role in shaping mating systems in many species, we present the idea that neural AVP, AVT, and V1a expression that is selected to mediate territory size may also influence the evolution of different mating systems. Future research that interprets proximate-level neuro-molecular mechanisms in the context of ultimate-level ecological theory may provide deep insight into the brain-behaviour relationships that underlie the diversity of social organization and mating systems seen across the animal kingdom.

  6. A study about detection of defects in the nuclear piping loop system using cooling lock-in infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Chae; Kang, Sung Hoon; Yun, Na Yeon; Jung, Hyun Chul; Kim, Kyeong Suk [Dept. of Mechanical System Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A study on the application of cooling defect detection was performed on the basis of a preceding study on the heated defect detection in nuclear piping loop system, using lock-in infrared thermography. A loop system with piping defects was made by varying the wall-thinning length, the circumference orientation angle, and the wall-thinning depth. The test was performed using an IR camera and a cooling device. Distance between the cooling device and the target loop system was fixed at 2 m. For analyzing experimental results, the temperature distribution data for cooling, and phase data were obtained. Through the analysis of this data, the defect length was measured. The reliability of the measurements for cooling defect conditions was shown to be higher in the lock-in infrared thermography data than the infrared thermography data.

  7. Detection of Roller Bearing Defects Using Expert System and Fuzzy Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. I.; Singonahalli, J. H.; Iyer, N. R.

    1996-09-01

    A fuzzy expert system, Bearing_Expert, has been developed. This expert system is PC-based. It is menu driven and it is very user-friendly. This expert system offers specific knowledge of various aspects about bearing monitoring, such as diagnostic methods, defect frequencies, feature selection, fuzzy bearing classification etc. By responding to different questions successively, the user can obtain very specific knowledge via the shortest path. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of Bearing_Expert, experiments have been conducted. Radial accelerations have been measured and analysed. Feature selection has been performed effectively by the integration of Bearing_Expert and a computer program. The average of the top five values of frequency response in the high frequency region (5-22 kHz) has been found to be the best feature for the detection of roller bearing defects. Fuzzy reasoning has also been used via Bearing_Expert. Piecewise linear membership functions have been developed. A 100% reliability has been achieved for the detection of roller bearing defects via fuzzy reasoning. Bearing_Expert is very beneficial for factory automation and preventive maintenance.

  8. Differences in neural crest sensitivity to ethanol account for the infrequency of anterior segment defects in the eye compared with craniofacial anomalies in a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Jessica; Williams, Antionette L; Chawla, Bahaar; Apsey, Christian; Bohnsack, Brenda L

    2017-09-01

    Ethanol (ETOH) exposure during pregnancy is associated with craniofacial and neurologic abnormalities, but infrequently disrupts the anterior segment of the eye. In these studies, we used zebrafish to investigate differences in the teratogenic effect of ETOH on craniofacial, periocular, and ocular neural crest. Zebrafish eye and neural crest development was analyzed by means of live imaging, TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay, immunostaining, detection of reactive oxygen species, and in situ hybridization. Our studies demonstrated that foxd3-positive neural crest cells in the periocular mesenchyme and developing eye were less sensitive to ETOH than sox10-positive craniofacial neural crest cells that form the pharyngeal arches and jaw. ETOH increased apoptosis in the retina, but did not affect survival of periocular and ocular neural crest cells. ETOH also did not increase reactive oxygen species within the eye. In contrast, ETOH increased ventral neural crest apoptosis and reactive oxygen species production in the facial mesenchyme. In the eye and craniofacial region, sod2 showed high levels of expression in the anterior segment and in the setting of Sod2 knockdown, low levels of ETOH decreased migration of foxd3-positive neural crest cells into the developing eye. However, ETOH had minimal effect on the periocular and ocular expression of transcription factors (pitx2 and foxc1) that regulate anterior segment development. Neural crest cells contributing to the anterior segment of the eye exhibit increased ability to withstand ETOH-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. These studies explain the rarity of anterior segment dysgenesis despite the frequent craniofacial abnormalities in fetal alcohol syndrome. Birth Defects Research 109:1212-1227, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Multi-channel holographic birfurcative neural network system for real-time adaptive EOS data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Diep, J.; Huang, K.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on multi-channel holographic bifurcative neural network system for real-time adaptive Earth Observing System (EOS) data analysis are presented. The objective is to research and develop an optical bifurcating neuromorphic pattern recognition system for making optical data array comparisons and to evaluate the use of the system for EOS data classification, reduction, analysis, and other applications.

  10. A graphical automated detection system to locate hardwood log surface defects using high-resolution three-dimensional laser scan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liya Thomas; R. Edward. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an automated defect detection system and a state-of-the-art Graphic User Interface (GUI) for hardwood logs. The algorithm identifies defects at least 0.5 inch high and at least 3 inches in diameter on barked hardwood log and stem surfaces. To summarize defect features and to build a knowledge base, hundreds of defects were measured, photographed, and...

  11. Chimaeric subscapular system free flap for complex oro-facial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux-Lebeau, B; Odobescu, A; Harris, P G; Guertin, L; Danino, A M

    2013-07-01

    Ablation of locally advanced head and neck cancers generally results in large composite oro-facial defects. Due to the often-large segment of mandible missing, as well as the need to provide skin coverage and oral lining, reconstructive options are limited. We present our experience in oncologic head and neck reconstruction using chimaeric subscapular system free flaps. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients presenting important through-and-through oro-facial defects following ablation of T3, T4a or T4b tumours in two university centres between 2005 and 2011. All defects were reconstructed with a subscapular system free flap that was harvested in a dorsal decubitus position. Sixteen patients (15 M, 1 F; mean age=60 years) underwent mandibular reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flaps with one or two skin paddles and one bony component based on the angular branch of the thoracodorsal artery. Fifteen patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. We experienced no flap loss. Donor-site complications were minimal, albeit a limitation of shoulder range of motion was found in four patients. Eight patients presented postoperative complications requiring re-intervention. Fourteen patients were able to recommence oral nutrition and their diction returned to normal in all but one. The mean follow-up period was 25 months. Aesthetic results were satisfactory upon atrophy of the latissimus dorsi muscle. In cases of extensive oro-facial defects involving a large mandibular segment, reconstruction with subscapular system free-tissue transfer is a safe and reliable technique that offers satisfactory functional and aesthetic results. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Asociación inversa entre asma y defectos del tubo neural: estudio ecológico binacional Inverse association between asthma and neural tube defects: a binational ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario H Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Los donadores de metilo como el ácido fólico previenen defectos del tubo neural (DTN, pero estudios recientes sugieren que también favorecen el desarrollo de asma. En este trabajo exploramos una posible asociación ecológica entre DTN y asma. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se consultaron bases de datos de México y EUA para obtener información sobre distribución geográfica (por estado y tendencia temporal (por año de DTN y asma. RESULTADOS: Los estados con menor frecuencia de DTN tuvieron mayor frecuencia de asma, tanto en México (rS=-0.48, p=0.005 como en EUA (rS=-0.39, p=0.005. Las tendencias temporales también mostraron correlación inversa en México (1997-2007, rS=-0.73, p=0.01 y EUA (1979-1998, rS=-0.91, pOBJECTIVE: Dietary intake of methyl donors such as folic acid prevents neural tube defects (NTD, but recent studies showed that it might also favor the development of asthma. In this work a possible ecological association between NTD and asthma was explored. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data bases from Mexico and the United States (US were reviewed to obtain information about geographical distribution (by state and temporal trends (by year of NTD and asthma. RESULTS: Those states with the lowest frequency of NTD had the highest frequency of asthma, both in Mexico (rS=-0.48, p=0.005 and US (rS=-0.39, p=0.005. Temporal trends also showed an inverse correlation in Mexico (1997-2007, rS=-0.73, p=0.01 and US (1979-1998, rS=-0.91, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: In both countries the frequency of asthma inversely correlated with the frequency of NTD, both in geographical distribution and annual trends, giving support to the possibility that methyl donors intake in diet or supplements is influencing the asthma frequency.

  13. Deficiencia de folatos y su asociación con defectos de cierre del tubo neural en el norte de México Folic acid deficiency and its relationship with neural tube defects in northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Rodríguez-Morán

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Valorar la asociación de la deficiencia de folatos y otros factores de riesgo con la ocurrencia de defectos de cierre del tubo neural (DCTN, en la población rural del norte de México (Chihuahua, Durango y Zacatecas. Material y métodos. Se hizo un estudio multicéntrico de casos y controles. Se consideraron como casos a los recién nacidos vivos (RNV y a los muertos con DCTN, y como controles, a los RNV sanos, no malformados. Se determinó la exposición a factores de riesgo conocidos, estableciendo su asociación con los DCTN, con un modelo de análisis múltiple de regresión logística. Resultados. Los factores de riesgo asociados a DCTN fueron: la deficiencia de folatos (RM 11.1; IC95% 1.2-106.2, p= 0.04; el antecedente, en embarazos previos, de productos con DCTN (RM 3.3; IC95% 1.1-18.8, p= 0.05, y óbitos (RM 7.1; IC95% 1.1-46.3, p= 0.04. Conclusiones. La deficiencia de folatos constituye uno de los principales factores de riesgo asociado a los DCTN en la población rural del norte de México. Es necesario llevar a cabo más investigaciones para determinar la contribución de otros factores de riesgo y establecer las medidas preventivas adecuadas.Objective. To evaluate folic acid deficiency and other risk factors and their relationship with the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTD, in the rural population of northern Mexico (Chihuahua, Durango and Zacatecas. Material and methods. A multicentric case-control study was performed. Cases were both live and stillborn with NTD, and controls were healthy newborns without congenital malformations. Exposure to known risk factors was determined, establishing its association with NTD using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results. Risk factors associated to NTD were: folic acid deficiency (OR 11.1; CI 95% 1.2-106.2, p= 0.04; the antecedents of previous NTD pregnancies (OR 3.3; CI 95% 1.1-18.8, p= 0.05 and stillbirths (OR 7.1; CI 95% 1.1-46.3, p= 0.04. Conclusions. Folic acid

  14. Conhecimento de médicos e enfermeiros obstetras sobre a prevenção dos defeitos no tubo neural Knowledge of physicians and obstetric nurses about the prevention of neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Campelo da Conceição

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o nível de conhecimento de médicos e enfermeiros obstetras sobre a utilização de ácido fólico (AF para a prevenção dos defeitos do fechamento do tubo neural (DFTN. Estudo descritivo transversal no qual 118 voluntários (95 médicos e 23 enfermeiros, responderam um questionário com 21 perguntas sobre a prevenção dos DFTN. Os dados foram analisados em função do conhecimento relatado, das recomendações preconizadas pelo Ministério da Saúde (MS e das evidências científicas (EC disponíveis sobre o assunto investigado. O nível de conhecimento baseado nas EC e nas recomendações do MS foi diferente (4,64 ± 0,20 vs 5,55 ± 0,15; p The scope of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of obstetricians and obstetric nurses about folic acid in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTD. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 118 volunteers (95 physicians and 23 nurses answered a questionnaire with 21 questions about prevention of NTD. The data were analyzed according to the reported knowledge, the recommendations made by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MOH and the scientific evidence (SE available in the literature on the topic. The knowledge based on the SE and recommendations of MOH was different (4.64 ± 0.20 vs. 5.55 ± 0.15, p <0.001, Mean ± SEM. There was no difference between the knowledge of respondents compared to their training, the time spent in prenatal care and between the two classes of professionals evaluated. There were differences between the reported knowledge and that based on SE (6.76 ± 0.18 vs. 4.64 ± 0.15, p <0.001 and based on the MOH recommendations (6.76 ± 0.18 vs. 5.55 ± 0.20, p <0.001. Thus, the conclusion reached was that 94.1% of those evaluated reported knowing the importance of folic acid in preventing NTD, though 64.2% reported that they did not know when to begin administration of the supplement.

  15. Design of intelligent systems based on fuzzy logic, neural networks and nature-inspired optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, Oscar; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    This book presents recent advances on the design of intelligent systems based on fuzzy logic, neural networks and nature-inspired optimization and their application in areas such as, intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization of complex problems. The book is organized in eight main parts, which contain a group of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of theoretical aspects of fuzzy logic, which basically consists of papers that propose new concepts and algorithms based on fuzzy systems. The second part contains papers with the main theme of neural networks theory, which are basically papers dealing with new concepts and algorithms in neural networks. The third part contains papers describing applications of neural networks in diverse areas, such as time series prediction and pattern recognition. The fourth part contains papers describing new nature-inspired optimization algorithms. The fifth part presents div...

  16. The effect of fever, febrile illnesses, and heat exposures on the risk of neural tube defects in a Texas-Mexico border population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Lucina; Felkner, Marilyn; Hendricks, Kate

    2004-10-01

    Hyperthermia produces neural tube defects (NTDs) in a variety of animal species. Elevated maternal body temperatures may also place the developing human embryo at risk. We examined the relation between maternal hyperthermia and the development of NTDs in a high-risk Mexican-American population. Case-women were Mexican-American women with NTD-affected pregnancies who resided and delivered in any of the 14 Texas counties bordering Mexico, during 1995-2000. Control-women were randomly selected from study area residents delivering normal live births, frequency-matched to cases by hospital and year. Information on maternal fevers, febrile illnesses, exposures to heat generated from external sources, and hyperthermia-inducing activities was gathered through in-person interviews, conducted about six weeks postpartum. The risk effect (OR) associated with maternal fever in the first trimester, compared to no fever, was 2.9 (95% CI, 1.5-5.7). Women taking fever-reducing medications showed a lower risk effect (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0-5.6) than those who did not (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.4-10.9). First-trimester maternal exposures to heat devices such as hot tubs, saunas, or electric blankets were associated with an OR of 3.6 (95% CI, 1.1-15.9). Small insignificant effects were observed for activities such as cooking in a hot kitchen (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0-2.6) and working or exercising in the sun (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.9-2.2). Maternal hyperthermia increases the risk for NTD-affected offspring. Women intending to become pregnant should avoid intense heat exposures, carefully monitor and manage their febrile illnesses, and routinely consume folic acid supplements. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Association of the maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism with susceptibility to neural tube defects in offsprings: evidence from 25 case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR is a critical enzyme in folate metabolism and is involved in DNA methylation, DNA synthesis, and DNA repair. In addition, it is a possible risk factor in neural tube defects (NTDs. The association of the C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene and NTD susceptibility has been widely demonstrated, but the results remain inconclusive. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis with 2429 cases and 3570 controls to investigate the effect of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism on NTDs. METHODS: An electronic search of PubMed and Embase database for papers on the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NTD risk was performed. All data were analysed with STATA (version 11. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated to assess the association. Sensitivity analysis, test of heterogeneity, cumulative meta-analysis, and assessment of bias were performed in our meta-analysis. RESULTS: A significant association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and NTD susceptibility was revealed in our meta-analysis ( TT versus CC: OR= 2.022, 95% CI: 1.508, 2.712; CT+TT versus CC: OR = 1.303, 95% CI: 1.089, 1.558; TT versus CC+CT: OR= 1.716, 95% CI: 1.448, 2.033; 2TT+CT versus 2CC+CT: OR= 1.330, 95% CI: 1.160, 1.525. Moreover, an increased NTD risk was found after stratification of the MTHFR C677T variant data by ethnicity and source of controls. CONCLUSION: The results suggested the maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for NTDs. Further functional studies to investigate folate-related gene polymorphisms, periconceptional multivitamin supplements, complex interactions, and the development of NTDs are warranted.

  18. Genetic variants in the folate pathway and the risk of neural tube defects: a meta-analysis of the published literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ti Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neural Tube Defects (NTDs are among the most prevalent and most severe congenital malformations worldwide. Polymorphisms in key genes involving the folate pathway have been reported to be associated with the risk of NTDs. However, the results from these published studies are conflicting. We surveyed the literature (1996-2011 and performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to provide empirical evidence on the association. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated the effects of 5 genetic variants from 47 study populations, for a total of 85 case-control comparisons MTHFR C677T (42 studies; 4374 cases, 7232 controls, MTHFR A1298C (22 studies; 2602 cases, 4070 controls, MTR A2756G (9 studies; 843 cases, 1006 controls, MTRR A66G (8 studies; 703 cases, 1572 controls, and RFC-1 A80G (4 studies; 1107 cases, 1585 controls. We found a convincing evidence of dominant effects of MTHFR C677T (OR 1.23; 95%CI 1.07-1.42 and suggestive evidence of RFC-1 A80G (OR 1.55; 95%CI 1.24-1.92. However, we found no significant effects of MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G in risk of NTDs in dominant, recessive or in allelic models. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis strongly suggested a significant association of the variant MTHFR C677T and a suggestive association of RFC-1 A80G with increased risk of NTDs. However, other variants involved in folate pathway do not demonstrate any evidence for a significant marginal association on susceptibility to NTDs.

  19. Epidemiologic study of neural tube defects in Los Angeles County. II. Etiologic factors in an area with low prevalence at birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiologic characteristics of neural tube defect (NTD) births occurring in Los Angeles County, California, residents during the period 1966-1972 are presented. The prevalence at birth was 0.52/1000 births for anencephalus, 0.51/1000 for spina bifida, and 0.08/1000 for encephalocele, rates considered to be low for a predominantly white population. We hypothesized that environmental (nongenetic) factors are of less etiologic importance in a low-prevalence population than in areas or time periods with high prevalence. We tested that hypothesis by examining epidemiologic characteristics of NTDs in Los Angeles County and comparing them with high-prevalence populations. The data did not support a major etiologic role for environmental factors: (1) no significant differences between rates by month of birth or conception; (2) no significant association with maternal age or parity for anencephalus; for spina bifida a significant maternal age effect (P < 0.01) and for encephalocele a parity effect (P < 0.02); and (3) no significant relationship with father's occupational class for either anencephalus or encephalocele but a marginally significant (P < 0.05) inverse association for spina bifida when a statistic based on ordinal relationships was used. Findings supporting the importance of genetic factors in etiology included: (1) a high percentage of males; (2) a higher twin concordance rate than in high-prevalence populations; and (3) an anencephalus rate among blacks comparable with rates for blacks in other United States populations. Our findings in conjunction with those from other areas and times of low prevalence suggest environmental factors play a relatively insignificant role in the etiology of NTDs in such populations.

  20. Developing and using expert systems and neural networks in medicine: a review on benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Hashemi Dehaghi, Zahra

    2014-09-01

    Complicacy of clinical decisions justifies utilization of information systems such as artificial intelligence (e.g. expert systems and neural networks) to achieve better decisions, however, application of these systems in the medical domain faces some challenges. We aimed at to review the applications of these systems in the medical domain and discuss about such challenges. Following a brief introduction of expert systems and neural networks by representing few examples, the challenges of these systems in the medical domain are discussed. We found that the applications of expert systems and artificial neural networks have been increased in the medical domain. These systems have shown many advantages such as utilization of experts' knowledge, gaining rare knowledge, more time for assessment of the decision, more consistent decisions, and shorter decision-making process. In spite of all these advantages, there are challenges ahead of developing and using such systems including maintenance, required experts, inputting patients' data into the system, problems for knowledge acquisition, problems in modeling medical knowledge, evaluation and validation of system performance, wrong recommendations and responsibility, limited domains of such systems and necessity of integrating such systems into the routine work flows. We concluded that expert systems and neural networks can be successfully used in medicine; however, there are many concerns and questions to be answered through future studies and discussions.

  1. Folate receptor 1 is necessary for neural plate cell apical constriction during Xenopus neural tube formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashova, Olga A; Visina, Olesya; Borodinsky, Laura N

    2017-04-15

    Folate supplementation prevents up to 70% of neural tube defects (NTDs), which result from a failure of neural tube closure during embryogenesis. The elucidation of the mechanisms underlying folate action has been challenging. This study introduces Xenopus laevis as a model to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in folate action during neural tube formation. We show that knockdown of folate receptor 1 (Folr1; also known as FRα) impairs neural tube formation and leads to NTDs. Folr1 knockdown in neural plate cells only is necessary and sufficient to induce NTDs. Folr1-deficient neural plate cells fail to constrict, resulting in widening of the neural plate midline and defective neural tube closure. Pharmacological inhibition of folate action by methotrexate during neurulation induces NTDs by inhibiting folate interaction with its uptake systems. Our findings support a model in which the folate receptor interacts with cell adhesion molecules, thus regulating the apical cell membrane remodeling and cytoskeletal dynamics necessary for neural plate folding. Further studies in this organism could unveil novel cellular and molecular events mediated by folate and lead to new ways of preventing NTDs. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Soft computing integrating evolutionary, neural, and fuzzy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tettamanzi, Andrea

    2001-01-01

    Soft computing encompasses various computational methodologies, which, unlike conventional algorithms, are tolerant of imprecision, uncertainty, and partial truth. Soft computing technologies offer adaptability as a characteristic feature and thus permit the tracking of a problem through a changing environment. Besides some recent developments in areas like rough sets and probabilistic networks, fuzzy logic, evolutionary algorithms, and artificial neural networks are core ingredients of soft computing, which are all bio-inspired and can easily be combined synergetically. This book presents a well-balanced integration of fuzzy logic, evolutionary computing, and neural information processing. The three constituents are introduced to the reader systematically and brought together in differentiated combinations step by step. The text was developed from courses given by the authors and offers numerous illustrations as

  3. Psychological Processing in Chronic Pain: A Neural Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Laura; Elman, Igor; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of chronic pain involves complex brain circuits that include sensory, emotional, cognitive and interoceptive processing. The feed-forward interactions between physical (e.g., trauma) and emotional pain and the consequences of altered psychological status on the expression of pain have made the evaluation and treatment of chronic pain a challenge in the clinic. By understanding the neural circuits involved in psychological processes, a mechanistic approach to the implementation of psychology-based treatments may be better understood. In this review we evaluate some of the principle processes that may be altered as a consequence of chronic pain in the context of localized and integrated neural networks. These changes are ongoing, vary in their magnitude, and their hierarchical manifestations, and may be temporally and sequentially altered by treatments, and all contribute to an overall pain phenotype. Furthermore, we link altered psychological processes to specific evidence-based treatments to put forth a model of pain neuroscience psychology. PMID:24374383

  4. Identification and adaptive neural network control of a DC motor system with dead-zone characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinzhu; Dubay, Rickey

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, an adaptive control approach based on the neural networks is presented to control a DC motor system with dead-zone characteristics (DZC), where two neural networks are proposed to formulate the traditional identification and control approaches. First, a Wiener-type neural network (WNN) is proposed to identify the motor DZC, which formulates the Wiener model with a linear dynamic block in cascade with a nonlinear static gain. Second, a feedforward neural network is proposed to formulate the traditional PID controller, termed as PID-type neural network (PIDNN), which is then used to control and compensate for the DZC. In this way, the DC motor system with DZC is identified by the WNN identifier, which provides model information to the PIDNN controller in order to make it adaptive. Back-propagation algorithms are used to train both neural networks. Also, stability and convergence analysis are conducted using the Lyapunov theorem. Finally, experiments on the DC motor system demonstrated accurate identification and good compensation for dead-zone with improved control performance over the conventional PID control. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuromorphic neural interfaces: from neurophysiological inspiration to biohybrid coupling with nervous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccard, Frédéric D.; Joshi, Siddharth; Wang, Jun; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Computation in nervous systems operates with different computational primitives, and on different hardware, than traditional digital computation and is thus subjected to different constraints from its digital counterpart regarding the use of physical resources such as time, space and energy. In an effort to better understand neural computation on a physical medium with similar spatiotemporal and energetic constraints, the field of neuromorphic engineering aims to design and implement electronic systems that emulate in very large-scale integration (VLSI) hardware the organization and functions of neural systems at multiple levels of biological organization, from individual neurons up to large circuits and networks. Mixed analog/digital neuromorphic VLSI systems are compact, consume little power and operate in real time independently of the size and complexity of the model. Approach. This article highlights the current efforts to interface neuromorphic systems with neural systems at multiple levels of biological organization, from the synaptic to the system level, and discusses the prospects for future biohybrid systems with neuromorphic circuits of greater complexity. Main results. Single silicon neurons have been interfaced successfully with invertebrate and vertebrate neural networks. This approach allowed the investigation of neural properties that are inaccessible with traditional techniques while providing a realistic biological context not achievable with traditional numerical modeling methods. At the network level, populations of neurons are envisioned to communicate bidirectionally with neuromorphic processors of hundreds or thousands of silicon neurons. Recent work on brain-machine interfaces suggests that this is feasible with current neuromorphic technology. Significance. Biohybrid interfaces between biological neurons and VLSI neuromorphic systems of varying complexity have started to emerge in the literature. Primarily intended as a

  6. A Comparative Study of Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems in Modeling of a Nonlinear Dynamic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Demirtas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the neural networks and fuzzy modeling approaches on a nonlinear system. We have taken Permanent Magnet Brushless Direct Current (PMBDC motor data and have generated models using both approaches. The predictive performance of both methods was compared on the data set for model configurations. The paper describes the results of these tests and discusses the effects of changing model parameters on predictive and practical performance. Modeling sensitivity was used to compare for two methods.

  7. A population-based study of birth defects in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, M K; Ho, J J; Khatijah, N N

    2005-01-01

    Birth defects are one of the leading causes of paediatric disability and mortality in developed and developing countries. Data on birth defects from population-based studies originating from developing countries are lacking. One of the objectives of this study was to determine the epidemiology of major birth defects in births during the perinatal period in Kinta district, Perak, Malaysia over a 14-month period, using a population-based birth defect register. There were 253 babies with major birth defects in 17,720 births, giving an incidence of 14.3/1000 births, a birth prevalence of 1 in 70. There were 80 babies with multiple birth defects and 173 with isolated birth defects. The exact syndromic diagnosis of the babies with multiple birth defects could not be identified in 18 (22.5%) babies. The main organ systems involved in the isolated birth defects were cardiovascular (13.8%), cleft lip and palate (11.9%), clubfeet (9.1%), central nervous system (CNS) (including neural tube defects) (7.9%), musculoskeletal (5.5%) and gastrointestinal systems (4.7%), and hydrops fetalis (4.3%). The babies with major birth defects were associated with lower birth weights, premature deliveries, higher Caesarean section rates, prolonged hospitalization and increased specialist care. Among the cohort of babies with major birth defects, the mortality rate was 25.2% during the perinatal period. Mothers with affected babies were associated with advanced maternal age, birth defects themselves or their relatives but not in their other offspring, and significantly higher rates of previous abortions. The consanguinity rate of 2.4% was twice that of the control population. It is concluded that a birth defects register is needed to monitor these developments and future interventional trials are needed to reduce birth defects in Malaysia.

  8. Fault detection and classification in electrical power transmission system using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Majid; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Rajveer

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the detection and classification of the faults on electrical power transmission line using artificial neural networks. The three phase currents and voltages of one end are taken as inputs in the proposed scheme. The feed forward neural network along with back propagation algorithm has been employed for detection and classification of the fault for analysis of each of the three phases involved in the process. A detailed analysis with varying number of hidden layers has been performed to validate the choice of the neural network. The simulation results concluded that the present method based on the neural network is efficient in detecting and classifying the faults on transmission lines with satisfactory performances. The different faults are simulated with different parameters to check the versatility of the method. The proposed method can be extended to the Distribution network of the Power System. The various simulations and analysis of signals is done in the MATLAB(®) environment.

  9. Nonoptimal component placement, but short processing paths, due to long-distance projections in neural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Kaiser

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that neural systems across several scales of organization show optimal component placement, in which any spatial rearrangement of the components would lead to an increase of total wiring. Using extensive connectivity datasets for diverse neural networks combined with spatial coordinates for network nodes, we applied an optimization algorithm to the network layouts, in order to search for wire-saving component rearrangements. We found that optimized component rearrangements could substantially reduce total wiring length in all tested neural networks. Specifically, total wiring among 95 primate (Macaque cortical areas could be decreased by 32%, and wiring of neuronal networks in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans could be reduced by 48% on the global level, and by 49% for neurons within frontal ganglia. Wiring length reductions were possible due to the existence of long-distance projections in neural networks. We explored the role of these projections by comparing the original networks with minimally rewired networks of the same size, which possessed only the shortest possible connections. In the minimally rewired networks, the number of processing steps along the shortest paths between components was significantly increased compared to the original networks. Additional benchmark comparisons also indicated that neural networks are more similar to network layouts that minimize the length of processing paths, rather than wiring length. These findings suggest that neural systems are not exclusively optimized for minimal global wiring, but for a variety of factors including the minimization of processing steps.

  10. Adaptive Control of Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems by Using OS-ELM Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of novel feedforward neural network with single hidden layer, ELM (extreme learning machine neural networks are studied for the identification and control of nonlinear dynamic systems. The property of simple structure and fast convergence of ELM can be shown clearly. In this paper, we are interested in adaptive control of nonlinear dynamic plants by using OS-ELM (online sequential extreme learning machine neural networks. Based on data scope division, the problem that training process of ELM neural network is sensitive to the initial training data is also solved. According to the output range of the controlled plant, the data corresponding to this range will be used to initialize ELM. Furthermore, due to the drawback of conventional adaptive control, when the OS-ELM neural network is used for adaptive control of the system with jumping parameters, the topological structure of the neural network can be adjusted dynamically by using multiple model switching strategy, and an MMAC (multiple model adaptive control will be used to improve the control performance. Simulation results are included to complement the theoretical results.

  11. Defective Bone Repair in C57Bl6 Mice With Acute Systemic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, D A; Hui, D; Gao, C; Awlia, A; Al-Saran, Y; Li, A; Henderson, J E; Martineau, P A

    2017-03-01

    Bone repair is initiated with a local inflammatory response to injury. The presence of systemic inflammation impairs bone healing and often leads to malunion, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Our research objective was to use a mouse model of cortical bone repair to determine the effect of systemic inflammation on cells in the bone healing microenvironment. QUESTION/PURPOSES: (1) Does systemic inflammation, induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration affect the quantity and quality of regenerating bone in primary bone healing? (2) Does systemic inflammation alter vascularization and the number or activity of inflammatory cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts in the bone healing microenvironment? Cortical defects were drilled in the femoral diaphysis of female and male C57BL/6 mice aged 5 to 9 months that were treated with daily systemic injections of LPS or physiologic saline as control for 7 days. Mice were euthanized at 1 week (Control, n = 7; LPS, n = 8), 2 weeks (Control, n = 7; LPS, n = 8), and 6 weeks (Control, n = 9; LPS, n = 8) after surgery. The quantity (bone volume per tissue volume [BV/TV]) and microarchitecture (trabecular separation and thickness, porosity) of bone in the defect were quantified with time using microCT. The presence or activity of vascular endothelial cells (CD34), macrophages (F4/80), osteoblasts (alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), and osteoclasts (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase [TRAP]) were evaluated using histochemical analyses. Only one of eight defects was bridged completely 6 weeks after surgery in LPS-injected mouse bones compared with seven of nine defects in the control mouse bones (odds ratio [OR], 0.04; 95% CI, 0.003-0.560; p = 0.007). The decrease in cortical bone in LPS-treated mice was reflected in reduced BV/TV (21% ± 4% vs 39% ± 10%; p inflammation reduced the amount and impaired the quality of bone regenerated in mouse femurs. The effects were associated with impaired revascularization

  12. Ultrasonic sensing of GMAW: Laser/EMAT defect detection system. [Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, N.M.; Johnson, J.A.; Larsen, E.D. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Van Clark, A. Jr.; Schaps, S.R.; Fortunko, C.M. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1992-01-01

    In-process ultrasonic sensing of welding allows detection of weld defects in real time. A noncontacting ultrasonic system is being developed to operate in a production environment. The principal components are a pulsed laser for ultrasound generation and an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) for ultrasound reception. A PC-based data acquisition system determines the quality of the weld on a pass-by-pass basis. The laser/EMAT system interrogates the area in the weld volume where defects are most likely to occur. This area of interest is identified by computer calculations on a pass-by-pass basis using weld planning information provided by the off-line programmer. The absence of a signal above the threshold level in the computer-calculated time interval indicates a disruption of the sound path by a defect. The ultrasonic sensor system then provides an input signal to the weld controller about the defect condition. 8 refs.

  13. A Modular Neural Network Scheme Applied to Fault Diagnosis in Electric Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Agustín; Morant, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes a new method for fault diagnosis in electric power systems based on neural modules. With this method the diagnosis is performed by assigning a neural module for each type of component comprising the electric power system, whether it is a transmission line, bus or transformer. The neural modules for buses and transformers comprise two diagnostic levels which take into consideration the logic states of switches and relays, both internal and back-up, with the exception of the neural module for transmission lines which also has a third diagnostic level which takes into account the oscillograms of fault voltages and currents as well as the frequency spectrums of these oscillograms, in order to verify if the transmission line had in fact been subjected to a fault. One important advantage of the diagnostic system proposed is that its implementation does not require the use of a network configurator for the system; it does not depend on the size of the power network nor does it require retraining of the neural modules if the power network increases in size, making its application possible to only one component, a specific area, or the whole context of the power system. PMID:25610897

  14. A Modular Neural Network Scheme Applied to Fault Diagnosis in Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Flores

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a new method for fault diagnosis in electric power systems based on neural modules. With this method the diagnosis is performed by assigning a neural module for each type of component comprising the electric power system, whether it is a transmission line, bus or transformer. The neural modules for buses and transformers comprise two diagnostic levels which take into consideration the logic states of switches and relays, both internal and back-up, with the exception of the neural module for transmission lines which also has a third diagnostic level which takes into account the oscillograms of fault voltages and currents as well as the frequency spectrums of these oscillograms, in order to verify if the transmission line had in fact been subjected to a fault. One important advantage of the diagnostic system proposed is that its implementation does not require the use of a network configurator for the system; it does not depend on the size of the power network nor does it require retraining of the neural modules if the power network increases in size, making its application possible to only one component, a specific area, or the whole context of the power system.

  15. Fuzzy wavelet plus a quantum neural network as a design base for power system stability enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjefar, Soheil; Tofighi, Morteza; Karami, Hamidreza

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we introduce an indirect adaptive fuzzy wavelet neural controller (IAFWNC) as a power system stabilizer to damp inter-area modes of oscillations in a multi-machine power system. Quantum computing is an efficient method for improving the computational efficiency of neural networks, so we developed an identifier based on a quantum neural network (QNN) to train the IAFWNC in the proposed scheme. All of the controller parameters are tuned online based on the Lyapunov stability theory to guarantee the closed-loop stability. A two-machine, two-area power system equipped with a static synchronous series compensator as a series flexible ac transmission system was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. The simulation and experimental results demonstrated that the proposed IAFWNC scheme can achieve favorable control performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. What Are Neural Tube Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or no brain matter and also may be lacking part of its skull. Infants born with this ... flickr NEWSROOM NICHD News Videos OUTREACH Safe to Sleep® National Child & Maternal Health Education Program RELATED WEBSITES ...

  17. Child Maltreatment and Neural Systems Underlying Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Peverill, Matthew; Gold, Andrea L; Alves, Sonia; Sheridan, Margaret A

    2015-09-01

    The strong associations between child maltreatment and psychopathology have generated interest in identifying neurodevelopmental processes that are disrupted following maltreatment. Previous research has focused largely on neural response to negative facial emotion. We determined whether child maltreatment was associated with neural responses during passive viewing of negative and positive emotional stimuli and effortful attempts to regulate emotional responses. A total of 42 adolescents aged 13 to 19 years, half with exposure to physical and/or sexual abuse, participated. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response was measured during passive viewing of negative and positive emotional stimuli and attempts to modulate emotional responses using cognitive reappraisal. Maltreated adolescents exhibited heightened response in multiple nodes of the salience network, including amygdala, putamen, and anterior insula, to negative relative to neutral stimuli. During attempts to decrease responses to negative stimuli relative to passive viewing, maltreatment was associated with greater recruitment of superior frontal gyrus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and frontal pole; adolescents with and without maltreatment down-regulated amygdala response to a similar degree. No associations were observed between maltreatment and neural response to positive emotional stimuli during passive viewing or effortful regulation. Child maltreatment heightens the salience of negative emotional stimuli. Although maltreated adolescents modulate amygdala responses to negative cues to a degree similar to that of non-maltreated youths, they use regions involved in effortful control to a greater degree to do so, potentially because greater effort is required to modulate heightened amygdala responses. These findings are promising, given the centrality of cognitive restructuring in trauma-focused treatments for children. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

  18. Neural Systems Underlying Individual Differences in Intertemporal Decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, Amanda; Smith, Christopher T; Parrish, Michael H; Boettiger, Charlotte A

    2017-03-01

    Excessively choosing immediate over larger future rewards, or delay discounting (DD), associates with multiple clinical conditions. Individual differences in DD likely depend on variations in the activation of and functional interactions between networks, representing possible endophenotypes for associated disorders, including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Numerous fMRI studies have probed the neural bases of DD, but investigations of large-scale networks remain scant. We addressed this gap by testing whether activation within large-scale networks during Now/Later decision-making predicts individual differences in DD. To do so, we scanned 95 social drinkers (18-40 years old; 50 women) using fMRI during hypothetical choices between small monetary amounts available "today" or larger amounts available later. We identified neural networks engaged during Now/Later choice using independent component analysis and tested the relationship between component activation and degree of DD. The activity of two components during Now/Later choice correlated with individual DD rates: A temporal lobe network positively correlated with DD, whereas a frontoparietal-striatal network negatively correlated with DD. Activation differences between these networks predicted individual differences in DD, and their negative correlation during Now/Later choice suggests functional competition. A generalized psychophysiological interactions analysis confirmed a decrease in their functional connectivity during decision-making. The functional connectivity of these two networks negatively correlates with alcohol-related harm, potentially implicating these networks in AUDs. These findings provide novel insight into the neural underpinnings of individual differences in impulsive decision-making with potential implications for addiction and related disorders in which impulsivity is a defining feature.

  19. Study of the neural dynamics for understanding communication in terms of complex hetero systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Ichiro; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Hashimoto, Takashi; Okuda, Jiro; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nagasaka, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research project was to establish a new research area named "neural information science for communication" by elucidating its neural mechanism. The research was performed in collaboration with applied mathematicians in complex-systems science and experimental researchers in neuroscience. The project included measurements of brain activity during communication with or without languages and analyses performed with the help of extended theories for dynamical systems and stochastic systems. The communication paradigm was extended to the interactions between human and human, human and animal, human and robot, human and materials, and even animal and animal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Sign Language Recognition System using Neural Network for Digital Hardware Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Lorena P [Lorena Vargas Quintero, Optic and Computer Science Group - Universidad Popular del Cesar (Colombia); Barba, Leiner; Torres, C O; Mattos, L, E-mail: vargas.lorena@yahoo.com [Optic and Computer Science Group - Popular of Cesar University, Km 12, Valledupar (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    This work presents an image pattern recognition system using neural network for the identification of sign language to deaf people. The system has several stored image that show the specific symbol in this kind of language, which is employed to teach a multilayer neural network using a back propagation algorithm. Initially, the images are processed to adapt them and to improve the performance of discriminating of the network, including in this process of filtering, reduction and elimination noise algorithms as well as edge detection. The system is evaluated using the signs without including movement in their representation.

  1. Simulation of external contamination into water distribution systems through defects in pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, P. A.; Mora, J. J.; García, F. J.; López, G.

    2009-04-01

    Water quality can be defined as a set of properties (physical, biological and chemical) that determine its suitability for human use or for its role in the biosphere. In this contribution we focus on the possible impact on water distribution systems quality of external contaminant fluids entering through defects in pipes. The physical integrity of the distribution system is a primary barrier against the entry of external contaminants and the loss in quality of the treated drinking water, but this integrity can be broken. Deficiencies in physical and hydraulic integrity can lead into water losses, but also into the influx of contaminants through pipes walls, either through breaks coming from external subsoil waters, or via cross connections coming from sewerage or other facilities. These external contamination events (the so called pathogen intrusion phenomenon) can act as a source of income by introducing nutrients and sediments as well as decreasing disinfectant concentrations within the distribution system, thus resulting in a degradation of the distribution water quality. The objective of this contribution is to represent this pathogen intrusion phenomenon. The combination of presence of defects in the infrastructures (equipment failure), suppression and back-siphonage and lack of disinfection is the cause of propagation of contamination in the clean current of water. Intrusion of pathogenic microorganisms has been studied and registered even in well maintained services. Therefore, this situation can happen when negative pressure conditions are achieved in the systems combined with the presence of defects in pipes nearby the suppression. A simulation of the process by which the external fluids can come inside pipes across their defects in a steady-state situation will be considered, by using different techniques to get such a successful modeling, combining numerical and experimental simulations. The proposed modeling process is based on experimental and

  2. Teaching artificial neural systems to drive: Manual training techniques for autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepanski, J. F.; Macy, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    A methodology was developed for manually training autonomous control systems based on artificial neural systems (ANS). In applications where the rule set governing an expert's decisions is difficult to formulate, ANS can be used to extract rules by associating the information an expert receives with the actions taken. Properly constructed networks imitate rules of behavior that permits them to function autonomously when they are trained on the spanning set of possible situations. This training can be provided manually, either under the direct supervision of a system trainer, or indirectly using a background mode where the networks assimilates training data as the expert performs its day-to-day tasks. To demonstrate these methods, an ANS network was trained to drive a vehicle through simulated freeway traffic.

  3. Feasibility of Using Neural Network Models to Accelerate the Testing of Mechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    Verification testing is an important aspect of the design process for mechanical mechanisms, and full-scale, full-length life testing is typically used to qualify any new component for use in space. However, as the required life specification is increased, full-length life tests become more costly and lengthen the development time. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, we theorized that neural network systems may be able to model the operation of a mechanical device. If so, the resulting neural network models could simulate long-term mechanical testing with data from a short-term test. This combination of computer modeling and short-term mechanical testing could then be used to verify the reliability of mechanical systems, thereby eliminating the costs associated with long-term testing. Neural network models could also enable designers to predict the performance of mechanisms at the conceptual design stage by entering the critical parameters as input and running the model to predict performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of using neural networks to predict the performance and life of mechanical systems. To do this, we generated a neural network system to model wear obtained from three accelerated testing devices: 1) A pin-on-disk tribometer; 2) A line-contact rub-shoe tribometer; 3) A four-ball tribometer.

  4. Anamorphic approach for developing hi-efficiency illumination system to inspect defects on semiconductor wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Woojun; Yang, Sunseok; Kwon, Ohhyung; Chu, Seungyong; Oh, Seungchul; Jung, Woosung; Kim, Jaisoon

    2017-03-01

    General approaches to realize higher sensitivity in optical inspection system are using shorter wavelength including UV and higher NA for objective lens. Extreme performances of imaging and illumination systems in a situation of wellmatched to each other are inevitable for the further effort on an effective optical detection of fine defects in patterned wafer. This study focused on the dark field illumination systems satisfying hi areal uniformity and concentration efficiency for the specific conditions of non-symmetric illumination area and critical slanted angle. Three different types of anamorphic dark field illumination systems namely, Far-field Areal Illumination (FAI), Near-field Areal Illumination (NAI) and Farfield Linear Illumination (FLI), are designed and evaluated by brightness, uniformity and concentration efficiency of beam intensity.

  5. Distributed neural system for emotional intelligence revealed by lesion mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive neuroscience has made considerable progress in understanding the neural architecture of human intelligence, identifying a broadly distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that support goal-directed, intelligent behavior. However, the contributions of this network to social and emotional aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here we investigated the neural basis of emotional intelligence in 152 patients with focal brain injuries using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Latent variable modeling was applied to obtain measures of emotional intelligence, general intelligence and personality from the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Inventory, respectively. Regression analyses revealed that latent scores for measures of general intelligence and personality reliably predicted latent scores for emotional intelligence. Lesion mapping results further indicated that these convergent processes depend on a shared network of frontal, temporal and parietal brain regions. The results support an integrative framework for understanding the architecture of executive, social and emotional processes and make specific recommendations for the interpretation and application of the MSCEIT to the study of emotional intelligence in health and disease.

  6. Distributed neural system for emotional intelligence revealed by lesion mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience has made considerable progress in understanding the neural architecture of human intelligence, identifying a broadly distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that support goal-directed, intelligent behavior. However, the contributions of this network to social and emotional aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here we investigated the neural basis of emotional intelligence in 152 patients with focal brain injuries using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Latent variable modeling was applied to obtain measures of emotional intelligence, general intelligence and personality from the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Inventory, respectively. Regression analyses revealed that latent scores for measures of general intelligence and personality reliably predicted latent scores for emotional intelligence. Lesion mapping results further indicated that these convergent processes depend on a shared network of frontal, temporal and parietal brain regions. The results support an integrative framework for understanding the architecture of executive, social and emotional processes and make specific recommendations for the interpretation and application of the MSCEIT to the study of emotional intelligence in health and disease. PMID:23171618

  7. WeAidU-a decision support system for myocardial perfusion images using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Mattias

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-based decision support system for automated interpretation of diagnostic heart images (called WeAidU), which is made available via the Internet. The system is based on image processing techniques, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and large well-validated medical databases. We present results using artificial neural networks, and compare with two other classification methods, on a retrospective data set containing 1320 images from the clinical routine. The performance of the artificial neural networks detecting infarction and ischemia in different parts of the heart, measured as areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves, is in the range 0.83-0.96. These results indicate a high potential for the tool as a clinical decision support