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Sample records for neural recording system

  1. Low-cost wireless neural recording system and software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Jeffrey A; Borna, Amir; Roy, Sabyasachi; Wang, Xiaoqin; Lewandowski, Brian; Schmidt, Marc; Najafi, Khalil

    2009-01-01

    We describe a flexible wireless neural recording system, which is comprised of a 15-channel analog FM transmitter, digital receiver and custom user interface software for data acquisition. The analog front-end is constructed from commercial off the shelf (COTS) components and weighs 6.3g (including batteries) and is capable of transmitting over 24 hours up to a range over 3m with a 25microV(rms) in-vivo noise floor. The Software Defined Radio (SDR) and the acquisition software provide a data acquisition platform with real time data display and can be customized based on the specifications of various experiments. The described system was characterized with in-vitro and in-vivo experiments and the results are presented.

  2. Using pulse width modulation for wireless transmission of neural signals in multichannel neural recording systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2009-08-01

    We have used a well-known technique in wireless communication, pulse width modulation (PWM) of time division multiplexed (TDM) signals, within the architecture of a novel wireless integrated neural recording (WINeR) system. We have evaluated the performance of the PWM-based architecture and indicated its accuracy and potential sources of error through detailed theoretical analysis, simulations, and measurements on a setup consisting of a 15-channel WINeR prototype as the transmitter and two types of receivers; an Agilent 89600 vector signal analyzer and a custom wideband receiver, with 36 and 75 MHz of maximum bandwidth, respectively. Furthermore, we present simulation results from a realistic MATLAB-Simulink model of the entire WINeR system to observe the system behavior in response to changes in various parameters. We have concluded that the 15-ch WINeR prototype, which is fabricated in a 0.5- mum standard CMOS process and consumes 4.5 mW from +/-1.5 V supplies, can acquire and wirelessly transmit up to 320 k-samples/s to a 75-MHz receiver with 8.4 bits of resolution, which is equivalent to a wireless data rate of approximately 2.56 Mb/s.

  3. Neural recording and modulation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ritchie; Canales, Andres; Anikeeva, Polina

    2017-01-01

    In the mammalian nervous system, billions of neurons connected by quadrillions of synapses exchange electrical, chemical and mechanical signals. Disruptions to this network manifest as neurological or psychiatric conditions. Despite decades of neuroscience research, our ability to treat or even to understand these conditions is limited by the capability of tools to probe the signalling complexity of the nervous system. Although orders of magnitude smaller and computationally faster than neurons, conventional substrate-bound electronics do not recapitulate the chemical and mechanical properties of neural tissue. This mismatch results in a foreign-body response and the encapsulation of devices by glial scars, suggesting that the design of an interface between the nervous system and a synthetic sensor requires additional materials innovation. Advances in genetic tools for manipulating neural activity have fuelled the demand for devices that are capable of simultaneously recording and controlling individual neurons at unprecedented scales. Recently, flexible organic electronics and bio- and nanomaterials have been developed for multifunctional and minimally invasive probes for long-term interaction with the nervous system. In this Review, we discuss the design lessons from the quarter-century-old field of neural engineering, highlight recent materials-driven progress in neural probes and look at emergent directions inspired by the principles of neural transduction.

  4. Toward a distributed free-floating wireless implantable neural recording system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyungwoo Yeon; Xingyuan Tong; Byunghun Lee; Mirbozorgi, Abdollah; Ash, Bruce; Eckhardt, Helmut; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-08-01

    To understand the complex correlations between neural networks across different regions in the brain and their functions at high spatiotemporal resolution, a tool is needed for obtaining long-term single unit activity (SUA) across the entire brain area. The concept and preliminary design of a distributed free-floating wireless implantable neural recording (FF-WINeR) system are presented, which can enabling SUA acquisition by dispersedly implanting tens to hundreds of untethered 1 mm3 neural recording probes, floating with the brain and operating wirelessly across the cortical surface. For powering FF-WINeR probes, a 3-coil link with an intermediate high-Q resonator provides a minimum S21 of -22.22 dB (in the body medium) and -21.23 dB (in air) at 2.8 cm coil separation, which translates to 0.76%/759 μW and 0.6%/604 μW of power transfer efficiency (PTE) / power delivered to a 9 kΩ load (PDL), in body and air, respectively. A mock-up FF-WINeR is implemented to explore microassembly method of the 1×1 mm2 micromachined silicon die with a bonding wire-wound coil and a tungsten micro-wire electrode. Circuit design methods to fit the active circuitry in only 0.96 mm2 of die area in a 130 nm standard CMOS process, and satisfy the strict power and performance requirements (in simulations) are discussed.

  5. Minimally-Invasive Neural Interface for Distributed Wireless Electrocorticogram Recording Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Il Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a minimally-invasive neural interface for distributed wireless electrocorticogram (ECoG recording systems. The proposed interface equips all necessary components for ECoG recording, such as the high performance front-end integrated circuits, a fabricated flexible microelectrode array, and wireless communication inside a miniaturized custom-made platform. The multiple units of the interface systems can be deployed to cover a broad range of the target brain region and transmit signals via a built-in intra-skin communication (ISCOM module. The core integrated circuit (IC consists of 16-channel, low-power push-pull double-gated preamplifiers, in-channel successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (SAR ADC with a single-clocked bootstrapping switch and a time-delayed control unit, an ISCOM module for wireless data transfer through the skin instead of a power-hungry RF wireless transmitter, and a monolithic voltage/current reference generator to support the aforementioned analog and mixed-signal circuit blocks. The IC was fabricated using 250 nm CMOS processes in an area of 3.2 × 0.9 mm2 and achieved the low-power operation of 2.5 µW per channel. Input-referred noise was measured as 5.62 µVrms for 10 Hz to 10 kHz and ENOB of 7.21 at 31.25 kS/s. The implemented system successfully recorded multi-channel neural activities in vivo from a primate and demonstrated modular expandability using the ISCOM with power consumption of 160 µW.

  6. Minimally-Invasive Neural Interface for Distributed Wireless Electrocorticogram Recording Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sun-Il; Park, Sung-Yun; Yoon, Euisik

    2018-01-17

    This paper presents a minimally-invasive neural interface for distributed wireless electrocorticogram (ECoG) recording systems. The proposed interface equips all necessary components for ECoG recording, such as the high performance front-end integrated circuits, a fabricated flexible microelectrode array, and wireless communication inside a miniaturized custom-made platform. The multiple units of the interface systems can be deployed to cover a broad range of the target brain region and transmit signals via a built-in intra-skin communication (ISCOM) module. The core integrated circuit (IC) consists of 16-channel, low-power push-pull double-gated preamplifiers, in-channel successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (SAR ADC) with a single-clocked bootstrapping switch and a time-delayed control unit, an ISCOM module for wireless data transfer through the skin instead of a power-hungry RF wireless transmitter, and a monolithic voltage/current reference generator to support the aforementioned analog and mixed-signal circuit blocks. The IC was fabricated using 250 nm CMOS processes in an area of 3.2 × 0.9 mm² and achieved the low-power operation of 2.5 µW per channel. Input-referred noise was measured as 5.62 µVrms for 10 Hz to 10 kHz and ENOB of 7.21 at 31.25 kS/s. The implemented system successfully recorded multi-channel neural activities in vivo from a primate and demonstrated modular expandability using the ISCOM with power consumption of 160 µW.

  7. Comparison of MLP neural network and neuro-fuzzy system in transcranial Doppler signals recorded from the cerebral vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardalaç, Firat

    2008-04-01

    Transcranial Doppler signals recorded from cerebral vessels of 110 patients were transferred to a personal computer by using a 16 bit sound card. Spectral analyses of Transcranial Doppler signals were performed for determining the Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network and neuro Ankara-fuzzy system inputs. In order to do a good interpretation and rapid diagnosis, FFT parameters of Transcranial Doppler signals classified using MLP neural network and neuro-fuzzy system. Our findings demonstrated that 92% correct classification rate was obtained from MLP neural network, and 86% correct classification rate was obtained from neuro-fuzzy system.

  8. Closed-loop optical neural stimulation based on a 32-channel low-noise recording system with online spike sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. K. T.; Navratilova, Z.; Cabral, H.; Wang, L.; Gielen, G.; Battaglia, F. P.; Bartic, C.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Closed-loop operation of neuro-electronic systems is desirable for both scientific and clinical (neuroprosthesis) applications. Integrating optical stimulation with recording capability further enhances the selectivity of neural stimulation. We have developed a system enabling the local delivery of optical stimuli and the simultaneous electrical measuring of the neural activities in a closed-loop approach. Approach. The signal analysis is performed online through the implementation of a template matching algorithm. The system performance is demonstrated with the recorded data and in awake rats. Main results. Specifically, the neural activities are simultaneously recorded, detected, classified online (through spike sorting) from 32 channels, and used to trigger a light emitting diode light source using generated TTL signals. Significance. A total processing time of 8 ms is achieved, suitable for optogenetic studies of brain mechanisms online.

  9. Recent developments in wireless recording from the nervous system with ultrasonic neural dust (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharbiz, Michel M.

    2017-05-01

    The emerging field of bioelectronic medicine seeks methods for deciphering and modulating electrophysiological activity in the body to attain therapeutic effects at target organs. Current approaches to interfacing with peripheral nerves and muscles rely heavily on wires, creating problems for chronic use, while emerging wireless approaches lack the size scalability necessary to interrogate small-diameter nerves. Furthermore, conventional electrode-based technologies lack the capability to record from nerves with high spatial resolution or to record independently from many discrete sites within a nerve bundle. We recently demonstrated (Seo et al., arXiV, 2013; Seo et al., Neuron, 2016) "neural dust," a wireless and scalable ultrasonic backscatter system for powering and communicating with implanted bioelectronics. There, we showed that ultrasound is effective at delivering power to mm-scale devices in tissue; likewise, passive, battery-less communication using backscatter enabled high-fidelity transmission of electromyogram (EMG) and electroneurogram (ENG) signals from anesthetized rats. In this talk, I will review recent developments from my group and collaborators in this area.

  10. Controlling selective stimulations below a spinal cord hemisection using brain recordings with a neural interface system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetsos, Fivos; Sanchez-Jimenez, Abel; Torets, Carlos; Largo, Carla; Micera, Silvestro

    2011-08-01

    In this work we address the use of realtime cortical recordings for the generation of coherent, reliable and robust motor activity in spinal-lesioned animals through selective intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS). The spinal cord of adult rats was hemisectioned and groups of multielectrodes were implanted in both the central nervous system (CNS) and the spinal cord below the lesion level to establish a neural system interface (NSI). To test the reliability of this new NSI connection, highly repeatable neural responses recorded from the CNS were used as a pattern generator of an open-loop control strategy for selective ISMS of the spinal motoneurons. Our experimental procedure avoided the spontaneous non-controlled and non-repeatable neural activity that could have generated spurious ISMS and the consequent undesired muscle contractions. Combinations of complex CNS patterns generated precisely coordinated, reliable and robust motor actions.

  11. A Fully Integrated Wireless Compressed Sensing Neural Signal Acquisition System for Chronic Recording and Brain Machine Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xilin; Zhang, Milin; Xiong, Tao; Richardson, Andrew G; Lucas, Timothy H; Chin, Peter S; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Tran, Trac D; Van der Spiegel, Jan

    2016-07-18

    Reliable, multi-channel neural recording is critical to the neuroscience research and clinical treatment. However, most hardware development of fully integrated, multi-channel wireless neural recorders to-date, is still in the proof-of-concept stage. To be ready for practical use, the trade-offs between performance, power consumption, device size, robustness, and compatibility need to be carefully taken into account. This paper presents an optimized wireless compressed sensing neural signal recording system. The system takes advantages of both custom integrated circuits and universal compatible wireless solutions. The proposed system includes an implantable wireless system-on-chip (SoC) and an external wireless relay. The SoC integrates 16-channel low-noise neural amplifiers, programmable filters and gain stages, a SAR ADC, a real-time compressed sensing module, and a near field wireless power and data transmission link. The external relay integrates a 32 bit low-power microcontroller with Bluetooth 4.0 wireless module, a programming interface, and an inductive charging unit. The SoC achieves high signal recording quality with minimized power consumption, while reducing the risk of infection from through-skin connectors. The external relay maximizes the compatibility and programmability. The proposed compressed sensing module is highly configurable, featuring a SNDR of 9.78 dB with a compression ratio of 8×. The SoC has been fabricated in a 180 nm standard CMOS technology, occupying 2.1 mm × 0.6 mm silicon area. A pre-implantable system has been assembled to demonstrate the proposed paradigm. The developed system has been successfully used for long-term wireless neural recording in freely behaving rhesus monkey.

  12. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  13. A wireless recording system that utilizes Bluetooth technology to transmit neural activity in freely moving animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Robert E; Collins, Vernell; Deadwyler, Sam A

    2009-09-15

    A new wireless transceiver is described for recording individual neuron firing from behaving rats utilizing Bluetooth transmission technology and a processor onboard for discrimination of neuronal waveforms and associated time stamps. This universal brain activity transmitter (UBAT) is attached to rodents via a backpack and amplifier headstage and can transmit 16 channels of captured neuronal firing data via a Bluetooth transceiver chip over very large and unconstrained distances. The onboard microprocessor of the UBAT allows flexible online control over waveform isolation criteria via transceiver instruction and the two-way communication capacity allows for closed-loop applications between neural events and behavioral or physiological processes which can be modified by transceiver instructions. A detailed description of the multiplexer processing of channel data as well as examples of neuronal recordings in different behavioral testing contexts is provided to demonstrate the capacity for robust transmission within almost any laboratory environment. A major advantage of the UBAT is the long transmission range and lack of object-based line of sight interference afforded by Bluetooth technology, allowing flexible recording capabilities within multiple experimental paradigms without interruption. Continuous recordings over very large distance separations from the monitor station are demonstrated providing experimenters with recording advantages not previously available with other telemetry devices.

  14. A CMOS IC–based multisite measuring system for stimulation and recording in neural preparations in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eTateno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe the system integration of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS integrated circuit (IC chip, capable of both stimulation and recording of neurons or neural tissues, to investigate electrical signal propagation within cellular networks in vitro. The overall system consisted of three major subunits: a 5.0 mm × 5.0 mm CMOS IC chip, a reconfigurable logic device (field-programmable gate array, FPGA, and a PC. To test the system, microelectrode arrays (MEAs were used to extracellularly measure the activity of cultured rat cortical neurons and mouse cortical slices. The MEA had 64 bidirectional (stimulation and recording electrodes. In addition, the CMOS IC chip was equipped with dedicated analog filters, amplification stages, and a stimulation buffer. Signals from the electrodes were sampled at 15.6 kHz with 16-bit resolution. The measured input-referred circuitry noise was 10.1 μV root mean square (10 Hz to 100 kHz, which allowed reliable detection of neural signals ranging from several millivolts down to approximately 33 μVpp. Experiments were performed involving the stimulation of neurons with several spatiotemporal patterns and the recording of the triggered activity. An advantage over current MEAs, as demonstrated by our experiments, includes the ability to stimulate (voltage stimulation, 5-bit resolution spatiotemporal patterns in arbitrary subsets of electrodes. Furthermore, the fast stimulation reset mechanism allowed us to record neuronal signals from a stimulating electrode around 3 ms after stimulation. We demonstrate that the system can be directly applied to, for example, auditory neural prostheses in conjunction with an acoustic sensor and a sound processing system.

  15. Biological channel modeling and implantable UWB antenna design for neural recording systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Hadi; Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Rusch, Leslie A; Gosselin, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Ultrawideband (UWB) short-range communication systems have proved to be valuable in medical technology, particularly for implanted devices, due to their low-power consumption, low cost, small size, and high data rates. Neural activity monitoring in the brain requires high data rate (800 kb/s per neural sensor), and we target a system supporting a large number of sensors, in particular, aggregate transmission above 430 Mb/s (∼512 sensors). Knowledge of channel behavior is required to determine the maximum allowable power to 1) respect ANSI guidelines for avoiding tissue damage, and 2) respect FCC guidelines on unlicensed transmissions. We utilize a realistic model of the biological channel to inform the design of antennas for the implanted transmitter and the external receiver under these requirements. Antennas placement is examined under two scenarios having contrasting power constraints. Performance of the system within the biological tissues is examined via simulation and experiment. Our miniaturized antennas, 12 mm ×12 mm, need worst-case receiver sensitivities of -38 and -30.5 dBm for the first and second scenarios, respectively. These sensitivities allow us to successfully detect signals transmitted through tissues in the 3.1-10.6-GHz UWB band.

  16. Recent advances in neural recording microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    The accelerating pace of research in neuroscience has created a considerable demand for neural interfacing microsystems capable of monitoring the activity of large groups of neurons. These emerging tools have revealed a tremendous potential for the advancement of knowledge in brain research and for the development of useful clinical applications. They can extract the relevant control signals directly from the brain enabling individuals with severe disabilities to communicate their intentions to other devices, like computers or various prostheses. Such microsystems are self-contained devices composed of a neural probe attached with an integrated circuit for extracting neural signals from multiple channels, and transferring the data outside the body. The greatest challenge facing development of such emerging devices into viable clinical systems involves addressing their small form factor and low-power consumption constraints, while providing superior resolution. In this paper, we survey the recent progress in the design and the implementation of multi-channel neural recording Microsystems, with particular emphasis on the design of recording and telemetry electronics. An overview of the numerous neural signal modalities is given and the existing microsystem topologies are covered. We present energy-efficient sensory circuits to retrieve weak signals from neural probes and we compare them. We cover data management and smart power scheduling approaches, and we review advances in low-power telemetry. Finally, we conclude by summarizing the remaining challenges and by highlighting the emerging trends in the field.

  17. Recent Advances in Neural Recording Microsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Gosselin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The accelerating pace of research in neuroscience has created a considerable demand for neural interfacing microsystems capable of monitoring the activity of large groups of neurons. These emerging tools have revealed a tremendous potential for the advancement of knowledge in brain research and for the development of useful clinical applications. They can extract the relevant control signals directly from the brain enabling individuals with severe disabilities to communicate their intentions to other devices, like computers or various prostheses. Such microsystems are self-contained devices composed of a neural probe attached with an integrated circuit for extracting neural signals from multiple channels, and transferring the data outside the body. The greatest challenge facing development of such emerging devices into viable clinical systems involves addressing their small form factor and low-power consumption constraints, while providing superior resolution. In this paper, we survey the recent progress in the design and the implementation of multi-channel neural recording Microsystems, with particular emphasis on the design of recording and telemetry electronics. An overview of the numerous neural signal modalities is given and the existing microsystem topologies are covered. We present energy-efficient sensory circuits to retrieve weak signals from neural probes and we compare them. We cover data management and smart power scheduling approaches, and we review advances in low-power telemetry. Finally, we conclude by summarizing the remaining challenges and by highlighting the emerging trends in the field.

  18. An optical microsystem for wireless neural recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, P; Ziaie, B

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an optical microsystem for wireless neural recording. The system incorporated recording electrodes, integrated electronics, surface-mount LEDs, and a CCD camera. The components were mounted on a PCB platform having a total dimension of 2.2 x 2.2 cm(2), 4 integrated biopotential amplifiers (IBA) and 16 LEDs. The IBAs having a bandwidth of 0.1-93.5Hz with the midband gain of 38 dB were fabricated using AMI 1.6microm technology. The simulated local field potentials (LFP) were amplified and used to drive the LEDs. A CCD camera with a temporal resolution of 30FPS was used to capture the image and retrieve the signal.

  19. Neural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...

  20. Evolvable Neural Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The Evolvable Neural Software System (ENSS) is composed of sets of Neural Basis Functions (NBFs), which can be totally autonomously created and removed according to the changing needs and requirements of the software system. The resulting structure is both hierarchical and self-similar in that a given set of NBFs may have a ruler NBF, which in turn communicates with other sets of NBFs. These sets of NBFs may function as nodes to a ruler node, which are also NBF constructs. In this manner, the synthetic neural system can exhibit the complexity, three-dimensional connectivity, and adaptability of biological neural systems. An added advantage of ENSS over a natural neural system is its ability to modify its core genetic code in response to environmental changes as reflected in needs and requirements. The neural system is fully adaptive and evolvable and is trainable before release. It continues to rewire itself while on the job. The NBF is a unique, bilevel intelligence neural system composed of a higher-level heuristic neural system (HNS) and a lower-level, autonomic neural system (ANS). Taken together, the HNS and the ANS give each NBF the complete capabilities of a biological neural system to match sensory inputs to actions. Another feature of the NBF is the Evolvable Neural Interface (ENI), which links the HNS and ANS. The ENI solves the interface problem between these two systems by actively adapting and evolving from a primitive initial state (a Neural Thread) to a complicated, operational ENI and successfully adapting to a training sequence of sensory input. This simulates the adaptation of a biological neural system in a developmental phase. Within the greater multi-NBF and multi-node ENSS, self-similar ENI s provide the basis for inter-NBF and inter-node connectivity.

  1. The visual development of hand-centered receptive fields in a neural network model of the primate visual system trained with experimentally recorded human gaze changes

    OpenAIRE

    Galeazzi, Juan M.; Navajas, Joaquin; Mender, Bedeho M. W.; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo; Minini, Loredana; Stringer, Simon M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neurons have been found in the primate brain that respond to objects in specific locations in hand-centered coordinates. A key theoretical challenge is to explain how such hand-centered neuronal responses may develop through visual experience. In this paper we show how hand-centered visual receptive fields can develop using an artificial neural network model, VisNet, of the primate visual system when driven by gaze changes recorded from human test subjects as they completed a jigsaw....

  2. A multi-channel low-power system-on-chip for single-unit recording and narrowband wireless transmission of neural signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, A; Ceravolo, M; Zambra, G; Gusmeroli, R; Spinelli, A S; Lacaita, A L; Angotzi, G N; Baranauskas, G; Fadiga, L

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a multi-channel neural recording system-on-chip (SoC) with digital data compression and wireless telemetry. The circuit consists of a 16 amplifiers, an analog time division multiplexer, an 8-bit SAR AD converter, a digital signal processor (DSP) and a wireless narrowband 400-MHz binary FSK transmitter. Even though only 16 amplifiers are present in our current die version, the whole system is designed to work with 64 channels demonstrating the feasibility of a digital processing and narrowband wireless transmission of 64 neural recording channels. A digital data compression, based on the detection of action potentials and storage of correspondent waveforms, allows the use of a 1.25-Mbit/s binary FSK wireless transmission. This moderate bit-rate and a low frequency deviation, Manchester-coded modulation are crucial for exploiting a narrowband wireless link and an efficient embeddable antenna. The chip is realized in a 0.35- εm CMOS process with a power consumption of 105 εW per channel (269 εW per channel with an extended transmission range of 4 m) and an area of 3.1 × 2.7 mm(2). The transmitted signal is captured by a digital TV tuner and demodulated by a wideband phase-locked loop (PLL), and then sent to a PC via an FPGA module. The system has been tested for electrical specifications and its functionality verified in in-vivo neural recording experiments.

  3. A Multi-Channel Low-Power System-on-Chip for in Vivo Recording and Wireless Transmission of Neural Spikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sottocornola Spinelli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a multi-channel neural spike recording system-on-chip with digital data compression and wireless telemetry. The circuit consists of 16 amplifiers, an analog time-division multiplexer, a single 8 bit analog-to-digital converter, a digital signal compression unit and a wireless transmitter. Although only 16 amplifiers are integrated in our current die version, the whole system is designed to work with 64, demonstrating the feasibility of a digital processing and narrowband wireless transmission of 64 neural recording channels. Compression of the raw data is achieved by detecting the action potentials (APs and storing 20 samples for each spike waveform. This compression method retains sufficiently high data quality to allow for single neuron identification (spike sorting. The 400 MHz transmitter employs a Manchester-Coded Frequency Shift Keying (MC-FSK modulator with low modulation index. In this way, a 1:25 Mbit/s data rate is delivered within a limited band of about 3 MHz. The chip is realized in a 0:35 m AMS CMOS process featuring a 3 V power supply with an area of 3:1 2:7 mm2. The achieved transmission range is over 10 m with an overall power consumption for 64 channels of 17:2 mW. This figure translates into a power budget of 269 W per channel, in line with published results but allowing a larger transmission distance and more efficient bandwidth occupation of the wireless link. The integrated circuit was mounted on a small and light board to be used during neuroscience experiments with freely-behaving rats. Powered by 2 AAA batteries, the system can continuously work for more than 100 hours allowing for long-lasting neural spike recordings.

  4. Stimulation and recording electrodes for neural prostheses

    CERN Document Server

    Pour Aryan, Naser; Rothermel, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers with basic principles of the electrochemistry of the electrodes used in modern, implantable neural prostheses. The authors discuss the boundaries and conditions in which the electrodes continue to function properly for long time spans, which are required when designing neural stimulator devices for long-term in vivo applications. Two kinds of electrode materials, titanium nitride and iridium are discussed extensively, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The influence of the counter electrode on the safety margins and electrode lifetime in a two electrode system is explained. Electrode modeling is handled in a final chapter.

  5. Wireless gigabit data telemetry for large-scale neural recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Yen-Cheng; Lo, Yi-Kai; Kim, Yanghyo; Chang, Mau-Chung Frank; Liu, Wentai

    2015-05-01

    Implantable wireless neural recording from a large ensemble of simultaneously acting neurons is a critical component to thoroughly investigate neural interactions and brain dynamics from freely moving animals. Recent researches have shown the feasibility of simultaneously recording from hundreds of neurons and suggested that the ability of recording a larger number of neurons results in better signal quality. This massive recording inevitably demands a large amount of data transfer. For example, recording 2000 neurons while keeping the signal fidelity ( > 12 bit, > 40 KS/s per neuron) needs approximately a 1-Gb/s data link. Designing a wireless data telemetry system to support such (or higher) data rate while aiming to lower the power consumption of an implantable device imposes a grand challenge on neuroscience community. In this paper, we present a wireless gigabit data telemetry for future large-scale neural recording interface. This telemetry comprises of a pair of low-power gigabit transmitter and receiver operating at 60 GHz, and establishes a short-distance wireless link to transfer the massive amount of neural signals outward from the implanted device. The transmission distance of the received neural signal can be further extended by an externally rendezvous wireless transceiver, which is less power/heat-constraint since it is not at the immediate proximity of the cortex and its radiated signal is not seriously attenuated by the lossy tissue. The gigabit data link has been demonstrated to achieve a high data rate of 6 Gb/s with a bit-error-rate of 10(-12) at a transmission distance of 6 mm, an applicable separation between transmitter and receiver. This high data rate is able to support thousands of recording channels while ensuring a low energy cost per bit of 2.08 pJ/b.

  6. The visual development of hand-centered receptive fields in a neural network model of the primate visual system trained with experimentally recorded human gaze changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Juan M; Navajas, Joaquín; Mender, Bedeho M W; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo; Minini, Loredana; Stringer, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Neurons have been found in the primate brain that respond to objects in specific locations in hand-centered coordinates. A key theoretical challenge is to explain how such hand-centered neuronal responses may develop through visual experience. In this paper we show how hand-centered visual receptive fields can develop using an artificial neural network model, VisNet, of the primate visual system when driven by gaze changes recorded from human test subjects as they completed a jigsaw. A camera mounted on the head captured images of the hand and jigsaw, while eye movements were recorded using an eye-tracking device. This combination of data allowed us to reconstruct the retinal images seen as humans undertook the jigsaw task. These retinal images were then fed into the neural network model during self-organization of its synaptic connectivity using a biologically plausible trace learning rule. A trace learning mechanism encourages neurons in the model to learn to respond to input images that tend to occur in close temporal proximity. In the data recorded from human subjects, we found that the participant's gaze often shifted through a sequence of locations around a fixed spatial configuration of the hand and one of the jigsaw pieces. In this case, trace learning should bind these retinal images together onto the same subset of output neurons. The simulation results consequently confirmed that some cells learned to respond selectively to the hand and a jigsaw piece in a fixed spatial configuration across different retinal views.

  7. Physical principles for scalable neural recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marblestone, Adam H; Zamft, Bradley M; Maguire, Yael G; Shapiro, Mikhail G; Cybulski, Thaddeus R; Glaser, Joshua I; Amodei, Dario; Stranges, P Benjamin; Kalhor, Reza; Dalrymple, David A; Seo, Dongjin; Alon, Elad; Maharbiz, Michel M; Carmena, Jose M; Rabaey, Jan M; Boyden, Edward S; Church, George M; Kording, Konrad P

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneously measuring the activities of all neurons in a mammalian brain at millisecond resolution is a challenge beyond the limits of existing techniques in neuroscience. Entirely new approaches may be required, motivating an analysis of the fundamental physical constraints on the problem. We outline the physical principles governing brain activity mapping using optical, electrical, magnetic resonance, and molecular modalities of neural recording. Focusing on the mouse brain, we analyze the scalability of each method, concentrating on the limitations imposed by spatiotemporal resolution, energy dissipation, and volume displacement. Based on this analysis, all existing approaches require orders of magnitude improvement in key parameters. Electrical recording is limited by the low multiplexing capacity of electrodes and their lack of intrinsic spatial resolution, optical methods are constrained by the scattering of visible light in brain tissue, magnetic resonance is hindered by the diffusion and relaxation timescales of water protons, and the implementation of molecular recording is complicated by the stochastic kinetics of enzymes. Understanding the physical limits of brain activity mapping may provide insight into opportunities for novel solutions. For example, unconventional methods for delivering electrodes may enable unprecedented numbers of recording sites, embedded optical devices could allow optical detectors to be placed within a few scattering lengths of the measured neurons, and new classes of molecularly engineered sensors might obviate cumbersome hardware architectures. We also study the physics of powering and communicating with microscale devices embedded in brain tissue and find that, while radio-frequency electromagnetic data transmission suffers from a severe power-bandwidth tradeoff, communication via infrared light or ultrasound may allow high data rates due to the possibility of spatial multiplexing. The use of embedded local recording and

  8. Towards a magnetoresistive platform for neural signal recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P. P.; Gervasoni, G.; Albisetti, E.; D'Ercoli, F.; Monticelli, M.; Moretti, D.; Forte, N.; Rocchi, A.; Ferrari, G.; Baldelli, P.; Sampietro, M.; Benfenati, F.; Bertacco, R.; Petti, D.

    2017-05-01

    A promising strategy to get deeper insight on brain functionalities relies on the investigation of neural activities at the cellular and sub-cellular level. In this framework, methods for recording neuron electrical activity have gained interest over the years. Main technological challenges are associated to finding highly sensitive detection schemes, providing considerable spatial and temporal resolution. Moreover, the possibility to perform non-invasive assays would constitute a noteworthy benefit. In this work, we present a magnetoresistive platform for the detection of the action potential propagation in neural cells. Such platform allows, in perspective, the in vitro recording of neural signals arising from single neurons, neural networks and brain slices.

  9. Circuitry for a Wireless Microsystem for Neural Recording Microprobes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Hao

    2001-01-01

    .... Recorded neural signals are amplified, multiplexed, digitized using a 2nd order sigma-delta modulator, and then transmitted to the outside world by an on-chip transmitter, The circuit is designed using a standard...

  10. Functional recordings from awake, behaving rodents through a microchannel based regenerative neural interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Russell K.; Choi, Yoonsu; Bellamkonda, Ravi; English, Arthur

    2015-02-01

    Objective. Neural interface technologies could provide controlling connections between the nervous system and external technologies, such as limb prosthetics. The recording of efferent, motor potentials is a critical requirement for a peripheral neural interface, as these signals represent the user-generated neural output intended to drive external devices. Our objective was to evaluate structural and functional neural regeneration through a microchannel neural interface and to characterize potentials recorded from electrodes placed within the microchannels in awake and behaving animals. Approach. Female rats were implanted with muscle EMG electrodes and, following unilateral sciatic nerve transection, the cut nerve was repaired either across a microchannel neural interface or with end-to-end surgical repair. During a 13 week recovery period, direct muscle responses to nerve stimulation proximal to the transection were monitored weekly. In two rats repaired with the neural interface, four wire electrodes were embedded in the microchannels and recordings were obtained within microchannels during proximal stimulation experiments and treadmill locomotion. Main results. In these proof-of-principle experiments, we found that axons from cut nerves were capable of functional reinnervation of distal muscle targets, whether regenerating through a microchannel device or after direct end-to-end repair. Discrete stimulation-evoked and volitional potentials were recorded within interface microchannels in a small group of awake and behaving animals and their firing patterns correlated directly with intramuscular recordings during locomotion. Of 38 potentials extracted, 19 were identified as motor axons reinnervating tibialis anterior or soleus muscles using spike triggered averaging. Significance. These results are evidence for motor axon regeneration through microchannels and are the first report of in vivo recordings from regenerated motor axons within microchannels in a small

  11. Neural systems for control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Omidvar, Omid; Elliott, David L

    1997-01-01

    ... is reprinted with permission from A. Barto, "Reinforcement Learning," Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks, M.A. Arbib, ed.. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 804-809, 1995. Chapter 4, Figures 4-5 and 7-9 and Tables 2-5, are reprinted with permission, from S. Cho, "Map Formation in Proprioceptive Cortex," International Jour...

  12. Feasibility Study of Extended-Gate-Type Silicon Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors for Neural Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hongki; Kim, Jee-Yeon; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Nam, Yoonkey

    2017-01-01

    In this research, a high performance silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (transconductance as high as 34 µS and sensitivity as 84 nS/mV) is extensively studied and directly compared with planar passive microelectrode arrays for neural recording application. Electrical and electrochemical characteristics are carefully characterized in a very well-controlled manner. We especially focused on the signal amplification capability and intrinsic noise of the transistors. A neural recording system using both silicon nanowire field-effect transistor-based active-type microelectrode array and platinum black microelectrode-based passive-type microelectrode array are implemented and compared. An artificial neural spike signal is supplied as input to both arrays through a buffer solution and recorded simultaneously. Recorded signal intensity by the silicon nanowire transistor was precisely determined by an electrical characteristic of the transistor, transconductance. Signal-to-noise ratio was found to be strongly dependent upon the intrinsic 1/f noise of the silicon nanowire transistor. We found how signal strength is determined and how intrinsic noise of the transistor determines signal-to-noise ratio of the recorded neural signals. This study provides in-depth understanding of the overall neural recording mechanism using silicon nanowire transistors and solid design guideline for further improvement and development. PMID:28350370

  13. Degenerate coding in neural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Anthony

    2005-11-01

    When the dimensionality of a neural circuit is substantially larger than the dimensionality of the variable it encodes, many different degenerate network states can produce the same output. In this review I will discuss three different neural systems that are linked by this theme. The pyloric network of the lobster, the song control system of the zebra finch, and the odor encoding system of the locust, while different in design, all contain degeneracies between their internal parameters and the outputs they encode. Indeed, although the dynamics of song generation and odor identification are quite different, computationally, odor recognition can be thought of as running the song generation circuitry backwards. In both of these systems, degeneracy plays a vital role in mapping a sparse neural representation devoid of correlations onto external stimuli (odors or song structure) that are strongly correlated. I argue that degeneracy between input and output states is an inherent feature of many neural systems, which can be exploited as a fault-tolerant method of reliably learning, generating, and discriminating closely related patterns.

  14. A hybrid hardware and software approach for cancelling stimulus artifacts during same-electrode neural stimulation and recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culaclii, Stanislav; Kim, Brian; Yi-Kai Lo; Wentai Liu

    2016-08-01

    Recovering neural responses from electrode recordings is fundamental for understanding the dynamics of neural networks. This effort is often obscured by stimulus artifacts in the recordings, which result from stimuli injected into the electrode-tissue interface. Stimulus artifacts, which can be orders of magnitude larger than the neural responses of interest, can mask short-latency evoked responses. Furthermore, simultaneous neural stimulation and recording on the same electrode generates artifacts with larger amplitudes compared to a separate electrode setup, which inevitably overwhelm the amplifier operation and cause unrecoverable neural signal loss. This paper proposes an end-to-end system combining hardware and software techniques for actively cancelling stimulus artifacts, avoiding amplifier saturation, and recovering neural responses during current-controlled in-vivo neural stimulation and recording. The proposed system is tested in-vitro under various stimulation settings by stimulating and recording on the same electrode with a superimposed pre-recorded neural signal. Experimental results show that neural responses can be recovered with minimal distortion even during stimulus artifacts that are several orders greater in magnitude.

  15. [Automated anesthesia record systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, W; Mönk, S; Eberle, B

    1997-07-01

    The introduction of electronic anaesthesia documentation systems was attempted as early as in 1979, although their efficient application has become reality only in the past few years. The advantages of the electronic protocol are apparent: Continuous high quality documentation, comparability of data due to the availability of a data bank, reduction in the workload of the anaesthetist and availability of additional data. Disadvantages of the electronic protocol have also been discussed in the literature. By going through the process of entering data on the course of the anaesthetic procedure on the protocol sheet, the information is mentally absorbed and evaluated by the anaesthetist. This information may, however, be lost when the data are recorded fully automatically-without active involvement on the part of the anaesthetist. Recent publications state that by using intelligent alarms and/or integrated displays manual record keeping is no longer necessary for anaesthesia vigilance. The technical design of automated anaesthesia records depends on an integration of network technology into the hospital. It will be appropriate to connect the systems to the internet, but safety requirements have to be followed strictly. Concerning the database, client server architecture as well as language standards like SQL should be used. Object oriented databases will be available in the near future. Another future goal of automated anaesthesia record systems will be using knowledge based technologies within these systems. Drug interactions, disease related anaesthetic techniques and other information sources can be integrated. At this time, almost none of the commercially available systems has matured to a point where their purchase can be recommended without reservation. There is still a lack of standards for the subsequent exchange of data and a solution to a number of ergonomic problems still remains to be found. Nevertheless, electronic anaesthesia protocols will be required in

  16. Memory Storage and Neural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Daniel L.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates memory storage and molecular nature of associative-memory formation by analyzing Pavlovian conditioning in marine snails and rabbits. Presented is the design of a computer-based memory system (neural networks) using the rules acquired in the investigation. Reports that the artificial network recognized patterns well. (YP)

  17. Artificial earthquake record generation using cascade neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bani-Hani Khaldoon A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of using artificial neural networks (ANN in an inverse mapping problem for earthquake accelerograms generation. This study comprises of two parts: 1-D site response analysis; performed for Dubai Emirate at UAE, where eight earthquakes records are selected and spectral matching are performed to match Dubai response spectrum using SeismoMatch software. Site classification of Dubai soil is being considered for two classes C and D based on shear wave velocity of soil profiles. Amplifications factors are estimated to quantify Dubai soil effect. Dubai’s design response spectra are developed for site classes C & D according to International Buildings Code (IBC -2012. In the second part, ANN is employed to solve inverse mapping problem to generate time history earthquake record. Thirty earthquakes records and their design response spectrum with 5% damping are used to train two cascade forward backward neural networks (ANN1, ANN2. ANN1 is trained to map the design response spectrum to time history and ANN2 is trained to map time history records to the design response spectrum. Generalized time history earthquake records are generated using ANN1 for Dubai’s site classes C and D, and ANN2 is used to evaluate the performance of ANN1.

  18. EEG in the classroom: Synchronised neural recordings during video presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Andreas Trier; Kamronn, Simon; Dmochowski, Jacek; Parra, Lucas C.; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2017-03-01

    We performed simultaneous recordings of electroencephalography (EEG) from multiple students in a classroom, and measured the inter-subject correlation (ISC) of activity evoked by a common video stimulus. The neural reliability, as quantified by ISC, has been linked to engagement and attentional modulation in earlier studies that used high-grade equipment in laboratory settings. Here we reproduce many of the results from these studies using portable low-cost equipment, focusing on the robustness of using ISC for subjects experiencing naturalistic stimuli. The present data shows that stimulus-evoked neural responses, known to be modulated by attention, can be tracked for groups of students with synchronized EEG acquisition. This is a step towards real-time inference of engagement in the classroom.

  19. Circuit models and experimental noise measurements of micropipette amplifiers for extracellular neural recordings from live animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang Hao; Pun, Sio Hang; Mak, Peng Un; Vai, Mang I; Klug, Achim; Lei, Tim C

    2014-01-01

    Glass micropipettes are widely used to record neural activity from single neurons or clusters of neurons extracellularly in live animals. However, to date, there has been no comprehensive study of noise in extracellular recordings with glass micropipettes. The purpose of this work was to assess various noise sources that affect extracellular recordings and to create model systems in which novel micropipette neural amplifier designs can be tested. An equivalent circuit of the glass micropipette and the noise model of this circuit, which accurately describe the various noise sources involved in extracellular recordings, have been developed. Measurement schemes using dead brain tissue as well as extracellular recordings from neurons in the inferior colliculus, an auditory brain nucleus of an anesthetized gerbil, were used to characterize noise performance and amplification efficacy of the proposed micropipette neural amplifier. According to our model, the major noise sources which influence the signal to noise ratio are the intrinsic noise of the neural amplifier and the thermal noise from distributed pipette resistance. These two types of noise were calculated and measured and were shown to be the dominating sources of background noise for in vivo experiments.

  20. Circuit Models and Experimental Noise Measurements of Micropipette Amplifiers for Extracellular Neural Recordings from Live Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass micropipettes are widely used to record neural activity from single neurons or clusters of neurons extracellularly in live animals. However, to date, there has been no comprehensive study of noise in extracellular recordings with glass micropipettes. The purpose of this work was to assess various noise sources that affect extracellular recordings and to create model systems in which novel micropipette neural amplifier designs can be tested. An equivalent circuit of the glass micropipette and the noise model of this circuit, which accurately describe the various noise sources involved in extracellular recordings, have been developed. Measurement schemes using dead brain tissue as well as extracellular recordings from neurons in the inferior colliculus, an auditory brain nucleus of an anesthetized gerbil, were used to characterize noise performance and amplification efficacy of the proposed micropipette neural amplifier. According to our model, the major noise sources which influence the signal to noise ratio are the intrinsic noise of the neural amplifier and the thermal noise from distributed pipette resistance. These two types of noise were calculated and measured and were shown to be the dominating sources of background noise for in vivo experiments.

  1. Neural stimulation and recording with bidirectional, soft carbon nanotube fiber microelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Flavia; Summerson, Samantha R; Aazhang, Behnaam; Kemere, Caleb; Pasquali, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The development of microelectrodes capable of safely stimulating and recording neural activity is a critical step in the design of many prosthetic devices, brain-machine interfaces, and therapies for neurologic or nervous-system-mediated disorders. Metal electrodes are inadequate prospects for the miniaturization needed to attain neuronal-scale stimulation and recording because of their poor electrochemical properties, high stiffness, and propensity to fail due to bending fatigue. Here we demonstrate neural recording and stimulation using carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber electrodes. In vitro characterization shows that the tissue contact impedance of CNT fibers is remarkably lower than that of state-of-the-art metal electrodes, making them suitable for recording single-neuron activity without additional surface treatments. In vivo chronic studies in parkinsonian rodents show that CNT fiber microelectrodes stimulate neurons as effectively as metal electrodes with 10 times larger surface area, while eliciting a significantly reduced inflammatory response. The same CNT fiber microelectrodes can record neural activity for weeks, paving the way for the development of novel multifunctional and dynamic neural interfaces with long-term stability.

  2. Time Multiplexed Active Neural Probe with 1356 Parallel Recording Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan C. Raducanu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a high electrode density and high channel count CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor active neural probe containing 1344 neuron sized recording pixels (20 µm × 20 µm and 12 reference pixels (20 µm × 80 µm, densely packed on a 50 µm thick, 100 µm wide, and 8 mm long shank. The active electrodes or pixels consist of dedicated in-situ circuits for signal source amplification, which are directly located under each electrode. The probe supports the simultaneous recording of all 1356 electrodes with sufficient signal to noise ratio for typical neuroscience applications. For enhanced performance, further noise reduction can be achieved while using half of the electrodes (678. Both of these numbers considerably surpass the state-of-the art active neural probes in both electrode count and number of recording channels. The measured input referred noise in the action potential band is 12.4 µVrms, while using 678 electrodes, with just 3 µW power dissipation per pixel and 45 µW per read-out channel (including data transmission.

  3. Polymer neural interface with dual-sided electrodes for neural stimulation and recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooker, Angela; Tolosa, Vanessa; Shah, Kedar G; Sheth, Heeral; Felix, Sarah; Delima, Terri; Pannu, Satinderpall

    2012-01-01

    We present here a demonstration of a dual-sided, 4-layer metal, polyimide-based electrode array suitable for neural stimulation and recording. The fabrication process outlined here utilizes simple polymer and metal deposition and etching steps, with no potentially harmful backside etches or long exposures to extremely toxic chemicals. These polyimide-based electrode arrays have been tested to ensure they are fully biocompatible and suitable for long-term implantation; their flexibility minimizes the injury and glial scarring that can occur at the implantation site. The creation of dual-side electrode arrays with more than two layers of trace metal enables the fabrication of neural probes with more electrodes without a significant increase in probe size. This allows for more stimulation/recording sites without inducing additional injury and glial scarring.

  4. The LILARTI neural network system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.D. Jr.; Schell, F.M.; Dodd, C.V.

    1992-10-01

    The material of this Technical Memorandum is intended to provide the reader with conceptual and technical background information on the LILARTI neural network system of detail sufficient to confer an understanding of the LILARTI method as it is presently allied and to facilitate application of the method to problems beyond the scope of this document. Of particular importance in this regard are the descriptive sections and the Appendices which include operating instructions, partial listings of program output and data files, and network construction information.

  5. An implantable wireless neural interface for recording cortical circuit dynamics in moving primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borton, David A; Yin, Ming; Aceros, Juan; Nurmikko, Arto

    2013-04-01

    Neural interface technology suitable for clinical translation has the potential to significantly impact the lives of amputees, spinal cord injury victims and those living with severe neuromotor disease. Such systems must be chronically safe, durable and effective. We have designed and implemented a neural interface microsystem, housed in a compact, subcutaneous and hermetically sealed titanium enclosure. The implanted device interfaces the brain with a 510k-approved, 100-element silicon-based microelectrode array via a custom hermetic feedthrough design. Full spectrum neural signals were amplified (0.1 Hz to 7.8 kHz, 200× gain) and multiplexed by a custom application specific integrated circuit, digitized and then packaged for transmission. The neural data (24 Mbps) were transmitted by a wireless data link carried on a frequency-shift-key-modulated signal at 3.2 and 3.8 GHz to a receiver 1 m away by design as a point-to-point communication link for human clinical use. The system was powered by an embedded medical grade rechargeable Li-ion battery for 7 h continuous operation between recharge via an inductive transcutaneous wireless power link at 2 MHz. Device verification and early validation were performed in both swine and non-human primate freely-moving animal models and showed that the wireless implant was electrically stable, effective in capturing and delivering broadband neural data, and safe for over one year of testing. In addition, we have used the multichannel data from these mobile animal models to demonstrate the ability to decode neural population dynamics associated with motor activity. We have developed an implanted wireless broadband neural recording device evaluated in non-human primate and swine. The use of this new implantable neural interface technology can provide insight into how to advance human neuroprostheses beyond the present early clinical trials. Further, such tools enable mobile patient use, have the potential for wider diagnosis of

  6. Amorphous silicon carbide ultramicroelectrode arrays for neural stimulation and recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deku, Felix; Cohen, Yarden; Joshi-Imre, Alexandra; Kanneganti, Aswini; Gardner, Timothy; Cogan, Stuart

    2017-09-27

    Foreign body response to indwelling cortical microelectrodes limits the reliability of neural stimulation and recording, particularly for extended chronic applications in behaving animals. The extent to which this response compromises the chronic stability of neural devices depends on many factors including the materials used in the electrode construction, the size, and geometry of the indwelling structure. Here, we report on the development of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) based on amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC). This technology utilizes a-SiC for its chronic stability and employs semiconductor manufacturing processes to create MEAs with small shank dimensions. The a-SiC films were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and patterned by thin-film photolithographic techniques. To improve stimulation and recording capabilities with small contact areas, we investigated low impedance coatings on the electrode sites. The assembled devices were characterized in phosphate buffered saline for their electrochemical properties. MEAs utilizing a-SiC as both the primary structural element and encapsulation were fabricated successfully. These a-SiC MEAs had 16 penetrating shanks. Each shank has a cross-sectional area less than 60 µm2 and electrode sites with a geometric surface area varying from 20-200 μm2. Electrode coatings of TiN and SIROF reduced 1 kHz electrode impedance to less than 100 kΩ from ~2.8 MΩ for 100 µm2 Au electrode sites and increased the charge injection capacities to values greater than 3 mC/cm2. Finally, we demonstrated functionality by recording neural activity from basal ganglia nucleus of Zebra Finches and motor cortex of rat. The a-SiC MEAs provide a significant advancement in the development of microelectrodes that over the years has relied on silicon platforms for device manufacture. These flexible a-SiC MEAs have the potential for decreased tissue damage and reduced foreign body

  7. Two multichannel integrated circuits for neural recording and signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Iyad; Morizio, James C; Moxon, Karen A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L; Wolf, Patrick D

    2003-02-01

    We have developed, manufactured, and tested two analog CMOS integrated circuit "neurochips" for recording from arrays of densely packed neural electrodes. Device A is a 16-channel buffer consisting of parallel noninverting amplifiers with a gain of 2 V/V. Device B is a 16-channel two-stage analog signal processor with differential amplification and high-pass filtering. It features selectable gains of 250 and 500 V/V as well as reference channel selection. The resulting amplifiers on Device A had a mean gain of 1.99 V/V with an equivalent input noise of 10 microV(rms). Those on Device B had mean gains of 53.4 and 47.4 dB with a high-pass filter pole at 211 Hz and an equivalent input noise of 4.4 microV(rms). Both devices were tested in vivo with electrode arrays implanted in the somatosensory cortex.

  8. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilim, R.B.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.

    1998-04-28

    A method and system are disclosed for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process. 33 figs.

  9. A Low Noise Amplifier for Neural Spike Recording Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Ruiz-Amaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA for neural spike recording applications. The proposed topology, based on a capacitive feedback network using a two-stage OTA, efficiently solves the triple trade-off between power, area and noise. Additionally, this work introduces a novel transistor-level synthesis methodology for LNAs tailored for the minimization of their noise efficiency factor under area and noise constraints. The proposed LNA has been implemented in a 130 nm CMOS technology and occupies 0.053 mm-sq. Experimental results show that the LNA offers a noise efficiency factor of 2.16 and an input referred noise of 3.8 μVrms for 1.2 V power supply. It provides a gain of 46 dB over a nominal bandwidth of 192 Hz–7.4 kHz and consumes 1.92 μW. The performance of the proposed LNA has been validated through in vivo experiments with animal models.

  10. A Low Noise Amplifier for Neural Spike Recording Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Amaya, Jesus; Rodriguez-Perez, Alberto; Delgado-Restituto, Manuel

    2015-09-30

    This paper presents a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) for neural spike recording applications. The proposed topology, based on a capacitive feedback network using a two-stage OTA, efficiently solves the triple trade-off between power, area and noise. Additionally, this work introduces a novel transistor-level synthesis methodology for LNAs tailored for the minimization of their noise efficiency factor under area and noise constraints. The proposed LNA has been implemented in a 130 nm CMOS technology and occupies 0.053 mm-sq. Experimental results show that the LNA offers a noise efficiency factor of 2.16 and an input referred noise of 3.8 μVrms for 1.2 V power supply. It provides a gain of 46 dB over a nominal bandwidth of 192 Hz-7.4 kHz and consumes 1.92 μW. The performance of the proposed LNA has been validated through in vivo experiments with animal models.

  11. Neural systems for tactual memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonda, E; Petrides, M; Evans, A

    1996-04-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the neural systems involved in the memory processing of experiences through touch. 2. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured with positron emission tomography by means of the water bolus H2(15)O methodology in human subjects as they performed tasks involving different levels of tactual memory. In one of the experimental tasks, the subjects had to palpate nonsense shapes to match each one to a previously learned set, thus requiring constant reference to long-term memory. The other experimental task involved judgements of the recent recurrence of shapes during the scanning period. A set of three control tasks was used to control for the type of exploratory movements and sensory processing inherent in the two experimental tasks. 3. Comparisons of the distribution of activity between the experimental and the control tasks were carried out by means of the subtraction method. In relation to the control conditions, the two experimental tasks requiring memory resulted in significant changes within the posteroventral insula and the central opercular region. In addition, the task requiring recall from long-term memory yielded changes in the perirhinal cortex. 4. The above findings demonstrated that a ventrally directed parietoinsular pathway, leading to the posteroventral insula and the perirhinal cortex, constitutes a system by which long-lasting representations of tactual experiences are formed. It is proposed that the posteroventral insula is involved in tactual feature analysis, by analogy with the similar role of the inferotemporal cortex in vision, whereas the perirhinal cortex is further involved in the integration of these features into long-lasting representations of somatosensory experiences.

  12. A multichannel integrated circuit for electrical recording of neural activity, with independent channel programmability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora Lopez, Carolina; Prodanov, Dimiter; Braeken, Dries; Gligorijevic, Ivan; Eberle, Wolfgang; Bartic, Carmen; Puers, Robert; Gielen, Georges

    2012-04-01

    Since a few decades, micro-fabricated neural probes are being used, together with microelectronic interfaces, to get more insight in the activity of neuronal networks. The need for higher temporal and spatial recording resolutions imposes new challenges on the design of integrated neural interfaces with respect to power consumption, data handling and versatility. In this paper, we present an integrated acquisition system for in vitro and in vivo recording of neural activity. The ASIC consists of 16 low-noise, fully-differential input channels with independent programmability of its amplification (from 100 to 6000 V/V) and filtering (1-6000 Hz range) capabilities. Each channel is AC-coupled and implements a fourth-order band-pass filter in order to steeply attenuate out-of-band noise and DC input offsets. The system achieves an input-referred noise density of 37 nV/√Hz, a NEF of 5.1, a CMRR > 60 dB, a THD noise ratios.

  13. [A telemetery system for neural signal acquiring and processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Song, Yongji; Suen, Jiantao; Zhao, Yiliang; Jia, Aibin; Zhu, Jianping

    2011-02-01

    Recording and extracting characteristic brain signals in freely moving animals is the basic and significant requirement in the study of brain-computer interface (BCI). To record animal's behaving and extract characteristic brain signals simultaneously could help understand the complex behavior of neural ensembles. Here, a system was established to record and analyse extracellular discharge in freely moving rats for the study of BCI. It comprised microelectrode and micro-driver assembly, analog front end (AFE), programmer system on chip (PSoC), wireless communication and the LabVIEW used as the platform for the graphic user interface.

  14. An implantable wireless neural interface for recording cortical circuit dynamics in moving primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borton, David A.; Yin, Ming; Aceros, Juan; Nurmikko, Arto

    2013-04-01

    Objective. Neural interface technology suitable for clinical translation has the potential to significantly impact the lives of amputees, spinal cord injury victims and those living with severe neuromotor disease. Such systems must be chronically safe, durable and effective. Approach. We have designed and implemented a neural interface microsystem, housed in a compact, subcutaneous and hermetically sealed titanium enclosure. The implanted device interfaces the brain with a 510k-approved, 100-element silicon-based microelectrode array via a custom hermetic feedthrough design. Full spectrum neural signals were amplified (0.1 Hz to 7.8 kHz, 200× gain) and multiplexed by a custom application specific integrated circuit, digitized and then packaged for transmission. The neural data (24 Mbps) were transmitted by a wireless data link carried on a frequency-shift-key-modulated signal at 3.2 and 3.8 GHz to a receiver 1 m away by design as a point-to-point communication link for human clinical use. The system was powered by an embedded medical grade rechargeable Li-ion battery for 7 h continuous operation between recharge via an inductive transcutaneous wireless power link at 2 MHz. Main results. Device verification and early validation were performed in both swine and non-human primate freely-moving animal models and showed that the wireless implant was electrically stable, effective in capturing and delivering broadband neural data, and safe for over one year of testing. In addition, we have used the multichannel data from these mobile animal models to demonstrate the ability to decode neural population dynamics associated with motor activity. Significance. We have developed an implanted wireless broadband neural recording device evaluated in non-human primate and swine. The use of this new implantable neural interface technology can provide insight into how to advance human neuroprostheses beyond the present early clinical trials. Further, such tools enable mobile

  15. 3D probe array integrated with a front-end 100-channel neural recording ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Yuan; Yao, Lei; Tan, Kwan Ling; Lim, Ruiqi; Li, Peng; Chen, Weiguo

    2014-12-01

    Brain-machine interface technology can improve the lives of spinal cord injury victims and amputees. A neural interface system, consisting of a 3D probe array and a custom low-power (1 mW) 100-channel (100-ch) neural recording application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), was designed and implemented to monitor neural activity. In this study, a microassembly 3D probe array method using a novel lead transfer technique was proposed to overcome the bonding plane mismatch encountered during orthogonal assembly. The proposed lead transfer technique can be completed using standard micromachining and packaging processes. The ASIC can be stacking-integrated with the probe array, minimizing the form factor of the assembled module. To minimize trauma to brain cells, the profile of the integrated probe array was controlled within 730 μm. The average impedance of the assembled probe was approximately 0.55 MΩ at 1 kHz. To verify the functionality of the integrated neural probe array, bench-top signal acquisitions were performed and discussed.

  16. Project Records Information System (PRIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.S.; Schwarz, R.K.

    1990-11-01

    The Project Records Information System (PRIS) is an interactive system developed for the Information Services Division (ISD) of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to perform indexing, maintenance, and retrieval of information about Engineering project record documents for which they are responsible. This PRIS User's Manual provides instruction on the use of this system. This manual presents an overview of PRIS, describing the system's purpose; the data that it handles; functions it performs; hardware, software, and access; and help and error functions. This manual describes the interactive menu-driven operation of PRIS. Appendixes A, B, C, and D contain the data dictionary, help screens, report descriptions, and a primary menu structure diagram, respectively.

  17. An Integrated Circuit for Simultaneous Extracellular Electrophysiology Recording and Optogenetic Neural Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang Hao; McCullagh, Elizabeth A; Pun, Sio Hang; Mak, Peng Un; Vai, Mang I; Mak, Pui In; Klug, Achim; Lei, Tim C

    2017-03-01

    The ability to record and to control action potential firing in neuronal circuits is critical to understand how the brain functions. The objective of this study is to develop a monolithic integrated circuit (IC) to record action potentials and simultaneously control action potential firing using optogenetics. A low-noise and high input impedance (or low input capacitance) neural recording amplifier is combined with a high current laser/light-emitting diode (LED) driver in a single IC. The low input capacitance of the amplifier (9.7 pF) was achieved by adding a dedicated unity gain stage optimized for high impedance metal electrodes. The input referred noise of the amplifier is [Formula: see text], which is lower than the estimated thermal noise of the metal electrode. Thus, the action potentials originating from a single neuron can be recorded with a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 6.6. The LED/laser current driver delivers a maximum current of 330 mA, which is adequate for optogenetic control. The functionality of the IC was tested with an anesthetized Mongolian gerbil and auditory stimulated action potentials were recorded from the inferior colliculus. Spontaneous firings of fifth (trigeminal) nerve fibers were also inhibited using the optogenetic protein Halorhodopsin. Moreover, a noise model of the system was derived to guide the design. A single IC to measure and control action potentials using optogenetic proteins is realized so that more complicated behavioral neuroscience research and the translational neural disorder treatments become possible in the future.

  18. Spiking neural P systems with multiple channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong; Yang, Jinyu; Wang, Jun; Wang, Tao; Sun, Zhang; Song, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Xiaohui; Huang, Xiangnian

    2017-11-01

    Spiking neural P systems (SNP systems, in short) are a class of distributed parallel computing systems inspired from the neurophysiological behavior of biological spiking neurons. In this paper, we investigate a new variant of SNP systems in which each neuron has one or more synaptic channels, called spiking neural P systems with multiple channels (SNP-MC systems, in short). The spiking rules with channel label are introduced to handle the firing mechanism of neurons, where the channel labels indicate synaptic channels of transmitting the generated spikes. The computation power of SNP-MC systems is investigated. Specifically, we prove that SNP-MC systems are Turing universal as both number generating and number accepting devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating neural networks and artificial intelligence systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, David S.

    1994-02-01

    Systems have no intrinsic value in and of themselves, but rather derive value from the contributions they make to the missions, decisions, and tasks they are intended to support. The estimation of the cost-effectiveness of systems is a prerequisite for rational planning, budgeting, and investment documents. Neural network and expert system applications, although similar in their incorporation of a significant amount of decision-making capability, differ from each other in ways that affect the manner in which they can be evaluated. Both these types of systems are, by definition, evolutionary systems, which also impacts their evaluation. This paper discusses key aspects of neural network and expert system applications and their impact on the evaluation process. A practical approach or methodology for evaluating a certain class of expert systems that are particularly difficult to measure using traditional evaluation approaches is presented.

  20. Long-term neural recordings using MEMS based moveable microelectrodes in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Jackson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the critical requirements of the emerging class of neural prosthetic devices is to maintain good quality neural recordings over long time periods. We report here a novel (Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems based technology that can move microelectrodes in the event of deterioration in neural signal to sample a new set of neurons. Microscale electro-thermal actuators are used to controllably move microelectrodes post-implantation in steps of approximately 9 µm. In this study, a total of 12 moveable microelectrode chips were individually implanted in adult rats. Two of the 12 moveable microelectrode chips were not moved over a period of 3 weeks and were treated as control experiments. During the first three weeks of implantation, moving the microelectrodes led to an improvement in the average SNR from 14.61 ± 5.21 dB before movement to 18.13 ± 4.99 dB after movement across all microelectrodes and all days. However, the average RMS values of noise amplitudes were similar at 2.98 ± 1.22 µV and 3.01 ± 1.16 µV before and after microelectrode movement. Beyond three weeks, the primary observed failure mode was biological rejection of the PMMA (dental cement based skull mount resulting in the device loosening and eventually falling from the skull. Additionally, the average SNR for functioning devices beyond three weeks was 11.88 ± 2.02 dB before microelectrode movement and was significantly different (p<0.01 from the average SNR of 13.34 ± 0.919 dB after movement. The results of this study demonstrate that MEMS based technologies can move microelectrodes in rodent brains in long-term experiments resulting in improvements in signal quality. Further improvements in packaging and surgical techniques will potentially enable movable microelectrodes to record cortical neuronal activity in chronic experiments.

  1. Neural Plasticity in the Gustatory System

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Sensory systems adapt to changing environmental influences by coordinated alterations in structure and function. These alterations are referred to as plastic changes. The gustatory system displays numerous plastic changes even in receptor cells. This review focuses on the plasticity of gustatory structures through the first synaptic relay in the brain. Unlike other sensory systems, there is a remarkable amount of environmentally induced changes in these peripheral-most neural structures. The ...

  2. System and method for determining stability of a neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed are methods, systems, and computer-readable media for determining stability of a neural system. The method includes tracking a function world line of an N element neural system within at least one behavioral space, determining whether the tracking function world line is approaching a psychological stability surface, and implementing a quantitative solution that corrects instability if the tracked function world line is approaching the psychological stability surface.

  3. Unveiling neural coupling within the sensorimotor system : directionality and nonlinearity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Dewald, J.P.A.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Schouten, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Neural coupling between the central nervous system and the periphery is essential for the neural control of movement. Corticomuscular coherence is a popular linear technique to assess synchronised oscillatory activity in the sensorimotor system. This oscillatory coupling originates from ascending

  4. Intracellular Neural Recording with Pure Carbon Nanotube Probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inho Yoon

    Full Text Available The computational complexity of the brain depends in part on a neuron's capacity to integrate electrochemical information from vast numbers of synaptic inputs. The measurements of synaptic activity that are crucial for mechanistic understanding of brain function are also challenging, because they require intracellular recording methods to detect and resolve millivolt- scale synaptic potentials. Although glass electrodes are widely used for intracellular recordings, novel electrodes with superior mechanical and electrical properties are desirable, because they could extend intracellular recording methods to challenging environments, including long term recordings in freely behaving animals. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs can theoretically deliver this advance, but the difficulty of assembling CNTs has limited their application to a coating layer or assembly on a planar substrate, resulting in electrodes that are more suitable for in vivo extracellular recording or extracellular recording from isolated cells. Here we show that a novel, yet remarkably simple, millimeter-long electrode with a sub-micron tip, fabricated from self-entangled pure CNTs can be used to obtain intracellular and extracellular recordings from vertebrate neurons in vitro and in vivo. This fabrication technology provides a new method for assembling intracellular electrodes from CNTs, affording a promising opportunity to harness nanotechnology for neuroscience applications.

  5. Simulating neural systems with Xyce.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Mei, Ting; Warrender, Christina E.; Aimone, James Bradley; Teeter, Corinne; Duda, Alex M.

    2012-12-01

    Sandias parallel circuit simulator, Xyce, can address large scale neuron simulations in a new way extending the range within which one can perform high-fidelity, multi-compartment neuron simulations. This report documents the implementation of neuron devices in Xyce, their use in simulation and analysis of neuron systems.

  6. IMPLEMENTATION OF NEURAL - CRYPTOGRAPHIC SYSTEM USING FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARAM M. Z. OTHMAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern cryptography techniques are virtually unbreakable. As the Internet and other forms of electronic communication become more prevalent, electronic security is becoming increasingly important. Cryptography is used to protect e-mail messages, credit card information, and corporate data. The design of the cryptography system is a conventional cryptography that uses one key for encryption and decryption process. The chosen cryptography algorithm is stream cipher algorithm that encrypt one bit at a time. The central problem in the stream-cipher cryptography is the difficulty of generating a long unpredictable sequence of binary signals from short and random key. Pseudo random number generators (PRNG have been widely used to construct this key sequence. The pseudo random number generator was designed using the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN. The Artificial Neural Networks (ANN providing the required nonlinearity properties that increases the randomness statistical properties of the pseudo random generator. The learning algorithm of this neural network is backpropagation learning algorithm. The learning process was done by software program in Matlab (software implementation to get the efficient weights. Then, the learned neural network was implemented using field programmable gate array (FPGA.

  7. The Criticality Hypothesis in Neural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimipanah, Yahya

    There is mounting evidence that neural networks of the cerebral cortex exhibit scale invariant dynamics. At the larger scale, fMRI recordings have shown evidence for spatiotemporal long range correlations. On the other hand, at the smaller scales this scale invariance is marked by the power law distribution of the size and duration of spontaneous bursts of activity, which are referred as neuronal avalanches. The existence of such avalanches has been confirmed by several studies in vitro and in vivo, among different species and across multiple scales, from spatial scale of MEG and EEG down to single cell resolution. This prevalent scale free nature of cortical activity suggests the hypothesis that the cortex resides at a critical state between two phases of order (short-lasting activity) and disorder (long-lasting activity). In addition, it has been shown, both theoretically and experimentally, that being at criticality brings about certain functional advantages for information processing. However, despite the plenty of evidence and plausibility of the neural criticality hypothesis, still very little is known on how the brain may leverage such criticality to facilitate neural coding. Moreover, the emergent functions that may arise from critical dynamics is poorly understood. In the first part of this thesis, we review several pieces of evidence for the neural criticality hypothesis at different scales, as well as some of the most popular theories of self-organized criticality (SOC). Thereafter, we will focus on the most prominent evidence from small scales, namely neuronal avalanches. We will explore the effect of adaptation and how it can maintain scale free dynamics even at the presence of external stimuli. Using calcium imaging we also experimentally demonstrate the existence of scale free activity at the cellular resolution in vivo. Moreover, by exploring the subsampling issue in neural data, we will find some fundamental constraints of the conventional methods

  8. A wireless and batteryless neural headstage with optical stimulation and electrophysiological recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, Reza; Mirbozorgi, Abdollah; Neron, Jean-Luc; Lechasseur, Yoan; Gosselin, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a miniature Optogenetics headstage for wirelessly stimulating the brain of rodents with an implanted LED while recording electrophysiological data from a two-channel custom readout. The headstage is powered wirelessly using an inductive link, and is built using inexpensive commercial off-the-shelf electronic components, including a RF microcontroller and a printed antenna. This device has the capability to drive one light-stimulating LED and, at the same time, capture and send back neural signals recorded from two microelectrode readout channels. Light stimulation uses flexible patterns that allow for easy tuning of light intensity and stimulation periods. For driving the LED, a low-pass filtered digitally-generated PWM signal is employed for providing a flexible pulse generation method that alleviates the need for D/A converters. The proposed device can be powered wirelessly into an animal chamber using inductive energy transfer, which enables compact, light-weight and cost-effective smart animal research systems. The device dimensions are 15×25×17 mm; it weighs 7.4 grams and has a data transmission range of more than 2 meters. Different types of LEDs with different power consumptions can be used for this system. The power consumption of the system without the LED is 94.52 mW.

  9. An externally head-mounted wireless neural recording device for laboratory animal research and possible human clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming; Li, Hao; Bull, Christopher; Borton, David A; Aceros, Juan; Larson, Lawrence; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a new type of head-mounted wireless neural recording device in a highly compact package, dedicated for untethered laboratory animal research and designed for future mobile human clinical use. The device, which takes its input from an array of intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEA) has ninety-seven broadband parallel neural recording channels and was integrated on to two custom designed printed circuit boards. These house several low power, custom integrated circuits, including a preamplifier ASIC, a controller ASIC, plus two SAR ADCs, a 3-axis accelerometer, a 48MHz clock source, and a Manchester encoder. Another ultralow power RF chip supports an OOK transmitter with the center frequency tunable from 3GHz to 4GHz, mounted on a separate low loss dielectric board together with a 3V LDO, with output fed to a UWB chip antenna. The IC boards were interconnected and packaged in a polyether ether ketone (PEEK) enclosure which is compatible with both animal and human use (e.g. sterilizable). The entire system consumes 17mA from a 1.2Ahr 3.6V Li-SOCl2 1/2AA battery, which operates the device for more than 2 days. The overall system includes a custom RF receiver electronics which are designed to directly interface with any number of commercial (or custom) neural signal processors for multi-channel broadband neural recording. Bench-top measurements and in vivo testing of the device in rhesus macaques are presented to demonstrate the performance of the wireless neural interface.

  10. Miniature wireless recording and stimulation system for rodent behavioural testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnell, R. C.; Dempster, J.; Pratt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Elucidation of neural activity underpinning rodent behaviour has traditionally been hampered by the use of tethered systems and human involvement. Furthermore the combination of deep-brain stimulation (DBS) and various neural recording modalities can lead to complex and time-consuming laboratory setups. For studies of this type, novel tools are required to drive forward this research. Approach. A miniature wireless system weighing 8.5 g (including battery) was developed for rodent use that combined multichannel DBS and local-field potential (LFP) recordings. Its performance was verified in a working memory task that involved 4-channel fronto-hippocampal LFP recording and bilateral constant-current fimbria-fornix DBS. The system was synchronised with video-tracking for extraction of LFP at discrete task phases, and DBS was activated intermittently at discrete phases of the task. Main results. In addition to having a fast set-up time, the system could reliably transmit continuous LFP at over 8 hours across 3-5 m distances. During the working memory task, LFP pertaining to discrete task phases was extracted and compared with well-known neural correlates of active exploratory behaviour in rodents. DBS could be wirelessly activated/deactivated at any part of the experiment during EEG recording and transmission, allowing for a seamless integration of this modality. Significance. The wireless system combines a small size with a level of robustness and versatility that can greatly simplify rodent behavioural experiments involving EEG recording and DBS. Designed for versatility and simplicity, the small size and low-cost of the system and its receiver allow for enhanced portability, fast experimental setup times, and pave the way for integration with more complex behaviour.

  11. Portable EGG recording system based on a digital voice recorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J-K; Shieh, M-J; Kuo, T-S; Jaw, F-S

    2009-01-01

    Cutaneous electrogastrogram (EGG) recording offers the benefit of non-invasive gastrointestinal diagnosis. With long-term ambulatory recording of signals, researchers and clinicians could have more opportunities to investigate and analyse paroxysmal or acute symptoms. A portable EGG system based on a digital voice recorder (DVR) is designed for long-term recording of cutaneous EGG signals. The system consists of electrodes, an EGG amplifier, a modulator, and a DVR. Online monitoring and off-line acquisition of EGG are handled by software. A special design employing an integrated timer circuit is used to modulate the EGG frequency to meet the input requirements of the DVR. This approach involves low supply voltage and low power consumption. Software demodulation is used to simplify the complexity of the system, and is helpful in reducing the size of the portable device. By using surface-mount devices (SMD) and a low-power design, the system is robust, compact, and suitable for long-term portable recording. As a result, researchers can record an ambulatory EGG signal by means of the proposed circuits in conjunction with an up-to-date voice-recording device.

  12. Simultaneous Measurement of Neural Spike Recordings and Multi-Photon Calcium Imaging in Neuroblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeehyun Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the design and implementation of a micro-electrode array (MEA for neuroblastoma cell culturing. It also explains the implementation of a multi-photon microscope (MPM customized for neuroblastoma cell excitation and imaging under ambient light. Electrical signal and fluorescence images were simultaneously acquired from the neuroblastoma cells on the MEA. MPM calcium images of the cultured neuroblastoma cell on the MEA are presented and also the neural activity was acquired through the MEA recording. A calcium green-1 (CG-1 dextran conjugate of 10,000 D molecular weight was used in this experiment for calcium imaging. This study also evaluated the calcium oscillations and neural spike recording of neuroblastoma cells in an epileptic condition. Based on our observation of neural spikes in neuroblastoma cells with our proposed imaging modality, we report that neuroblastoma cells can be an important model for epileptic activity studies.

  13. A 2.1 μW/channel current-mode integrated neural recording interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zjajo, A.; van Leuken, T.G.R.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a neural recording interface circuit for biomedical implantable devices, which includes low-noise signal amplification, band-pass filtering, and current-mode successive approximation A/D signal conversion. The integrated interface circuit is realized in a 65 nm CMOS

  14. A direct-to-drive neural data acquisition system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin P Kinney

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the increasing channel count of neural probes, there is much effort being directed to creating increasingly scalable electrophysiology data acquisition systems. However, all such systems still rely on personal computers for data storage, and thus are limited by the bandwidth and cost of the computers, especially as the scale of recording increases. Here we present a novel architecture in which a digital processor receives data from an analog-to-digital converter, and writes that data directly to hard drives, without the need for a personal computer to serve as an intermediary in the data acquisition process. This minimalist architecture may support exceptionally high data throughput, without incurring costs to support unnecessary hardware and overhead associated with personal computers, thus facilitating scaling of electrophysiological recording in the future.

  15. The Artifical Neural Network as means for modeling Nonlinear Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Drábek Oldøich; Taufer Ivan

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with nonlinear system identification based on neural network. The topic of this publication is simulation of training and testing a neural network. A contribution is assigned to technologists which are good at the clasical identification problems but their knowledges about identification based on neural network are only on the stage of theoretical bases.

  16. The Artifical Neural Network as means for modeling Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drábek Oldøich

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with nonlinear system identification based on neural network. The topic of this publication is simulation of training and testing a neural network. A contribution is assigned to technologists which are good at the clasical identification problems but their knowledges about identification based on neural network are only on the stage of theoretical bases.

  17. Privacy Act System of Records: Federal Lead-Based Paint Program System of Records, EPA-54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Federal Lead-Based Paint Program System of Records (FLPPSOR), including the security classification, individuals covered by the system, categories of records, routine uses of the records, and other security procedures.

  18. A carbon-fiber electrode array for long-term neural recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitchounts, Grigori; Markowitz, Jeffrey E; Liberti, William A; Gardner, Timothy J

    2013-08-01

    Chronic neural recording in behaving animals is an essential method for studies of neural circuit function. However, stable recordings from small, densely packed neurons remains challenging, particularly over time-scales relevant for learning. We describe an assembly method for a 16-channel electrode array consisting of carbon fibers (Carbon fiber arrays were tested in HVC (used as a proper name), a song motor nucleus, of singing zebra finches where individual neurons discharge with temporally precise patterns. Previous reports of activity in this population of neurons have required the use of high impedance electrodes on movable microdrives. Here, the carbon fiber electrodes provided stable multi-unit recordings over time-scales of months. Spike-sorting indicated that the multi-unit signals were dominated by one, or a small number of cells. Stable firing patterns during singing confirmed the stability of these clusters over time-scales of months. In addition, from a total of 10 surgeries, 16 projection neurons were found. This cell type is characterized by sparse stereotyped firing patterns, providing unambiguous confirmation of single cell recordings. Carbon fiber electrode bundles may provide a scalable solution for long-term neural recordings of densely packed neurons.

  19. Optical and electrical recording of neural activity evoked by graded contrast visual stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulf Luca

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain activity has been investigated by several methods with different principles, notably optical ones. Each method may offer information on distinct physiological or pathological aspects of brain function. The ideal instrument to measure brain activity should include complementary techniques and integrate the resultant information. As a "low cost" approach towards this objective, we combined the well-grounded electroencephalography technique with the newer near infrared spectroscopy methods to investigate human visual function. Methods The article describes an embedded instrumentation combining a continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy system and an electroencephalography system to simultaneously monitor functional hemodynamics and electrical activity. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS signal depends on the light absorption spectra of haemoglobin and measures the blood volume and blood oxygenation regulation supporting the neural activity. The NIRS and visual evoked potential (VEP are concurrently acquired during steady state visual stimulation, at 8 Hz, with a b/w "windmill" pattern, in nine human subjects. The pattern contrast is varied (1%, 10%, 100% according to a stimulation protocol. Results In this study, we present the measuring system; the results consist in concurrent recordings of hemodynamic changes and evoked potential responses emerging from different contrast levels of a patterned stimulus. The concentration of [HbO2] increases and [HHb] decreases after the onset of the stimulus. Their variation shows a clear relationship with the contrast value: large contrast produce huge difference in concentration, while low contrast provokes small concentration difference. This behaviour is similar to the already known relationship between VEP response amplitude and contrast. Conclusion The simultaneous recording and analysis of NIRS and VEP signals in humans during visual stimulation with a b/w pattern at variable

  20. Convergent evolution of neural systems in ctenophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Leonid L

    2015-02-15

    Neurons are defined as polarized secretory cells specializing in directional propagation of electrical signals leading to the release of extracellular messengers - features that enable them to transmit information, primarily chemical in nature, beyond their immediate neighbors without affecting all intervening cells en route. Multiple origins of neurons and synapses from different classes of ancestral secretory cells might have occurred more than once during ~600 million years of animal evolution with independent events of nervous system centralization from a common bilaterian/cnidarian ancestor without the bona fide central nervous system. Ctenophores, or comb jellies, represent an example of extensive parallel evolution in neural systems. First, recent genome analyses place ctenophores as a sister group to other animals. Second, ctenophores have a smaller complement of pan-animal genes controlling canonical neurogenic, synaptic, muscle and immune systems, and developmental pathways than most other metazoans. However, comb jellies are carnivorous marine animals with a complex neuromuscular organization and sophisticated patterns of behavior. To sustain these functions, they have evolved a number of unique molecular innovations supporting the hypothesis of massive homoplasies in the organization of integrative and locomotory systems. Third, many bilaterian/cnidarian neuron-specific genes and 'classical' neurotransmitter pathways are either absent or, if present, not expressed in ctenophore neurons (e.g. the bilaterian/cnidarian neurotransmitter, γ-amino butyric acid or GABA, is localized in muscles and presumed bilaterian neuron-specific RNA-binding protein Elav is found in non-neuronal cells). Finally, metabolomic and pharmacological data failed to detect either the presence or any physiological action of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, octopamine, acetylcholine or histamine - consistent with the hypothesis that ctenophore neural systems evolved

  1. Neural Network Based Intrusion Detection System for Critical Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic

    2009-07-01

    Resiliency and security in control systems such as SCADA and Nuclear plant’s in today’s world of hackers and malware are a relevant concern. Computer systems used within critical infrastructures to control physical functions are not immune to the threat of cyber attacks and may be potentially vulnerable. Tailoring an intrusion detection system to the specifics of critical infrastructures can significantly improve the security of such systems. The IDS-NNM – Intrusion Detection System using Neural Network based Modeling, is presented in this paper. The main contributions of this work are: 1) the use and analyses of real network data (data recorded from an existing critical infrastructure); 2) the development of a specific window based feature extraction technique; 3) the construction of training dataset using randomly generated intrusion vectors; 4) the use of a combination of two neural network learning algorithms – the Error-Back Propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt, for normal behavior modeling. The presented algorithm was evaluated on previously unseen network data. The IDS-NNM algorithm proved to be capable of capturing all intrusion attempts presented in the network communication while not generating any false alerts.

  2. Simultaneous in vivo recording of local brain temperature and electrophysiological signals with a novel neural probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Z.; Csernai, M.; Kocsis, K.; Horváth, Á. C.; Pongrácz, A.; Barthó, P.

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Temperature is an important factor for neural function both in normal and pathological states, nevertheless, simultaneous monitoring of local brain temperature and neuronal activity has not yet been undertaken. Approach. In our work, we propose an implantable, calibrated multimodal biosensor that facilitates the complex investigation of thermal changes in both cortical and deep brain regions, which records multiunit activity of neuronal populations in mice. The fabricated neural probe contains four electrical recording sites and a platinum temperature sensor filament integrated on the same probe shaft within a distance of 30 µm from the closest recording site. The feasibility of the simultaneous functionality is presented in in vivo studies. The probe was tested in the thalamus of anesthetized mice while manipulating the core temperature of the animals. Main results. We obtained multiunit and local field recordings along with measurement of local brain temperature with accuracy of 0.14 °C. Brain temperature generally followed core body temperature, but also showed superimposed fluctuations corresponding to epochs of increased local neural activity. With the application of higher currents, we increased the local temperature by several degrees without observable tissue damage between 34-39 °C. Significance. The proposed multifunctional tool is envisioned to broaden our knowledge on the role of the thermal modulation of neuronal activity in both cortical and deeper brain regions.

  3. Occupational Health Record-keeping System (OHRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Occupational Health Record-keeping System (OHRS) is part of the Clinical Information Support System (CISS) portal framework and the initial CISS partner system. OHRS...

  4. Spacecraft Neural Network Control System Design using FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Hanaa T. El-Madany; Faten H. Fahmy; Ninet M. A. El-Rahman; Hassen T. Dorrah

    2011-01-01

    Designing and implementing intelligent systems has become a crucial factor for the innovation and development of better products of space technologies. A neural network is a parallel system, capable of resolving paradigms that linear computing cannot. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) is a digital device that owns reprogrammable properties and robust flexibility. For the neural network based instrument prototype in real time application, conventional specific VLSI neural chip design suffer...

  5. Neural recording front-end IC using action potential detection and analog buffer with digital delay for data compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Yao, Lei; Zou, Xiaodan; Goh, Wang Ling; Je, Minkyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a neural recording analog front-end IC intended for simultaneous neural recording with action potential (AP) detection for data compression in wireless multichannel neural implants. The proposed neural recording front-end IC detects the neural spikes and sends only the preserved AP information for wireless transmission in order to reduce the overall power consumption of the neural implant. The IC consists of a low-noise neural amplifier, an AP detection circuit and an analog buffer with digital delay. The neural amplifier makes use of a current-reuse technique to maximize the transconductance efficiency for attaining a good noise efficiency factor. The AP detection circuit uses an adaptive threshold voltage to generate an enable signal for the subsequent functional blocks. The analog buffer with digital delay is employed using a finite impulse response (FIR) filter which preserves the AP waveform before the enable signal as well as provides low-pass filtering. The neural recording front-end IC has been designed using standard CMOS 0.18-µm technology occupying a core area of 220 µm by 820 µm.

  6. Artificial Neural Network System for Thyroid Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazin Abdulrasool Hameed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disease is one of major causes of severe medical problems for human beings. Therefore, proper diagnosis of thyroid disease is considered as an important issue to determine treatment for patients. This paper focuses on using Artificial Neural Network (ANN as a significant technique of artificial intelligence to diagnose thyroid diseases. The continuous values of three laboratory blood tests are used as input signals to the proposed system of ANN. All types of thyroid diseases that may occur in patients are taken into account in design of system, as well as the high accuracy of the detection and categorization of thyroid diseases are considered in the system. A multilayer feedforward architecture of ANN is adopted in the proposed design, and the back propagation is selected as learning algorithm to accomplish the training process. The result of this research shows that the proposed ANN system is able to precisely diagnose thyroid disease, and can be exploited in practical uses. The system is simulated via MATLAB software to evaluate its performance

  7. Neural network system for traffic flow management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Elibiary, Khalid J.; Petersson, L. E. Rickard

    1992-09-01

    Atlanta will be the home of several special events during the next five years ranging from the 1996 Olympics to the 1994 Super Bowl. When combined with the existing special events (Braves, Falcons, and Hawks games, concerts, festivals, etc.), the need to effectively manage traffic flow from surface streets to interstate highways is apparent. This paper describes a system for traffic event response and management for intelligent navigation utilizing signals (TERMINUS) developed at Georgia Tech for adaptively managing special event traffic flows in the Atlanta, Georgia area. TERMINUS (the original name given Atlanta, Georgia based upon its role as a rail line terminating center) is an intelligent surface street signal control system designed to manage traffic flow in Metro Atlanta. The system consists of three components. The first is a traffic simulation of the downtown Atlanta area around Fulton County Stadium that models the flow of traffic when a stadium event lets out. Parameters for the surrounding area include modeling for events during various times of day (such as rush hour). The second component is a computer graphics interface with the simulation that shows the traffic flows achieved based upon intelligent control system execution. The final component is the intelligent control system that manages surface street light signals based upon feedback from control sensors that dynamically adapt the intelligent controller's decision making process. The intelligent controller is a neural network model that allows TERMINUS to control the configuration of surface street signals to optimize the flow of traffic away from special events.

  8. Unsupervised decoding of long-term, naturalistic human neural recordings with automated video and audio annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy X.R. Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fully automated decoding of human activities and intentions from direct neural recordings is a tantalizing challenge in brain-computer interfacing. Implementing Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs outside carefully controlled experiments in laboratory settings requires adaptive and scalable strategies with minimal supervision. Here we describe an unsupervised approach to decoding neural states from naturalistic human brain recordings. We analyzed continuous, long-term electrocorticography (ECoG data recorded over many days from the brain of subjects in a hospital room, with simultaneous audio and video recordings. We discovered coherent clusters in high-dimensional ECoG recordings using hierarchical clustering and automatically annotated them using speech and movement labels extracted from audio and video. To our knowledge, this represents the first time techniques from computer vision and speech processing have been used for natural ECoG decoding. Interpretable behaviors were decoded from ECoG data, including moving, speaking and resting; the results were assessed by comparison with manual annotation. Discovered clusters were projected back onto the brain revealing features consistent with known functional areas, opening the door to automated functional brain mapping in natural settings.

  9. Neural Network for Optimization of Existing Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems.......The purpose of this paper is to develop methods to use Neural Network based Controllers (NNC) as an optimization tool for existing control systems....

  10. Criminal Law Enforcement Records System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Office of the Inspector General uses CLERS to assist investigators during an investigation. CLERS is a web-based case file management system used to store and...

  11. Instrumentation for ENG and EMG recordings in FES systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Z M; Popović, D B; Stein, R B; Kenwell, Z

    1994-07-01

    An electronic circuit for analog processing of neural (electroneurogram or ENG) and muscular (electromyogram or EMG) signals in functional electrical stimulation (FES) systems is described in this paper. The basic circuit consists of a low-noise gated preamplifier, band-pass filter, amplifier, and a blanking circuit to minimize stimulation artifacts during electrical stimulation. This device was tested in chronic recordings using a triphasic cuff electrode for nerves and epimysial electrodes for muscles in the hind limbs of cats. The device was used for nerve recordings in the presence of electrical stimulation of muscles in the same leg. The recordings showed rejection of stimulation and muscle (M-wave) artifacts, while retaining the information of interest.

  12. 77 FR 11534 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Records. FRTIB-12 SYSTEM NAME: Collection Records. FRTIB-13 SYSTEM NAME: Fraud and Forgery Records. FRTIB... Forgery Records. SYSTEM LOCATION: These records are located at the Federal Retirement Thrift Investment...

  13. Wireless hippocampal neural recording via a multiple input RF receiver to construct place-specific firing fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Bae; Manns, Joseph R; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports scientifically meaningful in vivo experiments using a 32-channel wireless neural recording system (WINeR). The WINeR system is divided into transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) parts. On the Tx side, we had WINeR-6, a system-on-a-chip (SoC) that operated based on time division multiplexing (TDM) of pulse width modulated (PWM) samples. The chip was fabricated in a 0.5-µm CMOS process, occupying 4.9 × 3.3 mm(2) and consuming 15 mW from ±1.5V supplies. The Rx used two antennas with separate pathways to down-convert the RF signal from a large area. A time-to-digital converter (TDC) in an FPGA converted the PWM pulses into digitized samples. In order to further increase the wireless coverage area and eliminate blind spots within a large experimental arena, two receivers were synchronized. The WINeR system was used to record epileptic activities from a rat that was injected with tetanus toxin (TT) in the dorsal hippocampus. In a different in vivo experiment, place-specific firing fields of place cells, which are parts of the hippocampal-dependent memory, were mapped from a series of behavioral experiments from a rat running in a circular track. Results from the same animal were compared against a commercial hard-wired recording system to evaluate the quality of the wireless recordings.

  14. Extracting spatial-temporal coherent patterns in large-scale neural recordings using dynamic mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Bingni W; Johnson, Lise A; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Kutz, J Nathan

    2016-01-30

    There is a broad need in neuroscience to understand and visualize large-scale recordings of neural activity, big data acquired by tens or hundreds of electrodes recording dynamic brain activity over minutes to hours. Such datasets are characterized by coherent patterns across both space and time, yet existing computational methods are typically restricted to analysis either in space or in time separately. Here we report the adaptation of dynamic mode decomposition (DMD), an algorithm originally developed for studying fluid physics, to large-scale neural recordings. DMD is a modal decomposition algorithm that describes high-dimensional dynamic data using coupled spatial-temporal modes. The algorithm is robust to variations in noise and subsampling rate; it scales easily to very large numbers of simultaneously acquired measurements. We first validate the DMD approach on sub-dural electrode array recordings from human subjects performing a known motor task. Next, we combine DMD with unsupervised clustering, developing a novel method to extract spindle networks during sleep. We uncovered several distinct sleep spindle networks identifiable by their stereotypical cortical distribution patterns, frequency, and duration. DMD is closely related to principal components analysis (PCA) and discrete Fourier transform (DFT). We may think of DMD as a rotation of the low-dimensional PCA space such that each basis vector has coherent dynamics. The resulting analysis combines key features of performing PCA in space and power spectral analysis in time, making it particularly suitable for analyzing large-scale neural recordings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A 110-nW in-channel sigma-delta converter for large-scale neural recording implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, M; Maghsoudloo, E; Sawan, M; Gosselin, B

    2016-08-01

    Advancement in wireless and microsystems technology have ushered in new devices that can directly interface with the central nervous system for stimulating and/or monitoring neural circuitry. In this paper, we present an ultra low-power sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter (ADC) intended for utilization into large-scale multi-channel neural recording implants. This proposed design, which provides a resolution of 9 bits using a one-bit oversampled ADC, presents several desirable features that allow for an in-channel ADC scheme, where one sigma-delta converter is provided for each channel, enabling development of scalable systems that can interface with different types of high-density neural microprobes. The proposed circuit, which have been fabricated in a TSMC 180-nm CMOS process, employs a first order noise shaping topology with a passive integrator and a low-supply voltage of 0.6 V to achieve ultra low-power consumption and small size. The proposed ADC clearly outperforms other designs with a power consumption as low as 110 nW for a precision of 9 bits (11-fJ per conversion), a silicon area of only 82 μm × 84 μm and one of the best reported figure of merit among recently published data converters utilized in similar applications.

  16. The Effects of GABAergic Polarity Changes on Episodic Neural Network Activity in Developing Neural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Blanco

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Early in development, neural systems have primarily excitatory coupling, where even GABAergic synapses are excitatory. Many of these systems exhibit spontaneous episodes of activity that have been characterized through both experimental and computational studies. As development progress the neural system goes through many changes, including synaptic remodeling, intrinsic plasticity in the ion channel expression, and a transformation of GABAergic synapses from excitatory to inhibitory. What effect each of these, and other, changes have on the network behavior is hard to know from experimental studies since they all happen in parallel. One advantage of a computational approach is that one has the ability to study developmental changes in isolation. Here, we examine the effects of GABAergic synapse polarity change on the spontaneous activity of both a mean field and a neural network model that has both glutamatergic and GABAergic coupling, representative of a developing neural network. We find some intuitive behavioral changes as the GABAergic neurons go from excitatory to inhibitory, shared by both models, such as a decrease in the duration of episodes. We also find some paradoxical changes in the activity that are only present in the neural network model. In particular, we find that during early development the inter-episode durations become longer on average, while later in development they become shorter. In addressing this unexpected finding, we uncover a priming effect that is particularly important for a small subset of neurons, called the “intermediate neurons.” We characterize these neurons and demonstrate why they are crucial to episode initiation, and why the paradoxical behavioral change result from priming of these neurons. The study illustrates how even arguably the simplest of developmental changes that occurs in neural systems can present non-intuitive behaviors. It also makes predictions about neural network behavioral changes

  17. Neural Network Based Intelligent Sootblowing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Rhode

    2005-04-01

    . Due to the composition of coal, particulate matter is also a by-product of coal combustion. Modern day utility boilers are usually fitted with electrostatic precipitators to aid in the collection of particulate matter. Although extremely efficient, these devices are sensitive to rapid changes in inlet mass concentration as well as total mass loading. Traditionally, utility boilers are equipped with devices known as sootblowers, which use, steam, water or air to dislodge and clean the surfaces within the boiler and are operated based upon established rule or operator's judgment. Poor sootblowing regimes can influence particulate mass loading to the electrostatic precipitators. The project applied a neural network intelligent sootblowing system in conjunction with state-of-the-art controls and instruments to optimize the operation of a utility boiler and systematically control boiler slagging/fouling. This optimization process targeted reduction of NOx of 30%, improved efficiency of 2% and a reduction in opacity of 5%. The neural network system proved to be a non-invasive system which can readily be adapted to virtually any utility boiler. Specific conclusions from this neural network application are listed below. These conclusions should be used in conjunction with the specific details provided in the technical discussions of this report to develop a thorough understanding of the process.

  18. Neural mechanism of facilitation system during physical fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Tanaka

    Full Text Available An enhanced facilitation system caused by motivational input plays an important role in supporting performance during physical fatigue. We tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of the facilitation system during physical fatigue using magnetoencephalography (MEG and a classical conditioning technique. Twelve right-handed volunteers participated in this study. Participants underwent MEG recording during the imagery of maximum grips of the right hand guided by metronome sounds for 10 min. Thereafter, fatigue-inducing maximum handgrip trials were performed for 10 min; the metronome sounds were started 5 min after the beginning of the handgrip trials. The metronome sounds were used as conditioned stimuli and maximum handgrip trials as unconditioned stimuli. The next day, they were randomly assigned to two groups in a single-blinded, two-crossover fashion to undergo two types of MEG recordings, that is, for the control and motivation sessions, during the imagery of maximum grips of the right hand guided by metronome sounds for 10 min. The alpha-band event-related desynchronizations (ERDs of the motivation session relative to the control session within the time windows of 500 to 700 and 800 to 900 ms after the onset of handgrip cue sounds were identified in the sensorimotor areas. In addition, the alpha-band ERD within the time window of 400 to 500 ms was identified in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 46. The ERD level in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was positively associated with that in the sensorimotor areas within the time window of 500 to 700 ms. These results suggest that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in the neural substrates of the facilitation system and activates the sensorimotor areas during physical fatigue.

  19. Analog neural network-based helicopter gearbox health monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, P T; Dzwonczyk, M; Manolakos, E S

    1995-12-01

    The development of a reliable helicopter gearbox health monitoring system (HMS) has been the subject of considerable research over the past 15 years. The deployment of such a system could lead to a significant saving in lives and vehicles as well as dramatically reduce the cost of helicopter maintenance. Recent research results indicate that a neural network-based system could provide a viable solution to the problem. This paper presents two neural network-based realizations of an HMS system. A hybrid (digital/analog) neural system is proposed as an extremely accurate off-line monitoring tool used to reduce helicopter gearbox maintenance costs. In addition, an all analog neural network is proposed as a real-time helicopter gearbox fault monitor that can exploit the ability of an analog neural network to directly compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) as a sum of weighted samples. Hardware performance results are obtained using the Integrated Neural Computing Architecture (INCA/1) analog neural network platform that was designed and developed at The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory. The results indicate that it is possible to achieve a 100% fault detection rate with 0% false alarm rate by performing a DFT directly on the first layer of INCA/1 followed by a small-size two-layer feed-forward neural network and a simple post-processing majority voting stage.

  20. The ctenophore genome and the evolutionary origins of neural systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moroz, Leonid L.; Kocot, Kevin M.; Citarella, Mathew R.; Dosung, Sohn; Norekian, Tigran P.; Povolotskaya, Inna S.; Grigorenko, Anastasia P.; Dailey, Christopher; Berezikov, Eugene; Buckley, Katherine M.; Ptitsyn, Andrey; Reshetov, Denis; Mukherjee, Krishanu; Moroz, Tatiana P.; Bobkova, Yelena; Yu, Fahong; Kapitonov, Vladimir V.; Jurka, Jerzy; Bobkov, Yuri V.; Swore, Joshua J.; Girardo, David O.; Fodor, Alexander; Gusev, Fedor; Sanford, Rachel; Bruders, Rebecca; Kittler, Ellen; Mills, Claudia E.; Rast, Jonathan P.; Derelle, Romain; Solovyev, Victor V.; Kondrashov, Fyodor A.; Swalla, Billie J.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Rogaev, Evgeny I.; Halanych, Kenneth M.; Kohn, Andrea B.

    2014-01-01

    The origins of neural systems remain unresolved. In contrast to other basal metazoans, ctenophores (comb jellies) have both complex nervous and mesoderm-derived muscular systems. These holoplanktonic predators also have sophisticated ciliated locomotion, behaviour and distinct development. Here we

  1. Digital optical recorder-reproducer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddersen, Brad R. (Inventor); Zech, Richard G. (Inventor); Roberts, Howard N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A mass archival optical recording and reproduction system includes a recording light source such as a laser beam focussed and directed upon an acousto-optic linear modulator array (or page composer) that receives parallel blocks of data converted from a serial stream of digital data to be stored. The page composer imparts to the laser beam modulation representative of a plurality of parallel channels of data and through focussing optics downstream of the page composer parallel arrays of optical spots are recorded upon a suitable recording medium such as a photographic film floppy disc. The recording medium may be substantially frictionlessly and stably positioned for recording at a record/read station by an air-bearing platen arrangement which is preferably thermodynamically non-throttling so that the recording film may be positioned in the path of the information-carrying light beam in a static or dynamic mode. During readout, the page composer is bypassed and a readout light beam is focussed directly upon the recording medium containing an array of previously recorded digital spots, a sync bit, data positioning bits, and a tracking band. The readout beam which has been directed through the recording medium is then imaged upon a photodetector array, the output of which may be coupled to suitable electronic processing circuitry, such as a digital multiplexer, whereby the parallel spot array is converted back into the original serial data stream.

  2. Spiking Neural P Systems with Communication on Request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Linqiang; Păun, Gheorghe; Zhang, Gexiang; Neri, Ferrante

    2017-12-01

    Spiking Neural [Formula: see text] Systems are Neural System models characterized by the fact that each neuron mimics a biological cell and the communication between neurons is based on spikes. In the Spiking Neural [Formula: see text] systems investigated so far, the application of evolution rules depends on the contents of a neuron (checked by means of a regular expression). In these [Formula: see text] systems, a specified number of spikes are consumed and a specified number of spikes are produced, and then sent to each of the neurons linked by a synapse to the evolving neuron. [Formula: see text]In the present work, a novel communication strategy among neurons of Spiking Neural [Formula: see text] Systems is proposed. In the resulting models, called Spiking Neural [Formula: see text] Systems with Communication on Request, the spikes are requested from neighboring neurons, depending on the contents of the neuron (still checked by means of a regular expression). Unlike the traditional Spiking Neural [Formula: see text] systems, no spikes are consumed or created: the spikes are only moved along synapses and replicated (when two or more neurons request the contents of the same neuron). [Formula: see text]The Spiking Neural [Formula: see text] Systems with Communication on Request are proved to be computationally universal, that is, equivalent with Turing machines as long as two types of spikes are used. Following this work, further research questions are listed to be open problems.

  3. Ultrasonic recording system without intrinsic limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Tórur; Surlykke, Annemarie; Hallam, John; Brandt, David

    2013-06-01

    Today state-of-the-art bioacoustic research requires high-sample-rate, multi-channel, and often long-term recording systems. Commercial systems are very costly. This paper proposes and demonstrates an ultrasonic recording system design that is arbitrarily scalable. The system is modular and based on retail components and open source software/hardware. Each module has four microphones and modules can be combined to extend the coverage area, obtain higher spatial recording resolution, and/or add recording redundancy. The system is designed to have no inherent scalability limits. The system has been deployed in four different test settings. The first setup tests the system's ability to make medium-term recordings (1 to 2 min) with many microphones. The second setup tests the robustness of the system, being deployed throughout the Danish winter with only minor issues. The third setup integrates the system in a mobile robot as an echolocating guidance system, while the fourth setup demonstrates full-spectrum transducer calibration. In most respects this system's hardware specification surpasses all competitors on the market at a quarter of the price. Tests demonstrate that large deployments are feasible and accurate ultrasonic measurements can be obtained.

  4. Real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system based on a spiking neural network model of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Xiao, Na; Zhai, Xiaolong; Kwan Chan, Pak; Tin, Chung

    2018-02-01

    Damage to the brain, as a result of various medical conditions, impacts the everyday life of patients and there is still no complete cure to neurological disorders. Neuroprostheses that can functionally replace the damaged neural circuit have recently emerged as a possible solution to these problems. Here we describe the development of a real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system to substitute neural function in cerebellar circuitry for learning delay eyeblink conditioning (DEC). The system was empowered by a biologically realistic spiking neural network (SNN) model of the cerebellar neural circuit, which considers the neuronal population and anatomical connectivity of the network. The model simulated synaptic plasticity critical for learning DEC. This SNN model was carefully implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform for real-time simulation. This hardware system was interfaced in in vivo experiments with anesthetized rats and it used neural spikes recorded online from the animal to learn and trigger conditioned eyeblink in the animal during training. This rat-FPGA hybrid system was able to process neuronal spikes in real-time with an embedded cerebellum model of ~10 000 neurons and reproduce learning of DEC with different inter-stimulus intervals. Our results validated that the system performance is physiologically relevant at both the neural (firing pattern) and behavioral (eyeblink pattern) levels. This integrated system provides the sufficient computation power for mimicking the cerebellar circuit in real-time. The system interacts with the biological system naturally at the spike level and can be generalized for including other neural components (neuron types and plasticity) and neural functions for potential neuroprosthetic applications.

  5. Real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system based on a spiking neural network model of motor learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Xiao, Na; Zhai, Xiaolong; Chan, Pak Kwan; Tin, Chung

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Damage to the brain, as a result of various medical conditions, impacts the everyday life of patients and there is still no complete cure to neurological disorders. Neuroprostheses that can functionally replace the damaged neural circuit have recently emerged as a possible solution to these problems. Here we describe the development of a real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system to substitute neural function in cerebellar circuitry for learning delay eyeblink conditioning (DEC). Approach. The system was empowered by a biologically realistic spiking neural network (SNN) model of the cerebellar neural circuit, which considers the neuronal population and anatomical connectivity of the network. The model simulated synaptic plasticity critical for learning DEC. This SNN model was carefully implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform for real-time simulation. This hardware system was interfaced in in vivo experiments with anesthetized rats and it used neural spikes recorded online from the animal to learn and trigger conditioned eyeblink in the animal during training. Main results. This rat-FPGA hybrid system was able to process neuronal spikes in real-time with an embedded cerebellum model of ~10 000 neurons and reproduce learning of DEC with different inter-stimulus intervals. Our results validated that the system performance is physiologically relevant at both the neural (firing pattern) and behavioral (eyeblink pattern) levels. Significance. This integrated system provides the sufficient computation power for mimicking the cerebellar circuit in real-time. The system interacts with the biological system naturally at the spike level and can be generalized for including other neural components (neuron types and plasticity) and neural functions for potential neuroprosthetic applications.

  6. Neural Systems for Speech and Song in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Grace; Pantazatos, Spiro P.; Schneider, Harry; Hirsch, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Despite language disabilities in autism, music abilities are frequently preserved. Paradoxically, brain regions associated with these functions typically overlap, enabling investigation of neural organization supporting speech and song in autism. Neural systems sensitive to speech and song were compared in low-functioning autistic and age-matched…

  7. A System-Level Analysis of a Wireless Low-Power Biosignal Recording Device

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, Rodney James

    2012-01-01

    Development of brain-machine interfaces and treatment of neurological diseases can benefit from analysis of recorded data from implanted electrodes. Existing wireless neural recording systems are often bulky, dissipate too much heat to be implanted, or only have a small number of channels. Furthermore, advances in micro-machined electrodes provide the possibility of high-density recordings, but the companion electronics do not provide enough simultaneous channels with low enough power, wirele...

  8. Short-term synaptic plasticity and heterogeneity in neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias, J. F.; Kappen, H. J.; Longtin, A.; Torres, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    We review some recent results on neural dynamics and information processing which arise when considering several biophysical factors of interest, in particular, short-term synaptic plasticity and neural heterogeneity. The inclusion of short-term synaptic plasticity leads to enhanced long-term memory capacities, a higher robustness of memory to noise, and irregularity in the duration of the so-called up cortical states. On the other hand, considering some level of neural heterogeneity in neuron models allows neural systems to optimize information transmission in rate coding and temporal coding, two strategies commonly used by neurons to codify information in many brain areas. In all these studies, analytical approximations can be made to explain the underlying dynamics of these neural systems.

  9. Spike detection from noisy neural data in linear-probe recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, Takashi; Ota, Keisuke; Murayama, Masanori; Fukai, Tomoki

    2014-06-01

    Simultaneous recordings of multiple neuron activities with multi-channel extracellular electrodes are widely used for studying information processing by the brain's neural circuits. In this method, the recorded signals containing the spike events of a number of adjacent or distant neurons must be correctly sorted into spike trains of individual neurons, and a variety of methods have been proposed for this spike sorting. However, spike sorting is computationally difficult because the recorded signals are often contaminated by biological noise. Here, we propose a novel method for spike detection, which is the first stage of spike sorting and hence crucially determines overall sorting performance. Our method utilizes a model of extracellular recording data that takes into account variations in spike waveforms, such as the widths and amplitudes of spikes, by detecting the peaks of band-pass-filtered data. We show that the new method significantly improves the cost-performance of multi-channel electrode recordings by increasing the number of cleanly sorted neurons. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Dopamine system: Manager of neural pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eHong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a growing number of roles that midbrain dopamine (DA neurons assume, such as, reward, aversion, alerting and vigor. Here I propose a theory that may be able to explain why the suggested functions of DA came about. It has been suggested that largely parallel cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortico loops exist to control different aspects of behavior. I propose that (1 the midbrain DA system is organized in a similar manner, with different groups of DA neurons corresponding to these parallel neural pathways (NPs. The DA system can be viewed as the manager of these parallel NPs in that it recruits and activates only the task-relevant NPs when they are needed. It is likely that the functions of those NPs that have been consistently activated by the corresponding DA groups are facilitated. I also propose that (2 there are two levels of DA roles: the How and What roles. The How role is encoded in tonic and phasic DA neuron firing patterns and gives a directive to its target NP: how vigorously its function needs to be carried out. The tonic DA firing is to maintain a certain level of DA in the target NPs to support their expected behavioral and mental functions; it is only when a sudden unexpected boost or suppression of activity is required by the relevant target NP that DA neurons in the corresponding NP act in a phasic manner. The What role is the implementational aspect of the role of DA in the target NP, such as binding to D1 receptors to boost working memory. This What aspect of DA explains why DA seems to assume different functions depending on the region of the brain in which it is involved. In terms of the role of the lateral habenula (LHb, the LHb is expected to suppress maladaptive behaviors and mental processes by controlling the DA system. The demand-based smart management by the DA system may have given animals an edge in evolution with adaptive behaviors and a better survival rate in resource-scarce situations.

  11. Assessing artificial neural networks and statistical methods for infilling missing soil moisture records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumedah, Gift; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Chik, Li

    2014-07-01

    Soil moisture information is critically important for water management operations including flood forecasting, drought monitoring, and groundwater recharge estimation. While an accurate and continuous record of soil moisture is required for these applications, the available soil moisture data, in practice, is typically fraught with missing values. There are a wide range of methods available to infilling hydrologic variables, but a thorough inter-comparison between statistical methods and artificial neural networks has not been made. This study examines 5 statistical methods including monthly averages, weighted Pearson correlation coefficient, a method based on temporal stability of soil moisture, and a weighted merging of the three methods, together with a method based on the concept of rough sets. Additionally, 9 artificial neural networks are examined, broadly categorized into feedforward, dynamic, and radial basis networks. These 14 infilling methods were used to estimate missing soil moisture records and subsequently validated against known values for 13 soil moisture monitoring stations for three different soil layer depths in the Yanco region in southeast Australia. The evaluation results show that the top three highest performing methods are the nonlinear autoregressive neural network, rough sets method, and monthly replacement. A high estimation accuracy (root mean square error (RMSE) of about 0.03 m/m) was found in the nonlinear autoregressive network, due to its regression based dynamic network which allows feedback connections through discrete-time estimation. An equally high accuracy (0.05 m/m RMSE) in the rough sets procedure illustrates the important role of temporal persistence of soil moisture, with the capability to account for different soil moisture conditions.

  12. Optical production systems using neural networks and symbolic substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Elizabeth; Casasent, David; Barnard, Etienne

    1988-01-01

    Two optical implementations of production systems are advanced. The production systems operate on a knowledge base where facts and rules are encoded as formulas in propositional calculus. The first implementation is a binary neural network. An analog neural network is used to include reasoning with uncertainties. The second implementation uses a new optical symbolic substitution correlator. This implementation is useful when a set of similar situations has to be handled in parallel on one processor.

  13. 75 FR 70342 - Privacy Act; System of Records: Equal Employment Opportunity Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... disabled. RETENTION AND DISPOSAL: Records are retired or destroyed in accordance with published records... Act; System of Records: Equal Employment Opportunity Records SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Department of State proposes to amend an existing system of records, Equal Employment Opportunity Records...

  14. Health record systems that meet clinical needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Negrini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Increased attention has recently been focused on health record systems as a result of accreditation programs, a growing emphasis on patient safety, and the increase in lawsuits involving allegations of malpractice. Health-care professionals frequently express dissatisfaction with the health record systems and complain that the data included are neither informative nor useful for clinical decision making. This article reviews the main objectives of a hospital health record system, with emphasis on its roles in communication and exchange among clinicians, patient safety, and continuity of care, and asks whether current systems have responded to the recent changes in the Italian health-care system.Discussion If health records are to meet the expectations of all health professionals, the overall information need must be carefully analyzed, a common data set must be created, and essential specialist contributions must be defined. Working with health-care professionals, the hospital management should define how clinical information is to be displayed and organized, identify a functionally optimal layout, define the characteristics of ongoing patient assessment in terms of who will be responsible for these activities and how often they will be performed. Internet technology can facilitate data retrieval and meet the general requirements of a paper-based health record system, but it must also ensure focus on clinical information, business continuity, integrity, security, and privacy.Conclusions The current health records system needs to be thoroughly revised to increase its accessibility, streamline the work of health-care professionals who consult it, and render it more useful for clinical decision making—a challenging task that will require the active involvement of the many professional classes involved.

  15. System for automatic recording of vibration parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, B. I.

    1984-02-01

    A system for automatically recording vibration parameters consists of 20 accelerometer channels with signal transducers followed by low-pass filters, and one frequency-to-voltage conversion channel. A voltmeter is connected to each channel through a commutator switch and so is a timer which feeds the voltmeter readings to a transcriber for printout and alphanumeric documentation. The printer is also connected to the commutator switch through a device which matches recorded data with the corresponding pickup channel. This SAR-21 system was designed with maximum use of series produced components. Its measurement ranges are 0-600 m/sq acceleration and 20 to 2500 Hz frequency. The recording time is 0.04 s for any one parameter and the error of the system does not exceed + or - 2%.

  16. Flavopiridol reduces the impedance of neural prostheses in vivo without affecting recording quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Erin K; Thompson, David E; Ludwig, Kip A; Kipke, Daryl R

    2009-10-15

    We hypothesized that re-entry into the cell cycle may be associated with reactive gliosis surrounding neural prostheses, and that administration of a cell cycle inhibitor (flavopiridol) at the time of surgery would reduce this effect. We investigated the effects of flavopiridol on recording quality and impedance over a 28-day time period and conducted histology at 3 and 28 days post-implantation. Flavopiridol reduced the expression of a cell cycle protein (cyclin D1) in microglia surrounding probes at the 3-day time point. Impedance at 1 kHz was decreased by drug administration across the study period compared to vehicle controls. Correlations between recording (SNR, units) and impedance metrics revealed a small, but statistically significant, inverse relationship between these variables. However, the relationship between impedance and recording quality was not sufficiently strong for flavopiridol to result in an improvement in SNR or the number of units detected. Our data indicate that flavopiridol is an effective, easily administered treatment for reducing impedance in vivo, potentially through inhibiting microglial encapsulation of implanted devices. This strategy may be useful in stimulation applications, where reduced impedance is desirable for achieving activation thresholds and prolonging the lifetime of the implanted power supply. While improvements in recording quality were not observed, a combination of flavopiridol with a second strategy which enhances neuronal signal detection may enhance these results in future studies.

  17. A low power multichannel analog front end for portable neural signal recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Iyad; Nicolelis, Miguel A L; Wolf, Patrick D

    2004-02-15

    We present the design and testing of a 16-channel analog amplifier for processing neural signals. Each channel has the following features: (1) variable gain (70-94 dB), (2) four high pass Bessel filter poles (f(-3 dB)=445 Hz), (3) five low pass Bessel filter poles (f(-3 dB)=6.6 kHz), and (4) differential amplification with a user selectable reference channel to reject common mode background biological noise. Processed signals are time division multiplexed and sampled by an on-board 12-bit analog to digital converter at up to 62.5k samples/s per channel. The board is powered by two low dropout voltage regulators which may be supplied by a single battery. The board measures 8.1 cm x 9.9 cm, weighs 50 g, and consumes up to 130 mW. Its low input-referred noise (1.0 microV(RMS)) makes it possible to process low amplitude neural signals; the board was successfully tested in vivo to process cortically derived extracellular action potentials in primates. Signals processed by this board were compared to those generated by a commercially available system and were found to be nearly identical. Background noise generated by mastication was substantially attenuated by the selectable reference circuit. The described circuit is light weight and low power and is used as a component of a wearable multichannel neural telemetry system.

  18. Genetic learning in rule-based and neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    The design of neural networks and fuzzy systems can involve complex, nonlinear, and ill-conditioned optimization problems. Often, traditional optimization schemes are inadequate or inapplicable for such tasks. Genetic Algorithms (GA's) are a class of optimization procedures whose mechanics are based on those of natural genetics. Mathematical arguments show how GAs bring substantial computational leverage to search problems, without requiring the mathematical characteristics often necessary for traditional optimization schemes (e.g., modality, continuity, availability of derivative information, etc.). GA's have proven effective in a variety of search tasks that arise in neural networks and fuzzy systems. This presentation begins by introducing the mechanism and theoretical underpinnings of GA's. GA's are then related to a class of rule-based machine learning systems called learning classifier systems (LCS's). An LCS implements a low-level production-system that uses a GA as its primary rule discovery mechanism. This presentation illustrates how, despite its rule-based framework, an LCS can be thought of as a competitive neural network. Neural network simulator code for an LCS is presented. In this context, the GA is doing more than optimizing and objective function. It is searching for an ecology of hidden nodes with limited connectivity. The GA attempts to evolve this ecology such that effective neural network performance results. The GA is particularly well adapted to this task, given its naturally-inspired basis. The LCS/neural network analogy extends itself to other, more traditional neural networks. Conclusions to the presentation discuss the implications of using GA's in ecological search problems that arise in neural and fuzzy systems.

  19. Multiple neural network approaches to clinical expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Derek F.

    1990-08-01

    We briefly review the concept of computer aided medical diagnosis and more extensively review the the existing literature on neural network applications in the field. Neural networks can function as simple expert systems for diagnosis or prognosis. Using a public database we develop a neural network for the diagnosis of a major presenting symptom while discussing the development process and possible approaches. MEDICAL EXPERTS SYSTEMS COMPUTER AIDED DIAGNOSIS Biomedicine is an incredibly diverse and multidisciplinary field and it is not surprising that neural networks with their many applications are finding more and more applications in the highly non-linear field of biomedicine. I want to concentrate on neural networks as medical expert systems for clinical diagnosis or prognosis. Expert Systems started out as a set of computerized " ifthen" rules. Everything was reduced to boolean logic and the promised land of computer experts was said to be in sight. It never came. Why? First the computer code explodes as the number of " ifs" increases. All the " ifs" have to interact. Second experts are not very good at reducing expertise to language. It turns out that experts recognize patterns and have non-verbal left-brain intuition decision processes. Third learning by example rather than learning by rule is the way natural brains works and making computers work by rule-learning is hideously labor intensive. Neural networks can learn from example. They learn the results

  20. System Identification, Prediction, Simulation and Control with Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    1997-01-01

    a Gauss-Newton search direction is applied. 3) Amongst numerous model types, often met in control applications, only the Non-linear ARMAX (NARMAX) model, representing input/output description, is examined. A simulated example confirms that a neural network has the potential to perform excellent System...... Identification, Prediction, Simulation and Control of a dynamic, non-linear and noisy process. Further, the difficulties to control a practical non-linear laboratory process in a satisfactory way by using a traditional controller are overcomed by using a trained neural network to perform non-linear System......The intention of this paper is to make a systematic examination of the possibilities of applying neural networks in those technical areas, which are familiar to a control engineer. In other words, the potential of neural networks in control applications is given higher priority than a detailed...

  1. A wireless transmission neural interface system for unconstrained non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Leon, Jose A.; Parajuli, Arun; Franklin, Robert; Sorenson, Michael; Felleman, Daniel J.; Hansen, Bryan J.; Hu, Ming; Dragoi, Valentin

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Studying the brain in large animal models in a restrained laboratory rig severely limits our capacity to examine brain circuits in experimental and clinical applications. Approach. To overcome these limitations, we developed a high-fidelity 96-channel wireless system to record extracellular spikes and local field potentials from the neocortex. A removable, external case of the wireless device is attached to a titanium pedestal placed in the animal skull. Broadband neural signals are amplified, multiplexed, and continuously transmitted as TCP/IP data at a sustained rate of 24 Mbps. A Xilinx Spartan 6 FPGA assembles the digital signals into serial data frames for transmission at 20 kHz though an 802.11n wireless data link on a frequency-shift key-modulated signal at 5.7-5.8 GHz to a receiver up to 10 m away. The system is powered by two CR123A, 3 V batteries for 2 h of operation. Main results. We implanted a multi-electrode array in visual area V4 of one anesthetized monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) of a freely moving monkey (Macaca mulatta). The implanted recording arrays were electrically stable and delivered broadband neural data over a year of testing. For the first time, we compared dlPFC neuronal responses to the same set of stimuli (food reward) in restrained and freely moving conditions. Although we did not find differences in neuronal responses as a function of reward type in the restrained and unrestrained conditions, there were significant differences in correlated activity. This demonstrates that measuring neural responses in freely moving animals can capture phenomena that are absent in the traditional head-fixed paradigm. Significance. We implemented a wireless neural interface for multi-electrode recordings in freely moving non-human primates, which can potentially move systems neuroscience to a new direction by allowing one to record neural signals while animals interact with their environment.

  2. A sub-microwatt low-noise amplifier for neural recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Jeremy; Otis, Brian

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a pre-amplifier designed for neural recording applications. Extremely low power dissipation is achieved by operating in an open-loop configuration, restricting the circuit to a single current branch, and reusing current to improve noise performance. Our amplifier exhibits 3.5 microVrms of input-referred noise and has a digitally-controlled gain between 36 dB and 44 dB. The amplifier is AC-coupled, with a pass-band from 0.3 Hz to 4.7 kHz. The circuit is implemented in a 0.5 microm SOI Bi-CMOS process and consumes 805nA from a 1.0V supply, corresponding to a noise efficiency factor (NEF) of 1.8, which is the lowest reported NEF to date.

  3. An alternative respiratory sounds classification system utilizing artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami J Oweis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computerized lung sound analysis involves recording lung sound via an electronic device, followed by computer analysis and classification based on specific signal characteristics as non-linearity and nonstationarity caused by air turbulence. An automatic analysis is necessary to avoid dependence on expert skills. Methods: This work revolves around exploiting autocorrelation in the feature extraction stage. All process stages were implemented in MATLAB. The classification process was performed comparatively using both artificial neural networks (ANNs and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS toolboxes. The methods have been applied to 10 different respiratory sounds for classification. Results: The ANN was superior to the ANFIS system and returned superior performance parameters. Its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 98.6%, 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. The obtained parameters showed superiority to many recent approaches. Conclusions: The promising proposed method is an efficient fast tool for the intended purpose as manifested in the performance parameters, specifically, accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, it may be added that utilizing the autocorrelation function in the feature extraction in such applications results in enhanced performance and avoids undesired computation complexities compared to other techniques.

  4. An alternative respiratory sounds classification system utilizing artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oweis, Rami J; Abdulhay, Enas W; Khayal, Amer; Awad, Areen

    2015-01-01

    Computerized lung sound analysis involves recording lung sound via an electronic device, followed by computer analysis and classification based on specific signal characteristics as non-linearity and nonstationarity caused by air turbulence. An automatic analysis is necessary to avoid dependence on expert skills. This work revolves around exploiting autocorrelation in the feature extraction stage. All process stages were implemented in MATLAB. The classification process was performed comparatively using both artificial neural networks (ANNs) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) toolboxes. The methods have been applied to 10 different respiratory sounds for classification. The ANN was superior to the ANFIS system and returned superior performance parameters. Its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 98.6%, 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. The obtained parameters showed superiority to many recent approaches. The promising proposed method is an efficient fast tool for the intended purpose as manifested in the performance parameters, specifically, accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, it may be added that utilizing the autocorrelation function in the feature extraction in such applications results in enhanced performance and avoids undesired computation complexities compared to other techniques.

  5. 76 FR 61132 - Privacy Act; System of Records: State-77, Country Clearance Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... disabled. ] RETENTION AND DISPOSAL: Records are disposed of in accordance with published Department of... Act; System of Records: State-77, Country Clearance Records SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Department of State proposes to create a system of records, Country Clearance Records, State-77, pursuant to...

  6. 75 FR 70343 - Privacy Act; System of Records: Records of the Bureau of Public Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... determined that a user no longer needs access, the user account is disabled. RETENTION AND DISPOSAL: Records... Act; System of Records: Records of the Bureau of Public Affairs SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Department of State proposes to amend an existing system of records, Records of the Bureau of...

  7. A CMOS power-efficient low-noise current-mode front-end amplifier for neural signal recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Yu; Chen, Wei-Ming; Kuo, Liang-Ting

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a new current-mode front-end amplifier (CMFEA) for neural signal recording systems is proposed. In the proposed CMFEA, a current-mode preamplifier with an active feedback loop operated at very low frequency is designed as the first gain stage to bypass any dc offset current generated by the electrode-tissue interface and to achieve a low high-pass cutoff frequency below 0.5 Hz. No reset signal or ultra-large pseudo resistor is required. The current-mode preamplifier has low dc operation current to enhance low-noise performance and decrease power consumption. A programmable current gain stage is adopted to provide adjustable gain for adaptive signal scaling. A following current-mode filter is designed to adjust the low-pass cutoff frequency for different neural signals. The proposed CMFEA is designed and fabricated in 0.18-μm CMOS technology and the area of the core circuit is 0.076 mm(2). The measured high-pass cutoff frequency is as low as 0.3 Hz and the low-pass cutoff frequency is adjustable from 1 kHz to 10 kHz. The measured maximum current gain is 55.9 dB. The measured input-referred current noise density is 153 fA /√Hz , and the power consumption is 13 μW at 1-V power supply. The fabricated CMFEA has been successfully applied to the animal test for recording the seizure ECoG of Long-Evan rats.

  8. Neck collar for restraining head and body movements in rats for behavioral task performance and simultaneous neural activity recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateyama, Yukina; Oyama, Kei; Lo, Cheuk Wa Christopher; Iijima, Toshio; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-04-01

    Head fixation has been one of the major methods in behavioral neurophysiology because it allows precision in stimulus application and behavioral assessment. Most neural recordings in awake monkeys have been obtained under head fixation, which is nowadays also being used in awake rodents. However, head fixation devices in rats often become unstable within several months, which increases risks for inflammation, infection, and necrosis of the bone and surrounding tissue. In this study we developed a novel non-invasive "neck collar system" for restraining the head and body movements of behaving rats. The attachment of the neck collar for 2-3 months did not affect the animals' health and welfare. Rats under neck-collar fixation could learn a behavioral task (standard delayed licking task) with the same efficiency as those under standard head fixation. They could also learn a more complicated task (delayed pro/anti-licking task) under neck-collar fixation and afterwards transfer their learning to the task under standard head fixation. Furthermore, we were able to record single-unit activity in rats under neck-collar fixation during the performance of the standard delayed licking task. This system consists of economical materials and is easily constructed, and it enables head-restraint without surgery, thus eliminating the risk of inflammation or infection. We consider the neck-collar fixation developed in this study would be useful for restraining the head of a behaving rodent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An artificial neural network controller for intelligent transportation systems applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitela, J.E.; Hanebutte, U.R.; Reifman, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Analysis Div.

    1996-04-01

    An Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) has been designed using a feedforward artificial neural network, as an example for utilizing artificial neural networks for nonlinear control problems arising in intelligent transportation systems applications. The AICC is based on a simple nonlinear model of the vehicle dynamics. A Neural Network Controller (NNC) code developed at Argonne National Laboratory to control discrete dynamical systems was used for this purpose. In order to test the NNC, an AICC-simulator containing graphical displays was developed for a system of two vehicles driving in a single lane. Two simulation cases are shown, one involving a lead vehicle with constant velocity and the other a lead vehicle with varying acceleration. More realistic vehicle dynamic models will be considered in future work.

  10. Neural signal sampling via the low power wireless pico system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz; Cheney, David; Gugel, Karl; Sanchez, Justin C; Principe, Jose C

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a powerful new low power wireless system for sampling multiple channels of neural activity based on Texas Instruments MSP430 microprocessors and Nordic Semiconductor's ultra low power high bandwidth RF transmitters and receivers. The system's development process, component selection, features and test methodology are presented.

  11. Role of neural network models for developing speech systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These prosody models are further examined for applications such as text to speech synthesis, speech recognition, speaker recognition and language identification. Neural network models in voice conversion system are explored for capturing the mapping functions between source and target speakers at source, system and ...

  12. NNSYSID - toolbox for system identification with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard, M.; Ravn, Ole; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2002-01-01

    The NNSYSID toolset for System Identification has been developed as an add on to MATLAB(R). The NNSYSID toolbox has been designed to assist identification of nonlinear dynamic systems. It contains a number of nonlinear model structures based on neural networks, effective training algorithms...

  13. Neural expert decision support system for stroke diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupershtein, Leonid M.; Martyniuk, Tatiana B.; Krencin, Myhail D.; Kozhemiako, Andriy V.; Bezsmertnyi, Yurii; Bezsmertna, Halyna; Kolimoldayev, Maksat; Smolarz, Andrzej; Weryńska-Bieniasz, RóŻa; Uvaysova, Svetlana

    2017-08-01

    In the work the hybrid expert system for stroke diagnosis was presented. The base of expert system consists of neural network and production rules. This program can quickly and accurately set to the patient preliminary and final diagnoses, get examination and treatment plans, print data of patient, analyze statistics data and perform parameterized search for patients.

  14. Chronic multichannel neural recordings from soft regenerative microchannel electrodes during gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Katherine M.; Rigosa, Jacopo; Narasimhan, Shreya; Wurth, Sophie; Capogrosso, Marco; Chew, Daniel J.; Fawcett, James W.; Micera, Silvestro; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2015-09-01

    Reliably interfacing a nerve with an electrode array is one of the approaches to restore motor and sensory functions after an injury to the peripheral nerve. Accomplishing this with current technologies is challenging as the electrode-neuron interface often degrades over time, and surrounding myoelectric signals contaminate the neuro-signals in awake, moving animals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of microchannel electrode implants to monitor over time and in freely moving animals, neural activity from regenerating nerves. We designed and fabricated implants with silicone rubber and elastic thin-film metallization. Each implant carries an eight-by-twelve matrix of parallel microchannels (of 120 × 110 μm2 cross-section and 4 mm length) and gold thin-film electrodes embedded in the floor of ten of the microchannels. After sterilization, the soft, multi-lumen electrode implant is sutured between the stumps of the sciatic nerve. Over a period of three months and in four rats, the microchannel electrodes recorded spike activity from the regenerating sciatic nerve. Histology indicates mini-nerves formed of axons and supporting cells regenerate robustly in the implants. Analysis of the recorded spikes and gait kinematics over the ten-week period suggests firing patterns collected with the microchannel electrode implant can be associated with different phases of gait.

  15. Privacy Act System of Records: EPA Telecommunications Detail Records, EPA-32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn more about the EPA Telecommunications Detail Records System, including who is covered in the system, the purpose of data collection, routine uses for the system's records, and other security procedures.

  16. Privacy Act System of Records: Medical and Research Study Records of Human Volunteers, EPA-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Medical and Research Study Records of Human Volunteers System, including who is covered in the system, the purpose of data collection, routine uses for the system's records, and other security procedures.

  17. Reject mechanisms for massively parallel neural network character recognition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garris, Michael D.; Wilson, Charles L.

    1992-12-01

    Two reject mechanisms are compared using a massively parallel character recognition system implemented at NIST. The recognition system was designed to study the feasibility of automatically recognizing hand-printed text in a loosely constrained environment. The first method is a simple scalar threshold on the output activation of the winning neurode from the character classifier network. The second method uses an additional neural network trained on all outputs from the character classifier network to accept or reject assigned classifications. The neural network rejection method was expected to perform with greater accuracy than the scalar threshold method, but this was not supported by the test results presented. The scalar threshold method, even though arbitrary, is shown to be a viable reject mechanism for use with neural network character classifiers. Upon studying the performance of the neural network rejection method, analyses show that the two neural networks, the character classifier network and the rejection network, perform very similarly. This can be explained by the strong non-linear function of the character classifier network which effectively removes most of the correlation between character accuracy and all activations other than the winning activation. This suggests that any effective rejection network must receive information from the system which has not been filtered through the non-linear classifier.

  18. Neural-network-based fuzzy logic decision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Arun D.; Giridhar, G. B.; Coca, Praveen

    1994-10-01

    During the last few years there has been a large and energetic upswing in research efforts aimed at synthesizing fuzzy logic with neural networks. This combination of neural networks and fuzzy logic seems natural because the two approaches generally attack the design of `intelligent' system from quite different angles. Neural networks provide algorithms for learning, classification, and optimization whereas fuzzy logic often deals with issues such as reasoning in a high (semantic or linguistic) level. Consequently the two technologies complement each other. In this paper, we combine neural networks with fuzzy logic techniques. We propose an artificial neural network (ANN) model for a fuzzy logic decision system. The model consists of six layers. The first three layers map the input variables to fuzzy set membership functions. The last three layers implement the decision rules. The model learns the decision rules using a supervised gradient descent procedure. As an illustration we considered two examples. The first example deals with pixel classification in multispectral satellite images. In our second example we used the fuzzy decision system to analyze data from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for tissue classification.

  19. Adaptive Synchronization of Memristor-based Chaotic Neural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Hu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chaotic neural networks consisting of a great number of chaotic neurons are able to reproduce the rich dynamics observed in biological nervous systems. In recent years, the memristor has attracted much interest in the efficient implementation of artificial synapses and neurons. This work addresses adaptive synchronization of a class of memristor-based neural chaotic systems using a novel adaptive backstepping approach. A systematic design procedure is presented. Simulation results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive synchronization method and its potential in practical application of memristive chaotic oscillators in secure communication.

  20. Energy efficient low-noise neural recording amplifier with enhanced noise efficiency factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidzadeh, V; Schmid, A; Leblebici, Y

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a neural recording amplifier array suitable for large-scale integration with multielectrode arrays in very low-power microelectronic cortical implants. The proposed amplifier is one of the most energy-efficient structures reported to date, which theoretically achieves an effective noise efficiency factor (NEF) smaller than the limit that can be achieved by any existing amplifier topology, which utilizes a differential pair input stage. The proposed architecture, which is referred to as a partial operational transconductance amplifier sharing architecture, results in a significant reduction of power dissipation as well as silicon area, in addition to the very low NEF. The effect of mismatch on crosstalk between channels and the tradeoff between noise and crosstalk are theoretically analyzed. Moreover, a mathematical model of the nonlinearity of the amplifier is derived, and its accuracy is confirmed by simulations and measurements. For an array of four neural amplifiers, measurement results show a midband gain of 39.4 dB and a -3-dB bandwidth ranging from 10 Hz to 7.2 kHz. The input-referred noise integrated from 10 Hz to 100 kHz is measured at 3.5 μVrms and the power consumption is 7.92 μW from a 1.8-V supply, which corresponds to NEF = 3.35. The worst-case crosstalk and common-mode rejection ratio within the desired bandwidth are - 43.5 dB and 70.1 dB, respectively, and the active silicon area of each amplifier is 256 μm × 256 μm in 0.18-μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology.

  1. Reliability Modeling of Microelectromechanical Systems Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera. J. Sebastian

    2000-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are a broad and rapidly expanding field that is currently receiving a great deal of attention because of the potential to significantly improve the ability to sense, analyze, and control a variety of processes, such as heating and ventilation systems, automobiles, medicine, aeronautical flight, military surveillance, weather forecasting, and space exploration. MEMS are very small and are a blend of electrical and mechanical components, with electrical and mechanical systems on one chip. This research establishes reliability estimation and prediction for MEMS devices at the conceptual design phase using neural networks. At the conceptual design phase, before devices are built and tested, traditional methods of quantifying reliability are inadequate because the device is not in existence and cannot be tested to establish the reliability distributions. A novel approach using neural networks is created to predict the overall reliability of a MEMS device based on its components and each component's attributes. The methodology begins with collecting attribute data (fabrication process, physical specifications, operating environment, property characteristics, packaging, etc.) and reliability data for many types of microengines. The data are partitioned into training data (the majority) and validation data (the remainder). A neural network is applied to the training data (both attribute and reliability); the attributes become the system inputs and reliability data (cycles to failure), the system output. After the neural network is trained with sufficient data. the validation data are used to verify the neural networks provided accurate reliability estimates. Now, the reliability of a new proposed MEMS device can be estimated by using the appropriate trained neural networks developed in this work.

  2. Space-time system architecture for the neural optical computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yee-Man V.

    1991-02-01

    The brain can perform the tasks of associative recall detection recognition and optimization. In this paper space-time system field models of the brain are introduced. They are called the space-time maximum likelihood associative memory system (ST-ML-AMS) and the space-time adaptive learning system (ST-ALS). Performance of the system is analyzed using the probability of error in memory recall (PEMR) and the space-time neural capacity (ST-NC). 1.

  3. A dynamical systems view of motor preparation: Implications for neural prosthetic system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Krishna V.; Kaufman, Matthew T.; Sahani, Maneesh; Churchland, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Neural prosthetic systems aim to help disabled patients suffering from a range of neurological injuries and disease by using neural activity from the brain to directly control assistive devices. This approach in effect bypasses the dysfunctional neural circuitry, such as an injured spinal cord. To do so, neural prostheses depend critically on a scientific understanding of the neural activity that drives them. We review here several recent studies aimed at understanding the neural processes in premotor cortex that precede arm movements and lead to the initiation of movement. These studies were motivated by hypotheses and predictions conceived of within a dynamical systems perspective. This perspective concentrates on describing the neural state using as few degrees of freedom as possible and on inferring the rules that govern the motion of that neural state. Although quite general, this perspective has led to a number of specific predictions that have been addressed experimentally. It is hoped that the resulting picture of the dynamical role of preparatory and movement-related neural activity will be particularly helpful to the development of neural prostheses, which can themselves be viewed as dynamical systems under the control of the larger dynamical system to which they are attached. PMID:21763517

  4. A NEURAL NETWORK BASED IRIS RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usham Dias

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents biometric personal identification based on iris recognition using artificial neural networks. Personal identification system consists of localization of the iris region, normalization, enhancement and then iris pattern recognition using neural network. In this paper, through results obtained, we have shown that a person’s left and right eye are unique. In this paper, we also show that the network is sensitive to the initial weights and that over-training gives bad results. We also propose a fast algorithm for the localization of the inner and outer boundaries of the iris region. Results of simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the neural system in personal identification. Finally a hardware iris recognition model is proposed and implementation aspects are discussed.

  5. Optical neural network system for pose determination of spinning satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew; Casasent, David

    1990-01-01

    An optical neural network architecture and algorithm based on a Hopfield optimization network are presented for multitarget tracking. This tracker utilizes a neuron for every possible target track, and a quadratic energy function of neural activities which is minimized using gradient descent neural evolution. The neural net tracker is demonstrated as part of a system for determining position and orientation (pose) of spinning satellites with respect to a robotic spacecraft. The input to the system is time sequence video from a single camera. Novelty detection and filtering are utilized to locate and segment novel regions from the input images. The neural net multitarget tracker determines the correspondences (or tracks) of the novel regions as a function of time, and hence the paths of object (satellite) parts. The path traced out by a given part or region is approximately elliptical in image space, and the position, shape and orientation of the ellipse are functions of the satellite geometry and its pose. Having a geometric model of the satellite, and the elliptical path of a part in image space, the three-dimensional pose of the satellite is determined. Digital simulation results using this algorithm are presented for various satellite poses and lighting conditions.

  6. An integrated multichannel neural recording analog front-end ASIC with area-efficient driven right leg circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao Tang; Wang Ling Goh; Lei Yao; Jia Hao Cheong; Yuan Gao

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes an integrated multichannel neural recording analog front end (AFE) with a novel area-efficient driven right leg (DRL) circuit to improve the system common mode rejection ratio (CMRR). The proposed AFE consists of an AC-coupled low-noise programmable-gain amplifier, an area-efficient DRL block and a 10-bit SAR ADC. Compared to conventional DRL circuit, the proposed capacitor-less DRL design achieves 90% chip area reduction with enhanced CMRR performance, making it ideal for multichannel biomedical recording applications. The AFE circuit has been designed in a standard 0.18-μm CMOS process. Post-layout simulation results show that the AFE provides two gain settings of 54dB/60dB while consuming 1 μA per channel under a supply voltage of 1 V. The input-referred noise of the AFE integrated from 1 Hz to 10k Hz is only 4 μVrms and the CMRR is 110 dB.

  7. 21 CFR 820.186 - Quality system record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality system record. 820.186 Section 820.186...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Records § 820.186 Quality system record. Each manufacturer shall maintain a quality system record (QSR). The QSR shall include, or refer to the location of, procedures and...

  8. 76 FR 51975 - Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ...) uses the records in this system to: 1. Authorize payroll deductions, including but not limited to... COMMISSION Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission (FCC, Commission, or the Agency) ACTION: Notice; one new Privacy Act system of records; two deleted systems of records. SUMMARY...

  9. 77 FR 25991 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... be made available upon request. Retention and disposal: Records are maintained in the current... Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Information Systems Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to Add a New System of Records. SUMMARY: The Department of the Army proposes to add a new system of records...

  10. 77 FR 35945 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice To Amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system of records in its inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as...

  11. 77 FR 35946 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system of records in its inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C...

  12. 76 FR 76149 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to Amend a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U...

  13. 76 FR 21706 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U...

  14. 76 FR 11213 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to delete a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency proposes to delete a system of records notice in its existing inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974...

  15. 78 FR 17386 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to alter a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency proposes to alter a system of records in its inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended...

  16. 78 FR 17385 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is amending a system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C...

  17. 78 FR 14279 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system of records in its inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as...

  18. 75 FR 28242 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U...

  19. 77 FR 21755 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system of records in its inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as...

  20. 78 FR 22854 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to alter a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency proposes to alter a system of records in its inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended...

  1. 76 FR 12076 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U...

  2. 75 FR 48655 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U...

  3. 75 FR 22562 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to alter a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency proposes to alter a system of records notice in its existing inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974...

  4. 76 FR 26714 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to Delete a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency proposes to delete a system of records notice in its existing inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974...

  5. 75 FR 5579 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U...

  6. 76 FR 28002 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to delete three systems of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency proposes to delete three systems of records notices in its existing inventory of records systems subject to the...

  7. 76 FR 39389 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to Amend a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U...

  8. 76 FR 28002 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to Amend Two Systems of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend two systems of records notices in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974...

  9. 78 FR 21600 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to delete a Systems of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is deleting a system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C...

  10. 75 FR 9185 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U...

  11. 76 FR 73602 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject...

  12. 75 FR 6000 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to delete a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency proposes to delete a system of records notice in its existing inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974...

  13. 75 FR 25213 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency proposes to amend a system of records notice in its existing inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974...

  14. 78 FR 14283 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system of records in its inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as...

  15. 77 FR 65049 - Privacy Act; System of Records: Translator and Interpreter Records, State-37

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... Act; System of Records: Translator and Interpreter Records, State-37 SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given... Interpreter Records, State-37, pursuant to the provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended (5 U.S.C... retain the name ``Translator and Interpreter Records'' (42 FR 49719). The system will facilitate the...

  16. 12 CFR 1403.3 - Procedures for requests pertaining to individual records in a record system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for requests pertaining to individual records in a record system. 1403.3 Section 1403.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE... record system. (a) Any present or former employee of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation seeking...

  17. 75 FR 25856 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... access are allowed to view, administer, and control these records. retention and disposal: Records are... records. Retention and Disposal: Records are maintained in accordance with National Archives and Records... AGENCY Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Notice of...

  18. A programmable closed-loop recording and stimulating wireless system for behaving small laboratory animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotzi, Gian Nicola; Boi, Fabio; Zordan, Stefano; Bonfanti, Andrea; Vato, Alessandro

    2014-08-01

    A portable 16-channels microcontroller-based wireless system for a bi-directional interaction with the central nervous system is presented in this work. The device is designed to be used with freely behaving small laboratory animals and allows recording of spontaneous and evoked neural activity wirelessly transmitted and stored on a personal computer. Biphasic current stimuli with programmable duration, frequency and amplitude may be triggered in real-time on the basis of the recorded neural activity as well as by the animal behavior within a specifically designed experimental setup. An intuitive graphical user interface was developed to configure and to monitor the whole system. The system was successfully tested through bench tests and in vivo measurements on behaving rats chronically implanted with multi-channels microwire arrays.

  19. A configurable realtime DWT-based neural data compression and communication VLSI system for wireless implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuning; Kamboh, Awais M; Mason, Andrew J

    2014-04-30

    This paper presents the design of a complete multi-channel neural recording compression and communication system for wireless implants that addresses the challenging simultaneous requirements for low power, high bandwidth and error-free communication. The compression engine implements discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and run length encoding schemes and offers a practical data compression solution that faithfully preserves neural information. The communication engine encodes data and commands separately into custom-designed packet structures utilizing a protocol capable of error handling. VLSI hardware implementation of these functions, within the design constraints of a 32-channel neural compression implant, is presented. Designed in 0.13μm CMOS, the core of the neural compression and communication chip occupies only 1.21mm(2) and consumes 800μW of power (25μW per channel at 26KS/s) demonstrating an effective solution for intra-cortical neural interfaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Using fuzzy logic to integrate neural networks and knowledge-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, John

    1991-01-01

    Outlined here is a novel hybrid architecture that uses fuzzy logic to integrate neural networks and knowledge-based systems. The author's approach offers important synergistic benefits to neural nets, approximate reasoning, and symbolic processing. Fuzzy inference rules extend symbolic systems with approximate reasoning capabilities, which are used for integrating and interpreting the outputs of neural networks. The symbolic system captures meta-level information about neural networks and defines its interaction with neural networks through a set of control tasks. Fuzzy action rules provide a robust mechanism for recognizing the situations in which neural networks require certain control actions. The neural nets, on the other hand, offer flexible classification and adaptive learning capabilities, which are crucial for dynamic and noisy environments. By combining neural nets and symbolic systems at their system levels through the use of fuzzy logic, the author's approach alleviates current difficulties in reconciling differences between low-level data processing mechanisms of neural nets and artificial intelligence systems.

  1. Classical Conditioning with Pulsed Integrated Neural Networks: Circuits and System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we investigate on-chip learning for pulsed, integrated neural networks. We discuss the implementational problems the technology imposes on learning systems and we find that abiologically inspired approach using simple circuit structures is most likely to bring success. We develop a ...... chip to solve simple classical conditioning tasks, thus verifying the design methodologies put forward in the paper....

  2. Dynamic causal models of neural system dynamics: current state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-09-28

    Sep 28, 2006 ... Keywords. Dynamic causal modelling; EEG; effective connectivity; event-related potentials; fMRI; neural system ... In this article, we review the conceptual and mathematical basis of DCM and its implementation for functional magnetic resonance imaging data and event-related potentials. After introducing ...

  3. Neural network based system for script identification in Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    environments. The system developed includes a feature extractor and a modular neural network. The feature extractor consists of two stages. In the first stage ... environments is script/language identification (Muthusamy et al 1994; Hochberg et al 1997). ... In order to take advantage of the learning and generalization abilities ...

  4. A breathing circuit alarm system based on neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, J A; Westenskow, D R

    1994-03-01

    The objectives of our study were (1) to implement intelligent respiratory alarms with a neural network; and (2) to increase alarm specificity and decrease false-alarm rates compared with current alarms. We trained a neural network to recognize 13 faults in an anesthesia breathing circuit. The system extracted 30 breath-to-breath features from the airway CO2, flow, and pressure signals. We created training data for the network by introducing 13 faults repeatedly in 5 dogs (616 total faults). We used the data to train the neural network using the backward error propagation algorithm. In animals, the trained network reported the alarms correctly for 95.0% of the faults when tested during controlled ventilation, and for 86.9% of the faults during spontaneous breathing. When tested in the operating room, the system found and correctly reported 54 of 57 faults that occurred during 43.6 hr of use. The alarm system produced a total of 74 false alarms during 43.6 hr of monitoring. Neural networks may be useful in creating intelligent anesthesia alarm systems.

  5. KCNQ potassium channels in sensory system and neural circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-jing; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    M channels, an important regulator of neural excitability, are composed of four subunits of the Kv7 (KCNQ) K(+) channel family. M channels were named as such because their activity was suppressed by stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. These channels are of particular interest because they are activated at the subthreshold membrane potentials. Furthermore, neural KCNQ channels are drug targets for the treatments of epilepsy and a variety of neurological disorders, including chronic and neuropathic pain, deafness, and mental illness. This review will update readers on the roles of KCNQ channels in the sensory system and neural circuits as well as discuss their respective mechanisms and the implications for physiology and medicine. We will also consider future perspectives and the development of additional pharmacological models, such as seizure, stroke, pain and mental illness, which work in combination with drug-design targeting of KCNQ channels. These models will hopefully deepen our understanding of KCNQ channels and provide general therapeutic prospects of related channelopathies.

  6. 77 FR 66432 - Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... (USAID) is deleting the AID-15 Employee Payroll Records, system of records in its existing inventory... Act systems of records. As a result of this review, USAID is deleting the AID-15 Employee Payroll...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records AGENCY: United States Agency...

  7. 76 FR 28961 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... servicing and authorized to use the record system. Retention and disposal: Records are maintained for six... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Notice to add a system of records. SUMMARY: The Office of the Secretary of Defense proposes to add a...

  8. 78 FR 19462 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ...: Records retention and disposal is in accordance with the series records schedules. System manager(s) and... Patent and Trademark Office Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of amendment of Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: In...

  9. 75 FR 10471 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... records notice and 32 CFR part 323. RETENTION AND DISPOSAL: Records have the following disposition... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system...

  10. 76 FR 26714 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ...-know and who therefore are properly trained and screened. Retention and disposal: Records on local... Department of the Army Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice to alter a system of records. SUMMARY: Department of the Army is altering a system of records...

  11. 75 FR 19624 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... consequences of improperly accessing restricted databases. Retention and disposal: Records are destroyed 1 year...] Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system of records notice...

  12. 76 FR 76215 - Privacy Act; System of Records: State-78, Risk Analysis and Management Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Act; System of Records: State-78, Risk Analysis and Management Records SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Department of State proposes to create a system of records, Risk Analysis and Management.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Department of State proposes that the new system will be ``Risk Analysis and...

  13. Frequency-difference-dependent stochastic resonance in neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Daqing; Perc, Matjaž; Zhang, Yangsong; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-08-01

    Biological neurons receive multiple noisy oscillatory signals, and their dynamical response to the superposition of these signals is of fundamental importance for information processing in the brain. Here we study the response of neural systems to the weak envelope modulation signal, which is superimposed by two periodic signals with different frequencies. We show that stochastic resonance occurs at the beat frequency in neural systems at the single-neuron as well as the population level. The performance of this frequency-difference-dependent stochastic resonance is influenced by both the beat frequency and the two forcing frequencies. Compared to a single neuron, a population of neurons is more efficient in detecting the information carried by the weak envelope modulation signal at the beat frequency. Furthermore, an appropriate fine-tuning of the excitation-inhibition balance can further optimize the response of a neural ensemble to the superimposed signal. Our results thus introduce and provide insights into the generation and modulation mechanism of the frequency-difference-dependent stochastic resonance in neural systems.

  14. Internal models and neural computation in the vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andrea M; Angelaki, Dora E

    2010-01-01

    The vestibular system is vital for motor control and spatial self-motion perception. Afferents from the otolith organs and the semicircular canals converge with optokinetic, somatosensory and motor-related signals in the vestibular nuclei, which are reciprocally interconnected with the vestibulocerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei. Here, we review the properties of the many cell types in the vestibular nuclei, as well as some fundamental computations implemented within this brainstem-cerebellar circuitry. These include the sensorimotor transformations for reflex generation, the neural computations for inertial motion estimation, the distinction between active and passive head movements, as well as the integration of vestibular and proprioceptive information for body motion estimation. A common theme in the solution to such computational problems is the concept of internal models and their neural implementation. Recent studies have shed new insights into important organizational principles that closely resemble those proposed for other sensorimotor systems, where their neural basis has often been more difficult to identify. As such, the vestibular system provides an excellent model to explore common neural processing strategies relevant both for reflexive and for goal-directed, voluntary movement as well as perception.

  15. Synthesis of recurrent neural networks for dynamical system simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trischler, Adam P; D'Eleuterio, Gabriele M T

    2016-08-01

    We review several of the most widely used techniques for training recurrent neural networks to approximate dynamical systems, then describe a novel algorithm for this task. The algorithm is based on an earlier theoretical result that guarantees the quality of the network approximation. We show that a feedforward neural network can be trained on the vector-field representation of a given dynamical system using backpropagation, then recast it as a recurrent network that replicates the original system's dynamics. After detailing this algorithm and its relation to earlier approaches, we present numerical examples that demonstrate its capabilities. One of the distinguishing features of our approach is that both the original dynamical systems and the recurrent networks that simulate them operate in continuous time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Architecture for networked electronic patient record systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, H; Matsumura, Y; Kuwata, S; Nakano, H; Sakamoto, N; Yamamoto, R

    2000-11-01

    There have been two major approaches to the development of networked electronic patient record (EPR) architecture. One uses object-oriented methodologies for constructing the model, which include the GEHR project, Synapses, HL7 RIM and so on. The second approach uses document-oriented methodologies, as applied in examples of HL7 PRA. It is practically beneficial to take the advantages of both approaches and to add solution technologies for network security such as PKI. In recognition of the similarity with electronic commerce, a certificate authority as a trusted third party will be organised for establishing networked EPR system. This paper describes a Japanese functional model that has been developed, and proposes a document-object-oriented architecture, which is-compared with other existing models.

  17. A Real-Time Spike Classification Method Based on Dynamic Time Warping for Extracellular Enteric Neural Recording with Large Waveform Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yingqiu; Rakhilin, Nikolai; Gordon, Philip H.; Shen, Xiling; Kan, Edwin C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Computationally efficient spike recognition methods are required for real-time analysis of extracellular neural recordings. The enteric nervous system (ENS) is important to human health but less well-understood with few appropriate spike recognition algorithms due to large waveform variability. New Method Here we present a method based on dynamic time warping (DTW) with high tolerance to variability in time and magnitude. Adaptive temporal gridding for fastDTW in similarity calculation significantly reduces the computational cost. The automated threshold selection allows for real-time classification for extracellular recordings. Results Our method is first evaluated on synthesized data at different noise levels, improving both classification accuracy and computational complexity over the conventional cross-correlation based template-matching method (CCTM) and PCA + k-means clustering without time warping. Our method is then applied to analyze the mouse enteric neural recording with mechanical and chemical stimuli. Successful classification of biphasic and monophasic spikes is achieved even when the spike variability is larger than millisecond in width and millivolt in magnitude. Comparison with Existing Method(s) In comparison with conventional template matching and clustering methods, the fastDTW method is computationally efficient with high tolerance to waveform variability. Conclusions We have developed an adaptive fastDTW algorithm for real-time spike classification of ENS recording with large waveform variability against colony motility, ambient changes and cellular heterogeneity. PMID:26719239

  18. 76 FR 44888 - Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... disposal: Records are retained using the appropriate, approved National Archives Records Administration... DEVELOPMENT Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records AGENCY: United States Agency for International Development. ACTION: Notice of new system of records. SUMMARY: The United States Agency for International Development...

  19. 77 FR 56628 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... disposal: Records are retained for 10 years and then destroyed. Paper records are destroyed by pulping...-0106] Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: National Security Agency/Central Security Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to add a system of records. SUMMARY: The National Security Agency/Central...

  20. 78 FR 73508 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Air Force Museum. Categories of records in the system: Name, home and personal cell telephone number... new system of records, F084 NMUSAF A, entitled ``USAF Museum System Volunteer Records'' to its... official registry of individuals who volunteer to support the United States Air Force Museum System. DATES...

  1. 77 FR 5860 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... or retention of a security clearance. That entity, authority, or licensing organization may then make... computer system offers a high degree of resistance to tampering and circumvention. This system limits data... a record in the system of records, contact the system manager and identify the record to be changed...

  2. 75 FR 17978 - Privacy Act of 1974: Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ...). Accordingly, the Commission is revising the system of records to read as follows: SEC-15 SYSTEM NAME: Payroll, Attendance, Retirement and Leave Records. SYSTEM LOCATION: 1. Payroll files, retirement case files, time and... the Interior's integrated Federal Personnel and Payroll System (FPPS). Personnel records contained in...

  3. 77 FR 9632 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ..., payroll office and payroll records, including automated payroll systems.'' * * * * * BILLING CODE 5001-06... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to Amend a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system...

  4. 76 FR 65535 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... made obsolete by virtue of an amendment to the ``Department of Justice Payroll System, Justice/JMD-003... Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice to remove one system of records and modify another system of records. SUMMARY: The Federal...

  5. 75 FR 38494 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... responsible for servicing and authorized to use the system. Retention and disposal: Records are kept for 5... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to add a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Intelligence proposes to add a system of...

  6. 75 FR 43498 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    .... Retention and disposal: Records are maintained for 5 years, then destroyed by erasing. System manager(s) and... Department of the Army Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice to add a system of records. SUMMARY: The Department of the Army proposes to add a system of...

  7. 75 FR 49482 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... disposal: Records are maintained in an active file during the period of the individual's assignment to DISA... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Information Systems Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Information Systems Agency...

  8. 76 FR 39390 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... disposal: Records will be destroyed 5 years after final resolution of the case. System manager(s) and... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system...

  9. Neural - fuzzy approach for system identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tien, B.T.

    1997-01-01

    Most real-world processes have nonlinear and complex dynamics. Conventional methods of constructing nonlinear models from first principles are time consuming and require a level of knowledge about the internal functioning of the system that is often not available. Consequently, in such

  10. 75 FR 69644 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... system permissions, intrusion detection and prevention systems and log monitoring. Complete access to all...] Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Information Systems Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to add a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Information Systems Agency is proposing to add a system...

  11. Neural Computations in a Dynamical System with Multiple Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yuanyuan; Lin, Xiaohan; Wu, Si

    2016-01-01

    Neural systems display rich short-term dynamics at various levels, e.g., spike-frequency adaptation (SFA) at the single-neuron level, and short-term facilitation (STF) and depression (STD) at the synapse level. These dynamical features typically cover a broad range of time scales and exhibit large diversity in different brain regions. It remains unclear what is the computational benefit for the brain to have such variability in short-term dynamics. In this study, we propose that the brain can exploit such dynamical features to implement multiple seemingly contradictory computations in a single neural circuit. To demonstrate this idea, we use continuous attractor neural network (CANN) as a working model and include STF, SFA and STD with increasing time constants in its dynamics. Three computational tasks are considered, which are persistent activity, adaptation, and anticipative tracking. These tasks require conflicting neural mechanisms, and hence cannot be implemented by a single dynamical feature or any combination with similar time constants. However, with properly coordinated STF, SFA and STD, we show that the network is able to implement the three computational tasks concurrently. We hope this study will shed light on the understanding of how the brain orchestrates its rich dynamics at various levels to realize diverse cognitive functions. PMID:27679569

  12. Evolutionary Computation and Its Applications in Neural and Fuzzy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biaobiao Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural networks and fuzzy systems are two soft-computing paradigms for system modelling. Adapting a neural or fuzzy system requires to solve two optimization problems: structural optimization and parametric optimization. Structural optimization is a discrete optimization problem which is very hard to solve using conventional optimization techniques. Parametric optimization can be solved using conventional optimization techniques, but the solution may be easily trapped at a bad local optimum. Evolutionary computation is a general-purpose stochastic global optimization approach under the universally accepted neo-Darwinian paradigm, which is a combination of the classical Darwinian evolutionary theory, the selectionism of Weismann, and the genetics of Mendel. Evolutionary algorithms are a major approach to adaptation and optimization. In this paper, we first introduce evolutionary algorithms with emphasis on genetic algorithms and evolutionary strategies. Other evolutionary algorithms such as genetic programming, evolutionary programming, particle swarm optimization, immune algorithm, and ant colony optimization are also described. Some topics pertaining to evolutionary algorithms are also discussed, and a comparison between evolutionary algorithms and simulated annealing is made. Finally, the application of EAs to the learning of neural networks as well as to the structural and parametric adaptations of fuzzy systems is also detailed.

  13. Neural Mechanisms and Information Processing in Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamiko Ozaki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nestmate recognition is a hallmark of social insects. It is based on the match/mismatch of an identity signal carried by members of the society with that of the perceiving individual. While the behavioral response, amicable or aggressive, is very clear, the neural systems underlying recognition are not fully understood. Here we contrast two alternative hypotheses for the neural mechanisms that are responsible for the perception and information processing in recognition. We focus on recognition via chemical signals, as the common modality in social insects. The first, classical, hypothesis states that upon perception of recognition cues by the sensory system the information is passed as is to the antennal lobes and to higher brain centers where the information is deciphered and compared to a neural template. Match or mismatch information is then transferred to some behavior-generating centers where the appropriate response is elicited. An alternative hypothesis, that of “pre-filter mechanism”, posits that the decision as to whether to pass on the information to the central nervous system takes place in the peripheral sensory system. We suggest that, through sensory adaptation, only alien signals are passed on to the brain, specifically to an “aggressive-behavior-switching center”, where the response is generated if the signal is above a certain threshold.

  14. Conducting Polymers for Neural Prosthetic and Neural Interface Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Neural interfacing devices are an artificial mechanism for restoring or supplementing the function of the nervous system lost as a result of injury or disease. Conducting polymers (CPs) are gaining significant attention due to their capacity to meet the performance criteria of a number of neuronal therapies including recording and stimulating neural activity, the regeneration of neural tissue and the delivery of bioactive molecules for mediating device-tissue interactions. CPs form a flexible platform technology that enables the development of tailored materials for a range of neuronal diagnostic and treatment therapies. In this review the application of CPs for neural prostheses and other neural interfacing devices are discussed, with a specific focus on neural recording, neural stimulation, neural regeneration, and therapeutic drug delivery. PMID:26414302

  15. 75 FR 50983 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... add the following sections: security classification, agency official responsible for system of records... and Human Volunteers Participating in Research SECURITY CLASSIFICATION: None. SYSTEM LOCATION: Records... and nutritional histories, medical and nutritional examinations, diagnostic and treatment data, social...

  16. 78 FR 62605 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) Records System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... current enforceability of the debt, financial hardship, and payroll documentation. This system of records... administering the Department's payroll system to inform them of decisions regarding salary overpayment cases. (2... Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records--Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) Records System AGENCY: Office...

  17. Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James

    2016-07-01

    There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem

  18. 77 FR 58816 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... Funds Central Payroll System (NAFCPS)(June 24, 2008, 73 FR 35669), therefore the system can be deleted... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Information Systems Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to delete five Systems of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Information Systems...

  19. 75 FR 76428 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... system permissions, intrusion detection and prevention ] systems and log monitoring. Complete access to... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Information Systems Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to alter a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Information Systems Agency is...

  20. 77 FR 43814 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... counter foreign intelligence and terrorist threats to the DoD and the United States. The system of records... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to alter a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Intelligence Agency is proposing to...

  1. 75 FR 19946 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Intelligence Agency. Categories of records in the system: Individual's name, organizational and home address... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Intelligence Agency is proposing to...

  2. 78 FR 60265 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION... systems of record notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974... members of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http...

  3. 76 FR 10008 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION... system of records notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are ] received...

  4. 77 FR 37885 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Threat Reduction Agency, DoD... system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  5. 75 FR 65456 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION... a system of records notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act... of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  6. 75 FR 15694 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD... system of records notice in its existing inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  7. 77 FR 65539 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense... amending a system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  8. 77 FR 77048 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Contract Audit Agency, DoD... system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  9. 76 FR 37329 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... Department of the Air Force Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, DoD... systems of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  10. 75 FR 63824 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Department of the Air Force Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Air Force; DoD... a system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of... of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  11. 75 FR 33788 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of Defense, DoD. ACTION... a systems of record notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http:// ] www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  12. 75 FR 20579 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD... two systems of records notice in its existing inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  13. 75 FR 29728 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION... a system of records notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  14. 76 FR 10010 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD... a system of records notice in its existing inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act... viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  15. 77 FR 17035 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Department of the Air Force Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, DoD... system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974... public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  16. 75 FR 22570 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Department of the Air Force Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, DoD... a system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  17. 75 FR 17911 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Department of the Air Force Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, DoD... a system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  18. 75 FR 43494 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION... a system of records notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act... of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  19. 76 FR 60008 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Department of the Army Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Army, Department of... deleting a system of records notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...

  20. 75 FR 17910 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD... system of records notice in its existing inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974... make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as...

  1. 76 FR 22682 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION... system of records notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  2. 76 FR 1411 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Department of the Air Force Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, DoD... systems of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974... viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  3. 75 FR 33789 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Threat Reduction Agency, DoD... a system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  4. 75 FR 22569 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Department of the Air Force Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, DoD... a system of records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  5. 77 FR 77047 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Contract Audit Agency, DoD... deleting a system of records in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974... for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change...

  6. 77 FR 66442 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense... deleting a systems of record notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  7. 75 FR 47797 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Defense Logistics Agency Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD... a system of records notice in its existing inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act... of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  8. 75 FR 10476 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD... system of records notice in its existing inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  9. 75 FR 52517 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION... a system of records notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act... of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  10. 75 FR 30003 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD... a system of records notice in its existing inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  11. 77 FR 60400 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION... system of records notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974... for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change...

  12. 76 FR 11213 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD... system of records notice in its existing inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  13. 77 FR 26260 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD... a system of records notice in its existing inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act... viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  14. 75 FR 55576 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION... a system of records notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act... of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  15. 76 FR 1409 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION... system of records notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  16. 78 FR 14276 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ..., and NM07010-1, DON Non- Appropriated Funds Standard payroll System. All records that have met their... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: United States Marine Corps, DoD. ACTION: Notice to delete twenty-three Systems of Records. SUMMARY: The U.S. Marine Corps is deleting...

  17. 75 FR 2117 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... addition to user identification and password for system access. RETENTION AND DISPOSAL: Records are deleted... Department of the Air Force Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Notice to add a system of records. SUMMARY: The Department of the Air Force proposes to add a...

  18. 76 FR 4880 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... servers via a secure remote password-protected connection. RETENTION AND DISPOSAL: Records in this system... DISPOSAL: Records in this system are maintained in accordance with the applicable National Archives and... retrieved by name and by Tax Identification Number. RETENTION AND DISPOSAL: Records in this system are...

  19. 76 FR 46767 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... disposal: Records are kept in current file area until no longer needed for conducting business, then... Department of the Army Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice to Add a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Department of the Army proposes to add a system of...

  20. 75 FR 42719 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Information Assurance and Privacy Act training. RETENTION AND DISPOSAL: Records are destroyed when 2 years old... Department of the Navy Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice to add a new system of records. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy proposes to add a new system...

  1. 76 FR 52320 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... assurance procedures. Retention and disposal: Records are retained for two years and then deleted. System... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice to add a system of records. SUMMARY: The Office of the Secretary...

  2. 78 FR 19463 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... system (hardware and software) are utilized. Retention and disposal: Records retention and disposal is in... United States Patent and Trademark Office Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of amendment of Privacy Act system of records...

  3. 76 FR 65185 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... information. Retention and Disposal: Records are destroyed after eight years. System Manager(s) and Address... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is...

  4. 76 FR 13991 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... technology protocols. Retention and disposal: Records are destroyed when superseded or obsolete whichever... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency is proposing to amend a system...

  5. 75 FR 21260 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    .... Retention and disposal: Records are maintained until superseded or for a period of two years and then... Department of the Navy Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice to alter a system of records. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy proposes to alter a system of...

  6. 78 FR 64196 - Privacy Act Altered System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ..., Biographical Files and Social Networks. The amendment serves to modify the system of records by generally... Privacy Act Altered System of Records AGENCY: Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice; Commerce/Department... announce the effective date of a Privacy Act System of Records entitled Commerce/Department-20...

  7. Neural feedback linearization adaptive control for affine nonlinear systems based on neural network estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahita Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we introduce an adaptive neural network controller for a class of nonlinear systems. The approach uses two Radial Basis Functions, RBF networks. The first RBF network is used to approximate the ideal control law which cannot be implemented since the dynamics of the system are unknown. The second RBF network is used for on-line estimating the control gain which is a nonlinear and unknown function of the states. The updating laws for the combined estimator and controller are derived through Lyapunov analysis. Asymptotic stability is established with the tracking errors converging to a neighborhood of the origin. Finally, the proposed method is applied to control and stabilize the inverted pendulum system.

  8. Intra-day signal instabilities affect decoding performance in an intracortical neural interface system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perge, János A.; Homer, Mark L.; Malik, Wasim Q.; Cash, Sydney; Eskandar, Emad; Friehs, Gerhard; Donoghue, John P.; Hochberg, Leigh R.

    2013-06-01

    Objective. Motor neural interface systems (NIS) aim to convert neural signals into motor prosthetic or assistive device control, allowing people with paralysis to regain movement or control over their immediate environment. Effector or prosthetic control can degrade if the relationship between recorded neural signals and intended motor behavior changes. Therefore, characterizing both biological and technological sources of signal variability is important for a reliable NIS. Approach. To address the frequency and causes of neural signal variability in a spike-based NIS, we analyzed within-day fluctuations in spiking activity and action potential amplitude recorded with silicon microelectrode arrays implanted in the motor cortex of three people with tetraplegia (BrainGate pilot clinical trial, IDE). Main results. 84% of the recorded units showed a statistically significant change in apparent firing rate (3.8 ± 8.71 Hz or 49% of the mean rate) across several-minute epochs of tasks performed on a single session, and 74% of the units showed a significant change in spike amplitude (3.7 ± 6.5 µV or 5.5% of mean spike amplitude). 40% of the recording sessions showed a significant correlation in the occurrence of amplitude changes across electrodes, suggesting array micro-movement. Despite the relatively frequent amplitude changes, only 15% of the observed within-day rate changes originated from recording artifacts such as spike amplitude change or electrical noise, while 85% of the rate changes most likely emerged from physiological mechanisms. Computer simulations confirmed that systematic rate changes of individual neurons could produce a directional ‘bias’ in the decoded neural cursor movements. Instability in apparent neuronal spike rates indeed yielded a directional bias in 56% of all performance assessments in participant cursor control (n = 2 participants, 108 and 20 assessments over two years), resulting in suboptimal performance in these sessions

  9. Multi-layer holographic bifurcative neural network system for real-time adaptive EOS data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Huang, K. S.; Diep, J.

    1993-01-01

    Optical data processing techniques have the inherent advantage of high data throughout, low weight and low power requirements. These features are particularly desirable for onboard spacecraft in-situ real-time data analysis and data compression applications. the proposed multi-layer optical holographic neural net pattern recognition technique will utilize the nonlinear photorefractive devices for real-time adaptive learning to classify input data content and recognize unexpected features. Information can be stored either in analog or digital form in a nonlinear photofractive device. The recording can be accomplished in time scales ranging from milliseconds to microseconds. When a system consisting of these devices is organized in a multi-layer structure, a feedforward neural net with bifurcating data classification capability is formed. The interdisciplinary research will involve the collaboration with top digital computer architecture experts at the University of Southern California.

  10. Inverse current source density method in two dimensions: inferring neural activation from multielectrode recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łęski, Szymon; Pettersen, Klas H; Tunstall, Beth; Einevoll, Gaute T; Gigg, John; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2011-12-01

    The recent development of large multielectrode recording arrays has made it affordable for an increasing number of laboratories to record from multiple brain regions simultaneously. The development of analytical tools for array data, however, lags behind these technological advances in hardware. In this paper, we present a method based on forward modeling for estimating current source density from electrophysiological signals recorded on a two-dimensional grid using multi-electrode rectangular arrays. This new method, which we call two-dimensional inverse Current Source Density (iCSD 2D), is based upon and extends our previous one- and three-dimensional techniques. We test several variants of our method, both on surrogate data generated from a collection of Gaussian sources, and on model data from a population of layer 5 neocortical pyramidal neurons. We also apply the method to experimental data from the rat subiculum. The main advantages of the proposed method are the explicit specification of its assumptions, the possibility to include system-specific information as it becomes available, the ability to estimate CSD at the grid boundaries, and lower reconstruction errors when compared to the traditional approach. These features make iCSD 2D a substantial improvement over the approaches used so far and a powerful new tool for the analysis of multielectrode array data. We also provide a free GUI-based MATLAB toolbox to analyze and visualize our test data as well as user datasets.

  11. Predictive and Neural Predictive Control of Uncertain Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, Atul G.

    2000-01-01

    Accomplishments and future work are:(1) Stability analysis: the work completed includes characterization of stability of receding horizon-based MPC in the setting of LQ paradigm. The current work-in-progress includes analyzing local as well as global stability of the closed-loop system under various nonlinearities; for example, actuator nonlinearities; sensor nonlinearities, and other plant nonlinearities. Actuator nonlinearities include three major types of nonlineaxities: saturation, dead-zone, and (0, 00) sector. (2) Robustness analysis: It is shown that receding horizon parameters such as input and output horizon lengths have direct effect on the robustness of the system. (3) Code development: A matlab code has been developed which can simulate various MPC formulations. The current effort is to generalize the code to include ability to handle all plant types and all MPC types. (4) Improved predictor: It is shown that MPC design using better predictors that can minimize prediction errors. It is shown analytically and numerically that Smith predictor can provide closed-loop stability under GPC operation for plants with dead times where standard optimal predictor fails. (5) Neural network predictors: When neural network is used as predictor it can be shown that neural network predicts the plant output within some finite error bound under certain conditions. Our preliminary study shows that with proper choice of update laws and network architectures such bound can be obtained. However, much work needs to be done to obtain a similar result in general case.

  12. Factors affecting the utilisation of electronic medical records system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background In Malawi, paper-based medical record-keeping has been observed to exacerbate challenges related to accessing patient records and patient tracking. Despite the introduction of electronic medical record (EMR) systems in 2001, paper-based records continue to be in use. Some health workers prefer ...

  13. 77 FR 59251 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ..., safeguards, retention and disposal, records in the system, and record source categories. The amendments... authorized users that must be changed periodically. Retention and disposal: Records relating to persons... must be changed periodically. Retention and disposal: Pursuant to PBGC's Simplified Records Schedule 1...

  14. 75 FR 37842 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ..., storage, retrievability, safeguards, retention and disposal, records in the system, and record source... passwords set by authorized users that must be changed periodically. Retention and disposal: Records created... periodically. Retention and disposal: Records are maintained for various periods of time, as provided in...

  15. Intelligent systems II complete approximation by neural network operators

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    2016-01-01

    This monograph is the continuation and completion of the monograph, “Intelligent Systems: Approximation by Artificial Neural Networks” written by the same author and published 2011 by Springer. The book you hold in hand presents the complete recent and original work of the author in approximation by neural networks. Chapters are written in a self-contained style and can be read independently. Advanced courses and seminars can be taught out of this brief book. All necessary background and motivations are given per chapter. A related list of references is given also per chapter. The book’s results are expected to find applications in many areas of applied mathematics, computer science and engineering. As such this monograph is suitable for researchers, graduate students, and seminars of the above subjects, also for all science and engineering libraries.  .

  16. 78 FR 14088 - Creation of a New System of Records Notice: Telework Application and Agreement Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... of any defects or viruses. For additional information about EPA's public docket visit the EPA Docket.... Retrievability: Primarily by the applicant's name. Safeguards: Computer records are maintained in a secure, password protected computer system. Paper records are maintained in lockable file cabinets. All records...

  17. Neural systems for choice and valuation with counterfactual learning signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, M J; Guo, R; Schwarze, U; Boehmer, W; Gläscher, J; Finckh, B; Marschner, A; Büchel, C; Obermayer, K; Sommer, T

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to test a computational model of reinforcement learning with and without fictive prediction error (FPE) signals to investigate how counterfactual consequences contribute to acquired representations of action-specific expected value, and to determine the functional neuroanatomy and neuromodulator systems that are involved. 80 male participants underwent dietary depletion of either tryptophan or tyrosine/phenylalanine to manipulate serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA), respectively. They completed 80 rounds (240 trials) of a strategic sequential investment task that required accepting interim losses in order to access a lucrative state and maximize long-term gains, while being scanned. We extended the standard Q-learning model by incorporating both counterfactual gains and losses into separate error signals. The FPE model explained the participants' data significantly better than a model that did not include counterfactual learning signals. Expected value from the FPE model was significantly correlated with BOLD signal change in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and posterior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), whereas expected value from the standard model did not predict changes in neural activity. The depletion procedure revealed significantly different neural responses to expected value in the vmPFC, caudate, and dopaminergic midbrain in the vicinity of the substantia nigra (SN). Differences in neural activity were not evident in the standard Q-learning computational model. These findings demonstrate that FPE signals are an important component of valuation for decision making, and that the neural representation of expected value incorporates cortical and subcortical structures via interactions among serotonergic and dopaminergic modulator systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A simple mechanical system for studying adaptive oscillatory neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Guillaume; Jouffroy, Jerome

    model, etc.) might be too complex to study. In this paper, we use a comparatively simple mechanical system, the nonholonomic vehicle referred to as the Roller-Racer, as a means towards testing different learning strategies for an Recurrent Neural Network-based (RNN) controller/guidance system. After...... a brief description of the Roller-Racer, we present as a preliminary study an RNN-based feed-forward controller whose parameters are obtained through the well-known teacher forcing learning algorithm, extended to learn signals with a continuous component....

  19. 77 FR 26256 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ..., educational and medical institutions; and open source information, such as property tax records... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to Alter a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Intelligence Agency is proposing to...

  20. 78 FR 52517 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION... of records in its inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...

  1. 78 FR 14273 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION... records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...

  2. 75 FR 16760 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION... records notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  3. 78 FR 22525 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION... of records in its inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as... members of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http...

  4. 75 FR 33794 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Department of the Army Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... records notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  5. 78 FR 44102 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Department of the Army Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... records notices in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...

  6. 75 FR 39921 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency; DoD. ACTION... of records notice in its existing inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  7. 78 FR 14279 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION... records notices in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...

  8. 78 FR 6078 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION... records notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C... Internet at http:// ] www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...

  9. 77 FR 65913 - Privacy Act of 1974: Systems of Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... LOCATION: Childcare Subsidy Program Applications: Federal Employee Education and Assistance Fund (FEEA... Care Employee and Family Records (SEC-66).'' Additionally, two existing systems of records are being.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Commission proposes to establish a new system of records, ``Backup Care Employee...

  10. 78 FR 16835 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... protected and can only be accessed by authorized personnel. Retention and disposal: Records retention and disposal is in accordance with the series records schedules. System manager(s) and address: Manager, Public... Patent and Trademark Office Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: United States Patent and...

  11. 78 FR 19246 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... authorized personnel who are properly screened, cleared, and trained. Retention and disposal: Records retention and disposal is in accordance with the series records schedules. ] System manager(s) and address... United States Patent and Trademark Office Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: United States...

  12. 78 FR 14275 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Assurance and Privacy Act training. Retention and disposal: Records are destroyed three years after... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense, DoD. ACTION: Notice to add a New System of Records. SUMMARY: The Office of the Secretary of Defense...

  13. 76 FR 28757 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... disposal: Records are maintained for five years (5) or five (5) years after completion of specified program... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Notice to Add a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Office of the Secretary of Defense proposes to add a...

  14. 75 FR 6005 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ..., and Common Access Card (CAC) governing access to data. Retention and disposal: Records are destroyed... Department of the Air Force Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Notice to add a system of records. SUMMARY: The Department of the Air Force is proposing to add a...

  15. 77 FR 11063 - Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... NIST 800-53 standards. Retention and disposal: Records are retained using the appropriate, approved...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records AGENCY: United States Agency for International Development. ACTION: Notice of new system of records. SUMMARY: The United States...

  16. 75 FR 10473 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Privacy training. Retention and disposal: Records are destroyed 3 years after disapproval, completion of... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics Agency proposes to amend a...

  17. 75 FR 25215 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... passwords and limited to authorized personnel only. Retention and disposal: Records are maintained for 6... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records AGENCY: National Security Agency/Central Security Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The National Security Agency...

  18. 76 FR 66695 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... Force (RIF) team personnel. Retention and disposal: Records are destroyed two years after case is closed... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The Office of the Secretary...

  19. 75 FR 13094 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... are locked when not in use or kept under surveillance. Retention and disposal: Records are deleted... Department of the Air Force Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Notice to add a system of records. SUMMARY: The Department of the Air Force proposes to add a...

  20. 76 FR 76958 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...'' are provided access. Back-up data is stored in a locked room. Retention and disposal: Records are... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice to Amend a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Office of the Secretary...

  1. 75 FR 81246 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    .... Retention and Disposal: Records are deleted when two years old, or two years after the date of the latest... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense, DoD. ACTION: Notice to add a system of records. SUMMARY: The Office of the Secretary of Defense...

  2. 77 FR 27859 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    .... This may include firewalls, intrusion detection devices, encryption, and other security measures... AFFAIRS Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice of New System of Records ``Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record (VLER)-VA'' (168VA10P2). SUMMARY: The...

  3. Radial basis function (RBF) neural network control for mechanical systems design, analysis and Matlab simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jinkun

    2013-01-01

    Radial Basis Function (RBF) Neural Network Control for Mechanical Systems is motivated by the need for systematic design approaches to stable adaptive control system design using neural network approximation-based techniques. The main objectives of the book are to introduce the concrete design methods and MATLAB simulation of stable adaptive RBF neural control strategies. In this book, a broad range of implementable neural network control design methods for mechanical systems are presented, such as robot manipulators, inverted pendulums, single link flexible joint robots, motors, etc. Advanced neural network controller design methods and their stability analysis are explored. The book provides readers with the fundamentals of neural network control system design.   This book is intended for the researchers in the fields of neural adaptive control, mechanical systems, Matlab simulation, engineering design, robotics and automation. Jinkun Liu is a professor at Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronauti...

  4. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  5. Open Ephys electroencephalography (Open Ephys  +  EEG): a modular, low-cost, open-source solution to human neural recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Christopher; Voigts, Jakob; Agrawal, Uday; Ladow, Max; Santoyo, Juan; Moore, Christopher; Jones, Stephanie

    2017-06-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) offers a unique opportunity to study human neural activity non-invasively with millisecond resolution using minimal equipment in or outside of a lab setting. EEG can be combined with a number of techniques for closed-loop experiments, where external devices are driven by specific neural signals. However, reliable, commercially available EEG systems are expensive, often making them impractical for individual use and research development. Moreover, by design, a majority of these systems cannot be easily altered to the specification needed by the end user. We focused on mitigating these issues by implementing open-source tools to develop a new EEG platform to drive down research costs and promote collaboration and innovation. Here, we present methods to expand the open-source electrophysiology system, Open Ephys (www.openephys.org), to include human EEG recordings. We describe the equipment and protocol necessary to interface various EEG caps with the Open Ephys acquisition board, and detail methods for processing data. We present applications of Open Ephys  +  EEG as a research tool and discuss how this innovative EEG technology lays a framework for improved closed-loop paradigms and novel brain-computer interface experiments. The Open Ephys  +  EEG system can record reliable human EEG data, as well as human EMG data. A side-by-side comparison of eyes closed 8-14 Hz activity between the Open Ephys  +  EEG system and the Brainvision ActiCHamp EEG system showed similar average power and signal to noise. Open Ephys  +  EEG enables users to acquire high-quality human EEG data comparable to that of commercially available systems, while maintaining the price point and extensibility inherent to open-source systems.

  6. Open Ephys electroencephalography (Open Ephys  +  EEG): a modular, low-cost, open-source solution to human neural recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Christopher; Voigts, Jakob; Agrawal, Uday; Ladow, Max; Santoyo, Juan; Moore, Christopher; Jones, Stephanie

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Electroencephalography (EEG) offers a unique opportunity to study human neural activity non-invasively with millisecond resolution using minimal equipment in or outside of a lab setting. EEG can be combined with a number of techniques for closed-loop experiments, where external devices are driven by specific neural signals. However, reliable, commercially available EEG systems are expensive, often making them impractical for individual use and research development. Moreover, by design, a majority of these systems cannot be easily altered to the specification needed by the end user. We focused on mitigating these issues by implementing open-source tools to develop a new EEG platform to drive down research costs and promote collaboration and innovation. Approach. Here, we present methods to expand the open-source electrophysiology system, Open Ephys (www.openephys.org), to include human EEG recordings. We describe the equipment and protocol necessary to interface various EEG caps with the Open Ephys acquisition board, and detail methods for processing data. We present applications of Open Ephys  +  EEG as a research tool and discuss how this innovative EEG technology lays a framework for improved closed-loop paradigms and novel brain-computer interface experiments. Main results. The Open Ephys  +  EEG system can record reliable human EEG data, as well as human EMG data. A side-by-side comparison of eyes closed 8-14 Hz activity between the Open Ephys  +  EEG system and the Brainvision ActiCHamp EEG system showed similar average power and signal to noise. Significance. Open Ephys  +  EEG enables users to acquire high-quality human EEG data comparable to that of commercially available systems, while maintaining the price point and extensibility inherent to open-source systems.

  7. Uses of available record systems in epidemiologic studies of reproductive toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polednak, A.P.; Janerich, D.T.

    1983-01-01

    The uses of available record systems in epidemiologic studies of reproductive toxicology are described with reference to New York State. The available record systems (and relevant reproductive end points) described include: a newborn screening program for metabolic diseases and hemoglobinopathies (relevant to point mutations); chromosome registries and prenatal cytogenetics (for chromosome anomalies); live birth certificates (for birth defects, birthweight, sex ratio, etc); fetal death certificates (for spontaneous fetal deaths); and a statewide cancer registry (for childhood cancers and transplacental carcinogenesis). The uses and limitations of these record systems are discussed, along with examples of their use in descriptive and analytic epidemiologic studies. Descriptive studies outlined include investigations of temporal and geographic trends in birth defects, birth weight, and fetal deaths, with reference to environmental questions (eg, Love Canal, nuclear power plants). Analytic studies described concern parental occupation in relation to specific birth defects (neural tube defects and Down syndrome) and maternal use of contraceptive drugs.

  8. System identification of an unmanned quadcopter system using MRAN neural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairan, M. F.; Shamsudin, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    This project presents the performance analysis of the radial basis function neural network (RBF) trained with Minimal Resource Allocating Network (MRAN) algorithm for real-time identification of quadcopter. MRAN’s performance is compared with the RBF with Constant Trace algorithm for 2500 input-output pair data sampling. MRAN utilizes adding and pruning hidden neuron strategy to obtain optimum RBF structure, increase prediction accuracy and reduce training time. The results indicate that MRAN algorithm produces fast training time and more accurate prediction compared with standard RBF. The model proposed in this paper is capable of identifying and modelling a nonlinear representation of the quadcopter flight dynamics.

  9. 77 FR 16019 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... logistical areas. Administration: Administrative functions, such as control of office space, visits..., functions, and procedures pertaining to security assistance. Information Management: Records concerning...; life cycle management of information systems; and records pertaining to all five Information Mission...

  10. 78 FR 79026 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... resolve all claims in a national employment discrimination class action lawsuit regarding deaf or hard of... Investigative Record CATEGORIES OF RECORDS IN THE SYSTEM * * * * * 2. Non-employee information: Name, gender...

  11. 76 FR 49455 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Accountability System (February 22, 1993, 58 FR 10562). Reason: DISA does not upload or input PII into the...: Records were destroyed in accordance with DISA's records management disposition and destruction...

  12. 76 FR 49755 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... retired to the nearest Federal Records Center (FRC). Records are destroyed when 7 years old. Units being decommissioned retire files to FRC upon decommissioning. System manager(s) and address: Commander, Naval Air...

  13. 77 FR 38342 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... executive titles have been updated to ] reflect the new responsibilities of the leadership teams. II... Customer Data and Transaction Records. CATEGORIES OF RECORDS IN THE SYSTEM: 3. Transactional information...

  14. 76 FR 54742 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Financial Management Regulation 7000.14-R, Vol 4, Accounting Policy and Procedures. Purpose(s): Enhances... security software. Records are accessed by person(s) responsible for servicing the record system in...

  15. Measurement of neural signals from inexpensive, wireless and dry EEG systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grummett, T S; Leibbrandt, R E; Lewis, T W; DeLosAngeles, D; Powers, D M W; Willoughby, J O; Pope, K J; Fitzgibbon, S P

    2015-07-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is challenged by high cost, immobility of equipment and the use of inconvenient conductive gels. We compared EEG recordings obtained from three systems that are inexpensive, wireless, and/or dry (no gel), against recordings made with a traditional, research-grade EEG system, in order to investigate the ability of these 'non-traditional' systems to produce recordings of comparable quality to a research-grade system. The systems compared were: Emotiv EPOC (inexpensive and wireless), B-Alert (wireless), g.Sahara (dry) and g.HIamp (research-grade). We compared the ability of the systems to demonstrate five well-studied neural phenomena: (1) enhanced alpha activity with eyes closed versus open; (2) visual steady-state response (VSSR); (3) mismatch negativity; (4) P300; and (5) event-related desynchronization/synchronization. All systems measured significant alpha augmentation with eye closure, and were able to measure VSSRs (although these were smaller with g.Sahara). The B-Alert and g.Sahara were able to measure the three time-locked phenomena equivalently to the g.HIamp. The Emotiv EPOC did not have suitably located electrodes for two of the tasks and synchronization considerations meant that data from the time-locked tasks were not assessed. The results show that inexpensive, wireless, or dry systems may be suitable for experimental studies using EEG, depending on the research paradigm, and within the constraints imposed by their limited electrode placement and number.

  16. Neural system modeling and simulation using Hybrid Functional Petri Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yin; Wang, Fei

    2012-02-01

    The Petri net formalism has been proved to be powerful in biological modeling. It not only boasts of a most intuitive graphical presentation but also combines the methods of classical systems biology with the discrete modeling technique. Hybrid Functional Petri Net (HFPN) was proposed specially for biological system modeling. An array of well-constructed biological models using HFPN yielded very interesting results. In this paper, we propose a method to represent neural system behavior, where biochemistry and electrical chemistry are both included using the Petri net formalism. We built a model for the adrenergic system using HFPN and employed quantitative analysis. Our simulation results match the biological data well, showing that the model is very effective. Predictions made on our model further manifest the modeling power of HFPN and improve the understanding of the adrenergic system. The file of our model and more results with their analysis are available in our supplementary material.

  17. Coding and signal processing for magnetic recording systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vasic, Bane

    2004-01-01

    RECORDING SYSTEMSA BriefHistory of Magnetic Storage, Dean PalmerPhysics of Longitudinal and Perpendicular Recording, Hong Zhou, Tom Roscamp, Roy Gustafson, Eric Boernern, and Roy ChantrellThe Physics of Optical Recording, William A. Challener and Terry W. McDanielHead Design Techniques for Recording Devices, Robert E. RottmayerCOMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION THEORY OF MAGNETIC RECORDING CHANNELSModeling the Recording Channel, Jaekyun MoonSignal and Noise Generation for Magnetic Recording Channel Simulations, Xueshi Yang and Erozan M. KurtasStatistical Analysis of Digital Signals and Systems, Dra

  18. 76 FR 33728 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... on conversion to the Defense Joint Military Payroll System (DJMS), and will be destroyed October 1... Department of the Army Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice to add a system of records. SUMMARY: The Department of the Army proposes to add a system of...

  19. 76 FR 18738 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... reporting; to plan workloads, to assist in providing time and attendance to the centralized payroll system... Department of the Navy Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice to Add a New System of Records. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy proposes to add a new system...

  20. 76 FR 77498 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Medical Support Agency Healthcare Informatics (SG6H), 3515 S. General McMullen, San Antonio, TX 78226-1710... Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. F044 AF SG E System name: Medical Record System (June 18, 2010, 75... with ``Electronic Medical Records System.'' System location: Delete entry and replace with...

  1. 76 FR 39392 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ..., least privilege, and data integrity. Additionally, intrusion detection systems, malicious code... Department of the Army Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice to Amend a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Department of the Army is proposing to amend a system...

  2. 75 FR 76426 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    .../Transport Layer Security (SSL/ TLS) connections, access control lists, file system permissions, intrusion detection and prevention systems and log monitoring. Complete access to all records is restricted to and... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Information Systems Agency...

  3. 75 FR 69645 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    .../Transport Layer Security (SSL/ TLS) connections, access control lists, file system permissions, intrusion detection and prevention systems and log monitoring. Complete access to all records is restricted to and...] Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Information Systems Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to...

  4. Intelligent reservoir operation system based on evolving artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Paulo; Chang, Fi-John

    2008-06-01

    We propose a novel intelligent reservoir operation system based on an evolving artificial neural network (ANN). Evolving means the parameters of the ANN model are identified by the GA evolutionary optimization technique. Accordingly, the ANN model should represent the operational strategies of reservoir operation. The main advantages of the Evolving ANN Intelligent System (ENNIS) are as follows: (i) only a small number of parameters to be optimized even for long optimization horizons, (ii) easy to handle multiple decision variables, and (iii) the straightforward combination of the operation model with other prediction models. The developed intelligent system was applied to the operation of the Shihmen Reservoir in North Taiwan, to investigate its applicability and practicability. The proposed method is first built to a simple formulation for the operation of the Shihmen Reservoir, with single objective and single decision. Its results were compared to those obtained by dynamic programming. The constructed network proved to be a good operational strategy. The method was then built and applied to the reservoir with multiple (five) decision variables. The results demonstrated that the developed evolving neural networks improved the operation performance of the reservoir when compared to its current operational strategy. The system was capable of successfully simultaneously handling various decision variables and provided reasonable and suitable decisions.

  5. The ctenophore genome and the evolutionary origins of neural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Leonid L; Kocot, Kevin M; Citarella, Mathew R; Dosung, Sohn; Norekian, Tigran P; Povolotskaya, Inna S; Grigorenko, Anastasia P; Dailey, Christopher; Berezikov, Eugene; Buckley, Katherine M; Ptitsyn, Andrey; Reshetov, Denis; Mukherjee, Krishanu; Moroz, Tatiana P; Bobkova, Yelena; Yu, Fahong; Kapitonov, Vladimir V; Jurka, Jerzy; Bobkov, Yuri V; Swore, Joshua J; Girardo, David O; Fodor, Alexander; Gusev, Fedor; Sanford, Rachel; Bruders, Rebecca; Kittler, Ellen; Mills, Claudia E; Rast, Jonathan P; Derelle, Romain; Solovyev, Victor V; Kondrashov, Fyodor A; Swalla, Billie J; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Rogaev, Evgeny I; Halanych, Kenneth M; Kohn, Andrea B

    2014-06-05

    The origins of neural systems remain unresolved. In contrast to other basal metazoans, ctenophores (comb jellies) have both complex nervous and mesoderm-derived muscular systems. These holoplanktonic predators also have sophisticated ciliated locomotion, behaviour and distinct development. Here we present the draft genome of Pleurobrachia bachei, Pacific sea gooseberry, together with ten other ctenophore transcriptomes, and show that they are remarkably distinct from other animal genomes in their content of neurogenic, immune and developmental genes. Our integrative analyses place Ctenophora as the earliest lineage within Metazoa. This hypothesis is supported by comparative analysis of multiple gene families, including the apparent absence of HOX genes, canonical microRNA machinery, and reduced immune complement in ctenophores. Although two distinct nervous systems are well recognized in ctenophores, many bilaterian neuron-specific genes and genes of 'classical' neurotransmitter pathways either are absent or, if present, are not expressed in neurons. Our metabolomic and physiological data are consistent with the hypothesis that ctenophore neural systems, and possibly muscle specification, evolved independently from those in other animals.

  6. A low-cost multichannel wireless neural stimulation system for freely roaming animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Monzurul; Chen, Xi; Fernandez, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    Objectives. Electrical stimulation of nerve tissue and recording of neural activity are the basis of many therapies and neural prostheses. Conventional stimulation systems have a number of practical limitations, especially in experiments involving freely roaming subjects. Our main objective was to develop a modular, versatile and inexpensive multichannel wireless system able to overcome some of these constraints. Approach. We have designed and implemented a new multichannel wireless neural stimulator based on commercial components. The system is small (2 cm × 4 cm × 0.5 cm) and light in weight (9 g) which allows it to be easily carried in a small backpack. To test and validate the performance and reliability of the whole system we conducted several bench tests and in vivo experiments. Main results. The performance and accuracy of the stimulator were comparable to commercial threaded systems. Stimulation sequences can be constructed on-the-fly with 251 selectable current levels (from 0 to 250 µA) with 1 µA step resolution. The pulse widths and intervals can be as long as 65 ms in 2 µs time resolution. The system covers approximately 10 m of transmission range in a regular laboratory environment and 100 m in free space (line of sight). Furthermore it provides great flexibility for experiments since it allows full control of the stimulator and the stimulation parameters in real time. When there is no stimulation, the device automatically goes into low-power sleep mode to preserve battery power. Significance. We introduce the design of a powerful multichannel wireless stimulator assembled from commercial components. Key features of the system are their reliability, robustness and small size. The system has a flexible design that can be modified straightforwardly to tailor it to any specific experimental need. Furthermore it can be effortlessly adapted for use with any kind of multielectrode arrays.

  7. Fault Tolerant Neural Network for ECG Signal Classification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERAH, M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to apply a new robust hardware Artificial Neural Network (ANN for ECG classification systems. This ANN includes a penalization criterion which makes the performances in terms of robustness. Specifically, in this method, the ANN weights are normalized using the auto-prune method. Simulations performed on the MIT ? BIH ECG signals, have shown that significant robustness improvements are obtained regarding potential hardware artificial neuron failures. Moreover, we show that the proposed design achieves better generalization performances, compared to the standard back-propagation algorithm.

  8. Mach-Zehnder interferometer-based recording system for WACO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerner, R.

    1988-06-01

    EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Los Alamos Operations (LAO) designed and built a Mach-Zehnder-interferometer-based recording system to record low-bandwidth pulses. This work was undertaken at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, P-14 Fast Transient Plasma Measurement group. The system was fielded on WACO and its performance compared with that of a conventional recording system fielded on the same event. The results of the fielding showed that for low bandwidth applications like the WACO experiment, the M-Z-based system provides the same data quality and dynamic range as the conventional oscilloscope system, but it is far less complex and uses fewer recorders.

  9. Separate neural systems value immediate and delayed monetary rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Samuel M; Laibson, David I; Loewenstein, George; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2004-10-15

    When humans are offered the choice between rewards available at different points in time, the relative values of the options are discounted according to their expected delays until delivery. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined the neural correlates of time discounting while subjects made a series of choices between monetary reward options that varied by delay to delivery. We demonstrate that two separate systems are involved in such decisions. Parts of the limbic system associated with the midbrain dopamine system, including paralimbic cortex, are preferentially activated by decisions involving immediately available rewards. In contrast, regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex are engaged uniformly by intertemporal choices irrespective of delay. Furthermore, the relative engagement of the two systems is directly associated with subjects' choices, with greater relative fronto-parietal activity when subjects choose longer term options.

  10. Examination of neural systems sub-serving facebook "addiction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-12-01

    Because addictive behaviors typically result from violated homeostasis of the impulsive (amygdala-striatal) and inhibitory (prefrontal cortex) brain systems, this study examined whether these systems sub-serve a specific case of technology-related addiction, namely Facebook "addiction." Using a go/no-go paradigm in functional MRI settings, the study examined how these brain systems in 20 Facebook users (M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 1.3, range = 18-23) who completed a Facebook addiction questionnaire, responded to Facebook and less potent (traffic sign) stimuli. The findings indicated that at least at the examined levels of addiction-like symptoms, technology-related "addictions" share some neural features with substance and gambling addictions, but more importantly they also differ from such addictions in their brain etiology and possibly pathogenesis, as related to abnormal functioning of the inhibitory-control brain system.

  11. Crash Survivable Flight Data Recording System Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-30

    checklist (before StaL- fled In Appendix B of this Part- IfD Each flight recorder required by Ins engines for the purpose of fljg- (1) Time, altitude...gisetrici&I power glictli dse of this sucetion must meet be installed so that- from the bus ithat provides, the mai- Me uffinh-um Performsnce Btandard

  12. Neural systems supporting and affecting economically relevant behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeutigam S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sven BraeutigamOxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomAbstract: For about a hundred years, theorists and traders alike have tried to unravel and understand the mechanisms and hidden rules underlying and perhaps determining economically relevant behavior. This review focuses on recent developments in neuroeconomics, where the emphasis is placed on two directions of research: first, research exploiting common experiences of urban inhabitants in industrialized societies to provide experimental paradigms with a broader real-life content; second, research based on behavioral genetics, which provides an additional dimension for experimental control and manipulation. In addition, possible limitations of state-of-the-art neuroeconomics research are addressed. It is argued that observations of neuronal systems involved in economic behavior converge to some extent across the technologies and paradigms used. Conceptually, the data available as of today raise the possibility that neuroeconomic research might provide evidence at the neuronal level for the existence of multiple systems of thought and for the importance of conflict. Methodologically, Bayesian approaches in particular may play an important role in identifying mechanisms and establishing causality between patterns of neural activity and economic behavior.Keywords: neuroeconomics, behavioral genetics, decision-making, consumer behavior, neural system

  13. 75 FR 42722 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... System name: Cable Affairs Personnel/Agency Records System location: Intercontinental Ballistic Missile... 31793) Changes: * * * * * System location: Delete entry and replace with ``Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Cable Affairs Offices at missile bases reporting to Headquarters Air Global Strike Command...

  14. 78 FR 22526 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... 65760). Changes: System Identifier: Delete entry and replace with ``DPR 42.'' * * * * * System location..., and disposing of records in the system: Storage: Delete entry and replace with ``Paper file folders...

  15. NeuroQuest: a comprehensive analysis tool for extracellular neural ensemble recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ki Yong; Eldawlatly, Seif; Oweiss, Karim

    2012-02-15

    Analyzing the massive amounts of neural data collected using microelectrodes to extract biologically relevant information is a major challenge. Many scientific findings rest on the ability to overcome these challenges and to standardize experimental analysis across labs. This can be facilitated in part through comprehensive, efficient and practical software tools disseminated to the community at large. We have developed a comprehensive, MATLAB-based software package - entitled NeuroQuest - that bundles together a number of advanced neural signal processing algorithms in a user-friendly environment. Results demonstrate the efficiency and reliability of the software compared to other software packages, and versatility over a wide range of experimental conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Optical imaging of neuronal activity and visualization of fine neural structures in non-desheathed nervous systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Goldsmith

    Full Text Available Locating circuit neurons and recording from them with single-cell resolution is a prerequisite for studying neural circuits. Determining neuron location can be challenging even in small nervous systems because neurons are densely packed, found in different layers, and are often covered by ganglion and nerve sheaths that impede access for recording electrodes and neuronal markers. We revisited the voltage-sensitive dye RH795 for its ability to stain and record neurons through the ganglion sheath. Bath-application of RH795 stained neuronal membranes in cricket, earthworm and crab ganglia without removing the ganglion sheath, revealing neuron cell body locations in different ganglion layers. Using the pyloric and gastric mill central pattern generating neurons in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG of the crab, Cancer borealis, we found that RH795 permeated the ganglion without major residue in the sheath and brightly stained somatic, axonal and dendritic membranes. Visibility improved significantly in comparison to unstained ganglia, allowing the identification of somata location and number of most STG neurons. RH795 also stained axons and varicosities in non-desheathed nerves, and it revealed the location of sensory cell bodies in peripheral nerves. Importantly, the spike activity of the sensory neuron AGR, which influences the STG motor patterns, remained unaffected by RH795, while desheathing caused significant changes in AGR activity. With respect to recording neural activity, RH795 allowed us to optically record membrane potential changes of sub-sheath neuronal membranes without impairing sensory activity. The signal-to-noise ratio was comparable with that previously observed in desheathed preparations and sufficiently high to identify neurons in single-sweep recordings and synaptic events after spike-triggered averaging. In conclusion, RH795 enabled staining and optical recording of neurons through the ganglion sheath and is therefore both a

  17. A VLSI field-programmable mixed-signal array to perform neural signal processing and neural modeling in a prosthetic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, Simeon A; Hogri, Roni; Giovannucci, Andrea; Taub, Aryeh H; Herreros, Ivan; Verschure, Paul F M J; Mintz, Matti; Del Giudice, Paolo

    2012-07-01

    A very-large-scale integration field-programmable mixed-signal array specialized for neural signal processing and neural modeling has been designed. This has been fabricated as a core on a chip prototype intended for use in an implantable closed-loop prosthetic system aimed at rehabilitation of the learning of a discrete motor response. The chosen experimental context is cerebellar classical conditioning of the eye-blink response. The programmable system is based on the intimate mixing of switched capacitor analog techniques with low speed digital computation; power saving innovations within this framework are presented. The utility of the system is demonstrated by the implementation of a motor classical conditioning model applied to eye-blink conditioning in real time with associated neural signal processing. Paired conditioned and unconditioned stimuli were repeatedly presented to an anesthetized rat and recordings were taken simultaneously from two precerebellar nuclei. These paired stimuli were detected in real time from this multichannel data. This resulted in the acquisition of a trigger for a well-timed conditioned eye-blink response, and repetition of unpaired trials constructed from the same data led to the extinction of the conditioned response trigger, compatible with natural cerebellar learning in awake animals.

  18. 75 FR 33791 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... open source literature. Exemptions claimed for the system: Investigatory material compiled for law... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to add a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Intelligence Agency proposes to add a...

  19. 78 FR 79412 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... alter a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service proposes to alter a system of records, T7205, General Accounting and Finance System--Report Database for Financial Statements.... Gregory L. Outlaw, Defense Finance and Accounting Service, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Program...

  20. 76 FR 61761 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Privacy Act Systems of Records: USPS 880.000, Post Office and Retail Services. These modifications reflect... Retail Services records system should be revised to modify the following sections: System location... decline. The Postal Service is seeking to optimize its retail network by reducing its traditional...

  1. 77 FR 56625 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... ``Organizational elements and offices, Defense Intelligence Agency, 200 MacDill Blvd., Washington, DC 20340-0001...] Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to alter a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Intelligence Agency is proposing to alter a system to its...

  2. 78 FR 41917 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting... record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. This system will provide... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...

  3. 78 FR 73511 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice to delete a... existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended. The system being... public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  4. 78 FR 78946 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Inspector General, DoD... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. This system... submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received...

  5. 77 FR 70136 - Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... contracts and track direct hire payroll payments in the system in order to produce 1099 files. If this...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records AGENCY: United States Agency for International Development. ACTION: Altered system of records. SUMMARY: The United States Agency...

  6. 78 FR 47309 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... and Accounting Service-Cleveland, System Manager, Information and Technology, Payroll Services, 1240 E... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting...

  7. 78 FR 63311 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Administration and Payroll Office Letters. VA may also disclose information from this system of records to... system may be disclosed to transfer human resources and payroll information to complete payroll Checks... AFFAIRS Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice of...

  8. 77 FR 44207 - Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... contracts and track direct hire payroll payments in the system in order to produce 1099 files. If this...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records AGENCY: United States Agency for International Development. ACTION: Notice of new system of records. SUMMARY: The United States...

  9. 78 FR 41918 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... ``DFAS automated payroll systems interfaces.'' * * * * * BILLING CODE 5001-06-P ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Notice to alter a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service proposes to...

  10. 77 FR 73973 - Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... direct hire payroll payments in the system in order to produce 1099 files. If this information is not...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Privacy Act of 1974, System of Records AGENCY: United States Agency for International Development. ACTION: Altered system of records. SUMMARY: The United States Agency...

  11. 78 FR 14285 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... attendance, labor and production data for input to payroll and accounting systems. It will also provide the... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense, DoD. ACTION: Notice to alter a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service...

  12. 77 FR 16569 - Privacy Act of 1974: Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ..., invoices, contracts, and electronic records; Department of Interior (DOI)/Federal Personnel Payroll System..., Department of the Interior (DOI) Payroll System, Bureau of Public Debt, and EDGAR Momentum. EXEMPTIONS... COMMISSION Privacy Act of 1974: Systems of Records AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Notice...

  13. 77 FR 60401 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. GNSA 08 System name: NSA/CSS Payroll Processing File (June 8, 2009... Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records AGENCY: National Security Agency/Central Security Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a system of records. SUMMARY: The National Security Agency...

  14. 76 FR 35483 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Assistance Program (EAP) Records. USPS 810.200 System Name: www.usps.com Ordering, Payment, and Fulfillment... instructed by the provider. * * * * * ] USPS 810.200 SYSTEM NAME: http://www.usps.com Ordering, Payment, and..., AND DISPOSING OF RECORDS IN THE SYSTEM: STORAGE: Automated database, computer storage media, digital...

  15. 78 FR 60264 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... controlled facility. Physical entry is restricted by the use of locks, an intrusion detection system, guards... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense, DoD. ACTION: Notice to add a new System of Records. SUMMARY: The Office of the Secretary of Defense...

  16. 77 FR 43816 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... password. The system is protected by audit logs, virus detection, intrusion detection, firewalls, and... Department of the Air Force Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Notice to alter a system of records. SUMMARY: The Department of the Air Force proposes to alter a...

  17. 78 FR 73890 - Amendment to System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... SYSTEM: The Museum and Library Services Act of 2010 (20 U.S.C. 9101 et seq.) PURPOSE(S): To complement... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Amendment to System of Records AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. ACTION: Notice of Amendment to System of Records...

  18. Objective Video Quality Assessment of Direct Recording and Datavideo HDR-40 Recording System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nofia Andreana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital Video Recorder (DVR is a digital video recorder with hard drive storage media. When the capacity of the hard disk runs out. It will provide information to users and if there is no response, it will be overwritten automatically and the data will be lost. The main focus of this paper is to enable recording directly connected to a computer editor. The output of both systems (DVR and Direct Recording will be compared with an objective assessment using the Mean Square Error (MSE and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR parameter. The results showed that the average value of MSE Direct Recording dB 797.8556108, 137.4346100 DVR MSE dB and the average value of PSNR Direct Recording and DVR PSNR dB 19.5942333 27.0914258 dB. This indicates that the DVR has a much better output quality than Direct Recording.

  19. In Vivo Recording of Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Anesthesia Induction, Reversal, and Euthanasia in Cephalopod Molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna M. Butler-Struben

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cephalopod molluscs are among the most behaviorally and neurologically complex invertebrates. As they are now included in research animal welfare regulations in many countries, humane and effective anesthesia is required during invasive procedures. However, currently there is no evidence that agents believed to act as anesthetics produce effects beyond immobility. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, that two of the most commonly used agents in cephalopod general anesthesia, magnesium chloride and ethanol, are capable of producing strong and reversible blockade of afferent and efferent neural signal; thus they are genuine anesthetics, rather than simply sedating agents that render animals immobile but not insensible. Additionally, we demonstrate that injected magnesium chloride and lidocaine are effective local anesthetic agents. This represents a considerable advance for cephalopod welfare. Using a reversible, minimally invasive recording procedure, we measured activity in the pallial nerve of cuttlefish (Sepia bandensis and octopus (Abdopus aculeatus, Octopus bocki, during induction and reversal for five putative general anesthetic and two local anesthetic agents. We describe the temporal relationship between loss of behavioral responses (immobility, loss of efferent neural signal (loss of “consciousness” and loss of afferent neural signal (anesthesia for general anesthesia, and loss of afferent signal for local anesthesia. Both ethanol and magnesium chloride were effective as bath-applied general anesthetics, causing immobility, complete loss of behavioral responsiveness and complete loss of afferent and efferent neural signal. Cold seawater, diethyl ether, and MS-222 (tricaine were ineffective. Subcutaneous injection of either lidocaine or magnesium chloride blocked behavioral and neural responses to pinch in the injected area, and we conclude that both are effective local anesthetic agents for cephalopods. Lastly, we

  20. Seismic Design Value Evaluation Based on Checking Records and Site Geological Conditions Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tienfuan Kerh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an improved computational neural network model that uses three seismic parameters (i.e., local magnitude, epicentral distance, and epicenter depth and two geological conditions (i.e., shear wave velocity and standard penetration test value as the inputs for predicting peak ground acceleration—the key element for evaluating earthquake response. Initial comparison results show that a neural network model with three neurons in the hidden layer can achieve relatively better performance based on the evaluation index of correlation coefficient or mean square error. This study further develops a new weight-based neural network model for estimating peak ground acceleration at unchecked sites. Four locations identified to have higher estimated peak ground accelerations than that of the seismic design value in the 24 subdivision zones are investigated in Taiwan. Finally, this study develops a new equation for the relationship of horizontal peak ground acceleration and focal distance by the curve fitting method. This equation represents seismic characteristics in Taiwan region more reliably and reasonably. The results of this study provide an insight into this type of nonlinear problem, and the proposed method may be applicable to other areas of interest around the world.

  1. Public Sector Records Systems in Ghana: Some Lessons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New systems and procedures have been put in place to provide a sound records management programme. Unable, however, to address the management of financial records alongside records of other sectors, public financial management has remained weak due to the unstructured and poor state of the existing financial ...

  2. 76 FR 49455 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ..., educational and medical institutions; and open source information, such as property tax records.'' Exemptions... medical institutions; and open source information, such as property tax records. Exemptions claimed for... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD...

  3. 77 FR 4798 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... conferences, items of academic interest and NWC Press materials. Categories of records in the system: Name... receive, on a continuing basis, information regarding NWC future events and conferences, items of academic... as a means of proving the identity of the individual requesting access to the records. Records access...

  4. 75 FR 17904 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ....'' Retention and disposal: Delete entry and replace with ``Records are temporary; destroy when 5 years old or 5.... ] Retention and disposal: Records are temporary; destroy when 5 years old or 5 years after completion of a... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD...

  5. 77 FR 74878 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... appropriate security clearances. RETENTION AND DISPOSAL: Records are maintained under 5 U.S.C. 301. Disposal... Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY... records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), the Foreign Claims Settlement...

  6. 75 FR 56517 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ....'' * * * * * Retention and disposal: Delete entry and replace with ``Records are destroyed in burn bags one year after... to access the excel spreadsheet. Retention and disposal: Records are destroyed in burn bags one year... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Threat Reduction Agency, DoD...

  7. 75 FR 20580 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ...).'' * * * * * RETENTION AND DISPOSAL: Delete entry and replace with ``Records are destroyed 3 years after separation of..., or locked cabinets during non duty hours. RETENTION AND DISPOSAL: Records are destroyed 3 years after... Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD...

  8. 76 FR 51128 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... maceration. Records in electronic media are electronically erased using accepted techniques. System Manager... shredding or maceration. Records in electronic media are electronically erased using accepted techniques... Administration (NARA). Paper and microform records ready for disposal are destroyed by shredding or maceration...

  9. Reconciling Cadastral Records in a Dual Land Registration System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... activities and the processes for recording land titles in Ghana in view of existing laws. Experiences in developing procedures for reconciling the records from the two systems are also discussed. Keywords: Cadastral survey, land records, land tenure, registration, survey regulation. Journal of Science and Technology Vol.

  10. A Chinese Named Entity Recognition System with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hui-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Named entity recognition (NER is a typical sequential labeling problem that plays an important role in natural language processing (NLP systems. In this paper, we discussed the details of applying a comprehensive model aggregating neural networks and conditional random field (CRF on Chinese NER tasks, and how to discovery character level features when implement a NER system in word level. We compared the difference between Chinese and English when modeling the character embeddings. We developed a NER system based on our analysis, it works well on the ACE 2004 and SIGHAN bakeoff 2006 MSRA dataset, and doesn’t rely on any gazetteers or handcraft features. We obtained F1 score of 82.3% on MSRA 2006.

  11. Neural synchrony within the motor system: what have we learned so far?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette C. M. van Wijk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization of neural activity is considered essential for information processing in the nervous system. Both local and inter-regional synchronization are omnipresent in different frequency regimes and relate to a variety of behavioral and cognitive functions. Over the years, many studies have sought to elucidate the question how alpha/mu, beta, and gamma synchronization contribute to motor control. Here, we review these studies with the purpose to delineate what they have added to our understanding of the neural control of movement. We highlight important findings regarding oscillations in primary motor cortex, synchronization between cortex and spinal cord, synchronization between cortical regions, as well as abnormal synchronization patterns in a selection of motor dysfunctions. The interpretation of synchronization patterns benefits from combining results of invasive and non-invasive recordings, different data analysis tools, and modeling work. Importantly, although synchronization is deemed to play a vital role, it is not the only mechanism for neural communication. Spike timing and rate coding act together during motor control and should therefore both be accounted for when interpreting movement-related activity.

  12. Finding Trapped Miners by Using a Prototype Seismic Recording System Made from Music-Recording Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this project was to use off-the-shelf music recording equipment to build and test a prototype seismic system to listen for people trapped in underground chambers (mines, caves, collapsed buildings). Previous workers found that an array of geophones is effective in locating trapped miners; displaying the data graphically, as well as playing it back into an audio device (headphones) at high speeds, was found to be effective for locating underground tapping. The desired system should record the data digitally to allow for further analysis, be capable of displaying the data graphically, allow for rudimentary analysis (bandpass filter, deconvolution), and allow the user to listen to the data at varying speeds. Although existing seismic reflection systems are adequate to record, display and analyze the data, they are relatively expensive and difficult to use and do not have an audio playback option. This makes it difficult for individual mines to have a system waiting on the shelf for an emergency. In contrast, music recording systems, like the one I used to construct the prototype system, can be purchased for about 20 percent of the cost of a seismic reflection system and are designed to be much easier to use. The prototype system makes use of an ~$3,000, 16-channel music recording system made by Presonus, Inc., of Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Other manufacturers make competitive systems that would serve equally well. Connecting the geophones to the recording system required the only custom part of this system - a connector that takes the output from the geophone cable and breaks it into 16 microphone inputs to be connected to the music recording system. The connector took about 1 day of technician time to build, using about $300 in off-the-shelf parts. Comparisons of the music recording system and a standard seismic reflection system (A 24-channel 'Geode' system manufactured by Geometrics, Inc., of San Jose, California) were carried out at two locations. Initial

  13. Adverse events recording in electronic health record systems in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoon, Sabine E M; Hek, Karin; van Dijk, Liset; Verheij, Robert A

    2017-12-06

    Adequate record keeping of medication adverse events in electronic health records systems is important for patient safety. Events that remain unrecorded cannot be communicated from one health professional to another. In the absence of a gold standard, we investigate the variation between Dutch general practices in the extent to which they record medication adverse events. Data were derived from electronic health records (EHR) of Dutch general practices participating in NIVEL Primary Care Database (NIVEL-PCD) in 2014, including 308 general practices with a total practice population of 1,256,049 listed patients. Medication adverse events were defined as recorded ICPC-code A85 (adverse effect medical agent). Between practice variation was studied using multilevel logistic regression analysis corrected for age, gender, number of different medicines prescriptions and number of chronic diseases. In 2014 there were 8330 patients with at least one medication adverse event recorded. This corresponds to 6.9 medication adverse events per 1000 patients and is higher for women, elderly, patients with polypharmacy and for patients with comorbidity. Corrected for these patient characteristics the median odds ratio (MOR = 1.92) suggests an almost twofold difference between general practices in recorded medication adverse events. Our results suggest that improvement in terms of uniformity in recording medication adverse events is possible, preventing potential damage for patients. We suggest that creating a learning health system by individual practice feedback on the number of recordings of adverse events would help practitioners to improve their recording habits.

  14. Electronic medical records system user acceptance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, L

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available of change management taking into consideration the complexities of EMR systems and the resulting conflicts between using the existing system and changing over to a new system as well as the perceived change in efficiency. The challenges faced by successfully...

  15. Neural Network Enhanced Structure Determination of Osteoporosis, Immune System, and Radiation Repair Proteins Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation will utilize self learning neural network technology to determine the structure of osteoporosis, immune system disease, and excess radiation...

  16. 77 FR 15026 - Privacy Act of 1974; Farm Records File (Automated) System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... enhance the marketing of agricultural products. The system of records covers information regarding farm... entity data; Combined producer data; production and marketing data; Lease and transfer of allotments and... location identifier for reporting acreage. Digital renditions of farm record boundaries include farm, tract...

  17. Hybrid fault diagnosis of nonlinear systems using neural parameter estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani-Tehrani, E; Talebi, H A; Khorasani, K

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a novel integrated hybrid approach for fault diagnosis (FD) of nonlinear systems taking advantage of both the system's mathematical model and the adaptive nonlinear approximation capability of computational intelligence techniques. Unlike most FD techniques, the proposed solution simultaneously accomplishes fault detection, isolation, and identification (FDII) within a unified diagnostic module. At the core of this solution is a bank of adaptive neural parameter estimators (NPEs) associated with a set of single-parameter fault models. The NPEs continuously estimate unknown fault parameters (FPs) that are indicators of faults in the system. Two NPE structures, series-parallel and parallel, are developed with their exclusive set of desirable attributes. The parallel scheme is extremely robust to measurement noise and possesses a simpler, yet more solid, fault isolation logic. In contrast, the series-parallel scheme displays short FD delays and is robust to closed-loop system transients due to changes in control commands. Finally, a fault tolerant observer (FTO) is designed to extend the capability of the two NPEs that originally assumes full state measurements for systems that have only partial state measurements. The proposed FTO is a neural state estimator that can estimate unmeasured states even in the presence of faults. The estimated and the measured states then comprise the inputs to the two proposed FDII schemes. Simulation results for FDII of reaction wheels of a three-axis stabilized satellite in the presence of disturbances and noise demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed FDII solutions under partial state measurements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stability Analysis of Neural Networks-Based System Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talel Korkobi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper treats some problems related to nonlinear systems identification. A stability analysis neural network model for identifying nonlinear dynamic systems is presented. A constrained adaptive stable backpropagation updating law is presented and used in the proposed identification approach. The proposed backpropagation training algorithm is modified to obtain an adaptive learning rate guarantying convergence stability. The proposed learning rule is the backpropagation algorithm under the condition that the learning rate belongs to a specified range defining the stability domain. Satisfying such condition, unstable phenomena during the learning process are avoided. A Lyapunov analysis leads to the computation of the expression of a convenient adaptive learning rate verifying the convergence stability criteria. Finally, the elaborated training algorithm is applied in several simulations. The results confirm the effectiveness of the CSBP algorithm.

  19. Fuzzy stochastic neural network model for structural system identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaomo; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Yuan, Yong

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic fuzzy stochastic neural network model for nonparametric system identification using ambient vibration data. The model is developed to handle two types of imprecision in the sensed data: fuzzy information and measurement uncertainties. The dimension of the input vector is determined by using the false nearest neighbor approach. A Bayesian information criterion is applied to obtain the optimum number of stochastic neurons in the model. A fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm is employed as a data mining tool to divide the sensed data into clusters with common features. The fuzzy stochastic model is created by combining the fuzzy clusters of input vectors with the radial basis activation functions in the stochastic neural network. A natural gradient method is developed based on the Kullback-Leibler distance criterion for quick convergence of the model training. The model is validated using a power density pseudospectrum approach and a Bayesian hypothesis testing-based metric. The proposed methodology is investigated with numerically simulated data from a Markov Chain model and a two-story planar frame, and experimentally sensed data from ambient vibration data of a benchmark structure.

  20. 77 FR 26259 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: National Security Agency/Central Security Service. ACTION: Notice to Delete a System of Records. SUMMARY: The National Security Agency/Central...

  1. 76 FR 3115 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Identification Number (PIN) is required for access to the system. Records are stored on a secure server in a controlled environment with monitoring 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.'' Retention and disposal: Delete entry... Number (PIN) is required for access to the system. Records are stored on a secure server in a controlled...

  2. 75 FR 16760 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Disposing of Records in the System: Storage: Electronic storage media. Retrievability: Name and/or Social... Records in the System: Personnel data includes full name, Social Security Number (SSN), rank/grade, date... performance of their official duties. MCMPS is currently encrypted to protect the transmission of personal...

  3. 78 FR 14283 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service notices for systems of records subject to..., DoD. ] ACTION: Notice to alter a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting.... Outlaw, Defense Finance and Accounting Service, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Program Manager...

  4. 78 FR 6078 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to delete a system of records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting.... Gregory Outlaw, (317) 510-4591. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Defense Finance and Accounting Service...

  5. 76 FR 39394 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Department of the Navy Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a... the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  6. 78 FR 27198 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Department of the Navy Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as... members of the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http...

  7. 76 FR 45543 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense... its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  8. 75 FR 19625 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ...] Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD. ACTION: Notice to delete a... its existing inventory of records systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  9. 76 FR 82286 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Department of the Army Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a... public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www...

  10. 77 FR 60412 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Department of the Army Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...

  11. 78 FR 43869 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... Department of the Navy Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as... Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any personal...

  12. 77 FR 4798 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... Department of the Army Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... notice in its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as... available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without...

  13. 75 FR 67703 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Department of the Army Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: The Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION... notice from its existing inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a... viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  14. 76 FR 43993 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: National Security Agency/Central... inventory of record systems subject to the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended. DATES: This... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...

  15. 75 FR 39669 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... routine uses of the information in the altered system of records described in this notice, in accordance... call the Federal Relay Service (FRS) at 1-800-877-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Introduction The.... The information about each individual is called a ``record,'' and the system, whether manual or...

  16. 78 FR 66709 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... academic organizations; and members of the public. CATEGORIES OF RECORDS IN THE SYSTEM: Records contain... property interests, identity theft or fraud, or harm to the security or integrity of this system or other... suspected or confirmed compromise there is a risk of harm to economic or property interests, identity theft...

  17. 76 FR 33286 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... predecessor agencies FHFB and the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight (OFHEO), titled ``FHFB-8...) Claims and Complaints; OPM/GOVT-10 Employee Medical File System Records; and OSC/GOVT-1 OSC Complaint... systems of records covered by this notice, to the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of the...

  18. 78 FR 43247 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... privacy rights. The affected systems are as follows: USPS 100.000 System Name: General Personnel Records...: * * * * * 1. Employee, former employee, and family member information: Name(s), Social Security Number(s... Services Centers, other USPS facilities where career development and training records are stored, and...

  19. 76 FR 41497 - Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... records, FCC/OSP-1, ``Broadband Dead Zone Report and Consumer Broadband Test.'' The altered system of... complete notice of the system of records (FCC/OSP-1, ``Broadband Dead Zone Report and Consumer Broadband... FCC/OSP-1, ``Broadband Dead Zone Report and Consumer Broadband Test'' are to revise ] the categories...

  20. 72 FR 54460 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-25

    ... making minor editorial changes and updates to a system of records notice entitled ``Department of Justice... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Justice Management Division, Department of Justice. ACTION...

  1. 75 FR 13575 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Justice Management Division, DOJ. ACTION: Minor modification to a system of records. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Privacy Act of 1974, 5 U.S.C. 552a, the Justice...

  2. 78 FR 55703 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ...-19 Financial Disclosure Reports and Other Ethics Program Records FMC-22 Records Tracking System FMC... property interests, identity theft or fraud, or harm to the security or integrity of this system or other... information, to the extent that disclosure would reveal the identity of a source who furnished information to...

  3. 75 FR 24931 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... arrest, booking, parole and/or probation report. CATEGORIES OF RECORDS IN THE SYSTEM: The records in the system consist of incident, offense and case reports, arrest, booking, incarceration, and parole and/or probation information from Federal, State, local and tribal law enforcement entities. Identifying...

  4. 78 FR 31905 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Finance and Accounting Service, Freedom of Information/Privacy Act Program Manager, Corporate... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice to amend a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Defense Finance and Accounting...

  5. 78 FR 17384 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... with ``DLA Telework Program Records''. System location: Delete entry and replace with ``Office of the... covered by the system: Change ``DLA Alternate Worksite'' to ``DLA Telework''. Categories of records in the... series; duty station address and telephone number; approved telework address, telephone number(s...

  6. 77 FR 15086 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ...DIIS) Customer Relationship Management System. The records will assume the same retention schedule as... Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive, East Tower, 2nd Floor, Suite 02G09, Alexandria, VA 22350...

  7. A system for automatically recording weight changes in sapling trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold F. Haupt; Bud L. Jeffers

    1967-01-01

    Describes an accurate and simple system for taking continuous weight records of sapling-size trees. Measurements obtained using this system have helped in describing the mechanism of interception storage in tree crowns during snowfall.

  8. 78 FR 14290 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Program. The file keeps individuals and their leadership informed of fitness levels and progress in... burning. Electronic records are deleted from the system.'' System manager(s) and address: Delete entry and...

  9. 76 FR 111 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... the system: Storage: Electronic storage media. Retrievability: By individual's name and Social....'' * * * * * Categories of records in the system: Delete entry and replace with ``Individual's name, Social Security..., marketing evaluation, assessment of manpower trends and characteristics; and related statistical studies and...

  10. 75 FR 33789 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    .... Authority for maintenance of the system: 29 U.S.C. 791, Employment of Individuals with Disabilities; 42 U.S... of records in the system: Storage: Paper files folders and electronic storage media. Retrievability...

  11. An implantable two axis micromanipulator made with a 3D printer for recording neural activity in free-swimming fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Loranzie S; Van Wert, Jacey C; Mensinger, Allen F

    2017-08-15

    Chronically implanted electrodes allow monitoring neural activity from free moving animals. While a wide variety of implanted headstages, microdrives and electrodes exist for terrestrial animals, few have been developed for use with aquatic animals. A two axis micromanipulator was fabricated with a Formlabs 3D printer for implanting electrodes into free-swimming oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau). The five piece manipulator consisted of a base, body, electrode holder, manual screw drive and locking nut. The manipulator measured approximately 25×20×30mm (l×w×h) and weighed 5.28g after hand assembly. Microwire electrodes were inserted successfully with the manipulator to record high fidelity signals from the anterior lateral line nerve of the toadfish. The micromanipulator allowed the chronically implanted electrodes to be repositioned numerous times to record from multiple sites and extended successful recording time in the toadfish by several days. Three dimensional printing allowed an inexpensive (<$US 5 material), two axis micromanipulator to be printed relatively rapidly (<2h) to successfully record from multiple sites in the anterior lateral line nerve of free-swimming toadfish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A 128-channel 6 mW wireless neural recording IC with spike feature extraction and UWB transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Moo Sung; Yang, Zhi; Yuce, Mehmet R; Hoang, Linh; Liu, Wentai

    2009-08-01

    This paper reports a 128-channel neural recording integrated circuit (IC) with on-the-fly spike feature extraction and wireless telemetry. The chip consists of eight 16-channel front-end recording blocks, spike detection and feature extraction digital signal processor (DSP), ultra wideband (UWB) transmitter, and on-chip bias generators. Each recording channel has amplifiers with programmable gain and bandwidth to accommodate different types of biological signals. An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) shared by 16 amplifiers through time-multiplexing results in a balanced trade-off between the power consumption and chip area. A nonlinear energy operator (NEO) based spike detector is implemented for identifying spikes, which are further processed by a digital frequency-shaping filter. The computationally efficient spike detection and feature extraction algorithms attribute to an auspicious DSP implementation on-chip. UWB telemetry is designed to wirelessly transfer raw data from 128 recording channels at a data rate of 90 Mbit/s. The chip is realized in 0.35 mum complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process with an area of 8.8 x 7.2 mm(2) and consumes 6 mW by employing a sequential turn-on architecture that selectively powers off idle analog circuit blocks. The chip has been tested for electrical specifications and verified in an ex vivo biological environment.

  13. Multiagent Intrusion Detection Based on Neural Network Detectors and Artificial Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Vaitsekhovich, L.; Golovko, V; Rubanau, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this article the artificial immune system and neural network techniques for intrusion detection have been addressed. The AIS allows detecting unknown samples of computer attacks. The integration of AIS and neural networks as detectors permits to increase performance of the system security. The detector structure is based on the integration of the different neural networks namely RNN and MLP. The KDD-99 dataset was used for experiments performing. The experimental results show that such int...

  14. Identification of the non-linear systems using internal recurrent neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan CODRES

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past years utilization of neural networks took a distinct ampleness because of the following properties: distributed representation of information, capacity of generalization in case of uncontained situation in training data set, tolerance to noise, resistance to partial destruction, parallel processing. Another major advantage of neural networks is that they allow us to obtain the model of the investigated system, systems that is not necessarily to be linear. In fact, the true value of neural networks is seen in the case of identification and control of nonlinear systems. In this paper there are presented some identification techniques using neural networks.

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Theory of Neural Information Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Tobias

    2006-04-01

    It is difficult not to be amazed by the ability of the human brain to process, to structure and to memorize information. Even by the toughest standards the behaviour of this network of about 1011 neurons qualifies as complex, and both the scientific community and the public take great interest in the growing field of neuroscience. The scientific endeavour to learn more about the function of the brain as an information processing system is here a truly interdisciplinary one, with important contributions from biology, computer science, physics, engineering and mathematics as the authors quite rightly point out in the introduction of their book. The role of the theoretical disciplines here is to provide mathematical models of information processing systems and the tools to study them. These models and tools are at the centre of the material covered in the book by Coolen, Kühn and Sollich. The book is divided into five parts, providing basic introductory material on neural network models as well as the details of advanced techniques to study them. A mathematical appendix complements the main text. The range of topics is extremely broad, still the presentation is concise and the book well arranged. To stress the breadth of the book let me just mention a few keywords here: the material ranges from the basics of perceptrons and recurrent network architectures to more advanced aspects such as Bayesian learning and support vector machines; Shannon's theory of information and the definition of entropy are discussed, and a chapter on Amari's information geometry is not missing either. Finally the statistical mechanics chapters cover Gardner theory and the replica analysis of the Hopfield model, not without being preceded by a brief introduction of the basic concepts of equilibrium statistical physics. The book also contains a part on effective theories of the macroscopic dynamics of neural networks. Many dynamical aspects of neural networks are usually hard to find in the

  16. 77 FR 499 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... are: ``Emergency Notification System'' (FHFA-14); ``Payroll, Retirement, Time and Attendance, and... System'' was published at 71 FR 6085 (February 6, 2006). The second proposed system is ``Payroll... whom the records are maintained. EXEMPTIONS CLAIMED FOR THE SYSTEM: None. FHFA-15 SYSTEM NAME: Payroll...

  17. Optimal Workflow Scheduling in Critical Infrastructure Systems with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vukmirović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Critical infrastructure systems (CISs, such as power grids, transportation systems, communication networks and water systems are the backbone of a country’s national security and industrial prosperity. These CISs execute large numbers of workflows with very high resource requirements that can span through different systems and last for a long time. The proper functioning and synchronization of these workflows is essential since humanity’s well-being is connected to it. Because of this, the challenge of ensuring availability and reliability of these services in the face of a broad range of operating conditions is very complicated. This paper proposes an architecture which dynamically executes a scheduling algorithm using feedback about the current status of CIS nodes. Different artificial neural networks (ANNs were created in order to solve the scheduling problem. Their performances were compared and as the main result of this paper, an optimal ANN architecture for workflow scheduling in CISs is proposed. A case study is shown for a meter data management system with measurements from a power distribution management system in Serbia. Performance tests show that significant improvement of the overall execution time can be achieved by ANNs.

  18. Development of an ex Vivo Method for Multi-unit Recording of Microbiota-Colonic-Neural Signaling in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M. Buckley

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is vital for maintaining whole-body homeostasis. Moreover, emerging evidence implicates vagal afferent signaling in the modulation of host physiology by microbes, which are most abundant in the colon. This study aims to optimize and advance dissection and recording techniques to facilitate real-time recordings of afferent neural signals originating in the distal colon.New Protocol: This paper describes a dissection technique, which facilitates extracellular electrophysiological recordings from visceral pelvic, spinal and vagal afferent neurons in response to stimulation of the distal colon.Examples of Application: Focal application of 75 mM KCl to a section of distal colon with exposed submucosal or myenteric nerve cell bodies and sensory nerve endings evoked activity in the superior mesenteric plexus and the vagal nerve. Noradrenaline stimulated nerve activity in the superior mesenteric plexus, whereas application of carbachol stimulated vagal nerve activity. Exposure of an ex vivo section of distal colon with an intact colonic mucosa to peptidoglycan, but not lipopolysaccharide, evoked vagal nerve firing.Discussion: Previous studies have recorded vagal signaling evoked by bacteria in the small intestine. The technical advances of this dissection and recording technique facilitates recording of afferent nerve signals evoked in extrinsic sensory pathways by neuromodulatory reagents applied to the distal colon. Moreover, we have demonstrated vagal afferent activation evoked by bacterial products applied to the distal colonic mucosa. This protocol may contribute to our understanding of functional bowel disorders where gut-brain communication is dysfunctional, and facilitate real-time interrogation of microbiota-gut-brain signaling.

  19. Glass markets information system: Application records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Glass Markets Information System synthesizes technical and economic information on existing and potential uses for recovered glass for the purpose of making this information readily available in a structured form. Access to reliable information regarding the technical characteristics and market conditions for recovered glass facilitates decisions on its use and marketing.

  20. Stochastic Neural Field Theory and the System-Size Expansion

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a master equation formulation of stochastic neurodynamics for a network of synaptically coupled homogeneous neuronal populations each consisting of N identical neurons. The state of the network is specified by the fraction of active or spiking neurons in each population, and transition rates are chosen so that in the thermodynamic or deterministic limit (N → ∞) we recover standard activity-based or voltage-based rate models. We derive the lowest order corrections to these rate equations for large but finite N using two different approximation schemes, one based on the Van Kampen system-size expansion and the other based on path integral methods. Both methods yield the same series expansion of the moment equations, which at O(1/N) can be truncated to form a closed system of equations for the first-and second-order moments. Taking a continuum limit of the moment equations while keeping the system size N fixed generates a system of integrodifferential equations for the mean and covariance of the corresponding stochastic neural field model. We also show how the path integral approach can be used to study large deviation or rare event statistics underlying escape from the basin of attraction of a stable fixed point of the mean-field dynamics; such an analysis is not possible using the system-size expansion since the latter cannot accurately determine exponentially small transitions. © by SIAM.

  1. Neural systems language: a formal modeling language for the systematic description, unambiguous communication, and automated digital curation of neural connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ramsay A; Swanson, Larry W

    2013-09-01

    Systematic description and the unambiguous communication of findings and models remain among the unresolved fundamental challenges in systems neuroscience. No common descriptive frameworks exist to describe systematically the connective architecture of the nervous system, even at the grossest level of observation. Furthermore, the accelerating volume of novel data generated on neural connectivity outpaces the rate at which this data is curated into neuroinformatics databases to synthesize digitally systems-level insights from disjointed reports and observations. To help address these challenges, we propose the Neural Systems Language (NSyL). NSyL is a modeling language to be used by investigators to encode and communicate systematically reports of neural connectivity from neuroanatomy and brain imaging. NSyL engenders systematic description and communication of connectivity irrespective of the animal taxon described, experimental or observational technique implemented, or nomenclature referenced. As a language, NSyL is internally consistent, concise, and comprehensible to both humans and computers. NSyL is a promising development for systematizing the representation of neural architecture, effectively managing the increasing volume of data on neural connectivity and streamlining systems neuroscience research. Here we present similar precedent systems, how NSyL extends existing frameworks, and the reasoning behind NSyL's development. We explore NSyL's potential for balancing robustness and consistency in representation by encoding previously reported assertions of connectivity from the literature as examples. Finally, we propose and discuss the implications of a framework for how NSyL will be digitally implemented in the future to streamline curation of experimental results and bridge the gaps among anatomists, imagers, and neuroinformatics databases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A neural network architecture for implementation of expert systems for real time monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Since neural networks have the advantages of massive parallelism and simple architecture, they are good tools for implementing real time expert systems. In a rule based expert system, the antecedents of rules are in the conjunctive or disjunctive form. We constructed a multilayer feedforward type network in which neurons represent AND or OR operations of rules. Further, we developed a translator which can automatically map a given rule base into the network. Also, we proposed a new and powerful yet flexible architecture that combines the advantages of both fuzzy expert systems and neural networks. This architecture uses the fuzzy logic concepts to separate input data domains into several smaller and overlapped regions. Rule-based expert systems for time critical applications using neural networks, the automated implementation of rule-based expert systems with neural nets, and fuzzy expert systems vs. neural nets are covered.

  3. Platforms for artificial neural networks : neurosimulators and performance prediction of MIMD-parallel systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuurpijl, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    In this thesis, two platforms for simulating artificial neural networks are discussed: MIMD-parallel processor systems as an execution platform and neurosimulators as a research and development platform. Because of the parallelism encountered in neural networks, distributed processor systems seem to

  4. High-density microelectrode array recordings and real-time spike sorting for closed-loop experiments: an emerging technology to study neural plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Felix; Jäckel, David; Dragas, Jelena; Müller, Jan; Radivojevic, Milos; Bakkum, Douglas; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Understanding plasticity of neural networks is a key to comprehending their development and function. A powerful technique to study neural plasticity includes recording and control of pre- and post-synaptic neural activity, e.g., by using simultaneous intracellular recording and stimulation of several neurons. Intracellular recording is, however, a demanding technique and has its limitations in that only a small number of neurons can be stimulated and recorded from at the same time. Extracellular techniques offer the possibility to simultaneously record from larger numbers of neurons with relative ease, at the expenses of increased efforts to sort out single neuronal activities from the recorded mixture, which is a time consuming and error prone step, referred to as spike sorting. In this mini-review, we describe recent technological developments in two separate fields, namely CMOS-based high-density microelectrode arrays, which also allow for extracellular stimulation of neurons, and real-time spike sorting. We argue that these techniques, when combined, will provide a powerful tool to study plasticity in neural networks consisting of several thousand neurons in vitro.

  5. Recording and surveillance systems for periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Petersen, Poul E

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes tools used to measure periodontal diseases and the integration of these tools into surveillance systems. Tools to measure periodontal diseases at the surveillance level have focussed on current manifestations of disease (e.g. gingival inflammation) or disease sequelae (e.g. periodontal pocket depth or loss of attachment). All tools reviewed in this paper were developed based on the state of the science of the pathophysiology of periodontal disease at the time of their design and the need to provide valid and reliable measurements of the presence and severity of periodontal diseases. Therefore, some of these tools are no longer valid. Others, such as loss of periodontal attachment, are the current de-facto tools but demand many resources to undertake periodical assessment of the periodontal health of populations. Less complex tools such as the Community Periodontal Index, have been used extensively to report periodontal status. Laboratory tests for detecting putative microorganisms or inflammatory agents present in periodontal diseases have been used at the clinical level, and at least one has been tested at the population level. Other approaches, such as self-report measures, are currently under validation. In this paper, we do not review indices designed to measure plaque or residual accumulation around the tooth, indices focussed only on gingival inflammation or radiographic approaches with limited applicability in surveillance systems. Finally, we review current case-definitions proposed for surveillance of periodontal disease severity.

  6. 75 FR 37410 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ...; Army Regulation 95-23, Aviation Unmanned Aircraft System Flight Regulations; Army Regulation 350-1..., Aviation Unmanned Aircraft System Flight Regulations; Army Regulation 350-1, Army Training and Leader... duties as an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) crewmember. CATEGORIES OF RECORDS IN THE SYSTEM: DA Forms 759...

  7. 32 CFR 310.33 - New and altered record systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Component shall establish a system notice consistent with the requirements of this subpart. (2) If a notice for a system of records has been canceled or deleted but a determination is subsequently made that the system will be reinstated or reused, the system may not be operated (i.e., information collected or used...

  8. 77 FR 69444 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... Register Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. T7330 System name: DFAS Payroll Locator File System (PLFS... Service-Cleveland, Information Systems Program Specialist, I&T, Payroll Service, Cleveland, OH 44199-2055... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting...

  9. 75 FR 26851 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Affairs (VA) is amending the system of records currently entitled ``Veterans Canteen Service (VCS) Payroll... NAME: ``Veteran Canteen Service (VCS) Payroll Deduction System (PDS)--VA''. SYSTEM LOCATION: Individual..., who participate in the VCS Payroll Deduction System, which permits them to pay for purchases in VCS...

  10. Analysis of the developing neural system using an in vitro model by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kosuke; Kudoh, Suguru N; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2015-04-07

    We developed an in vitro model of early neural cell development. The maturation of a normal neural cell was studied in vitro using Raman spectroscopy for 120 days. The Raman spectra datasets were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate the relationship between maturation stages and molecular composition changes in neural cells. According to the PCA, the Raman spectra datasets can be classified into four larger groups. Previous electrophysiological studies have suggested that a normal neural cell goes through three maturation states. The groups we observed by Raman analysis showed good agreement with the electrophysiological results, except with the addition of a fourth state. The results demonstrated that Raman analysis was powerful to investigate the daily changes in molecular composition of the growing neural cell. This in vitro model system may be useful for future studies of the effects of endocrine disrupters in the developing early neural system.

  11. NNETS - NEURAL NETWORK ENVIRONMENT ON A TRANSPUTER SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, J.

    1994-01-01

    The primary purpose of NNETS (Neural Network Environment on a Transputer System) is to provide users a high degree of flexibility in creating and manipulating a wide variety of neural network topologies at processing speeds not found in conventional computing environments. To accomplish this purpose, NNETS supports back propagation and back propagation related algorithms. The back propagation algorithm used is an implementation of Rumelhart's Generalized Delta Rule. NNETS was developed on the INMOS Transputer. NNETS predefines a Back Propagation Network, a Jordan Network, and a Reinforcement Network to assist users in learning and defining their own networks. The program also allows users to configure other neural network paradigms from the NNETS basic architecture. The Jordan network is basically a feed forward network that has the outputs connected to a pseudo input layer. The state of the network is dependent on the inputs from the environment plus the state of the network. The Reinforcement network learns via a scalar feedback signal called reinforcement. The network propagates forward randomly. The environment looks at the outputs of the network to produce a reinforcement signal that is fed back to the network. NNETS was written for the INMOS C compiler D711B version 1.3 or later (MS-DOS version). A small portion of the software was written in the OCCAM language to perform the communications routing between processors. NNETS is configured to operate on a 4 X 10 array of Transputers in sequence with a Transputer based graphics processor controlled by a master IBM PC 286 (or better) Transputer. A RGB monitor is required which must be capable of 512 X 512 resolution. It must be able to receive red, green, and blue signals via BNC connectors. NNETS is meant for experienced Transputer users only. The program is distributed on 5.25 inch 1.2Mb MS-DOS format diskettes. NNETS was developed in 1991. Transputer and OCCAM are registered trademarks of Inmos Corporation. MS

  12. Evaluation of the mining techniques in constructing a traditional Chinese-language nursing recording system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-Hung; Chu, William; Chu, Woei-Chyn

    2014-05-01

    In 2009, the Department of Health, part of Taiwan's Executive Yuan, announced the advent of electronic medical records to reduce medical expenses and facilitate the international exchange of medical record information. An information technology platform for nursing records in medical institutions was then quickly established, which improved nursing information systems and electronic databases. The purpose of the present study was to explore the usability of the data mining techniques to enhance completeness and ensure consistency of nursing records in the database system.First, the study used a Chinese word-segmenting system on common and special terms often used by the nursing staff. We also used text-mining techniques to collect keywords and create a keyword lexicon. We then used an association rule and artificial neural network to measure the correlation and forecasting capability for keywords. Finally, nursing staff members were provided with an on-screen pop-up menu to use when establishing nursing records. Our study found that by using mining techniques we were able to create a powerful keyword lexicon and establish a forecasting model for nursing diagnoses, ensuring the consistency of nursing terminology and improving the nursing staff's work efficiency and productivity.

  13. Low-Gain, Low-Noise Integrated Neuronal Amplifier for Implantable Artifact-Reduction Recording System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid Benazzouz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain neuroprostheses for neuromodulation are being designed to monitor the neural activity of the brain in the vicinity of the region being stimulated using a single macro-electrode. Using a single macro-electrode, recent neuromodulation studies show that recording systems with a low gain neuronal amplifier and successive amplifier stages can reduce or reject stimulation artifacts. These systems were made with off-the-shelf components that are not amendable for future implant design. A low-gain, low-noise integrated neuronal amplifier (NA with the capability of recording local field potentials (LFP and spike activity is presented. In vitro and in vivo characterizations of the tissue/electrode interface, with equivalent impedance as an electrical model for recording in the LFP band using macro-electrodes for rodents, contribute to the NA design constraints. The NA occupies 0.15 mm2 and dissipates 6.73 µW, and was fabricated using a 0.35 µm CMOS process. Test-bench validation indicates that the NA provides a mid-band gain of 20 dB and achieves a low input-referred noise of 4 µVRMS. Ability of the NA to perform spike recording in test-bench experiments is presented. Additionally, an awake and freely moving rodent setup was used to illustrate the integrated NA ability to record LFPs, paving the pathway for future implantable systems for neuromodulation.

  14. Recording and surveillance systems for periodontal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes tools used to measure periodontal diseases and the integration of these tools into surveillance systems. Tools to measure periodontal diseases at the surveillance level have focussed on current manifestations of disease (e.g. gingival inflammation) or disease sequelae (e.......g. periodontal pocket depth or loss of attachment). All tools reviewed in this paper were developed based on the state of the science of the pathophysiology of periodontal disease at the time of their design and the need to provide valid and reliable measurements of the presence and severity of periodontal...... diseases. Therefore, some of these tools are no longer valid. Others, such as loss of periodontal attachment, are the current de-facto tools but demand many resources to undertake periodical assessment of the periodontal health of populations. Less complex tools such as the Community Periodontal Index...

  15. Design of a Closed-Loop, Bidirectional Brain Machine Interface System With Energy Efficient Neural Feature Extraction and PID Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xilin; Zhang, Milin; Richardson, Andrew G; Lucas, Timothy H; Van der Spiegel, Jan

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional brain machine interface (BMI) microsystem designed for closed-loop neuroscience research, especially experiments in freely behaving animals. The system-on-chip (SoC) consists of 16-channel neural recording front-ends, neural feature extraction units, 16-channel programmable neural stimulator back-ends, in-channel programmable closed-loop controllers, global analog-digital converters (ADC), and peripheral circuits. The proposed neural feature extraction units includes 1) an ultra low-power neural energy extraction unit enabling a 64-step natural logarithmic domain frequency tuning, and 2) a current-mode action potential (AP) detection unit with time-amplitude window discriminator. A programmable proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller has been integrated in each channel enabling a various of closed-loop operations. The implemented ADCs include a 10-bit voltage-mode successive approximation register (SAR) ADC for the digitization of the neural feature outputs and/or local field potential (LFP) outputs, and an 8-bit current-mode SAR ADC for the digitization of the action potential outputs. The multi-mode stimulator can be programmed to perform monopolar or bipolar, symmetrical or asymmetrical charge balanced stimulation with a maximum current of 4 mA in an arbitrary channel configuration. The chip has been fabricated in 0.18 μ m CMOS technology, occupying a silicon area of 3.7 mm 2 . The chip dissipates 56 μW/ch on average. General purpose low-power microcontroller with Bluetooth module are integrated in the system to provide wireless link and SoC configuration. Methods, circuit techniques and system topology proposed in this work can be used in a wide range of relevant neurophysiology research, especially closed-loop BMI experiments.

  16. Adaptive Neural Control for a Class of Outputs Time-Delay Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruliang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an adaptive neural control for a class of outputs time-delay nonlinear systems with perturbed or no. Based on RBF neural networks, the radius basis function (RBF neural networks is employed to estimate the unknown continuous functions. The proposed control guarantees that all closed-loop signals remain bounded. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  17. Neural network applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Mary L.; Desai, Utpal; Roppel, T.A.; White, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    A design procedure is suggested for neural networks which accommodates the inclusion of such knowledge-based systems techniques as fuzzy logic and pairwise comparisons. The use of these procedures in the design of applications combines qualitative and quantitative factors with empirical data to yield a model with justifiable design and parameter selection procedures. The procedure is especially relevant to areas of back-propagation neural network design which are highly responsive to the use of precisely recorded expert knowledge.

  18. 77 FR 58107 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... records in the system: Delete entry and replace with ``Individual's Name, Social Security Number (SSN..., binders, and electronic storage media.'' Retrievability: Delete entry and replace with ``Name and/or SSN... before traveling or appearing in person to determine location of their records. Official mailing...

  19. Identifying digital records in business systems: the definition of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Julia Kastenhofer

    I will skim over the issues most relevant to records identification and reference articles which cover records definitions in full. Out of the wealth of research I picked out some of the definitions which I think are the most used. 1.1 The technological environment and business processes. Instead of one overall information system,.

  20. 78 FR 70020 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    .... Purpose(s): The records in this system may be used to provide investigatory information for determinations... may be used, by the agency on national security classified projects; (4) and principal officers of... to 5 U.S.C. 552a (k)(1), (k)(2) and (k)(5), all investigatory information and material in the record...

  1. 78 FR 46929 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... identifiers or contact information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Jeanette Weathers-Jenkins, DISA....gov/privacy/SORNs/component/disa/index.html . The proposed changes to the record system being amended... procedures: Delete entry and replace with ``DISA's rules for accessing records, for contesting contents and...

  2. 77 FR 837 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... emails, please place ``Revisions to SOR'' in the subject line. Comments will be made available for public... collect and maintain background investigation records on individuals who do not work for BEP or for any of... relationship). The altered system of records report has been submitted to the Committee on Government Reform...

  3. 78 FR 76897 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... result of computer matching activity with records from the IRS and SSA. The records may also include, but... anemia or infection with the human immunodeficiency virus), that information cannot be disclosed under a... are parties to computer matching agreements involving the information maintained in this system, but...

  4. 78 FR 16477 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... award; correspondence among the Army; service member, and individuals having knowledge/information..., retrieving, accessing, retaining, and disposing of records in the system: Storage: Paper records in file folders and electronic storage media. Retrievability: By nominee's name, service number and/or Social...

  5. 75 FR 19377 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ...; 18 U.S.C. 922, Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act of 1994; 42 U.S.C. 10601, Victim Rights and Restitution Act of 1990; 10 U.S.C. 1562,Database on Domestic Violence Incidents and E.O. 9397 (SSN), as... THE SYSTEM: STORAGE: Records may be stored on paper records and/or on electronic storage media...

  6. 78 FR 38963 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... Loans). The system also contains records on recipients of Federal Pell Grants, Academic Competitiveness... that is at least one-academic-year training program that leads to a certificate, or other non-degree... program purposes: (a) To verify the identity of the applicant involved, the accuracy of the record, or to...

  7. 76 FR 14119 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... may contain the following types of information: 1. Field examination reports (i.e., VA Form 27-4716a... records; and 9. Social Security Administration records containing information about the type and amount of... treatment for drug abuse, alcoholism, sickle cell anemia, and HIV. 12. Any information in this system may be...

  8. A four-channel microelectronic system for neural signal regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Shushan; Wang Zhigong; Li Wenyuan [Institute of RF- and OE-ICs, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Lue Xiaoying; Pan Haixian, E-mail: zgwang@seu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Bio-Electronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents a microelectronic system which is capable of making a signal record and functional electric stimulation of an injured spinal cord. As a requirement of implantable engineering for the regeneration microelectronic system, the system is of low noise, low power, small size and high performance. A front-end circuit and two high performance OPAs (operational amplifiers) have been designed for the system with different functions, and the two OPAs are a low-noise low-power two-stage OPA and a constant-g{sub m} RTR input and output OPA. The system has been realized in CSMC 0.5-{mu}m CMOS technology. The test results show that the system satisfies the demands of neuron signal regeneration. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  9. NNSYSID and NNCTRL Tools for system identification and control with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Magnus; Ravn, Ole; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2001-01-01

    a number of nonlinear model structures based on neural networks, effective training algorithms and tools for model validation and model structure selection. The NNCTRL toolkit is an add-on to NNSYSID and provides tools for design and simulation of control systems based on neural networks. The user can......Two toolsets for use with MATLAB have been developed: the neural network based system identification toolbox (NNSYSID) and the neural network based control system design toolkit (NNCTRL). The NNSYSID toolbox has been designed to assist identification of nonlinear dynamic systems. It contains...... choose among several designs such as direct inverse control, internal model control, nonlinear feedforward, feedback linearisation, optimal control, gain scheduling based on instantaneous linearisation of neural network models and nonlinear model predictive control. This article gives an overview...

  10. NNSYSID and NNCTRL Tools for system identification and control with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Magnus; Ravn, Ole; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2001-01-01

    choose among several designs such as direct inverse control, internal model control, nonlinear feedforward, feedback linearisation, optimal control, gain scheduling based on instantaneous linearisation of neural network models and nonlinear model predictive control. This article gives an overview......Two toolsets for use with MATLAB have been developed: the neural network based system identification toolbox (NNSYSID) and the neural network based control system design toolkit (NNCTRL). The NNSYSID toolbox has been designed to assist identification of nonlinear dynamic systems. It contains...... a number of nonlinear model structures based on neural networks, effective training algorithms and tools for model validation and model structure selection. The NNCTRL toolkit is an add-on to NNSYSID and provides tools for design and simulation of control systems based on neural networks. The user can...

  11. Bureau of Land Management, General Land Office Records System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — The General Land Office Records System (GLO) encompasses the automation and retrieval of eastern and western land title information images which includes patent...

  12. 75 FR 34709 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... of last document. In addition, military records sent to the DVA after 1 May 1994 are maintained for... to the DVA after 1 May 1994 are maintained for 50 years after date of last document. System manager(s...

  13. 76 FR 79660 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... and Temporary Travel Order File (February 22, 1993, 58 FR 10562). Reason: DISA Pacific no longer...D, Defense Travel System (March 24, 2010, 75 FR 14142). DISA Pacific does not maintain any records...

  14. 77 FR 56630 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... identifiers or contact information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Jeanette Weathers-Jenkins, DISA... Federal Register Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. KCIV.01 System name: Records Relating to DISA... Agency (DISA), Chief [[Page 56631

  15. 78 FR 40447 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... Register Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. CIG-19 System name: Recall Roster/Locator Records (October... security hardware and software to include: Multiple firewalls, active intruder detection and role-based...

  16. 78 FR 69393 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... birth, Social Security Number (SSN), company name, contract number, disability data, medical information, gender, grade/rank, employee identification number, and foreign contacts. Authority for maintenance of..., retaining, and disposing of records in the system: Storage: Electronic storage media. Retrievability...

  17. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabio V.; Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Reis, Luisa Fernanda R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, EESC/USP, Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento., Avenida do Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator - CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator - HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  18. On the Computational Power of Spiking Neural P Systems with Self-Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Song, Tao; Gong, Faming; Zheng, Pan

    2016-06-01

    Neural-like computing models are versatile computing mechanisms in the field of artificial intelligence. Spiking neural P systems (SN P systems for short) are one of the recently developed spiking neural network models inspired by the way neurons communicate. The communications among neurons are essentially achieved by spikes, i. e. short electrical pulses. In terms of motivation, SN P systems fall into the third generation of neural network models. In this study, a novel variant of SN P systems, namely SN P systems with self-organization, is introduced, and the computational power of the system is investigated and evaluated. It is proved that SN P systems with self-organization are capable of computing and accept the family of sets of Turing computable natural numbers. Moreover, with 87 neurons the system can compute any Turing computable recursive function, thus achieves Turing universality. These results demonstrate promising initiatives to solve an open problem arisen by Gh Păun.

  19. ANOMALY NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM BASED ON DISTRIBUTED TIME-DELAY NEURAL NETWORK (DTDNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAHEEB MOHAMMAD IBRAHIM

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a hierarchical off-line anomaly network intrusion detection system based on Distributed Time-Delay Artificial Neural Network is introduced. This research aims to solve a hierarchical multi class problem in which the type of attack (DoS, U2R, R2L and Probe attack detected by dynamic neural network. The results indicate that dynamic neural nets (Distributed Time-Delay Artificial Neural Network can achieve a high detection rate, where the overall accuracy classification rate average is equal to 97.24%.

  20. 78 FR 73516 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...: Notice to alter a System of Records. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy proposes to alter the system of... system. ] This information will permit officials and employees of the Board to consider former member's applications for review of discharge or dismissal and any subsequent application by the member; to answer...

  1. 78 FR 44100 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    .../privacy/SORNs/component/osd/index.html . The proposed system report, as required by 5 U.S.C. 552a(r) of... employees, and Financial Management (FM) certification level. Authority for maintenance of the system: 5 U.S... monitoring training events, and DoD FM certifications. Routine uses of records maintained in the system...

  2. 75 FR 71090 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... Defense. F065 AF FMP System name: Financial Management Workflow. System location: Located on servers... Ellsworth AFB facility designated to host the Financial Management Workflow. Records are accessed by users... comments. Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, Room 3C843, 1160 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC...

  3. 75 FR 64711 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Commander to designate individuals authorized to perform DISA-Europe postal functions and to maintain... beginning of the DISA's compilation of systems of records notices apply to this system.'' * * * * * Storage... Individuals Covered by the System: All individuals currently assigned to DISA Europe and those who departed...

  4. 75 FR 39500 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... Records.'' System location: Add to entry as last paragraph ``Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA... Agency (DISA) Mega Center, Building 857, 401 E. Drive, Maxwell Air Force Base-Gunter Annex, AL 36114-3001..., Eglin AFB, FL 32542-5418. Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) Mega Center, Building 857, 401 E...

  5. 78 FR 32635 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... mechanisms protect the information stored on the system. Retention and disposal: Disposition pending (until...: Individuals seeking to determine whether this system of records contains information about themselves should.... An exemption rule for this system has been promulgated in accordance with the requirements of 5 U.S.C...

  6. 78 FR 18570 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... the system: Statement of Medical Examination and Duty Status; Report of Investigation-Line of Duty and....S.C. 552a), as amended, which requires the submission of a new or altered system report. Dated... records in the system: Name, rank, Social Security Number, basic entry date, promotion eligibility date...

  7. 75 FR 8313 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... abuse determination of urinalysis cases.'' Authority for maintenance of the system: Delete entry and..., Alternate OSD Federal Register Liaison Officer, Department of Defense. F044 AETC A System name: Drug Abuse... Guard and Reserve personnel referred to the drug abuse office.'' Categories of records in the system...

  8. 77 FR 39346 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... this system of records in its entirety. E-Payroll is an initiative that is part of the President's... the consolidation of Executive Branch civilian payroll systems into four e-Payroll providers. These... completed the process of migrating client agencies from their existing payroll system to the DFAS payroll...

  9. 76 FR 43278 - Privacy Act; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ....C. 552a, to publish a description of the systems of records containing personal information as... lectures; 3. Security infractions; 4. Names of individuals visiting DNFSB offices; and 5. Personal identity... harm to the security or integrity of this system or other systems or programs (whether maintained by...

  10. 75 FR 59242 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Teacher Education Assistance for College and Higher Education (TEACH) Grant Program, and the Iraq and... system of records for the following program purposes: (a) To verify the identity of the recipient... interests, identity theft or fraud, or harm to the security or integrity of this system or other systems or...

  11. 76 FR 58788 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... system for Navy Bill of Lading payments. Bills of Lading are multiuse documents that are essential to... digital signatures are used to control access to the system data, and procedures are in place to deter and... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting...

  12. 75 FR 57458 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Service Provider with 24/7 monitoring of all incoming and outgoing traffic. An Intrusion Detection System... incoming and outgoing traffic. An Intrusion Detection System, firewalls, routers, and Access Control Lists... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice...

  13. Ambulatory bruxism recording system with sleep-stage analyzing function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumori, Takahiro; Inano, Shinji; Sumiya, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Yasuyoshi; Watamoto, Takao; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an ambulatory bruxism recording system capable of sleep-stage analysis. A portable EMG system was used to record masseter muscle activity. An EMG sensor was attached onto the masseter muscle belly at either side. EMG data were stored on a notebook type personal computer. A sound level meter was used to assess the sound level of bruxism. Sound level (dB) readings were taken every second and recorded on the same computer. A prototype of sleep sensor, a wristwatch-style biological signal sensor-recorder device, recorded and stored pulse wave, acceleration and temperature on a memory card. All stored data were transferred to a personal computer and analyzed. The whole system was transportable within a protective case and weighed approximately 5kg. Raw EMG signals were processed to derive integrated EMG data. TOSHIBA Sleep Analysis Program classified sleep-stages as awake, shallow sleep, deep sleep and REM based on the activity of the autonomic nervous system that was estimated from the fluctuations of pulse intervals. An EMG, sound level and sleep-stage analysis program was developed to analyze all data simultaneously. Using this program, the masseter muscle activity, sound level and sleep-stage could be quantified and correlated. We developed an ambulatory bruxism recording system that analyzes sleep-stage. We expect that this system will enable us to measure sleep bruxism activity in each sleep-stage on an electromyographical and auditory basis at the subject's home.

  14. Assembly and operation of the autopatcher for automated intracellular neural recording in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B.; Holst, Gregory L.; Wickersham, Ian R.; Singer, Annabelle C.; Franzesi, Giovanni Talei; McKinnon, Michael L; Forest, Craig R.; Boyden, Edward S.

    2016-01-01

    Whole-cell patch clamping in vivo is an important neuroscience technique that uniquely provides access to both suprathreshold spiking and subthreshold synaptic events of single neurons in the brain. This article describes how to set up and use the autopatcher, which is a robot for automatically obtaining high-yield and high-quality whole-cell patch clamp recordings in vivo. By following this protocol, a functional experimental rig for automated whole-cell patch clamping can be set up in 1 wee...

  15. Neural network based optimal control of HVAC&R systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Min

    Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems have wide applications in providing a desired indoor environment for different types of buildings. It is well acknowledged that 30%-40% of the total energy generated is consumed by buildings and HVAC&R systems alone account for more than 50% of the building energy consumption. Low operational efficiency especially under partial load conditions and poor control are part of reasons for such high energy consumption. To improve energy efficiency, HVAC&R systems should be properly operated to maintain a comfortable and healthy indoor environment under dynamic ambient and indoor conditions with the least energy consumption. This research focuses on the optimal operation of HVAC&R systems. The optimization problem is formulated and solved to find the optimal set points for the chilled water supply temperature, discharge air temperature and AHU (air handling unit) fan static pressure such that the indoor environment is maintained with the least chiller and fan energy consumption. To achieve this objective, a dynamic system model is developed first to simulate the system behavior under different control schemes and operating conditions. The system model is modular in structure, which includes a water-cooled vapor compression chiller model and a two-zone VAV system model. A fuzzy-set based extended transformation approach is then applied to investigate the uncertainties of this model caused by uncertain parameters and the sensitivities of the control inputs with respect to the interested model outputs. A multi-layer feed forward neural network is constructed and trained in unsupervised mode to minimize the cost function which is comprised of overall energy cost and penalty cost when one or more constraints are violated. After training, the network is implemented as a supervisory controller to compute the optimal settings for the system. In order to implement the optimal set points predicted by the

  16. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON FOR INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM USING NEURAL NETWORK WITH KDD DATASET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Devaraju

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection Systems are challenging task for finding the user as normal user or attack user in any organizational information systems or IT Industry. The Intrusion Detection System is an effective method to deal with the kinds of problem in networks. Different classifiers are used to detect the different kinds of attacks in networks. In this paper, the performance of intrusion detection is compared with various neural network classifiers. In the proposed research the four types of classifiers used are Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN, Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN, Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN and Radial Basis Neural Network (RBNN. The performance of the full featured KDD Cup 1999 dataset is compared with that of the reduced featured KDD Cup 1999 dataset. The MATLAB software is used to train and test the dataset and the efficiency and False Alarm Rate is measured. It is proved that the reduced dataset is performing better than the full featured dataset.

  17. Review: the role of neural crest cells in the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Meghan Sara; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The neural crest is a pluripotent population of cells that arises at the junction of the neural tube and the dorsal ectoderm. These highly migratory cells form diverse derivatives including neurons and glia of the sensory, sympathetic, and enteric nervous systems, melanocytes, and the bones, cartilage, and connective tissues of the face. The neural crest has long been associated with the endocrine system, although not always correctly. According to current understanding, neural crest cells give rise to the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, chief cells of the extra-adrenal paraganglia, and thyroid C cells. The endocrine tumors that correspond to these cell types are pheochromocytomas, extra-adrenal paragangliomas, and medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although controversies concerning embryological origin appear to have mostly been resolved, questions persist concerning the pathobiology of each tumor type and its basis in neural crest embryology. Here we present a brief history of the work on neural crest development, both in general and in application to the endocrine system. In particular, we present findings related to the plasticity and pluripotency of neural crest cells as well as a discussion of several different neural crest tumors in the endocrine system.

  18. Neural Control System in Obstacle Avoidance in Mobile Robots Using Ultrasonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Medina-Santiago

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and implementation of neural control systems in mobile robots in obstacle avoidance in real time using ultrasonic sensors with complex strategies of decision-making in development (Matlab and Processing. An Arduino embedded platform is used to implement the neural control for field results.

  19. Modeling of the height control system using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Tahavvor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Automation of agricultural and machinery construction has generally been enhanced by intelligent control systems due to utility and efficiency rising, ease of use, profitability and upgrading according to market demand. A broad variety of industrial merchandise are now supplied with computerized control systems of earth moving processes to be performed by construction and agriculture field vehicle such as grader, backhoe, tractor and scraper machines. A height control machine which is used in measuring base thickness is consisted of two mechanical and electronic parts. The mechanical part is consisted of conveyor belt, main body, electrical engine and invertors while the electronic part is consisted of ultrasonic, wave transmitter and receiver sensor, electronic board, control set, and microcontroller. The main job of these controlling devices consists of the topographic surveying, cutting and filling of elevated and spotted low area, and these actions fundamentally dependent onthe machine's ability in elevation and thickness measurement and control. In this study, machine was first tested and then some experiments were conducted for data collection. Study of system modeling in artificial neural networks (ANN was done for measuring, controlling the height for bases by input variable input vectors such as sampling time, probe speed, conveyer speed, sound wave speed and speed sensor are finally the maximum and minimum probe output vector on various conditions. The result reveals the capability of this procedure for experimental recognition of sensors' behavior and improvement of field machine control systems. Inspection, calibration and response, diagnosis of the elevation control system in combination with machine function can also be evaluated by some extra development of this system. Materials and Methods Designing and manufacture of the planned apparatus classified in three dissimilar, mechanical and electronic module, courses of

  20. Fault diagnosis in satellite attitude control systems using artificial neural networkk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayodele I., Olanipekun

    The nonlinear behavior exhibited by altitude control system processes and also the presence of external constraints on the operating conditions causes hitch in the dynamics of system processes. This research work proposes a fault detection/tolerant prediction in an altitude control system. This is done through the artificial neural network fault detection by deploying the neural network approach. A fault detection and isolation module is developed in the actuator system of the Altitude Control System, thereby achieving the goal of this thesis. This can be done by two basic classification stages: Neural Residual Generator (Neural Observer)- This stage is responsible for generating residual errors that can reflect the real behavior of the entire process as against its normal conditions. Adaptive Neural Classifier - This stage is responsible for managing the isolation task of the fault detected by evaluating the generated residual errors from the neural estimator which gives detailed information about faults detected e.g., fault location and time. These two stages can be implemented by executing the tasks listed below: 1. Study and develop a generic three axis stabilized altitude control model based on the reaction wheels. This is established with three separate PD controllers designed for each reaction wheel of the satellite axis using the Matlab - SIMULINK. 2. Develop a dynamic neural network residual generator based on Dynamic Multilayer Perceptron Network (DMLP) which is then applied to the reaction wheel model designed commonly called the actuator in the altitude control system of a satellite 3. Develop a neural network adaptive classifier based on the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) model which is used for the isolation concept. The advantages of the proposed dynamic neural network and neural adaptive classifier approach are showcased.

  1. HOSPITAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS: A STUDY OF ELECTRONIC PATIENT RECORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Cortês

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of patient records, also known as medical records, is related to different needs and objectives, as they constitute permanent documents on the health of patients. With the advancement of information technologies and systems, patient records can be stored in databases, resulting in a positive impact on patient care. Based on these considerations, a research question that arises is “what are the benefits and problems that can be seen with the use of electronic versions of medical records?” This question leads to the formulation of the following hypothesis: although problems can be identified during the process of using electronic record systems, the benefits outweigh the difficulties, thereby justifying their use. To respond to the question and test the presented hypothesis, a research study was developed with users of the same electronic record system, consisting of doctors, nurses, and administrative personnel in three hospitals located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The results show that, despite some problems in their usage, the benefits of electronic patient records outweigh possible disadvantages.

  2. Setting up and using the autopatcher for automated intracellular neural recording in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B.; Holst, Gregory L.; Wickersham, Ian R.; Singer, Annabelle C.; Franzesi, Giovanni Talei; McKinnon, Michael L.; Forest, Craig R.; Boyden, Edward S.

    2016-01-01

    Whole cell patch clamping in vivo is an important neuroscience technique that uniquely provides access to both supra-threshold spiking and sub-threshold synaptic events of single neurons in the brain. This article describes how to set up and use the autopatcher, a robot for automatically obtaining high yield and high quality whole cell patch clamp recordings in vivo. Following this protocol, a functional experimental rig for automated whole cell patch clamping can be set up in one week. High quality surgical preparation of mice takes approximately 1 hour, and each autopatching experiment can be carried out over periods lasting several hours. Autopatching should enable in vivo intracellular investigations to be accessible by a significant number of neuroscience labs, and enable labs already doing in vivo patch clamp to scale up their efforts by reducing training time for new lab members and increasing experimental durations by handling mentally intensive tasks automatically. PMID:26938115

  3. Test Methods for Telemetry Systems and Subsystems. Volume 5: Test Methods for Digital Recorder/Reproducer Systems and Recorder Memory Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-26

    Telemetry Group Document 118-16 (Volume V) TEST METHODS FOR TELEMETRY SYSTEMS AND SUBSYSTEMS VOLUME V TEST METHODS FOR DIGITAL RECORDER ...AND SUBSYSTEMS VOLUME V TEST METHODS FOR DIGITAL RECORDER /REPRODUCER SYSTEMS AND RECORDER MEMORY MODULES September 2016...parameters of digital recorder systems and recorder memory modules, to test compatibility and standard compliance, and to increase interoperability

  4. Artificial Neural Network-Based System for PET Volume Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhd Saeed Sharif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour detection, classification, and quantification in positron emission tomography (PET imaging at early stage of disease are important issues for clinical diagnosis, assessment of response to treatment, and radiotherapy planning. Many techniques have been proposed for segmenting medical imaging data; however, some of the approaches have poor performance, large inaccuracy, and require substantial computation time for analysing large medical volumes. Artificial intelligence (AI approaches can provide improved accuracy and save decent amount of time. Artificial neural networks (ANNs, as one of the best AI techniques, have the capability to classify and quantify precisely lesions and model the clinical evaluation for a specific problem. This paper presents a novel application of ANNs in the wavelet domain for PET volume segmentation. ANN performance evaluation using different training algorithms in both spatial and wavelet domains with a different number of neurons in the hidden layer is also presented. The best number of neurons in the hidden layer is determined according to the experimental results, which is also stated Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm as the best training approach for the proposed application. The proposed intelligent system results are compared with those obtained using conventional techniques including thresholding and clustering based approaches. Experimental and Monte Carlo simulated PET phantom data sets and clinical PET volumes of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients were utilised to validate the proposed algorithm which has demonstrated promising results.

  5. Honey characterization using computer vision system and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Sahameh; Minaei, Saeid; Moghaddam-Charkari, Nasrollah; Barzegar, Mohsen

    2014-09-15

    This paper reports the development of a computer vision system (CVS) for non-destructive characterization of honey based on colour and its correlated chemical attributes including ash content (AC), antioxidant activity (AA), and total phenolic content (TPC). Artificial neural network (ANN) models were applied to transform RGB values of images to CIE L*a*b* colourimetric measurements and to predict AC, TPC and AA from colour features of images. The developed ANN models were able to convert RGB values to CIE L*a*b* colourimetric parameters with low generalization error of 1.01±0.99. In addition, the developed models for prediction of AC, TPC and AA showed high performance based on colour parameters of honey images, as the R(2) values for prediction were 0.99, 0.98, and 0.87, for AC, AA and TPC, respectively. The experimental results show the effectiveness and possibility of applying CVS for non-destructive honey characterization by the industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Progress Toward Adaptive Integration and Optimization of Automated and Neural Processing Systems: Establishing Neural and Behavioral Benchmarks of Optimized Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    grid, using an Advanced Brain Monitoring (ABM) ×24 system configured with the single-trial event - related potential (ERP) sensor strip and operating...ROC curve BCI brain-computer interface EEG electroencephalogram ERP event - related potential EVUS estimated volume under the surface FOV field of...stations. 15. SUBJECT TERMS rapid serial visual presentation, RSVP, EEG, neural classification, P300 , brain-computer interface 16. SECURITY

  7. Predictive Control of Hydronic Floor Heating Systems using Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Green, Torben; Østergaard, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the use a neural network and a micro genetic algorithm to optimize future set-points in existing hydronic floor heating systems for improved energy efficiency. The neural network can be trained to predict the impact of changes in set-points on future room temperatures. Additio...... space is not guaranteed. Evaluation of the performance of multiple neural networks is performed, using different levels of information, and optimization results are presented on a detailed house simulation model.......This paper presents the use a neural network and a micro genetic algorithm to optimize future set-points in existing hydronic floor heating systems for improved energy efficiency. The neural network can be trained to predict the impact of changes in set-points on future room temperatures...

  8. Compensating for Channel Fading in DS-CDMA Communication Systems Employing ICA Neural Network Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Overbye

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the impact of channel fading on the bit error rate of a DS-CDMA communication system. The system employs detectors that incorporate neural networks effecting methods of independent component analysis (ICA, subspace estimation of channel noise, and Hopfield type neural networks. The Rayleigh fading channel model is used. When employed in a Rayleigh fading environment, the ICA neural network detectors that give superior performance in a flat fading channel did not retain this superior performance. We then present a new method of compensating for channel fading based on the incorporation of priors in the ICA neural network learning algorithms. When the ICA neural network detectors were compensated using the incorporation of priors, they give significantly better performance than the traditional detectors and the uncompensated ICA detectors. Keywords: CDMA, Multi-user Detection, Rayleigh Fading, Multipath Detection, Independent Component Analysis, Prior Probability Hebbian Learning, Natural Gradient

  9. Artificial Neural Systems Application to the Simulation of Air Combat Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    unit, the CPU , whereas neural networks utilize the effects of many, simple processing elements. Traditional computing is done in a step-by-step, serial...Nielsen Neurocomputers (HNC). The ANZA-Plus coprocessor is part of an 80386 -based computer system which is optimized for training and executing neural...host computer for this program is a Zenith 386/16 system running under the DOS 3.31 operating system. The 80386 microprocessor in this machine operates

  10. Neural Network Expert System in the Application of Tower Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Xia, Zhongwu; Tao, Zhiyong; Zhao, Zhenlian

    For the corresponding fuzzy relationship between the fault symptoms and the fault causes in the process of tower crane operation, this paper puts forward a kind of rapid new method of fast detection and diagnosis for common fault based on neural network expert system. This paper makes full use of expert system and neural network advantages, and briefly introduces the structure, function, algorithm and realization of the adopted system. Results show that the new algorithm is feasible and can achieve rapid faults diagnosis.

  11. Research on architecture of intelligent design platform for artificial neural network expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Honghong

    2017-09-01

    Based on the review of the development and current situation of CAD technology, the necessity of combination of artificial neural network and expert system, and then present an intelligent design system based on artificial neural network. Moreover, it discussed the feasibility of realization of a design-oriented expert system development tools on the basis of above combination. In addition, knowledge representation strategy and method and the solving process are given in this paper.

  12. A 128-Channel FPGA-Based Real-Time Spike-Sorting Bidirectional Closed-Loop Neural Interface System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongkil; Kim, Gookhwa; Jung, Sang-Don

    2017-12-01

    A multichannel neural interface system is an important tool for various types of neuroscientific studies. For the electrical interface with a biological system, high-precision high-speed data recording and various types of stimulation capability are required. In addition, real-time signal processing is an important feature in the implementation of a real-time closed-loop system without unwanted substantial delay for feedback stimulation. Online spike sorting, the process of assigning neural spikes to an identified group of neurons or clusters, is a necessary step to make a closed-loop path in real time, but massive memory-space requirements commonly limit hardware implementations. Here, we present a 128-channel field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based real-time closed-loop bidirectional neural interface system. The system supports 128 channels for simultaneous signal recording and eight selectable channels for stimulation. A modular 64-channel analog front-end (AFE) provides scalability and a parameterized specification of the AFE supports the recording of various electrophysiological signal types with 1.59 ± 0.76 root-mean-square noise. The stimulator supports both voltage-controlled and current-controlled arbitrarily shaped waveforms with the programmable amplitude and duration of pulse. An empirical algorithm for online real-time spike sorting is implemented in an FPGA. The spike-sorting is performed by template matching, and templates are created by an online real-time unsupervised learning process. A memory saving technique, called dynamic cache organizing, is proposed to reduce the memory requirement down to 6 kbit per channel and modular implementation improves the scalability for further extensions.

  13. High-density recording storage system by Collinear holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tan, Xiaodi; Aoki, Yoshio

    2006-04-01

    Collinear TM Holography, proposed and demonstrated by OPTWARE Corporation, can produce a small, practical holographic versatile disc (HVD TM) drive system more easily than conventional 2-axis holography. With Collinear TM technologies' unique configuration the optical pickup can be designed as small as DVDs, and can be placed on one side of the recording media. As servo technology is being introduced to control the objective lens to be maintained precisely to the disc in the recording and the reconstructing process, a vibration isolator is no longer necessary. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the holographic material is very effective in increasing the recording density of the system. A high density data recording of Collinear TM Holography by reducing optical noise is also demonstrated.

  14. Medical record management systems: criticisms and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frénot, S; Laforest, F

    1999-06-01

    The first generation of computerized medical records stored the data as text, but these records did not bring any improvement in information manipulation. The use of a relational database management system (DBMS) has largely solved this problem as it allows for data requests by using SQL. However, this requires data structuring which is not very appropriate to medicine. Moreover, the use of templates and icon user interfaces has introduced a deviation from the paper-based record (still existing). The arrival of hypertext user interfaces has proven to be of interest to fill the gap between the paper-based medical record and its electronic version. We think that further improvement can be accomplished by using a fully document-based system. We present the architecture, advantages and disadvantages of classical DBMS-based and Web/DBMS-based solutions. We also present a document-based solution and explain its advantages, which include communication, security, flexibility and genericity.

  15. National electronic medical records integration on cloud computing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Hebah; El-Masri, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Few Healthcare providers have an advanced level of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) adoption. Others have a low level and most have no EMR at all. Cloud computing technology is a new emerging technology that has been used in other industry and showed a great success. Despite the great features of Cloud computing, they haven't been utilized fairly yet in healthcare industry. This study presents an innovative Healthcare Cloud Computing system for Integrating Electronic Health Record (EHR). The proposed Cloud system applies the Cloud Computing technology on EHR system, to present a comprehensive EHR integrated environment.

  16. [Video recording system of endoscopic procedures for digital forensics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Chiaki; Sakurada, A; Kondo, T

    2009-07-01

    Recently, endoscopic procedures including surgery, intervention, and examination have been widely performed. Medical practitioners are required to record the procedures precisely in order to check the procedures retrospectively and to get the legally reliable record. Medical Forensic System made by KS Olympus Japan offers 2 kinds of movie and patient's data, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and Spo, which are simultaneously recorded. We installed this system into the bronchoscopy room and have experienced its benefit. Under this system, we can get bronchoscopic image, bronchoscopy room view, and patient's data simultaneously. We can check the quality of the bronchoscopic procedures retrospectively, which is useful for bronchoscopy staff training. Medical Forensic System should be installed in any kind of endoscopic procedures.

  17. 12 CFR 792.67 - Security of systems of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 792.67 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REQUESTS FOR INFORMATION UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT....67 Security of systems of records. (a) Each system manager, with the approval of the head of that...

  18. 77 FR 21975 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... the System: Unique Indentifying Number (UIN), name, Social Security Number (SSN), status or...; DoD 5240.1-R, Procedures Governing the Activities of DoD Intelligence Components that Affect United... Records in the System: Storage: Electronic storage media. Retrievability: Unique Indentifying Number (UIN...

  19. 77 FR 40921 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... preference. * * * * * SYSTEM MANAGER(S) AND ADDRESS: * * * * * Chief Marketing/Sales Officer and Executive... the customer and an update to the system manager's title. DATES: The revision will become effective...., Monday through Friday. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jane Eyre, Manager, Records Office, 202-268-2608...

  20. 75 FR 52513 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... to occupational health. Categories of Records in the System: Environmental monitoring data, military theater environmental monitoring data, personal protective equipment usage data, observation of work... server components secured in a locked computer room with limited access. Each system end user device...